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Sample records for action spectrum weighted

  1. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  2. Use of an Improved Radiation Amplification Factor to Estimate the Effect of Total Ozone Changes on Action Spectrum Weighted Irradiances and an Instrument Response Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone OMEGA, U(OMEGA/200)(sup -RAF), where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 run) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  3. Action spectrum for phototherapy of psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.A.; Jaenicke, K.F.

    1981-05-01

    Using a monochromator the action spectrum for ultraviolet phototherapy of psoriasis was determined for radiation between 254 and 313 nm and compared to the action spectrum for erythema of uninvolved adjacent skin. Daily exposures of different doses of 254, 280, 290, 296, 300, 304 and 313 nm radiation were observed. Wavelengths of 254, 280, 290 nm were erythemogenic but not therapeutic even at 10 to 50 times the minimal erythema dose. At the other wavelengths studied, the 2 action spectra were similar. In general, fixed daily doses cleared at lower cumulative dose than did incrementally increased daily doses. The small number of suberythemogenic exposure doses required suggests that monochromatic radiation may have advantages over broadband sources.

  4. Action spectrum for retinal thermal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.

    1999-06-01

    The action spectrum for light-induced damage to the retina results from the wavelength dependence transmission of the preretinal ocular media, wavelength dependent absorption in retinal chromophores and chromatic aberration of the eye optics. While various light/tissue interaction mechanisms have been implicated, thermal mechanisms dominate in the red and near-infrared for all exposure durations and in the visible for exposures shorter than a few seconds. A number of investigators have measured the transmission of the eye and the spectra of retinal absorbers, and thermal models based on these data predict the broad features of the action spectrum. Dose/response studies with lasers and incoherent light sources, conducted over the past 10 years mainly validate the thermal models.

  5. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  6. Online Action Monitoring and Memory for Self-Performed Actions in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M.; Lind, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience difficulties with action monitoring. Two experimental tasks examined whether adults with ASD are able to monitor their own actions online, and whether they also show a typical enactment effects in memory (enhanced memory for actions they have performed compared…

  7. Perceiving Goals and Actions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyère, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to parse familiar sequences of action into meaningful events in young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as compared to young individuals with typical development (TD) and young individuals with moderate mental retardation or learning disabilities (MLDs). While viewing two…

  8. Intact Imitation of Emotional Facial Actions in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Richardson, Daniel; Bird, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that there is a core impairment in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) to the mirror neuron system (MNS): If observed actions cannot be mapped onto the motor commands required for performance, higher order sociocognitive functions that involve understanding another person's perspective, such as theory of mind, may be impaired.…

  9. Anticipation of Action Intentions in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Matthew; Burnett, Hollie G.; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether individuals with a mild form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are influenced by an actor's gaze direction when anticipating how an observed action will continue in the immediate future. Participants observed a head rotate towards them, while the gaze direction was either leading, or lagging behind, rotation. They also…

  10. Action Perception Is Intact in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Justin H.G.; Neri, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Autistic traits span a wide spectrum of behavioral departures from typical function. Despite the heterogeneous nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there have been attempts at formulating unified theoretical accounts of the associated impairments in social cognition. A class of prominent theories capitalizes on the link between social interaction and visual perception: effective interaction with others often relies on discrimination of subtle nonverbal cues. It has been proposed that individuals with ASD may rely on poorer perceptual representations of other people's actions as returned by dysfunctional visual circuitry and that this, in turn, may lead to less effective interpretation of those actions for social behavior. It remains unclear whether such perceptual deficits exist in ASD: the evidence currently available is limited to specific aspects of action recognition, and the reported deficits are often attributable to cognitive factors that may not be strictly visual (e.g., attention). We present results from an exhaustive set of measurements spanning the entire action processing hierarchy, from motion detection to action interpretation, designed to factor out effects that are not selectively relevant to this function. Our results demonstrate that the ASD perceptual system returns functionally intact signals for interpreting other people's actions adequately; these signals can be accessed effectively when autistic individuals are prompted and motivated to do so under controlled conditions. However, they may fail to exploit them adequately during real-life social interactions. PMID:25653346

  11. Online action monitoring and memory for self-performed actions in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2014-05-01

    This study explored whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience difficulties with action monitoring. Two experimental tasks examined whether adults with ASD are able to monitor their own actions online, and whether they also show a typical enactment effects in memory (enhanced memory for actions they have performed compared to actions they have observed being performed). Individuals with ASD and comparison participants showed a similar pattern of performance on both tasks. In a task which required individuals to distinguish person-caused from computer-caused changes in phenomenology both groups found it easier to monitor their own actions compared to those of an experimenter. Both groups also showed typical enactment effects. Despite recent suggestions to the contrary, these results support suggestions that action monitoring is unimpaired in ASD.

  12. GABA receptor agonists: pharmacological spectrum and therapeutic actions.

    PubMed

    Bartholini, G

    1985-01-01

    From the data discussed in this review it appears that GABA receptor agonists exhibit a variety of actions in the central nervous system, some of which are therapeutically useful (Table V). GABA receptor agonists, by changing the firing rate of the corresponding neurons accelerate noradrenaline turnover without changes in postsynaptic receptor density and diminish serotonin liberation with an up-regulation of 5HT2 receptors. These effects differ from those of tricyclic antidepressants which primarily block monoamine re-uptake and cause down-regulation of beta-adrenergic and 5HT2 receptors. The GABA receptor agonist progabide has been shown to exert an antidepressant action which is indistinguishable from that of imipramine in patients with major affective disorders. The fact that: (a) GABA receptor agonists and tricyclic antidepressants affect noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission differently; and (b) tricyclic antidepressants alter GABA-related parameters challenges the classical monoamine hypothesis of depression and suggests that GABA-mediated mechanisms play a role in mood disorders. Decreases in cellular excitability produced by GABAergic stimulation leads to control of seizures in practically all animal models of epilepsy. GABA receptor agonists have a wide spectrum as they antagonize not only seizures which are dependent on decreased GABA synaptic activity but also convulsant states which are apparently independent of alterations in GABA-mediated events. These results in animals are confirmed in a wide range of human epileptic syndromes. GABA receptor agonists decrease dopamine turnover in the basal ganglia and antagonize neuroleptic-induced increase in dopamine release. On repeated treatment, progabide prevents or reverses the neuroleptic-induced up-regulation of dopamine receptors in the rat striatum and antagonizes the concomitant supersensitivity to dopaminomimetics. Behaviorally, GABA receptor agonists diminish the stereotypies induced by

  13. Perception-action coupling and imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Nadel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the key function of imitation in motor and social development of typically developing infants and low-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We suggest that it might also be a developmental cornerstone for other neurodevelopmental disorders. Why this suggestion? First, imitation just requires relating one's motor patterns to perceived motor patterns. This is always possible if the actions seen are not beyond the individual's motor scope; for instance, newborn infants can already imitate tongue protrusion, eye blinking, or mouth opening, because these movements are part of their foetal repertoire. Second, imitation is a 'use it or lose it' capacity: the more it is used, the more the repertoire grows (plasticity). Finally, imitation is an efficient tool for two main adaptive functions: learning and communication. Imitation-based communication is available through the use of the two facets of imitation: imitating and being imitated. The two facets afford two roles that the partners can exchange as a turn-taking while they synchronize matched activities. Neuroimaging studies of interactive imitation have shown that such communicative systems involve a coordination of bottom-up and top-down processes. In this line, imitation is a booster of development that can also be of benefit for children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Stochastic, weighted hit size theory of cellular radiobiological action

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    A stochastic theory that appears to account well for the observed responses of cell populations exposed in radiation fields of different qualities and for different durations of exposure is described. The theory appears to explain well most cellular radiobiological phenomena observed in at least autonomous cell systems, argues for the use of fluence rate (phi) instead of absorbed dose for quantification of the amount of radiation involved in low level radiation exposure. With or without invoking the cell sensitivity function, the conceptual improvement would be substantial. The approach suggested also shows that the absorbed dose-cell response functions currently employed do not reflect the spectrum of cell sensitivities to increasing cell doses of a single agent, nor can RBE represent the potency ratio for different agents that can produce similar quantal responses. Thus, for accurate comparison of cell sensitivities among different cells in the same individual, or between the cells in different kinds of individuals, it is necessary to quantify cell sensitivity in terms of the hit size weighting or cell sensitivity function introduced here. Similarly, this function should be employed to evaluate the relative potency of radiation and other radiomimetic chemical or physical agents.

  15. The action spectrum for vitamin D3: initial skin reaction and prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Arjan; den Outer, Peter; van Kranen, Henk; Slaper, Harry

    2016-07-06

    Vitamin D3 photosynthesis in the skin is formulated as a set of reaction equations, including side-reactions to lumisterol, tachysterol and toxisterols, and the accompanying reverse reactions, isomerisation of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 and photodegradation of vitamin D3. The solution of this set is given for the stationary irradiance spectrum. The effective action spectrum for the instantaneous vitamin D3 production changes shape as a function of exposure, and therefore, no single action spectrum can be used. We assessed the action spectrum for unexposed skin and for skin that has been exposed to 7.5 Standard Erythemal Doses (SED). We constructed two new estimates: (1) the RIVM action spectrum, based on absorption spectra, quantum yields and skin transmission spectra, and (2) the modified QUT action spectrum, which is adjusted for self-absorption and skin transmission. For previously unexposed skin, the modified QUT action spectrum gives a qualitatively similar, but larger estimate than the RIVM action spectrum. We have not been able to solve the lack of quantitative agreement between the vitamin D production estimates from the three action spectrum estimates (RIVM, modified QUT and CIE). All new action spectra have stronger emphasis on the short wavelengths than the CIE action spectrum. We showed that, for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, the bandwidth that was used in the experiment that formed the basis of the CIE action spectrum, gives a red-shift of about 1 nm. Generally, with the formation of previtamin D3, the return reaction to provitamin D3 limits the production of vitamin D3. After some exposure, the new action spectrum has negative values for the longer wavelengths in the UVB. For the RIVM action spectrum, this happens after 7.5 SED, for the modified QUT action spectrum already after 1.25 SED, and after 7.5 SED the net production rate is largely cancelled. Thus prolonged exposure of previously unexposed skin saturates vitamin D3 formation. For maximum

  16. Channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis based on weighted overlap-add structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lianping; Jiang, Jun; Tan, Feng; Pan, Huiqing; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Hao; Bai, Lihong

    2016-10-01

    The digital channelization technology has been applied in many electronic areas, and the real-time broadband spectrum analysis has been the research hotspot in the area of signal processing. This paper introduces the channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis method. Based on the weighted overlap-add (WOLA) structure, this method divides the input broadband signal into several sub-bands or channels, and then downconverts and decimates the sub-band signals to obtain the baseband signals with a low sampling rate. The spectrum analysis results of the input broadband signal are achieved by conducting further decimation, fast Fourier transform and spectrum splicing to the baseband signals. The Matlab simulation results verify the correctness of the WOLA structure, and finally, an experimental platform is designed in detail to verify the practicability of this broadband spectrum analysis method.

  17. Channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis based on weighted overlap-add structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lianping; Jiang, Jun; Tan, Feng; Pan, Huiqing; Zhang, Peng; Zeng, Hao; Bai, Lihong

    2016-10-01

    The digital channelization technology has been applied in many electronic areas, and the real-time broadband spectrum analysis has been the research hotspot in the area of signal processing. This paper introduces the channelized broadband signal spectrum analysis method. Based on the weighted overlap-add (WOLA) structure, this method divides the input broadband signal into several sub-bands or channels, and then downconverts and decimates the sub-band signals to obtain the baseband signals with a low sampling rate. The spectrum analysis results of the input broadband signal are achieved by conducting further decimation, fast Fourier transform and spectrum splicing to the baseband signals. The Matlab simulation results verify the correctness of the WOLA structure, and finally, an experimental platform is designed in detail to verify the practicability of this broadband spectrum analysis method.

  18. A Systematic Review of Action Imitation in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Singh, Tulika

    2004-01-01

    Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving…

  19. Goal-Directed Action Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls…

  20. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  1. A Review of Research on the Use of Weighted Vests with Children on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Erin E.

    2007-01-01

    Occupational therapists working in the school system setting report using weighted vests as a technique to improve attention and sensory processing for students who have an autism spectrum disorder. Some critics, however, contend that this technique is used without evidence of effectiveness. This study examines the overall research available on…

  2. Quantitative weight of evidence to assess confidence in potential modes of action.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Dellarco, Vicki; Seed, Jennifer; Kronenberg, Joel M; Meek, Bette; Foreman, Jennifer; Palermo, Christine; Kirman, Chris; Linkov, Igor; Schoeny, Rita; Dourson, Michael; Pottenger, Lynn H; Manibusan, Mary K

    2017-02-20

    The evolved World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety mode of action (MOA) framework provides a structure for evaluating evidence in pathways of causally linked key events (KE) leading to adverse health effects. Although employed globally, variability in use of the MOA framework has led to different interpretations of the sufficiency of evidence in support of hypothesized MOAs. A proof of concept extension of the MOA framework is proposed for scoring confidence in the supporting data to improve scientific justification for MOA use in characterizing hazards and selecting dose-response extrapolation methods for specific chemicals. This involves selecting hypothesized MOAs, and then, for each MOA, scoring the weight of evidence (WOE) in support of causality for each KE using evolved Bradford Hill causal considerations (biological plausibility, essentiality, dose-response concordance, consistency, and analogy). This early proof of concept method is demonstrated by comparing two potential MOAs (mutagenicity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha) for clofibrate, a rodent liver carcinogen. Quantitative confidence scoring of hypothesized MOAs is shown to be useful in characterizing the likely operative MOA. To guide method refinement and future confidence scoring for a spectrum of MOAs, areas warranting further focus and lessons learned, including the need to incorporate a narrative discussion of the weights used in the evaluation and an overall evaluation of the plausibility of the outcome, are presented.

  3. Predictive Gaze during Observation of Irrational Actions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, L. E.; Pearson, A.; Ropar, D.; Hamilton, A. F. de C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding irrational actions may require the observer to make mental state inferences about why an action was performed. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have well documented difficulties with mentalizing; however, the degree to which rationality understanding is impaired in autism is not yet clear. The present study uses…

  4. The integration of size and weight cues for perception and action: evidence for a weight-size illusion.

    PubMed

    Hirsiger, Sarah; Pickett, Kristen; Konczak, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Humans routinely estimate the size and weight of objects. Yet, when lifting two objects of equal weight but different size, they often perceive the smaller object as being heavier. This size-weight illusion (SWI) is known to have a lesser effect on motor control of object lifting. How the nervous system combines "weight" and "size" cues with prior experience and whether these cues are differentially integrated for perception and sensorimotor action is still not fully understood. Therefore, we assessed not only whether the experience of size biases weight perception, but also if experience of weight biases the size perception of objects. Further, to investigate differences between perceptual and motor systems for cue-experience integration, participants haptically explored the weight of an object with one hand and then shaped the aperture of their other hand to indicate its perceived size. Results-First, next to a SWI, healthy adults (N = 21) perceived lighter objects as being smaller and heavier objects as being larger, demonstrating a weight-size illusion (WSI). Second, participants were more susceptible to either the SWI or WSI. Third, aperture of the non-exploring hand was scaled to perceived weight and not to physical size. Hand openings were consistently smaller than physical size, with SWI-sensitive participants being significantly more affected than WSI-sensitive subjects. We conclude: first, both size and weight perceptions are biased by prior experience. Weight perception is biased by expectations of size, while size perception is influenced by the expectancy of weight. Second, humans have the tendency to use one cue predominantly for both types of perception. Third, combining perceived weight with expected size influenced hand motor control, while online haptic feedback was largely ignored. Finally, we present a processing model underlying the size-weight cue integration for the perceptual and motor system.

  5. Macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics: spectrum of activity and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Geary, Timothy G; Moreno, Yovany

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), exemplified by the prototype of the class, ivermectin (IVM), are mainstays of programs for the control of nematode and arthropod parasites and pests. Since their introduction 30 years ago, research has revealed that they act on a family of ligand-gated chloride channels gated by glutamate, which is largely restricted to animals in the phyla Nematoda and Arthropoda. Studies on IVM in model organisms have contributed greatly to our understanding of ML pharmacology, but our understanding of the basis for differences among species and among MLs in potency and spectrum remains far from complete.

  6. Excited nucleon spectrum using non-perturbative improved clover action

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Richards; M. Gockeler; R. Horsley; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; C. M. Maynard

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the extraction of negative-parity baryon masses from lattice QCD calculations. The mass of the lowest-lying negative-parity J = 1/2- state is computed in quenched lattice QCD using an O(a)-improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found with the nucleon mass. The calculation is performed on two lattice volumes, and three lattice spacings enabling a study of both finite-volume and finite-lattice-spacing uncertainties. A measurement of the first excited radial excitation of the nucleon finds a mass comparable, or even somewhat larger than that of the negative-parity ground state, in accord with other lattice determinations but in disagreement with experiment. Results are also presented for the lightest negative-parity I=3/2 state.

  7. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions

    PubMed Central

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers’ motor cortex to “resonate” with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor’s BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor’s FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view. PMID:25462196

  8. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions.

    PubMed

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M

    2015-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers' motor cortex to "resonate" with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor's BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor's FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view.

  9. With Hindsight: An Overview of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzon, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Much has happened since nine teams across New Zealand engaged in a Ministry of Education-funded participatory action research project looking at effective practice for supporting children and young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in education. Building on earlier discussions, the project ran from 2002 to 2004, and until now the story…

  10. Optimal periodic cooperative spectrum sensing based on weight fusion in cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Jia, Min; Gu, Xuemai; Tan, Xuezhi

    2013-04-19

    The performance of cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio (CR) networks depends on the sensing mode, the sensing time and the number of cooperative users. In order to improve the sensing performance and reduce the interference to the primary user (PU), a periodic cooperative spectrum sensing model based on weight fusion is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the sensing period, the sensing time and the searching time are optimized, respectively. Firstly the sensing period is optimized to improve the spectrum utilization and reduce the interference, then the joint optimization algorithm of the local sensing time and the number of cooperative users, is proposed to obtain the optimal sensing time for improving the throughput of the cognitive radio user (CRU) during each period, and finally the water-filling principle is applied to optimize the searching time in order to make the CRU find an idle channel within the shortest time. The simulation results show that compared with the previous algorithms, the optimal sensing period can improve the spectrum utilization of the CRU and decrease the interference to the PU significantly, the optimal sensing time can make the CRU achieve the largest throughput, and the optimal searching time can make the CRU find an idle channel with the least time.

  11. Predictive gaze during observation of irrational actions in adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, L E; Pearson, A; Ropar, D; Hamilton, A F de C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding irrational actions may require the observer to make mental state inferences about why an action was performed. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have well documented difficulties with mentalizing; however, the degree to which rationality understanding is impaired in autism is not yet clear. The present study uses eye-tracking to measure online understanding of action rationality in individuals with ASC. Twenty adults with ASC and 20 typically developing controls, matched for age and IQ watched movies of rational and irrational actions while their eye movements were recorded. Measures of looking time, scan path and saccade latency were calculated. Results from looking time and scan path analyses demonstrate that participants with ASC have reduced visual attention to salient action features such as the action goal and the hand performing the action, regardless of action rationality. However, when participants with ASC do attend to these features, they are able to make anticipatory goal saccades as quickly as typically developing controls. Taken together these results indicate that individuals with autism have reduced attention to observed actions, but when attention is maintained, goal prediction is typical. We conclude that the basic mechanisms of action understanding are intact in individuals with ASC although there may be impairment in the top-down, social modulation of eye movements.

  12. A proposal for in vitro/GFR molecular erythema action spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, João A. V.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Rizzatti, Mara R.

    2008-08-01

    We propose an erythema action spectrum based on experimental molecular measurements named molecular erythema action spectrum or in vitro/GFR, where the acronym GFR represents our research group name, Grupo de Física das Radiaçöes. The in vitro methodology was developed by using a derma tissue simulator (TSD), as a radiation protection shield, and monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) sources of 254, 310, 365, 380, and 400 nm. The irradiance from each source was monitored through spectroradiometry in order to obtain the exposure dose over a period of time. Changes in the chemical structure were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The samples were analyzed by UV-vis at each 200 up to 1000 J/m2 and at each 400 up to 2000 J/m2. FTIR was performed only for samples exposed to a maximum dose of 2000 J/m2. The in vitro action parameters were obtained by considering the redshift revealed through UV-vis analysis, as being the molecular quantification of minimal erythema, and the chemical bond rupture of TSD molecules associated with erythema, revealed through FTIR. The in vitro/GFR action spectrum shows that UV-A and UV-B radiation are equally responsible for the damage observed in TSD. When this proposal was compared to the CIE erythema action spectrum from ISO [ISO17166 CIE S 007/E, Erythema Reference Action Spectrum and Standard Erythema Dose (CIE Central Bureau, Austria, 1998)], similarities could be observed in wavelengths less than 280 nm in UV-B region. However, for wavelengths higher than 300 nm, the efficiency of this radiation to induce damage, mainly in the UV-A part, was much higher than predicted in CIE model. The increasing concern on UV-A radiation, assumed to be as responsible as UV-B for inducing most of the already observed skin injuries, may be better understood when observing the experimental model presented in in vitro/GFR action spectrum.

  13. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls (8-12 years) initially learned to give specific responses to different pictorial stimuli in order to gain valuable outcomes. Subsequently, in the "slips-of-action" test, some of these outcomes were no longer valuable. Children needed to refrain from responding when stimuli were shown that signaled the availability of those outcomes while continuing to respond for the still-valuable outcomes. Reliance on habits should lead to "slips of action" toward no longer valuable outcomes. Therefore, the children's ability to respond selectively for still-valuable outcomes provides a measure of relative habitual versus goal-directed control. Two additional tasks were included to control for general task characteristics (i.e. working memory and inhibition). Children with autism spectrum disorders learned equally well as controls and were not impaired at flexibly adjusting their behavior to devaluation of the outcomes or stimuli. We found no evidence for a disruption in the balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Leptin secretory dynamics and associated disordered eating psychopathology across the weight spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Miller, Karen K.; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Lawson, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin secretory dynamics across the weight spectrum and their relationship with disordered eating psychopathology have not been studied. Our objective was to compare leptin secretory dynamics in 13 anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 overweight/obese (OB) and 12 normal-weight women using deconvolution analysis. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral center, serum leptin levels were obtained every 20 minutes from 2000-0800h. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure %body fat. Disordered eating psychopathology was assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results The groups differed for basal leptin secretion (BASAL) (p=0.02). Mean leptin pulse amplitude, pulse mass, total pulsatile secretion (TPS) and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly different between groups before and after adjustment for BASAL (p<0.0001 for all). Leptin AUC correlated strongly with TPS (r=0.97, p<0.0001) and less with BASAL (r=0.35, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, only TPS was a significant predictor of leptin AUC (p<0.0001). TPS was inversely associated with most EDE-Q and EDI-2 parameters and the associations remained significant for EDE-Q eating concern (p=0.01), and EDI-2 asceticism, ineffectiveness and social insecurity (p<0.05) after adjusting for BASAL. These relationships were not significant when controlled for %body fat. Conclusion Secretory dynamics of leptin differ across weight spectrum, with mean pulse amplitude, mean pulse mass and TPS being low in AN and high in OB. Pulsatile, rather than basal secretion, is the major contributor to leptin AUC. Decreased pulsatile leptin is associated with disordered eating psychopathology, possibly reflecting low %body fat in AN. PMID:26903591

  15. Impact of LED irradiance on plant photosynthesis and action spectrum of plantlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naznin, Most Tahera; Lefsrud, Mark G.

