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Sample records for action spectrum weighted

  1. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1995-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation needs to be known in order to assess the carcinogenic risks of various UV sources, most notably the different solar UV spectra at ground level under depleting stratospheric ozone. This wavelength dependence cannot be extracted from human data (e.g., from epidemiology); it can, however, be directly obtained from animal experiments. Precise information on the wavelength dependence, the so-called action spectrum, was not available until recently: erythemal or mutagenic action spectra have been used as substitutes. However, experimental data on skin tumors induced in hairless mice (Skh:HR1) with various polychromatic sources have been building up. Our group has found that none of the substitute action spectra yield a statistically acceptable description of our data, and we have, therefore, derived a new action spectrum, dubbed the SCUP action spectrum (SCUP stands for Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia, because the action spectrum also fits experimental data from the former Skin and Cancer Hospital in Philadelphia). The SCUP action spectrum has a maximum at 293 nm, and in the UVA region above 340 nm the relative carcinogenicity per J/m2 drops to about 10(-4) of this maximum. The effects of an ozone depletion on solar UV doses weighted with these different action spectra are compared: the erythemal and SCUP weighted dose come out as least sensitive with a 1.3% and 1.4% increase, respectively, for every 1% decrease in ozone. PMID:7597292

  2. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  3. Use of an Improved Radiation Amplification Factor to Estimate the Effect of Total Ozone Changes on Action Spectrum Weighted Irradiances and an Instrument Response Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone OMEGA, U(OMEGA/200)(sup -RAF), where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 run) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  4. Action spectrum for phototherapy of psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.A.; Jaenicke, K.F.

    1981-05-01

    Using a monochromator the action spectrum for ultraviolet phototherapy of psoriasis was determined for radiation between 254 and 313 nm and compared to the action spectrum for erythema of uninvolved adjacent skin. Daily exposures of different doses of 254, 280, 290, 296, 300, 304 and 313 nm radiation were observed. Wavelengths of 254, 280, 290 nm were erythemogenic but not therapeutic even at 10 to 50 times the minimal erythema dose. At the other wavelengths studied, the 2 action spectra were similar. In general, fixed daily doses cleared at lower cumulative dose than did incrementally increased daily doses. The small number of suberythemogenic exposure doses required suggests that monochromatic radiation may have advantages over broadband sources.

  5. Sunlight and human conjunctival action spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Anthony P.; Perera, Sharmila C.

    1994-07-01

    Retrospective epidemiological studies implicate solar ultraviolet as a contributing factor in several human corneal/conjunctival disorders including spheroidal degeneration, pterygium and pinguecula. The inferior bulbar(ocular) conjunctivae of 64 human volunteers were irradiated with narrow band ultraviolet radiation biomicroscopy, differential in vivo staining, and impression cytology. The conjunctival response was symptomless and characterized by injection, chemosis, damaged epithelial cells, and the presence of inflammatory cells. The action spectrum showed a similar response to that for human corneal epithelium but with slightly lower damage thresholds (3mJcm-2at 270 nm). No response was produced at 330 nm. Irradiance levels were the same order of magnitude as solar UVB and these results suggest the sub-clinical damage would be produced within minutes of direct exposure to sunlight. The potential for repeated conjunctival trauma supports the hypothesis that chronic exposure to enviornmental UVR contributes to degenerative changes in the cornea and conjunctiva.

  6. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Across the Excess Weight Status Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Meg H.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M.; Ratcliff, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight utilizing cross-sectional data from the publicly available Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity). PMID:23784908

  7. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  8. Online Action Monitoring and Memory for Self-Performed Actions in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M.; Lind, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience difficulties with action monitoring. Two experimental tasks examined whether adults with ASD are able to monitor their own actions online, and whether they also show a typical enactment effects in memory (enhanced memory for actions they have performed compared…

  9. Perceiving Goals and Actions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyère, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to parse familiar sequences of action into meaningful events in young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as compared to young individuals with typical development (TD) and young individuals with moderate mental retardation or learning disabilities (MLDs). While viewing two…

  10. Intact Imitation of Emotional Facial Actions in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Richardson, Daniel; Bird, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that there is a core impairment in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) to the mirror neuron system (MNS): If observed actions cannot be mapped onto the motor commands required for performance, higher order sociocognitive functions that involve understanding another person's perspective, such as theory of mind, may be impaired.…

  11. Action perception is intact in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Cusack, James P; Williams, Justin H G; Neri, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Autistic traits span a wide spectrum of behavioral departures from typical function. Despite the heterogeneous nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there have been attempts at formulating unified theoretical accounts of the associated impairments in social cognition. A class of prominent theories capitalizes on the link between social interaction and visual perception: effective interaction with others often relies on discrimination of subtle nonverbal cues. It has been proposed that individuals with ASD may rely on poorer perceptual representations of other people's actions as returned by dysfunctional visual circuitry and that this, in turn, may lead to less effective interpretation of those actions for social behavior. It remains unclear whether such perceptual deficits exist in ASD: the evidence currently available is limited to specific aspects of action recognition, and the reported deficits are often attributable to cognitive factors that may not be strictly visual (e.g., attention). We present results from an exhaustive set of measurements spanning the entire action processing hierarchy, from motion detection to action interpretation, designed to factor out effects that are not selectively relevant to this function. Our results demonstrate that the ASD perceptual system returns functionally intact signals for interpreting other people's actions adequately; these signals can be accessed effectively when autistic individuals are prompted and motivated to do so under controlled conditions. However, they may fail to exploit them adequately during real-life social interactions. PMID:25653346

  12. Action Perception Is Intact in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Justin H.G.; Neri, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Autistic traits span a wide spectrum of behavioral departures from typical function. Despite the heterogeneous nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there have been attempts at formulating unified theoretical accounts of the associated impairments in social cognition. A class of prominent theories capitalizes on the link between social interaction and visual perception: effective interaction with others often relies on discrimination of subtle nonverbal cues. It has been proposed that individuals with ASD may rely on poorer perceptual representations of other people's actions as returned by dysfunctional visual circuitry and that this, in turn, may lead to less effective interpretation of those actions for social behavior. It remains unclear whether such perceptual deficits exist in ASD: the evidence currently available is limited to specific aspects of action recognition, and the reported deficits are often attributable to cognitive factors that may not be strictly visual (e.g., attention). We present results from an exhaustive set of measurements spanning the entire action processing hierarchy, from motion detection to action interpretation, designed to factor out effects that are not selectively relevant to this function. Our results demonstrate that the ASD perceptual system returns functionally intact signals for interpreting other people's actions adequately; these signals can be accessed effectively when autistic individuals are prompted and motivated to do so under controlled conditions. However, they may fail to exploit them adequately during real-life social interactions. PMID:25653346

  13. The action spectrum of Photosystem II photoinactivation in visible light.

    PubMed

    Zavafer, Alonso; Chow, Wah Soon; Cheah, Mun Hon

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is always accompanied by light induced damage to the Photosystem II (PSII) which is compensated by its subsequent repair. Photoinhibition of PSII is a complex process, balancing between photoinactivation, protective and repair mechanisms. Current understanding of photoinactivation is limited with competing hypotheses where the photosensitiser is either photosynthetic pigments or the Mn4CaO5 cluster itself, with little consensus on the mechanisms and consequences of PSII photoinactivation. The mechanism of photoinactivation should be reflected in the action spectrum of PSII photoinactivation, but there is a great diversity of the action spectra reported thus far. The only consensus is that PSII photoinactivation is greatest in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this review, the authors revisit the methods, technical constraints and the different action spectra of PSII photoinactivation reported to date and compare them against the diverse mechanisms proposed. Upon critical examination of the reported action spectra, a hybrid mechanism of photoinactivation, sensitised by both photosynthetic pigments and the Mn4CaO5 appears to be the most plausible rationalisation. PMID:26298696

  14. QEEG characteristics and spectrum weighted frequency for children diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Autistic spectrum disorders are a group of neurological and developmental disorders associated with social, communication, sensory, behavioral and cognitive impairments, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, activities, or interests. The aim of this study was a) to analyze QEEG findings of autistic patients and to compare the results with data base; and b) to introduce the calculation of spectrum weighted frequency (brain rate) as an indicator of general mental arousal in these patients. Results Results for Q-EEG shows generally increased delta-theta activity in frontal region of the brain. Changes in QEEG pattern appeared to be in a non-linear correlation with maturational processes. Brain rate measured in CZ shows slow brain activity (5. 86) which is significantly lower than normal and corresponds to low general mental arousal. Recent research has shown that autistic disorders have as their basis disturbances of neural connectivity. Neurofeedback seems capable of remediating such disturbances when these data are considered as part of treatment planning. Conclusions Prognosis of this pervasive disorder depends on the intellectual abilities: the better intellectual functioning, the possibilities for life adaptation are higher QEEG shows generally increased delta-theta activity in frontal region of the brain which is related to poor cognitive abilities. Brain rate measured in CZ shows slow brain activity related to under arousal. Pharmacotherapy combined with behavior therapy, social support and especially neurofeedback technique promise slight improvements PMID:20920283

  15. Action Spectrum for Photosporogenesis in Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yuichi; Yunoki, Toshifumi

    1978-01-01

    An action spectrum for photoinduced conidium formation in the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. was determined by exposing colonies to monochromatic radiation obtained from a diffraction grating monochromator. Wavelengths longer than 355 nm were ineffective even after exposures of 8 hours at intensities of 4,068 to 8,276 erg per cm2 per second. Colonies were exposed at 22.5 C from 226 to 355 nm at about 5 nm intervals. Three prominent peaks of effectiveness occurred at about 231, 268, and 283 nm, and there was also a minor peak at about 303 nm. The most effective wavelength for inducing sporulation was 231 nm; it was 25% more effective than the second most effective wavelength (283 nm). PMID:16660370

  16. Variation in the action spectrum of erythrolabe among deuteranopes.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Pugh, E N

    1977-01-01

    1. Eight deuteranopes matched a mixture of a monochromatic light on the long wave side of the neutral point and a violet (450 nm) primary to a fixed white as well as a monochromatic light on the short wave side of the neutral point mixed with a red (650 nm) primary, to the same white. For lambda greater than 530 nm, the former set of matches defined the action spectrum of the long wave sensitive foveal cones, and for lambda less than 480 nm, the latter that of the short wave sensitive cones. 2. Individual differences in the former matches were approximately correlated with the respective ratio of the sensitivities of the wave-length of the anomaloscope primaries, in a way that individual differences of the latter were not. 3. Assuming that eye media differences alone account for the differences in long wave sensitive foveal action spectra, the spectral reflectivity of the foveal fundus was predicted for these deuteranopes. The prediction is inconsistent with measurement. 4. Thirteen deuteranopes matched monochromatic spectral lights with a green (535 nm) and a blue (460 nm) primary. The result were analysed by von Kries' method in which differences in matching due to differences in eye media absorption are obviated. The matches of five differed significantly from one another when so analysed. It was concluded that at least one of two action spectra of the foveal cones of every one of these five differed from that of all of the others. 5. The canon that deuteranopes accept normal colour matches was evaluated by confronting a single normal with five deuternopes in the analytical anomaloscope of Baker & Rushton, set in the mode of each of the five in turn. Obvious differences existed between this normal's matches and those of four of five deuteranopes. 6. Explanations for differences in the spectrum of erythrolabe in different deuteranopes are evaluated. The possibilities that all have the identical visual pigment but (a) in cones with different optical funnelling

  17. Weighted oscillator strengths for the Xe IV spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Raineri, M. Lagorio, C.; Padilla, S.; Gallardo, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.

    2008-01-15

    The weighted oscillator strengths, gf, of 769 previously reported classified spectral lines, and 49 new observed and also classified lines belonging to the 5s{sup 2}5p{sup 3}, 5s5p{sup 4}, 5s{sup 2}5p{sup 2}(6p + 4f), and 5s{sup 2}5p{sup 2}(5d + 6s) transitions array in Xe IV, were determined through a multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock relativistic approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-square procedure in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels.

  18. Perception-action coupling and imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Nadel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the key function of imitation in motor and social development of typically developing infants and low-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We suggest that it might also be a developmental cornerstone for other neurodevelopmental disorders. Why this suggestion? First, imitation just requires relating one's motor patterns to perceived motor patterns. This is always possible if the actions seen are not beyond the individual's motor scope; for instance, newborn infants can already imitate tongue protrusion, eye blinking, or mouth opening, because these movements are part of their foetal repertoire. Second, imitation is a 'use it or lose it' capacity: the more it is used, the more the repertoire grows (plasticity). Finally, imitation is an efficient tool for two main adaptive functions: learning and communication. Imitation-based communication is available through the use of the two facets of imitation: imitating and being imitated. The two facets afford two roles that the partners can exchange as a turn-taking while they synchronize matched activities. Neuroimaging studies of interactive imitation have shown that such communicative systems involve a coordination of bottom-up and top-down processes. In this line, imitation is a booster of development that can also be of benefit for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25690119

  19. The action spectrum for vitamin D3: initial skin reaction and prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Arjan; den Outer, Peter; van Kranen, Henk; Slaper, Harry

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D3 photosynthesis in the skin is formulated as a set of reaction equations, including side-reactions to lumisterol, tachysterol and toxisterols, and the accompanying reverse reactions, isomerisation of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 and photodegradation of vitamin D3. The solution of this set is given for the stationary irradiance spectrum. The effective action spectrum for the instantaneous vitamin D3 production changes shape as a function of exposure, and therefore, no single action spectrum can be used. We assessed the action spectrum for unexposed skin and for skin that has been exposed to 7.5 Standard Erythemal Doses (SED). We constructed two new estimates: (1) the RIVM action spectrum, based on absorption spectra, quantum yields and skin transmission spectra, and (2) the modified QUT action spectrum, which is adjusted for self-absorption and skin transmission. For previously unexposed skin, the modified QUT action spectrum gives a qualitatively similar, but larger estimate than the RIVM action spectrum. We have not been able to solve the lack of quantitative agreement between the vitamin D production estimates from the three action spectrum estimates (RIVM, modified QUT and CIE). All new action spectra have stronger emphasis on the short wavelengths than the CIE action spectrum. We showed that, for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, the bandwidth that was used in the experiment that formed the basis of the CIE action spectrum, gives a red-shift of about 1 nm. Generally, with the formation of previtamin D3, the return reaction to provitamin D3 limits the production of vitamin D3. After some exposure, the new action spectrum has negative values for the longer wavelengths in the UVB. For the RIVM action spectrum, this happens after 7.5 SED, for the modified QUT action spectrum already after 1.25 SED, and after 7.5 SED the net production rate is largely cancelled. Thus prolonged exposure of previously unexposed skin saturates vitamin D3 formation. For maximum

  20. Fluorescence excitation spectrum of bilirubin in blood: a model for the action spectrum for phototherapy of neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lamola, Angelo A; Russo, Marie

    2014-01-01

    A recent report (Lamola et al. 2013 Pediatric Research, 74, 54-60) presents a semiempirical model for facile calculation of an action spectrum for bilirubin photochemistry in vivo using the most current knowledge of the optics of neonatal skin. The calculations indicate that competition for phototherapy light by hemoglobin in the skin is the predominant factor that defines the spectrum of light absorbed by bilirubin. If the latter is correct, a valid physical analog of the calculated spectrum is the excitation spectrum of bilirubin in blood. The fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and, indeed, found to be very similar to the calculated spectrum. Both spectra exhibit maxima near 476 nm and widths at half height of about 50 nm. This result supports the conclusion that light between 460 and 490 nm is most effective for phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. PMID:23998276

  1. A Review of Research on the Use of Weighted Vests with Children on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Erin E.

    2007-01-01

    Occupational therapists working in the school system setting report using weighted vests as a technique to improve attention and sensory processing for students who have an autism spectrum disorder. Some critics, however, contend that this technique is used without evidence of effectiveness. This study examines the overall research available on…

  2. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  3. Predictive Gaze during Observation of Irrational Actions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, L. E.; Pearson, A.; Ropar, D.; Hamilton, A. F. de C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding irrational actions may require the observer to make mental state inferences about why an action was performed. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have well documented difficulties with mentalizing; however, the degree to which rationality understanding is impaired in autism is not yet clear. The present study uses…

  4. The action spectrum for maximal photosensitivity of germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, K. M.; Mollwo, A.

    2000-10-01

    Fruits of Garden Lettuce, imbibed in 0.01 M KNO3, were depleted of maternal active phytochrome B by saturating deep-red exposure and photosensitized by chilling for 1 week at 4 °C. Twenty saturated fluence-response curves for photoinduced germination were elaborated between 300 and 800 nm, using exposure periods from 6 to 600 s at 22.5 °C; there is linear and closely parallel regression in the logarithmic probability net. The reciprocals of the half-response fluences obtained gave the apparent conversion spectrum of the controlling pigments and this was corrected for the transmittance of the seed-coat. It is a phytochrome spectrum of P r with photoconversion cross-sections of 1.2·109 and 4.5·103 m2 mol-1 at 666 and 800 nm, respectively. This means that for half-saturated germination of sensitized seed, fewer than 1 out of 200,000 phytochrome A molecules have to be photoconverted to P fr, and no photo-reversibility by deep-red was found. Therefore, all spectral colours of nightly moon- or skylight should stimulate the germination of sensitized weed seeds if they are exposed at the soil surface between sequential tillage operations.

  5. The action spectrum for maximal photosensitivity of germination.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, K M; Mollwo, A

    2000-09-01

    Fruits of Garden Lettuce, imbibed in 0.01 M KNO3, were depleted of maternal active phytochrome B by saturating deep-red exposure and photosensitized by chilling for 1 week at 4 degrees C. Twenty saturated fluence-response curves for photoinduced germination were elaborated between 300 and 800 nm, using exposure periods from 6 to 600 s at 22.5 degrees C; there is linear and closely parallel regression in the logarithmic probability net. The reciprocals of the half-response fluences obtained gave the apparent conversion spectrum of the controlling pigments and this was corrected for the transmittance of the seed-coat. It is a phytochrome spectrum of Pr with photoconversion cross-sections of 1.2 x 10(9) and 4.5 x 10(3) m2 mol-1 at 666 and 800 nm, respectively. This means that for half-saturated germination of sensitized seed, fewer than 1 out of 200,000 phytochrome A molecules have to be photoconverted to Pfr, and no photo-reversibility by deep-red was found. Therefore, all spectral colours of nightly moon- or skylight should stimulate the germination of sensitized weed seeds if they are exposed at the soil surface between sequential tillage operations. PMID:11091963

  6. Excited nucleon spectrum using non-perturbative improved clover action

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Richards; M. Gockeler; R. Horsley; D. Pleiter; P. E. L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; C. M. Maynard

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the extraction of negative-parity baryon masses from lattice QCD calculations. The mass of the lowest-lying negative-parity J = 1/2- state is computed in quenched lattice QCD using an O(a)-improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found with the nucleon mass. The calculation is performed on two lattice volumes, and three lattice spacings enabling a study of both finite-volume and finite-lattice-spacing uncertainties. A measurement of the first excited radial excitation of the nucleon finds a mass comparable, or even somewhat larger than that of the negative-parity ground state, in accord with other lattice determinations but in disagreement with experiment. Results are also presented for the lightest negative-parity I=3/2 state.

  7. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions

    PubMed Central

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers’ motor cortex to “resonate” with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor’s BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor’s FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view. PMID:25462196

  8. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions.

    PubMed

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M

    2015-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers' motor cortex to "resonate" with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor's BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor's FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view. PMID:25462196

  9. Optimal Periodic Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Based on Weight Fusion in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Jia, Min; Gu, Xuemai; Tan, Xuezhi

    2013-01-01

    The performance of cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio (CR) networks depends on the sensing mode, the sensing time and the number of cooperative users. In order to improve the sensing performance and reduce the interference to the primary user (PU), a periodic cooperative spectrum sensing model based on weight fusion is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the sensing period, the sensing time and the searching time are optimized, respectively. Firstly the sensing period is optimized to improve the spectrum utilization and reduce the interference, then the joint optimization algorithm of the local sensing time and the number of cooperative users, is proposed to obtain the optimal sensing time for improving the throughput of the cognitive radio user (CRU) during each period, and finally the water-filling principle is applied to optimize the searching time in order to make the CRU find an idle channel within the shortest time. The simulation results show that compared with the previous algorithms, the optimal sensing period can improve the spectrum utilization of the CRU and decrease the interference to the PU significantly, the optimal sensing time can make the CRU achieve the largest throughput, and the optimal searching time can make the CRU find an idle channel with the least time. PMID:23604027

  10. Optimal periodic cooperative spectrum sensing based on weight fusion in cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Jia, Min; Gu, Xuemai; Tan, Xuezhi

    2013-01-01

    The performance of cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio (CR) networks depends on the sensing mode, the sensing time and the number of cooperative users. In order to improve the sensing performance and reduce the interference to the primary user (PU), a periodic cooperative spectrum sensing model based on weight fusion is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the sensing period, the sensing time and the searching time are optimized, respectively. Firstly the sensing period is optimized to improve the spectrum utilization and reduce the interference, then the joint optimization algorithm of the local sensing time and the number of cooperative users, is proposed to obtain the optimal sensing time for improving the throughput of the cognitive radio user (CRU) during each period, and finally the water-filling principle is applied to optimize the searching time in order to make the CRU find an idle channel within the shortest time. The simulation results show that compared with the previous algorithms, the optimal sensing period can improve the spectrum utilization of the CRU and decrease the interference to the PU significantly, the optimal sensing time can make the CRU achieve the largest throughput, and the optimal searching time can make the CRU find an idle channel with the least time. PMID:23604027

  11. With Hindsight: An Overview of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzon, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Much has happened since nine teams across New Zealand engaged in a Ministry of Education-funded participatory action research project looking at effective practice for supporting children and young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in education. Building on earlier discussions, the project ran from 2002 to 2004, and until now the story…

  12. Infants' grip strength predicts mu rhythm attenuation during observation of lifting actions with weighted blocks.

    PubMed

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Bernier, Raphael A; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2016-03-01

    Research has established that the body is fundamentally involved in perception: bodily experience influences activation of the shared neural system underlying action perception and production during action observation, and bodily characteristics influence perception of the spatial environment. However, whether bodily characteristics influence action perception and its underlying neural system is unknown, particularly in early ontogeny. We measured grip strength in 12-month-old infants and investigated relations with mu rhythm attenuation, an electroencephalographic correlate of the neural system underlying action perception, during observation of lifting actions performed with differently weighted blocks. We found that infants with higher grip strength exhibited significant mu attenuation during observation of lifting actions, whereas infants with lower grip strength did not. Moreover, a progressively strong relation between grip strength and mu attenuation during observation of lifts was found with increased block weight. We propose that this relation is attributable to differences in infants' ability to recognize the effort associated with lifting objects of different weights, as a consequence of their developing strength. Together, our results extend the body's role in perception by demonstrating that bodily characteristics influence action perception by shaping the activation of its underlying neural system. PMID:25939632

  13. Assessment of the action spectrum for photooxidation in full fat bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Wold, Jens Petter; Skaret, Josefine; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup

