Science.gov

Sample records for action studies demonstrated

  1. NATO/CCMS pilot study on demonstration of remedial-action technologies for contaminated land and ground water: 1988 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sanning, D.E.; Smith, M.A.; Bell, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the nature, structure and content of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) Pilot Study Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater and the associated CCMS Fellowship program. To date, twelve projects in six countries have been selected for inclusion in the program which will involve periodic expert review during the five years for which the project will run. The paper draws special attention to the work on microbial clean up techniques included in the program, and the outcome of the first international meeting held in Washington, D.C. in 1987.

  2. Using discrepant events in science demonstrations to promote student engagement in scientific investigations: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Vincent J.

    Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In

  3. Pilot Study on Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater Volumes 1 and 2 EPA/600/SR-93/012

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report presents information on a 5-yr pilot study (1986- 1991) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) entitled "Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Gr...

  4. Beyond rational imitation: learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations.

    PubMed

    Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2013-10-01

    The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans.

  5. Using Discrepant Events in Science Demonstrations to Promote Student Engagement in Scientific Investigations: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations…

  6. Perception of a throwing action from point-light demonstrations.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1988-08-01

    80 adults (40 men and 40 women) aged 18 to 25 yr. and 80 boys aged 14 to 15 yr. observed a throwing action presented in point-light form at a frontoparallel viewpoint either as a video film or computer simulation of the actor. The display consisted of the relative motion of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints of the throwing arm. Subjects were asked to report what they observed. The action was recognised immediately by 68% of all subjects, and this value increased to 90% with one more viewing of the demonstration. Response was virtually the same for both types of display, and there were no differences between adults and children. The results were similar to those from other studies from which researchers have concluded that kinematic information alone is sufficient to permit perception of fundamental patterns of movement. PMID:3211680

  7. Orbital construction demonstration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA) was developed that can be used for evaluating and establishing practical large structural assembly operations. A flight plan for initial placement and continued utility is presented as a basic for an entirely new shuttle payload line-item having great future potential benefit for space applications. The OCDA is a three-axis stabilized platform in low-earth orbit with many structural nodals for mounting large construction and fabrication equipments. This equipment would be used to explore methods for constructing the large structures for future missions. The OCDA would be supported at regular intervals by the shuttle. Construction experiments and consumables resupply are performed during shuttle visit periods. A 250 kw solar array provides sufficient power to support the shuttle while attached to the OCDA and to run construction experiments at the same time. Wide band communications with a Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite compatible high gain antenna can be used between shuttle revisits to perform remote controlled, TV assisted construction experiments.

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration commercialization actions plans. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Glore, D.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE complex. BWID evaluates, validates, and demonstrates technologies and transfers this information throughout DOE and private industry to support DOE. remediation planning and implementation activities. This report documents commercialization action plans for five technologies with near-term commercialization/ implementation potential as well as provides a status of commercial and academic partners for each technology.

  9. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  10. Phytotoxic action of naphthoquinone juglone demonstrated on lettuce seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Vaverkova, Veronika; Poborilova, Zuzana; Ballova, Ludmila; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2014-11-01

    Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, is the plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic properties, which was isolated especially from the plant species belonging to family Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth (walnut family). The mechanism of phytotoxic action of juglone was investigated on lettuce seedlings Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. cv. Merkurion by determining its effect at different levels. We have found that juglone inhibits mitosis (mitotic index 8.5 ± 0.6% for control versus 2.2 ± 0.9% for 250 μM juglone), changes mitotic phase index with accumulation of the cells in prophase (56.5 ± 2.6% for control versus 85.3 ± 5.0% for 250 μM juglone), and decreases meristematic activity in lettuce root tips (51.07 ± 3.62% for control versus 5.27 ± 2.29% for 250 μM juglone). In addition, juglone induced creation of reactive oxygen species and changed levels of reactive nitrogen species. Amount of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased from 24.0 ± 4.0 ng g(-1) FW for control to 55.5 ± 5.4 ng g(-1) FW for 250 μM juglone. We observed also changes in cellular structure, especially changes in the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive oxygen species induced damage of plasma membrane. All these changes resulted in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in free intracellular calcium ions, and DNA fragmentation and programmed cell death that was revealed by two methods, TUNEL test and DNA electrophoresis. The portion of TUNEL-positive cells increase from 0.96 ± 0.5% for control to 7.66 ± 1.5% for 250 μM juglone. Results of the study indicate complex mechanism of phytotoxic effect of juglone in lettuce root tips and may indicate mechanism of allelopathic activity of this compound. PMID:25240266

  11. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  12. Mu rhythm suppression demonstrates action representation in pianists during passive listening of piano melodies.

    PubMed

    Wu, C Carolyn; Hamm, Jeff P; Lim, Vanessa K; Kirk, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Musicians undergo extensive training which enhances established neural links between auditory and motor areas of the brain. Long-term training develops, strengthens and enables flexibility in these connections allowing proficiency in performance. Previous research has indicated that passive listening of trained music results in the recruitment of premotor areas. It has been argued that this sound-action representation may rely on activity in mirror neuron systems and that these systems are heavily dependent on actual sensorimotor experience. Action observation studies using electroencephalography have associated changes in mu rhythm activity with the mirror neuron system in the visuomotor domain. We aimed to investigate similar effects in the audiomotor domain. We utilised a mu suppression method in our action-listening study to detect involuntary motor coactivation when pianists passively listened to piano melodies. Wavelet analysis revealed sensorimotor mu rhythm suppression while pianists listened passively to piano melodies. Thus, we show that this spectral analysis method can also be used to demonstrate that auditory stimuli can activate the human mirror neuron system when sounds are linked to actions. Mu suppression could be a useful index for further research on action representation and training-induced plasticity. PMID:26993491

  13. Mu rhythm suppression demonstrates action representation in pianists during passive listening of piano melodies.

    PubMed

    Wu, C Carolyn; Hamm, Jeff P; Lim, Vanessa K; Kirk, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Musicians undergo extensive training which enhances established neural links between auditory and motor areas of the brain. Long-term training develops, strengthens and enables flexibility in these connections allowing proficiency in performance. Previous research has indicated that passive listening of trained music results in the recruitment of premotor areas. It has been argued that this sound-action representation may rely on activity in mirror neuron systems and that these systems are heavily dependent on actual sensorimotor experience. Action observation studies using electroencephalography have associated changes in mu rhythm activity with the mirror neuron system in the visuomotor domain. We aimed to investigate similar effects in the audiomotor domain. We utilised a mu suppression method in our action-listening study to detect involuntary motor coactivation when pianists passively listened to piano melodies. Wavelet analysis revealed sensorimotor mu rhythm suppression while pianists listened passively to piano melodies. Thus, we show that this spectral analysis method can also be used to demonstrate that auditory stimuli can activate the human mirror neuron system when sounds are linked to actions. Mu suppression could be a useful index for further research on action representation and training-induced plasticity.

  14. Youth Paeticipation in Community Action: Report of a Demonstration Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Rosalind

    Reporting a 1966 1-year demonstration project involving youth in community action, this pamphlet shows how the 24 community action programs in this California project selected and trained personnel, selected and trained youth trainees, established the needs of respective communities, set about to match these needs, and evaluated their action. The…

  15. Do children with autism re-enact object movements rather than imitate demonstrator actions?

    PubMed

    Custance, Deborah M; Mayer, Jennifer L; Kumar, Emmelianna; Hill, Elisabeth; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    It has been suggested that autism-specific imitative deficits may be reduced or even spared in object-related activities. However, most previous research has not sufficiently distinguished object movement reenactment (learning about the ways in which object move) from imitation (learning about the topography of demonstrated actions). Twenty children with autism (CWA) and 20 typically developing children (TDC) were presented with puzzle boxes containing prizes. Test objects and experimental conditions were designed to isolate object- and action-related aspects of demonstrations. There were four types of video demonstrations: (a) a full demonstration by an adult; (b) a ghost demonstration with object movements alone; (c) mimed solutions demonstrated adjacent to the objects; and (d) random actions performed on the surface of the objects. There were no significant between-group differences in the degree to which CWA and TDC matched the full demonstrations, the actual demonstrations or in their times to first solution in any of the conditions. Although there was no clear imitative deficit in the CWA, regression analyses were conducted to explore in more detail whether diagnosis, verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), nonverbal IQ NVIQ, age or motor coordination predicted performance. The results are discussed in relation to the use of extrinsic vs. intrinsic rewards and the interplay between motor coordination and the relative rigidity vs. pliability of objects. PMID:24022995

  16. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  17. A Study of Actions in Operative Notes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E.; Ryan, James O.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report ‘procedure description’ section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes. PMID:23304423

  18. A study of actions in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes. PMID:23304423

  19. A study of actions in operative notes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  20. Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Demonstrates a Causal Role of Premotor Homunculus in Action Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Kristian; Skewes, Joshua; Wolf, Thomas; Blicher, Jakob; Overgaard, Morten; Frith, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions of premotor cortex (PMC) are active during action observation, it remains controversial whether they play a causal role in action understanding. In the experiment reported here, we used off-line continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to investigate this question. Participants received cTBS over the hand and lip areas of left PMC, in separate sessions, before completing a pantomime-recognition task in which half of the trials contained pantomimed hand actions, and half contained pantomimed mouth actions. The results reveal a double dissociation: Participants were less accurate in recognizing pantomimed hand actions after receiving cTBS over the hand area than over the lip area and less accurate in recognizing pantomimed mouth actions after receiving cTBS over the lip area than over the hand area. This finding constrains theories of action understanding by showing that somatotopically organized regions of PMC contribute causally to action understanding and, thus, that the mechanisms underpinning action understanding and action performance overlap. PMID:24549297

  1. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  2. An ERP study of motor compatibility effects in action language.

    PubMed

    Santana, Eduardo J; de Vega, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    This ERP study explores the brain's response to the manipulation of motor compatibility in action-related language. In Experiment 1 participants read sentences in which a protagonist performed two different manual actions either simultaneously or consecutively (e.g. While/after cleaning the wound he unrolled the bandage…). The ERPs were measured in the second-clause verb (e.g. unrolled) and noun (e.g. bandage). Notably, only the noun showed compatibility effects, namely a larger N400 in the simultaneous (incompatible) version than in the consecutive (compatible) version, suggesting that readers need to integrate the meaning of the whole sentence to evaluate the feasibility of the actions. In Experiment 2, motor compatibility was manipulated in a different way: all the sentences described the protagonist as performing two simultaneous actions that were both manual (While cleaning the wound he unrolled the bandage), or one action that was perceptual and the other manual (While looking at the wound he unrolled the bandage). The N400 effects for the former incompatible condition were replicated, again in the second-clause noun. The results demonstrated that readers of action language employ their pragmatic world knowledge to test the feasibility of motor actions, taking into account the embodied constraints of such actions. PMID:23796780

  3. An ERP study of motor compatibility effects in action language.

    PubMed

    Santana, Eduardo J; de Vega, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    This ERP study explores the brain's response to the manipulation of motor compatibility in action-related language. In Experiment 1 participants read sentences in which a protagonist performed two different manual actions either simultaneously or consecutively (e.g. While/after cleaning the wound he unrolled the bandage…). The ERPs were measured in the second-clause verb (e.g. unrolled) and noun (e.g. bandage). Notably, only the noun showed compatibility effects, namely a larger N400 in the simultaneous (incompatible) version than in the consecutive (compatible) version, suggesting that readers need to integrate the meaning of the whole sentence to evaluate the feasibility of the actions. In Experiment 2, motor compatibility was manipulated in a different way: all the sentences described the protagonist as performing two simultaneous actions that were both manual (While cleaning the wound he unrolled the bandage), or one action that was perceptual and the other manual (While looking at the wound he unrolled the bandage). The N400 effects for the former incompatible condition were replicated, again in the second-clause noun. The results demonstrated that readers of action language employ their pragmatic world knowledge to test the feasibility of motor actions, taking into account the embodied constraints of such actions.

  4. Demonstrating and Evaluating an Action Learning Approach to Building Project Management Competence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotnour, Tim; Starr, Stan; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper contributes a description of an action-learning approach to building project management competence. This approach was designed, implemented, and evaluated for use with the Dynacs Engineering Development Contract at the Kennedy Space Center. The aim of the approach was to improve three levels of competence within the organization: individual project management skills, project team performance. and organizational capabilities such as the project management process and tools. The overall steps to the approach, evaluation results, and lessons learned are presented. Managers can use this paper to design a specific action-learning approach for their organization.