    2014-09-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be selected to target the wavelengths absorbed by plantlets, enabling the users to customize the wavelengths of light required for maximum production. The primary purpose of this experiment was to test the effect of different ratios of red to blue LEDs on tomato plantlets photosynthetic action spectrum. Four light treatments including: red LED (100%) and three ratios of red (661 nm) to blue (449 nm) light (5:1, 10:1 and 19:1) at 60 umol m-2 s-1 for this study. The tomato plantlets cultured without blue light showed a three and half-fold decrease in photosynthesis rate. The highest photosynthetic action spectrum was observed at 10:1 but was not significantly difference from the 5:1 and the lowest action spectrum was observed at 100% red LED light. The tomato plantlets grown without the blue light showed a single-fold increase in plantlet height but were not significantly different from the 10:1 red to blue LED light. This research will allow for improved selection of LED lighting for plant tissue culture.

  16. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  17. Update on Heavy-Meson Spectrum Tests of the Oktay--Kronfeld Action

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Jon A.; Jang, Yong-Chull; Lee, Weonjong; DeTar, Carleton; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Oktay, Mehmet B.

    2016-01-18

    We present updated results of a numerical improvement test with heavy-meson spectrum for the Oktay--Kronfeld (OK) action. The OK action is an extension of the Fermilab improvement program for massive Wilson fermions including all dimension-six and some dimension-seven bilinear terms. Improvement terms are truncated by HQET power counting at $\\mathrm{O}(\\Lambda^3/m_Q^3)$ for heavy-light systems, and by NRQCD power counting at $\\mathrm{O}(v^6)$ for quarkonium. They suffice for tree-level matching to QCD to the given order in the power-counting schemes. To assess the improvement, we generate new data with the OK and Fermilab action that covers both charm and bottom quark mass regions on a MILC coarse $(a \\approx 0.12~\\text{fm})$ $2+1$ flavor, asqtad-staggered ensemble. We update the analyses of the inconsistency quantity and the hyperfine splittings for the rest and kinetic masses. With one exception, the results clearly show that the OK action significantly reduces heavy-quark discretization effects in the meson spectrum. The exception is the hyperfine splitting of the heavy-light system near the $B_s$ meson mass, where statistics are too low to draw a firm conclusion, despite promising results.

  18. Photoisomerization action spectrum of retinal protonated Schiff base in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlan, N. J. A.; Catani, K. J.; Adamson, B. D.; Wille, U.; Bieske, E. J.

    2014-04-28

    The photophysical behaviour of the isolated retinal protonated n-butylamine Schiff base (RPSB) is investigated in the gas phase using a combination of ion mobility spectrometry and laser spectroscopy. The RPSB cations are introduced by electrospray ionisation into an ion mobility mass spectrometer where they are exposed to tunable laser radiation in the region of the S{sub 1} ← S{sub 0} transition (420–680 nm range). Four peaks are observed in the arrival time distribution of the RPSB ions. On the basis of predicted collision cross sections with nitrogen gas, the dominant peak is assigned to the all-trans isomer, whereas the subsidiary peaks are assigned to various single, double and triple cis geometric isomers. RPSB ions that absorb laser radiation undergo photoisomerization, leading to a detectable change in their drift speed. By monitoring the photoisomer signal as a function of laser wavelength an action spectrum, extending from 480 to 660 nm with a clear peak at 615 ± 5 nm, is obtained. The photoisomerization action spectrum is related to the absorption spectrum of isolated retinal RPSB molecules and should help benchmark future electronic structure calculations.

  19. Heavy-Meson Spectrum Tests of the Oktay--Kronfeld Action

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Jon A.; Jang, Yong-Chull; Lee, Weonjong; DeTar, Carleton; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Oktay, Mehmet B.

    2014-11-07

    We present heavy-meson spectrum results obtained using the Oktay--Kronfeld (OK) action on MILC asqtad lattices. The OK action was designed to improve the heavy-quark action of the Fermilab formulation, such that heavy-quark discretization errors are reduced. The OK action includes dimension-6 and -7 operators necessary for tree-level matching to QCD through order $\\mathrm{O}(\\Lambda^3/m_Q^3)$ for heavy-light mesons and $\\mathrm{O}(v^6)$ for quarkonium, or, equivalently, through $\\mathrm{O}(a^2)$ with some $\\mathrm{O}(a^3)$ terms with Symanzik power counting. To assess the improvement, we extend previous numerical tests with heavy-meson masses by analyzing data generated on a finer ($a \\approx 0.12\\;$fm) lattice with the correct tadpole factors for the $c_5$ term in the action. We update the analyses of the inconsistency parameter and the hyperfine splittings for the rest and kinetic masses.

  20. Action spectrum for melanoma induction in hybrid fish of the genus Xiphophorus

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a complicated disease that is dependent on a number of factors that influence its incidence in ways that are quantitatively uncertain. The incidence of CMM increases with proximity to the Equator -- an observation in line with the conclusion that sun exposure is the most important etiologic agent. However, the latitude effect does not implicate UVB because the intensities of all spectral regions increase toward the Equator. An understanding of the useful public health measures to lower the incidence of CMM would benefit greatly if the spectral region of sunlight implicated in melanoma incidence were known. Such knowledge requires animal models to evaluate the incidence as a function of wavelength. There are marsupial models, a transgenic mouse model, and a fish model. To date, only the fish model has been employed to obtain an action spectrum. The paper describes a fish model, implications of the fish spectrum, and epidemiological data.

  1. Induction of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of hairless mice by UVB: an action spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, R.D.; Peak, M.J.; Lyon, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    An action spectrum for the induction of pyrimidine dimers in the epidermis of hairless mice was determined between 288 and 307 nm. The presence of pyrimidine dimers in tritium-labeled DNA extracted from exposed SKH:hairless-1 mouse skin was determined using dimer-specific nucleases from Micrococcus luteus in conjunction with sedimentation of the irradiated DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The rate of induction of pyrimidine dimers was maximal at 293 nm. These values were used to propose a UVB transmission curve for mouse epidermis.

  2. Phototaxis and photophobic responses in Stentor coeruleus. Action spectrum and role of Ca2+ fluxes.

    PubMed

    Kim, I H; Prusti, R K; Song, P S; Häder, D P; Häder, M

    1984-06-29

    Negative phototactic orientation, step-up photophobic responses and light-induced action potentials have been studied in the ciliate Stentor coeruleus. A resolved action spectrum, based on fluence rate-response curves, is consistent with stentorin as the photoreceptor. Calcium flux blockers prolong the response time for ciliary stop and reversal and inhibit step-up photophobic responses. Drugs believed to affect the membrane-bound calcium pump likewise inhibit phobic responses. On the other hand, alpha-phosphatidic acid promotes Ca2+-influx and enhances the photophobic sensitivity of the organism, thus providing an unambiguous evidence for the role of Ca2+ influx. A change in the response time decreases the degree of phototactic orientation, indicating that negative phototaxis in this organism is brought about by subsequent phobic responses of individual rows of cilia as the associated photoreceptor granules experience an increase in light intensity when the organism rotates during forward locomotion in lateral light.

  3. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<-0.67), on track (-0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  4. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O.; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<−0.67), on track (−0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5th and ≥85th percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  5. Weak turbulant theory estimation for non-linear energy, wave action and momentum fluxes in wind wave spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenov, I.

    2003-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the Hasselmann kinetic equation for gravity waves in water surface confirms basic predictions of the weak-turbulent theory. Three different stages can be defined in the wave spectrum evolution.. At the first stage the spectrum unstable growth is observed within the range of the external force input. High frequency spectrum development is observed at the second stage of spectrum evolution. The frequency spectrum is becoming larger within high frequency range and a spectral growth is penetrated to a larger frequency range. After that the spectrum remains almost constant at high frequency range. In both isotropic and non-isotropic cases the spectra are found out to be close to the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum pow(w,-4) not only in the universal range, but in the range of wave energy input. Formation of this asymptotic spectrum happens explosively. The third stage of spectrum evolution is revealed for a larger time period. It is characterized by a slow spectrum evolution into a low frequency range. The spectrum value becomes larger penetrating to a smaller frequency range with decreasing speed in accordance with experimental data. In low frequency range a power spectrum is revealed for both isotropic and non-isotropic cases with the spectra close to the Zakharov-Zaslavskii spectrum pow(w,-11/3). Main energy flux is directed to the high frequency range. Its value makes up 77 per cent of total value of wave energy input coming from external source. Main wave action flux is directed to low frequency range. Its relative value is equal to 75 per cents of total wave action flux input. 25 per cents of wave action is directed to high frequency range. Almost all wave momentum (up to 98 per cents) is directed to high frequency range. The investigations are supported by the Grants: RFBR 01-05-64846, and INTAS-(99)-666, INTAS - (01)-234, INTAS-(01)-2156.

  6. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Y; Hirone, T

    1994-05-01

    The present study investigated the phototoxic effect of bergamot oil and its photosensitive component, bergapten, on sunburn cell (SBC) production in guinea pig skin. The back skin was pretreated with bergamot oil or bergapten and exposed to monochromatic light under various conditions. After irradiation, skin specimens were excised, and histological sections were prepared. The number of sunburn cells in the interfollicular epidermis was counted. The SBC formation by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVB radiation was the same as that without pretreatment with any photosensitizer. In contrast, a significant number of SBCs were induced by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVA radiation, but no SBCs were found after the treatment with UVA alone. The result indicates that bergamot oil or bergapten was photosensitized by UVA irradiation. The SBCs were linearly increased in a UV-dose dependent manner. On the basis of the regression lines, an action spectrum and spectral peak for the photosensitizers plus UVA were obtained. The action spectrum for bergamot oil- and bergapten-induced SBC formation was in the ranges of 325-365 nm and 325-350 nm, and their spectral peaks were at 335-345 nm and 335-350 nm, respectively. The data are in good accordance with those estimated from skin erythema reactions. Therefore, counting SBCs is a very useful parameter for quantitative evaluation of phototoxicity.

  7. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  8. Action spectrum of oxidative reactions mediated by light-activated melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Jacques, Steven L.

    1997-06-01

    The melanin of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is generally thought to have a photoprotective role in the eye, yet it is excited by light to a free radical which can react with cellular components. Soluble proteins extracted from the retina are photo-oxidized by the output of a Xenon arc lamp containing UVA and visible wavelengths. The oxidative damage in this model consists of carbonyl adducts to the peptides, and is proportional to the amount of UVA present. Melanosomes isolated from bovine RPE cells and added to the retinal protein extract partly protect the proteins from photo-oxidation resulting from this broadband exposure. However, if the proteins are instead exposed to the 488 and 514.5 nm outputs of an Argon continuous wave laser, the amount of protein oxidation is markedly increased when melanosomes are present. This observation suggests that the melanin free radical is optimally excited by wavelengths in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum, and in fact the action spectrum for the photo-oxidation of NADPH by laser-excited melanin peaks between 450 and 500 nm. The present data do not distinguish between two alternative hypotheses, i.e. that the apparent action spectrum peak is due to (1) a chromophore different from the one determining the overall optical absorption of melanin, or (2) the lower efficiency of UVA photons in activating melanosomes because of their strong absorption at the solution surface. Nevertheless these data implicate melanin in the so-called 'blue light' retinal hazard.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: Physical foundations and applications of Restriction Spectrum Imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, Nathan S.; McDonald, Carrie; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Chen, Clark C.; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J.; Kane, Chris J.; Carter, Bob S.; Bradley, William G.; Dale, Anders M.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000’s. Prior to its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neuro-oncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions as to the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neuro-oncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology, and surgical planning. PMID:25183788

  10. Action spectrum for photochemical retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disruption in an in vivo monkey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sabarinathan, Ranjani; Bubel, Tracy; Williams, David R.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of RPE disruption and autofluorescence (AF) photobleaching at light levels below the ANSI photochemical maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (Morgan et al., 2008) indicates a demand to modify future light safety standards to protect the retina from harm. To establish safe light exposures, we measured the visible light action spectrum for RPE disruption in an in vivo monkey model with fluorescence adaptive optics retinal imaging. Using this high resolution imaging modality can provide insight into the consequences of light on a cellular level and allow for longitudinal monitoring of retinal changes. The threshold retinal radiant exposures (RRE) for RPE disruption were determined for 4 wavelengths (460, 488, 544, and 594 nm). The anaesthetized macaque retina was exposed to a uniform 0.5° × 0.5° field of view (FOV). Imaging within a 2° × 2° FOV was performed before, immediately after and at 2 week intervals for 10 weeks. At each wavelength, multiple RREs were tested with 4 repetitions each to determine the threshold for RPE disruption. For qualitative analysis, RPE disruption is defined as any detectable change from the pre exposure condition in the cell mosaic in the exposed region relative to the corresponding mosaic in the immediately surrounding area. We have tested several metrics to evaluate the RPE images obtained before and after exposure. The measured action spectrum for photochemical RPE disruption has a shallower slope than the current ANSI photochemical MPE for the same conditions and suggests that longer wavelength light is more hazardous than other measurements would suggest.

  11. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  12. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  13. An analysis of the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, R

    1975-02-01

    Triple-testcross experiments (Kearsey and Jinks 1968) were employed to investigate the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum. Their experimental design involves two inbred lines, the F1 progeny and a segregating population derived from the cross of the inbred lines. In the present experiments, four segregating populations were used. These populations included the F2 generation, a select line (SEL) and two relaxed select lines (RSI and RSII). In addition, all possible reciprocal crosses were made among the RSI, RSII, and SEL populations. It was observed that: (1) additive, dominant and epistatic gene effects all made significant contributions to the pupa weight of the progeny from all four segregating populations: (2) there was no evidence of either accumulation of epistasis as a result of selection in the SEL population or decline in epistasis as a result of removing selection pressure from the RSI and RSII populations; and (3) significant negative heterosis and maternal effects contributed to the pupa weight of the crossbred progeny of the RSI, RSII and SEL populations.

  14. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response.

  15. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  16. The Use of Weighted Vests with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Therapists who use sensory integration therapy may recommend that children wear weighted vests as an intervention strategy that they claim may assist in remediating problems such as inattentiveness, hyperactivity, stereotypic behaviors and clumsiness. Seven studies examining weighted vests are reviewed. While there is only a limited body of…

  17. Reduced sensitivity to social priors during action prediction in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Farrer, Chlöé; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Jacquet, Pierre O; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to directly investigate whether difficulties in the appreciation of others' intentions can be accounted for by abnormal interaction between these two types of information: (i) the sensory evidence conveyed by movement kinematics, and (ii) the observer's expectations, acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we contrasted the ability to infer Non-Social and Social intentions in adults with and without ASD, using a series of tasks in which both sensory evidence and prior expectations were manipulated. The results showed that attenuated effect of prior expectations in ASD individuals does not result from a generalized impairment in mentalizing, but one confined to social intentions. Attenuated priors in the social domain predicted the severity of clinical symptoms in the area of social interaction. Importantly, however, we found that reduced priors in the social domain could be compensated by ASD through observational learning, i.e. through deriving statistical regularities from observed behaviours. This capacity to balance reduced social expectations by learning inversely correlated with the severity of repetitive and stereotyped behaviours. Collectively, these findings suggest that adults with ASD exhibit a disturbance in the inferential mechanism that integrates sensory evidence into prior beliefs to produce accurate inferences about other people's intentions.

  18. Primary somatosensory cortex necessary for the perception of weight from other people's action: A continuous theta-burst TMS experiment.

    PubMed

    Valchev, Nikola; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2017-02-28

    The presence of a network of areas in the parietal and premotor cortices, which are active both during action execution and observation, suggests that we might understand the actions of other people by activating those motor programs for making similar actions. Although neurophysiological and imaging studies show an involvement of the somatosensory cortex (SI) during action observation and execution, it is unclear whether SI is essential for understanding the somatosensory aspects of observed actions. To address this issue, we used off-line transcranial magnetic continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) just before a weight judgment task. Participants observed the right hand of an actor lifting a box and estimated its relative weight. In counterbalanced sessions, we delivered sham and active cTBS over the hand region of the left SI and, to test anatomical specificity, over the left motor cortex (M1) and the left superior parietal lobule (SPL). Active cTBS over SI, but not over M1 or SPL, impaired task performance relative to sham cTBS. Moreover, active cTBS delivered over SI just before participants were asked to evaluate the weight of a bouncing ball did not alter performance compared to sham cTBS. These findings indicate that SI is critical for extracting somatosensory features (heavy/light) from observed action kinematics and suggest a prominent role of SI in action understanding.

  19. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  20. THE ACTION SPECTRUM FOR BREAKING DIAPAUSE IN THE CODLING MOTH, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), AND THE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi GUER.

    PubMed

    Norris, K H; Howell, F; Hayes, D K; Adler, V E; Sullivan, W N; Schechter, M S

    1969-08-01

    The action spectrum for breaking diapause in the oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi Guer., and the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), was determined from 400 to 700 nm with a wedge-interference spectrograph. Insects were exposed to ten hours of white light, followed by six hours of spectral light each day for 45 days. The portion of the spectrum between 400 and 500 nm was found to be the most effective in terminating diapause. Diapause was broken for both insects with energy levels as low as 0.02 muw/cm(2).

  1. Context sensitivity in action decreases along the autism spectrum: a predictive processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin J; Paton, Bryan; Kirkovski, Melissa; Enticott, Peter G; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-03-07

    Recent predictive processing accounts of perception and action point towards a key challenge for the nervous system in dynamically optimizing the balance between incoming sensory information and existing expectations regarding the state of the environment. Here, we report differences in the influence of the preceding sensory context on motor function, varying with respect to both clinical and subclinical features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reach-to-grasp movements were recorded subsequent to an inactive period in which illusory ownership of a prosthetic limb was induced. We analysed the sub-components of reach trajectories derived using a minimum-jerk fitting procedure. Non-clinical adults low in autistic features showed disrupted movement execution following the illusion compared to a control condition. By contrast, individuals higher in autistic features (both those with ASD and non-clinical individuals high in autistic traits) showed reduced sensitivity to the presence of the illusion in their reaching movements while still exhibiting the typical perceptual effects of the illusion. Clinical individuals were distinct from non-clinical individuals scoring high in autistic features, however, in the early stages of movement. These results suggest that the influence of high-level representations of the environment differs between individuals, contributing to clinical and subclinical differences in motor performance that manifest in a contextual manner. As high-level representations of context help to explain fluctuations in sensory input over relatively longer time scales, more circumscribed sensitivity to prior or contextual information in autistic sensory processing could contribute more generally to reduced social comprehension, sensory impairments and a stronger desire for predictability and routine.

  2. Visible light-induced photocatalytic reaction of gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide particles: action spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Ewa; Abe, Ryu; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2009-01-08

    Action spectrum analyses showed that visible light-induced oxidation of 2-propanol by aerated gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide (titania) suspensions is initiated by excitation of gold surface plasmon, and polychromatic irradiation experiments revealed that the photocatalytic reaction rate depends strongly on properties of titania, such as particle size, surface area and crystalline form (anatase or rutile) and on properties of gold deposits, such as size and shape.

  3. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  4. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social

  5. Linking actions and objects: Context-specific learning of novel weight priors.

    PubMed

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2017-06-01

    Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention. To investigate these questions we compared the adaptability of weight predictions used when lifting objects and judging their weights in different groups of participants who experienced size-weight inverted objects passively (with the objects placed on the hands) or actively (where participants lift the objects) under full or divided attention. To assess weight judgments we measured the size-weight illusion after every 20 trials of experience with the inverted objects both passively and actively. The attenuation of the illusion that arises when lifting inverted object was found to be context-specific such that the attenuation was larger when the mode of interaction with the inverted objects matched the method of assessment of the illusion. Dividing attention during interaction with the inverted objects had no effect on attenuation of the illusion, but did slow the rate at which lifting forces were scaled to the weight inverted objects. These findings suggest that the brain stores multiple representations of priors that are context specific, and that focused attention is important for scaling lifting forces, but not for updating weight predictions used when judging object weight.

  6. Infants' Grip Strength Predicts Mu Rhythm Attenuation during Observation of Lifting Actions with Weighted Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Bernier, Raphael A.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Research has established that the body is fundamentally involved in perception: bodily experience influences activation of the shared neural system underlying action perception and production during action observation, and bodily characteristics influence perception of the spatial environment. However, whether bodily characteristics influence…

  7. A look into the invisible: ultraviolet-B sensitivity in an insect (Caliothrips phaseoli) revealed through a behavioural action spectrum.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Carlos A; Izaguirre, Miriam M; Curiale, Javier; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2010-02-07

    Caliothrips phaseoli, a phytophagous insect, detects and responds to solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; lambda action spectrum of thrips responses to light by studying their behavioural reactions to monochromatic irradiation under confinement conditions. Thrips were maximally sensitive to wavelengths between 290 and 330 nm; human-visible wavelengths (lambda >or= 400 nm) failed to elicit any response. All but six ommatidia of the thrips compound eye were highly fluorescent when exposed to UV-A of wavelengths longer than 330 nm. We hypothesized that the fluorescent compound acts as an internal filter, preventing radiation with lambda > 330 nm from reaching the photoreceptor cells. Calculations based on the putative filter transmittance and a visual pigment template of lambda(max) = 360 nm produced a sensitivity spectrum that was strikingly similar to the action spectrum of UV-induced behavioural response. These results suggest that specific UV-B vision in thrips is achieved by a standard UV-A photoreceptor and a sharp cut-off internal filter that blocks longer UV wavelengths in the majority of the ommatidia.

  8. A look into the invisible: ultraviolet-B sensitivity in an insect (Caliothrips phaseoli) revealed through a behavioural action spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Carlos A.; Izaguirre, Miriam M.; Curiale, Javier; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2010-01-01

    Caliothrips phaseoli, a phytophagous insect, detects and responds to solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; λ ≤ 315 nm) under field conditions. A highly specific mechanism must be present in the thrips visual system in order to detect this narrow band of solar radiation, which is at least 30 times less abundant than the UV-A (315–400 nm), to which many insects are sensitive. We constructed an action spectrum of thrips responses to light by studying their behavioural reactions to monochromatic irradiation under confinement conditions. Thrips were maximally sensitive to wavelengths between 290 and 330 nm; human-visible wavelengths (λ ≥ 400 nm) failed to elicit any response. All but six ommatidia of the thrips compound eye were highly fluorescent when exposed to UV-A of wavelengths longer than 330 nm. We hypothesized that the fluorescent compound acts as an internal filter, preventing radiation with λ > 330 nm from reaching the photoreceptor cells. Calculations based on the putative filter transmittance and a visual pigment template of λmax = 360 nm produced a sensitivity spectrum that was strikingly similar to the action spectrum of UV-induced behavioural response. These results suggest that specific UV-B vision in thrips is achieved by a standard UV-A photoreceptor and a sharp cut-off internal filter that blocks longer UV wavelengths in the majority of the ommatidia. PMID:19846453

  9. Solar urticaria with a wide action spectrum from UVB to visible light complicated with UVA-induced polymorphous light eruption.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Izumi; Uetsu, Naoko; Tanimura, Hirotsugu; Fujii, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-04

    Solar urticaria and polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are acquired idiopathic photosensitivity disorders, but each phenomenon is extremely different; one is an immediate reaction, and one is a delayed-type reaction. Phototesting is necessary not only for the diagnosis of these photosensitivity disorders but also for the determination of the action spectrum so that the patient can try to avoid the triggering wavelengths in ordinary life. Solar urticaria is unique in that the particular spectra that inhibit or enhance the reactions by action spectra are present in some cases. In contrast, with PLE, phototesting is difficult, because a single or even repeated exposure of ultraviolet light or visible light sometimes fails to provoke the reaction. Here, we report a case of solar urticaria complicated with PLE. Solar urticaria with an action spectrum ranging from UVB to visible light was diagnosed by clinical presentation, phototesting and intradermal injections of photo-irradiated autologous serum. PLE induced by UVA was diagnosed by clinical presentation and phototesting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to “put themselves in the other person's shoes” by engaging brain systems involved in both “mentalizing” and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.05–0.9 kg or a large box weighting 3–18 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

  11. Opportunities for intervention strategies for weight management: global actions on fluid intake patterns.

    PubMed

    Lafontan, Max; Visscher, Tommy L S; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Yumuk, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity), water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols.