    2015-07-15

    The action spectrum for photooxidation in full fat bovine milk was measured. Samples of milk with air or argon in headspace were exposed to narrow wavelength bands of light in the range 400-700 nm. Photooxidation in terms of off-flavors was measured by a sensory panel, volatile compounds by headspace solid phase micro extraction (SPME-GC-MS), and photobleaching of photosensitizers in milk (riboflavin, protoporphyrin IX and a chlorophyllic compound) by front face fluorescence spectroscopy. The action spectrum deviated significantly from the absorption spectrum of milk. Significant oxidation was induced by wavelengths around 400 nm and 500-650 nm in milk with air in headspace. Argon in headspace gave significant oxidation also at 700 nm. It is suggested that protoporphyrin IX and chlorophyll are responsible for oxidation induced by wavelengths >500 nm, and that also riboflavin is contributing from 400 to 500 nm. PMID:25722140

  14. Measurement of neutron dose with an organic liquid scintillator coupled with a spectrum weight function.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Endo, A; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, M; Nakamura, T

    2002-01-01

    A dose evaluation method for neutrons in the energy range of a few MeV to 100 MeV has been developed using a spectrum weight function (G-function), which is applied to an organic liquid scintillator of 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm in length. The G-function that converts the pulse height spectrum of the scintillator into the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), was calculated by an unfolding method using successive approximation of the response function of the scintillator and the ambient dose equivalent per unit neutron fluence (H*(10) conversion coefficients) of ICRP 74. To verify the response function of the scintillator and the value of H*(10) evaluated by the G-function. pulse height spectra of the scintillator were measured in some different neutron fields, which have continuous energy, monoenergetic and quasi-monoenergetic spectra. Values of H*(10) estimated using the G-function and pulse height spectra of the scintillator were compared with those calculated using neutron energy spectra. These doses agreed with each other. From the results, it was concluded that H*(10) can be evaluated directly from the pulse height spectrum of the scintillator by applying the G-function proposed in this study. PMID:12212900

  15. Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lampi, Katja M.; Lehtonen, Liisa; Tran, Phuong Lien; Suominen, Auli; Lehti, Venla; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between birth weight, gestational age, small for gestational age (SGA), and three most common autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subtypes. Study design In this population-based case-control study conducted in Finland, 4713 cases born between 1987 and 2005 with ICD-diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD, were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Four controls, individually matched on sex, date of birth, and place of birth, were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for each case. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether birth weight and gestational age information predicted ASD after controlling for maternal age, parity, smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric history, as well as for infant’s major congenital anomalies. Results Very low (<1500g) and moderately low (<2500g) birth weight, very low gestational age (less than 32 weeks), and SGA increased risk of childhood autism (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.4–6.5; 1.57, 1.1–2.3; 2.51, 1.3–5.0 and 1.72, 1.1–2.6, respectively). Very low and moderately low birth weight, very low gestational age, and SGA were also associated with increase in PDD risk (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.9–6.3; 1.81, 1.4–2.4; 2.46, 1.4–2.3 and 2.24, 1.7–3.0, respectively). No associations were found between the perinatal characteristics and Asperger syndrome. The increased risks persisted after controlling for selected potential confounders. Conclusions The finding that low birth weight, prematurity and SGA were related to childhood autism and PDD but not to Asperger syndrome suggests that prenatal factors related to these exposures may differ for these ASD subtypes, which may have preventive implications. PMID:22677565

  16. Leptin secretory dynamics and associated disordered eating psychopathology across the weight spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Miller, Karen K.; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Lawson, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin secretory dynamics across the weight spectrum and their relationship with disordered eating psychopathology have not been studied. Our objective was to compare leptin secretory dynamics in 13 anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 overweight/obese (OB) and 12 normal-weight women using deconvolution analysis. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral center, serum leptin levels were obtained every 20 minutes from 2000-0800h. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure %body fat. Disordered eating psychopathology was assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results The groups differed for basal leptin secretion (BASAL) (p=0.02). Mean leptin pulse amplitude, pulse mass, total pulsatile secretion (TPS) and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly different between groups before and after adjustment for BASAL (p<0.0001 for all). Leptin AUC correlated strongly with TPS (r=0.97, p<0.0001) and less with BASAL (r=0.35, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, only TPS was a significant predictor of leptin AUC (p<0.0001). TPS was inversely associated with most EDE-Q and EDI-2 parameters and the associations remained significant for EDE-Q eating concern (p=0.01), and EDI-2 asceticism, ineffectiveness and social insecurity (p<0.05) after adjusting for BASAL. These relationships were not significant when controlled for %body fat. Conclusion Secretory dynamics of leptin differ across weight spectrum, with mean pulse amplitude, mean pulse mass and TPS being low in AN and high in OB. Pulsatile, rather than basal secretion, is the major contributor to leptin AUC. Decreased pulsatile leptin is associated with disordered eating psychopathology, possibly reflecting low %body fat in AN. PMID:26903591

  17. An Action Spectrum for Light-induced Primordium Formation in a Basidiomycete, Favolus arcularius (Fr) Ames

    PubMed Central

    Kitamoto, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Furukawa, S.

    1972-01-01

    The action spectrum for the initiation of fruiting (primordium formation) in Favolus arcularius was determined on the equal response basis. The detectable effect of light was observed in the region between 350 to 560 nanometers, showing six distinct peaks at 374, 398, 424, 446, 480, and 514 nanometers. The half maximum response is reached with 1.8 × 108 ergs per cm2 at the most effective wavelength, 398 nanometers. Since the inhibitors, diphenylamine and quinacrine, had no consistent effect on the primordium formation, it is suggested that the possible photoreceptor pigment(s) may be neither carotenoid nor flavinoid. Comparing the action spectrum with those for some other fungi, the possibility that the photoreceptor system of this fungus may consist of two pigments is discussed. PMID:16657956

  18. Impact of LED irradiance on plant photosynthesis and action spectrum of plantlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naznin, Most Tahera; Lefsrud, Mark G.

    2014-09-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be selected to target the wavelengths absorbed by plantlets, enabling the users to customize the wavelengths of light required for maximum production. The primary purpose of this experiment was to test the effect of different ratios of red to blue LEDs on tomato plantlets photosynthetic action spectrum. Four light treatments including: red LED (100%) and three ratios of red (661 nm) to blue (449 nm) light (5:1, 10:1 and 19:1) at 60 umol m-2 s-1 for this study. The tomato plantlets cultured without blue light showed a three and half-fold decrease in photosynthesis rate. The highest photosynthetic action spectrum was observed at 10:1 but was not significantly difference from the 5:1 and the lowest action spectrum was observed at 100% red LED light. The tomato plantlets grown without the blue light showed a single-fold increase in plantlet height but were not significantly different from the 10:1 red to blue LED light. This research will allow for improved selection of LED lighting for plant tissue culture.

  19. Action spectrum of foraging behavior of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus.

    PubMed

    Koshitaka, H; Kmoshita, M; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the action spectrum of foraging behavior of a butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We first established an experimental protocol to evaluate learning and discrimination of monochromatic light by the butterflies. We trained butterflies to feed on sucrose solution at the window illuminated with certain monochromatic light produced through a monochromator. After confirming that they learned the monochromatic light, after 10 days of training, we tested the butterflies one by one. We presented training wavelengths for each individual at different intensities, and recorded whether they perform foraging behavior under freely-flying as well as tethered conditions. Freely-flying butterflies responded to light by visiting the window and searching for nectar around it, whereas tethered butterflies responded by extending their proboscides towards the window. The light intensity required to elicit 50% response for each tested monochromatic light was plotted. The resulting action spectrum for the visit was rather flat with the maximum sensitivity a 420 nm, whereas the spectrum for the proboscis extension had prominent peaks at 380, 500 and 600 nm. The difference in action spectra indicates that the visit and the proboscis extension are controlled by two independent mechanisms at least in part. PMID:15270220

  20. Weighting video information into a multikernel SVM for human action recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista-Ballester, Jordi; Vergés-Llahí, Jaume; Puig, Domenec

    2015-12-01

    Action classification using a Bag of Words (BoW) representation has shown computational simplicity and good performance, but the increasing number of categories, including actions with high confusion, and the addition of significant contextual information has led most authors to focus their efforts on the combination of image descriptors. In this approach we code the action videos using a BoW representation with diverse image descriptors and introduce them to the optimal SVM kernel as a linear combination of learning weighted single kernels. Experiments have been carried out on the action database HMDB and the upturn achieved with our approach is much better than the state of the art, reaching an improvement of 14.63% of accuracy.

  1. Determination of the Action Spectrum of UVR-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Jennifer A; Lloyd, James J; Diffey, Brian L; Matts, Paul J; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses of human skin to UVR including cancer and aging are largely wavelength-dependent, as shown by the action spectra of UVR-induced erythema and nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. A molecular dosimeter of UVR exposure is therefore required. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive biomarker of UVR exposure in human skin, its wavelength dependency is unknown. The current study solves this problem by determining the action spectrum of UVR-induced mtDNA damage in human skin. Human neonatal dermal fibroblasts and primary human adult keratinocyte cells were irradiated with increasing doses of UVR. Dose-response curves of mtDNA damage were produced for each of the UVR sources and cell types, and an action spectrum for each cell type was determined by mathematical induction. Similarities between these mtDNA damage action spectra and previously determined nDNA damage were observed, with the most detrimental effects occurring over the shorter UVR wavelengths. Notably, a statistically significant (P<0.0001) greater sensitivity to mtDNA damage was observed in dermal fibroblasts compared with keratinocytes at wavelengths >300 nm, possibly indicating a wider picture of depth dependence in sensitivity. This finding has implications for disease/photodamage mechanisms and interventions. PMID:26030182

  2. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  3. Photoisomerization action spectrum of retinal protonated Schiff base in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlan, N. J. A.; Catani, K. J.; Adamson, B. D.; Wille, U.; Bieske, E. J.

    2014-04-28

    The photophysical behaviour of the isolated retinal protonated n-butylamine Schiff base (RPSB) is investigated in the gas phase using a combination of ion mobility spectrometry and laser spectroscopy. The RPSB cations are introduced by electrospray ionisation into an ion mobility mass spectrometer where they are exposed to tunable laser radiation in the region of the S{sub 1} ← S{sub 0} transition (420–680 nm range). Four peaks are observed in the arrival time distribution of the RPSB ions. On the basis of predicted collision cross sections with nitrogen gas, the dominant peak is assigned to the all-trans isomer, whereas the subsidiary peaks are assigned to various single, double and triple cis geometric isomers. RPSB ions that absorb laser radiation undergo photoisomerization, leading to a detectable change in their drift speed. By monitoring the photoisomer signal as a function of laser wavelength an action spectrum, extending from 480 to 660 nm with a clear peak at 615 ± 5 nm, is obtained. The photoisomerization action spectrum is related to the absorption spectrum of isolated retinal RPSB molecules and should help benchmark future electronic structure calculations.

  4. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O.; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<−0.67), on track (−0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5th and ≥85th percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  5. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<-0.67), on track (-0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  6. Action spectrum for melanoma induction in hybrid fish of the genus Xiphophorus

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a complicated disease that is dependent on a number of factors that influence its incidence in ways that are quantitatively uncertain. The incidence of CMM increases with proximity to the Equator -- an observation in line with the conclusion that sun exposure is the most important etiologic agent. However, the latitude effect does not implicate UVB because the intensities of all spectral regions increase toward the Equator. An understanding of the useful public health measures to lower the incidence of CMM would benefit greatly if the spectral region of sunlight implicated in melanoma incidence were known. Such knowledge requires animal models to evaluate the incidence as a function of wavelength. There are marsupial models, a transgenic mouse model, and a fish model. To date, only the fish model has been employed to obtain an action spectrum. The paper describes a fish model, implications of the fish spectrum, and epidemiological data.

  7. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  8. Induction of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of hairless mice by UVB: an action spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, R.D.; Peak, M.J.; Lyon, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    An action spectrum for the induction of pyrimidine dimers in the epidermis of hairless mice was determined between 288 and 307 nm. The presence of pyrimidine dimers in tritium-labeled DNA extracted from exposed SKH:hairless-1 mouse skin was determined using dimer-specific nucleases from Micrococcus luteus in conjunction with sedimentation of the irradiated DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The rate of induction of pyrimidine dimers was maximal at 293 nm. These values were used to propose a UVB transmission curve for mouse epidermis.

  9. A polychromatic action spectrum for photosensitivity to orally administered 8-methoxypsoralen in humans.

    PubMed

    Bech-Thomsen, N; Wulf, H C

    1994-01-01

    The action spectrum for producing minimal phototoxic erythema after oral administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) was determined in the range of 312-368 nm in 12 human volunteers using six different UV radiation sources. The peak sensitivity was found to be at 343 nm. The 8-MOP photosensitivity was at a high level (> or = 0.75 of maximum) between 336 and 355 nm. Conventional UVA radiation sources, like the Philips TL/09R tube, have a high energy output within 335 and 355 nm, and are therefore highly recommended in oral psoralen plus UVA radiation treatment. PMID:8313631

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: physical foundations and applications of restriction spectrum imaging.

    PubMed

    White, Nathan S; McDonald, Carrie; McDonald, Carrie R; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J Kellogg; Chen, Clark C; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J; Kane, Christopher J; Kaine, Christopher J; Carter, Bob S; Bradley, William G; Dale, Anders M

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000s. Before its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neurooncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions about the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neurooncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent in diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology and surgical planning. See all articles in this

  11. Diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer: Physical foundations and applications of Restriction Spectrum Imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, Nathan S.; McDonald, Carrie; Farid, Niky; Kuperman, Josh; Karow, David; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Holland, Dominic; Shabaik, Ahmed; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hope, Tuva; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Liss, Michael; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Chen, Clark C.; Raman, Steve; Margolis, Daniel; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard; Kesari, Santosh; Mundt, Arno J.; Kane, Chris J.; Carter, Bob S.; Bradley, William G.; Dale, Anders M.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been at the forefront of cancer imaging since the early 2000’s. Prior to its application in clinical oncology, this powerful technique had already achieved widespread recognition due to its utility in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. Following this initial success, the ability of DWI to detect inherent tissue contrast began to be exploited in the field of oncology. Although the initial oncologic applications for tumor detection and characterization, assessing treatment response, and predicting survival were primarily in the field of neuro-oncology, the scope of DWI has since broadened to include oncologic imaging of the prostate gland, breast, and liver. Despite its growing success and application, misconceptions as to the underlying physical basis of the DWI signal exist among researchers and clinicians alike. In this review, we provide a detailed explanation of the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast, emphasizing the difference between hindered and restricted diffusion, and elucidating how diffusion parameters in tissue are derived from the measurements via the diffusion model. We describe one advanced DWI modeling technique, called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI). This technique offers a more direct in vivo measure of tumor cells, due to its ability to distinguish separable pools of water within tissue based on their intrinsic diffusion characteristics. Using RSI as an example, we then highlight the ability of advanced DWI techniques to address key clinical challenges in neuro-oncology, including improved tumor conspicuity, distinguishing actual response to therapy from pseudoresponse, and delineation of white matter tracts in regions of peritumoral edema. We also discuss how RSI, combined with new methods for correction of spatial distortions inherent diffusion MRI scans, may enable more precise spatial targeting of lesions, with implications for radiation oncology, and surgical planning. PMID:25183788

  12. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  13. Participation Weight Estimation in Power Oscillation Mode based on Synchronized Phasor Measurements and Auto-spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changsong; Watanabe, Masayuki; Mitani, Yasunori; Monchusi, Bessie

    In order to effectively monitor and control the interarea oscillations in a power system, it is crucial to obtain the full knowledge about the oscillation mode, such as participation level, mode distribution, frequency and damping. The paper presents an approach to estimate the participation weight of a generator in an oscillation mode based on synchronized phasor measurements and auto-spectrum analysis. The participation weight is a quantity defined in this paper to indicate the relative participation of one generator in one oscillation mode of interest. Compared to traditional participation factor computed from model-based modal analysis, the participation weight is directly defined and estimated based on the measurements of system output signals. The input-output relationship for a constant-parameter linear system when subjected to a stationary white noise disturbance is introduced to establish connection between measureable power system response quantities and participation weight. The auto-spectrum analysis is adopted to estimate participation weight with demonstrative examples, which include simulation examples as well as practical examples using measured phasor data from the CampusWAMS.

  14. Action spectrum for retinal injury from near-ultraviolet radiation in the aphakic monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, W.T. Jr.; Mueller, H.A.; Ruffolo, J.J. Jr.; Guerry, D.; Guerry, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    We found that the action spectrum for retinal damage (determined by the fundus photographic appearance of a minimal lesion immediately after exposure) extends into the near-ultraviolet by exposing three aphakic eyes from rhesus monkeys to 405-, 380-, 350-, and 320-nm wavelengths produced by a 2,500-W xenon lamp equipped with quartz optics and 10-nm interference filters. Exposure times were 100 and 1,000 seconds and the spot diameter on the retina was 500 micrometers. The retina was six times more sensitive to 350- and 325-nm wavelengths than to blue light (441 nm). Both ophthalmoscopic and histologic data showed that near-ultraviolet lesions differed in important respects from blue-light lesions. Near-ultraviolet produced irreparable damage to rod and cone photoreceptors.

  15. Uroguanylin Action in the Brain Reduces Weight Gain in Obese Mice via Different Efferent Autonomic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Folgueira, Cintia; Beiroa, Daniel; Callon, Aurelie; Al-Massadi, Omar; Barja-Fernandez, Silvia; Senra, Ana; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Seoane, Luisa M; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    The gut-brain axis is of great importance in the control of energy homeostasis. The identification of uroguanylin (UGN), a peptide released in the intestines that is regulated by nutritional status and anorectic actions, as the endogenous ligand for the guanylyl cyclase 2C receptor has revealed a new system in the regulation of energy balance. We show that chronic central infusion of UGN reduces weight gain and adiposity in diet-induced obese mice. These effects were independent of food intake and involved specific efferent autonomic pathways. On one hand, brain UGN induces brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, as well as browning and lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. On the other hand, brain UGN augments fecal output through the vagus nerve. These findings are of relevance as they suggest that the beneficial metabolic actions of UGN through the sympathetic nervous system do not involve nondesirable gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea. The present work provides mechanistic insights into how UGN influences energy homeostasis and suggests that UGN action in the brain represents a feasible pharmacological target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26566631

  16. Action spectrum for photochemical retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disruption in an in vivo monkey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sabarinathan, Ranjani; Bubel, Tracy; Williams, David R.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of RPE disruption and autofluorescence (AF) photobleaching at light levels below the ANSI photochemical maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (Morgan et al., 2008) indicates a demand to modify future light safety standards to protect the retina from harm. To establish safe light exposures, we measured the visible light action spectrum for RPE disruption in an in vivo monkey model with fluorescence adaptive optics retinal imaging. Using this high resolution imaging modality can provide insight into the consequences of light on a cellular level and allow for longitudinal monitoring of retinal changes. The threshold retinal radiant exposures (RRE) for RPE disruption were determined for 4 wavelengths (460, 488, 544, and 594 nm). The anaesthetized macaque retina was exposed to a uniform 0.5° × 0.5° field of view (FOV). Imaging within a 2° × 2° FOV was performed before, immediately after and at 2 week intervals for 10 weeks. At each wavelength, multiple RREs were tested with 4 repetitions each to determine the threshold for RPE disruption. For qualitative analysis, RPE disruption is defined as any detectable change from the pre exposure condition in the cell mosaic in the exposed region relative to the corresponding mosaic in the immediately surrounding area. We have tested several metrics to evaluate the RPE images obtained before and after exposure. The measured action spectrum for photochemical RPE disruption has a shallower slope than the current ANSI photochemical MPE for the same conditions and suggests that longer wavelength light is more hazardous than other measurements would suggest.

  17. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  18. The Use of Weighted Vests with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Therapists who use sensory integration therapy may recommend that children wear weighted vests as an intervention strategy that they claim may assist in remediating problems such as inattentiveness, hyperactivity, stereotypic behaviors and clumsiness. Seven studies examining weighted vests are reviewed. While there is only a limited body of…

  19. Action Spectrum for Growth Delay Induced in Escherichia coli B/r by Far-Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Takebe, Hiraku; Jagger, John

    1969-01-01

    An action spectrum for growth delay induced in Escherichia coli B/r by far-ultraviolet radiation (230 to 295 nm) was obtained. It resembles the action spectrum for killing obtained in the same experiments, indicating that the chromophore for growth delay is probably the same as the chromophore for killing. Another action spectrum for killing, obtained under conditions more suitable for chromophore identification, suggests that nucleic acid, either deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid, is the chromophore for growth delay induced by far ultraviolet. Isoprenoid quinones, which seem to be important chromophores for growth delay induced by near-ultraviolet radiation (above 300 nm), appear to play a negligible role in growth delay induced by wavelengths below 300 nm. PMID:4891265

  20. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Scharoun, Sara M.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  1. Anticipatory Planning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Assessment of Independent and Joint Action Tasks.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Although not a diagnostic feature, motor impairments have been recently acknowledged as prevalent and significant, such that these children have difficulties planning, organizing and coordinating movements. This study aimed to further investigate anticipatory motor planning in children with ASD by means of assessing end- and beginning-state comfort, considering inconsistent reports of end-state comfort in independent action, and the study of beginning-state comfort being limited to one study with young adults. Five- to eleven-year-old children with ASD, and chronologically age- and sex-matched typically-developing children picked-up a glass and: (1) poured a cup of water; and (2) passed it to the researcher to pour a cup of water. End-state comfort was deemed evident if participants grasped the glass thumb-down followed by a 180° rotation; therefore ending with a thumb-up posture. Beginning-state comfort was deemed evident if participants passed the glass to the researcher oriented upright. Findings revealed less end-state comfort in children with ASD, attributed to motor planning deficits. Beginning-state comfort did not differ, ascribed to the habitual nature of the task; therefore reflecting a stimulus-driven response as opposed to an action which reflects anticipatory planning. The findings support difficulties with motor planning and control for children with ASD in an independent task. However, when acting with a familiar object in joint action, behavior does not differ, likely indicative of a habitual, stimulus-driven response. PMID:27601983

  2. PPARα Is Required for PPARδ Action in Regulation of Body Weight and Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garbacz, Wojciech G.; Huang, Jeffrey T. J.; Higgins, Larry G.; Wahli, Walter; Palmer, Colin N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha (PPARα) and delta (PPARδ) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα is a target of well established lipid-lowering drugs. PPARδ (also known as PPARβ/δ) has been investigated as a promising antidiabetic drug target; however, the evidence in the literature on PPARδ effect on hepatic lipid metabolism is inconsistent. Mice conditionally expressing human PPARδ demonstrated pronounced weight loss and promoted hepatic steatosis when treated with GW501516 (PPARδ-agonist) when compared to wild type mice. This effect was completely absent in mice with either a dominant negative form of PPARδ or deletion of the DNA binding domain of PPARδ. This confirmed the absolute requirement for PPARδ in the physiological actions of GW501516 and confirmed the potential utility against the human form of this receptor. Surprisingly the genetic deletion of PPARα also abrogated the effect of GW501516 in terms of both weight loss and hepatic lipid accumulation. Also the levels of the PPARα endogenous agonist 16:0/18:1-GPC were shown to be modulated by PPARδ in wild type mice. Our results show that both PPARδ and PPARα receptors are essential for GW501516-driven adipose tissue reduction and subsequently hepatic steatosis, with PPARα working downstream of PPARδ. PMID:26604919

  3. Action Spectrum of the Activity of Acifluorfen-methyl, a Diphenyl Ether Herbicide, in Chlamydomonas eugametos1

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Michael P.; Hess, F. Dan

    1985-01-01

    Light is required for the herbicide activity of diphenyl ether herbicides. An action spectrum of acifluorfen-methyl activity with Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) determined that cell death occurred at two peaks of light; 450 and 670 nanometers. These data indicate both chlorophyll and carotenoids, but not riboflavin, are involved in herbicide toxicity. PMID:16664086

  4. Social and Individual Aspects of Classroom Learning in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Action Research Pilot Study on Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Jakob; Zander, Ulla; Zander, Eric; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2012-01-01

    The current paper reports on the outcome of an ongoing action research project at a school for higher-functioning students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Sweden. The overall aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a questionnaire that captures social and individual aspects of classroom learning suitable for use with students with ASD.…

  5. WAVELENGTHS, ENERGY LEVELS, LIFETIMES, AND WEIGHTED OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR THE S VIII SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Pagan, C. J. B.; Cavalcanti, G. H.; Trigueiros, A. G.; Jupen, C.