  5. A Playbook for Data: Real-Life Scenario Demonstrates Learning Forward's Data Standard in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "A Playbook for Professional Learning: Putting the Standards Into Action" (Learning Forward, 2012). Written by Learning Forward Executive Director Stephanie Hirsh and Scholar Laureate Shirley Hord, "A Playbook for Professional Learning" provides those who work in professional learning with readily accessible…

  6. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  7. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. PMID:24268321

  8. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding.

  9. Tested Demonstrations: Visualization of Buffer Action and the Acidifying Effect of Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a buffer demonstration which features visualization of the effects of carbon dioxide on pH. Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and a discussion of results obtained are included. (JN)

  10. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  11. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  12. A cleavable cytolysin-neuropeptide Y bioconjugate enables specific drug delivery and demonstrates intracellular mode of action.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Verena M; Kostelnik, Katja B; Rennert, Robert; Böhme, David; Kalkhof, Stefan; Kosel, David; Weber, Lutz; von Bergen, Martin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2015-07-10

    Myxobacterial tubulysins are promising chemotherapeutics inhibiting microtubule polymerization, however, high unspecific toxicity so far prevents their application in therapy. For selective cancer cell targeting, here the coupling of a synthetic cytolysin to the hY1-receptor preferring peptide [F(7),P(34)]-neuropeptide Y (NPY) using a labile disulfide linker is described. Since hY1-receptors are overexpressed in breast tumors and internalize rapidly, this system has high potential as peptide-drug shuttle system. Molecular characterization of the cytolysin-[F(7),P(34)]-NPY bioconjugate revealed potent receptor activation and receptor-selective internalization, while viability studies verified toxicity. Triple SILAC studies comparing free cytolysin with the bioconjugate demonstrated an intracellular mechanism of action regardless of the delivery pathway. Treatments resulted in a regulation of proteins implemented in cell cycle arrest confirming the tubulysin-like effect of the cytolysin. Thus, the cytolysin-peptide bioconjugate fused by a cleavable linker enables a receptor-specific delivery as well as a potent intracellular drug-release with high cytotoxic activity.

  13. A diary study of action slips in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, María K; Adólfsdóttir, Steinunn; Cortez, Rúna Dögg; Gunnarsdóttir, María; Gústafsdóttir, Agústa Hlín

    2007-12-01

    Memory complaints following minor head injury or whiplash are common and often bear similarity to absent mindedness or action slips (Reason, 1979). We replicated Reason's study by asking 189 healthy volunteers to keep diaries of their action slips for a week. The mean number of slips was 6.4 (SD = 4.9). Perceived stress did not correlate with number of slips but there was a weak positive correlation between action slips and scores on a memory failures questionnaire. Memory diaries may be clinically useful when assessing individuals who worry about cognitive sequelae of minor injuries. Diaries clarify the nature of the complaints and may have therapeutic value by demonstrating that the memory slips are less frequent than estimated by the patients. PMID:17853144

  14. U.S. EPA's Ultraviolet Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will give a background on USEPA's Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study. This will include regulatory background, science background, goals of the project, and ultimate expected outcome of the project. This presentation will preceed a panel discussion ...

  15. Dance Education Action Research: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…

  16. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  17. Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kochukhova, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Eighteen- and 25-month-old human toddlers' ability to manually solve a puzzle and their ability to anticipate the goal during observation of similar actions were investigated. Results demonstrate that goal anticipation during action observation is dependent on manual ability, both on a group level (only 25-month-olds solved the manual task and anticipated the goal during observation) and individually within the older age group (r (xy) = 0.53). These findings suggests a connection between manual ability and the ability to anticipate the goal of others' actions in toddlers, in accordance with the direct matching hypothesis. PMID:20041233

  18. Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving…

  19. Cell transfection as a tool to study growth hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Norstedt, G.; Enberg, B.; Francis, S.

    1994-12-31

    The isolation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) cDNA clones has made possible the transfection of GHRs into cultured cells. Our aim in this minireview is to show how the application of such approaches have benefited GHR research. GH stimulation of cells expressing GHR cDNAs can cause an alteration of cellular function that mimic those of the endogenous GHR. GHR cDNA transfected cells also offer a system where the mechanism of GH action can be studied. Such a system has been used to demonstrate that the GHR itself becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and that further phosphorylation of downstream proteins is important in GH action. The GH signals are transmitted to the nucleus and GH regulated genes have now begun to be characterized. The ability to use cell transfection for mechanistic studies of GH action will be instrumental to define domains within the receptor that are of functional importance and to determined pathways whereby GH signals are conveyed within the cell. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Harnessing a Hurricane: Social Studies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Kathleen L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how a sixth grade class in Findlay, Ohio, became involved in events in McClellanville, South Carolina, where Hurricane Hugo severely damaged a school. After students viewed a videotape of the damage, they planned actions to provide relief that ultimately involved their entire school. Underscores the project's meaningfulness and…

  1. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  2. A simple demonstration when studying the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Valery; Varaksina, Ekaterina

    2016-06-01

    The paper proposes a lecture experiment that can be demonstrated when studying the equivalence principle formulated by Albert Einstein. The demonstration consists of creating stroboscopic photographs of a ball moving along a parabola in Earth's gravitational field. In the first experiment, a camera is stationary relative to Earth's surface. In the second, the camera falls freely downwards with the ball, allowing students to see that the ball moves uniformly and rectilinearly relative to the frame of reference of the freely falling camera. The equivalence principle explains this result, as it is always possible to propose an inertial frame of reference for a small region of a gravitational field, where space-time effects of curvature are negligible.

  3. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

    2014-12-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html. We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions. PMID:24584971

  4. Demonstration Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study ESTCP PROJECT # MM-0838

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2010-02-15

    In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation will require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This characterization study was be the second phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years. The FY06 Defense Appropriation contained funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). ESTCP responded by conducting a UXO Discrimination Study at the former Camp Sibert, AL. The results of this first demonstration were very encouraging. Although conditions were favorable at this site, a single target of interest (4.2-in mortar) and benign topography and geology, all of the classification approaches demonstrated were able to correctly identify a sizable fraction of the anomalies as arising from non-hazardous items that could be safely left in the ground. To build upon the success of the first phase of this study, ESTCP sponsored a

  5. Transmembrane peptides as unique tools to demonstrate the in vivo action of a cross-class GPCR heterocomplex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Leo T O; Ng, Stephanie Y L; Chu, Jessica Y S; Sekar, Revathi; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J; Chow, Billy K C

    2014-06-01

    Angiotensin (ANGII) and secretin (SCT) share overlapping, interdependent osmoregulatory functions in brain, where SCT peptide/receptor function is required for ANGII action, yet the molecular basis is unknown. Since receptors for these peptides (AT1aR, SCTR) are coexpressed in osmoregulatory centers, a possible mechanism is formation of a cross-class receptor heterocomplex. Here, we demonstrate such a complex and its functional importance to modulate signaling. Association of AT1aR with SCTR reduced ability of SCT to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), with signaling augmented in presence of ANGII or constitutively active AT1aR. Several transmembrane (TM) peptides of these receptors were able to affect their conformation within complexes, reducing receptor BRET signals. AT1aR TM1 affected only formation and activity of the heterocomplex, without effect on homomers of either receptor, and reduced SCT-stimulated cAMP responses in cells expressing both receptors. This peptide was active in vivo by injection into mouse lateral ventricle, thereby suppressing water-drinking behavior after hyperosmotic shock, similar to SCTR knockouts. This supports the interpretation that active conformation of AT1aR is a key modulator of cAMP responses induced by SCT stimulation of SCTR. The SCTR/AT1aR complex is physiologically important, providing differential signaling to SCT in settings of hyperosmolality or food intake, modulated by differences in levels of ANGII.

  6. Infants' perception of actions and situational constraints: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline; Parker, Charlene; Hauf, Petra

    2013-10-01

    Rational action understanding requires that infants evaluate the efficiency of a movement in achieving a goal with respect to situational constraints. In contrast, recent accounts have highlighted the impact of perceptual characteristics of the demonstrated movement or constraints to explain infants' behavior in so-called rational imitation tasks. The current study employed eye tracking to investigate how 13- to 15-month-old infants distribute their visual attention to different aspects of an action demonstration. In three tasks (touchlight, house, and obstacle), infants watched videos in which a model performed an unusual action while she was or was not restricted by situational constraints. Infants' overall looking to the demonstration as well as looking to four segments of the video (initial segment, constraint demonstration, action performance, and final segment) and to specific areas (constraint area of interest [AOI] and action AOI) was analyzed. Overall, infants looked longer at the demonstration in the constraint condition compared with the no-constraint condition. The condition differences occurred in the two video segments where the constraint or action was displayed and were especially profound for the constraint AOI. These findings indicate that infants processed the situational constraints. However, the pattern of condition differences varied slightly in the three tasks. In sum, the data imply that infants process perceptual characteristics of the movement or constraints and that low-level perceptual processes interact with higher level cognitive processes in infants' action perception. PMID:23410481

  7. Embodied Learning and Creative Writing: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…

  8. Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zidack, Astri Marie

    2013-01-01

    This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…

  9. Student Voice in High School: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termini, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    This action research study examined the effects of student voice in one high school and the self-reflection of the researcher-administrator involved in the effort. Using three cycles of action research, the researcher-administrator completed a pilot study, implemented a student voice project in one class, and developed a professional development…

  10. Whirl Flutter Studies for a SSTOL Transport Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    A proposed new class of aircraft - the Advanced Theater Transport (ATT) will combine strategic range and high payload with 'Super-STOL' (short take-off and landing) capability. It is also proposed to modify a YC-15 into a technology demonstrator with a 20-deg tilt wing; four, eight-bladed propellers; cross-shafted gearboxes and V-22 engines. These constitute a unique combination of design features that potentially affect performance, loads and whirl-mode stability (whirl flutter). NASA Ames Research Center is working with Boeing and Hamilton Sundstrand on technology challenges presented by the concept; the purpose of NASA involvement is to establish requirements for the demonstrator and for early design guidance, with emphasis on whirl flutter. CAMRAD II is being used to study the effects of various design features on whirl flutter, with special attention to areas where such features differ from existing aircraft, notably tiltrotors. Although the stability margins appear to be more than adequate, the concept requires significantly different analytical methods, principally including far more blade modes, than typically used for tiltrotors.

  11. The Use of Demonstrative Pronoun and Demonstrative Determiner "This" in Upper-Level Student Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rustipa, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrative "this" is worthy to investigate because of the role of "this" as a common cohesive device in academic writing. This study attempted to find out the variables underlying the realization of demonstrative "this" in graduate-student writing of Semarang State University, Indonesia. The data of the study were…

  12. A Chinaman's Chance in Civil Rights Demonstration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Yawsoon

    A traffic incident in April of 1975 developed into an unprecedented civil rights demonstration by Chinese residents in New York City's Chinatown in May of that year. This paper attempts to trace the factors which led to this large scale demonstration and analyze the development of decision making in this case. The demonstration was the result of…

  13. Studying Action Representation in Children via Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The use of motor imagery is a widely used experimental paradigm for the study of cognitive aspects of action planning and control in adults. Furthermore, there are indications that motor imagery provides a window into the process of action representation. These notions complement internal model theory suggesting that such representations allow…

  14. Fostering Reading through Intrinsic Motivation: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Marilyn Z.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a two-year action research study conducted at a high school that transformed reluctant students into lifelong readers by emphasizing intrinsic motivation as opposed to programs that use rewards to motivate students to read. Explains how to design an action research question. (LRW)

  15. Syntax of Demonstrative Adjectives in Japanese: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Minoru

    1996-01-01

    The interactions among demonstrative adjectives in certain genitive phrases and WH-words in Japanese are investigated in this report on a work in progress. It is argued that certain demonstrative adjectives in Japanese, such as "ano" ("that"), occupy the highest Spec position in DP and that they block A-bar movement out of DP; genitive phrases,…

  16. A Semantic Study of German and Chinese Demonstratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores, analyzes, and compares the usage of German and Chinese demonstratives. Discourse and textual uses of the forms will be considered as well as their locative and temporal uses. I observe that in both languages the demonstratives can be used to refer to referents. However, they depart from the common assumption that…

  17. Use of interactive lecture demonstrations: A ten year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula D.; Johnston, Ian D.; Johnston, Helen; Varvell, Kevin; Robertson, Gordon; Hopkins, Andrew; Stewart, Chris; Cooper, Ian; Thornton, Ronald

    2010-07-01

    The widely held constructivist view of learning advocates student engagement via interactivity. Within the physics education research community, several specific interactive strategies have been developed to enhance conceptual understanding. One such strategy, the Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD) is designed for large lecture classes and, if measured using specific conceptual surveys, is purported to provide learning gains of up to 80%. This paper reports on learning gains for two different Projects over ten years. In Project 1, the ILDs were implemented from 1999 to 2001 with students who had successfully completed senior high school physics. The learning gains for students not exposed to the ILDs were in the range 13% to 16% while those for students exposed to the ILDs was 31% to 50%. In Project 2, the ILDs were implemented from 2007 to 2009 with students who had not studied senior high school physics. Since the use of ILDs in Project 1 had produced positive results, ethical considerations dictated that all students be exposed to ILDs. The learning gains were from 28% to 42%. On the one hand it is pleasing to note that there is an increase in learning gains, yet on the other, we note that the gains are nowhere near the claimed 80%. This paper also reports on teacher experiences of using the ILDs, in Project 2.