  12. Infants' Use of Material Properties to Guide Their Actions with Differently Weighted Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus; Hauf, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Two studies with 9-, 11- and 13-month-old infants were conducted to investigate infants' ability to use an object's material properties to guide their object-directed actions. In study 1, 9- and 11-month-old infants played in an exploration phase with two objects made of different materials, one very heavy and the other one light and playable.…

  13. Ultraviolet light action spectra for neoplastic transformation and lethality of Syrian hamster embryo cells correlate with spectrum for pyrimidine dimer formation in cellular DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Doniger, J; Jacobson, E D; Krell, K; DiPaolo, J A

    1981-01-01

    Action spectra were determined for neoplastic transformation, production of pyrimidine dimers, and lethality in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Of wavelengths between 240 and 313 nm, the most effective were 265 and 270. The relative sensitivities per quantum for transformation, pyrimidine dimer production, and lethality were essentially the same at each of the wavelengths tested. This action spectrum for transformation, which is relevant to carcinogenesis, is similar to spectra obtained previously by measuring other cellular responses in either microbial or mammalian systems. Because the action spectra for cytotoxicity and transformation are the same as the spectrum for dimer production, DNA is suggested as the target for all these processes. PMID:6941297

  14. Fight or flight, forbearance and fortitude: the spectrum of actions of the catecholamines and their cousins.

    PubMed

    Arun, C P

    2004-06-01

    Catecholamines are recognized to play an important part in the fight-or-flight response to impending stress. Catecholamine and other phase-reactant levels are raised in the first 24 h following acute stress, but the bigger picture of their action on the organism is unavailable. In this article, we examine their actions in light of the theory of phase transitions borrowed from the numerate sciences. Phase transitions involve changes in the state of matter or an organism with a common example of what is termed a first-order phase transition (sudden change) being provided by the popular expression "the straw that broke the camel's back." We propose that the response to catecholamines follows a triphasic response: a Phase I response is the fight-or-flight response to impending stress that protects the animal. With mild to intermediate stress, the Phase II or forbearance response allows it to tolerate the physiological upset. With severe stress, however, severe vital organ vasoconstriction leads to a quick death. The present theory has value in understanding the clinical picture in acute stress. Phase II or Forbearance Phase corresponds to Classes I, II, and III of hemorrhagic shock, and Phase III or Fortitude Phase to Class IV. Thus, a Phase III or fortitude response is to the animal what apoptosis is to the individual cell and has social implications. The present framework provides a fresh perspective on the action of the catecholamines and their cousins.

  15. Identification of explosive media using spectrum dynamics under the action of a THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2009-09-01

    A method of THz spectral dynamics analysis (SDA) of medium response in the THz and GHz ranges, which was developed by us in previous papers for detection and identification of materials, is used for the treatment of experimentally measured signals, passed through selected explosives, including those hidden under covering materials. This technique is based on the window sliding method and on restoration of the THz pulse. It allows researchers to follow the dynamics of many spectral lines in one set of measurements simultaneously and to obtain the full information about the spectrum dynamics of the THz pulse. Relaxation time of rotational transitions, for example, can be determined too. This information gives an opportunity to detect and identify materials despite the similarity in their THz spectra-which may be identical. We show that the spectrum dynamics of THz pulses, passed through the explosives hidden under plastic, cotton and leather barriers-covers, differ widely for these media despite little difference in their spectra. Consequently, our method allows for detection and identification of the hidden explosives with high probability.

  16. [Antimicrobial spectrum of dalbavancin. Mechanism of action and in vitro activity against Gram-positive microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Cercenado, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. Dalbavancin is a semisynthetic glycopeptide that inhibits the late stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis in the same way as vancomycin, but in addition, its lipophilic side chain anchors dalbavancin to the cellular membrane and allows enhanced activity compared with that of vancomycin. Dalbavancin possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, being 4-8 times more potent than vancomycin. The spectrum of dalbavancin includes staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci and bacilli. It is active against different species of multiresistant microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although it shows in vitro activity against Enterococcus spp., it is inactive against isolates expressing the VanA phenotype of vancomycin resistance. It also shows slow bactericidal activity against S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In general, the MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration 90%) against the majority of the microorganisms is 0.06mg/L and, more than 98% of the isolates that have been tested are inhibited at concentrations of ≤ 0.12mg/L. Dalbavancin is an interesting addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant isolates.

  17. Related actions of probiotics and antibiotics on gut microbiota and weight modification.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Merhej, Vicky; Raoult, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Antibiotics and probiotics are widely used as growth promoters in agriculture. Most antibiotics prescribed in clinical practice are natural products that originate from Streptomyces spp, which were first used as agricultural probiotics. Antibiotics and probiotics both modify the gut microbiota. The effect of a probiotic species on the digestive flora depends on the strain and is largely determined by bacteriocin production. In human beings, as in animals, specific probiotics are associated with weight gain or loss. Improved understanding of the ability of specific probiotics to harvest energy from the host diet might lead to development of new treatments for obesity and malnutrition. In this Review, we present the effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the gut microbiota of human beings and animals and discuss their potential therapeutic use as interventions for weight gain and loss in human beings.

  18. Parents Taking Action: A Psycho-Educational Intervention for Latino Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Sandra; Lopez, Kristina; Machalicek, Wendy

    2017-03-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among Latino children, later diagnosis, limited access to bicultural specialist support, and worsened health outcomes when compared to non-Latinos points to the need for a culturally relevant parent education intervention. This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a culturally derived intervention, Parents Taking Action, for 19 Spanish-speaking mothers of children with ASD. This study introduces the Promotora de Salud Model of intervention delivery to the autism field. A mixed-methods design including one group pre- and posttest design and focus groups was used to evaluate the outcomes of PTA. We found that the intervention was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. We also found significant increases in empowerment oriented outcomes for parents between pre- and posttest suggesting that the intervention is promising. Suggestions for future research and practice are offered.

  19. On the antithrombogenic action of low molecular weight heparins and of chondroitins A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Copley, A L; King, R G; Chien, S

    1983-01-01

    Hemorheological studies were made on surface layers of solutions of highly purified human fibrinogen, to which low molecular weight (LMW) heparins, as well as chondroitins A, B and C were added. The surface viscous (eta's) and elastic (Gs) moduli of these fibrinogen systems were measured with a modified Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. Our findings show that n's and Gs of these heparin-fibrinogen and chondroitin-fibrinogen surface systems were markedly decreased as compared to the fibrinogen control. Heparin of MW 4400 exhibited about 30 per cent decrease, while heparins of MW 5300 and 5900 had decreases of approximately 75 per cent in n's and Gs. The three chondroitins A, B and C were found to reduce the n's and Gs by about 40 per cent. The surface layers of fibrinogen, which are surface gels, constitute the clotting of fibrinogen without thrombin participation. Such so-called 'fibrinogenin' formation is considered by Copley to initiate thrombosis. The LMW heparins and the chondroitins tested, which we found to inhibit fibrinogen formation, may therefore be expected to act as antithrombotic agents. Thus, LMW heparins and chondroitins A, B and C may play important roles in the prevention of thrombosis.

  20. Insecticidal spectrum and mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Ca insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Gomis-Cebolla, Joaquín; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Vera-Velasco, Natalia Mara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ceballos, Tomás; Palma, Leopoldo; Escriche, Baltasar; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90kDa) was processed to an approximately 70kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca. The activation was faster to slower in the following order: M. brassicae (susceptible), Spodoptera littoralis (moderately susceptible), Agrotis ipsilon and Ostrinia nubilalis (slightly susceptible). Processing Vip3Ca by O. nubilalis or M. brassicae midgut juice did not significantly changed its toxicity to either insect species, indicating that the low susceptibility of O. nubilalis is not due to a problem in the midgut processing of the toxin. M. brassicae larvae fed with Vip3Ca showed binding of this toxin to the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells. Histopathological inspection showed sloughing of the epithelial cells with further disruption, which suggests that the mode of action of Vip3Ca is similar to that described for Vip3Aa. Biotin-labeled Vip3Ca and Vip3Aa bound specifically to M. brassicae brush border membrane vesicles and both toxins competed for binding sites. This result suggests that insects resistant to Vip3A may also be cross-resistant to Vip3C, which has implications for Insect Resistance Management (IRM).

  1. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming; Holst, Jens Juul; Madsbad, Sten; Vaag, Allan A

    2002-04-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two physiological insulin levels (10 and 40 mU/m(2) per min), indirect calorimetry, and [3-(3)H]glucose. Insulin secretion was examined during an oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting p-glucose was higher in the LBW group (5.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.1; P < 0.05). Basal plasma glycerol concentrations were significantly lower in the LBW group. Insulin-stimulated glycolytic flux was significantly reduced, and suppression of endogenous glucose production was enhanced in the LBW group. Nevertheless, basal and insulin-stimulated rates of whole-body peripheral glucose disposal, glucose oxidation, lipid oxidation, exogenous glucose storage, and nonoxidative glucose metabolism were similar in the two groups. Insulin secretion was reduced by 30% in the LBW group, when expressed relative to insulin sensitivity (disposition index = insulin secretion x insulin action). We propose that reduced insulin-stimulated glycolysis precedes overt insulin resistance in LBW men. A lower insulin secretion may contribute to impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately lead to diabetes.

  2. Examining School-Based Social Skills Program Needs and Barriers for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostmeyer, Katrina; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a method used to develop interventions with the direct input of stakeholders. Social skills are a core deficit of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) that can affect academic performance and other areas of well-being, yet empirically supported services are not always available.…

  3. Describing Patterns of Weight Changes Using Principal Components Analysis: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Bray, George A.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Rejeski, W. Jack; Knowler, William C.; Lang, Wei; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Williamson, Don; Lewis, C. Beth; Wing, Rena

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To demonstrate how principal components analysis can be used to describe patterns of weight changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention METHODS Principal components analysis was applied to monthly percent weight changes measured on 2,485 individuals enrolled in the lifestyle arm of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) clinical trial. These individuals were 45–75 years of age, with Type 2 diabetes and body mass indices >25 kg/m2. Associations between baseline characteristics and weight loss patterns were described using analyses of variance. RESULTS Three components collectively accounted for 97.0% of total intra-subject variance: a gradually decelerating weight loss (88.8%), early versus late weight loss (6.6%), and a mid-year trough (1.6%). In agreement with previous reports, each of the baseline characteristics we examined had statistically significant relationships with weight loss patterns. As examples, males tended to have a steeper trajectory of percent weight loss and to lose weight more quickly than women. Individuals with higher HbA1c tended to have a flatter trajectory of percent weight loss and to have mid-year troughs in weight loss compared to those with lower HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS Principal components analysis provided a coherent description of characteristic patterns of weight changes and is a useful vehicle for identifying their correlates and potentially for predicting weight control outcomes. PMID:19628410

  4. Change in epidermal transmission due to UV-induced hyperplasia in hairless mice: a first approximation of the action spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sterenborg, H J; van der Leun, J C

    1988-04-01

    UV-induced epidermal hyperplasia was investigated by measuring the optical transmission of the epidermis of hairless mice exposed daily to ultraviolet radiation. The effects of 2 different radiation sources were investigated: Philips TUV 40W, emitting mainly 254 nm radiation, and Philips TL01 40W, emitting radiation in a narrow band around 312 nm. With both lamps a number of groups of animals were used, each receiving a different daily dose. In the experiments with both types of lamps, hyperplasia appeared to be fully determined by the accumulated dose, irrespective of the daily dose administered. This implies reciprocity between the daily dose and the time elapsed since the first exposure. Moreover, the change of transmission with time and daily dose showed very characteristic behaviour. A simple mathematical model was used to describe these changes. In a previous study we used this model to describe the results of a similar experiment with Westinghouse FS40 sunlamps. The combined data from the present and the previous experiments were used to calculate a first approximation of the action spectrum for UV-induced hyperplasia. In addition, we calculated the dose-response relationship for UV-induced increase in tolerance against ultraviolet radiation for the 3 irradiation sources.

  5. Insight into the mechanism of action of temporin-SHa, a new broad-spectrum antiparasitic and antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Feten; Humblot, Vincent; Bouceba, Tahar; Correia, Isabelle; Casale, Sandra; Foulon, Thierry; Sereno, Denis; Oury, Bruno; Ladram, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drugs to kill resistant pathogens. In contrast to bacteria, protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, were little studied. Therefore, the antiparasitic mechanism of AMPs is still unclear. In this study, we sought to get further insight into this mechanism by focusing our attention on temporin-SHa (SHa), a small broad-spectrum AMP previously shown to be active against Leishmania infantum. To improve activity, we designed analogs of SHa and compared the antibacterial and antiparasitic mechanisms. [K3]SHa emerged as a highly potent compound active against a wide range of bacteria, yeasts/fungi, and trypanosomatids (Leishmania and Trypanosoma), with leishmanicidal intramacrophagic activity and efficiency toward antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus and antimony-resistant L. infantum. Multipassage resistance selection demonstrated that temporins-SH, particularly [K3]SHa, are not prone to induce resistance in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that bacterial and parasite killing occur through a similar membranolytic mechanism involving rapid membrane permeabilization and depolarization. This was confirmed by high-resolution imaging (atomic force microscopy and field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy). Multiple combined techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning calorimetry) allowed us to detail peptide-membrane interactions. [K3]SHa was shown to interact selectively with anionic model membranes with a 4-fold higher affinity (KD = 3 x 10−8 M) than SHa. The amphipathic α-helical peptide inserts in-plane in the hydrophobic lipid bilayer and disrupts the acyl chain packing via a detergent-like effect. Interestingly, cellular events, such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization or DNA fragmentation, were observed in L. infantum promastigotes after exposure to SHa and [K3]SHa at concentrations above IC50. Our results indicate that these temporins

  6. Insight into the mechanism of action of temporin-SHa, a new broad-spectrum antiparasitic and antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Raja, Zahid; André, Sonia; Abbassi, Feten; Humblot, Vincent; Lequin, Olivier; Bouceba, Tahar; Correia, Isabelle; Casale, Sandra; Foulon, Thierry; Sereno, Denis; Oury, Bruno; Ladram, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drugs to kill resistant pathogens. In contrast to bacteria, protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, were little studied. Therefore, the antiparasitic mechanism of AMPs is still unclear. In this study, we sought to get further insight into this mechanism by focusing our attention on temporin-SHa (SHa), a small broad-spectrum AMP previously shown to be active against Leishmania infantum. To improve activity, we designed analogs of SHa and compared the antibacterial and antiparasitic mechanisms. [K3]SHa emerged as a highly potent compound active against a wide range of bacteria, yeasts/fungi, and trypanosomatids (Leishmania and Trypanosoma), with leishmanicidal intramacrophagic activity and efficiency toward antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus and antimony-resistant L. infantum. Multipassage resistance selection demonstrated that temporins-SH, particularly [K3]SHa, are not prone to induce resistance in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that bacterial and parasite killing occur through a similar membranolytic mechanism involving rapid membrane permeabilization and depolarization. This was confirmed by high-resolution imaging (atomic force microscopy and field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy). Multiple combined techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning calorimetry) allowed us to detail peptide-membrane interactions. [K3]SHa was shown to interact selectively with anionic model membranes with a 4-fold higher affinity (KD = 3 x 10-8 M) than SHa. The amphipathic α-helical peptide inserts in-plane in the hydrophobic lipid bilayer and disrupts the acyl chain packing via a detergent-like effect. Interestingly, cellular events, such as mitochondrial membrane depolarization or DNA fragmentation, were observed in L. infantum promastigotes after exposure to SHa and [K3]SHa at concentrations above IC50. Our results indicate that these temporins exert

  7. [Formation of maxima in the absorption spectrum of carotenoids in the region around 370 nm; consequences for the interpretation of certain action spectra].

    PubMed

    Hager, A

    1970-03-01

    similarity of some action spectra to certain 4-peak, carotenoid spectra is striking. This is true particularly for the action spectrum of the first positive curvature of Avena coleoptile (Fig. 10). On the basis of the described abilities of the carotenoids to form an absorption peak in the wave uv, the appearance of such a maximum in an action spectrum (in the region about 370 nm) can no longer be considered to be sufficient proof for the participation of a flavin as light-acceptor.

  8. A two-dimensional spectrum analysis for sedimentation velocity experiments of mixtures with heterogeneity in molecular weight and shape.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Emre; Cao, Weiming; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    We report a model-independent analysis approach for fitting sedimentation velocity data which permits simultaneous determination of shape and molecular weight distributions for mono- and polydisperse solutions of macromolecules. Our approach allows for heterogeneity in the frictional domain, providing a more faithful description of the experimental data for cases where frictional ratios are not identical for all components. Because of increased accuracy in the frictional properties of each component, our method also provides more reliable molecular weight distributions in the general case. The method is based on a fine grained two-dimensional grid search over s and f/f (0), where the grid is a linear combination of whole boundary models represented by finite element solutions of the Lamm equation with sedimentation and diffusion parameters corresponding to the grid points. A Monte Carlo approach is used to characterize confidence limits for the determined solutes. Computational algorithms addressing the very large memory needs for a fine grained search are discussed. The method is suitable for globally fitting multi-speed experiments, and constraints based on prior knowledge about the experimental system can be imposed. Time- and radially invariant noise can be eliminated. Serial and parallel implementations of the method are presented. We demonstrate with simulated and experimental data of known composition that our method provides superior accuracy and lower variance fits to experimental data compared to other methods in use today, and show that it can be used to identify modes of aggregation and slow polymerization.

  9. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  10. Intention Perception in High Functioning People with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Animacy Displays Derived from Human Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleer, Phil; Kay, Jim W.; Pollick, Frank E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    The perception of intent in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often relies on synthetic animacy displays. This study tests intention perception in ASD via animacy stimuli derived from human motion. Using a forced choice task, 28 participants (14 ASDs; 14 age and verbal-I.Q. matched controls) categorized displays of Chasing, Fighting, Flirting,…

  11. Inferring Weighted Directed Association Network from Multivariate Time Series with a Synthetic Method of Partial Symbolic Transfer Entropy Spectrum and Granger Causality

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanzhu; Ai, Xinbo

    2016-01-01

    Complex network methodology is very useful for complex system explorer. However, the relationships among variables in complex system are usually not clear. Therefore, inferring association networks among variables from their observed data has been a popular research topic. We propose a synthetic method, named small-shuffle partial symbolic transfer entropy spectrum (SSPSTES), for inferring association network from multivariate time series. The method synthesizes surrogate data, partial symbolic transfer entropy (PSTE) and Granger causality. A proper threshold selection is crucial for common correlation identification methods and it is not easy for users. The proposed method can not only identify the strong correlation without selecting a threshold but also has the ability of correlation quantification, direction identification and temporal relation identification. The method can be divided into three layers, i.e. data layer, model layer and network layer. In the model layer, the method identifies all the possible pair-wise correlation. In the network layer, we introduce a filter algorithm to remove the indirect weak correlation and retain strong correlation. Finally, we build a weighted adjacency matrix, the value of each entry representing the correlation level between pair-wise variables, and then get the weighted directed association network. Two numerical simulated data from linear system and nonlinear system are illustrated to show the steps and performance of the proposed approach. The ability of the proposed method is approved by an application finally. PMID:27832153

  12. Increased responses to the actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 on energy balance and body weight in a seasonal model of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Samms, R; Warner, A; Bolborea, M; Barrett, P; Fowler, M J; Brameld, J M; Tsintzas, K; Kharitonenkov, A; Adams, A C; Coskun, T; Ebling, F J P

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) on energy balance in a natural model of relative fatness, the Siberian hamster. Hamsters were studied under long days (LD) to promote weight gain, or short days to induce weight loss, and treated with rhFGF21 (3 mg/kg/day) via s.c. minipumps for 14 days. On days 7-9, detailed assessments of ingestive behaviour, metabolic gas exchange and locomotor activity were made. FGF21 caused substantial (P < 0.0001) weight loss in the fat LD state but not in the lean SD state: at the end of the study, FGF21-treated hamsters in LD lost 18% of body weight compared to vehicle controls, which is comparable to the natural body weight loss observed in SD. Epididymal fat pads, a correlate of total carcass fat content, were reduced by 19% in FGF21 treated hamsters in LD, whereas no difference was found in SD. Body weight loss in LD was associated with a reduction in food intake (P < 0.001) and a decreased respiratory exchange ratio (P < 0.001), indicating increased fat oxidation. Treatment with FGF21 maintained the normal nocturnal increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production into the early light phase in hamsters in LD, indicating increased energy expenditure, although locomotor activity was unaffected. These data suggest a greater efficacy of FGF21 in hamsters in LD compared to those in SD, which is consistent with both the peripheral and possibly central actions of FGF21 with respect to promoting a lean phenotype. The observed differences in FGF21 sensitivity may relate to day length-induced changes in adipose tissue mass.

  13. Pre-Conceptual Aspects of Self-Awareness in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Case of Action-Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David; Happe, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the extent to which individuals with autism experience difficulties in monitoring their own actions, both online and in memory. Participants with autism performed similarly in terms of levels and, importantly, "patterns" of performance to IQ-matched comparison participants. Each group found it easier to…

  14. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Older Individuals: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of 4 years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older and younger individuals. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Sixteen U.S. clinical sites. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with type 2 di...