    2011-10-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and lifetimes for S VIII presented in this work were obtained by a multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock relativistic approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic energy parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. The values for gf and lifetimes were then calculated on the basis of these adjusted parameters. New classifications are proposed for energy levels belonging to the 4s and 4d configurations and lines related to them.

  6. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social

  7. Infants' Grip Strength Predicts Mu Rhythm Attenuation during Observation of Lifting Actions with Weighted Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Bernier, Raphael A.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Research has established that the body is fundamentally involved in perception: bodily experience influences activation of the shared neural system underlying action perception and production during action observation, and bodily characteristics influence perception of the spatial environment. However, whether bodily characteristics influence…

  8. A look into the invisible: ultraviolet-B sensitivity in an insect (Caliothrips phaseoli) revealed through a behavioural action spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Carlos A.; Izaguirre, Miriam M.; Curiale, Javier; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2010-01-01

    Caliothrips phaseoli, a phytophagous insect, detects and responds to solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; λ ≤ 315 nm) under field conditions. A highly specific mechanism must be present in the thrips visual system in order to detect this narrow band of solar radiation, which is at least 30 times less abundant than the UV-A (315–400 nm), to which many insects are sensitive. We constructed an action spectrum of thrips responses to light by studying their behavioural reactions to monochromatic irradiation under confinement conditions. Thrips were maximally sensitive to wavelengths between 290 and 330 nm; human-visible wavelengths (λ ≥ 400 nm) failed to elicit any response. All but six ommatidia of the thrips compound eye were highly fluorescent when exposed to UV-A of wavelengths longer than 330 nm. We hypothesized that the fluorescent compound acts as an internal filter, preventing radiation with λ > 330 nm from reaching the photoreceptor cells. Calculations based on the putative filter transmittance and a visual pigment template of λmax = 360 nm produced a sensitivity spectrum that was strikingly similar to the action spectrum of UV-induced behavioural response. These results suggest that specific UV-B vision in thrips is achieved by a standard UV-A photoreceptor and a sharp cut-off internal filter that blocks longer UV wavelengths in the majority of the ommatidia. PMID:19846453

  9. Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to "put themselves in the other person's shoes" by engaging brain systems involved in both "mentalizing" and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.05-0.9 kg or a large box weighting 3-18 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

  10. Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to “put themselves in the other person's shoes” by engaging brain systems involved in both “mentalizing” and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.05–0.9 kg or a large box weighting 3–18 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

  11. Internal Model Deficits Impair Joint Action in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Riem, Madelon; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Bekkering, Harold; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative differences in social interaction and communication are diagnostic hallmarks in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study investigated the hypothesis that impaired social interaction in ASD reflects a deficit to internally model the behavior of a co-actor. Children and adolescents with ASD and matched controls performed a…

  12. What We Did: Journeys in Autism Spectrum Disorder Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Supporting children and young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an endeavour associated with both reward and challenge. There are teams of people across New Zealand who provide this support daily, without fanfare or display--it is simply what they do. In 2003 and 2004 nine such teams stepped up and out by taking part in the national…

  13. Infants' Use of Material Properties to Guide Their Actions with Differently Weighted Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus; Hauf, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Two studies with 9-, 11- and 13-month-old infants were conducted to investigate infants' ability to use an object's material properties to guide their object-directed actions. In study 1, 9- and 11-month-old infants played in an exploration phase with two objects made of different materials, one very heavy and the other one light and playable.…

  14. Improved glucose control and reduced body weight in rodents with dual mechanism of action peptide hybrids.

    PubMed

    Trevaskis, James L; Mack, Christine M; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J; D'Souza, Lawrence J; Levy, Odile E; Lewis, Diane Y; Jodka, Carolyn M; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G; Ghosh, Soumitra S

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lep(ob)/Lep (ob) mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604

  15. Improved Glucose Control and Reduced Body Weight in Rodents with Dual Mechanism of Action Peptide Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Trevaskis, James L.; Mack, Christine M.; Sun, Chengzao; Soares, Christopher J.; D’Souza, Lawrence J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lewis, Diane Y.; Jodka, Carolyn M.; Tatarkiewicz, Krystyna; Gedulin, Bronislava; Gupta, Swati; Wittmer, Carrie; Hanley, Michael; Forood, Bruce; Parkes, David G.; Ghosh, Soumitra S.

    2013-01-01

    Combination therapy is being increasingly used as a treatment paradigm for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. In the peptide therapeutics realm, recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of chimeric peptides that act on two distinct receptors, thereby harnessing parallel complementary mechanisms to induce additive or synergistic benefit compared to monotherapy. Here, we extend this hypothesis by linking a known anti-diabetic peptide with an anti-obesity peptide into a novel peptide hybrid, which we termed a phybrid. We report on the synthesis and biological activity of two such phybrids (AC164204 and AC164209), comprised of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, and exenatide analog, AC3082, covalently linked to a second generation amylin analog, davalintide. Both molecules acted as full agonists at their cognate receptors in vitro, albeit with reduced potency at the calcitonin receptor indicating slightly perturbed amylin agonism. In obese diabetic Lepob/Lepob mice sustained infusion of AC164204 and AC164209 reduced glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) equivalently but induced greater weight loss relative to exenatide administration alone. Weight loss was similar to that induced by combined administration of exenatide and davalintide. In diet-induced obese rats, both phybrids dose-dependently reduced food intake and body weight to a greater extent than exenatide or davalintide alone, and equal to co-infusion of exenatide and davalintide. Phybrid-mediated and exenatide + davalintide-mediated weight loss was associated with reduced adiposity and preservation of lean mass. These data are the first to provide in vivo proof-of-concept for multi-pathway targeting in metabolic disease via a peptide hybrid, demonstrating that this approach is as effective as co-administration of individual peptides. PMID:24167604

  16. Identification of explosive media using spectrum dynamics under the action of a THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2009-09-01

    A method of THz spectral dynamics analysis (SDA) of medium response in the THz and GHz ranges, which was developed by us in previous papers for detection and identification of materials, is used for the treatment of experimentally measured signals, passed through selected explosives, including those hidden under covering materials. This technique is based on the window sliding method and on restoration of the THz pulse. It allows researchers to follow the dynamics of many spectral lines in one set of measurements simultaneously and to obtain the full information about the spectrum dynamics of the THz pulse. Relaxation time of rotational transitions, for example, can be determined too. This information gives an opportunity to detect and identify materials despite the similarity in their THz spectra-which may be identical. We show that the spectrum dynamics of THz pulses, passed through the explosives hidden under plastic, cotton and leather barriers-covers, differ widely for these media despite little difference in their spectra. Consequently, our method allows for detection and identification of the hidden explosives with high probability.

  17. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action.

    PubMed

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  18. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  19. Action spectrum of photoinhibition in leaves of wild type and npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sarvikas, Päivi; Hakala, Marja; Pätsikkä, Eija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2006-03-01

    Photoinhibition is light-induced inactivation of PSII. Hypotheses about the photoreceptor(s) of photoinhibition include the Chl antenna of PSII, manganese of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), uncoupled Chl and iron-sulfur centres. We measured the action spectrum of photoinhibition in vivo from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. and from the npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants defective in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitations of the PSII antenna. The in vivo action spectrum was found to resemble closely the in vitro action spectra published for photoinhibition. We compared the action spectrum with absorbance spectra of model compounds of the OEC complex and other potential photoreceptors of photoinhibition. The comparison suggests that both manganese and Chl function as photoreceptors in photoinhibition. In accordance with the function of two types of photoreceptors in photoinhibition, NPQ was found to offer only partial protection against photoinhibition at visible wavelengths. The low protective efficiency of NPQ supports the conclusion that the Chl antenna of PSII is not the only photoreceptor of photoinhibition. Comparison of the action spectrum of photoinhibition with the emission spectrum of sunlight shows that the UV part of sunlight is responsible for the major part of photoinhibition under natural conditions. PMID:16415063

  20. Vector-Valued Polynomials and a Matrix Weight Function with B2-Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkl, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of orthogonal polynomials on {R}^{2} with the weight function \\vert x_{1}^{2}-x_{2}^{2}\\vert ^{2k_{0}}\\vert x_{1}x_{2}\\vert ^{2k_{1}}e^{-( x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}) /2} is based on the Dunkl operators of type B_{2}. This refers to the full symmetry group of the square, generated by reflections in the lines x_{1}=0 and x_{1}-x_{2}=0. The weight function is integrable if k_{0},k_{1},k_{0} +k_{1}>-1/2. Dunkl operators can be defined for polynomials taking values in a module of the associated reflection group, that is, a vector space on which the group has an irreducible representation. The unique 2-dimensional representation of the group B_{2} is used here. The specific operators for this group and an analysis of the inner products on the harmonic vector-valued polynomials are presented in this paper. An orthogonal basis for the harmonic polynomials is constructed, and is used to define an exponential-type kernel. In contrast to the ordinary scalar case the inner product structure is positive only when ( k_{0},k_{1}) satisfy - 1/2 < k_{0}± k_{1} < 1/2. For vector polynomials (f_{i}) _{i=1}^{2}, ( g_{i}) _{i=1}^{2} the inner product has the form iint_{{R}^{2}}f(x) K(x) g(x) ^{T}e^{-( x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}) /2}dx_{1}dx_{2} where the matrix function K(x) has to satisfy various transformation and boundary conditions. The matrix K is expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  1. Describing Patterns of Weight Changes Using Principal Components Analysis: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Bray, George A.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Rejeski, W. Jack; Knowler, William C.; Lang, Wei; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Williamson, Don; Lewis, C. Beth; Wing, Rena

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To demonstrate how principal components analysis can be used to describe patterns of weight changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention METHODS Principal components analysis was applied to monthly percent weight changes measured on 2,485 individuals enrolled in the lifestyle arm of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) clinical trial. These individuals were 45–75 years of age, with Type 2 diabetes and body mass indices >25 kg/m2. Associations between baseline characteristics and weight loss patterns were described using analyses of variance. RESULTS Three components collectively accounted for 97.0% of total intra-subject variance: a gradually decelerating weight loss (88.8%), early versus late weight loss (6.6%), and a mid-year trough (1.6%). In agreement with previous reports, each of the baseline characteristics we examined had statistically significant relationships with weight loss patterns. As examples, males tended to have a steeper trajectory of percent weight loss and to lose weight more quickly than women. Individuals with higher HbA1c tended to have a flatter trajectory of percent weight loss and to have mid-year troughs in weight loss compared to those with lower HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS Principal components analysis provided a coherent description of characteristic patterns of weight changes and is a useful vehicle for identifying their correlates and potentially for predicting weight control outcomes. PMID:19628410

  2. Examining School-Based Social Skills Program Needs and Barriers for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostmeyer, Katrina; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a method used to develop interventions with the direct input of stakeholders. Social skills are a core deficit of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) that can affect academic performance and other areas of well-being, yet empirically supported services are not always available.…

  3. What Works for One: Practice Considerations for Supporting a Child or Young Person with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Drawn from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the reports submitted to the Ministry of Education by teams and mentors who took part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project. The key findings highlight the importance of: individualised support based on a sound knowledge of the child or young person; strategies targeted at…

  4. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  5. Intention Perception in High Functioning People with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Animacy Displays Derived from Human Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleer, Phil; Kay, Jim W.; Pollick, Frank E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    The perception of intent in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often relies on synthetic animacy displays. This study tests intention perception in ASD via animacy stimuli derived from human motion. Using a forced choice task, 28 participants (14 ASDs; 14 age and verbal-I.Q. matched controls) categorized displays of Chasing, Fighting, Flirting,…

  6. State-resolved unimolecular dissociation of cis-cis HOONO: Product state distributions and action spectrum in the 2νOH band region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Jamie; Sinha, Amitabha

    2005-03-01

    Nascent OH fragment product state distributions arising from unimolecular dissociation of room temperature HOONO, initiated by excitation in the region of the 2νOH band, are probed using laser-induced fluorescence at sub-Doppler resolution. Phase-space simulations of the measured OH rotational distributions are consistent with the dissociation dynamics being statistical and confirm that all major features in the room temperature action spectrum belong to the cis-cis conformer. The phase-space simulations also allow us to estimate the HO-ONO bond dissociation energy of cis-cis HOONO to be D0=19.9±0.5kcal /mol, which when combined with the known heat-of-formation data for the OH and NO2 fragments gives ΔHf0(cis-cisHOONO )=-2.5kcal/mol. In addition to fragment energy release, spectral features in the cis-cis HOONO action spectrum are examined with respect to their shifts upon N15 isotope substitution and through ab initio spectral simulation using a two-dimensional dipole surface that takes into account the influence of HOON torsional motion on the OH stretching overtone. The two-dimensional spectral simulations, using CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ dipole surface, qualitatively reproduces features appearing in the action spectrum and suggest that the strong broad feature occurring ˜570cm-1 to the blue of the cis-cis HOONO 2νOH peak, likely involve excitation of HOON-torsion/OH-stretch combination bands originating from thermally populated excited torsional states. A closer examination of the predictions of the two-dimensional model with experiments also reveals its limitations and suggests that a more elaborate treatment, one which includes several additional modes, will likely be required in order to fully explain the room temperature action spectrum. Ab initio calculations of the HOON torsional potential at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory are also presented and confirm that cis-perp configuration does not correspond to a bound localized minimum on the HOONO potential

  7. Policy Actions to Address Weight-Based Bullying and Eating Disorders in Schools: Views of Teachers and School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Bryn Austin, S.; Suh, Young; Wakefield, Dorothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight-related bullying is prevalent among youth and associated with adverse health consequences, including increased risk for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors, which are risk factors for eating disorders. Although concerns about these problems have stimulated calls for broader intervention efforts in schools,…

  8. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Older Individuals: Results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of 4 years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older and younger individuals. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Sixteen U.S. clinical sites. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with type 2 di...

  9. Relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model and the full spectrum k-distribution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Huaqiang; Liu, Fengshan; Consalvi, Jean-Louis

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between the spectral line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model and the full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) model in isothermal and homogeneous media is investigated in this paper. The SLW transfer equation can be derived from the FSK transfer equation expressed in the k-distribution function without approximation. It confirms that the SLW model is equivalent to the FSK model in the k-distribution function form. The numerical implementation of the SLW relies on a somewhat arbitrary discretization of the absorption cross section whereas the FSK model finds the spectrally integrated intensity by integration over the smoothly varying cumulative-k distribution function using a Gaussian quadrature scheme. The latter is therefore in general more efficient as a fewer number of gray gases is required to achieve a prescribed accuracy. Sample numerical calculations were conducted to demonstrate the different efficiency of these two methods. The FSK model is found more accurate than the SLW model in radiation transfer in H2O; however, the SLW model is more accurate in media containing CO2 as the only radiating gas due to its explicit treatment of ‘clear gas.’

  10. Polychromatic action spectrum for the induction of a mycosporine-like amino acid in a rice-field cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R P; Sinha, J P; Gröniger, A; Häder, D-P

    2002-02-01

    A polychromatic action spectrum for the induction of an ultraviolet-absorbing/screening mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) has been determined in a filamentous and heterocystous nitrogen-fixing rice-field cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) studies revealed the presence of only one type of MAA, which was identified as shinorine, a bisubstituted MAA containing both glycine and serine groups having a retention time at 2.8 min and an absorption maximum at 334 nm. Exposure of cultures to simulated solar radiation in combination with various cut-off filters (WG 280, 295, 305, 320, 335, 345, GG 400, 420, 455, 475, OG 515, 530, 570, RG 645, 665 and a broad-band filter, UG 11) clearly revealed that the induction of the MAA takes place only in the UV range. Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) had no significant impact on MAA induction. The ratio of the absorption at 334 nm (shinorine) to 665 nm (chlorophyll a) and the action spectrum also showed the induction of MAA to be UV dependent peaking in the UV-B range at around 290 nm. The results indicate that the studied cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. may protect itself from deleterious short wavelength solar radiation by its ability to synthesize a mycosporine-like amino acid in response to UV-B radiation and thereby screen the negative effects of UV-B. PMID:11849982

  11. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the law in Australia: the need for awareness and concern to translate into urgent action.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2013-03-01

    Awareness of the social tragedies and legal difficulties caused by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder has been emerging since the 1960s. However, although a great deal is now known clinically about the disorder, its diagnosis and what needs to be done by way of prevention and management, a co-ordinated therapeutic and public health response in Australia has thus far been lacking. In turn, this is having a range of repercussions for the courts in evaluating accused persons' criminal responsibility and culpability. Two high-quality and extensive reports during 2012 from Western Australian and Commonwealth parliamentary committees have documented the problems and provided a blueprint for a collaborative and comprehensive intergovernmental response. The challenge for government is now to implement the proposals throughout Australia (and be guided by them in New Zealand) as a matter of urgency. PMID:23600183

  12. About efficiency of identification of materials using spectrum dynamics of medium response under the action of THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

    2009-05-01

    A method, suggested by us earlier for identification of materials with close spectra in terahertz range of frequencies and based on the analysis of medium response spectral lines dynamics, is verified experimentally. The temporal dynamics of spectral lines allows to determine relaxation time of rotational transitions as well. A question about measurement time, that is sufficient for determining of material response characteristic time, is discussed. To demonstrate the efficiency of proposed method, we treat the response of soap and chocolate under the action of terahertz pulse with a few cycles. Our investigation shows that it is possible to identify these materials with high probability.

  13. Phototoxic Action Spectrum on a Retinal Pigment Epithelium Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Exposed to Sunlight Normalized Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Emilie; Barrau, Coralie; Nanteau, Céline; Gondouin, Pauline; Bigot, Karine; Viénot, Françoise; Gutman, Emmanuel; Fontaine, Valérie; Villette, Thierry; Cohen-Tannoudji, Denis; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Among the identified risk factors of age-related macular degeneration, sunlight is known to induce cumulative damage to the retina. A photosensitive derivative of the visual pigment, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), may be involved in this phototoxicity. The high energy visible light between 380 nm and 500 nm (blue light) is incriminated. Our aim was to define the most toxic wavelengths in the blue-green range on an in vitro model of the disease. Primary cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells were incubated for 6 hours with different A2E concentrations and exposed for 18 hours to 10 nm illumination bands centered from 380 to 520 nm in 10 nm increments. Light irradiances were normalized with respect to the natural sunlight reaching the retina. Six hours after light exposure, cell viability, necrosis and apoptosis were assessed using the Apotox-Glo Triplex™ assay. Retinal pigment epithelium cells incubated with A2E displayed fluorescent bodies within the cytoplasm. Their absorption and emission spectra were similar to those of A2E. Exposure to 10 nm illumination bands induced a loss in cell viability with a dose dependence upon A2E concentrations. Irrespective of A2E concentration, the loss of cell viability was maximal for wavelengths from 415 to 455 nm. Cell viability decrease was correlated to an increase in cell apoptosis indicated by caspase-3/7 activities in the same spectral range. No light-elicited necrosis was measured as compared to control cells maintained in darkness. Our results defined the precise spectrum of light retinal toxicity in physiological irradiance conditions on an in vitro model of age-related macular degeneration. Surprisingly, a narrow bandwidth in blue light generated the greatest phototoxic risk to retinal pigment epithelium cells. This phototoxic spectrum may be advantageously valued in designing selective photoprotection ophthalmic filters, without disrupting essential visual and non-visual functions of the

  14. Intervention Use and Action Planning in a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Weight Management Program for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many online interventions aiming for health behavior change but it is unclear how such interventions and specific planning tools are being used. Objective The aim of this study is to identify which user characteristics were associated with use of an online, computer-tailored self-regulation intervention aimed at prevention of weight gain; and to examine the quality of the goals and action plans that were generated using the online planning tools. Methods Data were obtained with a randomized controlled effect evaluation trial in which the online computer-tailored intervention was compared to a website containing generic information about prevention of weight gain. The tailored intervention included self-regulation techniques such as personalized feedback, goal setting, action planning, monitoring, and other techniques aimed at weight management. Participants included 539 overweight adults (mean age 46.9 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 28.03 kg/m2, 31.2% male, 11% low education level) recruited from the general population. Use of the intervention and its planning tools were derived from server registration data. Physical activity, fat intake, motivational factors, and self-regulation skills were self-reported at baseline. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the results. Results Use of the tailored intervention decreased sharply after the first modules. Visiting the first tailored intervention module was more likely among participants with low levels of fat intake (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95) or planning for change in PA (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.97). Revisiting the intervention was more likely among participants high in restrained eating (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.12-5.43) or low in proactive coping skills for weight control (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.76). The planning tools were used by 5%-55% of the participants, but only 20%-75% of the plans were of good quality. Conclusions This study showed that psychological

  15. Surface plasmon near-field back-action and displacement of enhanced Raman scattering spectrum in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Berini, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    It has been recently observed that plasmonic nanoantennas tuned to the Stokes wavelengths associated with the G and 2D Raman bands of graphene, rather than the laser pump, not only enhance Raman scattering in graphene but also displace and broaden the Raman spectra Ghamsari et al (2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 201408(R)). This paper presents a model to explain the frequency pulling and lineshape broadening effects based on the back-action of surface plasmons near-field on the induced microscopic Raman dipoles in graphene. The model provides the relation among Raman enhancement factor, Raman frequency displacement, and broadening caused by Stokes-tuned resonant nanoantennas and compares the results to the previously reported experimental data.

  16. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint. PMID:25541751

  17. CQ-397 and CQ-414: antimicrobial activity and spectrum of two fluoroquinolone---cephalosporin, dual-action compounds with carboxamido bonds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David M.; Jones, Ronald N.