  18. Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.

    PubMed

    Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

    1994-11-01

    The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

  19. Stimulus-dependent deliberation process leading to a specific motor action demonstrated via a multi-channel EEG analysis

    PubMed Central

    Henz, Sonja; Kutz, Dieter F.; Werner, Jana; Hürster, Walter; Kolb, Florian P.; Nida-Ruemelin, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a deliberative process, leading to a motor action, is detectable in high density EEG recordings. Subjects were required to press one of two buttons. In a simple motor task the subject knew which button to press, whilst in a color-word Stroop task subjects had to press the right button with the right index finger when meaning and color coincided, or the left button with the left index finger when meaning and color were disparate. EEG recordings obtained during the simple motor task showed a sequence of positive (P) and negative (N) cortical potentials (P1-N1-P2) which are assumed to be related to the processing of the movement. The sequence of cortical potentials was similar in EEG recordings of subjects having to deliberate over how to respond, but the above sequence (P1-N1-P2) was preceded by slowly increasing negativity (N0), with N0 being assumed to represent the end of the deliberation process. Our data suggest the existence of neurophysiological correlates of deliberative processes. PMID:26190987

  20. Comparative Actions of Barbiturates Studied by Pollen Grain Germination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordan, Herbert A.; Mumford, Pauline M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple experimental system whereby the comparative actions of long, medium, and short-acting barbiturates can be demonstrated in a relatively short period of time under optical microscopy using pollen grains as the biological test or assay system. (Author/HM)

  1. Leadership development through action learning sets: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability.

  2. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  3. Studying Distance Students: Methods, Findings, Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Diane; Avery, Beth; Henry, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    University of North Texas (UNT) Libraries began studying the library needs of distance learners in 2009 using a variety of approaches to explore and confirm these needs as well as obtain input into how to meet them. Approaches used to date include analysis of both quantitative and qualitative responses by online students to the LibQUAL+[R] surveys…

  4. New Case Studies of Citizen Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Describes a six-unit case study curriculum package designed for secondary and college-level courses relating to environmental education. The units deal with nuclear power, stream channelization, a river dam project, overgrazing of public lands, agribusiness versus the family farm, and swamp preservation. (Author/DB)

  5. Professional Vision in Action: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Russ, Rosemary S.; Sherin, Bruce L.; Colestock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The study of teachers' professional vision poses some unique challenges. The application of professional vision happens in a manner that is fleeting, and that is distributed through the moments of instruction. Because of the ongoing nature of instruction, it is not realistic to expect that one could "pause" instruction momentarily, ask a teacher…

  6. Interference Effects Demonstrate Distinct Roles for Visual and Motor Imagery during the Mental Representation of Human Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments were completed to characterize the utilization of visual imagery and motor imagery during the mental representation of human action. In Experiment 1, movement time functions for a motor imagery human locomotion task conformed to a speed-accuracy trade-off similar to Fitts' Law, whereas those for a visual imagery object motion task…

  7. [Epilobium parviflorum--in vitro study of biological action].

    PubMed

    Hevesi Tóth, Barbara; Kéry, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. (willow-herb) is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its biological action is not entirely identified. This paper aims to report data on willow-herbs probable biological effect. In vitro studies have been made to investigate different aspects of its antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory (COX-inhibitory) action, steroid-receptor -agonistic and -antagonostic effect as well as aromatase-inhibitory effect. Based on our results, willow-herb possess remarkable antioxidant and COX-inhibitory action. PMID:19526676

  8. Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

  9. Action fluency in Parkinson's disease: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Matteo; Volpato, Chiara

    2006-04-01

    The impairment in action fluency task present in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been previously interpreted as an indicator of conversion from PD to PD with dementia or as a grammatical deficit for verbs and ascribed to a frontostriatal loop pathophysiology. In the present study, 20 patients with PD without dementia were longitudinally tested with overall cognitive decline scales and semantic, letter, and action fluency tasks in a 24-month follow-up study. In comparison with healthy age-matched controls, PD patients showed a stable and consistent impairment on action fluency without any sign of cognitive decline. Our findings suggest that action fluency task may be an early sign of impairment of frontostriatal circuits in PD and it cannot be considered an indicator of conversion from PD to PD with dementia.

  10. Orbital construction demonstration study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA), that can be used for technology growth and verification, and as the construction facility for a variety of large structures is presented. The OCDA design includes a large work platform, a rotating manipulator boom, a 250 kw solar array, and a core module of subsystems with a total mass of 37,093 kg, that can be assembled in three shuttle flights. An analysis of OCDA continued utility potential indicates that a shuttle tended platform with 250 kW of power can effectively be used to construct highly beneficial antenna systems and large demonstration articles that advance solar power satellite technologies. The construction of 100 m parabolic reflectors for use as a radiometer for measuring soil moisture and water salinity was found to be within the capabilities of OCDA concept. With 252 fixed beams for high population centers, and 16 scanning beams for rural areas, the antenna has the potential to significantly improve U.S. space based communications systems. The OCDA, that is slightly increased in size, was found adequate to build a large 2 MW solar array which, when coupled to a transmit antenna, demonstrate power transfer from space to ground.

  11. Demonstrations of the Action and Reaction Law and the Energy Conservation Law Using Fine Spherical Plastic Beads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khumaeni, A.; Tanaka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Lee, Y. I.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Equipment for demonstrating Newton's third law and the energy conservation law in mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine spherical plastic beads in place of metal ball bearings. To demonstrate Newton's third law, special magnetized Petri dishes were employed as objects, while to examine the energy conservation law, a…

  12. Direct oxide reduction demonstration, small-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.L.; Santi, D.J.; Fisher, D.C.; Humiston, T.J.

    1991-12-09

    This project was initiated to provide process design information to the Plutonium Recovery Project (PRP). Although direct oxide reduction (DOR) has been operated in a production mode both at the Rocky Flats Plant (now operated by EG G, Inc.) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, many aspects of the process are ill-defined. Because the PRP plans include significant DOR capability, a well-defined process should minimize capital cost and maximize productivity. Reduced radiation exposure may also be realized. A detailed, statistically valid investigation of the direct oxide reduction process was carried out utilizing 100 grams or less of plutonium dioxide per experiment. Conditions were established for obtaining 95% + yields. Conclusions drawn from the results of the experimental work were utilized to make recommendations for future large-scale investigative and confirmative work as well large-scale production demonstration work. 4 refs., 5 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Direct oxide reduction demonstration, small-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.L.; Santi, D.J.; Fisher, D.C.; Humiston, T.J.

    1991-12-09

    This project was initiated to provide process design information to the Plutonium Recovery Project (PRP). Although direct oxide reduction (DOR) has been operated in a production mode both at the Rocky Flats Plant (now operated by EG&G, Inc.) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, many aspects of the process are ill-defined. Because the PRP plans include significant DOR capability, a well-defined process should minimize capital cost and maximize productivity. Reduced radiation exposure may also be realized. A detailed, statistically valid investigation of the direct oxide reduction process was carried out utilizing 100 grams or less of plutonium dioxide per experiment. Conditions were established for obtaining 95% + yields. Conclusions drawn from the results of the experimental work were utilized to make recommendations for future large-scale investigative and confirmative work as well large-scale production demonstration work. 4 refs., 5 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Validity in Action: Lessons from Studies of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of data use illuminate ways in which education professionals have used test scores and other evidence relevant to students' learning--in action in their own contexts of work--to make decisions about their practice. These studies raise instructive challenges for a validity theory that focuses on intended interpretations and uses of test…

  15. A demonstration of the applicability of implementing the enhanced Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) for environmental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Walter, M.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) and the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were developed to prioritize problems associated with potential releases of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This report documents the model testing efforts of the RAPS/MEPAS methodology for the atmospheric, surface water, groundwater, and exposure components. Comparisons are given of model outputs with measured data at three sites: the US Department of Energy's Mound facility in Ohio and Hanford facility in Washington, and a chromium-cadmium plating site in New York. The results show that the simulated magnitudes, spacial and temporal trends, and distributions of contaminants corresponded well with the measured data. 25 refs., 86 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  17. Feasibility study of full-reactor gas core demonstration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, J. F.; Lofthouse, J. H.; Shaffer, C. J.; Macbeth, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Separate studies of nuclear criticality, flow patterns, and thermodynamics for the gas core reactor concept have all given positive indications of its feasibility. However, before serious design for a full scale gas core application can be made, feasibility must be shown for operation with full interaction of the nuclear, thermal, and hydraulic effects. A minimum sized, and hence minimum expense, test arrangement is considered for a full gas core configuration. It is shown that the hydrogen coolant scattering effects dominate the nuclear considerations at elevated temperatures. A cavity diameter of somewhat larger than 4 ft (122 cm) will be needed if temperatures high enough to vaporize uranium are to be achieved.

  18. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity.

  19. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  20. ACTION FOR BOSTON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, INC. AND BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY DEMONSTRATION COLLEGE COMPUS PROGRAM, SUMMER, 1964 BRANDIS UNIVERSITY, WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SACHAR, ABRAHAM

    A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF BOYS FROM POORER URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS DO NOT SEEK EDUCATION BEYOND HIGH SCHOOL, FOR FINANCIAL REASONS OR LACK OF INTEREST IN OR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT COLLEGE LIFE. THIS PROPOSAL HAS AS ITS PRIMARY OBJECTIVES TO DEMONSTRATE THAT POTENTIALLY ABLE BUT UNDERACHIEVING STUDENTS, WHEN EXPOSED TO A SUMMER PROGRAM THAT RECOGNIZES AND…

  1. Employment Action Center's Demonstration Older Worker Project. Operated June 1, 1983 through November 31, 1983. Final Outcome Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Ann; Teschendorf, JoAnn

    The Older Worker Project was conducted to provide employment services to unemployed persons aged 45 and older who live in the western part of the Hennepin County (Minneapolis, Minnesota) area. Although the expected result was permanent employment of the participants, the intention of this demonstration project was to refine service approaches…

  2. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step. PMID:22319308

  3. FISH in micronucleus test demonstrates aneugenic action of rotenone in a common freshwater fish species, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Melo, Karina M; Grisolia, Cesar K; Pieczarka, Julio C; de Souza, Ludmilla R; Filho, José de Souza; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2014-05-01

    Aneuploidies are numerical genetic alterations that lead to changes in the normal number of chromosomes due to abnormal segregation during cell division. This type of alteration can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. The presence of these agents in the environment has increased concern about potential damage to human health. Rotenone, derived from plants of the genera Derris and Lonchocarpus, is a product that is used all over the world as a pesticide and piscicide. Before establishing its potential and efficiency for these purposes, it is essential to know more about the possible adverse effects that it may cause. The current work aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of rotenone using fish from the species Oreochromis niloticus, as well as to help in understanding its action mechanism. Our results showed the mutagenic potential of rotenone evidenced by increased formation of micronuclei and nuclear buds at low doses of exposure. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique made it possible to measure the aneugenic potential of the substance, probably due to its impairment of mitotic spindle formation.