  15. Policy Actions to Address Weight-Based Bullying and Eating Disorders in Schools: Views of Teachers and School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bryn Austin, S.; Suh, Young; Wakefield, Dorothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight-related bullying is prevalent among youth and associated with adverse health consequences, including increased risk for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors, which are risk factors for eating disorders. Although concerns about these problems have stimulated calls for broader intervention efforts in schools,…

  16. Mechanisms of Action of Surgical Interventions on Weight-Related Diseases: the Potential Role of Bile Acids.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; de Caravatto, Pedro Paulo P; Speakman, John R; Cohen, Ricardo V

    2017-03-01

    Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear. Recent research suggests that changes in the concentrations of plasma bile acids might contribute to these metabolic changes after surgery. In this review, we aimed to outline the potential role of bile acids in SWRD. We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for articles reporting the effect of SWRD on outcomes published between 1969 and 2016. We found that changes in circulating bile acids after surgery may play a major role through activation of the farnesoid X receptor A (FXRA), the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5). Bile acid concentration increased significantly after RYGB. Some studies suggest that a transitory decrease occurs at 1 week post-surgery, followed by a gradual increase. Most studies have shown the increase to be proportionate by all bile acid subtypes. Bile acids can regulate glucose metabolism through the expression of TGR5 receptor in L cells, resulting in a release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). It may also induce the synthesis and secretion of FGF19 in ileal cells, thereby improving insulin sensitivity and regulating glucose metabolism. All the present SWRD are involved with changes in food stimulation to the stomach. This implies that discovering and developing the antagonists to TGR5 and FXRA may effectively control metabolic syndrome and the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects related to weight

  17. Intervention Use and Action Planning in a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Weight Management Program for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many online interventions aiming for health behavior change but it is unclear how such interventions and specific planning tools are being used. Objective The aim of this study is to identify which user characteristics were associated with use of an online, computer-tailored self-regulation intervention aimed at prevention of weight gain; and to examine the quality of the goals and action plans that were generated using the online planning tools. Methods Data were obtained with a randomized controlled effect evaluation trial in which the online computer-tailored intervention was compared to a website containing generic information about prevention of weight gain. The tailored intervention included self-regulation techniques such as personalized feedback, goal setting, action planning, monitoring, and other techniques aimed at weight management. Participants included 539 overweight adults (mean age 46.9 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 28.03 kg/m2, 31.2% male, 11% low education level) recruited from the general population. Use of the intervention and its planning tools were derived from server registration data. Physical activity, fat intake, motivational factors, and self-regulation skills were self-reported at baseline. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the results. Results Use of the tailored intervention decreased sharply after the first modules. Visiting the first tailored intervention module was more likely among participants with low levels of fat intake (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95) or planning for change in PA (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.97). Revisiting the intervention was more likely among participants high in restrained eating (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.12-5.43) or low in proactive coping skills for weight control (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.76). The planning tools were used by 5%-55% of the participants, but only 20%-75% of the plans were of good quality. Conclusions This study showed that psychological

  18. Identification of antifungal natural products via Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioassay: insights into macrotetrolide drug spectrum, potency and mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Tebbets, Brad; Yu, Zhiguo; Stewart, Douglas; Zhao, Li-Xing; Jiang, Yi; Xu, Li-Hua; Andes, David; Shen, Ben; Klein, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Since current antifungal drugs have not kept pace with the escalating medical demands of fungal infections, new, effective medications are required. However, antifungal drug discovery is hindered by the evolutionary similarity of mammalian and fungal cells, which results in fungal drug targets having human homologs and drug non-selectivity. The group III hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) are an attractive drug target since they are conserved in fungi and absent in mammals. We used a Saccharomyces cerevisiae reporter strain that conditionally expresses HHK to establish a high-throughput bioassay to screen microbial extracts natural products for antifungals. We identified macrotetrolides, a group of related ionophores thought to exhibit restricted antifungal activity. In addition to confirming the use of this bioassay for the discovery of antifungal natural products, we demonstrated broader, more potent fungistatic activity of the macrotetrolides against multiple Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., and Candida albicans in biofilms. Macrotetrolides were also active in an animal model of C. albicans biofilm, but were found to have inconsistent activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, with most isolates resistant to this natural product. The macrotetrolides do not directly target HHKs, but their selective activity against S. cerevisiae grown in galactose (regardless of Drk1 expression) revealed potential new insight into the role of ion transport in the mode of action of these promising antifungal compounds. Thus, this simple, high-throughput bioassay permitted us to screen microbial extracts, identify natural products as antifungal drugs, and expand our understanding of the activity of macrotetrolides. PMID:22928922

  19. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint.

  20. A Call to Action: Setting the Research Agenda for Addressing Obesity and Weight-Related Topics in Children with Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Geoff D.C.; Maltais, Désirée B.; Swift, Judy A.; Cairney, John; Knibbe, Tara Joy; Krog, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric obesity is a world-wide challenge. Children with physical disabilities are particularly at risk of obesity, which is worrisome because obesity can result in serious secondary conditions that decrease health status, reduce independence, and increase impact on healthcare systems. However, the determinants of obesity and the health promotion needs of children with physical disabilities are relatively unexplored compared with their typically developing peers. Methods: This white paper describes a Canadian multistakeholder workshop on the topic of obesity and health in children with physical disabilities and provides recommendations for future research in this understudied area. Results: Seventy-one knowledge gaps identified by attendees using a modified nominal group technique clustered into six themes: (1) early, sustained engagement of families; (2) rethinking determinants of obesity and health; (3) maximizing impact of research; (4) inclusive integrated interventions; (5) evidence-informed measurement and outcomes; and (6) reducing weight biases. Attendees worked together to develop research plans in more detail for three areas identified through consensus as high priority: “early, sustained engagement of families;” “rethinking determinants of obesity and health;” and “evidence informed measurement and outcomes.” Conclusions: Using the workshop described here as a call to action, Canadian researchers are now well positioned to work toward a greater understanding of weight-related topics in children with physical disabilities, with the aim of developing evidence-based and salient obesity prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:26716496

  1. Corn gluten hydrolysate and capsaicin have complimentary actions on body weight reduction and lipid-related genes in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mun, Joo-Mi; Ok, Hyang Mok; Kwon, Oran

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combination of corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) and capsaicin may have an additive or synergistic effect on body weight reduction. For 13 weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a diet to induce obesity. Afterward, the rats were randomly divided into 5 dietary groups: the normal control (n = 5), the high-fat control (n = 8), the high-fat diet (HFD) containing 35% CGH (n = 7), the HFD containing 0.02% capsaicin (HF-P) (n = 8), and the HFD containing both CGH and capsaicin (HF-CP) (n = 7) for an additional 4 weeks. Administration of CGH plus capsaicin, along with a HFD, led to significant decreases in body weight, fat mass, lipids in the liver, and plasma leptin as well as increases in plasma adiponectin. The pattern of gene expression was different in each target organ. In the liver, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase was found in the HF-CP group. In contrast, down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was found in both the HFD containing 35% CGH and HF-CP groups. In skeletal muscle, up-regulation of insulin receptor and uncoupling protein 3 was found in the HF-P group only, whereas up-regulation of the glucose transporter 4 gene was observed in both the HF-CP and HF-P groups. In adipose tissue, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and hormone-sensitive lipase was only found in the HF-CP group. In summary, this study suggests that CGH and capsaicin perform complementary actions on food intake, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity by a coordinated control of energy metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, thus exerting an additive effect on body weight reduction.

  2. Tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized silver nanoparticles: new frontiers in development of plant protection products with a broad spectrum of action against phytopathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Kudrinskiy, Alexey A.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Pobedinskaya, Marina A.; Elansky, Sergey N.; Denisov, Albert N.; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable agriculture calls for minimal use of agrochemicals in order to protect the environment. It has caused an increase in the rate of nanoparticles use, in particular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their safety for mammals, unique biological activity and a broad spectrum of action against fungal and bacterial pathogens. Until now the use of AgNPs dispersions in the agricultural sector has been essentially limited due to many factors decreased their stability (mixing with other pesticides, presence of electrolytes). We present a versatile synthesis of polyampholyte surfactant (tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate) stabilized AgNPs. We took a close look at unique aggregation behavior (via dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy) and biocidal activity of obtained silver colloids. AgNPs are characterized by exclusively high aggregative stability in the presence of coagulating agents NaNO3 and NaSO4 (up to 1 M), during drying/redispergation, and frost/defrost cycles. The dispersion of AgNPs shows high biocidal activity (EC50 is ten times lower than commercial species ones) with respect to Phytophthora infestans and phytopathogenic fungi. This points to the possibility of successful application of silver preparations within agriculture with the goal of partial reduction of the use of toxic and expensive synthetic antibiotics and pesticides.

  3. [Atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain].

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Beata R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.

  4. Mode of action human relevance (species concordance) framework: Evolution of the Bradford Hill considerations and comparative analysis of weight of evidence.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette; Palermo, Christine M; Bachman, Ammie N; North, Colin M; Jeffrey Lewis, R

    2014-06-01

    The mode of action human relevance (MOA/HR) framework increases transparency in systematically considering data on MOA for end (adverse) effects and their relevance to humans. This framework continues to evolve as experience increases in its application. Though the MOA/HR framework is not designed to address the question of "how much information is enough" to support a hypothesized MOA in animals or its relevance to humans, its organizing construct has potential value in considering relative weight of evidence (WOE) among different cases and hypothesized MOA(s). This context is explored based on MOA analyses in published assessments to illustrate the relative extent of supporting data and their implications for dose-response analysis and involved comparisons for chemical assessments on trichloropropane, and carbon tetrachloride with several hypothesized MOA(s) for cancer. The WOE for each hypothesized MOA was summarized in narrative tables based on comparison and contrast of the extent and nature of the supporting database versus potentially inconsistent or missing information. The comparison was based on evolved Bradford Hill considerations rank ordered to reflect their relative contribution to WOE determinations of MOA taking into account increasing experience in their application internationally. This clarification of considerations for WOE determinations as a basis for comparative analysis is anticipated to contribute to increasing consistency in the application of MOA/HR analysis and potentially, transparency in separating science judgment from public policy considerations in regulatory risk assessment.

  5. Linear biocompatible glyco-polyamidoamines as dual action mode virus infection inhibitors with potential as broad-spectrum microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Nicolò; Ferruti, Paolo; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Manfredi, Amedea; Berzi, Angela; Clerici, Mario; Cagno, Valeria; Lembo, David; Palmioli, Alessandro; Sattin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The initial steps of viral infections are mediated by interactions between viral proteins and cellular receptors. Blocking the latter with high-affinity ligands may inhibit infection. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed by immature dendritic cells and macrophages, mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by recognizing mannose clusters on the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Mannosylated glycodendrimers act as HIV entry inhibitors thanks to their ability to block this receptor. Previously, an amphoteric, but prevailingly cationic polyamidoamine named AGMA1 proved effective as infection inhibitor for several heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV-16 and herpes simplex virus HSV-2. An amphoteric, but prevailingly anionic PAA named ISA23 proved inactive. It was speculated that the substitution of mannosylated units for a limited percentage of AGMA1 repeating units, while imparting anti-HIV activity, would preserve the fundamentals of its HPV-16 and HSV-2 infection inhibitory activity. In this work, four biocompatible linear PAAs carrying different amounts of mannosyl-triazolyl pendants, Man-ISA7, Man-ISA14, Man-AGMA6.5 and Man-AGMA14.5, were prepared by reaction of 2-(azidoethyl)-α-D-mannopyranoside and differently propargyl-substituted AGMA1 and ISA23. All mannosylated PAAs inhibited HIV infection. Both Man-AGMA6.5 and Man-AGMA14.5 maintained the HPV-16 and HSV-2 activity of the parent polymer, proving broad-spectrum, dual action mode virus infection inhibitors. PMID:27641362

  6. Efficacy of oral E1210, a new broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action, in murine models of candidiasis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis.

    PubMed

    Hata, Katsura; Horii, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Watanabe, Nao-Aki; Okubo, Miyuki; Sonoda, Jiro; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-10-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class, broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action-inhibition of fungal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. In this study, the efficacies of E1210 and reference antifungals were evaluated in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. Oral E1210 demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in infections caused by Candida species, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium solani. In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, E1210 and fluconazole each caused a significantly greater reduction in the number of oral CFU than the control treatment (P < 0.05). In the disseminated candidiasis model, mice treated with E1210, fluconazole, caspofungin, or liposomal amphotericin B showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P < 0.05). E1210 was also highly effective in treating disseminated candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. A 24-h delay in treatment onset minimally affected the efficacy outcome of E1210 in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis. In the Aspergillus flavus pulmonary aspergillosis model, mice treated with E1210, voriconazole, or caspofungin showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P < 0.05). E1210 was also effective in the treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary aspergillosis. In contrast to many antifungals, E1210 was also effective against disseminated fusariosis caused by F. solani. In conclusion, E1210 demonstrated consistent efficacy in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. These data suggest that further studies to determine E1210's potential for the treatment of disseminated fungal infections are indicated.

  7. Linear biocompatible glyco-polyamidoamines as dual action mode virus infection inhibitors with potential as broad-spectrum microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, Nicolò; Ferruti, Paolo; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Manfredi, Amedea; Berzi, Angela; Clerici, Mario; Cagno, Valeria; Lembo, David; Palmioli, Alessandro; Sattin, Sara

    2016-09-01

    The initial steps of viral infections are mediated by interactions between viral proteins and cellular receptors. Blocking the latter with high-affinity ligands may inhibit infection. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed by immature dendritic cells and macrophages, mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by recognizing mannose clusters on the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Mannosylated glycodendrimers act as HIV entry inhibitors thanks to their ability to block this receptor. Previously, an amphoteric, but prevailingly cationic polyamidoamine named AGMA1 proved effective as infection inhibitor for several heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV-16 and herpes simplex virus HSV-2. An amphoteric, but prevailingly anionic PAA named ISA23 proved inactive. It was speculated that the substitution of mannosylated units for a limited percentage of AGMA1 repeating units, while imparting anti-HIV activity, would preserve the fundamentals of its HPV-16 and HSV-2 infection inhibitory activity. In this work, four biocompatible linear PAAs carrying different amounts of mannosyl-triazolyl pendants, Man-ISA7, Man-ISA14, Man-AGMA6.5 and Man-AGMA14.5, were prepared by reaction of 2-(azidoethyl)-α-D-mannopyranoside and differently propargyl-substituted AGMA1 and ISA23. All mannosylated PAAs inhibited HIV infection. Both Man-AGMA6.5 and Man-AGMA14.5 maintained the HPV-16 and HSV-2 activity of the parent polymer, proving broad-spectrum, dual action mode virus infection inhibitors.

  8. Four-year analysis of cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms, and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE To study the association of depressive symptoms or antidepressant medicine (ADM) use with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 5,1...

  9. Repeated inhalation exposure of rats to an anionic high molecular weight polymer aerosol: application of prediction models to better understand pulmonary effects and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Opposed to the wealth of information available for kinetic lung overload-related effects of poorly-soluble, low-toxicity particles (PSP), only limited information is available on biodegradable high molecular weight (HMW) organic polymers (molecular weight >20,000 Da). It is hypothesized that such types of polymers may exert a somewhat similar volume displacement-related mode of action in alveolar macrophages as PSP; however, with a differing biokinetics of the material retained in the lung. This polyurethane polymer was examined in single and 2-/13-week repeated exposure rat inhalation bioassays. The design of studies was adapted to that commonly applied for PSP. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6h/day for the respective study duration, followed by 1-, 2- and 4-week postexposure periods in the single, 2- and 13-week studies, respectively. While the findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology were consistent with those typical of PSP, they appear to be superimposed by pulmonary phospholipidosis and a much faster reversibility of pulmonary inflammation. Kinetic modeling designed to estimate the accumulated lung burden of biopersistent PSP was also suitable to simulate the overload-dependent outcomes of this biodegradable polymer as long as the faster than normal elimination kinetics was observed and an additional 'void space volume' was added to adjust for the phagocytosed additional fraction of pulmonary phospholipids. The changes observed following repeated inhalation exposure appear to be consistent with a retention-related etiopathology (kinetic overload). In summary, this study did not reveal evidence of any polymer-specific pulmonary irritation or parenchymal injury. Taking all findings into account, 7 mg polymer/m(3) (exposure 6h/day, 5-days/week on 13 consecutive weeks) constitutes the point of departure for lower respiratory tract findings that represent a transitional state from effects attributable to an overload-dependent pulmonary

  10. In vitro approaches to develop weight of evidence (WoE) and mode of action (MoA) discussions with positive in vitro genotoxicity results.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Aardema, M; Banduhn, N; Carmichael, P; Fautz, R; Meunier, J-R; Pfuhler, S

    2007-05-01

    A recent analysis by Kirkland et al. [Kirkland, D., Aardema, M., Henderson, L. and Müller, L. (2005) Evaluation of the ability of a battery of 3 in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity. Mutat. Res. 584, 1-256] demonstrated an extremely high false positive rate for in vitro genotoxicity tests when compared with carcinogenicity in rodents. In many industries, decisions have to be made on the safety of new substances, and health risk to humans, without rodent carcinogenicity data being available. In such cases, the usual way to determine whether a positive in vitro genotoxicity result is relevant (i.e. indicates a hazard) for humans is to develop weight of evidence (WoE) or mode of action (MoA) arguments. These are based partly on further in vitro investigations, but usually rely heavily on tests for genotoxicity in one or more in vivo assays. However, for certain product types in the European Union, the use of animals for genotoxicity testing (as well as for other endpoints) will be prohibited within the next few years. Many different examples have been described that indicate DNA damage and genotoxic responses in vitro can arise through non-relevant in vitro events that are a result of the test systems and conditions used. The majority of these non-relevant in vitro events can be grouped under a category of 'overload of normal physiology' that would not be expected to occur in exposed humans. However, obtaining evidence in support of such MoAs is not easy, particularly for those industries prohibited from carrying out in vivo testing. It will become necessary to focus on in vitro studies to provide evidence of non-DNA, threshold or in vitro-specific processes and to discuss the potential for such genotoxic effects to occur in exposed humans. Toward this end, we surveyed the published literature for in vitro approaches that may be followed to determine whether a

  11. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    synchronizing, and deconflicting JEMSMO actions (p. IV-7) Doctrine Update for JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations...communications system directorate of a joint staff (J-6), to support joint planning, coordination, and control of the spectrum for assigned forces. Executive...in the respective Service or joint publications. Interference Resolution To ensure critical frequencies and spectrum-dependent systems are

  12. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  13. From Action to Interaction: Exploring the Contribution of Body Motion Cues to Social Understanding in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centelles, Laurie; Assaiante, Christine; Etchegoyhen, Katallin; Bouvard, Manuel; Schmitz, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether typically developing children (TD) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were able to decide whether two characters were communicating or not on the basis of point-light displays. Point-lights portrayed actors engaged or not in a social interaction. In study 1, TD children (4-10 years old; n = 36)…

  14. Japanese Dent disease has a wider clinical spectrum than Dent disease in Europe/USA: genetic and clinical studies of 86 unrelated patients with low-molecular-weight proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takashi; Komoda, Fusako; Miura, Kenichiro; Takita, Junko; Shimadzu, Mitsunobu; Matsuyama, Takeshi; Ashida, Akira; Igarashi, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Dent disease is an X-linked disorder characterized by low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis and renal dysfunction. Dent disease is caused by mutations in at least two genes, i.e. CLCN5 and OCRL1, and its genetic background and phenotypes are common among European countries and the USA. However, only few studies on Dent disease in Japan, which was originally called 'low-molecular-weight proteinuric disease', have been reported thus far. In this study, we analysed genetic background and clinical phenotype and laboratory data of 86 unrelated Japanese Dent disease patients. The results demonstrated that the genetic basis of Japanese Dent disease was nearly identical to those of Dent disease in other countries. Of 86 unrelated Japanese Dent patients, 61 possessed mutations in CLCN5 (Dent-1), of which 27 were novel mutations; 11 showed mutations in OCRL1 (Dent-2), six of which were novel, and the remaining 14 patients showed no mutations in CLCN5 or OCRL1 (Dent-NI). Despite the similarity in genetic background, hypercalciuria was detected in only 51%, rickets in 2% and nephrocalcinosis in 35%. Although the patients were relatively young, six patients (8%) showed apparent renal dysfunction. Japanese Dent disease has a wider clinical spectrum than Dent disease in Europe and the USA.

  15. The Federal Basis for Weights and Measures: A Historical Review of Federal Legislative Effort, Statutes, and Administrative Action in the Field of Weights and Measures in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-06-05

    pendulum and to make As a proposition has been made to the National Assem- other determinations preliminary to the establish- bly of France for obtaining a...for certain experiments to determine the cubic inches", should, when procured, be the stand- length of a seconds pendulum at New York and at ard of the...such pendulums and the standard mitted to the Congress, a committee of the House, to which the perennial question of weights and yard recently adopted

  16. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conference News Contact Us Donate The Zellweger Spectrum Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and Infantile Refsum’s ... of severity of disease. What causes the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? As we mentioned, disorders of the ...

  17. 77 FR 25145 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  18. 75 FR 75968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  19. 75 FR 64699 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  20. 77 FR 35941 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  1. 78 FR 57370 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  2. 76 FR 38638 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  3. 78 FR 35260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  4. 77 FR 48968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  5. 75 FR 21602 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  6. 76 FR 23796 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  7. 77 FR 69597 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  8. 77 FR 5494 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  9. 78 FR 49260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  10. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  11. Characterization of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activities and action spectrum for suppression in the band-legged cricket, Dianemobius nigrofasciatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    Izawa, Norimitsu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Takeda, Makio

    2009-04-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), constituting a large family of enzymes, catalyzes the transacetylation from acetyl-CoA to monoamine substrates, although homology among species is not very high. AANAT in vertebrates is photosensitive and mediates circadian regulation. Here, we analyzed AANAT of the cricket, Dianemobius nigrofasciatus. The central nervous system contained AANAT activity. The optimum pHs were 6.0 (a minor peak) and 10.5 (a major peak) with crude enzyme solution. We analyzed the kinetics at pH 10.5 using the sample containing collective AANAT activities, which we term AANAT. Lineweaver-Burk plot and secondary plot yielded a K(m) for tryptamine as substrate of 0.42 microM, and a V(max) of 9.39 nmol/mg protein/min. The apparent K(m) for acetyl-CoA was 59.9 microM and the V(max) was 8.14 nmol/mg protein/min. AANAT of D. nigrofasciatus was light-sensitive. The activity was higher at night-time than at day-time as in vertebrates. To investigate most effective wavelengths on AANAT activity, a series of monochromatic lights was applied (350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600 and 650 nm). AANAT showed the highest sensitivity to around 450 nm and 550 nm. 450 nm light was more effective than 550 nm light. Therefore, the most effective light affecting AANAT activity is blue light, which corresponds to the absorption spectrum of blue wave (BW)-opsin.

  12. Action spectrum analysis of UVR genotoxicity for skin: the border wavelengths between UVA and UVB can bring serious mutation loads to skin.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Higashi, Shoichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Daigaku, Yasukazu; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Munakata, Nobuo; Ono, Tetsuya

    2013-07-01

    UVR causes erythema, which has been used as a standardized index to evaluate the risk of UVR for human skin. However, the genotoxic significance of erythema has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we characterized the wavelength dependence of the genotoxic and erythematic effects of UVR for the skin by analyzing the induction kinetics of mutation and inflammation in mouse skin using lacZ-transgenic mice and monochromatic UVR sources. We determined their action spectra and found a close correlation between erythema and an epidermis-specific antigenotoxic response, mutation induction suppression (MIS), which suppressed the mutant frequencies (MFs) to a constant plateau level only 2-3-fold higher than the background MF at the cost of apoptotic cell death, suggesting that erythema may represent the threshold beyond which the antigenotoxic but tissue-destructive MIS response commences. However, we unexpectedly found that MIS attenuates remarkably at the border wavelengths between UVA and UVB around 315 nm, elevating the MF plateaus up to levels ∼40-fold higher than the background level. Thus, these border wavelengths can bring heavier mutation loads to the skin than the otherwise more mutagenic and erythematic shorter wavelengths, suggesting that erythema-based UVR risk evaluation should be reconsidered.

  13. Assessment of UV biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Titta; Venäläinen, Tuulia; Tegelberg, Riitta; Lindfors, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sutinen, Sirkka; O'Hara, Robert B; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum. We monitored effects of UV radiation on the concentration of individual UV absorbing metabolites and chlorophyll concentrations in leaves and growth responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. Experiments were conducted outdoors using plastic films attenuating different parts of the UV spectrum. Chlorophyll concentrations and growth were not affected by the UV treatments. The response to UV radiation varied between and within groups of phenolics. In general, the observed responses of phenolic groups and individual flavonoids were best predicted by action spectra extending into the UV-A region with moderate effectiveness.

  14. 77 FR 40647 - Toward Innovative Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: Wireless Spectrum Research and Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Toward Innovative Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: Wireless Spectrum Research and Development Senior... Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD). ACTION: Notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research and...

  15. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  16. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  17. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  18. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Together Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity More Weight Management Topics Healthy ... Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Being Healthy is a Big ...

  19. 47 CFR 214.4 - Planned actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.4 Planned actions. (a) Whenever it is... the use of the radio spectrum in areas of active combat, where such control is necessary to...

  20. 47 CFR 214.4 - Planned actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.4 Planned actions. (a) Whenever it is... the use of the radio spectrum in areas of active combat, where such control is necessary to...

  1. 47 CFR 214.4 - Planned actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.4 Planned actions. (a) Whenever it is... the use of the radio spectrum in areas of active combat, where such control is necessary to...

  2. 47 CFR 214.4 - Planned actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.4 Planned actions. (a) Whenever it is... the use of the radio spectrum in areas of active combat, where such control is necessary to...

  3. 47 CFR 214.4 - Planned actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COORDINATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY § 214.4 Planned actions. (a) Whenever it is... the use of the radio spectrum in areas of active combat, where such control is necessary to...