    1997-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential spectrum of activity of two novel dual-action compounds with carboxamido bonds (CQ-397 and CQ-414; Laboratorios Aranda, San Rafael, Mexico) against human pathogens. METHODS: Approximately 800 Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic clinical bacteria were tested in vitro using the Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method of the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. RESULTS: CQ-397 (cefamandole+enrofloxacin) and CQ-414 (cefamandole+norfloxacin) were equally potent against Enterobacteriaceae (MIC90 range, 0.06--0.5 microg/mL and 0.06--1 microg/mL, respectively). Citrobacter freundii (MIC90, 4 microg/mL) and Providencia spp. (MIC90, >32 microg/mL) exhibited elevated study drug MICs. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to fluoroquinolones generally remained resistant. CQ-397 and CQ-414 were active against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC90, 4 microg/mL) and oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci (MIC90, 0.25 microg/mL), but not oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, >32 microg/mL), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC90, 8 microg/mL), and enterococci (MIC90s, 8 to >32 microg/mL). There was no difference in the dual-action drug activity (MIC90, 2 microg/mL) between penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were very susceptible (MIC range, less-than-or-equal0.015--0.06 microg/mL) to both compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The activity of these novel dual-action compounds, formed from the bonding of older antimicrobials, warrants further investigation for potential human and/or animal health use, including toxicology and pharmacokinetics. PMID:11864130

  18. Maternal body mass index during early pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: Results from a Swedish total population and discordant sibling study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M; Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Rai, Dheeraj; Frisell, Thomas; Karlsson, Håkan; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental factors such as maternal adiposity may influence the risk of offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though current evidence is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of parental BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) with risk of offspring ASD in a population-based cohort study using family-based study designs. Methods: The cohort was based in Stockholm County, Sweden, including 333 057 individuals born 1984–2007, of whom 6420 were diagnosed with an ASD. We evaluated maternal body mass index (BMI) at first antenatal visit, GWG and paternal BMI at the time of conscription into the Swedish military as exposures using general estimating equation (GEE) models with logit link. Results: At the population level, maternal overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of offspring ASD [odds ratio (OR)25 ≤ BMI < 30 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.41; ORBMI ≥ 30 1.94, 1.72–2.17], as was paternal underweight (ORBMI < 18.5, 1.19, 1.06–1.33) and obesity (ORBMI ≥ 30 1.47, 1.12–1.92) in mutually adjusted models. However, in matched sibling analyses, the relationship between elevated maternal BMI and ASD risk was not apparent. GWG had a U-shaped association with offspring ASD at the population level (ORinsufficient 1.22, 1.07–1.40; ORexcessive 1.23, 1.08–1.40). Matched sibling analyses were suggestive of elevated risk with excessive GWG (ORinsufficient 1.12, 0.68–1.84; ORexcessive 1.48, 0.93–2.38). Conclusions: Whereas population-level results suggested that maternal BMI was associated with ASD, sibling analyses and paternal BMI analyses indicate that maternal BMI may also be a proxy marker for other familial risk factors. Evidence is stronger for a direct link between GWG and ASD risk. PMID:26045508

  19. A Call to Action: Setting the Research Agenda for Addressing Obesity and Weight-Related Topics in Children with Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Geoff D.C.; Maltais, Désirée B.; Swift, Judy A.; Cairney, John; Knibbe, Tara Joy; Krog, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric obesity is a world-wide challenge. Children with physical disabilities are particularly at risk of obesity, which is worrisome because obesity can result in serious secondary conditions that decrease health status, reduce independence, and increase impact on healthcare systems. However, the determinants of obesity and the health promotion needs of children with physical disabilities are relatively unexplored compared with their typically developing peers. Methods: This white paper describes a Canadian multistakeholder workshop on the topic of obesity and health in children with physical disabilities and provides recommendations for future research in this understudied area. Results: Seventy-one knowledge gaps identified by attendees using a modified nominal group technique clustered into six themes: (1) early, sustained engagement of families; (2) rethinking determinants of obesity and health; (3) maximizing impact of research; (4) inclusive integrated interventions; (5) evidence-informed measurement and outcomes; and (6) reducing weight biases. Attendees worked together to develop research plans in more detail for three areas identified through consensus as high priority: “early, sustained engagement of families;” “rethinking determinants of obesity and health;” and “evidence informed measurement and outcomes.” Conclusions: Using the workshop described here as a call to action, Canadian researchers are now well positioned to work toward a greater understanding of weight-related topics in children with physical disabilities, with the aim of developing evidence-based and salient obesity prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:26716496

  20. Broad spectrum and mode of action of an antibiotic produced by Scytonema sp. TISTR 8208 in a seaweed-type bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chetsumon, A; Umeda, F; Maeda, I; Yagi, K; Mizoguchi, T; Miura, Y

    1998-01-01

    A photobioreactor was constructed using anchored polyurethane foam strips (1 x 1 x 40 cm) fixed onto a stainless-steel ring to prevent flotation, as a biomass support material (BSM). This type of reactor was named a seaweed-type bioreactor. A filamentous cyanobacterium, Scytonema sp. TISTR 8208, which produces a novel cyclic dodecapeptide antibiotic, was immobilized in seaweed-type photobioreactor and cultivated with air containing 5% CO2 sparged at a gas flow rate of 250 mL/min under illumination at a light intensity of 200 mmol photon m-2 s-1. The antibiotic produced in the seaweed-type photobioreactor was purified by HPLC and examined regarding its spectrum and mode of action. The antibiotic effectively inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, pathogenic yeasts, and filamentous fungi, but it had only a weak effect on Gram-negative bacteria. Scanning electron micrograph analysis showed that the most characteristic change was swelling of the cells after exposure to the antibiotic. The antibiotic seems to alter the conformation of the microbial cell membrane, thereby changing its permeability, leading to osmotic shock. PMID:9627386

  1. Tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized silver nanoparticles: new frontiers in development of plant protection products with a broad spectrum of action against phytopathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Kudrinskiy, Alexey A.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Pobedinskaya, Marina A.; Elansky, Sergey N.; Denisov, Albert N.; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable agriculture calls for minimal use of agrochemicals in order to protect the environment. It has caused an increase in the rate of nanoparticles use, in particular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their safety for mammals, unique biological activity and a broad spectrum of action against fungal and bacterial pathogens. Until now the use of AgNPs dispersions in the agricultural sector has been essentially limited due to many factors decreased their stability (mixing with other pesticides, presence of electrolytes). We present a versatile synthesis of polyampholyte surfactant (tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate) stabilized AgNPs. We took a close look at unique aggregation behavior (via dynamic light scattering and UV–vis spectroscopy) and biocidal activity of obtained silver colloids. AgNPs are characterized by exclusively high aggregative stability in the presence of coagulating agents NaNO3 and NaSO4 (up to 1 M), during drying/redispergation, and frost/defrost cycles. The dispersion of AgNPs shows high biocidal activity (EC50 is ten times lower than commercial species ones) with respect to Phytophthora infestans and phytopathogenic fungi. This points to the possibility of successful application of silver preparations within agriculture with the goal of partial reduction of the use of toxic and expensive synthetic antibiotics and pesticides.

  2. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. PMID:22841928

  3. Four-year analysis of cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms, and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE To study the association of depressive symptoms or antidepressant medicine (ADM) use with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 5,1...

  4. Comparison of the action spectra and relative DNA absorbance spectra of microorganisms: information important for the determination of germicidal fluence (UV dose) in an ultraviolet disinfection of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren Zhuo; Craik, Stephen A; Bolton, James R

    2009-12-01

    The action spectra of Bacillus subtilis spores (ATCC6633) and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were characterized using physical radiometry for irradiance measurements and a multiple target model to interpret the inactivation kinetics. The observed action spectrum of B. subtilis spores deviated significantly from the relative absorbance spectrum of the DNA purified from the spores, but matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of decoated spores. The action spectrum of B. subtilis spores determined in this study was statistically different from those reported in previous studies. On the other hand, the action spectrum of S. typhimurium bacteria matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of DNA extracted from vegetative cells, except in the region below 240nm. It is concluded that the common use of the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as a surrogate for the germicidal action spectrum can result in systematic errors when evaluating the performance of a polychromatic UV light reactors using bioassays. For example, if the weighted germicidal fluence (UV dose) calculated using the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as the germicidal weighting factor is found to be 40mJcm(-2) for a medium pressure lamp UV reactor, that calculated using the relative action spectrum of B. subtilis spores, as determined in this study, would be 66mJcm(-2). PMID:19762061

  5. Pharmacological actions of the peptide hormone amylin in the long-term regulation of food intake, food preference, and body weight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments...

  6. Determination of the melt level from a real weight signal during computer-assisted crystal growth by the Stepanov (EFG) technique and the use of crucible motion as a control action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossolenko, S. N.; Stryukov, D. O.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2015-06-01

    The current melt level is determined from a real weight signal during computer-assisted crystal growth by the Stepanov technique. No knowledge of the real shape of growing crystals is necessary in this case. A numerical solution to the capillary Laplace equation is used to analyze the use of the motion of a crucible with a melt as a control action that affects the shapes of menisci and growing crystals.

  7. Luminescence properties of a solid solution typed (Ba,Ca)3MgSi2O8: Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor with a 660 nmfeatured photosynthetic action spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun; Sun, Liang; Li, Jian; Ma, Jian; Wang, Da-jian

    2014-09-01

    A solid-solution-phase Ba1.75Ca1.25MgSi2O8: Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor in the photosynthetic action spectrum with dual band emissions at 438 nm and 660 nm is fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the presence of the solid-solution phase. With the supporting information from the diffuse reflection spectrum, a feasible way to obtain higher energy-transfer (ET) efficiency is attained, and the ET efficiency of Eu2+-Mn2+ is enhanced to 76%. The mechanism of this enhancement is owing to variation of the solid solution composition of Ca3MgSi2O8 and Ba3MgSi2O8, which contributes to the extension of the critical distance. Temperature-dependent results show an enhancement which is attributed to Ca. These enhancements show great promise for improving eco-lighting devices.

  8. From Action to Interaction: Exploring the Contribution of Body Motion Cues to Social Understanding in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centelles, Laurie; Assaiante, Christine; Etchegoyhen, Katallin; Bouvard, Manuel; Schmitz, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether typically developing children (TD) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were able to decide whether two characters were communicating or not on the basis of point-light displays. Point-lights portrayed actors engaged or not in a social interaction. In study 1, TD children (4-10 years old; n = 36)…

  9. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  10. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Zellweger spectrum result from defects in the assembly of a cellular structure called the peroxisome, and ... Zellweger spectrum are caused by defects in the assembly of the peroxisome. There are at least 12 ...

  11. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  12. 78 FR 35260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  13. 77 FR 69597 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  14. 78 FR 49260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  15. 77 FR 5494 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  16. 77 FR 35941 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  17. 77 FR 25145 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  18. In vitro spectrum of pexiganan activity; bactericidal action and resistance selection tested against pathogens with elevated MIC values to topical agents.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-09-01

    Pexiganan, in Phase 3 clinical development for topical use, exhibited bactericidal activity in vitro against Gram-positive and -negative isolates and was also shown to have a low potential for resistance development in broth serial passage experiments. Susceptibility studies were performed against bacterial isolates (110 total from 2004 to 2013; primarily from skin and soft tissue infections) selected for elevated MIC values (non-wildtype [WT] distributions) to bacitracin, polymyxin B, neomycin, mupirocin, retapamulin, fusidic acid, or gentamicin. A narrow range of pexiganan MIC values (4-32 μg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus was observed (MIC50 and MIC90 values, 16 μg/mL) with a pexiganan mode and MIC50 value for the subsets of isolates with non-WT MIC values to bacitracin and neomycin (n = 14), fusidic acid (n = 11), mupirocin (n = 12) and retapamulin (n = 11) at 16 μg/mL. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the pexiganan mode and MIC50 values were 4 μg/mL. The pexiganan mode and MIC50 for each non-WT CoNS subset was also 4 μg/mL. Pexiganan MIC values for Enterococcus faecium was 8 μg/mL, but E. faecalis isolates exhibited MIC values that ranged from 128-256 μg/mL. Pexiganan was active against β-hemolytic streptococci including non-WT subsets (MIC range, 4-64 μg/mL). MIC values for pexiganan varied by species for viridans group streptococci, with highest values occurring for Streptococcus oralis. The broad bactericidal spectrum of pexiganan activity and low potential for resistance selection offers the possibility that this experimental agent may be able to play an important role in the current environment of emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens. PMID:27352729

  19. Consecutive combined response spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Longjun; Zhao, Guochen; Liu, Qingyang; Xie, Yujian; Xie, Lili

    2014-12-01

    Appropriate estimates of earthquake response spectrum are essential for design of new structures, or seismic safety evaluation of existing structures. This paper presents an alternative procedure to construct design spectrum from a combined normalized response spectrum (NRSC) which is obtained from pseudo-velocity spectrum with the ordinate scaled by different peak ground amplitudes (PGA, PGV, PGD) in different period regions. And a consecutive function f( T) used to normalize the ordinates is defined. Based on a comprehensive study of 220 strong ground motions recorded during recent eleven large worldwide earthquakes, the features of the NRSC are discussed and compared with the traditional normalized acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra (NRSA, NRSV, NRSD). And the relationships between ground amplitudes are evaluated by using a weighted mean method instead of the arithmetic mean. Then the NRSC is used to define the design spectrum with given peak ground amplitudes. At last, the smooth spectrum is compared with those derived by the former approaches, and the accuracy of the proposed spectrum is tested through an analysis of the dispersion of ground motion response spectra.

  20. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  1. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  2. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  3. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  4. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  5. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  6. Towards optimal cluster power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The power spectrum of galaxy clusters is an important probe of the cosmological model. In this paper, we develop a formalism to compute the optimal weights for the estimation of the matter power spectrum from cluster power spectrum measurements. We find a closed-form analytic expression for the optimal weights, which takes into account: the cluster mass, finite survey volume effects, survey masking, and a flux limit. The optimal weights are w(M,χ ) ∝ b(M,χ )/[1+bar{n}_h(χ ) overline{b^2}(χ )overline{P}(k)], where b(M, χ) is the bias of clusters of mass M at radial position χ(z), bar{n}_h(χ ) and overline{b^2}(χ ) are the expected space density and bias squared of all clusters, and overline{P}(k) is the matter power spectrum at wavenumber k. This result is analogous to that of Percival et al. We compare our optimal weighting scheme with mass weighting and also with the original power spectrum scheme of Feldman et al. We show that our optimal weighting scheme outperforms these approaches for both volume- and flux-limited cluster surveys. Finally, we present a new expression for the Fisher information matrix for cluster power spectrum analysis. Our expression shows that for an optimally weighted cluster survey the cosmological information content is boosted, relative to the standard approach of Tegmark.

  7. Mabuchi spectrum from the minisuperspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacroix, Corinne; Erbin, Harold; Svanes, Eirik E.

    2016-07-01

    It was recently shown that other functionals contribute to the effective action for the Liouville field when considering massive matter coupled to two-dimensional gravity in the conformal gauge. The most important of these new contributions corresponds to the Mabuchi functional. We propose a minisuperspace action that reproduces the main features of the Mabuchi action in order to describe the dynamics of the zero-mode. We show that the associated Hamiltonian coincides with the (quantum mechanical) Liouville Hamiltonian. As a consequence the Liouville theory and our model of the Mabuchi theory both share the same spectrum, eigenfunctions and - in this approximation - correlation functions.

  8. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  9. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  10. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities. PMID:22864485

  11. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-19

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  12. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  13. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  14. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  15. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  16. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  17. 75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... . One recommendation in the report was to provide more information to the utility sector on spectrum... grid technologies. At this spectrum policy seminar, senior officials from the Federal...

  18. 75 FR 7234 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Communications and Information on spectrum policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 4, 2010,...

  19. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  1. Outdoor ultraviolet polychromatic action spectra for growth responses of Bellis perennis and Cynosurus cristatus.

    PubMed

    Cooley, N M; Truscott, H M; Holmes, M G; Attridge, T H

    2000-12-01

    Polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) action spectra for various growth responses of the dicotyledon Bellis perennis L. (daisy) and the grass Cynosurus cristatus L. (crested dog's-tail) have been measured. The plants were grown in the natural environment and ambient daylight was supplemented with five different UV irradiances centred at eight different wavelengths (313, 318, 320, 322, 339, 348, 356 and 377 nm). Destructive growth analysis was performed on B. perennis and C. cristatus after 300 and 122 days respectively. Dose response curves were created to construct action spectra for individual responses. Different spectral responses were observed in these two plant types. B. perennis exhibited a substantial action maximum at 313 nm for the inhibition of aerial, root and total dry weight; a similar action maximum at 313 nm for the inhibition of leaf expansion was observed. Longer wavelengths were relatively ineffective on these growth parameters, with the exception of a small but statistically significant (P < 0.05) response to 320 nm radiation. By contrast, C. cristatus showed negligible response to 313 nm radiation, for inhibition of aerial, root and total dry weight but substantial responses to longer wavelengths, especially at 339 and 348 nm. These action spectra add weight to suggestions in the literature that UV-A has a role to play in responses in this region of the spectrum. The possible implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:11332892

  2. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  3. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  4. Cathodoluminescence Spectrum Imaging Software

    2011-04-07

    The software developed for spectrum imaging is applied to the analysis of the spectrum series generated by our cathodoluminescence instrumentation. This software provides advanced processing capabilities s such: reconstruction of photon intensity (resolved in energy) and photon energy maps, extraction of the spectrum from selected areas, quantitative imaging mode, pixel-to-pixel correlation spectrum line scans, ASCII, output, filling routines, drift correction, etc.

  5. The frequency spectrum of the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Andrew S.I.D.

    2005-10-01

    The frequency spectrum of the Casimir effect between parallel plates is studied. Calculations are performed for both the massless scalar field and the electromagnetic field cases, first using a spectral weight function, and then via the Fourier transform of the renormalized expectation of the Casimir energy-momentum operator. The Casimir force is calculated using the spectrum for two plates which are perfectly transparent in a frequency band. The result of this calculation suggests a way to detect the frequency spectrum of the Casimir effect.

  6. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  7. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  8. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, W. K.; McKinnon, A. D.; Miley, H. S.; Panisko, M. E.; Savard, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented.

  9. Un-particle effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Spallucci, Euro

    2008-03-01

    We study un-particle dynamics in the framework of standard quantum field theory. We obtain the Feynman propagator by supplementing standard quantum field theory definitions with integration over the mass spectrum. Then we use this information to construct effective actions for scalar, gauge vector and gravitational un-particles.

  10. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  11. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral ... for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. More E-mail Your Friends "Children with autism ...

  14. Spectrum-Modulating Fiber-Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Family of spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors undergoing development for use in aircraft-engine control systems. Fiber-optic sensors offer advantages of small size, high bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and light weight. Furthermore, they reduce number of locations on aircraft to which electrical power has to be supplied.

  15. Design of an optimal-weighted MACE filter realizable with arbitrary SLM constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jin; Rajan, P. Karivaratha

    1996-03-01

    A realizable optimal weighted minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter with arbitrary spatial light modulator (SLM) constraints is presented. The MACE filter can be considered as the cascade of two separate stages. The first stage is the prewhitener which essentially converts colored noise to white noise. The second stage is the conventional synthetic discriminant function (SDF) which is optimal for white noise, but which uses training vectors subjected to the prewhitening transformation. So the energy spectrum matrix is very important for filter design. New weight function we introduce is used to adjust the correlation energy to improve the performance of MACE filter on current SLMs. The action of the weight function is to emphasize the importance of the signal energy at some frequencies and reduce the importance of signal energy at some other frequencies so as to improve correlation plane structure. The choice of weight function which is used to enhance the noise tolerance and reduce sidelobes is related to a priori pattern recognition knowledge. An algorithm which combines an iterative optimal technique with Juday's minimum Euclidean distance (MED) method is developed for the design of the realizable optimal weighted MACE filter. The performance of the designed filter is evaluated with numerical experiments.

  16. QCD spectrum with three quark flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Burch, Tom; Orginos, Kostas; Toussaint, Doug; DeGrand, Thomas A.; DeTar, Carleton; Datta, Saumen; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Sugar, Robert

    2001-09-01

    We present results from a lattice hadron spectrum calculation using three flavors of dynamical quarks -- two light and one strange -- and quenched simulations for comparison. These simulations were done using a one-loop Symanzik improved gauge action and an improved Kogut-Susskind quark action. The lattice spacings, and hence also the physical volumes, were tuned to be the same in all the runs to better expose differences due to flavor number. Lattice spacings were tuned using the static quark potential, so as a by-product we obtain updated results for the effect of sea quarks on the static quark potential. We find indications that the full QCD meson spectrum is in better agreement with experiment than the quenched spectrum. For the 0{sup ++} (a{sub 0}) meson we see a coupling to two pseudoscalar mesons, or a meson decay on the lattice.

  17. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  18. Opposing actions of the synapse-associated protein of 97-kDa molecular weight (SAP97) and Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) on Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Boccitto, M; Doshi, S; Newton, I P; Nathke, I; Neve, R; Dong, F; Mao, Y; Zhai, J; Zhang, L; Kalb, R

    2016-06-21

    It has been suggested that synapse-associated protein of 97-kDa molecular weight (SAP97) is a susceptibility factor for childhood and adult neuropsychiatric disorders. SAP97 is a scaffolding protein that shares direct and indirect binding partners with the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene product, a gene with strong association with neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the possibility that these two proteins converge upon a common molecular pathway. Since DISC1 modifies Wnt/β-catenin signaling via changes in glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation, we asked if SAP97 impacts Wnt/β-catenin signaling and GSK3β phosphorylation. We find that SAP97 acts as inhibitor of Wnt signaling activity and can suppress the stimulatory effects of DISC1 on β-catenin transcriptional activity. Reductions in SAP97 abundance also decrease GSK3β phosphorylation. In addition, we find that over expression of DISC1 leads to an increase in the abundance of SAP97, by inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Our findings suggest that SAP97 and DISC1 contribute to maintaining Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity within a homeostatic range by regulating GSK3β phosphorylation. PMID:27026592

  19. Anti-inflammatory action of high molecular weight Mytilus edulis hydrolysates fraction in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage via NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sang; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2016-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory Mytilus edulis hydrolysates (MEHs) were prepared by peptic hydrolysis and MEH was further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight, namely >5kDa, 1-5kDa, and <1kDa. The >5kDa peptide fraction exerted the highest nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity and inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Pretreatment with the >5kDa peptide fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and gene expressions. Stimulation by LPS induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and -1β (IL-1β), whereas co-treatment with the >5kDa peptide fraction suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The >5kDa peptide fraction inhibited the translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) through the prevention of IκBα (inhibitory factor kappa B alpha) phosphorylation and degradation and also inhibited the MAPK signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. PMID:26920260

  20. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  2. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  3. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  4. Power spectrum of the fluctuation of Chebyshev's prime counting function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Yong, Shaohen

    2006-02-01

    The one-sided power spectrum of the fluctuation of Chebyshev's weighted prime counting function is numerically estimated based on samples of the fluctuating function of different sizes. The power spectrum is also estimated analytically for large frequency based on Riemann hypothesis and the exact formula for the fluctuating function in terms of all the non-trivial Riemann zeroes. Our analytical estimate is consistent with our numerical estimate of a 1/f2 power spectrum.

  5. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  6. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  7. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  8. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  9. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  10. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  11. Weighted network modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  12. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  13. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  14. Glueball spectrum from an anisotropic lattice study

    SciTech Connect

    Morningstar, C.J.; Peardon, M.

    1999-08-01

    The spectrum of glueballs below 4 GeV in the SU(3) pure-gauge theory is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations of gluons on several anisotropic lattices with spatial grid separations ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 fm. Systematic errors from discretization and finite volume are studied, and the continuum spin quantum numbers are identified. Care is taken to distinguish single glueball states from two-glueball and torelon-pair states. Our determination of the spectrum significantly improves upon previous Wilson action calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  16. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Liu, C.