  4. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  5. Espousing Democratic Leadership Practices: A Study of Values in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devereaux, Lorraine

    2003-01-01

    This article examines principals' espoused values and their values in action. It provides a reanalysis of previously collected data through a values lens. The original research study was an international quantitative and qualitative investigation of principals' leadership approaches that was based in 15 schools. This particular excerpt of the…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  7. Study Challenges Assumptions about Affirmative-Action Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a new study on the impact of bans on race-conscious admissions policies which seem to confirm what many critics of affirmative action have long suspected: It is Asian-Americans, rather than whites, who are most disadvantaged by elite universities' consideration of ethnicity and race. Left unanswered are the…

  8. Minesweeper and Hypothetical Thinking Action Research & Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research project and Pilot Study was designed and implemented to improve students' hypothetical thinking abilities by exploring the possibility that learning and playing the computer game Minesweeper may inherently help improve hypothetical thinking. One objective was to use educational tools to make it easier for students to learn the…

  9. Seeing biological actions in 3D: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Jastorff, Jan; Abdollahi, Rouhollah O.; Fasano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Precise kinematics or body configuration cannot be recovered from visual input without disparity information. Yet, no imaging study has investigated the role of disparity on action observation. Here, we investigated the interaction between disparity and the main cues of biological motion, kinematics and configuration, in two fMRI experiments. Stimuli were presented as point‐light figures, depicting complex action sequences lasting 21 s. We hypothesized that interactions could occur at any of the three levels of the action observation network, comprising occipitotemporal, parietal and premotor cortex, with premotor cortex being the most likely location. The main effects of kinematics and configuration confirmed that the biological motion sequences activated all three levels of the action observation network, validating our approach. The interaction between configuration and disparity activated only premotor cortex, whereas interactions between kinematics and disparity occurred at all levels of the action observation network but were strongest at the premotor level. Control experiments demonstrated that these interactions could not be accounted for by low level motion in depth, task effects, spatial attention, or eye movements, including vergence. These results underscore the role of premotor cortex in action observation, and in imitating others or responding to their actions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:203–219, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26510637

  10. Students of Action? A Comparative Investigation of Secondary Science and Social Studies Students' Action Repertoires in a Land Use Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumler, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) and social studies education share an interest in behavioral outcomes. This study compares behavioral outcomes--including both self-reported knowledge of actions and reported actions taken--in the context of a land use curriculum enacted in secondary science versus social studies classes with 500 students and nine…

  11. An action research study of secondary science assessment praxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas Gerald

    This practical participatory action research study illuminates the assessment praxes of four Ontario secondary level science teachers at one school using a facilitative approach. Participants were joined by a thematic concern, that is, a commitment to inform and improve assessment. Hence, two distinct sets of research questions emerged. The first involves the nature of assessment as we asked, what was the current state of assessment practice in secondary science? What were participants' initial understandings of assessment and actual practices at the onset of this research? To what extent did these initial understandings and actual practices change due to the illumination of assessment praxes through action research involvement? What was their level of awareness of current Ontario government pronouncements and in what ways did they implement this knowledge? The second theme, concerning the nature of action research, was realised by asking what did participants learn about action research? What other learning and professional gains were realised during this study? And, what did I learn about action research and assessment through my involvement in this study? Data were collected via supportive discussion groups, individual interviews, classroom visitations, journals and documentation. This professional development experience facilitated 'interactive professionalism' as teachers worked in a small group and interacted frequently in the course of planning, testing new ideas, attempting to solve different problems, and assess the effectiveness of those ideas. In addition, this action research effort was strategic and systematic, to attain a high degree of specific interactions, (personal interviews, group meetings, classroom observations, evidence collection). This series of deliberate and planned intentions helped participants solve assessment dilemmas. We developed an awareness and understanding of the need for more preservice and inservice assessment training

  12. Action Researchers' Perspectives about the Distinguishing Characteristics of Action Research: A Delphi and Learning Circles Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…

  13. Verb gapping: an action-gap compatibility study.

    PubMed

    Claus, Berry

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses the processing of verb-gapping sentences, e.g., John closes a juice bottle and Jim [ ] a lemonade bottle. The goal was to explore if there would be an interaction between language comprehension and motor action not only for overt action verbs but also for gapped verbs. Participants read gapping sentences that either described clockwise or counter-clockwise manual rotations (e.g., closes vs. opens a juice bottle). Adopting a paradigm developed by Zwaan and Taylor (2006), sentence presentation was frame-by-frame. Participants proceeded from frame to frame by turning a knob either clockwise or counter clockwise. Analyses of the frame reading-times yielded a significant effect of compatibility between the linguistically conveyed action and the knob turning for the overt-verb (e.g., closes/opens a juice bottle) as well as for the gapped-verb frame (e.g., a lemonade bottle) - with longer reading times in the match condition than in the mismatch condition - but not for any of the other frames (e.g., and Jim). The results are promising in providing novel evidence for the real-time reactivation of gapped verbs and in suggesting that action simulation is not bound to the processing of overt verbs. PMID:25103783

  14. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  15. The organization of the posterior parietal cortex devoted to upper limb actions: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Stefania; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present fMRI study examined whether upper‐limb action classes differing in their motor goal are encoded by different PPC sectors. Action observation was used as a proxy for action execution. Subjects viewed actors performing object‐related (e.g., grasping), skin‐displacing (e.g., rubbing the skin), and interpersonal upper limb actions (e.g., pushing someone). Observation of the three action classes activated a three‐level network including occipito‐temporal, parietal, and premotor cortex. The parietal region common to observing all three action classes was located dorsally to the left intraparietal sulcus (DIPSM/DIPSA border). Regions specific for observing an action class were obtained by combining the interaction between observing action classes and stimulus types with exclusive masking for observing the other classes, while for regions considered preferentially active for a class the interaction was exclusively masked with the regions common to all observed actions. Left putative human anterior intraparietal was specific for observing manipulative actions, and left parietal operculum including putative human SII region, specific for observing skin‐displacing actions. Control experiments demonstrated that this latter activation depended on seeing the skin being moved and not simply on seeing touch. Psychophysiological interactions showed that the two specific parietal regions had similar connectivities. Finally, observing interpersonal actions preferentially activated a dorsal sector of left DIPSA, possibly the homologue of ventral intraparietal coding the impingement of the target person's body into the peripersonal space of the actor. These results support the importance of segregation according to the action class as principle of posterior parietal cortex organization for action observation and by implication for action execution. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3845–3866, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley

  16. The organization of the posterior parietal cortex devoted to upper limb actions: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Stefania; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Orban, Guy A

    2015-10-01

    The present fMRI study examined whether upper-limb action classes differing in their motor goal are encoded by different PPC sectors. Action observation was used as a proxy for action execution. Subjects viewed actors performing object-related (e.g., grasping), skin-displacing (e.g., rubbing the skin), and interpersonal upper limb actions (e.g., pushing someone). Observation of the three action classes activated a three-level network including occipito-temporal, parietal, and premotor cortex. The parietal region common to observing all three action classes was located dorsally to the left intraparietal sulcus (DIPSM/DIPSA border). Regions specific for observing an action class were obtained by combining the interaction between observing action classes and stimulus types with exclusive masking for observing the other classes, while for regions considered preferentially active for a class the interaction was exclusively masked with the regions common to all observed actions. Left putative human anterior intraparietal was specific for observing manipulative actions, and left parietal operculum including putative human SII region, specific for observing skin-displacing actions. Control experiments demonstrated that this latter activation depended on seeing the skin being moved and not simply on seeing touch. Psychophysiological interactions showed that the two specific parietal regions had similar connectivities. Finally, observing interpersonal actions preferentially activated a dorsal sector of left DIPSA, possibly the homologue of ventral intraparietal coding the impingement of the target person's body into the peripersonal space of the actor. These results support the importance of segregation according to the action class as principle of posterior parietal cortex organization for action observation and by implication for action execution. PMID:26129732

  17. Priorities for action in a rural older adults study.

    PubMed

    Averill, Jennifer B

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  18. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  19. Passive reading and motor imagery about hand actions and tool-use actions: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that motor activations in action verb comprehension can be modulated by task demands (e.g., motor imagery vs. passive reading) and the specificity of action verb meaning. However, how the two factors work together to influence the involvement of the motor system during action verb comprehension is still unclear. To address the issue, the current study investigated the brain activations in motor imagery and passive reading of verbs about hand actions and tool-use actions. Three types of Chinese verbs were used, including hand-action verbs and two types of tool-use verbs emphasizing either the hand or tools information. Results indicated that all three types of verbs elicited common activations in hand motor areas during passive reading and motor imagery. Contrast analyses showed that in the hand verbs and the tool verbs where the hand information was emphasized, motor imagery elicited stronger effects than passive reading in the superior frontal gyrus, supplemental motor area and cingulate cortex that are related to motor control and regulation. For tool-use verbs emphasizing tools information, the motor imagery task elicited stronger activity than passive reading in occipital regions related to visual imagery. These results suggest that motor activations during action verb comprehension can be modulated by task demands and semantic features of action verbs. The sensorimotor simulation during language comprehension is flexible and determined by the interactions between linguistic and extralinguistic contexts.

  20. Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Malkmus, D.

    1995-05-01

    Today`s radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP`s are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows.

  1. A Self-Study of the Teaching of Action Research in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jung-ah

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of action research, teaching action research in a university setting can present challenges. Analyzing my own experiences of teaching a university-based course on action research, this self-study investigates what my students (all classroom teachers) did and did not understand about action research and what hindered…

  2. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  3. Micro grants as a stimulus for community action in residential health programmes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Plochg, T; Harting, J; Klazinga, N S; Stronks, K

    2009-09-01

    This paper aimed to explore the contribution of a micro grant financing scheme to community action in terms of residential health-promoting initiatives, interorganizational collaboration and public participation. The scheme was two-fold, consisting of (i) micro grants of 500-3500 Euros, which were easily obtainable by local organizations and (ii) neighbourhood health panels of community and health workers, functioning as a distributing mechanism. Data were collected using three methods: (i) observations of the neighbourhood-based health panels, (ii) in-depth interviews with policy-makers and professionals and (iii) analyses of documents and reports. This study demonstrated the three-fold role of micro grants as a vehicle to enable community action at an organizational level in terms of increased network activities between the local organizations, to set an agenda for the 'health topic' in non-traditional health agencies and to enable a number of health-promoting initiatives. Although these initiatives were attended by small groups of residents normally considered hard to reach, the actual public participation was limited. In their role as a distributing mechanism, the health panels were vital with regard to the achieved impact on the community action. However, certain limitations were also seen, which were related to the governance of the panels. This case study provides evidence to suggest that micro grants have the potential to stimulate community action at an organizational and a residential level, but with the prerequisite that grants be accompanied by increased investments in infrastructure.

  4. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  5. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes, Volume III

    EPA Science Inventory

    This booklet, ETV Program Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes, Volume III contains two case studies, addressing verified environmental technologies for decentalized wastewater treatment and converting animal waste to energy. Each case study contains a brief description ...

  6. Action-State Orientation and the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Study of Job Search in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie; Niu, Xiongying; Xie, Yizhong

    2006-01-01

    Job search is an important element of people's careers and is especially critical for unemployed individuals. The current study surveyed a sample of 328 unemployed job seekers in China to test hypotheses related to the theory of planned behavior and action-state orientation theory. Results of the three-wave longitudinal study demonstrated that the…

  7. [Use of photonuclear reactions for studying the biological action of slow heavy ions].

    PubMed

    Kapchigashev, S P

    1984-01-01

    Since ranges of low-energy heavy ions are too little the study of their action on cells is only possible using indirect irradiation, for instance, with neurons which form low--energy heavy ions uniformly inside a cell. In our studies we used photonuclear reactions which occur upon irradiation of a bio-object with high energy bremsstrahlung. The advantage of this method over the method based on the usage of neutrons has been demonstrated. The data are submitted obtained after exposure of yeast cells to photonuclear products. PMID:6324271

  8. Action anticipation beyond the action observation network: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Abreu, A M; Macaluso, E; Azevedo, R T; Cesari, P; Urgesi, C; Aglioti, S M

    2012-05-01

    The ability to predict the actions of others is quintessential for effective social interactions, particularly in competitive contexts (e.g. in sport) when knowledge about upcoming movements allows anticipating rather than reacting to opponents. Studies suggest that we predict what others are doing by using our own motor system as an internal forward model and that the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON) is fundamental for this ability. However, multiple-duty cells dealing with action perception and execution have been found in a variety of cortical regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore, in expert basketball athletes and novices, whether the ability to make early predictions about the fate of sport-specific actions (i.e. free throws) is underpinned by neural regions beyond the classical AON. We found that, although involved in action prediction, the fronto-parietal AON was similarly activated in novices and experts. Importantly, athletes exhibited relatively greater activity in the extrastriate body area during the prediction task, probably due to their expert reading of the observed action kinematics. Moreover, experts exhibited higher activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the right anterior insular cortex when producing errors, suggesting that they might become aware of their own errors. Correct action prediction induced higher posterior insular cortex activity in experts and higher orbito-frontal activity in novices, suggesting that body awareness is important for performance monitoring in experts, whereas novices rely more on higher-order decision-making strategies. This functional reorganization highlights the tight relationship between action anticipation, error awareness and motor expertise leading to body-related processing and differences in decision-making processes.