  4. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

    In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

  5. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  6. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  7. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  8. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-01

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  9. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-19

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  10. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  11. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  12. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  13. Enhanced compressive wideband frequency spectrum sensing for dynamic spectrum access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yipeng; Wan, Qun

    2012-12-01

    Wideband spectrum sensing detects the unused spectrum holes for dynamic spectrum access (DSA). Too high sampling rate is the main challenge. Compressive sensing (CS) can reconstruct sparse signal with much fewer randomized samples than Nyquist sampling with high probability. Since survey shows that the monitored signal is sparse in frequency domain, CS can deal with the sampling burden. Random samples can be obtained by the analog-to-information converter. Signal recovery can be formulated as the combination of an L0 norm minimization and a linear measurement fitting constraint. In DSA, the static spectrum allocation of primary radios means the bounds between different types of primary radios are known in advance. To incorporate this a priori information, we divide the whole spectrum into sections according to the spectrum allocation policy. In the new optimization model, the minimization of the L2 norm of each section is used to encourage the cluster distribution locally, while the L0 norm of the L2 norms is minimized to give sparse distribution globally. Because the L2/L0 optimization is not convex, an iteratively re-weighted L2/L1 optimization is proposed to approximate it. Simulations demonstrate the proposed method outperforms others in accuracy, denoising ability, etc.

  14. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  15. 75 FR 7234 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Communications and Information on spectrum policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 4, 2010,...

  16. 75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... . One recommendation in the report was to provide more information to the utility sector on spectrum... grid technologies. At this spectrum policy seminar, senior officials from the Federal...

  17. Inverse Z-spectrum analysis for spillover-, MT-, and T1 -corrected steady-state pulsed CEST-MRI--application to pH-weighted MRI of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Moritz; Xu, Junzhong; Goerke, Steffen; Khan, Imad S; Singer, Robert J; Gore, John C; Gochberg, Daniel F; Bachert, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Endogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects are always diluted by competing effects, such as direct water proton saturation (spillover) and semi-solid macromolecular magnetization transfer (MT). This leads to unwanted T2 and MT signal contributions that lessen the CEST signal specificity to the underlying biochemical exchange processes. A spillover correction is of special interest for clinical static field strengths and protons resonating near the water peak. This is the case for all endogenous CEST agents, such as amide proton transfer, -OH-CEST of glycosaminoglycans, glucose or myo-inositol, and amine exchange of creatine or glutamate. All CEST effects also appear to be scaled by the T1 relaxation time of water, as they are mediated by the water pool. This forms the motivation for simple metrics that correct the CEST signal. Based on eigenspace theory, we propose a novel magnetization transfer ratio (MTRRex ), employing the inverse Z-spectrum, which eliminates spillover and semi-solid MT effects. This metric can be simply related to Rex , the exchange-dependent relaxation rate in the rotating frame, and ka , the inherent exchange rate. Furthermore, it can be scaled by the duty cycle, allowing for simple translation to clinical protocols. For verification, the amine proton exchange of creatine in solutions with different agar concentrations was studied experimentally at a clinical field strength of 3 T, where spillover effects are large. We demonstrate that spillover can be properly corrected and that quantitative evaluation of pH and creatine concentration is possible. This proves that MTRRex is a quantitative and biophysically specific CEST-MRI metric. Applied to acute stroke induced in rat brain, the corrected CEST signal shows significantly higher contrast between the stroke area and normal tissue, as well as less B1 dependence, than conventional approaches.

  18. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Growth Charts ... Losing Weight: Brandon's Story (Video) Managing Your Weight Weight Loss Surgery When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Who ...

  19. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  20. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  1. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  2. Learning from Each Other: The Benefits of a Participatory Action Research Project on the Culture, Activities and Practices of the Adults Supporting a Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Robbie

    2008-01-01

    Participatory action research advocates for teachers, parents and others to engage in practical inquiry as part of their everyday work for the purpose of improvement. Findings from this project affirm that a collaborative community of researchers, one in which the participants can critically analyse and transform their own situations, can have a…

  3. The Primitive Spectrum of a Basic Classical Lie Superalgebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulembier, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    We prove Conjecture 5.7 in Coulembier and Musson (Math. J., arXiv:1409.2532), describing all inclusions between primitive ideals for the general linear superalgebra in terms of the {Ext1}-quiver of simple highest weight modules. For arbitrary basic classical Lie superalgebras, we formulate two types of Kazhdan-Lusztig quasi-orders on the dual of the Cartan subalgebra, where one corresponds to the above conjecture. Both orders can be seen as generalisations of the left Kazhdan-Lusztig order on Hecke algebras and are related to categorical braid group actions. We prove that the primitive spectrum is always described by one of the orders, obtaining for the first time a description of the inclusions. We also prove that the two orders are identical if category O admits `enough' abstract Kazhdan-Lusztig theories. In particular, they are identical for the general linear superalgebra, concluding the proof of the conjecture.

  4. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  5. Eating and weight control behaviors among middle school girls in relationship to body weight and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Shisslak, Catherine M; Mays, Mary Z; Crago, Marjorie; Jirsak, Jan K; Taitano, Keolani; Cagno, Colleen

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the links among body mass index (BMI), weight control practices, binge eating, and eating disorders in 1164 middle school girls. Both the prevalence and frequency of weight control behaviors increased as BMI increased, but binge eating was reported approximately equally by girls across the BMI spectrum.

  6. Obesity and Associated Factors in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granich, Joanna; Lin, Ashleigh; Hunt, Anna; Wray, John; Dass, Alena; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Weight status on children and youth with autism spectrum disorder is limited. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder, and associations between weight status and range of factors. Children and youth with autism spectrum disorder aged 2-16 years (n = 208) and their parents participated in…

  7. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed. PMID:27713277

  8. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  9. Broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øyunn; Alberg, Torunn; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Smith, Ingrid; Neteland, Marion Iren; Eriksen, Hanne Merete

    2017-03-01

    BACKGROUND One of the objectives in the action plan to reduce antimicrobial resistance in the health services in Norway is to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals. This study describes the use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics mentioned in the action plan in Norwegian hospitals, and assesses prescribing practices in relation to the Norwegian guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were analysed from a nationwide non-identifiable point prevalence survey in May 2016 where all systemic use of antibiotics was recorded.RESULTS Broad-spectrum antibiotics accounted for 33 % of all antibiotics prescribed. Altogether 84 % of all broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed as treatment, 8 % were for prophylactic use, and 8 % were classified as other/unknown. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most frequent indication for treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, involving 30 % of all broad-spectrum treatment.INTERPRETATION This point prevalence survey in Norwegian hospitals in spring 2016 indicates a possibility for reducing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and for prophylactic use. Reduction of healthcare-associated infections may also contribute.

  10. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  11. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  12. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  13. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, W. K.; McKinnon, A. D.; Miley, H. S.; Panisko, M. E.; Savard, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented.

  14. Somatotypes of weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Orvanová, E

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath-Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters divided into two, three or four groups according to body weight, and weight lifters considered according to the official weight classes, are assessed. Weight lifters in the lighter weight classes are found to be ectomorphic or balanced mesomorphs, while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be endomorphic mesomorphs. Ectomorphy decreases, whereas mesomorphy and endomorphy increase with weight class. When three age groups of weight lifters were compared within each weight class, the same pattern of differences between ages occurs. The younger lifters in each weight class have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy than the senior lifters. Ectomorphy is higher in the younger lifters below the weight class of 82.5 kg. Since significant differences in all three somatotype components between 10 weight classes of weight lifters and also within three age groups were noted, it will be necessary in future studies to consider the somatotypes of weight lifters according to the official weight classes.

  15. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  16. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  17. Anti-inflammatory action of high molecular weight Mytilus edulis hydrolysates fraction in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sang; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2016-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory Mytilus edulis hydrolysates (MEHs) were prepared by peptic hydrolysis and MEH was further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight, namely >5kDa, 1-5kDa, and <1kDa. The >5kDa peptide fraction exerted the highest nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity and inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Pretreatment with the >5kDa peptide fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and gene expressions. Stimulation by LPS induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and -1β (IL-1β), whereas co-treatment with the >5kDa peptide fraction suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The >5kDa peptide fraction inhibited the translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) through the prevention of IκBα (inhibitory factor kappa B alpha) phosphorylation and degradation and also inhibited the MAPK signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

  18. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 665 RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  19. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  1. 78 FR 64200 - Innovative Spectrum Sharing Technology Day Event

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Research and Development (NITRD) program, will co-host the Innovative Spectrum Sharing Technology Day on... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Innovative Spectrum Sharing Technology Day Event... Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  2. Tactical Mobility of the Medium Weight Force in Urban Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    least developed country population center would include an old colonial city center surrounded by post-colonial modern buildings, strip areas, and...attempt to minimize the technological advantage of the U.S. military. Both emerging doctrine and the development of a full spectrum medium weight force... development of a full spectrum medium weight force – known as the Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) – provide ample evidence that the U.S. Army

  3. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  4. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  5. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  6. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  7. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  8. Reduced Mimicry to Virtual Reality Avatars in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Paul A. G.; Pan, Xueni; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicry involves unconsciously copying the actions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that autistic people can copy the goal of an observed action but show differences in their mimicry. We investigated mimicry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a two-dimensional virtual reality environment. Participants played an imitation game with a…

  9. Contextual Action Theory in Career Counselling: Some Misunderstood Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valach, Ladislav; Young, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Current discussion of action theory is premised on the fact that many counselors may avoid action approaches because of previous misunderstandings. Article addresses 12 misunderstandings. Overall, action theory is presented as highly suitable for understanding human behavior and for counseling as it is based on a wide spectrum of research as well…

  10. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  11. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  12. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  13. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  14. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  16. The CMBR spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, A.

    1997-05-01

    Here we give an introduction to the observed spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and discuss what can be learned about it. Particular attention will be given to how Compton scattering can distort the spectrum of the CMBR. An incomplete bibliography of relevant papers is also provided.

  17. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  18. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Weight gain is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. ...

  19. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  20. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  1. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  2. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight and prevent weight gain. The Possible Health Effects from Having Obesity Having obesity can increase your chances of developing ...

  3. Action spectrum of vascular specific injury using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, O.T.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.

    1989-06-01

    It has been clearly demonstrated that cutaneous blood vessels will be selectively damaged by a laser whose wavelength matches one of the three absorption spectral peaks of the chromophore, oxyhemoglobin, for example, 577 nm. A restriction in the application of this wavelength for the treatment of benign cutaneous vascular tumors, such as portwine stains, has been the penetration depth of 577 nm irradiation of approximately 0.5 mm from the dermal epidermal junction (DEJ). This study was undertaken to establish whether it was possible to increase the penetration depth from 0.5 mm by changing the wavelength to beyond 577 nm in albino pig skin. Results from this study confirm that penetration depth increases from 0.5 to 1.2 mm by changing the wavelength from 577 to 585 nm at 4 J/cm2, while maintaining the same degree of vascular selectivity as that previously described after 577 nm irradiation. This occurred in spite of a mismatch in the wavelength between 585 nm and the oxyhemoglobin absorption peak of 577 nm. Unlike 585 nm irradiation and in contrast with theoretical predictions, 590 nm laser light did not penetrate as deeply as 585 nm. Not only was there a reduction in the penetration depth of the laser beam from 1.2 mm at 585 nm to 0.8 mm at 590 nm, at 4 J/cm2, but there was also a decrease in vascular selectivity in albino pig skin exposed to 590 nm irradiation.

  4. Backscattering power spectrum for randomly moving vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiankang, J.; Zhongzhi, Z.; Zhong, S.

    1986-08-01

    The vegetation backscattering power spectrum in the presence of winds is derived. The physical process of the action of stems and leaves of the vegetation is analyzed. A statistical distribution of the random velocity of stems and leaves is obtained, and the vegetation backscattering power spectral density which is dependent on the wind speed and direction as well as the incident wave parameters is given. In the case of uniform notion of vegetation in the direction of winds, the results provide a good interpretation of Fishbein's empirical model. The determination of the values of the equivalent parameters in the spectrum is discussed, and comparisons are made between the derived spectrum and measured published spectra with satisfactory consistence.

  5. Millimeter Wave Spectrum of Nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, V.

    2016-06-01

    A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane CH_3NO_2 is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 236 GHz have been carried out using spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). The transitions belonging to the m ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. The dataset consisting of 5838 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 50 was fit using a model consisting of 93 parameters and weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.89 has been achieved. In the talk the details of this new study will be discussed. V. Ilyushin, Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczólkowski, H. Mäder, J. T. Hougen J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259 (2010) 26-38.

  6. Healthy Weight for Life: Actions for Communities, Individuals, and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Management Veteran Resources Community Health Behavioral Health Environmental Health Health Communications Health Promotion Injury Prevention School Health Sustainability Visualizing Data Contacts Career Opportunities Ambassador Program Applicant ...

  7. Illuminant spectrum estimation at a pixel.

    PubMed

    Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to estimate the spectral power distribution of a light source at a pixel. The first step of the algorithm is forming a two-dimensional illuminant invariant chromaticity space. In estimating the illuminant spectrum, generalized inverse estimation and Wiener estimation methods were applied. The chromaticity space was divided into small grids and a weight matrix was used to estimate the illuminant spectrum illuminating the pixels that fall within a grid. The algorithm was tested using a different number of sensor responses to determine the optimum number of sensors for accurate colorimetric and spectral reproduction. To investigate the performance of the algorithm realistically, the responses were multiplied with Gaussian noise and then quantized to 10 bits. The algorithm was tested with standard and measured data. Based on the results presented, the algorithm can be used with six sensors to obtain a colorimetrically good estimate of the illuminant spectrum at a pixel.

  8. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  9. Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential data on ASD, search for factors that put children at risk for ASD and possible causes, ... United States to help identify factors that may put children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors Different people with autism can have different symptoms. For this reason, autism ...

  12. Emotions in action through the looking glass.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Corrado; Sparaci, Laura

    2010-02-01

    The paper aims at highlighting how our primary understanding of others' actions is rooted in the mirror mechanism. To this end, the anatomical architecture of the mirror neuron system for action will be outlined as well as its role in grasping goals and intentions in others' motor behaviour. One further step through the looking glass of social cognition will be referring to the ubiquitous emotional colouring of actions and considering its links with the motor domain. This will allow a clearer perspective on the mechanism underlying our abilities for emotional understanding and on cases in which these abilities are amiss, as in autistic spectrum disorders.

  13. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  14. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  15. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  16. Keep Weight Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... proved to be the most useful by the end of the 2 ½-year study. Researchers say overall the effects of the counseling and support were modest, and most people in the study did regain some weight. But they note that even modest weight loss can have health ...

  17. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  18. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  19. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  20. Common Weight Loss Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... to lose that we’ve been talking about weight-loss surgery. Is that something we should consider?” Although the ... have the operation should not be made hastily. Weight-loss surgery is only advisable for extremely overweight adolescents for ...

  1. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  2. 77 FR 65497 - Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Weight Rating (GCWR); Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION...) amending the definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (GCWR) in 49 CFR parts 383 and 390. The DFR... on proposed changes to the GCWR definition. DATES: The direct final rule published August 27,...

  3. 78 FR 26575 - Gross Combination Weight Rating; Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Weight Rating; Definition AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... definition of ``gross combination weight rating'' (or GCWR) to clarify that a GCWR is the greater of: the... Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) on February 12, 2008, seeking changes in the definitions...

  4. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  5. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  6. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  7. An unusual meteor spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. F.; Hemenway, C. L.; Millman, P. M.; Swider, A.

    1973-01-01

    An extraordinary spectrum of a meteor at a velocity of about 18.5 + or - 1.0 km/s was observed with an image orthicon camera. The radiant of the meteor was at an altitude of about 49 deg. It was first seen showing a yellow red continuous spectrum alone at a height of 137 + or - 8 km which is ascribed to the first positive group of nitrogen bands. After the meteor had descended to 116 + or - 6 km above sea level it brightened rapidly from its previous threshold brightness into a uniform continuum, the D-line of neutral sodium appeared, and at height 105 + or - 5 km all the other lines of the spectrum also appeared. The continuum remained dominant to the end. Water of hydration and entrained carbon flakes of characteristic dimension about 0.2 micron or less are proposed as constituents of the meteoroid to explain these phenomena.

  8. [Itraconazole action on Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Jamra, L M; Amato Neto, V; Braz, L M; Camargo, M E

    1992-01-01

    With the purpose to increase our knowledge about the spectrum of therapeutic action of itraconazole, the activity of a new triazolic derivative against Toxoplasma gondii was studied in vivo and in vitro with the aid of an experimental infection model in mice. The trial also aimed at a possible improvement of the therapy of toxoplasmosis in regard to safety and dosing easiness. The present study has not shown significant activity of itraconazole against Toxoplasma gondii, differing from a previous observation that showed it's activity against Trypanosoma cruzi.

  9. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  10. Spectrum of wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawking, S.W. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EW ); Page, D.N. Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB )

    1990-10-15

    Wormholes have been studied mainly in the semiclassical approximation as solutions of the classical Euclidean field equations. However, such solutions are rather special, and exist only for certain kinds of matter. On the other hand, one can represent wormholes in a more general manner as solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Minisuperspace models with massless minimal or conformal scalar fields have a discrete spectrum of these solutions. The Giddings-Strominger instanton solution corresponds to a sum of an infinite number of these solutions. Minisuperspace models with a massive scalar field also appear to have a discrete spectrum of such solutions, whose asymptotic form is given.

  11. Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

    2004-01-01

    Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

  12. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  13. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  14. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  15. Radio Spectrum Inventory Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Waxman, Henry A. [D-CA-30

    2009-07-08

    04/15/2010 Received in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 347. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Generalization of tacting actions in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gladys; Carnerero, José Julio; Pérez-González, Luis Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This intervention compared the effects of two procedures on the generalization of a tacting repertoire (labeling) in 6 children with autism spectrum disorder. In one procedure the verbal antecedent stimulus "What is she doing?" appeared together with a person performing an action; in the other procedure, the antecedent stimulus was just the presence of the action. In initial tests, children emitted tacts only when the action was presented with the verbal antecedent. Thereafter, they learned to tact an action without the verbal antecedent and received tests to evaluate generalization to another action. Results indicated that in order to obtain generalization of tacting actions, it was necessary to learn to tact other actions without the verbal antecedent as well as learning to tact the action with the verbal antecedent. These findings have relevance for generalization of tacting actions from control by verbal antecedents to natural conditions and the production of spontaneous language.

  17. Forum for Action on Leadership in Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Brunswick Labour Force Development Board, Fredericton.

    These minutes summarize the New Brunswick Forum for Action on Leadership in Career Development, which was the third in a series of provincial forums being conducted throughout Canada to stimulate dialogue among a spectrum of labor market partners and develop an action plan to support career development in Canada's provinces. The following items…

  18. Spread Spectrum Frequency Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    theoretically predicted behavior of the new system. Thp experimental program must include field tests in real propagation and interference environments...technological developments and without adequate overall knowledge of propagation characteristics or of other important uses that might require... propagation characteristics at the different frequency levels. The history of major spectrum allocations is then a 7 record of decisions primarily

  19. Stellar Spectrum Synthesizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landegren, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a device which employs two diffraction gratings and three or four simple lenses to produce arbitrary absorption or emission spectra that may be doppler shifted and spectroscopically examined by students some distance away. It may be regarded as a sort of artificial star whose spectrum may be analyzed as an undergraduate laboratory…

  20. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  1. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, some people become less physically ...

  3. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  4. Weight in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kenshole, Anne B.

    1972-01-01

    Diabetes is being increasingly detected among the overweight. The author discusses the links between diabetes and obesity, and outlines methods by which satisfactory weight reduction may be achieved. PMID:20468726

  5. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  6. Antimicrobial peptide action on parasites.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Marc; Pulido, David; Rivas, Luis; Andreu, David

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites can pose a severe thread to human health and are behind some serious neglected tropical diseases like malaria and leishmaniasis. Though several different drugs have been developed in order to eradicate these diseases, a successful candidate has not yet been discovered. Among the most active compounds tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are particularly appealing because of their wide spectrum of action. AMPs have been described to perturb protozoan homeostasis by disrupting the cellular membranes but also by interfering with key processes in the parasite metabolism. In this review we describe the diverse mechanisms of action of AMPs on protozoan targets and how they can be exploited to treat diseases. Moreover, we describe with detail the antimicrobial action of AMPs on two major parasitical infections: leishmaniasis and malaria. All the features reviewed here show that AMPs are promising drugs to target protozoan parasites and that further understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds will lead to improved drugs that could be worth to test in a clinical phase.

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  9. A geomagnetic field spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the earth's internal magnetic field of degree and order 23 is derived from selected Magsat data, and its power spectrum, computed with terms developed by Mauersberger (1956) and Lowes (1974), is found to exhibit a change of a slope at n = 14 which is interpreted as an indication that the core field dominates at values lower than 13 while the crust field dominates above a value of 15. The representations of the two portions of the spectrum obtained can be used to establish order-of-magnitude inaccuracies due to both crustal fields and the inability to observe core field wavelengths beyond n = 13, at which point they are obscured by the crustal field, in core field models.

  10. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    PubMed

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  11. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  12. Multitaper Spectrum Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, I. K.; Stark, P. B.

    Multitapering is a statistical technique developed to improve on the notorious periodogram estimate of the power spectrum (Thomson, 1982; Percival, Walden 1993). We show how to obtain orthogonal tapers for time series observed with gaps, and how to use statistical resampling techniques (Efron, Tibshirani 1993) to calculate realistic uncertainty estimates for multitaper estimates. We introduce multisegment multitapering. Multitapering can also be extended to the 2D case. We indicate how to construct tapers that minimize the spatial leakage in estimates of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the velocity images. Spatial multitapering followed by the temporal tapering of the estimated spherical harmonic time series is expected to result in improved spectrum and subsequent solar oscillation mode parameter estimates.

  13. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  14. Reciprocity of weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation. PMID:24056721

  15. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  16. Radio spectrum surveillance station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a general and functional description of a low-cost surveillance station designed as the first phase of NASA's program to develop a radio spectrum surveillance capability for deep space stations for identifying radio frequency interference sources. The station described has identified several particular interferences and is yielding spectral signature data which, after cataloging, will serve as a library for rapid identification of frequently observed interference. Findings from the use of the station are discussed.

  17. Moving in on the Action: An Experimental Comparison of Fluorescence Excitation and Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Sydney M J; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2015-06-18

    Photodissociation action spectroscopy is often used as a proxy for measuring gas-phase absorption spectra of ions in a mass spectrometer. Although the potential discrepancy between linear optical and photodissociation spectra is generally acknowledged, direct experimental comparisons are lacking. In this work, we use a quadrupole ion trap that has been modified to enable both photodissociation and laser-induced fluorescence to assess how closely the visible photodissociation action spectrum of a fluorescent dye reflects its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Our results show the photodissociation action spectrum of gaseous rhodamine 110 is both substantially narrower and slightly red-shifted (∼120 cm(-1)) compared to its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Power dependence measurements reveal that the photodissociation of rhodamine 110 requires, on average, the absorption of three photons whereas fluorescence is a single-photon process. These differing power dependences are the key to interpreting the differences in the measured spectra. The experimental results provide much-needed quantification and insight into the differences between action spectra and linear optical spectra, and emphasize the utility of fluorescence excitation spectra to provide a more reliable benchmark for comparison with theory.