    1999-09-21

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  17. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  18. Visuomotor resonance in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Becchio, Cristina; Castiello, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    When we observe the actions performed by others, our motor system "resonates" along with that of the observed agent. Is a similar visuomotor resonant response observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)? Studies investigating action observation in ASD have yielded inconsistent findings. In this perspective article we examine behavioral and neuroscientific evidence in favor of visuomotor resonance in ASD, and consider the possible role of action-perception coupling in social cognition. We distinguish between different aspects of visuomotor resonance and conclude that while some aspects may be preserved in ASD, abnormalities exist in the way individuals with ASD convert visual information from observed actions into a program for motor execution. Such abnormalities, we surmise, may contribute to but also depend on the difficulties that individuals with ASD encounter during social interaction. PMID:23189045

  19. Visuomotor resonance in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Becchio, Cristina; Castiello, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    When we observe the actions performed by others, our motor system “resonates” along with that of the observed agent. Is a similar visuomotor resonant response observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)? Studies investigating action observation in ASD have yielded inconsistent findings. In this perspective article we examine behavioral and neuroscientific evidence in favor of visuomotor resonance in ASD, and consider the possible role of action-perception coupling in social cognition. We distinguish between different aspects of visuomotor resonance and conclude that while some aspects may be preserved in ASD, abnormalities exist in the way individuals with ASD convert visual information from observed actions into a program for motor execution. Such abnormalities, we surmise, may contribute to but also depend on the difficulties that individuals with ASD encounter during social interaction. PMID:23189045

  20. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  1. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  2. The CMBR spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, A.

    1997-05-01

    Here we give an introduction to the observed spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and discuss what can be learned about it. Particular attention will be given to how Compton scattering can distort the spectrum of the CMBR. An incomplete bibliography of relevant papers is also provided.

  3. Fission Spectrum Related Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    G. Aliberti; I. Kodeli; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2007-10-01

    The paper presents a preliminary uncertainty analysis related to potential uncertainties on the fission spectrum data. Consistent results are shown for a reference fast reactor design configuration and for experimental thermal configurations. However the results obtained indicate the need for further analysis, in particular in terms of fission spectrum uncertainty data assessment.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  5. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  6. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  7. Human action recognition by extracting motion trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuwen; Yang, Shangpeng

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel human action recognition framework named Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Hybrid Event Probability Sequence (HEPS), which can recognize unlabeled actions from videos. First, motion trajectories are effectively extracted using the centers of moving objects. Secondly, the HEPS is constructed using the trajectories and represents different human actions. Finally, the improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with inertia weight is introduced to recognize human actions using HMM. The proposed methods are evaluated on UCF Human Action Dataset and achieve 76.67% accurate rate. The comparative experiments results demonstrate that the HMM got superior results with HEPS and PSO.

  8. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  9. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  10. Novel Fat-Link Fermion Actions

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Zanotti; S. Bilson-Thompson; F. D. R. Bonnet; P. D. Coddington; D. B. Leinweber; A. G. Williams; J. B. Zhang; W. Melnitchouk; F. X. Lee

    2001-07-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators in the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16{sup 3} x 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative 0(a) improvement.

  11. Shuttle spectrum despreader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of the spread spectrum despreader project are reported and three principal products are designed and tested. The products are, (1) a spread spectrum despreader breadboard, (2) associated test equipment consisting of a spectrum spreader and bit reconstruction/error counter and (3) paper design of a Ku-band receiver which would incorporate the despreader as a principal subsystem. The despreader and test set are designed for maximum flexibility. A choice of unbalanced quadriphase or biphase shift keyed data modulation is available. Selectable integration time and threshold voltages on the despreader further lend true usefulness as laboratory test equipment to the delivered hardware.

  12. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  13. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  15. Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.

  16. Understanding redshift space distortions in density-weighted peculiar velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Okumura, Teppei; Spergel, David N.

    2016-07-01

    Observations of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect measure the density-weighted velocity field, a potentially powerful cosmological probe. This paper presents an analytical method to predict the power spectrum and two-point correlation function of the density-weighted velocity in redshift space, the direct observables in kSZ surveys. We show a simple relation between the density power spectrum and the density-weighted velocity power spectrum that holds for both dark matter and halos. Using this relation, we can then extend familiar perturbation expansion techniques to the kSZ power spectrum. One of the most important features of density-weighted velocity statistics in redshift space is the change in sign of the cross-correlation between the density and density-weighted velocity at mildly small scales due to nonlinear redshift space distortions. Our model can explain this characteristic feature without any free parameters. As a result, our results can precisely predict the non-linear behavior of the density-weighted velocity field in redshift space up to ~ 30 h‑1 Mpc for dark matter particles at the redshifts of z=0.0, 0.5, and 1.0.

  17. Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predicting female middle school students' behavioral intention of weight reduction by weight status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05). PMID:21994529

  18. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  19. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  20. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  1. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  2. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  3. Mathematics in Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

  4. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

  5. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  6. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22990030 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990030 . Weight-control Information NetworkNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie- ...

  7. An Attempt to Shorten the Quest for Weight Loss Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; And Others

    Health psychologists continue to have difficulty identifying prognostic indicators of weight loss success. Psychological, social, and demographic factors have been examined, but correlations with weight loss are disappointing. Actual behaviors or quantifications of specific actions and historical measures were examined for their validity in…

  8. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  9. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  10. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  11. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  12. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  13. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  14. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, Jorge; Ortega, Pablo G.; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector, and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about a better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  15. Improving VHF Spectrum Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andro, Monty; Orr, Richard; Foore, Larry; Sheehe, Charles; Freeman, Mark; Nguyen, Thanh; Bretmersky, Steven; Laberge, Chuck; Buchanan, David

    2004-01-01

    Limited VHF communications system capacity and increasing air traffic results in congestion of the aviation VHF spectrum. The voice communications errors and delayed channel access create system congestion and air traffic delays. Regulatory subdivision of bands for specific functions limits flexibility in the frequency usage. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to identify near/mid/far term technologies to improve the performance and spectrum efficiency of current and emerging VHF communications systems. Select technologies with the highest potential, perform research and development to bring them to implementation stage.

  16. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  17. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  18. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavioral guidelines for post-partum weight control. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth . 2014;14. Accessed Nov. 24, 2014. Mottola MF. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and ...

  19. Weight loss - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  20. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  1. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  2. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  3. Radio Spectrum Inventory Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Waxman, Henry A. [D-CA-30

    2009-07-08

    04/15/2010 Received in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 347. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  5. Vulnerability of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2006-04-01

    In real networks complex topological features are often associated with a diversity of interactions as measured by the weights of the links. Moreover, spatial constraints may also play an important role, resulting in a complex interplay between topology, weight, and geography. In order to study the vulnerability of such networks to intentional attacks, these attributes must therefore be considered along with the topological quantities. In order to tackle this issue, we consider the case of the worldwide airport network, which is a weighted heterogeneous network whose evolution and structure are influenced by traffic and geographical constraints. We first characterize relevant topological and weighted centrality measures and then use these quantities as selection criteria for the removal of vertices. We consider different attack strategies and different measures of the damage achieved in the network. The analysis of weighted properties shows that centrality driven attacks are capable of shattering the network's communication or transport properties even at a very low level of damage in the connectivity pattern. The inclusion of weight and traffic therefore provides evidence for the extreme vulnerability of complex networks to any targeted strategy and the need for them to be considered as key features in the finding and development of defensive strategies.

  6. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  7. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  8. Charging for Spectrum Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Henry; Lampert, Donna

    This paper, the third in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, argues that the communications spectrum--e.g., public mobile service, private radio, and domestic satellites--is a valuable but limited resource that should benefit all Americans. After a background discussion, it is…

  9. Sinclair ZX Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the hardware, software, peripheral devices, performance capabilities, and programing capacity of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum microcomputer. The computer's display system, its version of the BASIC programing language, its graphics capabilities, and the unique features of its data entry keyboard are discussed. (JL)

  10. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  11. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  12. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26910628

  13. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, glucose transport and adiponectin secretion. Data from in vivo studies have revealed dose-dependent and sex dependent effects on body weight in rodents exposed perinatally to BPA. The mechanisms through which perinatal BPA exposure acts to exert persistent effects on body weight and adiposity remain to be determined. Possible targets of BPA action are discussed. PMID:19433248

  14. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  15. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  16. [Itraconazole action on Toxoplasma gondii].

    PubMed

    Jamra, L M; Amato Neto, V; Braz, L M; Camargo, M E

    1992-01-01

    With the purpose to increase our knowledge about the spectrum of therapeutic action of itraconazole, the activity of a new triazolic derivative against Toxoplasma gondii was studied in vivo and in vitro with the aid of an experimental infection model in mice. The trial also aimed at a possible improvement of the therapy of toxoplasmosis in regard to safety and dosing easiness. The present study has not shown significant activity of itraconazole against Toxoplasma gondii, differing from a previous observation that showed it's activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:1339150

  17. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  18. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  19. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  20. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  1. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  2. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  3. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation.

  4. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  5. Economics of spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melody, W. H.

    The effective and efficient allocation and use of the spectrum can be ensured only by a set of sharing rules that will reflect the interests, values, and power of all affected parties. What is now happening is that the new interests and different values of the developing countries are pressing to change the international sharing rules established by a small group of high-technology nations. It is noted that the latter have established a massive telecommunications infrastructure on the basis of inherited sharing rules that reflect only their interests and a much simplified scarcity problem. Once long-term goals and underlying principles of allocation are established, communication technologies and markets can be directed, through a series of adjustment policies, to achieve them. A crucial first step in the creation of an international information environment in which 'free' flows will be balanced flows is the establishment of a balanced and equitable set of sharing rules for the radio spectrum.

  6. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    PubMed

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking. PMID:18267522

  7. Sensors across the Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2011-06-01

    A resurgence of interest in spectroscopic sensors has been fueled by increases in performance made possible by technological advancements and applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and national security. Often this research is technology driven, without enough consideration of the spectroscopic signatures available to be probed. We will compare several current spectroscopic sensors across the electromagnetic spectrum, with an eye towards the fundamental spectroscopic considerations important at each wavelength.

  8. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  9. WAATS: A computer program for Weights Analysis of Advanced Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A historical weight estimating technique for advanced transportation systems is presented. The classical approach to weight estimation is discussed and sufficient data is presented to estimate weights for a large spectrum of flight vehicles including horizontal and vertical takeoff aircraft, boosters and reentry vehicles. A computer program, WAATS (Weights Analysis for Advanced Transportation Systems) embracing the techniques discussed has been written and user instructions are presented. The program was developed for use in the ODIN (Optimal Design Integration System) system.

  10. CT energy weighting in the presence of scatter and limited energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved CT has the potential to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) through optimal weighting of photons detected in energy bins. In general, optimal weighting gives higher weight to the lower energy photons that contain the most contrast information. However, low-energy photons are generally most corrupted by scatter and spectrum tailing, an effect caused by the limited energy resolution of the detector. This article first quantifies the effects of spectrum tailing on energy-resolved data, which may also be beneficial for material decomposition applications. Subsequently, the combined effects of energy weighting, spectrum tailing, and scatter are investigated through simulations. Methods: The study first investigated the effects of spectrum tailing on the estimated attenuation coefficients of homogeneous slab objects. Next, the study compared the CNR and artifact performance of images simulated with varying levels of scatter and spectrum tailing effects, and reconstructed with energy integrating, photon-counting, and two optimal linear weighting methods: Projection-based and image-based weighting. Realistic detector energy-response functions were simulated based on a previously proposed model. The energy-response functions represent the probability that a photon incident on the detector at a particular energy will be detected at a different energy. Realistic scatter was simulated with Monte Carlo methods. Results: Spectrum tailing resulted in a negative shift in the estimated attenuation coefficient of slab objects compared to an ideal detector. The magnitude of the shift varied with material composition, increased with material thickness, and decreased with photon energy. Spectrum tailing caused cupping artifacts and CT number inaccuracies in images reconstructed with optimal energy weighting, and did not impact images reconstructed with photon counting weighting. Spectrum tailing did not significantly impact the CNR in reconstructed images

  11. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  12. MedlinePlus: Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy and Weight Management (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths (National ...

  13. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  14. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  15. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  16. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  17. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FASD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that ...

  19. Brief Report: Episodic Foresight in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Laura K.; Atance, Cristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic foresight (EpF) or, the ability to imagine the future and use such imagination to guide our actions, is an important aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is despite its proposed links with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF), two areas found to be impaired in…

  20. 6-azacytidine--compound with wide spectrum of antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Alexeeva, I; Dyachenko, N; Nosach, L; Zhovnovataya, V; Rybalko, S; Lozitskaya, R; Fedchuk, A; Lozitsky, V; Gridina, T; Shalamay, A; Palchikovskaja, L; Povnitsa, O

    2001-01-01

    6-azacytidine demonstrates activity against adenoviruses types 1, 2, 5. It inhibit synthesis of viral DNA and proteins. 6-AC shows antiherpetic and antiinfluenza action during experimental infection in mice. 6-AC is prospective for drug development as an antiviral substance with a wide spectrum of activity. PMID:11562975

  1. Ideal Weight and Weight Satisfaction: Association With Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    Ardern, Chris I.; Church, Timothy S.; Hebert, James R.; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

  2. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  3. Crossed Module Actions on Continuous Trace C*-Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ralf; Pennig, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We lift an action of a torus {{T}^n} on the spectrum of a continuous trace algebra to an action of a certain crossed module of Lie groups that is an extension of {{R}^n}. We compute equivariant Brauer and Picard groups for this crossed module and describe the obstruction to the existence of an action of {{R}^n} in our framework.

  4. A spectral method for action-angle representation of linear waves in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, M.

    2009-11-10

    Hamiltonian aspects of linear waves in plasmas are generally reviewed and discussed. Action-angle representation of linear waves is a fundamental problem, but it requires a careful mathematical consideration in the presence of continuum mode (continuous spectrum). We introduce a novel spectral technique that can treat continuous spectrum as well as discrete spectrum in a unified manner. Our method facilitates the derivation of action-angle variables, which is demonstrated for the Van Kampen mode in electrostatic plasma.

  5. Acoustooptical spectrum analysis modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmody, M. J.

    1981-06-01

    A summary of Bragg deflection theory and various approaches to direct detection acoustooptic spectrum analysis (AOSA) modeling is presented. A suitable model is chosen and extended to include the effects of diffraction efficiency, transducer efficiency, irradiance profiles of incident laser illumination, aperture size of the Bragg cell, and the acoustic attenuation experienced by the acoustic wavetrain generated by the input r-f signal. A FORTRAN program is developed to model the AOSA and predict the output image plane intensity profiles. A second version of the program includes a time variable permitting dynamic simulation of the system response.

  6. Spectrum of Fascicular Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Sung, Raphael; Scheinman, Melvin

    2016-09-01

    Fascicular arrhythmias encompass a wide spectrum of ventricular arrhythmias that depend on the specialized conduction system of the right and left ventricles. These arrhythmias include premature ventricular complexes, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. These arrhythmias may be organized by mechanism, including intrafascicular reentry, interfascicular reentry, and focal. Mapping and ablation of the fascicular system can result in high cure rates of debilitating and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. When approaching these arrhythmias, careful consideration of the structure of the His Purkinje system as well as their electrophysiologic properties may help guide even the most complex of arrhythmias. PMID:27521090

  7. Weighted slit extraction of low-dispersion IUE spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Neill, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The weighted slit extraction has been chosen by the IUE project as the standard extraction for low-dispersion spectra in the final IUE archives. In order to properly weight the data within the extraction slit and obtain the optimal evaluation of the true spectrum, a noise model is derived for IUE data. The exclusion of cosmic rays is demonstrated and the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is quantified for spectra taken with a wide range of flux level. Problematic spectra, such as trailed spectra, multiple spectra, discontinuous spectra, and emission-line spectra, are extracted to demonstrate the robust nature of the method. Comparisons are made between the standard IUE Standard Image Processing System (IUESIPS) extraction, nonstandard narrow slit extraction, trailed IUESIPS extraction, and weighted extraction for these data. Other weighted slit extractions are briefly discussed. The advantages of the weighted slit extraction are: (1) the extraction improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum while conserving total flux; (2) most of the cosmic rays are automatically removed; (3) the output includes an error estimate for each point in the flux spectrum; and (4) the algorithm can be run in a batch mode that requires no special input parameters.

  8. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  9. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  10. Weighted Configuration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2005-06-01

    The configuration model is one of the most successful models for generating uncorrelated random networks. We analyze its behavior when the expected degree sequence follows a power law with exponent smaller than two. In this situation, the resulting network can be viewed as a weighted network with non trivial correlations between strength and degree. Our results are tested against large scale numerical simulations, finding excellent agreement.

  11. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  12. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  13. (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch, Alexey Prokudin

    2011-11-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments allow us to probe the motion of quarks inside the proton in terms of so-called transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), but the information is convoluted with fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) and soft factors. It has long been known that weighting the measured event counts with powers of the hadron momentum before forming angular asymmetries de-convolutes TMD PDFs and TMD FFs in an elegant way, but this also entails an undesirable sensitivity to high momentum contributions. Using Bessel functions as weights, we find a natural generalization of weighted asymmetries that preserves the de-convolution property and features soft-factor cancellation, yet allows us to be less sensitive to high transverse momenta. The formalism also relates to TMD quantities studied in lattice QCD. We briefly show preliminary lattice results from an exploratory calculation of the Boer-Mulders shift using lattices generated by the MILC and LHP collaborations at a pion mass of 500 MeV.

  14. Moving in on the Action: An Experimental Comparison of Fluorescence Excitation and Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Sydney M J; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2015-06-18

    Photodissociation action spectroscopy is often used as a proxy for measuring gas-phase absorption spectra of ions in a mass spectrometer. Although the potential discrepancy between linear optical and photodissociation spectra is generally acknowledged, direct experimental comparisons are lacking. In this work, we use a quadrupole ion trap that has been modified to enable both photodissociation and laser-induced fluorescence to assess how closely the visible photodissociation action spectrum of a fluorescent dye reflects its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Our results show the photodissociation action spectrum of gaseous rhodamine 110 is both substantially narrower and slightly red-shifted (∼120 cm(-1)) compared to its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Power dependence measurements reveal that the photodissociation of rhodamine 110 requires, on average, the absorption of three photons whereas fluorescence is a single-photon process. These differing power dependences are the key to interpreting the differences in the measured spectra. The experimental results provide much-needed quantification and insight into the differences between action spectra and linear optical spectra, and emphasize the utility of fluorescence excitation spectra to provide a more reliable benchmark for comparison with theory. PMID:26020810

  15. [Spectrum diagnostic of arcjet].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Hua; Shen, Yan; Chen, Li-Ming

    2004-08-01

    Arcjet is a kind of propulsion device for mechanical operation and control of spacecraft. As its specific impulse is far greater than classical device using chemical propellant, arcjet is playing an increasing role in spacecraft propulsion. To improve our understanding of its working mechanics, the diagnostic method of arcjet is discussed and a set of spectrum diagnostic system is established in this paper. With this system, spectrum diagnostic was executed for Ar propellant at a setting value of flow rate and input current in a vacuum chamber. The result shows that the system has a high signal-to-noise ratio and the data collected can reflect the physical process objectively. Through transaction and analysis of these data, radial distribution of emission coefficient was obtained for different spectral lines, and radial distribution of temperature was also obtained through farther analysis of the emission coefficient. The result shows that under the experiment conditions of this paper, arcjet is in thermodynamic non-equilibrium state, therefore the temperatures obtained by different spectral lines are different. PMID:15766102

  16. The Effect of Action Experience on Sensorimotor EEG Rhythms during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent line of inquiry has examined how an observer’s experience with action changes the neural processing of similar actions when they are subsequently observed. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that giving participants different types and amounts of experience with specific objects would lead to differential patterns of sensorimotor rhythms during the observation of similar actions on those objects. While EEG was recorded, three groups of participants (n = 20 in each group; mean age = 22.0 years, SD = 2.7) watched video clips of an actor reaching, grasping, and lifting two objects. Participants then received information about differences in weight between the two objects. One group gained this information through extended sensorimotor experience with the objects, a second group received much briefer sensorimotor experience with the objects, and the third group read written information about the objects’ weights. Participants then viewed the action sequences again. For participants who had sensorimotor experience with the objects, the EEG response to viewing the actions was differentially sensitive to the anticipated weight of the objects. We conclude that this sensitivity was based on the participant’s prior sensorimotor experience with the objects. The participants who only received semantic information about the objects showed no such effects. The primary conclusion is that even brief experience with actions affects sensorimotor cortex activity during the subsequent observation of similar actions. PMID:24568874

  17. The effect of action experience on sensorimotor EEG rhythms during action observation.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Lorna C; Marshall, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    A recent line of inquiry has examined how an observer׳s experience with action changes the neural processing of similar actions when they are subsequently observed. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that giving participants different types and amounts of experience with specific objects would lead to differential patterns of sensorimotor rhythms during the observation of similar actions on those objects. While EEG was recorded, three groups of participants (n=20 in each group; mean age=22.0 years, SD=2.7) watched video clips of an actor reaching, grasping, and lifting two objects. Participants then received information about differences in weight between the two objects. One group gained this information through extended sensorimotor experience with the objects, a second group received much briefer sensorimotor experience with the objects, and the third group read written information about the objects׳ weights. Participants then viewed the action sequences again. For participants who had sensorimotor experience with the objects, the EEG response to viewing the actions was differentially sensitive to the anticipated weight of the objects. We conclude that this sensitivity was based on the participant׳s prior sensorimotor experience with the objects. The participants who only received semantic information about the objects showed no such effects. The primary conclusion is that even brief experience with actions affects sensorimotor cortex activity during the subsequent observation of similar actions. PMID:24568874

  18. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. PMID:27374738

  19. ACTION FOR HEALTH IN DIABETES: LOOK AHEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Look AHEAD (Action For Health in Diabetes) is a multicenter randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of a lifestyle intervention designed to achieve and maintain weight loss over the long term through decreased caloric intake and exercise. Look AHEAD is focusing on the di...

  20. Complete action for open superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Okawa, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    We construct a complete action for open superstring field theory that includes the Neveu-Schwarz sector and the Ramond sector. For the Neveu-Schwarz sector, we use the string field in the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector, and the action in the Neveu-Schwarz sector is the same as the Wess-Zumino-Witten-like action of the Berkovits formulation. For the Ramond sector, it is known that the BRST cohomology on an appropriate subspace of the small Hilbert space reproduces the correct spectrum, and we use the string field projected to this subspace. We show that the action is invariant under gauge transformations that are consistent with the projection for the string field in the Ramond sector.

  1. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  2. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  3. Spectrum of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics describe an Abelian plasma where conduction and chiral currents are simultaneously present and constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. At high frequencies the magnetic currents play the leading role, and the spectrum is dominated by two-fluid effects. The system behaves instead as a single fluid in the low-frequency regime where the vortical currents induce potentially large hypermagnetic fields. After deriving the physical solutions of the generalized Appleton-Hartree equation, the corresponding dispersion relations are scrutinized and compared with the results valid for cold plasmas. Hypermagnetic knots and fluid vortices can be concurrently present at very low frequencies and suggest a qualitatively different dynamics of the hydromagnetic nonlinearities.

  4. Ocean color spectrum calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    There is obvious value in developing the means for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. The first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model can be described by a modified single scattering approach based on a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasisingle scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurements made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).1 CDC estimates are currently 1:110;1 up from 1:150 in 2007.2 Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.1 While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.3 PMID:24278834

  6. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, M. Eugenia Cabezas, Carlos Mata, Santiago Alonso, Josè L.