  9. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Tixier, J.S.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  10. How Action and Context Priming Influence Categorization: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalenine, Solene; Bonthoux, Francoise; Borghi, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    Embodied views of cognition propose that concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience. Diverse aspects of sensorimotor experience, like action and context information, could play a key role in the formation and processing of manipulable object concepts. Specifically, contextual information could help to link specific actions experienced with…

  11. Insight and Action Analytics: Three Case Studies to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Malcolm, Laura; Kil, David

    2014-01-01

    Civitas Learning was conceived as a community of practice, bringing together forward-thinking leaders from diverse higher education institutions to leverage insight and action analytics in their ongoing efforts to help students learn well and finish strong. We define insight and action analytics as drawing, federating, and analyzing data from…

  12. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  13. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  14. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  15. A Case Study of Technical Assistance to Demonstration Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, Shirley K.; And Others

    The report describes the third and final year of a 3-year case study of the technical assistance process as implemented by the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS) for the staffs of two demonstration programs for preschool handicapped children and their families. Following a review of TADS and the two demonstration programs, the…

  16. Family Literacy Lasts. The NFER Follow-up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Demonstration Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Greg; Gorman, Tom; Harman, John; Hutchison, Dougal; Kinder, Kay; Moor, Helen; Wilkin, Anne

    The benefits of family literacy programs for children were examined in a 1997 follow-up study in which 154 parents and 237 children who had participated in a family literacy demonstration program in 1994-1995 were interviewed along with the teachers of a subsample of the children and the demonstration program coordinators. The demonstration…

  17. Nitazoxanide: Nematicidal Mode of Action and Drug Combination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Ellis, Brian L.; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes or roundworms (aka soil-transmitted helminths or STHs) cause great disease. They infect upwards of two billion people, leading to high morbidity and a range of health problems, especially in infected children and pregnant women. Development of resistance to the two main classes of drugs used to treat intestinal nematode infections of humans has been reported. To fight STH infections, we need new and more effective drugs and ways to improve the efficacy of the old drugs. One promising alternative drug is nitazoxanide (NTZ). NTZ, approved for treating human protozoan infections, was serendipitously shown to have therapeutic activity against STHs. However, its mechanism of action against nematodes is not known. Using the laboratory nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that NTZ acts on the nematodes through avr-14, an alpha-type subunit of a glutamate-gated chloride ion channel known for its role in ivermectin susceptibility. In addition, a forward genetic screen to select C. elegans mutants resistant to NTZ resulted in isolation of two NTZ resistant mutants that are not in avr-14, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in resistance to NTZ. We found that NTZ combines synergistically with other classes of anthelmintic drugs, i.e. albendazole and pyrantel, making it a good candidate for further studies on its use in drug combination therapy of STH infections. Given NTZ acts against a wide range of nematode parasites, our findings also validate avr-14 as an excellent target for pan-STH therapy. PMID:24412397

  18. Acceptable Risk? The Nuclear Age in the United States. Study/Action Guide [and] Companion to Study/Action Guide for Congregations and Religious Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA. National Action/Research on the Military Industrial Complex.

    A study-action guide and a companion guide are intended to help citizens explore some of the challenging dilemmas of U.S. nuclear policy. The two guides place strong emphasis on group discussion and participation as well as action citizens might want to take to bring about a non-nuclear world. The companion guide is intended for congregations and…

  19. Mode of action and clinical studies with alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joanne L; Coles, Alasdair J

    2014-12-01

    The lymphocyte depleting anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab has been used in Cambridge, UK, as an experimental treatment of multiple sclerosis since 1991. One phase-2 trial (CAMMS-223) and two phase-3 studies (CARE-MS1 and CARE-MS2) have confirmed its efficacy in treatment-naive patients, and have established superiority over interferon beta-1a in patients who continue to relapse in spite of first-line therapy (Cohen et al., 2012; Coles et al., 2008; Coles et al., 2012a; Coles et al., 2012b). Despite causing a prolonged T cell lymphopenia, significant infections have not been an issue following treatment; rather alemtuzumab's primary safety concern is secondary autoimmunity, occurring up to five years after treatment and maximally at two years: 30% of patients develops thyroid autoimmunity, and 1% develops idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In addition, 4 out of 1486 patients (<0.3%) treated on the commercially sponsored studies developed glomerulonephritis. Two of these patients developed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, a condition which may result in renal failure unless treated aggressively. In September 2013, the European Medicine Agency (EMA) ruled that the benefit-to-risk balance for alemtuzumab was favourable, approving it as a first-line therapy for adults with active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (under the trade name Lemtrada). Lemtrada is now also approved as a treatment of multiple sclerosis in Canada, Australia, Switzerland, Israel, Mexico and Brazil. However, in December 2013, Lemtrada failed to gain approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), with concerns over trial design and safety stated as the main reasons. In this review we describe our local experience and explain the rationale behind its initial use as a treatment of multiple sclerosis and behind the design of the commercially sponsored trials, summarising their key findings. We also sum up our understanding of its mechanism of action.

  20. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Meintz, A.; Hardy, K.; Chen, B.; Bohn, T.; Smart, J.; Scoffield, D.; Hovsapian, R.; Saxena, S.; MacDonald, J.; Kiliccote, S.; Kahl, K.; Pratt, R.

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  1. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  2. The Eight-Year Study: From Evaluative Research to Demonstration Project, 1930-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    From 1932 to 1940, the Progressive Education Association (PEA) conducted its Eight-Year Study. At first, the study appeared to be a poorly funded comparison of two groups of students in secondary schools. During the last four years, as more financial support became available, the Eight-Year Study became a broadly based demonstration of a wide…

  3. Gender differences in non-standard mapping tasks: A kinematic study using pantomimed reach-to-grasp actions.

    PubMed

    Copley-Mills, Freya; Connolly, Jason D; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana

    2016-09-01

    Comparison between real and pantomimed actions is used in neuroscience to dissociate stimulus-driven (real) as compared to internally driven (pantomimed) visuomotor transformations, with the goal of testing models of vision (Milner & Goodale, 1995) and diagnosing neuropsychological deficits (apraxia syndrome). Real actions refer to an overt movement directed toward a visible target whereas pantomimed actions refer to an overt movement directed either toward an object that is no longer available. Although similar, real and pantomimed actions differ in their kinematic parameters and in their neural substrates. Pantomimed-reach-to-grasp-actions show reduced reaching velocities, higher wrist movements, and reduced grip apertures. In addition, seminal neuropsychological studies and recent neuroimaging findings confirmed that real and pantomimed actions are underpinned by separate brain networks. Although previous literature suggests differences in the praxis system between males and females, no research to date has investigated whether or not gender differences exist in the context of real versus pantomimed reach-to-grasp actions. We asked ten male and ten female participants to perform real and pantomimed reach-to-grasp actions toward objects of different sizes, either with or without visual feedback. During pantomimed actions participants were required to pick up an imaginary object slightly offset relative to the location of the real one (which was in turn the target of the real reach-to-grasp actions). Results demonstrate a significant difference between the kinematic parameters recorded in male and female participants performing pantomimed, but not real reach-to-grasp tasks, depending on the availability of visual feedback. With no feedback both males and females showed smaller grip aperture, slower movement velocity and lower reach height. Crucially, these same differences were abolished when visual feedback was available in male, but not in female participants

  4. From recording discrete actions to studying continuous goal-directed behaviours in team sports.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of examining interpersonal interactions in performance analysis of team sports, predicated on the relationship between perception and action, compared to the traditional cataloguing of actions by individual performers. We discuss how ecological dynamics may provide a potential unifying theoretical and empirical framework to achieve this re-emphasis in research. With reference to data from illustrative studies on performance analysis and sport expertise, we critically evaluate some of the main assumptions and methodological approaches with regard to understanding how information influences action and decision-making during team sports performance. Current data demonstrate how the understanding of performance behaviours in team sports by sport scientists and practitioners may be enhanced with a re-emphasis in research on the dynamics of emergent ongoing interactions. Ecological dynamics provides formal and theoretically grounded descriptions of player-environment interactions with respect to key performance goals and the unfolding information of competitive performance. Developing these formal descriptions and explanations of sport performance may provide a significant contribution to the field of performance analysis, supporting design and intervention in both research and practice.

  5. Action Research. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian, Ed.

    Chapter titles in this book include the following: "Attitude and Access: Building a New Teaching/Learning Community in TESOL" (Julian Edge); "Here It Is, Rough Though It May Be: Basic Computer for ESL" (Alison Perkins); "An 'It's Not Action Research Yet, but I'm Getting There' Approach to Teaching Writing" (Neil Cowie); "Early Reflections:…

  6. Action Learning with Second Life--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Christian; Ip, Rachael K. F.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds, computer-based simulated environments in which users interact via avatars, provide an opportunity for the highly realistic enactment of real life activities online. Unlike computer games, which have a pre-defined purpose, pay-off structure, and action patterns, virtual worlds can leave many of these elements for users to determine.…

  7. Motivating Struggling Adolescent Readers: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    In a high-school reading class, the author used Reader's Theater as an instructional and motivational strategy for underachieving students. This action research focused on the extent to which implementing Reader's Theater motivated students to read and improve their reading skills. Consistent increases in scores for all students occurred over the…

  8. Temporal prediction restores the evaluative processing of delayed action feedback: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro

    2016-09-28

    The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback. With a typical gambling task in which the participant chose one of two cards and received an action feedback indicating monetary gain or loss, the present study showed that FRN/RewP was significantly elicited even when the action-feedback interval was 6000 ms, when an auditory stimulus sequence was additionally presented during the action-feedback interval as a temporal cue. This result suggests that the undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback can be restored by increasing the accuracy of the prediction on the timing of the action feedback.

  9. Temporal prediction restores the evaluative processing of delayed action feedback: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro

    2016-09-28

    The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback. With a typical gambling task in which the participant chose one of two cards and received an action feedback indicating monetary gain or loss, the present study showed that FRN/RewP was significantly elicited even when the action-feedback interval was 6000 ms, when an auditory stimulus sequence was additionally presented during the action-feedback interval as a temporal cue. This result suggests that the undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback can be restored by increasing the accuracy of the prediction on the timing of the action feedback. PMID:27513200

  10. A Case Study of Technical Assistance to Demonstration Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, Shirley K.; And Others

    The interim report presents an evaluation of TADS (Technical Assistance Development System) through case studies of TADS technical assistance to the staffs of two demonstration programs for preschool handicapped children and their families. Purposes of the study included obtaining indepth descriptions of the technical assistance process to…

  11. The cerebellum in action: a simulation and robotics study.

    PubMed

    Hofstötter, Constanze; Mintz, Matti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2002-10-01

    The control or prediction of the precise timing of events are central aspects of the many tasks assigned to the cerebellum. Despite much detailed knowledge of its physiology and anatomy, it remains unclear how the cerebellar circuitry can achieve such an adaptive timing function. We present a computational model pursuing this question for one extensively studied type of cerebellar-mediated learning: the classical conditioning of discrete motor responses. This model combines multiple current assumptions on the function of the cerebellar circuitry and was used to investigate whether plasticity in the cerebellar cortex alone can mediate adaptive conditioned response timing. In particular, we studied the effect of changes in the strength of the synapses formed between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells under the control of a negative feedback loop formed between inferior olive, cerebellar cortex and cerebellar deep nuclei. The learning performance of the model was evaluated at the circuit level in simulated conditioning experiments as well as at the behavioural level using a mobile robot. We demonstrate that the model supports adaptively timed responses under real-world conditions. Thus, in contrast to many other models that have focused on cerebellar-mediated conditioning, we investigated whether and how the suggested underlying mechanisms could give rise to behavioural phenomena.

  12. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier.