  18. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  19. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  20. Brief Report: Episodic Foresight in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura K.; Atance, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic foresight (EpF) or, the ability to imagine the future and use such imagination to guide our actions, is an important aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is despite its proposed links with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), two areas found to be impaired in…

  1. WAATS: A computer program for Weights Analysis of Advanced Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A historical weight estimating technique for advanced transportation systems is presented. The classical approach to weight estimation is discussed and sufficient data is presented to estimate weights for a large spectrum of flight vehicles including horizontal and vertical takeoff aircraft, boosters and reentry vehicles. A computer program, WAATS (Weights Analysis for Advanced Transportation Systems) embracing the techniques discussed has been written and user instructions are presented. The program was developed for use in the ODIN (Optimal Design Integration System) system.

  2. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  3. Perception-action in children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    How do disturbances to perception and action relate to the deficiencies expressed by children with autism? The ability to predict what is going to happen next is crucial for the construction of all actions and children develop these predictive abilities early in development. Children with autism, however, are deficient in the ability to foresee future events and to plan movements and movement sequences. They are also deficient in the understanding of other people's actions. This includes communicative actions as they are ultimately based on movements. Today there are two promising neurobiological interpretation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). First, there is strong evidence that the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) is impaired. As stated by this hypothesis, action production and action understanding are intimately related. Both these functions rely on predictive models of the sensory consequences of actions and depend on connectivity between the parietal and premotor areas. Secondly, action prediction is accomplished through a system that includes a loop from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) through the cerebellum and back to the premotor and motor areas of the brain. Impairment of this loop is probably also part of the explanation of the prediction problems in children with ASD. Both the cortico-cerebellar loop and the MNS rely on distant neural connections. There are multiple evidence that such connections are weak in children with autism. PMID:23248590

  4. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  5. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  6. 47 CFR 20.22 - Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bidding; and (ii) Applying the initial spectrum screen to secondary market transactions. (2) Controlling...), as calculated on a county by county population-weighted basis, utilizing 2010 U.S. Census data. The... provider of mobile wireless services from bidding on any reserved or unreserved license offered in...

  7. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  8. UV action spectra for mammalian systems: their implications for the predicted effects of ozone depletion on skin cancer incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted environmental effect of UV-B depend on the action spectrum for the response studied. Since such spectra change rapidly - usually decreasing with increasing wavelength - and since the biological effects depend on the product of the action spectrum and the sun's spectrum at the surface of the earth which decreases with decreasing wavelength, a slight change in action spectrum will markedly influence the predicted effects of ozone depletion on biological systems. Thus, the key, but by no means only step in the prediction, is a knowledge of the action spectrum. Unfortunately, it is rare that we know or even hope to know the spectrum for biological systems of interest such as skin cancer induction, nor is it possible to do experiments with solar simulators on many systems. Hence, we must base our predictions on the photobiological properties of simple systems and the knowledge of their action spectra and general biological theories connecting simple cells with higher organisms.

  9. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  10. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  11. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ... overweight, talk to your doctor about beginning a weight management program so you can set a good example. ...

  12. On commutativity of weighted Hankel operators and their spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Gopal; Porwal, Deepak Kumar

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the conditions on which the nonzero weighted Hankel operators Hφ β and Hψ β on H2(β) induced by ϕ ∈ L∞(β) and ψ ∈ L∞(β) respectively commute, where β = {βn}n∈ℤ is a sequence of positive numbers with β0 = 1. Spectrum of the weighted Hankel operator Hφ β , when ϕ(z) = az-1 + bz-2, is computed and it is also shown that the Weyl's theorem holds for the compact weighted Hankel operators.

  13. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  14. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Gamberg, Leonard; Rossi, Patrizia; Prokudin, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  15. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  16. Involuntary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Involuntary weight loss remains an important and challenging clinical problem, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Because of the frequency of finding a serious underlying diagnosis, clinicians must be thorough in assessment, keeping in mind a broad range of possible causes. Although prediction scores exist, they have not been broadly validated; therefore, clinical judgment remains ever essential.

  17. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  18. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... term use. All other drugs are approved for short-term use of no more than a few weeks. Be sure you understand the side effects of weight-loss medicines. Side effects can include: Increase in blood pressure Problems sleeping, headache, nervousness, and palpitations Nausea, constipation, and dry ...

  19. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  20. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  1. D(S) spectrum and leptonic decays with Fermilab heavy quarks and improved staggered light quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Di Pierro et al.

    2004-03-12

    We present preliminary results for the D{sub s} meson spectrum and decay constants in unquenched lattice QCD. Simulations are carried out with 2 + 1 dynamical quarks using gauge configurations generated by the MILC collaboration. We use the ''asqtad'' a{sup 2} improved staggered action for the light quarks, and the clover heavy quark action with the Fermilab interpretation. We compare our spectrum results with the newly discovered 0{sup +} and 1{sup +} states in the D{sub s} system.

  2. Model-based x-ray energy spectrum estimation algorithm from CT scanning data with spectrum filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Lin-Yuan; Yan, Bin

    2016-10-01

    With the development of technology, the traditional X-ray CT can't meet the modern medical and industry needs for component distinguish and identification. This is due to the inconsistency of X-ray imaging system and reconstruction algorithm. In the current CT systems, X-ray spectrum produced by X-ray source is continuous in energy range determined by tube voltage and energy filter, and the attenuation coefficient of object is varied with the X-ray energy. So the distribution of X-ray energy spectrum plays an important role for beam-hardening correction, dual energy CT image reconstruction or dose calculation. However, due to high ill-condition and ill-posed feature of system equations of transmission measurement data, statistical fluctuations of X ray quantum and noise pollution, it is very hard to get stable and accurate spectrum estimation using existing methods. In this paper, a model-based X-ray energy spectrum estimation method from CT scanning data with energy spectrum filter is proposed. First, transmission measurement data were accurately acquired by CT scan and measurement using phantoms with different energy spectrum filter. Second, a physical meaningful X-ray tube spectrum model was established with weighted gaussian functions and priori information such as continuity of bremsstrahlung and specificity of characteristic emission and estimation information of average attenuation coefficient. The parameter in model was optimized to get the best estimation result for filtered spectrum. Finally, the original energy spectrum was reconstructed from filtered spectrum estimation with filter priori information. Experimental results demonstrate that the stability and accuracy of X ray energy spectrum estimation using the proposed method are improved significantly.

  3. Disorders of androgen action.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Charles; Lumbroso, Serge; Paris, Françoise; Jeandel, Claire; Terouanne, B; Belon, Charles; Audran, F; Poujol, N; Georget, V; Gobinet, J; Jalaguier, S; Auzou, G; Nicolas, J C

    2002-08-01

    Disorders of androgen action are the main cause of male pseudohermaphroditism and include 5alphaR deficiency and androgen receptor defects. 5alphaR deficiency is characterized by female genitalia with some degree of masculinization, clitoromegaly, and severely bifid scrotum corresponding to the so-called pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias. At the onset of puberty, increased muscle mass, development of pubic hair, and phallic growth are associated with the acquisition of male gender identity. Normal or increased levels of testosterone and an elevated testosterone-to-dihydrotestosterone ratio after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation testing suggest 5alphareductase deficiency, and the diagnosis can be ascertained by identifying the mutation in the 5alphaR-2 gene. Whatever the patient's age at diagnosis, psychological evaluation with 5alphaRD is vital. Androgen receptor defects encompass two clinical expressions: the complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndromes. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome should be suspected at birth in the presence of inguinal hernia in a girl without genital ambiguity. At puberty, the sign of alert is primary amenorrhea with normal female phenotype and harmonious mammary development but no pubic hair growth. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome covers a wide spectrum of undervirilized phenotypes ranging from clitoromegaly at birth to infertile men. In all cases, complementary investigations should include plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone as well as androgen-binding capacity in cultured genital skin fibroblasts. Diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the androgen receptor gene mutation. Although patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are raised as females, patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome should be managed according to age at diagnosis, response to treatment with exogenous androgens, and the presence of an androgen gene mutation. Gonadectomy in complete androgen

  4. Spectrum of Fascicular Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Sung, Raphael; Scheinman, Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Fascicular arrhythmias encompass a wide spectrum of ventricular arrhythmias that depend on the specialized conduction system of the right and left ventricles. These arrhythmias include premature ventricular complexes, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. These arrhythmias may be organized by mechanism, including intrafascicular reentry, interfascicular reentry, and focal. Mapping and ablation of the fascicular system can result in high cure rates of debilitating and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. When approaching these arrhythmias, careful consideration of the structure of the His Purkinje system as well as their electrophysiologic properties may help guide even the most complex of arrhythmias.

  5. Weighted slit extraction of low-dispersion IUE spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Neill, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The weighted slit extraction has been chosen by the IUE project as the standard extraction for low-dispersion spectra in the final IUE archives. In order to properly weight the data within the extraction slit and obtain the optimal evaluation of the true spectrum, a noise model is derived for IUE data. The exclusion of cosmic rays is demonstrated and the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is quantified for spectra taken with a wide range of flux level. Problematic spectra, such as trailed spectra, multiple spectra, discontinuous spectra, and emission-line spectra, are extracted to demonstrate the robust nature of the method. Comparisons are made between the standard IUE Standard Image Processing System (IUESIPS) extraction, nonstandard narrow slit extraction, trailed IUESIPS extraction, and weighted extraction for these data. Other weighted slit extractions are briefly discussed. The advantages of the weighted slit extraction are: (1) the extraction improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum while conserving total flux; (2) most of the cosmic rays are automatically removed; (3) the output includes an error estimate for each point in the flux spectrum; and (4) the algorithm can be run in a batch mode that requires no special input parameters.

  6. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Gerald; Russell, A. Denver

    1999-01-01

    Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of active chemical agents (biocides) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics. This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants. The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants. Known mechanisms of microbial resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports. PMID:9880479

  7. Effect of Parent Weight on Weight Loss in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed effect of parent weight and parent control versus child self-control on weight loss in obese preadolescent children over three-year period. Children of nonobese parents had significantly greater decrease in relative weight after one year than children of obese parents. At three years, there was no effect of parent weight. Locus of control…

  8. Bounds for weighted Lebesgue functions for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubayi, D. G.

    2001-08-01

    The weighted Lebesgue functions for even weights W=e-Q on the real line have been intensively studied in recent years. In this paper, we discuss the corresponding results for a class of weights that includes non-even weights.

  9. Are early first trimester weights valid proxies for preconception weight?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate estimate of preconception weight is necessary for providing a gestational weight gain range based on the Institute of Medicine’s guidelines; however, an accurate and proximal preconception weight is not available for most women. We examined the validity of first trimester weights for est...

  10. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  11. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  12. Immunological mechanisms of adaptation to the low-weight chemical compounds in ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Glushkov, A N

    2003-09-01

    It is postulated that adaptation to the low-weight chemical compounds includes six consistent ontogenetic periods: the reciprocal selection of the marriage partners; the maturation of the gametes; the formation of the zygote; the development of the fetus; the birth and nursing of the child; and the sexual maturation of a human being. The main immunological parts of adaptation are: the antibodies to the low-weight xeno- and endobiotics; the reciprocal immune-like recognition of the maternal and paternal gametes; and the maternal immune reaction on the paternal histocompatibility antigens of the fetus. The main immunological mechanisms of adaptation are: the promotion of the selectivity in the smell recognition of the marriage partners by the antibodies to the xeno- and endobiotics expanding the individual spectrum of their metabolites; the inhibition of the xenobiotic genotoxic action on the gametes, fetus and child by the antibodies; the prevention of the development of gene-damaged gametes and fetus by antibodies to the sexual hormones; and the immune preservation (elimination) of the heterozygote (homozygote) fetus.

  13. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105 Weighted-average life of investments. Except as provided below (Table 3), the weighted-average life of an investment for purposes of §§...

  14. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105 Weighted-average life of investments. Except as provided below (Table 3), the weighted-average life of an investment for purposes of §§...

  15. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105 Weighted-average life of investments. Except as provided below (Table 3), the weighted-average life of an investment for purposes of §§...

  16. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105 Weighted-average life of investments. Except as provided below (Table 3), the weighted-average life of an investment for purposes of §§...

  17. 12 CFR 702.105 - Weighted-average life of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weighted-average life of investments. 702.105... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.105 Weighted-average life of investments. Except as provided below (Table 3), the weighted-average life of an investment for purposes of §§...

  18. Birth weight is forever.

    PubMed

    Basso, Olga

    2008-03-01

    Birth weight is associated not just with infant morbidity and mortality, but with outcomes occurring much later in life, including adult mortality, as reported by a paper by Baker and colleagues in this issue of Epidemiology. While these associations are tantalizing per se, the truly interesting question concerns the mechanisms that underlie these links. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a "fetal origin" of diseases resulting from alterations in fetal nutrition that permanently program organ function. The most commonly proposed alternative is that factors, mainly genetic, that affect both fetal growth and disease risk are responsible for the observed associations. Although both mechanisms are intellectually attractive-and may well coexist-we should be cautious to not focus excessively on fetal growth. Doing this may lead us in the wrong direction, as has likely happened in the case of birth weight in relation to infant survival.

  19. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  20. The marine diversity spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the ‘diversity spectrum’, which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope −0·5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between −0·5 and −0·1. Slopes of −0·5 and −0·1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of −0·5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of −0·1 depicts a 1·6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour

  1. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed.

  2. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; Byan, W. R. E.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  3. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    DOEpatents

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  4. Autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).(1) CDC estimates are currently 1:110;(1) up from 1:150 in 2007.(2) Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.(1) While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.(3.)

  5. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results.

  6. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, Josè L.

    2014-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O-H...N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N-H...π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  7. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, M. Eugenia Cabezas, Carlos Mata, Santiago Alonso, Josè L.

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  8. Terahertz Spectrum of Trioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, H.; Belov, S. P.; Winnewisser, G.

    1996-02-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of trioxane, (H2CO)3 the trimer of formaldehyde, has been recorded with high resolution in the frequency range between 326 and 947 GHz for the main isotopomer, the 13 C, and the 18O isotopic species in the vibrational ground state. These new high J and K data reveal that the molecule is fairly rigid. For the constants determinable from the recorded high J and K spectra (J = 90 and K = 75) the rotational constant B = 5273.257 180(33) MHz, the two quartic centrifugal distortion constants DJ, and DJK, and the three sextic constants HJ, HJK, and HKJ are needed in the fit to reproduce the measured spectra within experimental accuracy. In addition, for the 13C isotopomer the sextic constants HJK and HKJ are determined as well as the off-diagonal parameters d1 and d2.

  9. Ocean color spectrum calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    There is obvious value in developing the means for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. The first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model can be described by a modified single scattering approach based on a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasisingle scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurements made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  10. Microwave Spectrum of Hexafluoroisopropanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.

    2012-06-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is an important organic solvent and probably the only solvent which can dissolve polythene. IR studies, on this molecule confirm the existence of antiperiplanar (ap) and synclinical (sc) conformers. We have observed pure rotational spectrum of this molecule and the fitted rotational constants (A= 2105.1208(11) MHz, B= 1053.9942(3) MHz, C= 932.3398(3) MHz) confirm the presence of ap conformer. There are many other observed lines which most probably corresponds to sc structure and due to the large amplitude motion of H-atom, some of these transitions show tunneling splitting. Work is in progress for the deuterated (OD) and C-13 isotopologues of the monomer. HFIP is expected to exhibit interesting hydrogen bonding properties and we are planning to investigate them by studying its complex with water. The results will be presented in this talk. H. Schaal, T. Höber, and M. A. Suhm, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 265 (2000).

  11. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  12. American Lead Action Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACTION MEMORANDUM— Request for a Time-Critical Removal Action andExemption from the $2 Million and 12-Month Statutory Limits at the AmericanLead Site, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana (Site ID #B56J)

  13. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Imitate in the Context of Others' Prior Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chi-Tai; Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Hung, Chao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder have some understanding of intentions behind others' goal-directed actions on objects. It is not clear whether they understand intentions at a high level of abstraction reliant on the context in which the actions occur. This study tested their understanding of others' prior…

  14. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  15. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  16. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…

  17. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  18. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  19. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  20. Superfine resolution acoustooptic spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Lesh, James R.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution spectrum analysis of RF signals is required in applications such as the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, RF interference monitoring, or general purpose decomposition of signals. Sub-Hertz resolution in three-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analysis is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. The operation of a two-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analyzer is extended to include time integration over a sequence of CCD frames.

  1. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months.

  2. Optimization of co-agonism at GLP-1 and glucagon receptors to safely maximize weight reduction in DIO-rodents.

    PubMed

    Day, Jonathan W; Gelfanov, Vasily; Smiley, David; Carrington, Paul E; Eiermann, George; Chicchi, Gary; Erion, Mark D; Gidda, Jas; Thornberry, Nancy A; Tschöp, Matthias H; Marsh, Donald J; SinhaRoy, Ranabir; DiMarchi, Richard; Pocai, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of GLP-1/glucagon receptor (GLP1R/GCGR) co-agonism that achieves maximal weight loss without evidence of hyperglycemia was determined in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice chronically treated with GLP1R/GCGR co-agonist peptides differing in their relative receptor agonism. Using glucagon-based peptides, a spectrum of receptor selectivity was achieved by a combination of selective incorporation of GLP-1 sequences, C-terminal modification, backbone lactam stapling to stabilize helical structure, and unnatural amino acid substitutions at the N-terminal dipeptide. In addition to α-amino-isobutyric acid (Aib) substitution at position two, we show that α,α'-dimethyl imidazole acetic acid (Dmia) can serve as a potent replacement for the highly conserved histidine at position one. Selective site-specific pegylation was used to further minimize enzymatic degradation and provide uniform, extended in vivo duration of action. Maximal weight loss devoid of any sign of hyperglycemia was achieved with a co-agonist comparably balanced for in vitro potency at murine GLP1R and GCGR. This peptide exhibited superior weight loss and glucose lowering compared to a structurally matched pure GLP1R agonist, and to co-agonists of relatively reduced GCGR tone. Any further enhancement of the relative GCGR agonist potency yielded increased weight loss but at the expense of elevated blood glucose. We conclude that GCGR agonism concomitant with GLP1R agonism constitutes a promising approach to treatment of the metabolic syndrome. However, the relative ratio of GLP1R/GCGR co-agonism needs to be carefully chosen for each species to maximize weight loss efficacy and minimize hyperglycemia.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  4. Thermal weights for semiclassical vibrational response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Moberg, Daniel R.; Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.

    2015-08-28

    Semiclassical approximations to response functions can allow the calculation of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic observables from classical dynamics. Evaluating a canonical response function requires the related tasks of determining thermal weights for initial states and computing the dynamics of these states. A class of approximations for vibrational response functions employs classical trajectories at quantized values of action variables and represents the effects of the radiation-matter interaction by discontinuous transitions. Here, we evaluate choices for a thermal weight function which are consistent with this dynamical approximation. Weight functions associated with different semiclassical approximations are compared, and two forms are constructed which yield the correct linear response function for a harmonic potential at any temperature and are also correct for anharmonic potentials in the classical mechanical limit of high temperature. Approximations to the vibrational linear response function with quantized classical trajectories and proposed thermal weight functions are assessed for ensembles of one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators. This approach is shown to perform well for an anharmonic potential that is not locally harmonic over a temperature range encompassing the quantum limit of a two-level system and the limit of classical dynamics.

  5. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  6. Effects of Weighted Vests on the Engagement of Children with Developmental Delays and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.; Sewell, Joanna Neely; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The use of weighted vests for children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities is a common practice as part of sensory integration therapy programs. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend the research on the use of weighted vests for children with autism and developmental delays in a methodologically rigorous…

  7. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  8. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  9. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Witebsky, C.

    1984-12-01

    We have continued our program to measure the long-wavelength spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. Our previous observations were at five wavelengths--0.33, 0.9, 3.0, 6.3, and 12.0 cm--and had a weighted average value of 2.73 {+-} 0.05 K and deviated from a Planckian spectrum by less than 6%. In August 1984, we repeated our observations at 3.0, 0.9, and 0.33 cm and made new observations with a radiometer tunable from 1.7 to 15 cm. Preliminary analysis indicate that the new data are consistent with our previous results.

  10. Singular Spectrum of Lebesgue Measure Zerofor One-Dimensional Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Daniel

    The spectrum of one-dimensional discrete Schr\\"odinger operators associated to strictly ergodic dynamical systems is shown to coincide with the set of zeros of the Lyapunov exponent if and only if the Lyapunov exponent exists uniformly. This is used to obtain Cantor spectrum of zero Lebesgue measure for all aperiodic subshifts with uniform positive weights. This covers, in particular, all aperiodic subshifts arising from primitive substitutions including new examples as e.g. the Rudin-Shapiro substitution. Our investigation is not based on trace maps. Instead it relies on an Oseledec type theorem due to A. Furman and a uniform ergodic theorem due to the author.

  11. RCRA corrective action program guide (Interim)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for compliance with an increasingly complex spectrum of environmental regulations. One of the most complex programs is the corrective action program proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The proposed regulations were published on July 27, 1990. The proposed Subpart S rule creates a comprehensive program for investigating and remediating releases of hazardous wastes and hazardous waste constituents from solid waste management units (SWMUs) at facilities permitted to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes. This proposed rule directly impacts many DOE facilities which conduct such activities. This guidance document explains the entire RCRA Corrective Action process as outlined by the proposed Subpart S rule, and provides guidance intended to assist those persons responsible for implementing RCRA Corrective Action at DOE facilities.

  12. Spectrum handoff algorithm with imperfect spectrum sensing incognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Bao, Xiao-min; Xie, Xian-zhong

    2016-10-01

    To guarantee the quality of service of licensed users, the unlicensed users must vacate the occupied channel by spectrum handoff if licensed users appear in the licensed spectrum. However, spectrum sensing with false alarm and missed detection may lead to more inaccuracy problems when unlicensed users perform spectrum handoff. To improve the problems mentioned before, we utilize PRP M/G/1 queuing network model to propose a spectrum handoff algorithm with error data retransmission mechanism and analyze its performance by transmission delay and extended data delivery time. In addition, we discuss the relationship between false alarm probability, extended data delivery time and user traffic load and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  15. Rotational Spectrum of Sarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C4H10FO2P) was observed in the rotationally cold (Trot<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1σ), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm-1. Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G** level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings.

  16. The Solar Convection Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.

    2000-01-01

    I helped to complete a research project with NASA scientists Dr. David Hathaway (my mentor), Rick Bogart, and John Beck from the SOHO/SOI collaboration. Our published paper in 'Solar Physics' was titled 'The Solar Convection Spectrum' (April 2000). Two of my undergraduate students were named on the paper--Gavrav Khutri and Josh Petitto. Gavrav also wrote a short paper for the National Conference of Undergraduate Research Proceedings in 1998 using a preliminary result. Our main result was that we show no evidence of a scale of convection named 'mesogranulation'. Instead, we see only direct evidence for the well-known scales of convection known as graduation and supergranulation. We are also completing work on vertical versus horizontal flow fluxes at the solar surface. I continue to work on phase relationships of solar activity indicators, but I have not yet written a paper with my students on this topic. Along with my research results, I have developed and augmented undergraduate courses at Birmingham-Southern College by myself and with other faculty. We have included new labs and observations, speakers from NASA and elsewhere, new subject material related to NASA and space science. I have done a great deal of work in outreach, mostly as President and other offices in the Birmingham Astronomical Society. My work includes speaking, attracting speakers, giving workshops, and governing.

  17. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  18. Spectrum Roentgen Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, P.; Pavlinsky, M.

    2014-07-01

    Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) is an X-ray astrophysical observatory, developed by Russia in collaboration with Germany. The mission will be launched in 2016 into a 6-month-period halo orbit around L2. The mission lifetime is planned to be more than seven years. While the first four years of the mission are devoted to an all sky survey, the rest of the mssion will be used for pointed observations. The payload consists of two X-ray telescopes, eROSITA and ART-XC. The eROSITA sky survey will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT at energies between 0.5 and 2 keV, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of large samples of galaxy clusters out to redshifts z>1 in order to study the large scale structure in the universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. ART-XC's role is to extend the energy range of eROSITA alone, thereby doubling the effective area in the critical 4-7 keV range. The harder response of ART-XC also facilitates the x-ray detection of obscured AGN. Both instruments are currently in the flight model and calibration phase.