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  7. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2010-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an uncommon inflammatory demyelinating CNS disorder that is distinct from multiple sclerosis with respect to clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, and prognostic characteristics. Autoantibodies that target aquaporin-4 are highly specific for neuromyelitis optica and have helped define a spectrum of disease beyond the classic definition of acute transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Accumulating evidence supports the pathogenic potential that these autoantibodies possess in relation to the unique vasculocentric immunopathology of the disease. Current treatment strategies therefore include the use of corticosteroids and plasmapheresis for acute attacks and general or humoral immunosuppression for attack prevention. Ongoing research will focus on establishing the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, in part derived from newly reported animal models, and testing-focused treatment strategies that evolve from this knowledge. PMID:22810601

  8. Autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Hadeel; Al Ateeqi, Nahed; Tidmarsh, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, reciprocal social interaction and restricted repetitive behaviors or interests. The term autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been used to describe their variable presentation. Although the cause of these disorders is not yet known, studies strongly suggest a genetic basis with a complex mode of inheritance. More research is needed to explore environmental factors that could be contributing to the cause of these disorders. The occurrence of ASD has been increasing worldwide, with the most recent prevalence studies indicating that they are present in 6 per 1000 children. The objectives of this article are to provide physicians with relevant information needed to identify and refer children presenting with symptoms suggestive of ASDs to specialized centers early, and to make them feel comfortable in dealing with public concerns regarding controversial issues about the etiology and management of these disorders. PMID:20622347

  9. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  10. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-01

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm. PMID:18662760

  11. Thermal weights for semiclassical vibrational response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Moberg, Daniel R.; Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.

    2015-08-28

    Semiclassical approximations to response functions can allow the calculation of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic observables from classical dynamics. Evaluating a canonical response function requires the related tasks of determining thermal weights for initial states and computing the dynamics of these states. A class of approximations for vibrational response functions employs classical trajectories at quantized values of action variables and represents the effects of the radiation-matter interaction by discontinuous transitions. Here, we evaluate choices for a thermal weight function which are consistent with this dynamical approximation. Weight functions associated with different semiclassical approximations are compared, and two forms are constructed which yield the correct linear response function for a harmonic potential at any temperature and are also correct for anharmonic potentials in the classical mechanical limit of high temperature. Approximations to the vibrational linear response function with quantized classical trajectories and proposed thermal weight functions are assessed for ensembles of one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators. This approach is shown to perform well for an anharmonic potential that is not locally harmonic over a temperature range encompassing the quantum limit of a two-level system and the limit of classical dynamics.

  12. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  13. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Gerald; Russell, A. Denver

    1999-01-01

    Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of active chemical agents (biocides) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics. This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants. The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants. Known mechanisms of microbial resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports. PMID:9880479

  14. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  15. Superfine resolution acoustooptic spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Lesh, James R.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution spectrum analysis of RF signals is required in applications such as the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, RF interference monitoring, or general purpose decomposition of signals. Sub-Hertz resolution in three-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analysis is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. The operation of a two-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analyzer is extended to include time integration over a sequence of CCD frames.

  16. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  17. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  19. Effects of Weighted Vests on the Engagement of Children with Developmental Delays and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.; Sewell, Joanna Neely; Good, Leslie; Wolery, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The use of weighted vests for children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities is a common practice as part of sensory integration therapy programs. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend the research on the use of weighted vests for children with autism and developmental delays in a methodologically rigorous…

  20. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  1. Weight-Control Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... full list of resources . Alternate Language URL Weight-control Information Network (WIN) Page Content The Weight-control ...

  2. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  3. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis. PMID

  4. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  5. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  6. Hadron Masses From Novel Fat-Link Fermion Actions

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Zanotti; S. Bilson-Thompson; F. D. R. Bonnet; P. D. Coddington; D. B. Leinweber; A. G. Williams; J. B. Zhang; W. Melnitchouk; F. X. Lee

    2001-11-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators in the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16{sup 3} x 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative 0(a) improvement, including a reduced exceptional configuration problem.

  7. The anxiety disorder spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Peter J.; McTeague, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers recent research assessing psychophysiological reactivity to fear imagery in anxiety disorder patients. As in animal subjects, fear cues prompt in humans a state of defensive motivation in which autonomic and somatic survival reflexes are markedly enhanced. Thus, a startle stimulus presented in a fear context yields a stronger (potentiated) reflex, providing a quantitative measure of fearful arousal. This fear potentiation is further exaggerated in specific or social phobia individuals when viewing pictures or imagining the phobic object. Paradoxically, fear imagery studies with more severe anxiety disorder patients—panic disorder with agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or anxious patients with comorbid depression—show a blunted, less robust fear potentiated response. Furthermore, this reflex blunting appears to systematically be more pronounced over the anxiety disorder spectrum, coincident with lengthier chronicity, worsening clinician-based judgments of severity and prognosis, and increased questionnaire-based indices of negative affectivity, suggesting that normal defensive reactivity may be compromised by an experience of long-term stress. PMID:19096959

  8. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  9. Rotational Spectrum of Sarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C4H10FO2P) was observed in the rotationally cold (Trot<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1σ), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm-1. Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G** level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings.

  10. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  12. The Solar Convection Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.

    2000-01-01

    I helped to complete a research project with NASA scientists Dr. David Hathaway (my mentor), Rick Bogart, and John Beck from the SOHO/SOI collaboration. Our published paper in 'Solar Physics' was titled 'The Solar Convection Spectrum' (April 2000). Two of my undergraduate students were named on the paper--Gavrav Khutri and Josh Petitto. Gavrav also wrote a short paper for the National Conference of Undergraduate Research Proceedings in 1998 using a preliminary result. Our main result was that we show no evidence of a scale of convection named 'mesogranulation'. Instead, we see only direct evidence for the well-known scales of convection known as graduation and supergranulation. We are also completing work on vertical versus horizontal flow fluxes at the solar surface. I continue to work on phase relationships of solar activity indicators, but I have not yet written a paper with my students on this topic. Along with my research results, I have developed and augmented undergraduate courses at Birmingham-Southern College by myself and with other faculty. We have included new labs and observations, speakers from NASA and elsewhere, new subject material related to NASA and space science. I have done a great deal of work in outreach, mostly as President and other offices in the Birmingham Astronomical Society. My work includes speaking, attracting speakers, giving workshops, and governing.

  13. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  14. The weight of mass or the mass of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-01

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  15. Successful habits of weight losers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the availability of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 200% since 1980. Although few people have lost weight and maintained weight loss long term, some have and are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. Results from these ...

  16. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  17. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

  18. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  19. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  20. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  1. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  2. Frequency Allocation; The Radio Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns segments of the radio spectrum to categories of users, and specific frequencies within each segment to individual users. Since demand for channel space exceeds supply, the process is complex. The radio spectrum can be compared to a long ruler: the portion from 10-540 kiloHertz has been set aside…

  3. Inclusion and the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are a lifelong developmental disability that affects the way a person communicates and relates to people around them. People with autistic spectrum disorders experience difficulties with social interaction, social communication and imagination--known as the "triad of impairments". The mainstream school environment…

  4. Dapagliflozin: glucuretic action and beyond.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Sundram, Karupiah; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam A

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a greatly challenging disease of the 21 century, and the mortality rate due to this insidious disease is increasing worldwide in spite of availability of effective oral hypoglycemic agents. Satisfactory management of glycemic control in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a major clinical challenge. Identification of potential pharmacological target sites is therefore continuing as an integral part of the diabetic research. The sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) expressed in the renal proximal tubule plays an essential role in glucose reabsorption. Pharmacological blockade of SGLT2 prevents glucose reabsorption and subsequently induces the elimination of filtered glucose via urine, the process is known as 'glucuresis'. Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2. The US FDA approved dapagliflozin in January 2014 to improve glycemic control along with diet and exercise in adult patients afflicted with T2DM. It has a potential to decrease glycated hemoglobin and to promote weight loss. Although the mechanism of action of dapagliflozin is not directly linked with insulin or insulin sensitivity, reduction of plasma glucose by dapagliflozin via induction of glucosuria could improve muscle insulin sensitivity. Moreover, dapagliflozin could cause diuresis and subsequently fall in blood pressure. In addition to general discussion on the pharmacology of dapagliflozin, we propose in this review the possibilities of dual antidiabetic effect of dapagliflozin and its possible additional beneficial actions in hypertensive-obese-T2DM patients through its indirect blood pressure-lowering action and reduction of body calories and weight. Long-term clinical studies are however needed to clarify this contention. PMID:24705156

  5. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  6. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  7. Fragile X spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45–54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130–250 females and 1 in 250–810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term “Fragile X Spectrum Disorder” (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  8. Fragile X spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-11-01

    The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45-54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130-250 females and 1 in 250-810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term "Fragile X Spectrum Disorder" (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  9. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  10. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  11. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  12. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  13. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  14. RCRA corrective action program guide (Interim)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for compliance with an increasingly complex spectrum of environmental regulations. One of the most complex programs is the corrective action program proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The proposed regulations were published on July 27, 1990. The proposed Subpart S rule creates a comprehensive program for investigating and remediating releases of hazardous wastes and hazardous waste constituents from solid waste management units (SWMUs) at facilities permitted to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes. This proposed rule directly impacts many DOE facilities which conduct such activities. This guidance document explains the entire RCRA Corrective Action process as outlined by the proposed Subpart S rule, and provides guidance intended to assist those persons responsible for implementing RCRA Corrective Action at DOE facilities.

  15. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  16. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Armangué, Thaís; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arrambide, Georgina; Meca-Lallana, José E.; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Mendibe, Mar; Alvarez de Arcaya, Amaya; Aladro, Yolanda; Casanova, Bonaventura; Olascoaga, Javier; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Fernández-Fournier, Mireya; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluis; Cobo-Calvo, Alvaro; Viñals, Montserrat; de Andrés, Clara; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Cervelló, Angeles; Calles, Carmen; Rubio, Manuel Barón; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Caminero, Ana; Munteis, Elvira; Antigüedad, Alfredo R.; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Montalban, Xavier; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To (1) determine the value of the recently proposed criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that unify patients with NMO and those with limited forms (NMO/LF) with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies; and (2) investigate the clinical significance of the serologic status in patients with NMO. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of 181 patients fulfilling the 2006 NMO criteria (n = 127) or NMO/LF criteria with AQP4-IgG (n = 54). AQP4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) antibodies were tested using cell-based assays. Results: Patients were mainly white (86%) and female (ratio 6.5:1) with median age at onset 39 years (range 10–77). Compared to patients with NMO and AQP4-IgG (n = 94), those with NMO/LF presented more often with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) (p < 0.001), and had lower relapse rates (p = 0.015), but similar disability outcomes. Nonwhite ethnicity and optic neuritis presentation doubled the risk for developing NMO compared with white race (p = 0.008) or LETM presentation (p = 0.008). Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–13.6) and older age at onset were associated with worse outcome (for every 10-year increase, HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2). Patients with NMO and MOG-IgG (n = 9) had lower female:male ratio (0.8:1) and better disability outcome than AQP4-IgG-seropositive or double-seronegative patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with AQP4-IgG, the similar outcomes regardless of the clinical phenotype support the unified term NMOSD; nonwhite ethnicity and older age at onset are associated with worse outcome. Double-seronegative and AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMO have a similar clinical outcome. The better prognosis of patients with MOG-IgG and NMO suggests that phenotypic and serologic classification is useful. PMID:27144216

  17. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition. PMID:25210111

  18. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  19. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-08-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16234878

  20. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  1. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  2. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  3. Weight reduction, fertility and contraception.

    PubMed

    Van Der Spuy, Z M; Jacobs, H S

    1983-10-01

    The significance of weight and body composition with regard to the fertile menstrual cycle has excited much interest. There is global imbalance of resources and problems of widespread chronic malnutrition in many 3rd world countries. This emphasizes the great importance of the possible effects of diet, body weight, and body composition on fecundity (ability to reproduce), fertility (reproductive performance), and pregnancy outcome. Frisch and Revelle suggested that a critical body weight is required for a girl to progress through puberty, menstruate, and finally develop ovulatory cycles. They postulated a direct relationship between weight and menarche and suggested that before menarche will occur at least 17% of the body weight needs to be made up of fat. The Frisch hypothesis is not universally accepted, and it seems highly unlikely that a single age unrelated body weight is always the trigger for menarche. Many of the data used in Frische's original studies were derived rather than directly observed. It seems likely that both body weight and composition are important and that the peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens in fat plays a role in pubertal development, but the actual signal whcih triggers the hypothalamic events leading eventually through puberty to menstruation and ovulation remains unkown. Acute malnutrition, as seen during famine, is assoicated with a dramatic decrease in fertility. It is usually secondary to amenorrhea and annovulation. In developing countries weight related amenorrhea and delayed menarche are largely the result of nutritonal deprivation and the demands of lactation on women of boderline body weight, but a different pattern is seen in Western countries. The outstanding example of weight reduction resulting in infertility is seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. These women have extreme self imposed weight loss, a distorted perception of their body image, and disturbance in their attitude towards their feelings of hunger

  4. Dietary adherence during weight loss predicts weight regain.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, Pedro; Bryan, David R; Garvey, W Timothy; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22-25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adherence and subsequent weight change at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Percent weight regained was significantly lower (30.9 ± 6.7% vs. 66.7 ± 9.4%; P < 0.05) in the upper compared to the lower adherence tertile for previous weight loss dietary adherence (49.9 ± 8.8% vs. 96.8 ± 12.8% P < 0.05) at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. This difference was partly explained by increases in daily activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) (+95 ± 45 kcal/day vs. -44 ± 42 kcal/day, P < 0.05) and lower daily energy intake (2,066 ± 71 kcal/day vs. 2,289 ± 62 kcal/day, P < 0.05) in the higher tertile for previous dietary adherence, compared to the lower. These findings suggest that higher adherence (i.e., higher tertile) to the previous low-calorie diet predicts lower weight regain over 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance, which is explained by lower energy intake and higher physical activity. Finally, how well an individual adheres to a low-calorie diet intervention during weight loss may be a useful tool for identifying individuals who are particularly vulnerable to subsequent weight regain. PMID:21164500

  5. The weighted random graph model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlaschelli, Diego

    2009-07-01

    We introduce the weighted random graph (WRG) model, which represents the weighted counterpart of the Erdos-Renyi random graph and provides fundamental insights into more complicated weighted networks. We find analytically that the WRG is characterized by a geometric weight distribution, a binomial degree distribution and a negative binomial strength distribution. We also characterize exactly the percolation phase transitions associated with edge removal and with the appearance of weighted subgraphs of any order and intensity. We find that even this completely null model displays a percolation behaviour similar to what is observed in real weighted networks, implying that edge removal cannot be used to detect community structure empirically. By contrast, the analysis of clustering successfully reveals different patterns between the WRG and real networks.

  6. Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. I. Theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Zheng, Yi; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-02-01

    Cosmology based on large scale peculiar velocity prefers volume weighted velocity statistics. However, measuring the volume weighted velocity statistics from inhomogeneously distributed galaxies (simulation particles/halos) suffers from an inevitable and significant sampling artifact. We study this sampling artifact in the velocity power spectrum measured by the nearest particle velocity assignment method by Zheng et al., [Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013).]. We derive the analytical expression of leading and higher order terms. We find that the sampling artifact suppresses the z =0 E -mode velocity power spectrum by ˜10 % at k =0.1 h /Mpc , for samples with number density 10-3 (Mpc /h )-3 . This suppression becomes larger for larger k and for sparser samples. We argue that this source of systematic errors in peculiar velocity cosmology, albeit severe, can be self-calibrated in the framework of our theoretical modelling. We also work out the sampling artifact in the density-velocity cross power spectrum measurement. A more robust evaluation of related statistics through simulations will be presented in a companion paper by Zheng et al., [Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. II. Detection in simulations and comparison with theoretical modelling, arXiv:1409.6809.]. We also argue that similar sampling artifact exists in other velocity assignment methods and hence must be carefully corrected to avoid systematic bias in peculiar velocity cosmology.

  7. Improved actions, redundant operators and scaling in lattice SU(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Apoorva; Gupta, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    Schwinger-Dyson equations are used to systematically calculate redundant operators in lattice QCD and their role in perturbatively improved actions is analyzed. The criteria for improved actions in Monte Carlo simulations are discussed and their usefulness also. In particular the renormalized trajectory is estimated for the b = sqrt(3) renormalization group transformation in a four-parameter space and its scaling behavior is studied for future use in spectrum calculations. J. Robert Oppenheimer Fellow.

  8. Joint action changes valence-based action coding in an implicit attitude task.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Anna; Liepelt, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that co-acting with another person induces a problem to discriminate between one's own and the other's actions which can be resolved by emphasizing action features that discriminate best between both persons' actions in a given task context. Mostly, overt action features like the spatial position of responses have been suggested as discriminating action features. In the present study, we tested whether non-externally perceivable, covert action features can be used for resolving the action discrimination problem during joint action. Therefore, we compared task performance between a joint and an individual version of the Go/Nogo Association Task, a task requiring the association of a valence to the response. We found a larger implicit attitude effect in the joint than in the individual setting for person-related (self and other, Experiment 1) as well as for non-person-related attitude objects (fruit and insect, Experiment 2) suggesting that the weight of valence information is increased in the internal coding of responses when valence discriminates between both responses. In contrast, we found a smaller implicit attitude effect in a person present setting than an individual setting (Experiment 3) indicating that the enhanced implicit attitude effect observed in the joint settings of Experiments 1 and 2 is not due to social facilitation. Our results suggest that action discrimination during joint action can rely on covert action features. The results are in line with the referential coding account, and specify the kind of action features that are represented when sharing a task with another person. PMID:26215432

  9. The geoid spectrum from altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Satellite altimetry information from the world's major oceans was analyzed to arrive at a geoid power spectrum. Using the equivalent of about 7 revolutions of data (mostly from GEOS-3) the power spectrum of the sea surface generally follows the expected values from Kaula's rule applied to the geoid. Analysis of overlapping altimetry arcs (and oceanographic data) shows that the surface spectrum is dominated by the geoid to about 500 cycles (40 km half wavelength) but that sea state departures are significant starting at about 250 cycles (80 km). Estimates of geopotential variances from a derived (smooth) geoid spectrum show significantly less power than Kaula's rule to about 60 cycles, but somewhat more from there to about 400 cycles. At less than 40 km half wavelength, the total power in the marine geoid may be negligible.

  10. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  11. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  12. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  13. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  14. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  15. Interpolation Errors in Spectrum Analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain the proper measurement amplitude with a spectrum analyzer, the correct frequency-dependent transducer factor must be added to the voltage measured by the transducer. This report examines how entering transducer factors into a spectrum analyzer can cause significant errors in field amplitude due to the misunderstanding of the analyzer's interpolation methods. It also discusses how to reduce these errors to obtain a more accurate field amplitude reading.

  16. Optimal Weights For Measuring Redshift Space Distortions in Multi-tracer Galaxy Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David W.; Samushia, Lado; Gagrani, Praful

    2016-08-01

    Since the volume accessible to galaxy surveys is fundamentally limited, it is extremely important to analyse available data in the most optimal fashion. One way of enhancing the cosmological information extracted from the clustering of galaxies is by weighting the galaxy field. The most widely used weighting schemes assign weights to galaxies based on the average local density in the region (FKP weights) and their bias with respect to the dark matter field (PVP weights). They are designed to minimize the fractional variance of the galaxy power-spectrum. We demonstrate that the currently used bias dependent weighting scheme can be further optimized for specific cosmological parameters. We develop a procedure for computing the optimal weights and test them against mock catalogues for which the values of all fitting parameters, as well as the input power-spectrum are known. We show that by applying these weights to the joint power-spectrum of Emission Line Galaxies and Luminous Red Galaxies from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument survey, the variance in the measured growth rate parameter can be reduced by as much as 36 per cent.

  17. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  18. Spinor Structure and Matter Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Classification of relativistic wave equations is given on the ground of interlocking representations of the Lorentz group. A system of interlocking representations is associated with a system of eigenvector subspaces of the energy operator. Such a correspondence allows one to define matter spectrum, where the each level of this spectrum presents a some state of elementary particle. An elementary particle is understood as a superposition of state vectors in nonseparable Hilbert space. Classification of indecomposable systems of relativistic wave equations is produced for bosonic and fermionic fields on an equal footing (including Dirac and Maxwell equations). All these fields are equivalent levels of matter spectrum, which differ from each other by the value of mass and spin. It is shown that a spectrum of the energy operator, corresponding to a given matter level, is non-degenerate for the fields of type (l, 0) ⊕ (0, l), where l is a spin value, whereas for arbitrary spin chains we have degenerate spectrum. Energy spectra of the stability levels (electron and proton states) of the matter spectrum are studied in detail. It is shown that these stability levels have a nature of threshold scales of the fractal structure associated with the system of interlocking representations of the Lorentz group.

  19. Does This Make Me Look Fat? Peer Crowd and Peer Contributions to Adolescent Girls' Weight Control Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study evaluated a "socialization" model linking girls' peer crowd affiliations (e.g., Jocks, Populars) with their own weight concern, perceived peer weight norms, and weight control behaviors. An alternative "selection" model was also evaluated. Girls (N = 236; M age = 15.95 years) from diverse ethnic…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: ataxia neuropathy spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ataxia neuropathy spectrum ataxia neuropathy spectrum Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Ataxia neuropathy spectrum is part of a group of conditions ...

  1. Action Recognition Using Nonnegative Action Component Representation and Sparse Basis Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Yang, Wankou; Sun, Changyin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose using high-level action units to represent human actions in videos and, based on such units, a novel sparse model is developed for human action recognition. There are three interconnected components in our approach. First, we propose a new context-aware spatial-temporal descriptor, named locally weighted word context, to improve the discriminability of the traditionally used local spatial-temporal descriptors. Second, from the statistics of the context-aware descriptors, we learn action units using the graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization, which leads to a part-based representation and encodes the geometrical information. These units effectively bridge the semantic gap in action recognition. Third, we propose a sparse model based on a joint l2,1-norm to preserve the representative items and suppress noise in the action units. Intuitively, when learning the dictionary for action representation, the sparse model captures the fact that actions from the same class share similar units. The proposed approach is evaluated on several publicly available data sets. The experimental results and analysis clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26270909

  2. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  3. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  4. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  5. Predictors of successful weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of variables in the early stages of treatment that are related to successful weight loss provides practitioners with important information. These factors may be assessed to determine the likelihood of future success. Weight loss at the beginning of treatment, depressive symptomato...

  6. An indirect transmission measurement-based spectrum estimation method for computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of an x-ray spectrum can greatly influence imaging and related tasks. In practice, due to the pile-up effect of the detector, it’s difficult to directly measure the spectrum of a CT scanner using an energy resolved detector. An alternative solution is to estimate the spectrum using transmission measurements with a step phantom or another CT phantom. In this work, we present a new spectrum estimation method based on indirect transmission measurement and a model spectra mixture approach. The estimated x-ray spectrum was expressed as a weighted summation of a set of model spectra, which can significantly reduce the degrees of freedom of the spectrum estimation problem. Next, an estimated projection was calculated with the assumed spectrum. By iteratively updating the unknown weights, we minimized the difference between the estimated projection data and the raw projection data. The final spectrum was calculated with these calibrated weights and the model spectra. Both simulation and experimental data were used to evaluate the proposed method. In the simulation study, the estimated spectra were compared to the raw spectra which were used to generate the raw projection data. For the experimental study, the ground truth measurement of the raw x-ray spectrum was not available. Therefore, the estimated spectrum was compared against the spectra generated using the SpekCalc software with tube configurations provided by the scanner manufacturer. The results show the proposed method has the potential to accurately estimate x-ray spectra using the raw projection data. The difference between the mean energy of the raw spectra and the mean energy of the estimated spectra was less than 0.5 keV for both the simulation and experimental data. Further tests show the method was robust with respect to the model spectra generator.