  13. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; Baysinger, M. F.; Maples, C. D.; Capizzo, P. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Hornsby, L. S.; Percy, T. K.; Thomas, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  14. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  15. Case Study for the ARRA-funded GSHP Demonstration at University at Albany

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Malhotra, Mini; Xiong, Zeyu

    2015-03-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects—a distributed GSHP system at a new 500-bed apartment-style student residence hall at the University at Albany. This case study is based on the analysis of detailed design documents, measured performance data, published catalog data of heat pump equipment, and actual construction costs. Simulations with a calibrated computer model are performed for both the demonstrated GSHP system and a baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system to determine the energy savings and other related benefits achieved by the GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, as well as the pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the demonstrated GSHP system compared with the baseline HVAC system. This case study also identifies opportunities for improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  16. Sensitivity of Alpha and Beta Oscillations to Sensorimotor Characteristics of Action: An EEG Study of Action Production and Gesture Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Beilock, Sian L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor experiences we gain when performing an action have been found to influence how our own motor systems are activated when we observe others performing that same action. Here we asked whether this phenomenon applies to the observation of gesture. Would the sensorimotor experiences we gain when performing an action on an object influence activation in our own motor systems when we observe others performing a gesture for that object? Participants were given sensorimotor experience with objects that varied in weight, and then observed video clips of an actor producing gestures for those objects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants first observed either an iconic gesture (pantomiming lifting an object) or a deictic gesture (pointing to an object) for an object, and then grasped and lifted the object indicated by the gesture. We analyzed EEG during gesture observation to determine whether oscillatory activity was affected by the observer’s sensorimotor experiences with the object represented in the gesture. Seeing a gesture for an object previously experienced as light was associated with a suppression of power in alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly at posterior electrodes. A similar pattern was found when participants lifted the light object, but over more diffuse electrodes. Moreover, alpha and beta bands at right parieto-occipital electrodes were sensitive to the type of gesture observed (iconic vs. deictic). These results demonstrate that sensorimotor experience with an object affects how a gesture for that object is processed, as measured by the gesture-observer’s EEG, and suggest that different types of gestures recruit the observer’s own motor system in different ways. PMID:22910276

  17. Responses of the human motor system to observing actions across species: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    White, Nicole C; Reid, Connor; Welsh, Timothy N

    2014-10-22

    Ample evidence suggests that the role of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in monkeys is to represent the meaning of actions. The MNS becomes active in monkeys during execution, observation, and auditory experience of meaningful, object-oriented actions, suggesting that these cells represent the same action based on a variety of cues. The present study sought to determine whether the human motor system, part of the putative human MNS, similarly represents and reflects the meaning of actions rather than simply the mechanics of the actions. To this end, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex was used to generate motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from muscles involved in grasping while participants viewed object-oriented grasping actions performed by either a human, an elephant, a rat, or a body-less robotic arm. The analysis of MEP amplitudes suggested that activity in primary motor cortex during action observation was greatest during observation of the grasping actions of the rat and elephant, and smallest for the human and robotic arm. Based on these data, we conclude that the human action observation system can represent actions executed by non-human animals and shows sensitivity to species-specific differences in action mechanics. PMID:25463135

  18. Atrazine and reproductive function: mode and mechanism of action studies.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ralph L; Laws, Susan C; Das, Parikshit C; Narotsky, Michael G; Goldman, Jerome M; Lee Tyrey, E; Stoker, Tammy E

    2007-04-01

    Atrazine, a chlorotriazine herbicide, is used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. In this review, we summarize our laboratory's work evaluating the neuroendocrine toxicity of atrazine (and related chlorotriazines) from an historic perspective. We provide the rationale for our work as we have endeavored to determine: 1) the underlying reproductive changes leading to the development of mammary gland tumors in the atrazine-exposed female rat; 2) the cascade of physiological events that are responsible for these changes (i.e., the mode of action for mammary tumors); 3) the potential cellular mechanisms involving adverse effects of atrazine; and 4) the range of reproductive alterations associated with this pesticide.

  19. A Study of Library Cooperatives, Networks and Demonstration Projects. Final Report. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Ruth; And Others

    This study evaluates the impact and effectiveness of the Library Research and Demonstration Program of the Higher Education Act (HEA II-B), and Title III, Interlibrary Cooperation, of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA III), USOE administered grant programs to aid in developing and improving library and information services. It…

  20. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  1. Fire vs. Metal: A Laboratory Study Demonstrating Microbial Responses to Soil Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberger, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Incubation studies are traditionally used in soil microbiology laboratory classes to demonstrate microbial respiration and N mineralization-immobilization processes. Sometimes these exercises are done to calculate a N balance in N fertilizer-amended soils. However, examining microbial responses to environmental perturbations would appeal to soil…

  2. ESEA Title I Allocation Policy: Demonstration Study. Cost Analysis; Planning Year 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Jane Huseby; Ames, Richard

    This report describes resource use and program costs of the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I programs in thirteen demonstration local education agencies (LEAs) during 1975-76. This analysis provides a baseline for comparing data from later years when waivers were granted for compliance with Title I guidelines. This study is concerned…

  3. Experimental study of cyclic action of plasma on tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Aleksandrov, A. E.; Ber, B. Ya.; Brunkov, P. N.; Bormatov, A. A.; Gusev, V. K.; Demina, E. V.; Novokhatskii, A. N.; Pavlov, S. I.; Prusakova, M. D.; Sotnikova, G. Yu.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on experimental results on multiple action of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium plasmas produced by a plasma gun and the Globus-M tokamak on tungsten. The surface temperature in the course of irradiation is measured with a bichromatic pyrometer with a time resolution of ⩾1 μs. The morphology of the surface layer is investigated and X-ray structure analysis of tungsten exposed to multiple radiations by the plasma under various conditions is carried out. A slight decrease in the lattice parameter in the sample subjected to the maximal number of irradiation cycles is detected. It is shown that the morphology of the tungsten surface irradiated by the hydrogen plasma from the gun and by the deuterium plasma from the Globus-M tokamak changes (the structure becomes smoother). The characteristic depth of the layer in which impurities have been accumulated exceeds 0.5 μm. This depth was the largest for the sample exposed to 1000 shots from the gun and 2370 shots from the tokamak. It is shown that the helium jet from the plasma gun makes it possible to simulate the action of helium ions on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) diverter, producing a layer of submicrometer particles (bubbles).

  4. The Impact of Special Education on Self-Perception: An Autoethnographic-Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabonick, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative autoethnographic-action research study examined how lack of voice as a special education student in the mid-1970s influenced my self-perception. This study also examined, through the use of action research, what influence storytelling had on teacher perceptions of students with disabilities. Autoethnographic data results were used…

  5. Creative Expression as a Way of Knowing in Diabetes Adult Health Education: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This action research study explores the meaning-making process using forms of creative expression for eight women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The study is theoretically informed by arts-based ways of knowing and aspects of feminist poststructuralism, and explains the process of creativity used in the action research process. The findings…

  6. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Eunah

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed…

  7. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local

  8. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  9. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6–7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood. PMID:27047420

  10. Numerical Studies of Dynamo Action in a Turbulent Shear Flow. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nishant K.; Jingade, Naveen

    2015-06-01

    We perform numerical experiments to study the shear dynamo problem where we look for the growth of a large-scale magnetic field due to non-helical stirring at small scales in a background linear shear flow in previously unexplored parameter regimes. We demonstrate the large-scale dynamo action in the limit where the fluid Reynolds number (\\operatorname{Re}) is below unity while the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is above unity; the exponential growth rate scales linearly with shear, which is consistent with earlier numerical works. The limit of low \\operatorname{Re} is particularly interesting, as seeing the dynamo action in this limit would provide enough motivation for further theoretical investigations, which may focus attention on this analytically more tractable limit of \\operatorname{Re}\\lt 1 compared to the more formidable limit of \\operatorname{Re}\\gt 1. We also perform simulations in the regimes where (i) both (\\operatorname{Re}, Rm) < 1, and (ii) \\operatorname{Re}\\gt 1 and Rm\\lt 1, and compute all of the components of the turbulent transport coefficients ({{α }ij} and {{η }ij}) using the test-field method. A reasonably good agreement is observed between our results and the results of earlier analytical works in similar parameter regimes.

  11. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  12. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  13. Pharmacodynamic properties of faropenem demonstrated by studies of time-kill kinetics and postantibiotic effect.

    PubMed

    Boswell, F J; Andrews, J M; Wise, R

    1997-03-01

    The pharmacodynamic properties of faropenem, a new oral penem antibiotic, were investigated by studying time-kill kinetics and postantibiotic effect. Time-kill kinetics were employed against strains of Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The postantibiotic effects of faropenem were studied using strains of E. coli, S. aureus, H. influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that faropenem has bactericidal activity. Faropenem exhibited a significant postantibiotic effect against all strains except H. influenzae. PMID:9096193

  14. Elder Mediation in Theory and Practice: Study Results From a National Caregiver Mediation Demonstration Project

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Mediation is a process through which a third party facilitates discussion among disputing parties to help them identify interests and ideally reach an amicable solution. Elder mediation is a growing subspecialty to address conflicts involving older adults, primarily involving caregiving or finances. Mediation is theorized to empower participants but critics argue that it can exacerbate power imbalances among parties and coerce consensus. These contested claims are examined through study of a national caregiver mediation demonstration project. Study implications underscore the importance of gerontological social work expertise to ensure the empowerment of vulnerable older adults in mediation sessions. PMID:23767767

  15. California: A Case Study in the Loss of Affirmative Action. A Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the various efforts undertaken by the University of California to maintain diversity in the institution, and especially at its highly competitive flagship campuses, UCLA and Berkeley, in the face of the loss of affirmative action during the mid-1990s. It demonstrates the continuing decline in representation of…

  16. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  17. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  18. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  19. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  20. Organisational Competence: The Study of a School Council in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotmore, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growth in the numbers of school councils, there has been little analytical and conceptual research about this form of participation. A case study of a school council in a junior school was adopted in this study. Complementary theories of "competent participation" and "place in time and space" contributed to the central organising…

  1. Mathematics in Action: Two New Zealand Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David M.

    Mathematics is playing an increasingly important role in business and industry. In this paper we present two case studies to illustrate the power and impact of mathematics in two important practical applications in New Zealand. The first case study describes the development of a mathematical optimization model to maximize the value of aluminum…

  2. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the third in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies have been presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, and to get the best value from…

  3. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  4. The Girl Child and the Family: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anandalakshmy, S., Comp.

    This report describes a nationwide study of female children and the family in rural India. The objectives of the study were to generate data on the situation of female children; to identify the major problems related to their status; to start a series of programs to help remedy those shortcomings; and to assist communities, and women in…

  5. Initial Development and Pilot Study Design of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations for ASTRO 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; French, D. A; Gutierrez, Joseph V; Sanchez, Richard L; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty

    2014-06-01

    Interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs) have repeatedly shown to be effective tools for improving student achievement in the context of learning physics. As a first step toward systematic development of interactive lecture demonstrations in ASTRO 101, the introductory astronomy survey course, a systematic review of education research, describing educational computer simulations (ECSs) reveals that initial development requires a targeted study of how ASTRO 101 students respond to ECSs in the non-science majoring undergraduate lecture setting. In this project we have adopted the process by which ILDs were designed, pilot-tested, and successfully implemented in the context of physics teaching (Sokoloff & Thornton, 1997; Sokoloff & Thornton, 2004). We have designed the initial pilot-test set of ASTRO 101 ILD instructional materials relying heavily on ECSs. Both an instructor’s manual and a preliminary classroom-ready student workbook have been developed, and we are implementing a pilot study to explore their effectiveness in communicating scientific content, and the extent to which they might enhance students’ knowledge of and perception about astronomy and science in general. The study design uses a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study design measuring students’ normalized gain scores, calculated as per Hake (1998) and Prather (2009), using a slightly modified version of S. Slater’s (2011) Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST combined with other instruments. The results of this initial study will guide the iterative development of ASTRO 101 ILDs that are intended to both be effective at enhancing student achievement and easy for instructors to successfully implement.