  19. Frequency Allocation; The Radio Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns segments of the radio spectrum to categories of users, and specific frequencies within each segment to individual users. Since demand for channel space exceeds supply, the process is complex. The radio spectrum can be compared to a long ruler: the portion from 10-540 kiloHertz has been set aside…

  20. Index of Spectrum Signature Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Frederick Research Corporation. Alexandria. VA 163 AN/APG-030 Radar Receiver Heasureaents Electromagnetic Coapatibilitv Analysis Center, US Navv Marine ... Electromagnetic Compatibility Characteristics of the W 86 Gun Fire Control Svstem. Naval HEapons Lab, Dahlgren, VA 501 Partial Spectrum Signature...ECAC-I-IO-(SS) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center Annapolis, Maryland 21402 INDEX OF SPECTRUM SIGNATURE DATA

  1. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  2. Obesity and associated factors in youth with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Granich, Joanna; Lin, Ashleigh; Hunt, Anna; Wray, John; Dass, Alena; Whitehouse, Andrew Jo

    2016-11-01

    Weight status on children and youth with autism spectrum disorder is limited. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder, and associations between weight status and range of factors. Children and youth with autism spectrum disorder aged 2-16 years (n = 208) and their parents participated in this study. Body mass index was calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts and the International Obesity Task Force body mass index cut-offs. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was administered. Parents completed questionnaires about socio-demographics, diagnosed comorbidities, sleep disturbances, social functioning and medication of youth with autism spectrum disorder. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in participants with autism spectrum disorder was 35%. One quarter of obese children and youth (25.6%) had obese parents. There was a significant association between children and youth's body mass index and maternal body mass index (r = 0.25, n = 199, p < 0.001). The gender and age, parental education, family income, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder severity, social functioning, psychotropic and complementary medication use of children and youth with autism spectrum disorder were not statistically associated with their weight status. Findings suggest the need for clinical settings to monitor weight status of children and youth with autism spectrum disorder in a bid to manage or prevent overweight/obesity in this population. Incorporating a family system approach to influence health behaviours among children and youth with autism spectrum disorder especially for specific weight interventions is warranted and should be further explored.

  3. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ...

  4. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  5. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... about your BMI. What Factors Contribute To a Healthy Weight? Many factors can contribute to a person’s weight. These factors include environment, family history and genetics, metabolism (the way your ...

  6. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  7. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  8. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  9. Insulin therapy and type 2 diabetes: management of weight gain.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Samy I

    2009-10-01

    The potential for insulin-related weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes presents a therapeutic dilemma and frequently leads to delays in the initiation of insulin therapy. It also poses considerable challenges when treatment is intensified. Addressing insulin-related weight gain is highly relevant to the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences in this high-risk population with type 2 diabetes. In addition to lifestyle changes (eg, diet and exercise) and available medical interventions to minimize the risk of weight gain with insulin treatment, familiarity with the weight gain patterns of different insulins may help deal with this problem. The use of basal insulin analogs may offer advantages over conventional human insulin preparations in terms of more physiologic time-action profiles, reduced risk of hypoglycemia, and reduced weight gain.

  10. Improved actions, redundant operators and scaling in lattice SU(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Apoorva; Gupta, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    Schwinger-Dyson equations are used to systematically calculate redundant operators in lattice QCD and their role in perturbatively improved actions is analyzed. The criteria for improved actions in Monte Carlo simulations are discussed and their usefulness also. In particular the renormalized trajectory is estimated for the b = sqrt(3) renormalization group transformation in a four-parameter space and its scaling behavior is studied for future use in spectrum calculations. J. Robert Oppenheimer Fellow.

  11. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  12. Fractional Action Cosmology with Variable Order Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Fractional action cosmology with variable order parameter was constructed in this paper. Starting from a fractional weighted action which generalizes the fractional actionlike variational approach, a large number of cosmological dynamical equations are obtained depending on the mathematical type of the fractional order parameter. Through this paper, we selected two independent types which result on a number of cosmological scenarios and we discussed their dynamical consequences. It was observed that the present fractional cosmological formalism holds a large family of solutions and offers new features not found in the standard formalism and in many fundamental research papers.

  13. Fractional Action Cosmology with Variable Order Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Fractional action cosmology with variable order parameter was constructed in this paper. Starting from a fractional weighted action which generalizes the fractional actionlike variational approach, a large number of cosmological dynamical equations are obtained depending on the mathematical type of the fractional order parameter. Through this paper, we selected two independent types which result on a number of cosmological scenarios and we discussed their dynamical consequences. It was observed that the present fractional cosmological formalism holds a large family of solutions and offers new features not found in the standard formalism and in many fundamental research papers.

  14. Measuring Avoidance and Inflexibility in Weight Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility plays a role in a variety of clinical presentations, including health problems. The present study presents preliminary data on a new measure of these processes in relation to difficult weight-related thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Acceptance and Action…

  15. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  16. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  17. Successful habits of weight losers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the availability of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 200% since 1980. Although few people have lost weight and maintained weight loss long term, some have and are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. Results from these ...

  18. Fragile X spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45–54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130–250 females and 1 in 250–810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term “Fragile X Spectrum Disorder” (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  19. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  20. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice.

    PubMed

    Palit, P; Furman, B L; Gray, A I

    1999-11-01

    Galega officinalis (galega, Goat's Rue, French Lilac) is well known for its hypoglycaemic action and has been used as part of a plant mixture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. During pharmacological investigations of an ethanolic extract of a powdered mixture of equal proportions of G. officinalis, Cressa cretica, Mangifera indica and Syzygium jambolanum, a weight reducing effect of galega was discovered. In this study we have investigated the novel weight reducing effect of galega in mice. Galega herb (10% w/w in the diet) caused a significant reduction in body weight in both normal and genetically obese (ob/ob) animals treated for 28 days when compared with respective controls (P < 0.01). In normal mice, the weight loss was reversible and initially associated with a transient reduction in food intake but was then maintained even in the presence of increased eating above the control level. Pair-fed normal mice receiving galega for seven days also showed significant weight loss (P < 0.01, compared with the control) in the presence of increasing food intake. In sharp contrast, weight loss in galega-treated ob/ob mice was accompanied by a persistent reduction in food intake over the 28-day treatment period. Post-mortem examinations of all galega-treated mice revealed a striking absence of body fat. Serum glucose was significantly reduced in both strains of mice receiving galega for 28 days (P < 0.01), whereas serum insulin was significantly reduced only in obese mice (P < 0.01). In summary, together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat.

  1. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  2. GNAS spectrum of disorders

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Serap; Bastepe, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The GNAS complex locus encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a ubiquitous signaling protein mediating the actions of many hormones, neurotransmitters, and paracrine/aurocrine factors via generation of the second messenger cAMP. GNAS gives rise to other gene products, most of which exhibit exclusively monoallelic expression. In contrast, Gsα is expressed biallelically in most tissues; however, paternal Gsα expression is silenced in a small number of tissues through as-yet-poorly understood mechanisms that involve differential methylation within GNAS. Gsα-coding GNAS mutations that lead to diminished Gsα expression and/or function result in Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) with or without hormone resistance, i.e. pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia/Ic and pseudo-pseudohypoparathryodism, respectively. Microdeletions that alter GNAS methylation and, thereby, diminish Gsα expression in tissues in which the paternal Gsα allele is normally silenced also cause hormone resistance, which occurs typically in the absence of AHO, a disorder termed pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ib. Mutations of GNAS that cause constitutive Gsα signaling are found in patients with McCune-Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and different endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Clinical features of these diseases depend significantly on the parental allelic origin of the GNAS mutation, reflecting the tissue-specific paternal Gsα silencing. In this article, we review the pathogenesis and the phenotypes of these human diseases. PMID:25851935

  3. National Biofuels Action Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Leading the Federal Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative October 2008 National Biofuels Action Plan Biomass Research and...REPORT DATE OCT 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Biofuels Action Plan 5a. CONTRACT...goal of the National Biofuels Action Plan is to maximize the environmental and economic benefi ts of biofuels use by advancing sustainable practices

  4. Instanton contributions to the low-lying hadron mass spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Samuel D.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2015-11-01

    The role of instanton-like objects in the QCD vacuum on the mass spectrum of low-lying light hadrons is explored in lattice QCD. Using overimproved stout-link smearing, tuned to preserve instanton-like objects in the QCD vacuum, the evolution of the mass spectrum under smearing is examined. The calculation is performed using a 203×40 dynamical fat-link-irrelevant-clover (FLIC) fermion action ensemble with lattice spacing 0.126 fm. Through the consideration of a range of pion masses, the effect of the vacuum instanton content is compared at a common pion mass. While the qualitative features of ground-state hadrons are preserved on instanton-dominated configurations, the excitation spectrum experiences significant changes. The underlying physics revealed shows little similarity to the direct-instanton-interaction predictions of the instanton liquid model.

  5. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  6. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  7. Action principles in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  8. TELECOMMUNICATIONS: History and Current Issues Related to Radio Spectrum Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    recognized in 1922 with the formation of the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee ( IRAC ), comprised of representatives from the federal agencies...that use the most spectrum.8 IRAC , whose existence and actions were affirmed by the President in 1927, has continued to advise whoever has been...management of federal government users was delegated to NTIA, an agency of the Department of Commerce.10 IRAC assists NTIA in assigning

  9. Methods to Calculate Spectrum Similarity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Şule; Vandermarliere, Elien; Martens, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Scoring functions that assess spectrum similarity play a crucial role in many computational mass spectrometry algorithms. These functions are used to compare an experimentally acquired fragmentation (MS/MS) spectrum against two different types of target MS/MS spectra: either against a theoretical MS/MS spectrum derived from a peptide from a sequence database, or against another, previously acquired MS/MS spectrum. The former is typically encountered in database searching, while the latter is used in spectrum clustering and spectral library searching. The comparison between acquired versus theoretical MS/MS spectra is most commonly performed using cross-correlations or probability derived scoring functions, while the comparison of two acquired MS/MS spectra typically makes use of a normalized dot product, especially in spectrum library search algorithms. In addition to these scoring functions, Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients, mean squared error, or median absolute deviation scores can also be used for the same purpose. Here, we describe and evaluate these scoring functions with regards to their ability to assess spectrum similarity for theoretical versus acquired, and acquired versus acquired spectra.

  10. Amplitude-weighted quadrature phase shift keying using SAW technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkerdid, M. A.; Malocha, D. C.

    1985-09-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) convolvers are capable of performing programmable matched filtering with the desirable properties of large processing gain, good dynamic range, broad bandwidth, small size and weight, and low power requirements. Equally powerful are the SAW-based modulators, which produce the desired pseudo-random code sequence for secure transmission in a spread-spectrum system. The SAW filter provides precise reproducible pulse shaping of the coded waveform with the same advantages of the convolver. It is very important as spectrum space becomes more crowded to optimize the spectral efficiency of transmitted information. Quadrature phase (QPSK) and minimum phase shift keying (MSK) are the two more popular quadrature modulation schemes. A new modulation technique that is composed of several amplitude-weighted QPSK signals (AWQPSK) and exhibits better bandwidth efficiency than OPSK or MSK is introduced. System analysis and performance parameters are presented for evaluation. A SAW modulator implementation is discussed and proposed.

  11. The decision to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Brink, P J; Ferguson, K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the reasons people give for deciding to lose weight compared by weight history and gender. The sample consisted of 162 Caucasian community volunteers. Data were obtained from an extensive open-ended interview that was analyzed using content analysis. Respondents were categorized into five groups, according to their success at weight loss: Successful, Always Normal Weight, Underweight, Clinically Successful, and Always Obese. The Clinically Successful and Always Obese were included in the category Unsuccessful Dieter. Reasons given for entering a weight-loss regime included attractiveness or appearance, health, fear, self-esteem issues, age, and competition. For the Successful Dieter, attractiveness and health were the two major motivations. Men and women were similar in their reasons for entering a weight-loss program. The issue of what makes a decision of sufficient importance to maintain weight loss remains unexplained. "Centrality" is offered as a possible explanation.

  12. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Armangué, Thaís; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arrambide, Georgina; Meca-Lallana, José E.; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Mendibe, Mar; Alvarez de Arcaya, Amaya; Aladro, Yolanda; Casanova, Bonaventura; Olascoaga, Javier; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Fernández-Fournier, Mireya; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluis; Cobo-Calvo, Alvaro; Viñals, Montserrat; de Andrés, Clara; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Cervelló, Angeles; Calles, Carmen; Rubio, Manuel Barón; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Caminero, Ana; Munteis, Elvira; Antigüedad, Alfredo R.; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Montalban, Xavier; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To (1) determine the value of the recently proposed criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that unify patients with NMO and those with limited forms (NMO/LF) with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies; and (2) investigate the clinical significance of the serologic status in patients with NMO. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of 181 patients fulfilling the 2006 NMO criteria (n = 127) or NMO/LF criteria with AQP4-IgG (n = 54). AQP4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) antibodies were tested using cell-based assays. Results: Patients were mainly white (86%) and female (ratio 6.5:1) with median age at onset 39 years (range 10–77). Compared to patients with NMO and AQP4-IgG (n = 94), those with NMO/LF presented more often with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) (p < 0.001), and had lower relapse rates (p = 0.015), but similar disability outcomes. Nonwhite ethnicity and optic neuritis presentation doubled the risk for developing NMO compared with white race (p = 0.008) or LETM presentation (p = 0.008). Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–13.6) and older age at onset were associated with worse outcome (for every 10-year increase, HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2). Patients with NMO and MOG-IgG (n = 9) had lower female:male ratio (0.8:1) and better disability outcome than AQP4-IgG-seropositive or double-seronegative patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with AQP4-IgG, the similar outcomes regardless of the clinical phenotype support the unified term NMOSD; nonwhite ethnicity and older age at onset are associated with worse outcome. Double-seronegative and AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMO have a similar clinical outcome. The better prognosis of patients with MOG-IgG and NMO suggests that phenotypic and serologic classification is useful. PMID:27144216

  13. Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-18

    mobile services and devices, such as real-time viewing of video on smartphones , can be improved in several ways. Examples include (1) providing new...from the sale of licenses of repurposed federal spectrum identified in the act will be directed first to the Spectrum Relocation Fund, to cover costs...of moving federal users, with the balance going to the Public Safety Trust Fund. Proceeds from the sale of advanced wireless service licenses in

  14. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  15. Submillimeter wave spectrum of acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Endres, Christian P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Drouin, Brian J.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new global study of the submillimeter wave spectrum of the lowest three torsional states of acetic acid (CH3COOH). New measurements involving torsion-rotation transitions with J up to 79 and Ka up to 44 have been carried out between 230 and 845 GHz using the submillimeter wave spectrometers in University of Cologne and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new data were combined with previously published measurements and fitted using the rho-axis-method torsion-rotation Hamiltonian. The final fit used 93 parameters to give an overall weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.85 for a dataset consisting of 7543, 6087, and 5171 transitions belonging, respectively, to the ground, first, and second excited torsional states and 1888 Δvt ≠ 0 transitions. This investigation presents more than a twofold expansion both in the J quantum number and frequency range coverage of the acetic acid spectrum. Numerous inter-torsional interactions have been observed. Furthermore, this is the highest J value ever treated with the rho-axis-method and provides a good test case for the theoretical model in use.

  16. The occlusion spectrum for volume classification and visualization.

    PubMed

    Correa, Carlos D; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2009-01-01

    Despite the ever-growing improvements on graphics processing units and computational power, classifying 3D volume data remains a challenge.In this paper, we present a new method for classifying volume data based on the ambient occlusion of voxels. This information stems from the observation that most volumes of a certain type, e.g., CT, MRI or flow simulation, contain occlusion patterns that reveal the spatial structure of their materials or features. Furthermore, these patterns appear to emerge consistently for different data sets of the same type. We call this collection of patterns the occlusion spectrum of a dataset. We show that using this occlusion spectrum leads to better two-dimensional transfer functions that can help classify complex data sets in terms of the spatial relationships among features. In general, the ambient occlusion of a voxel can be interpreted as a weighted average of the intensities in a spherical neighborhood around the voxel. Different weighting schemes determine the ability to separate structures of interest in the occlusion spectrum. We present a general methodology for finding such a weighting. We show results of our approach in 3D imaging for different applications, including brain and breast tumor detection and the visualization of turbulent flow.

  17. 76 FR 60022 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... the endocrine system. The combined results and information will also be used to identify which tests... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Endocrine...

  18. Generalization of Tacting Actions in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gladys; Carnerero, Jose Julio; Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This intervention compared the effects of two procedures on the generalization of a tacting repertoire (labeling) in 6 children with autism spectrum disorder. In one procedure the verbal antecedent stimulus "What is she doing?" appeared together with a person performing an action; in the other procedure, the antecedent stimulus was just the…

  19. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  20. Teaming from Three Perspectives: Interviews with Participatory Action Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…

  1. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  2. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  3. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  4. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  5. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  6. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  7. Affirmative Action Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Community Coll. District, CA.

    Guidelines relating to the affirmative action program of the Ventura County Community College District are provided in this manual. Affirmative action is defined as, "A set of specific and result-oriented procedures to which a contractor commits himself/herself to apply every good faith effort. The objective of those procedures, plus such efforts,…

  8. 25 Action Learning Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    This booklet on action-learning reflects an interest in preparing youth for the world of real experiences. Arranged in two major parts, the first offers information on the background and development of action-learning. Included in this section are the conclusions of the Panel on Youth of the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National…

  9. ACTION. 1977 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1977. The first section concentrates on reviews conducted, including a major review of ACTION's domestic volunteer programs and the management systems supporting them and an assessment of its programs using the Zero-Base Budget approach called for by…

  10. Action Learning and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  11. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  12. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Westoby, Mark; Ackerly, David D; Baruch, Zdravko; Bongers, Frans; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Chapin, Terry; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Diemer, Matthias; Flexas, Jaume; Garnier, Eric; Groom, Philip K; Gulias, Javier; Hikosaka, Kouki; Lamont, Byron B; Lee, Tali; Lee, William; Lusk, Christopher; Midgley, Jeremy J; Navas, Marie-Laure; Niinemets, Ulo; Oleksyn, Jacek; Osada, Noriyuki; Poorter, Hendrik; Poot, Pieter; Prior, Lynda; Pyankov, Vladimir I; Roumet, Catherine; Thomas, Sean C; Tjoelker, Mark G; Veneklaas, Erik J; Villar, Rafael

    2004-04-22

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional type or biome. Categories along the spectrum would, in general, describe leaf economic variation at the global scale better than plant functional types, because functional types overlap substantially in their leaf traits. Overall, modulation of leaf traits and trait relationships by climate is surprisingly modest, although some striking and significant patterns can be seen. Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate.

  13. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  14. Interpolation Errors in Spectrum Analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain the proper measurement amplitude with a spectrum analyzer, the correct frequency-dependent transducer factor must be added to the voltage measured by the transducer. This report examines how entering transducer factors into a spectrum analyzer can cause significant errors in field amplitude due to the misunderstanding of the analyzer's interpolation methods. It also discusses how to reduce these errors to obtain a more accurate field amplitude reading.

  15. Army PM UAS Spectrum Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Spectrum Requirements 24 System Component Frequencies Used Manufacturer Quantity Location J/F-12 Number Electro-Optical / Infra-red / Laser Range...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED David Milburn Sigmatech Contractor Spectrum Manager Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office PACOM...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Sigmatech Inc,U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems

  16. Optimal weights for measuring redshift space distortions in multitracer galaxy catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David W.; Samushia, Lado; Gagrani, Praful

    2016-12-01

    Since the volume accessible to galaxy surveys is fundamentally limited, it is extremely important to analyse available data in the most optimal fashion. One way of enhancing the cosmological information extracted from the clustering of galaxies is by weighting the galaxy field. The most widely used weighting schemes assign weights to galaxies based on the average local density in the region (FKP weights) and their bias with respect to the dark matter field (PVP weights). They are designed to minimize the fractional variance of the galaxy power-spectrum. We demonstrate that the currently used bias dependent weighting scheme can be further optimized for specific cosmological parameters. We develop a procedure for computing the optimal weights and test them against mock catalogues for which the values of all fitting parameters, as well as the input power-spectrum are known. We show that by applying these weights to the joint power-spectrum of emission line galaxies and luminous red galaxies from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument survey, the variance in the measured growth rate parameter can be reduced by as much as 36 per cent.

  17. Cremation weights in east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Bass, William M; Jantz, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 females. Age, sex, and race were obtained for each individual. Males are about 1000 g heavier than females. Both sexes lose weight with age, but females lose weight at about twice the rate of males. East Tennessee cremation weights were compared with those from Florida reported by Warren and Maples, and those from Southern California reported by Sonek. East Tennessee results were also compared with an earlier study on ash weight of anatomical human skeletons carried out by Trotter and Hixon. East Tennessee cremations weigh about 500 g more than the samples from Florida and California, and about the same as the earlier anatomical samples. We hypothesize that variation reflects variation in body weight and activity. This variation must be taken into account when cremation weights are at issue.

  18. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  19. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  1. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  2. FTO predicts weight regain in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Jeanne; Papandonatos, George D.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Peter, Inga; Kahn, Steven E.; Knowler, William C.; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Lipkin, Edward; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have provided new insights into the genetic factors that contribute to the development of obesity. We hypothesized that these genetic markers would also predict magnitude of weight loss and weight regain after initial weight loss. Methods Established obesity risk alleles available on the Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip were characterized in 3,899 overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses examined the interaction between 13 obesity-risk polymorphisms in 8 genes and randomized treatment arm in predicting weight change at year 1, and weight regain at year 4 among individuals who lost 3% or more of their baseline weight by year 1. Results No SNPs were significantly associated with magnitude of weight loss or interacted with treatment arm at year 1. However, FTO rs3751812 predicted weight regain within DSE (1.56 kg per risk allele, p = 0.005), but not ILI (p = 0.761), resulting in SNP×treatment arm interaction (p = 0.009). In a partial replication of prior research, the obesity risk (G) allele at BDNF rs6265 was associated with greater weight regain across treatment arms (0.773 kg per risk allele), although results were of borderline statistical significance (p=0.051). Conclusions Variations in the FTO and BDNF loci may contribute risk of weight regain after weight loss. PMID:23628854

  3. Topological lattice actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Gerber, U.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2010-12-01

    We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge Q. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility {χ_t} = {{{left< {{Q^2}} rightrangle }} left/ {V} right.} is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some classically important features of an action are irrelevant for reaching the correct quantum continuum limit.

  4. Does Parkinson's disease affect judgement about another person's action?

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, E; Galpin, A J; Dick, J P R; Tipper, S P

    2010-07-01

    The observer's motor system has been shown to be involved in observing the actions of another person. Recent findings suggest that people with Parkinson's disease do not show the same motor facilitatory effects when observing the actions of another person. We studied whether Parkinson's patients were able to make unspeeded judgements about another person's action. Participants were asked to watch video clips of an actor lifting a box containing different weights (100, 200, 300 or 400 g) and to guess the weight that was being lifted on a 9-point scale. We compared the performance of 16 patients with PD with 16 healthy age-matched controls. Both groups were able to do the task, showing a significant relationship between the real weight and the guessed weight, albeit with a tendency to overestimate the lowest weight and underestimate the heaviest weight. The PD patients, however, showed a reduced slope value. These results show that despite their own motor deficits, PD patients are still able to judge the weight being lifted by another person, albeit with a slight reduction in accuracy. Further research will be required to determine whether PD patients use a motor simulation or a visual compensatory strategy to achieve this.