  7. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education...

  8. [Controlled weight bearing after osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Perren, T; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    Patient compliance with postoperative partial weight bearing can be a difficult management problem. The problem may be intentional or unintentional. There is no objective way to assess the amount of weight placed on the lower extremity by the patient. It is our clinical suspicion that patients place more weight than is desirable on the effected limb. There are few reports in the literature on this topic. One study has confirmed our suspicion of poor patient compliance with postoperative weight bearing. Our goal is to develop a system to accurately assess weight bearing and to improve this aspect of postoperative fracture care. Through an active feedback device we hope to improve patient education and understanding. We plan to study the clinical applications of using a pressure sensitive shoe insert device. Our ultimate goal is to improve upon the present device and to study the clinical application of there use. PMID:8123330

  9. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651981

  10. An algorithm for computing the distance spectrum of trellis codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouanne, Marc; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A class of quasiregular codes is defined for which the distance spectrum can be calculated from the codeword corresponding to the all-zero information sequence. Convolutional codes and regular codes are both quasiregular, as well as most of the best known trellis codes. An algorithm to compute the distance spectrum of linear, regular, and quasiregular trellis codes is presented. In particular, it can calculate the weight spectrum of convolutional (linear trellis) codes and the distance spectrum of most of the best known trellis codes. The codes do not have to be linear or regular, and the signals do not have to be used with equal probabilities. The algorithm is derived from a bidirectional stack algorithm, although it could also be based on the Viterbi algorithm. The algorithm is used to calculate the beginning of the distance spectrum of some of the best known trellis codes and to compute tight estimates on the first-event-error probability and on the bit-error probability.

  11. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  12. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: arman@apctp.org

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.

  13. Perceived Weight Discrimination and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58–4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06–4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity. PMID:23894586

  14. Analysis of the Palierne model by relaxation time spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Mi Kyung; Cho, Kwang Soo

    2016-02-01

    Viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends is affected by relaxation of the interface. Several attempts have been made for linear viscoelasticity of immiscible polymer blends. The Palierne model (1990) and the Gramespacher-Meissner model (1992) are representative. The Gramespacher-Meissner model consists of two parts: ingredients and interface. Moreover, it provides us the formula of the peak of interface in weighted relaxation time spectrum, which enables us to analyze the characteristics relating to interface more obviously. However, the Gramespacher-Meissner model is a kind of empirical model. Contrary to the Gramespacher-Meissner model, the Palierne model was derived in a rigorous manner. In this study, we investigated the Palierne model through the picture of the Gramespacher-Meissner model. We calculated moduli of immiscible blend using two models and obtained the weighted relaxation time spectra of them. The fixed-point iteration of Cho and Park (2013) was used in order to determine the weighted relaxation spectra.

  15. 77 FR 41956 - Relocation of and Spectrum Sharing by Federal Government Stations-Technical Panel and Dispute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) proposes to adopt regulations governing the Technical Panel and dispute resolution boards established by Congress to facilitate the relocation of, and spectrum sharing with, U.S. Government stations in spectrum bands reallocated from Federal use to non-Federal use or to shared use. This action is necessary to ensure the......

  16. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individual's baseline weight, sustained for three months or longer; and the term “minor weight loss” means a weight loss of 10 to 20 percent of the individual's baseline weight, sustained for three months or...

  17. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Tip Choose weight-loss programs that encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight gradually and maintain your weight over time. Looking for easy-to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy ...

  18. The Spectrum and Laplacian Spectrum of the Dice Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuli; Yan, Weigen; Tian, Tao

    2016-05-01

    The dice lattice is the dual lattice of kagomé lattice. Many physical properties on the dice lattice have been studied by physicists, such as Ising model, Glassy dynamics of Josephson arrays, and Lattice Green's function. In this paper, we derive the spectrum and Laplacian spectrum of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition. In addition, we apply our results to obtain the formulae of the number of spanning trees, the Kirchhoff index, and the energy of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition.

  19. The Spectrum and Laplacian Spectrum of the Dice Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuli; Yan, Weigen; Tian, Tao

    2016-07-01

    The dice lattice is the dual lattice of kagomé lattice. Many physical properties on the dice lattice have been studied by physicists, such as Ising model, Glassy dynamics of Josephson arrays, and Lattice Green's function. In this paper, we derive the spectrum and Laplacian spectrum of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition. In addition, we apply our results to obtain the formulae of the number of spanning trees, the Kirchhoff index, and the energy of the dice lattice with toroidal boundary condition.

  20. Teaming from Three Perspectives: Interviews with Participatory Action Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…

  1. Generalization of Tacting Actions in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gladys; Carnerero, Jose Julio; Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This intervention compared the effects of two procedures on the generalization of a tacting repertoire (labeling) in 6 children with autism spectrum disorder. In one procedure the verbal antecedent stimulus "What is she doing?" appeared together with a person performing an action; in the other procedure, the antecedent stimulus was just the…

  2. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  3. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  4. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  5. Affirmative Action in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Natan

    This paper examines issues of equality, discrimination, affirmative action, and preferential treatment in Israel. An introduction provides a broad outline of topics addressed in the paper: the status of the Jewish sector, with treatment of Jewish immigrants to serve as an example of affirmative action; the policies of the state in relation to the…

  6. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  7. Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  8. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  9. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  10. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  11. Affirmative Action Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    All campuses and units of the University and Community College System of Nevada annually submit data to the Chancellor's Office on affirmative action. This report provides tables of affirmative action data for students enrolled during fall 1992 and professional and classified staff employed during 1992. First, student data is provided on gender…

  12. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  13. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  14. Energy distribution in the quantum spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen

    2015-11-01

    At first this paper summarizes the current situation and historical development of the spectrum research, the difficulties and demand background. Then it introduces the research status of quantum spectrum and research ideas of energy distribution in quantum spectrum. We explain the concept of quantum spectrum, the difference between quantum spectrum and spectrum. We elaborate energy distribution in quantum spectrum from three aspects, which are representation, feature and mechanism of quantum spectrum energy distribution. Finally we describe the application of monochrome quantum spectrum about imaging and detection aspects and give an overview of the quantum spectrum. Based on above research results we continue to study and achieve the detection of multi-spectral imaging, which provide the technical basis for the application. We try access to an advanced stage of quantum spectrum study as soon as possible.

  15. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature.

    PubMed

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A; Bowman, John P; Ratkowsky, David A; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes. PMID:27088362

  16. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

  17. Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

  18. The Biokinetic Spectrum for Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A.; Bowman, John P.; Ratkowsky, David A.; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We identify and describe the distribution of temperature-dependent specific growth rates for life on Earth, which we term the biokinetic spectrum for temperature. The spectrum has the potential to provide for more robust modeling in thermal ecology since any conclusions derived from it will be based on observed data rather than using theoretical assumptions. It may also provide constraints for systems biology model predictions and provide insights in physiology. The spectrum has a Δ-shape with a sharp peak at around 42°C. At higher temperatures up to 60°C there was a gap of attenuated growth rates. We found another peak at 67°C and a steady decline in maximum rates thereafter. By using Bayesian quantile regression to summarise and explore the data we were able to conclude that the gap represented an actual biological transition between mesophiles and thermophiles that we term the Mesophile-Thermophile Gap (MTG). We have not identified any organism that grows above the maximum rate of the spectrum. We used a thermodynamic model to recover the Δ-shape, suggesting that the growth rate limits arise from a trade-off between activity and stability of proteins. The spectrum provides underpinning principles that will find utility in models concerned with the thermal responses of biological processes. PMID:27088362

  19. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  20. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended. PMID:26561763

  1. Perfect Actions and Operators for Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Uwe-Jens

    1996-05-01

    Wilson's renormalization group implies that lattice actions located on a renormalized trajectory emanating from a fixed point represent perfect discretizations of continuum physics. With a perfect action the spectrum of a lattice theory is identical with the one of the continuum theory even at finite lattice spacing. Similarly, perfect operators yield cut-off independent matrix elements. Hence, continuum QCD can in principle be reconstructed from a lattice with finite spacing. In practice it is difficult to construct perfect actions and perfect operators explicitly. Here perturbation theory is used to derive perfect actions for quarks and gluons by performing a block renormalization group transformation directly from the continuum. The renormalized trajectory for free massive quarks is identified and a parameter in the renormalization group transformation is tuned such that for 1-d configurations the perfect action reduces to the nearest neighbor Wilson fermion action. Then the 4-d perfect action turns out to be extremely local as well, which is vital for numerical simulations. The fixed point action for free gluons is also obtained by blocking from the continuum. For 2-d configurations it reduces to the standard plaquette action, and for 4-d configurations it is still very local. With interactions between quarks and gluons switched on the perfect quark-gluon and 3-gluon vertex functions are computed analytically. In particular, a perfect clover term can be extracted from the quark-gluon vertex. The perturbatively perfect action is directly applicable to heavy quark physics. The construction of a perfect QCD action for light quarks should include nonperturbative effects, which is possible using numerical methods. Classically perfect quark and gluon fields are constructed as well. They allow to interpolate the continuum fields from the lattice data. In this way one can obtain information about space-time regions between lattice points. The classically perfect fields

  2. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  3. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  4. Atomic weights in gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Hafner, Katarina

    2014-02-01

    The publication of the standard atomic weights of 2009 by IUPAC raised the question of to what extent these changes affect the calculated composition of reference and calibration gas mixtures and the associated measurement uncertainty. The smallest uncertainties are attainable in the gravimetric gas mixture preparation, so the assessment was made for this technique. For the first time, the uncertainty contributions to the overall budget due to weighing, molecular weights, and composition of the parent gases are reported separately. The calculations show that even with the standard atomic weights of 2007, the uncertainty contribution due to the molecular weights can be of the same order as that due to weighing. The standard atomic weights of 2009 and 2011, when used under the same assumptions, increase the uncertainties of the amount-of-substance fractions of the abundant components from high-purity parent gases sometimes appreciably. Based on these calculations and the fact that the atomic weight intervals include sources that are unlikely to be generally relevant for measurements supporting trade, commerce, health and safety, there is a need to make a more in-depth analysis of the atomic weights used in calculations, and to reflect the knowledge about the isotopic composition of relevant materials in the value assignment and uncertainty calculation.

  5. Effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M W; Johnson, S L; Judith, F R

    1983-08-01

    Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of the broiler chick. Bacitracin, at levels of 11 and 55 ppm, significantly increased body weight, significantly reduced small intestine weight, but had no significant effect on liver weight of chicks fed a soybean protein and sucrose-based diet. The greatest effects were observed in the ileum where weight, moisture, length per unit of body weight, and dry matter per unit of length were all significantly reduced. The least effects were observed in the duodenum where weight and length per unit of body weight were significantly reduced and dry matter per unit of length was significantly increased. Intestinal weight, as a percent of body weight, was not significantly affected when body weight was suppressed with a high level of nicarbazin added to a practical diet, but it was significantly reduced when bacitracin was added to the semipurified diet and chicks were restricted in food intake to 70% of controls. A level of 55 ppm of bacitracin added to the practical diet had no significant effect on body weight, intestinal weight, or liver weight. As discussed, the observed changes in the intestine, due to bacitracin, are probably indirect and most likely reflect the action of the antibiotic on the intestinal microflora. PMID:6634597

  6. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  7. Judging body weight from faces: the height-weight illusion.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tobias M; Hecht, Heiko; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Being able to exploit features of the human face to predict health and fitness can serve as an evolutionary advantage. Surface features such as facial symmetry, averageness, and skin colour are known to influence attractiveness. We sought to determine whether observers are able to extract more complex features, namely body weight. If possible, it could be used as a predictor for health and fitness. For instance, facial adiposity could be taken to indicate a cardiovascular challenge or proneness to infections. Observers seem to be able to glean body weight information from frontal views of a face. Is weight estimation robust across different viewing angles? We showed that participants strongly overestimated body weight for faces photographed from a lower vantage point while underestimating it for faces photographed from a higher vantage point. The perspective distortions of simple facial measures (e.g., width-to-height ratio) that accompany changes in vantage point do not suffice to predict body weight. Instead, more complex patterns must be involved in the height-weight illusion. PMID:22611670

  8. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. PMID:26774444

  9. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  10. Spectrum allocations above 40 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenstein, W. E.; Moore, R. P.; Kimball, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-79) revised the International Table of Frequency Allocations to reflect increased interest and activity in the region of the EM spectrum above 40 GHz. The total width of the spectrum allocated (235 GHz) in the region above 40 GHz indicates the extent of this new spectrum resource, made accessible by advances in the state-of-the-art of telecommunications equipment. There are some striking differences between the approach to allocation above and below 40 GHz. For example, there are not bands allocated exclusively. This reflects the characteristics of propagation and the small antenna beamwidths achievable at these frequencies. Attention is given to atmospheric window and absorption band limits, allocations to satellite services, allocations to scientific services, allocations to terrestrial services, the future refinement of the radio regulations above 40 GHz, and allocations of WARC-79 and frequency management.

  11. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Grønborg, Therese K; Hansen, Stefan N; Nielsen, Svend V; Skytthe, Axel; Parner, Erik T

    2015-11-01

    Stoppage refers to changes in reproductive behavior following the birth of a child with a severe disease. The presence of stoppage can bias estimates of sibling recurrence risk if not properly addressed. If stoppage occurs non-randomly (differential stoppage), it is possibly an additional source of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26077953

  12. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  13. Cosmic fluctuations from a quantum effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2015-10-01

    Does the observable spectrum of cosmic fluctuations depend on detailed initial conditions? This addresses the question if the general inflationary paradigm is sufficient to predict within a given model the spectrum and amplitude of cosmic fluctuations, or if additional particular assumptions about the initial conditions are needed. The answer depends on the number of e -foldings Nin between the beginning of inflation and horizon crossing of the observable fluctuations. We discuss an interacting inflaton field in an arbitrary homogeneous and isotropic geometry, employing the quantum effective action Γ . An exact time evolution equation for the correlation function involves the second functional derivative Γ(2 ) . The operator formalism and quantum vacua for interacting fields are not needed. Use of the effective action also allows one to address the change of frames by field transformations (field relativity). Within the approximation of a derivative expansion for the effective action we find the most general solution for the correlation function, including mixed quantum states. For not too large Nin the memory of the initial conditions is preserved. In this case the cosmic microwave background cannot disentangle between the initial spectrum and its processing at horizon crossing. The inflaton potential cannot be reconstructed without assumptions about the initial state of the universe. We argue that for very large Nin a universal scaling form of the correlation function is reached for the range of observable modes. This can be due to symmetrization and equilibration effects, not yet contained in our approximation, which drive the short distance tail of the correlation function toward the Lorentz invariant propagator in flat space.

  14. Thermal-spectrum recriticality energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1993-12-01

    Large computer codes have been created in the past to predict the energy release in hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA), postulated to occur in liquid metal reactors (LMR). These codes, such as SIMMER, are highly specific to LMR designs. More recent attention has focused on thermal-spectrum criticality accidents, such as for fuel storage basins and waste tanks containing fissile material. This paper resents results from recent one-dimensional kinetics simulations, performed for a recriticality accident in a thermal spectrum. Reactivity insertion rates generally are smaller than in LMR CDAs, and the energetics generally are more benign. Parametric variation of input was performed, including reactivity insertion and initial temperature.

  15. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  16. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  17. Steroid promiscuity: Diversity of enzyme action. Preface.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Mason, J Ian

    2015-07-01

    This Special Issue on the topic of Steroid and Sterol Signaling: Promiscuity and Diversity, dwells on the growing realization that the 'one ligand, one binding site' and 'one enzyme, one reaction' concepts are out of date. Focusing on cytochromes P450 (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), and related enzymes, the Special Issue highlights that a single enzyme can bind to diverse substrates, and in different conformations, and can catalyze multiple different conversions (and in different directions), thereby, generating an unexpectedly wide spectrum of ligands that can have subtly different biological actions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol Signaling' . PMID:25596328

  18. Birth weight pattern in Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K N; Rao, R S; Sujatha, A

    1994-07-01

    The pattern of birth weight is described among births recorded in rural maternity homes in coastal areas of Udupi taluk in South Kanara district in Karnataka state, India. Literacy of the study area was 78.5%, and female literacy was 73.0%. The mean age at marriage was 21.4 years. Over 90% of mothers received some prenatal care. Contraceptive prevalence was 43%. The study area had six rural maternity homes that each served a population of about 10,000 people. The homes were well equipped with trained nurse-midwives, medical rooms, and equipment, and were connected by roads and telephones with Kasturba Hospital. High risk cases were transported by air to Kasturba Hospital. Birth weight was recorded with a UNICEF infant lever balance scale within one hour of delivery. Between July 1985 and June 1988, 4498 singleton live births were recorded: 2308 (51.3%) boys and 2190 (48.7%) girls. 80% weighed between 2500 and 3400 g. 13.3% were low birth weight of under 2500 g, and 0.4% were very low birth weight of under 1500 g. The mean birth weight was 2823 g: 2850 g for boys and 2765.4 for girls. The mean birth weight increased with maternal age; it also increased with increased parity and increased gestation age. The lowest birth weight of 2767.7 g occurred among first births; the highest of 2897.6 g was among births to women with multiple births. 91.3% were born between 37-40 weeks, and 7.5% were preterm. There were statistically significant differences in the mean birth weights by gender. 9.1% of births were to teenagers, and 69% of mothers were 20-29 years old. 30% of births were first births, and 51% were second and third births. The small family norm appeared to be accepted by this study population. PMID:7890348

  19. Dietary composition and weight loss: can we individualize dietary prescriptions according to insulin sensitivity or secretion status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable uncertainty over whether any one dietary pattern broadly facilitates weight loss or maintenance of weight loss, and current dietary guidelines recommend a spectrum of dietary composition for the general population. However, emerging evidence suggests that specific dietary compo...

  20. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  1. Corrective Action Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The glossary of technical terms was prepared to facilitate the use of the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) issued by OSWER on November 14, 1986. The CAP presents model scopes of work for all phases of a corrective action program, including the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI), Corrective Measures Study (CMS), Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI), and interim measures. The Corrective Action Glossary includes brief definitions of the technical terms used in the CAP and explains how they are used. In addition, expected ranges (where applicable) are provided. Parameters or terms not discussed in the CAP, but commonly associated with site investigations or remediations are also included.

  2. Financial Incentives and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  3. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  4. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  5. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  6. On the Hadronic Mass Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Rolf

    We argue that the sole requirement of a self-consistent bootstrap including all hadrons up to infinite mass leads to asymptotically exponential laws for the hadron mass spectrum, for momentum distributions, and for form factors (and to a highest temperature).

  7. Urbanicity and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Astrup, Aske; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Obel, Carsten; Schendel, Diana E.; Schieve, Laura; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Parner, Erik T.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is for the majority of cases unknown and more studies of risk factors are needed. Geographic variation in ASD occurrence has been observed, and urban residence has been suggested to serve as a proxy for etiologic and identification factors in ASD. We examined the association between urbanicity level…

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  9. Grasping Motor Impairments in Autism: Not Action Planning but Movement Execution Is Deficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoit, Astrid M. B.; van Schie, Hein T.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Different views on the origin of deficits in action chaining in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been posited, ranging from functional impairments in action planning to internal models supporting motor control. Thirty-one children and adolescents with ASD and twenty-nine matched controls participated in a two-choice reach-to-grasp paradigm…

  10. Smoking guns of a bounce in modified theories of gravity through the spectrum of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Morais, João; Henriques, Alfredo B.

    2013-05-01

    We present an inflationary model preceded by a bounce in a metric theory à la f(R), where R is the scalar curvature of the space-time. The model is asymptotically de Sitter such that the gravitational action tends asymptotically to an Einstein-Hilbert action with an effective cosmological constant; therefore, modified gravity affects only the early stages of the Universe. We then analyze the spectrum of the gravitational waves through the method of the Bogoliubov coefficients by two means: taking into account the gravitational perturbations due to the modified gravitational action in the f(R) setup and simply considering those perturbations inherent to the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. We show that there are distinctive (oscillatory) signals on the spectrum for very low frequencies; i.e., corresponding to modes that are currently entering the horizon.

  11. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  12. Delving into Egocentric Actions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Ye, Zhefan; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the challenging problem of recognizing the camera wearer's actions from videos captured by an egocentric camera. Egocentric videos encode a rich set of signals regarding the camera wearer, including head movement, hand pose and gaze information. We propose to utilize these mid-level egocentric cues for egocentric action recognition. We present a novel set of egocentric features and show how they can be combined with motion and object features. The result is a compact representation with superior performance. In addition, we provide the first systematic evaluation of motion, object and egocentric cues in egocentric action recognition. Our benchmark leads to several surprising findings. These findings uncover the best practices for egocentric actions, with a significant performance boost over all previous state-of-the-art methods on three publicly available datasets. PMID:26973427

  13. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Caregiver Action Network Toggle navigation Toolbox Forum Volunteers Donate About Us Join National Family Caregivers ... for caring for a loved one Family Caregiver Forum Share and talk with other caregivers Rare Disease ...

  14. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  15. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  16. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  17. Galileons from Lovelock actions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Van Doorsselaere, Jos

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate how, for an arbitrary number of dimensions, the Galileon actions and their covariant generalizations can be obtained through a standard Kaluza-Klein compactification of higher-dimensional Lovelock gravity. In this setup, the dilaton takes on the role of the Galileon. In addition, such compactifications uncover other more general Galilean actions, producing purely second-order equations in the weak-field limit, now both for the Galileon and the metric perturbations.