  6. Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Bangert, Marc; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2003-01-01

    Background Performing music requires fast auditory and motor processing. Regarding professional musicians, recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that auditory stimulation produces a co-activation of motor areas, whereas silent tapping of musical phrases evokes a co-activation in auditory regions. Whether this is obtained via a specific cerebral relay station is unclear. Furthermore, the time course of plasticity has not yet been addressed. Results Changes in cortical activation patterns (DC-EEG potentials) induced by short (20 minute) and long term (5 week) piano learning were investigated during auditory and motoric tasks. Two beginner groups were trained. The 'map' group was allowed to learn the standard piano key-to-pitch map. For the 'no-map' group, random assignment of keys to tones prevented such a map. Auditory-sensorimotor EEG co-activity occurred within only 20 minutes. The effect was enhanced after 5-week training, contributing elements of both perception and action to the mental representation of the instrument. The 'map' group demonstrated significant additional activity of right anterior regions. Conclusion We conclude that musical training triggers instant plasticity in the cortex, and that right-hemispheric anterior areas provide an audio-motor interface for the mental representation of the keyboard. PMID:14575529

  7. An fMRI study of perception and action in deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kayoko; Rogalsky, Corianne; O'Grady, Lucinda; Hanaumi, Leila; Bellugi, Ursula; Corina, David; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, there has been a great deal of interest in understanding the relationship between perception and action, and the role of the human mirror system in language comprehension and production. Two questions have dominated research. One concerns the role of Broca's area in speech perception. The other concerns the role of the motor system more broadly in understanding action-related language. The current study investigates both of these questions in a way that bridges research on language with research on manual actions. We studied the neural basis of observing and executing American Sign Language (ASL) object and action signs. In an fMRI experiment, deaf signers produced signs depicting actions and objects as well as observed/comprehended signs of actions and objects. Different patterns of activation were found for observation and execution although with overlap in Broca's area, providing prima facie support for the claim that the motor system participates in language perception. In contrast, we found no evidence that action related signs differentially involved the motor system compared to object related signs. These findings are discussed in the context of lesion studies of sign language execution and observation. In this broader context, we conclude that the activation in Broca's area during ASL observation is not causally related to sign language understanding. PMID:26796716

  8. 75 FR 66822 - Study on Extraterritorial Private Rights of Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... of the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www... Commission will post all comments on the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov ). Comments are...) directs that the study shall consider and analyze, among other things-- \\2\\ Section 929Y(a) of the...

  9. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  10. Academies in Action: Case Studies from Camden and Pimlico, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Both main UK political parties lend enthusiastic public support to academies, in the name of supporting the nation's poorest pupils. But Gordon Brown's Labour is, in reality, unsure about this undemocratic model while the Tories may well in the future exploit academy "independence" for retrograde ends. Two contemporary case studies from London, in…

  11. Reading Comprehension across Different Genres: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubawski, Michael; Sheehan, Caitlyn

    2010-01-01

    Reading comprehension is often a forgotten skill in secondary classrooms. Teachers of older students assign readings of different styles and levels, but don't teach the skills necessary to process different kinds of texts. This study examined which strategies are effective in giving students the skills necessary to read for understanding by…

  12. A Multidisciplinary Osteoporosis Service-Based Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Dean; Keast, John; Montgomery, Val; Hayman, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an existing Trust-based osteoporosis service's preventative activity, determine any issues and problems and use this data to reorganise the service, as part of a National Health Service Executive/Regional Office-commissioned and funded study. Setting: A UK Hospital Trust's Osteoporosis Service. Design & Method: A…

  13. Distributed Curriculum Leadership in Action: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Edmond; Galton, Maurice; Wan, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to investigate the impact of school-based curriculum development teams on teacher development within the tradition of school-based curriculum development. The results are expected to provide valuable insights for teachers, school management and policy making. Teacher interviews in a primary school in Hong Kong…

  14. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  15. Rhetoric to action: a study of stakeholder perceptions of aging well in two local communities.

    PubMed

    Everingham, Jo-Anne; Lui, Chi-Wai; Bartlett, Helen; Warburton, Jeni; Cuthill, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study of local perceptions of policy goals and action in relation to aging reports 31 stakeholder interviews within 2 Australian communities exploring (a) the meaning of aging well; and (b) preferred policy actions to achieve positive aging outcomes. Findings suggest that community perceptions of aging well are broadly consistent with the goals of national and international policy frameworks in focusing on 3 dimensions--health, social engagement, and security. Further, participants believe that achievement of positive aging outcomes requires a mix of self-help, community action, and government intervention--particularly government support and encouragement for aging well initiatives. PMID:20972930

  16. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  19. The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES): A UAV-Based Science Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Croskey, C. L.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Houser, J. G.; Kim, H. S.; Mach, D. M.; Mitchell, J. D.; Stoneburner, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)- based project that investigated thunderstorms in the vicinity of the Florida Everglades in August 2002. ACES was conducted to investigate storm electrical activity and its relationship to storm morphology, and to validate satellite-based lightning measurements. In addition, as part of the NASA sponsored UAV-based science demonstration program, this project provided a scientifically useful demonstration of the utility and promise of UAV platforms for Earth science and applications observations. ACES employed the Altus II aircraft, built by General Atomics - Aeronautical Systems, Inc. Key science objectives simultaneously addressed by ACES are to: (1) investigate lightning-storm relationships, (2) study storm electrical budgets, and provide Lightning Imaging Sensor validation. The ACES payload included electrical, magnetic, and optical sensors to remotely characterize the lightning activity and the electrical environment within and around thunderstorms. ACES contributed important electrical and optical measurements not available from other sources. Also, the high altitude vantage point of the UAV observing platform (up to 55,000 feet) provided cloud-top perspective. By taking advantage of its slow flight speed (70 to 100 knots), long endurance, and high altitude flight, the Altus was flown near, and when possible, over (but never into) thunderstorms for long periods of time that allowed investigations to be conducted over entire storm life cycles. An innovative real time weather system was used to identify and vector the aircraft to selected thunderstorms and safely fly around these storms, while, at the same time monitor the weather near our base of operations. In addition, concurrent ground-based observations that included radar (Miami and Key West WSRBD, NASA NPOL), satellite imagery, and lightning (NALDN and Los Alamos EDOT) enable the UAV measurements to be more completely

  20. Genetically modified mouse models in studies of luteinising hormone action.

    PubMed

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Pakarainen, Tomi; Rulli, Susana B; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Poutanen, Matti

    2006-06-27

    Numerous genetically modified mouse models have recently been developed for the study of the pituitary-gonadal interactions. They include spontaneous or engineered knockouts (KO) of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor, the gonadotrophin common-alpha(Calpha), luteinising hormone (LH) beta and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunits, and the two gonadotrophin receptors (R), LHR and FSHR. In addition, there are also transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing gonadotrophin subunits and producing supraphysiological levels of these hormones. These models have offered relevant phenocopies for similar mutations in humans and to a great extent expanded our knowledge on normal and pathological functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The purpose of this article is to review some of our recent findings on two such mouse models, the LHR KO mouse (LuRKO), and the hCG overexpressing TG mouse (hCG+).

  1. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus.

  2. Canceling planned action: an FMRI study of countermanding saccades.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Clayton E; Cole, Michael W; Rao, Vikas Y; D'Esposito, Mark

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the voluntary control of motor behavior by studying the process of deciding whether or not to execute a movement. We imaged the human dorsal cortex while subjects performed a countermanding task that allowed us to manipulate the probability that subjects would be able to cancel a planned saccade in response to an imperative stop signal. We modeled the behavioral data as a race between gaze-shifting mechanisms and gaze-holding mechanisms towards a finish line where a saccade is generated or canceled, and estimated that saccade cancelation took approximately 160 ms. The frontal eye fields showed greater activation on stop signal trials regardless of successful cancelation, suggesting coactivation of saccade and fixation mechanisms. The supplementary eye fields, however, distinguished between successful and unsuccessful cancelation, suggesting a role in monitoring performance. These oculomotor regions play distinct roles in the decision processes mediating saccadic choice. PMID:15616130

  3. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller).

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S

    1999-09-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, P. Miller) is used in aromatherapy as a holistic relaxant and is said to have carminative, antiflatulence and anticolic properties. Its sedative nature, on inhalation, has been shown both in animals and man. Lavender has a spasmolytic activity on guineapig ileum and rat uterus in vitro and it also decreases the tone in the skeletal muscle preparation of the phrenic nerve-diaphragm of rats. As the mechanism of action has not been studied previously, the spasmolytic activity was studied in vitro using a guinea-pig ileum smooth muscle preparation. The mechanism of action was postsynaptic and not atropine-like. The spasmolytic effect of lavender oil was most likely to be mediated through cAMP, and not through cGMP. The mode of action of linalool, one of lavender's major components, reflected that of the whole oil. The mode of action of lavender oil resembled that of geranium and peppermint oils.

  4. Activity-Based Teaching in Social Studies Education: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkus, Zekerya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pre-service social studies teachers' skills to plan and apply the activity-based teaching and contribute to their development of these skills. In the study, the action research design of qualitative research was used. The sample of the study consisted of 6 pre-service teachers who were 4th year students at…

  5. A thorough QTc study demonstrates that olmesartan medoxomil does not prolong the QTc interval

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Nobuko; O'Reilly, Terry E.; Lee, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two studies (ROADMAP and ORIENT) evaluating the renoprotective effects of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) in patients with type 2 diabetes suggested OM is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a thorough QTc study to evaluate the effects of OM on cardiac repolarization. A randomized, double‐blind, phase 1 study was conducted per E14 Guidance to assess the effects of single doses of OM therapeutic dose (40 mg), OM supratherapeutic dose (160 mg), placebo, or moxifloxacin (MOXI; 400 mg) on QTc in 56 healthy subjects. The primary endpoint was the baseline‐adjusted, placebo‐corrected QTc interval using Fridericia's formula (ΔΔQTcF) for OM and MOXI. Assay sensitivity was concluded if lower limit of 1‐sided 95%CI > 5 milliseconds of ΔΔQTcF for MOXI. No threshold pharmacologic effect for OM was concluded if upper limit of 1‐sided 95%CI <10 milliseconds for ΔΔQTcF at any timepoint. Pharmacokinetics, ECGs, and safety were assessed. Assay sensitivity was demonstrated. The largest upper limit of the 1‐sided 95%CI for ΔΔQTcF was <5 milliseconds for OM. No clinically significant changes were observed in ECGs. Pharmacokinetics and safety profile were consistent with previous data. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic OM doses had no clinically significant effect on cardiac repolarization and were well tolerated. PMID:26239632

  6. Baca geothermal demonstration project baseline ecosystem studies of cooling tower emission effects

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, P.; Osterling, R.; Price, D.; Westermeier, J.

    1981-03-01

    Results of baseline studies for boron, arsenic, mercury, and fluorine in vegetation and soil near the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant are provided for the 1980 sampling season. Preliminary results of visual vegetation assessments and population density studies of soil invertebrate fauna are also provided. Foliage samples were collected for chemical analysis on a total of 17 plots on 5 transects. Two to five plant species were sampled at each plot. Samples were collected in June-July and September. Soil samples were collected at each plot during September. Visual vegetation inspections were conducted along each transect. Eighty-eight soil samples were collected for soil invertebrate studies. Boron, arsenic, mercury, and fluorine levels in vegetation were within normal range for natural vegetation and crops. Concentrations of soil arsenic and mercury were comparable to foliage concentrations. Boron concentrations were lower in soil than in foliage, whereas soil fluorine concentrations were considerably higher than foliage concentrations. With the exception of heavy insect infestations in June-July, no vegetation abnormalities were noted. Preliminary soil invertebrate analysis indicated an overall arthropod density of approximately 100,000/m/sup 2/ which appears within the normal range encountered in forest and meadow soil.

  7. Dopaminergic action beyond its effects on motor function: imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Brooks, David J

    2006-08-01

    Along with motor programming, it is now thought that tonic release of dopamine in the striatum acts to focus and filter non-motor activities such as working memory, implicit learning, decision making, and planning. Additionally, thresholds to painful stimuli may well be dopamine dependant. Phasic (burst) release of dopamine in the basal ganglia and frontal areas is thought to play a role in alerting organisms to novel and potentially rewarding stimuli and in mediating contextual learning. Dopamine release also drives a craving for stimuli and facilitates their enjoyment. Functional imaging can help elucidate the role of dopamine in mediating non-motor activities. The integrity of dopamine terminal function can be measured with PET and SPECT in vivo in health and Parkinson's disease (PD) and this can be correlated with performance of executive tasks. In addition, these imaging modalities allow dopamine release in response to stimuli (both rewarding and unrewarding) to be detected, as reflected by changes in D2 receptor availability to radioligands. Finally, the functional effects of dopamine deficiency and its replacement can be monitored by studying patterns of brain activation, as evidenced by regional blood flow changes. In this review, some of the insights that imaging has given us concerning the role of dopamine in non-motor functions is presented.