  5. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  6. Reduced Mimicry to Virtual Reality Avatars in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Paul A G; Pan, Xueni; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-12-01

    Mimicry involves unconsciously copying the actions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that autistic people can copy the goal of an observed action but show differences in their mimicry. We investigated mimicry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a two-dimensional virtual reality environment. Participants played an imitation game with a socially engaged avatar and socially disengaged avatar. Despite being told only to copy the goal of the observed action, autistic participants and matched neurotypical participants mimicked the kinematics of the avatars' movements. However, autistic participants mimicked less. Social engagement did not modulate mimicry in either group. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using virtual reality to induce mimicry and suggest mimicry differences in ASD may also occur when interacting with avatars.

  7. Spacelike brane actions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  8. Conscious Control over Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges-challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown.

  9. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  10. A New Digital Signal Processing Method for Spectrum Interference Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angrisani, L.; Capriglione, D.; Ferrigno, L.; Miele, G.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency spectrum is a limited shared resource, nowadays interested by an ever growing number of different applications. Generally, the companies providing such services pay to the governments the right of using a limited portion of the spectrum, consequently they would be assured that the licensed radio spectrum resource is not interested by significant external interferences. At the same time, they have to guarantee that their devices make an efficient use of the spectrum and meet the electromagnetic compatibility regulations. Therefore the competent authorities are called to control the access to the spectrum adopting suitable management and monitoring policies, as well as the manufacturers have to periodically verify the correct working of their apparatuses. Several measurement solutions are present on the market. They generally refer to real-time spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers. Both of them are characterized by good metrological accuracies but show costs, dimensions and weights that make no possible a use "on the field". The paper presents a first step in realizing a digital signal processing based measurement instrument able to suitably accomplish for the above mentioned needs. In particular the attention has been given to the DSP based measurement section of the instrument. To these aims an innovative measurement method for spectrum monitoring and management is proposed in this paper. It performs an efficient sequential analysis based on a sample by sample digital processing. Three main issues are in particular pursued: (i) measurement performance comparable to that exhibited by other methods proposed in literature; (ii) fast measurement time, (iii) easy implementation on cost-effective measurement hardware.

  11. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  12. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  13. The case of pretense: observing actions and inferring goals.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Ricarda I; von Cramon, D Yves

    2009-04-01

    When we observe an action, we know almost immediately what goal is pursued by the actor. Strikingly, this applies also to pretend action (pantomime), which provides relevant information about the manipulation itself but not about the manipulated objects. The present fMRI study addressed the issue of goal inference from pretend action as compared with real action. We found differences as well as commonalities for the brain correlates of inferring goals from both types of action. They differed with regard to the weights of the underlying action observation network, indicating the exploitation of object information in the case of real actions and manipulation information in the case of pretense. However, goal inferences from manipulation information resulted in a common network for both real and pretend action. Interestingly, this latter network also comprised areas that are not identified by action observation and that might be due to the processing of scene gist and to the evaluation of fit of putative action goals. These findings suggest that observation of pretense emphasizes the requirement to internally simulate the observed act but rule out fundamental differences of how observers cope with real and pretend action.

  14. Molecular mechanism of Endosulfan action in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Robin; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2017-03-01

    Endosulfan is a broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, speculated to be detrimental to human health in areas of active exposure. However, the molecular insights to its mechanism of action remain poorly understood. In two recent studies, our group investigated the physiological and molecular aspects of endosulfan action using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo analyses. The results showed that apart from reducing fertility levels in male animals, Endosulfan induced DNA damage that triggers compromised DNA damage response leading to undesirable processing of broken DNA ends. In this review, pesticide use especially of Endosulfan in the Indian scenario is summarized and the importance of our findings, especially the rationalized use of pesticides in the future, is emphasized.

  15. Analysis of the Palierne model by relaxation time spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Mi Kyung; Cho, Kwang Soo

    2016-02-01

    Viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends is affected by relaxation of the interface. Several attempts have been made for linear viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends. The Palierne model (1990) and the Gramespacher-Meissner model (1992) are representative. The Gramespacher-Meissner model consists of two parts: ingredients and interface. Moreover, it provides us the formula of the peak of interface in weighted relaxation time spectrum, which enables us to analyze the characteristics relating to interface more obviously. However, the Gramespacher-Meissner model is a kind of empirical model. Contrary to the Gramespacher-Meissner model, the Palierne model was derived in a rigorous manner. In this study, we investigated the Palierne model through the picture of the Gramespacher-Meissner model. We calculated moduli of immiscible blend using two models and obtained the weighted relaxation time spectra of them. The fixed-point iteration of Cho and Park (2013) was used in order to determine the weighted relaxation spectra.

  16. The Spectrum and Laplacian Spectrum of the Dice Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuli; Yan, Weigen; Tian, Tao

    2016-07-01

    The dice lattice is the dual lattice of kagomé lattice. Many physical properties on the dice lattice have been studied by physicists, such as Ising model, Glassy dynamics of Josephson arrays, and Lattice Green's function. In this paper, we derive the spectrum and Laplacian spectrum of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition. In addition, we apply our results to obtain the formulae of the number of spanning trees, the Kirchhoff index, and the energy of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition.

  17. Multifractal and singularity analysis of weighted road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Road is an important element of modern traffic infrastructures in national economic construction. Accurately, road networks might be multifractal systems. The mathematics of multifractal can be used to provide a quantitative signature in many fields. The roads in this paper are endowed with weights according to their respective traffic abilities. With the aim in mind, the weighted road networks in three country-level cities (Danyang, Yangzhong and Jurong) which belong to Zhenjiang, China, are studied. We analyze the heterogeneities of the three weighted road networks with multifractal spectrum, which correspond to their socio-geographical contexts. Besides, we extract the singularity regions of three country-level cities with the annular segmentation method and the singularity exponent method, which can be helpful in further transportation planning.

  18. Stabilizing bottomless action theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, J.; Halpern, M. B.

    1984-08-01

    We show how to construct the euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. Our method preserves the classical limit, the large- N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories.

  19. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  20. Oak Canyon Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the 27 residential properties that compose the Oak Canyon Site located in the Village of Paguate, Pueblo of Laguna, near Cibola County, New Mexico.

  1. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education...

  2. Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

  3. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A.; Bowman, John P.; Ratkowsky, David A.; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes. PMID:27088362

  4. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature.

    PubMed

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A; Bowman, John P; Ratkowsky, David A; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes.

  5. Grasping Motor Impairments in Autism: Not Action Planning but Movement Execution Is Deficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Different views on the origin of deficits in action chaining in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been posited, ranging from functional impairments in action planning to internal models supporting motor control. Thirty-one children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-nine matched controls participated in a two-choice reach-to-grasp paradigm…

  6. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  7. Reconstructing Weighted Networks from Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, P. Y.; Leung, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of how the different nodes of a network interact or link with one another is crucial for the understanding of the collective behavior and the functionality of the network. We have recently developed a method that can reconstruct both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input and is based on a relation between the pseudo-inverse of the matrix of the correlation of the node dynamics and the Laplacian matrix of the weighted network. Using several examples of different dynamics, we demonstrate that our method can accurately reconstruct the connectivity as well as the weights of the links for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics. The work of ESCC and CYL has been supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 14300914.

  8. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  9. Antisymmetric string actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d < D-dimensional extended objects in D-dimensional flat space. On leave of absence from Departamento de Física, Universidad Simon Bolívar, Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  10. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  11. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  12. Spectrum of solar flare protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, I. M.; Balabin, Yu. V.; Podgorny, A. I.; Vashenyuk, E. V.

    2010-08-01

    Most of big solar flares are accompanied by relativistic protons. The prompt component of relativistic protons moves along the interplanetary magnetic field lines and arrives at the Earth's orbit when the flare favorably located in the western solar hemisphere. The neutron monitor measurements reveal an exponential law energy spectrum. Calculations of relativistic proton acceleration in the flare current sheet with magnetic and electric fields found from 3D MHD simulations also demonstrate an exponential law spectrum. A comparison of the measured and calculated spectra permits to estimate the rate of reconnection in the Bastille flare (14 July 2000) as ˜107cm/s. The delay component of relativistic protons exhibits a power law energy spectrum.

  13. Young children with autism spectrum disorders imitate in the context of others' prior intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Tai; Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Hung, Chao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder have some understanding of intentions behind others' goal-directed actions on objects. It is not clear whether they understand intentions at a high level of abstraction reliant on the context in which the actions occur. This study tested their understanding of others' prior intentions with typically developing and developmentally delayed children. We replicated Carpenter et al.'s test of the ability to understand prior intentions embedded in the social situation with an additional context of no prior intention. Results showed that when the experimenter's intention was made known before the demonstration, children without autism spectrum disorder performed not only better than the autism spectrum disorder children but also better than themselves when there was no information about prior intention. No between-condition difference was found in the autism spectrum disorder group. It thus appears that children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty decoupling intentions from the context of the situation. The present findings, together with previous evidence for the intactness of the ability to understand and to imitate goal-directed actions, suggest that asymmetrical imitation performance occurs at different levels of understanding of intention by children with autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  15. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  16. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  17. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  18. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  19. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  20. Spread Spectrum Mobile Radio Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-15

    seconds, yielding Z Y a =XMZ m M .-m The sequence of operacions is illustrated by the matrices of figures ’--3- and 1-3b. Each matrix is either a...sequence of K-bit numbers (code word, address, detection matrix) or a frequency-time spectrogram (traasmit spectrum, receive spectrum). The matrices pertain...and a reduced rank-sum receiver. In figure 3-1, we show the operation of a MRSR by means of matrices . 3-1 Reduced Rank-Sum Receiver With the values of

  1. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  2. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  3. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population. PMID:27335924

  4. Weight control in university students.

    PubMed Central

    Salmons, P H

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1858 students of United Kingdom origin aged between 18 and 20 years of age completed questionnaires which investigated present weight, bingeing, vomiting and weight control. Men were significantly more likely than women to be overweight, while women were significantly more likely to be underweight. One-third of the women were actively controlling weight, with dieting as the preferred method, while over half had attempted weight control in the past three years. Daily or more frequent bingeing was reported by 1.9% of men and 1.2% of women. There was a statistically significant relationship between weight control and bingeing. Eleven percent of men and 24% of women thought they had a problem with weight control, although amongst both men and women the proportion who felt they were overweight was in excess of the proportion who actually were overweight. It is suggested that health education programmes should take account of the pressures upon young women to conform to predetermined ideals in terms of body weight. PMID:3560132

  5. Weight Reduction Techniques Adopted When Weight Standards are Enforced

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8, PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Military Nutrition Division REPORT NUMBER U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental...affecting more soldiers than those Identified by the AWCP and possibly developing during a career In the Army. Nutrition /education programs should...that appeas to be Inevitable with aging and a career in the’Army. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBIEN OF PAGES Nutrition , weight reduction, Army weight

  6. Plan for early action: Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report contains recommendations on the implementation of an action plan to reduce or recapture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in British Columbia. The report includes the consensus recommendations of the BC Greenhouse Gas Forum, as well as those items on which Forum participants have agreed to disagree, plus the reasons for those differences. The recommendations include: Umbrella actions which may affect several or all sectors of the economy, or support the success of other actions; actions to reduce vehicle kilometers travelled; actions to increase vehicle efficiency or increase the use of alternative fuels or technologies; actions to decrease GHG emissions from energy production; actions to increase end-use energy efficiency; and actions to reduce non-energy-related emissions. Appendices include work sheets on each action, with a description of the action and information on the action`s rationale, experience elsewhere, related policy initiatives, and key issues regarding feasibility and implementation.

  7. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... normal everyday activities without having asthma symptoms. Action Plans Are Unique Each person's experience with asthma is ...

  8. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame.

  9. Weighted cubic and biharmonic splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Boris; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of algorithms for interpolating discrete data by using weighted cubic and biharmonic splines in such a way that the monotonicity and convexity of the data are preserved. We formulate the problem as a differential multipoint boundary value problem and consider its finite-difference approximation. Two algorithms for automatic selection of shape control parameters (weights) are presented. For weighted biharmonic splines the resulting system of linear equations can be efficiently solved by combining Gaussian elimination with successive over-relaxation method or finite-difference schemes in fractional steps. We consider basic computational aspects and illustrate main features of this original approach.

  10. Quantum gravity boundary terms from the spectral action of noncommutative space.

    PubMed

    Chamseddine, Ali H; Connes, Alain

    2007-08-17

    We study the boundary terms of the spectral action of the noncommutative space, defined by the spectral triple dictated by the physical spectrum of the standard model, unifying gravity with all other fundamental interactions. We prove that the spectral action predicts uniquely the gravitational boundary term required for consistency of quantum gravity with the correct sign and coefficient. This is a remarkable result given the lack of freedom in the spectral action to tune this term.

  11. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  12. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  13. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a New Jersey cohort.

    PubMed

    Maramara, Lauren A; He, Wenzhuan; Ming, Xue

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of pre- and perinatal risk factors in a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders compared with the New Jersey population. Our cohort included 268 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Birth histories were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The autism spectrum disorders cohort rates of 7 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher than New Jersey state rates: mother's age 35 years or older, low birth weight, multiple gestation, prematurity, vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, and hypoxia. Analysis of clustering of risk factors in the cohort showed no significant differences across maternal and paternal age groups. Older mothers in the cohort had a higher risk of infant hypoxia. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy appear to be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring, supporting the hypothesis that environmental influences in conjunction with genetics contribute to the causes of autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Urbanicity and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Astrup, Aske; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Obel, Carsten; Schendel, Diana E.; Schieve, Laura; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Parner, Erik T.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is for the majority of cases unknown and more studies of risk factors are needed. Geographic variation in ASD occurrence has been observed, and urban residence has been suggested to serve as a proxy for etiologic and identification factors in ASD. We examined the association between urbanicity level…

  15. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  17. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  18. Autism spectrum disorders and menstruation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Amy; Marshal, Michael P; Murray, Pamela J

    2011-10-01

    We assessed the experience of 10-25-year old women with autism spectrum disorders with menstruation through their caregivers by investigating hygiene concerns, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, and treatments. Frequent and severe symptoms of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were common but had moderate morbidity rates. Hormonal contraception and other treatments were underused.

  19. Naltrexone/bupropion for obesity: an investigational combination pharmacotherapy for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Billes, Sonja K; Sinnayah, Puspha; Cowley, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of the combination therapy, naltrexone/bupropion (NB), for obesity has not been fully described to date. Weight loss attempts rarely result in long-term success. This is likely a result of complex interactions among multiple peripheral and CNS systems that defend against weight loss, and may explain the overwhelming lack of effective obesity treatments. NB is an investigational combination therapy for obesity that was developed based on evidence that obesity involves alterations in the hypothalamic melanocortin system as well as brain reward systems that influence food craving and mood. Naltrexone and bupropion both have actions in these brain regions that may cause them to influence food intake, food craving, and other aspects of eating behavior that affect body weight. We review the individual actions of naltrexone and bupropion in brain hypothalamic and reward systems, and describe the current in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evidence for how NB influences food intake and produces weight loss.

  20. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...

  1. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics.

    PubMed

    Pater, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Optimality Theory (OT) are closely related formal frameworks for the study of language. In both, the structure of a given language is determined by the relative strengths of a set of constraints. They differ in how these strengths are represented: as numerical weights (HG) or as ranks (OT). Weighted constraints have advantages for the construction of accounts of language learning and other cognitive processes, partly because they allow for the adaptation of connectionist and statistical models. HG has been little studied in generative linguistics, however, largely due to influential claims that weighted constraints make incorrect predictions about the typology of natural languages, predictions that are not shared by the more popular OT. This paper makes the case that HG is in fact a promising framework for typological research, and reviews and extends the existing arguments for weighted over ranked constraints.

  2. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  3. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  4. Characterizations of proper actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Harald

    2004-03-01

    Three kinds of proper actions of increasing strength are defined. We prove that the three definitions specialize to the definitions by Bourbaki, by Palais and by Baum, Connes and Higson in their respective settings. The third of these, which thus turns out to be the strongest, originally only concerns actions of second countable locally compact groups on metrizable spaces. In this situation, it is shown to coincide with the other two definitions if the total space locally has the Lindelöf property and the orbit space is regular.

  5. Revisiting mu suppression in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Guillaume; Soussignan, Robert; Hugueville, Laurent; Martinerie, Jacques; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2014-10-17

    Two aspects of the EEG literature lead us to revisit mu suppression in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). First and despite the fact that the mu rhythm can be functionally segregated in two discrete sub-bands, 8-10 Hz and 10-12/13 Hz, mu-suppression in ASD has been analyzed as a homogeneous phenomenon covering the 8-13 Hz frequency. Second and although alpha-like activity is usually found across the entire scalp, ASD studies of action observation have focused on the central electrodes (C3/C4). The present study was aimed at testing on the whole brain the hypothesis of a functional dissociation of mu and alpha responses to the observation of human actions in ASD according to bandwidths. Electroencephalographic (EEG) mu and alpha responses to execution and observation of hand gestures were recorded on the whole scalp in high functioning subjects with ASD and typical subjects. When two bandwidths of the alpha-mu 8-13 Hz were distinguished, a different mu response to observation appeared for subjects with ASD in the upper sub-band over the sensorimotor cortex, whilst the lower sub-band responded similarly in the two groups. Source reconstructions demonstrated that this effect was related to a joint mu-suppression deficit over the occipito-parietal regions and an increase over the frontal regions. These findings suggest peculiarities in top-down response modulation in ASD and question the claim of a global dysfunction of the MNS in autism. This research also advocates for the use of finer grained analyses at both spatial and spectral levels for future directions in neurophysiological accounts of autism.

  6. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. II. Power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Hu, Wayne; Lima, Marcos

    2008-12-15

    We carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the inverse mass or Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular, the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the nonlinear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level for models even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. Simple scaling relations that take the linear power spectrum into a nonlinear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications.

  7. Giant many-body effects in liquid ammonia absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, we accurately calculate the absorption spectrum of liquid ammonia up to 13 eV using many-body perturbation approach. The electronic bandgap of liquid NH3 is perfectly described as the combination of density functional theory, Coulomb-hole screened exchange, and G0W0 approximation to the electronic self-energy, yielding a direct gap (Γ → Γ) of 7.71 eV, fully consistent with the experimentally measured gap from photo-emission spectroscopy. With respect to the NH3 optical properties, the entire spectrum in particular the low lying first absorption band is extremely affected by electron-hole interactions, leading to a fundamental redistribution of spectral weights of the independent-particle spectrum. Three well separated but broad main peaks are identified at 7.0, 9.8, and 11.8 eV with steadily increasing intensities in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe a giant net blue-shift of the first absorption peak of about 1.4 eV from gaseous to liquid phase as the direct consequence of many-body effects, allowing the associated liquid ammonia absorption band exciton to delocalize and feel more effectively the repulsion effects imposed by the surrounding solvent shells. Further, the spectrum is insensitive to the coupling of resonant and anti-resonant contributions. Concerning electronic response structure of liquid NH3, it is most sensitive to excitations at energies lower than its electronic gap.

  8. Spectrum of perturbations in anisotropic inflationary universe with vector hair

    SciTech Connect

    Himmetoglu, Burak

    2010-03-01

    We study both the background evolution and cosmological perturbations of anisotropic inflationary models supported by coupled scalar and vector fields. The models we study preserve the U(1) gauge symmetry associated with the vector field, and therefore do not possess instabilities associated with longitudinal modes (which instead plague some recently proposed models of vector inflation and curvaton). We first intoduce a model in which the background anisotropy slowly decreases during inflation; we then confirm the stability of the background solution by studying the quadratic action for all the perturbations of the model. We then compute the spectrum of the h{sub ×} gravitational wave polarization. The spectrum we find breaks statistical isotropy at the largest scales and reduces to the standard nearly scale invariant form at small scales. We finally discuss the possible relevance of our results to the large scale CMB anomalies.

  9. Gastrointestinal Hormones and Bariatric Surgery-induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ionut, Viorica; Burch, Miguel; Youdim, Adrienne; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Design and Methods The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Conclusion Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY, and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:23512841

  10. Modelling the TSZ power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Shaw, Laurie D; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the cosmological

  11. Antibacterial action of quinolones: from target to network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-08-01

    Quinolones are widely used broad-spectrum antibacterials with incomplete elucidated mechanism of action. Here, molecular basis for the antibacterial action of quinolones, from target to network, is fully discussed and updated. Quinolones trap DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV to form reversible drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes, resulting in bacteriostasis. Cell death arises from chromosome fragmentation in protein synthesis-dependent or -independent pathways according to distinguished quinolone structures. In the former pathway, irreversible oxidative DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species kills bacteria eventually. Toxin-antitoxin mazEF is triggered as an additional lethal action. Bacteria survive and develop resistance by SOS and other stress responses. Enlarged knowledges of quinolone actions and bacterial response will provide new targets for drug design and approaches to prevent bacterial resistance.

  12. ACT‐ONE ‐ ACTION at last on cancer cachexia by adapting a novel action beta‐blocker

    PubMed Central

    Laviano, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Novel action beta‐blockers combine many different pharmacological effects. The espindolol exhibits effects through β and central 5‐HT1α receptors to demonstrate pro‐anabolic, anti‐catabolic, and appetite‐stimulating actions. In the ACT‐ONE trial, espindolol reversed weight loss and improved handgrip strength in patients with cachexia due to non‐small cell lung cancer or colorectal cancer. With this trial, another frontier of cachexia management is in sight. Nonetheless, more efficacy and safety data is needed before new therapeutic indications for novel action beta‐blockers can be endorsed. PMID:27625919

  13. ACT-ONE - ACTION at last on cancer cachexia by adapting a novel action beta-blocker.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Laviano, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Novel action beta-blockers combine many different pharmacological effects. The espindolol exhibits effects through β and central 5-HT1α receptors to demonstrate pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, and appetite-stimulating actions. In the ACT-ONE trial, espindolol reversed weight loss and improved handgrip strength in patients with cachexia due to non-small cell lung cancer or colorectal cancer. With this trial, another frontier of cachexia management is in sight. Nonetheless, more efficacy and safety data is needed before new therapeutic indications for novel action beta-blockers can be endorsed.

  14. 75 FR 81558 - Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... potential that these technological innovations have for enabling more effective management of spectrum... bands. 2. As a general matter, dynamic spectrum access radios, as well as the new spectrum...

  15. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  16. Executive Mind, Timely Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, William R.

    1983-01-01

    The idea of "Executive Mind" carries with it the notion of purposeful and effective action. Part I of this paper characterizes three complements to "Executive Mind"--"Observing Mind,""Theorizing Mind," and "Passionate Mind"--and offers historical figures exemplifying all four types. The concluding…

  17. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  18. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  19. Youth Engaged for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Margaret; Little, Priscilla

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how out-of-school time programs can promote youth involvement in civic action by focusing on four interrelated programmatic strategies: establishing organizational readiness that fosters engagement; promoting youth-adult partnerships; engaging youth as leaders and decision makers; and involving youth in research and…

  20. Expert Teacher Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Eva

    The expert teacher action program is to improve classroom teaching performance. The program has been tested in workshop sessions involving more than 1,200 educators representing 50 school districts. A set of standards, consisting of 25 variables, lead to the definition of expert teaching. Each variable deals with a major aspect of the duties of…

  1. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  2. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott…

  3. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  4. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  5. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  6. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  7. Conjugate flow action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  8. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  9. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  10. Affirmative Action Fallout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  11. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  12. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  13. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  14. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  15. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  16. Target: Development Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC. Young World Development.

    This handbook, suggestive rather than prescriptive, is written for Young World Development and/or similar groups committed to active involvement in community, national, and world improvement. Emphasis is upon organizing high school, college, and adult courses and action programs in the community which will help sensitize participants and make them…

  17. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  18. Classroom Assessment in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  19. Quick action clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  20. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…