  18. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  19. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  20. Gastrointestinal Hormones and Bariatric Surgery-induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ionut, Viorica; Burch, Miguel; Youdim, Adrienne; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Design and Methods The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Conclusion Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY, and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:23512841

  1. Minimum variance beamformer weights revisited.

    PubMed

    Moiseev, Alexander; Doesburg, Sam M; Grunau, Ruth E; Ribary, Urs

    2015-10-15

    Adaptive minimum variance beamformers are widely used analysis tools in MEG and EEG. When the target brain activity presents in the form of spatially localized responses, the procedure usually involves two steps. First, positions and orientations of the sources of interest are determined. Second, the filter weights are calculated and source time courses reconstructed. This last step is the object of the current study. Despite different approaches utilized at the source localization stage, basic expressions for the weights have the same form, dictated by the minimum variance condition. These classic expressions involve covariance matrix of the measured field, which includes contributions from both the sources of interest and the noise background. We show analytically that the same weights can alternatively be obtained, if the full field covariance is replaced with that of the noise, provided the beamformer points to the true sources precisely. In practice, however, a certain mismatch is always inevitable. We show that such mismatch results in partial suppression of the true sources if the traditional weights are used. To avoid this effect, the "alternative" weights based on properly estimated noise covariance should be applied at the second, source time course reconstruction step. We demonstrate mathematically and using simulated and real data that in many situations the alternative weights provide significantly better time course reconstruction quality than the traditional ones. In particular, they a) improve source-level SNR and yield more accurately reconstructed waveforms; b) provide more accurate estimates of inter-source correlations; and c) reduce the adverse influence of the source correlations on the performance of single-source beamformers, which are used most often. Importantly, the alternative weights come at no additional computational cost, as the structure of the expressions remains the same. PMID:26143207

  2. Factor weighting in DRASTIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, F A L; Pires, L M G R; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of aquifer vulnerability comprehends the integration of very diverse data, including soil characteristics (texture), hydrologic settings (recharge), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), environmental parameters (relief), and ground water quality (nitrate contamination). It is therefore a multi-geosphere problem to be handled by a multidisciplinary team. The DRASTIC model remains the most popular technique in use for aquifer vulnerability assessments. The algorithm calculates an intrinsic vulnerability index based on a weighted addition of seven factors. In many studies, the method is subject to adjustments, especially in the factor weights, to meet the particularities of the studied regions. However, adjustments made by different techniques may lead to markedly different vulnerabilities and hence to insecurity in the selection of an appropriate technique. This paper reports the comparison of 5 weighting techniques, an enterprise not attempted before. The studied area comprises 26 aquifer systems located in Portugal. The tested approaches include: the Delphi consensus (original DRASTIC, used as reference), Sensitivity Analysis, Spearman correlations, Logistic Regression and Correspondence Analysis (used as adjustment techniques). In all cases but Sensitivity Analysis, adjustment techniques have privileged the factors representing soil characteristics, hydrologic settings, aquifer properties and environmental parameters, by leveling their weights to ≈4.4, and have subordinated the factors describing the aquifer media by downgrading their weights to ≈1.5. Logistic Regression predicts the highest and Sensitivity Analysis the lowest vulnerabilities. Overall, the vulnerability indices may be separated by a maximum value of 51 points. This represents an uncertainty of 2.5 vulnerability classes, because they are 20 points wide. Given this ambiguity, the selection of a weighting technique to integrate a vulnerability index may require additional

  3. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system. PMID:10858918

  4. Action-related auditory ERP attenuation: Paradigms and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Horváth, János

    2015-11-11

    A number studies have shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when elicited by self-induced or self-generated sounds. Because N1 is a correlate of auditory feature- and event-detection, it was generally assumed that N1-attenuation reflected the cancellation of auditory re-afference, enabled by the internal forward modeling of the predictable sensory consequences of the given action. Focusing on paradigms utilizing non-speech actions, the present review summarizes recent progress on action-related auditory attenuation. Following a critical analysis of the most widely used, contingent paradigm, two further hypotheses on the possible causes of action-related auditory ERP attenuation are presented. The attention hypotheses suggest that auditory ERP attenuation is brought about by a temporary division of attention between the action and the auditory stimulation. The pre-activation hypothesis suggests that the attenuation is caused by the activation of a sensory template during the initiation of the action, which interferes with the incoming stimulation. Although each hypothesis can account for a number of findings, none of them can accommodate the whole spectrum of results. It is suggested that a better understanding of auditory ERP attenuation phenomena could be achieved by systematic investigations of the types of actions, the degree of action-effect contingency, and the temporal characteristics of action-effect contingency representation-buildup and -deactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25843932

  5. Traces of ricocheted action safety bullets.

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Placidi, P

    1997-03-01

    Experimental gunshots were made with Action-1 and -3 ammunition (9 mm Luger) using a part dummy made of textile, pig skin, and gelatine as the target. After ricocheting off a concrete floor tile with impact angles of 15 degrees or 20 degrees, the deformed projectiles penetrated the gelatine block to a depth of between 21 and 37 cm. The ricochet angles varied between 5 degrees and 11 degrees. None of the bullets mushroomed after ricochet; a few bullets even overpenetrated. The ricocheted projectiles sprayed a substantial amount of copper particles onto the textile, and metallic fragments were also deposited along the bullet path. These traces were detected by high-resolution radiography. The Action-3 brass bullet was more resistant, had more kinetic energy, and was less deformed than the Action-1 copper bullet. The morphology of the wounds presented a very varied spectrum; round lesions were also observed. The results of the experimental study prove that ricocheted Action bullets present a serious risk of injury. PMID:9095295

  6. Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Schifter, D E; Ajzen, I

    1985-09-01

    Success at attempted weight reduction among college women was predicted on the basis of a theory of planned behavior. At the beginning of a 6-week period, participants expressed their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, and intentions with respect to losing weight. In addition, the extent to which they had made detailed weight reduction plans was assessed, as were a number of general attitudes and personality factors. In support of the theory, intentions to lose weight were accurately predicted on the basis of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control; perceived control and intentions were together moderately successful in predicting the amount of weight that participants actually lost over the 6-week period. Actual weight loss was also found to increase with development of a plan and with ego strength, factors that were assumed to increase control over goal attainment. Other factors, such as health locus of control, perceived competence, and action control, were found to be unrelated to weight reduction. PMID:4045706

  7. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  8. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    SciTech Connect

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  9. Spectral saliency via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Dai, Jialun; Zhu, Yafei; Zheng, Haiyong; Qiao, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    Suppressing nonsalient patterns by smoothing the amplitude spectrum at an appropriate scale has been shown to effectively detect the visual saliency in the frequency domain. Different filter scales are required for different types of salient objects. We observe that the optimal scale for smoothing amplitude spectrum shares a specific relation with the size of the salient region. Based on this observation and the bottom-up saliency detection characterized by spectrum scale-space analysis for natural images, we propose to detect visual saliency, especially with salient objects of different sizes and locations via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis. We not only provide a new criterion for automatic optimal scale selection but also reserve the saliency maps corresponding to different salient objects with meaningful saliency information by adaptive weighted combination. The performance of quantitative and qualitative comparisons is evaluated by three different kinds of metrics on the four most widely used datasets and one up-to-date large-scale dataset. The experimental results validate that our method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art saliency models for predicting human eye fixations in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  10. Modelling the TSZ power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Shaw, Laurie D; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the cosmological

  11. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  12. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  13. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  14. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  15. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  16. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  17. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  18. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  19. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  20. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  1. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  2. 14 CFR 23.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight is the highest weight at which compliance with each...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1863 - Standard weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard weight. 51.1863 Section 51.1863 Agriculture... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Standard Weight § 51.1863 Standard weight. (a) When packages are marked to a net weight of 15 pounds (6.80 kg) or more, the net weight of the contents shall not be less than...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1863 - Standard weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard weight. 51.1863 Section 51.1863 Agriculture... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Standard Weight § 51.1863 Standard weight. (a) When packages are marked to a net weight of 15 pounds (6.80 kg) or more, the net weight of the contents shall not be less than...

  5. 14 CFR 23.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weight limits. 23.25 Section 23.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight is the highest weight at which compliance with each...

  6. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  7. Unhealthy Weight-control Behaviours, Dieting and Weight Status: A Cross-cultural Comparison between North American and Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    López-Guimerà, Gemma; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Fauquet, Jordi; Loth, Katie; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine and compare dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UWCB) in population-based samples in two large urban areas in Spain (Barcelona) and in the USA (Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota). Additionally, use of UWCB across weight categories was explored in both samples. Participants included 1501 adolescents from Barcelona (48% girls, 52% boys) and 2793 adolescents from the Twin Cities (53% girls, 47% boys). The main outcome measures were dieting, UWCB (less extreme and extreme) and weight status. Although dieting and UWCB were prevalent in both samples, particularly among girls, the prevalence was higher in the US sample. In both countries, the report of dieting and use of UWCB was highest among overweight and obese youth. Prevention interventions that address the broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems should be warranted in light of the high prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight and unhealthy weight-related behaviours. PMID:23055262

  8. Digital control of a shaker to a specified shock spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, J. F.

    1982-05-01

    A digital computer based control system was developed for a biaxial electrohydraulic shaker table used for seismic qualification testing of nuclear power plant components. The system drive signals were developed from a weighted linear sum of 1/6-octave psuedo random noise signals. Preliminary drive signal shaping is accomplished through the use of a series of table mounted dummy mass transfer functions obtained from a previously generated data bank. Adjustments to the drive signal are made by direct comparison of the resulting test response spectrum (TRS) to the required response spectrum (RRS). Drive signal shaping sequences for a 2000 lb electrical equipment control cabinet are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system for seismic qualification.

  9. Cu influence on hens weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Copper plays an important part in living being bodies. But, both high and low Cu levels may cause human and animal diseases. Some East Siberia areas are characterized by Cu pollution [1]. 5 group of hens were formed: 1 - control, 2-5 - experimental. For a month the hens from experimental groups were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). Group 1 - 3 hens' weight was almost the same during the experiment. Weight decrease (from 2020 to 1656 g) was detected in group 4 (20 UL) for the first half a month. All the hens of group 4 except for 3 hens were died for the last 2 weeks. In group 5 (30 UL) all the hens died after 2 ... 14 days. Thus, high Cu concentrations (20 ... 30 UL) cause hens' weight reduction of and their death.

  10. Quantum Gravity Boundary Terms from the Spectral Action of Noncommutative Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain

    2007-08-17

    We study the boundary terms of the spectral action of the noncommutative space, defined by the spectral triple dictated by the physical spectrum of the standard model, unifying gravity with all other fundamental interactions. We prove that the spectral action predicts uniquely the gravitational boundary term required for consistency of quantum gravity with the correct sign and coefficient. This is a remarkable result given the lack of freedom in the spectral action to tune this term.

  11. Spectrum of perturbations in anisotropic inflationary universe with vector hair

    SciTech Connect

    Himmetoglu, Burak

    2010-03-01

    We study both the background evolution and cosmological perturbations of anisotropic inflationary models supported by coupled scalar and vector fields. The models we study preserve the U(1) gauge symmetry associated with the vector field, and therefore do not possess instabilities associated with longitudinal modes (which instead plague some recently proposed models of vector inflation and curvaton). We first intoduce a model in which the background anisotropy slowly decreases during inflation; we then confirm the stability of the background solution by studying the quadratic action for all the perturbations of the model. We then compute the spectrum of the h{sub ×} gravitational wave polarization. The spectrum we find breaks statistical isotropy at the largest scales and reduces to the standard nearly scale invariant form at small scales. We finally discuss the possible relevance of our results to the large scale CMB anomalies.

  12. Gender Differences in Weight-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Among Overweight and Obese Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sandra A; Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Ma, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have used nationally representative data to focus specifically on gender differences in weight-related outcomes. This article examines gender differences in weight-related outcomes across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum in overweight and obese adults. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Weight-related outcomes were accurate weight perception, weight dissatisfaction, attempted weight loss, successful weight loss, and weight loss strategies. Compared with women, overweight and obese men were less likely to have accurate weight perception (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30-0.44), weight dissatisfaction (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.32-0.47), and attempted weight loss (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.48-0.63). The modifying effect of gender on these associations decreased as BMI increased. By BMI 35, the mean probability of women and men to have accurate weight perception and weight dissatisfaction was 90%; attempted weight loss was 60% (women) and 50% (men). At lower BMIs, men had up to 40% less probability than women for these weight loss outcomes. Men who attempted weight loss were more likely than women to lose and maintain ≥10 lb over 1 year (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.20-1.65) and increase exercise and eat less fat as weight loss strategies; women were more likely to join weight loss programs, take prescription diet pills, and follow special diets. A need exists for male-specific interventions to improve overweight and obese men's likelihood for accurate weight perception, attempted weight loss, and ultimately, successful weight loss. PMID:25595019

  13. Superlattices with coupled degenerated spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2016-04-01

    Two new analytical results are given which are of great help to understand superlattices with coupled modes. The first is an explicit relation for the transfer matrices in terms of Schur functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The second is a condition which generalizes the old well-known Floquet-Bloch trace condition to determine the spectrum. These improvements allow a fast computation of scattering amplitudes without obscuring the calculation with complicated numerical methods. As the energy grows, the eigenvalues degeneracy determines two types of transmission gaps. It is shown that these results could make it possible to design in greater detail the energy spectrum, for the very interesting case including modes coupling and degeneracy. They keep the understanding on the same footing as that of the traditional basic uncoupled problem considered at the beginning of the study of superlattices, like the Kroning-Penning model, or by Floquet-Bloch's theorem, or later by Esaki for heterostructures.

  14. Economic aspects of spectrum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stibolt, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with the allocation of the radio frequency spectrum are addressed. It is observed that the current method very likely does not allocate the resource to those most valuing its use. Ecomonic criteria by which the effectiveness of resource allocation schemes can be judged are set forth and some thoughts on traditional objections to implementation of market characteristics into frequency allocation are offered. The problem of dividing orbit and spectrum between two satellite services sharing the same band but having significantly different system characteristics is discussed. The problem is compounded by the likelihood that one service will commence operation much sooner than the other. Some alternative schemes are offered that, within proper international constraints, could achieve a desired flexibility in the division of orbit and frequency between the two services domestically over the next several years.

  15. Energy spectrum of sputtered uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R. A.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fission track technique for detecting uranium 235 was used in conjunction with a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer to measure the energy spectrum in the region 1 eV to 1 keV of material sputtered from a 93% enriched U-235 foil by 80 keV Ar-40(+) ions. The spectrum was found to exhibit a peak in the region 2-4 eV and to decrease approximately as E to the -1.77 power for E is approximately greater than 100 eV. The design, construction and resolution of the mechanical spectrometer are discussed and comparisons are made between the data and the predictions of the ramdom collision cascade model of sputtering.

  16. Lighting spectrum to maximize colorfulness.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Osamu; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

    2012-02-01

    The spectrum of modern illumination can be computationally tailored considering the visual effects of lighting. We investigated the spectral profiles of the white illumination maximizing the theoretical limits of the perceivable object colors. A large number of metamers with various degrees of smoothness were generated on and around the Planckian locus, and the volume in the CIELAB space of the optimal colors for each metamer was calculated. The optimal spectrum was found at the color temperature of around 5.7×10(3) K, had three peaks at both ends of the visible band and at around 510 nm, and was 25% better than daylight and 35% better than Thornton's prime color lamp. PMID:22297368

  17. Quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum from inflation and curvaton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunshan; Wang, Yi

    2010-07-01

    We calculate the quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum, corresponding to five and six point correlation functions of the curvature perturbation. For single field inflation with standard kinetic term, the quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum are small, which are suppressed by slow roll parameters. The calculation can be generalized to multiple fields. When there is no entropy perturbation, the quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum are suppressed as well. With the presence of entropy perturbation, the quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum can get boosted. We illustrate this boost in the multi-brid inflation model. For the curvaton scenario, the quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum are also large in the small r limit. We also calculate representative terms of quadra-spectrum and quint-spectrum for inflation with generalized kinetic terms, and estimate their order of magnitude for quasi-single field inflation.

  18. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies) in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole-genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects. PMID:24204377

  19. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands.

    PubMed

    Taubes, G

    2000-06-23

    Radio astronomers have been in danger of losing a precious band of the electromagnetic spectrum--the millimeter wavelengths, which promise insight into subjects as diverse as the origins of life and the birth of stars--to the burgeoning telecommunications industry, as millimeter wavelengths also look promising for transmitting high-bandwidth wireless information over relatively short distances. Earlier this month, however, astronomers won an international agreement that guarantees critical wavelengths safe for research. PMID:17758893

  20. Autistic spectrum disorder: diagnostic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jones, G S

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of the autistic spectrum disorders is becoming more widespread amongst basic scientists, clinicians, and the general population. The term does not imply anything about pathology or aetiology, although it has proved to be a useful concept clinically. From Kanner's classical autism the concept has widened in scope to include milder and more subtle impairments. From a clinical perspective, there are many alternative diagnoses in an individual with autistic-like symptoms, and thorough investigation is necessary to exclude these. PMID:10970710

  1. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  2. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  3. Spectrum monitoring procedures and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The first step towards operating an emitter on a test range is to contact the local frequency manager to establish a schedule. Since restricted radio frequency bands and operations are different at each test range location, most testing is accomplished by sharing the spectrum available with all range users. The telemetry bands in particular require spectrum activity scheduling. The objective is to resolve scheduling conflicts prior to operations. When two programs or projects request to use the same spectrum, their activity can be separated by quard bands, discrete frequencies, time, or operating locations (terrain masking). Priorities assigned to each program usually dictate which program will be scheduled first; however, use of priorities to schedule activities should be avoided and only considered as a last resort. When a scheduling conflict cannot be resolved using these techniques, it is brought to the attention of the responsible program managers. When scheduling activities involve other federal or nonfederal agencies, it is in the best interest of program managers to be as flexible as possible.

  4. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence in the jigsaw of the benefits of losing weight, and how important weight loss is to ... Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. In general, losing weight reduces the risk of breast, colon and ...

  5. Supporting your child with weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider can set healthy goals for weight-loss and help with monitoring and support. Getting support ... to get the whole family to join a weight-loss plan, even if weight loss is not the ...

  6. FDA Approves New Weight-Loss Device

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159362.html FDA Approves New Weight-Loss Device Surgically implanted port allows obese patients to ... have been unable to lose weight and maintain weight loss using nonsurgical treatments. The FDA approval is for ...

  7. Weighted Means through the Looking Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2013-01-01

    Each weighted mean of two values has a counterpart, equidistant from the arithmetic mean, obtained by exchanging roles between the weights or by inversing each weight. These elementary relations are apt for introductory courses.

  8. Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about how he did it, and what he does to maintain his weight. ...

  9. Factors that affect action possibility judgements: recent experience with the action and the current body state.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Sanjay; Binsted, Gordon; Ayres, Fabio; Higgins, Laura; Welsh, Timothy N

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that action possibility judgements are formed through a covert simulation of the to-be-executed action. We sought to determine whether the motor system (via a common coding mechanism) influences this simulation, by investigating whether action possibility judgements are influenced by experience with the movement task (Experiments 1 and 2) and current body states (Experiment 3). The judgement task in each experiment involved judging whether it was possible for a person's hand to accurately move between two targets at presented speeds. In Experiment 1, participants completed the action judgements before and after executing the movement they were required to judge. Results were that judged movement times after execution were closer to the actual execution time than those prior to execution. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the effects of execution on judgements were not due to motor activation or perceptual task experience-alternative explanations of the execution-mediated judgement effects. Experiment 3 examined how judged movement times were influenced by participants wearing weights. Results revealed that wearing weights increased judged movement times. These results suggest that the simulation underlying the judgement process is connected to the motor system, and that simulations are dynamically generated, taking into account recent experience and current body state. PMID:22348464

  10. Fluorofluorophores: Fluorescent Fluorous Chemical Tools Spanning the Visible Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    “Fluoro” refers to both fluorescent and fluorinated compounds. Despite the shared prefix, there are very few fluorescent molecules that are soluble in perfluorinated solvents. This paucity is surprising, given that optical microscopy is a ubiquitous technique throughout the physical sciences and the orthogonality of fluorous materials is a commonly exploited strategy in synthetic chemistry, materials science, and chemical biology. We have addressed this shortage by synthesizing a panel of “fluorofluorophores,” fluorescent molecules containing high weight percent fluorine with optical properties spanning the visible spectrum. We demonstrate the utility of these fluorofluorophores by preparing fluorescent perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. PMID:25229987

  11. Statistical criteria for search of heavy neutrino in tritium spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Tkachov, Fyodor

    2016-05-01

    The method of quasi-optimal weights is applied to constructing (quasi-)optimal criteria for search of heavy (4th generation) neutrino contribution in experimental β-decay spectra. Various approaches to searching for anomalous contributions in spectra are discussed. In particular the tritium β-decay spectrum (for instance, in Troitsk-v-mass, Mainz Neutrino Mass and KATRIN experiments) is analyzed using the derived special criteria. The power functions constructed for each criteria show the efficiency of the derived quasi-optimal criteria as statistical instruments for detecting the anomalous contributions in the spectra. The overall sensitivity of the criteria is estimated.

  12. Fluorofluorophores: fluorescent fluorous chemical tools spanning the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sletten, Ellen M; Swager, Timothy M

    2014-10-01

    "Fluoro" refers to both fluorescent and fluorinated compounds. Despite the shared prefix, there are very few fluorescent molecules that are soluble in perfluorinated solvents. This paucity is surprising, given that optical microscopy is a ubiquitous technique throughout the physical sciences and the orthogonality of fluorous materials is a commonly exploited strategy in synthetic chemistry, materials science, and chemical biology. We have addressed this shortage by synthesizing a panel of "fluorofluorophores," fluorescent molecules containing high weight percent fluorine with optical properties spanning the visible spectrum. We demonstrate the utility of these fluorofluorophores by preparing fluorescent perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. PMID:25229987

  13. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  14. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  15. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  16. Charmonium Spectrum from Quenched QCD with Overlap Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    S. Tamhankar; A. Alexandru; Y. Chen; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F.X. Lee; K.F. Liu; N. Mathur; J.B. Zhang

    2005-07-20

    We present the first study of the charmonium spectrum using overlap fermions, on quenched configurations. Simulations are performed on 16{sup 3} x 72 lattices, with Wilson gauge action at {beta} = 6.3345. We demonstrate that we have discretization errors under control at about 5%. We obtain 88(4) MeV for hyperfine splitting using the {sub 0} scale, and 121(6) MeV using the (1{bar P}-1{bar S}) scale. This paper raises the possibility that the discrepancy between the lattice results and the experimental value for charmonium hyperfine splitting can be resolved using overlap fermions to simulate the charm quark on lattice.

  17. Improving Learning and Teaching through Action Learning and Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skeriit, Ortrun

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical framework for action learning and action research is presented, as a basis for better understanding college instruction and learning. Action research is viewed as a philosophy, theory of learning, research methodology, and teaching technique. It is argued that action research both increases knowledge and improves teaching.…

  18. ACT‐ONE ‐ ACTION at last on cancer cachexia by adapting a novel action beta‐blocker

    PubMed Central

    Laviano, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Novel action beta‐blockers combine many different pharmacological effects. The espindolol exhibits effects through β and central 5‐HT1α receptors to demonstrate pro‐anabolic, anti‐catabolic, and appetite‐stimulating actions. In the ACT‐ONE trial, espindolol reversed weight loss and improved handgrip strength in patients with cachexia due to non‐small cell lung cancer or colorectal cancer. With this trial, another frontier of cachexia management is in sight. Nonetheless, more efficacy and safety data is needed before new therapeutic indications for novel action beta‐blockers can be endorsed. PMID:27625919

  19. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Marques, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The reliability is a value of the degree of trust in a given measurement. We analyze and compare: ML (Classical Maximum Likelihood), MLE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Entropy), MLR (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability), MLRE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability and Entropy), DS (Credibility Plausibility), DSR (DS weighted by reliabilities). The analysis is based on a model of a dynamical fusion process. It is composed of three sensors, which have each it's own discriminatory capacity, reliability rate, unknown bias and measurement noise. The knowledge of uncertainties is also severely corrupted, in order to analyze the robustness of the different fusion operators. Two sensor models are used: the first type of sensor is able to estimate the probability of each elementary hypothesis (probabilistic masses), the second type of sensor delivers masses on union of elementary hypotheses (DS masses). In the second case probabilistic reasoning leads to sharing the mass abusively between elementary hypotheses. Compared to the classical ML or DS which achieves just 50% of correct classification in some experiments, DSR, MLE, MLR and MLRE reveals very good performances on all experiments (more than 80% of correct classification rate). The experiment was performed with large variations of the reliability coefficients for each sensor (from 0 to 1), and with large variations on the knowledge of these coefficients (from 0 0.8). All four operators reveal good robustness, but the MLR reveals to be uniformly dominant on all the experiments in the Bayesian case and achieves the best mean performance under incomplete a priori information.

  20. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements, they won’t be listed on the product label and they could harm you. Weight-loss supplements can be sold without being tested or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... can recall that product. Visit this website to view the FDA’s public ...