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  10. Temporal prediction modulates the evaluative processing of "good" action feedback: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the evaluative processing of action feedback can be modulated by temporal prediction. For this purpose, we examined the effects of the predictability of the timing of action feedback on an ERP effect that indexed the evaluative processing of action feedback, that is, an ERP effect that has been interpreted as a feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by "bad" action feedback or a reward positivity (RewP) elicited by "good" action feedback. In two types of experimental blocks, the participants performed a gambling task in which they chose one of two cards and received an action feedback that indicated monetary gain or loss. In fixed blocks, the time interval between the participant's choice and the onset of the action feedback was fixed at 0, 500, or 1,000 ms in separate blocks; thus, the timing of action feedback was predictable. In mixed blocks, the time interval was randomly chosen from the same three intervals with equal probability; thus, the timing was less predictable. The results showed that the FRN/RewP was smaller in mixed than fixed blocks for the 0-ms interval trial, whereas there was no difference between the two block types for the 500-ms and 1,000-ms interval trials. Interestingly, the smaller FRN/RewP was due to the modulation of gain ERPs rather than loss ERPs. These results suggest that temporal prediction can modulate the evaluative processing of action feedback, and particularly good feedback, such as that which indicates monetary gain.

  11. Temporal prediction modulates the evaluative processing of "good" action feedback: An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the evaluative processing of action feedback can be modulated by temporal prediction. For this purpose, we examined the effects of the predictability of the timing of action feedback on an ERP effect that indexed the evaluative processing of action feedback, that is, an ERP effect that has been interpreted as a feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by "bad" action feedback or a reward positivity (RewP) elicited by "good" action feedback. In two types of experimental blocks, the participants performed a gambling task in which they chose one of two cards and received an action feedback that indicated monetary gain or loss. In fixed blocks, the time interval between the participant's choice and the onset of the action feedback was fixed at 0, 500, or 1,000 ms in separate blocks; thus, the timing of action feedback was predictable. In mixed blocks, the time interval was randomly chosen from the same three intervals with equal probability; thus, the timing was less predictable. The results showed that the FRN/RewP was smaller in mixed than fixed blocks for the 0-ms interval trial, whereas there was no difference between the two block types for the 500-ms and 1,000-ms interval trials. Interestingly, the smaller FRN/RewP was due to the modulation of gain ERPs rather than loss ERPs. These results suggest that temporal prediction can modulate the evaluative processing of action feedback, and particularly good feedback, such as that which indicates monetary gain. PMID:27412662

  12. How specifically are action verbs represented in the neural motor system: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Wessel O; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-12-01

    Embodied accounts of language processing suggest that sensorimotor areas, generally dedicated to perception and action, are also involved in the processing and representation of word meaning. Support for such accounts comes from studies showing that language about actions selectively modulates the execution of congruent and incongruent motor responses (e.g., Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002), and from functional neuroimaging studies showing that understanding action-related language recruits sensorimotor brain areas (e.g. Hauk, Johnsrude, & Pulvermueller, 2004). In the current experiment we explored the basis of the neural motor system's involvement in representing words denoting actions. Specifically, we investigated whether the motor system's involvement is modulated by the specificity of the kinematics associated with a word. Previous research in the visual domain indicates that words denoting basic level category members lacking a specific form (e.g., bird) are less richly encoded within visual areas than words denoting subordinate level members (e.g., pelican), for which the visual form is better specified (Gauthier, Anderson, Tarr, Skudlarski, & Gore, 1997). In the present study we extend these findings to the motor domain. Modulation of the BOLD response elicited by verbs denoting a general motor program (e.g., to clean) was compared to modulation elicited by verbs denoting a more specific motor program (e.g., to wipe). Conform with our hypothesis, a region within the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, typically serving the representation of action plans and goals, was sensitive to the specificity of motor programs associated with the action verbs. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on embodied language representations by showing that the concreteness of an action-semantic feature is reflected in the neural response to action verbs.

  13. RCRA permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kinker, J.; Lyon, W.; Carnes, R.; Loehr, C.; Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.

    1996-05-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements, typically by reference to the original permit application, that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, even for the purpose of routine maintenance, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are functionally equivalent, as defined by RCRA, to the original specifications embodied by the permit. The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements that involve replacement of components. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, in particular, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. in performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent.

  14. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  15. Evaluation of logistic and economic impacts of hybrid vehicle propulsion/microgrid concepts: Demonstration of LOCSS applied to HE HMMWV in future unit of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Michael; Tiberi, Lisa; Burns, Joseph; Udvare, Thomas B.

    2006-05-01

    Computer models have been developed and used to predict the performance of vehicles equipped with advanced fuel and power train technologies such as hybrid electric or fuel cells. However, simulations that describe the interaction of the vehicle with the rest of the vehicle fleet and infrastructure are just emerging. This paper documents the results of an experiment to demonstrate the utility of these types of simulations. The experiment examined the business case of fielding hybrid electric, high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HE HMMWVs) in a future Army organization. The hypothesis was that fielding HE vehicles would significantly reduce fuel consumption due to the economy offered by the HE technology and reducing the number of generators as a result of using the vehicles to generate electrical power. The Logistical and Combat Systems Simulation (LOCSS) was used to estimate differences in fuel consumption and associated equipment during a 72-hour operation with and without HE HMMWVs. There was a 25 percent reduction in fuel consumption over the systems examined. However, due to the relatively low density of the HE vehicles in the organization, the total difference in fuel consumption was not operationally significant; and the savings in fuel costs did not overcome the additional procurement costs over a twenty-year life cycle.

  16. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  17. Competencies Demonstrated by Municipal Employees during Adaptation to Climate Change: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Blain, Sylvie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Barbier, Pierre-Yves; Freiman, Viktor; Therrien, Jimmy; Langis, Joanne; Lang, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Since coastal communities are already subjected to the impacts of climate change, adaptation has become a necessity. This article presents competencies demonstrated by Canadian municipal employees during an adaptation process to sea level rise. To adapt, the participants demonstrated the following competencies: problem solving (highlighting…

  18. Dry Storage Demonstration for High-Burnup Spent Nuclear Fuel-Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Mikal A. ); Cunningham, Mitchel E. )

    2003-09-09

    Initially, casks for dry storage of spent fuel were licensed for assembly-average burnup of about 35 GWd/MTU. Over the last two decades, the discharge burnup of fuel has increased steadily and now exceeds 45 GWd/MTU. With spent fuel burnups approaching the licensing limits (peak rod burnup of 62 GWd/MTU for pressurized water reactor fuel) and some lead test assemblies being burned beyond this limit, a need for a confirmatory dry storage demonstration program was first identified after the publication in May 1999 of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC) Interim Staff Guidance 11 (ISG-11). With the publication in July 2002 of the second revision of ISG-11, the desirability for such a program further increased to obtain confirmatory data about the potential changes in cladding mechanical properties induced by dry storage, which would have implications to the transportation, handling, and disposal of high-burnup spent fuel. While dry storage licenses have kept pace with reactor discharge burnups, transportation licenses have not and are considered on a case by case basis. Therefore, this feasibility study was performed to examine the options available for conducting a confirmatory experimental program supporting the dry storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel with burnups well in excess of 45 GWd/MTU.

  19. Study of the Order-to-Chaos transition in 174W with the AGATA-Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandone, V.; Leoni, S.; Assanelli, D.; Bottoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Giaz, A.; Nicolini, R.; Pellegri, L.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Million, B.; Wieland, O.; Corsi, A.; Bortolato, D.; Calore, E.; Gottardo, A.; Napoli, D. R.; Sahin, E.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.; Bazzacco, D.; Bellato, M.; Farnea, E.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Montanari, D.; Recchia, F.; Ur, C. A.; Gadea, A.; Hüyük, T.; Cieplicka, N.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Atac, A.; Akkoyun, S.; Kaskas, A.; Nyberg, J.; Söderström, P. A.; AGATA Collaboration

    2012-05-01

    The transition between order and chaos is studied in the warm rotating nucleus 174W by γ-spectroscopy, focusing on the conservation of selection rules of the K quantum number with the excitation energy, where K is the projection of the total angular momentum on the symmetry axis. The 174W nucleus was populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction of 80Ti (at 217 MeV) on a 128Te backed target. The measurement was performed in July 2010 at Legnaro National Laboratories of INFN using the AGATA Demonstrator HPGe-array coupled to an array of 27 BaF2 scintillators, named Helena. The data analysis concentrates on γ-γ coincidence matrices selecting the γ-decay flow populating low-K and high-K structures. By a statistical fluctuation analysis the total number of low-K and high-K bands can be evaluated as a function of excitation energy. Comparisons with cranked shell model calculations at finite temperature are used to extract information on the onset of the chaotic regime as a function of excitation energy.

  20. Demonstrating successful aging using the International Collaborative Study for Oral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Atchison, K A; Andersen, R M

    2000-01-01

    As the lifespan increases and people are faced with 15 to 20 years of "old age," we ask what one considers successful aging with respect to oral health. We propose a comprehensive combination of outcome variables, maintenance of teeth, manageable periodontal condition, positive perceived oral health, satisfaction with their access to and receipt of dental services, and minimal functional problems, that together comprise a definition of successful aging. The International Collaborative Study for Oral Health Outcomes provides a data set for exploring the oral health of a diverse sample of older adults in US and international sites using the modified Andersen Behavioral Model. The percent of adults who report no natural teeth ranged from 16 percent in San Antonio to 59 percent in New Zealand. Seventy percent or more of the adults from each site rated their oral health as good/fair or better except in Poland. The current cohort of older adults is faring better on some indicators than others; nevertheless, ethnic minorities and poorer countries still demonstrate inequities. Dentistry must attempt to educate individuals early in their lifespan that a combination of personal oral health practices and current dental techniques offers the potential for successful oral health throughout one's lifetime.

  1. Pipe loop demonstration study of corrosion control alternatives at a pH of 10

    SciTech Connect

    Yannoni, C.C.; Clark, S.D.; Rafanovic, R.O.; Covellone, M.A.; Crosby, F.J.; Neff, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) under the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) requires many water supply utilities to reevaluate their current method of corrosion control and has resulted in the implementation of numerous capital improvements and/or changes in water treatment plant operations. The Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) serves more than 600,000 people and maintains a pH of 10 through the treatment plant and water distribution system. Maintaining a pH of 10 results in a calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) of 5 to 12 mg/l expressed as calcium carbonate. Theoretically, a positive CCPP will result in the precipitation of calcium carbonate which maintains a thin protective film along the interior walls of water distribution pipe and helps minimize lead and copper solubility. Monitoring results indicated that lead levels were close to maximum allowable limits. The application of a pipe loop demonstration study provided information on alternative treatment methodologies to minimize lead solubility while maintaining a pH close to 10.0. Sodium silicate inhibition and dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) adjustment were two treatment methodologies which resulted in reducing lead levels by 50 percent.

  2. Quantitative and empirical demonstration of the Matthew effect in a study of career longevity

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The Matthew effect refers to the adage written some two-thousand years ago in the Gospel of St. Matthew: “For to all those who have, more will be given.” Even two millennia later, this idiom is used by sociologists to qualitatively describe the dynamics of individual progress and the interplay between status and reward. Quantitative studies of professional careers are traditionally limited by the difficulty in measuring progress and the lack of data on individual careers. However, in some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, success, and prowess, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. Here we demonstrate testable evidence of the age-old Matthew “rich get richer” effect, wherein the longevity and past success of an individual lead to a cumulative advantage in further developing his or her career. We develop an exactly solvable stochastic career progress model that quantitatively incorporates the Matthew effect and validate our model predictions for several competitive professions. We test our model on the careers of 400,000 scientists using data from six high-impact journals and further confirm our findings by testing the model on the careers of more than 20,000 athletes in four sports leagues. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. PMID:21173276

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

  4. Biological mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant: case study

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Gawrońska, Helena; Gajc-Wolska, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The challenges facing modern plant production involve (i) responding to the demand for food and resources of plant origin from the world's rapidly growing population, (ii) coping with the negative impact of stressful conditions mainly due to anthropopressure, and (iii) meeting consumers' new requirements and preferences for food that is high in nutritive value, natural, and free from harmful chemical additives. Despite employing the most modern plant cultivation technologies and the progress that has been made in breeding programs, the genetically-determined crop potential is still far from being fully exploited. Consequently yield and quality are often reduced, making production less, both profitable and attractive. There is an increasing desire to reduce the chemical input in agriculture and there has been a change toward integrated plant management and sustainable, environmentally-friendly systems. Biostimulants are a category of relatively new products of diverse formulations that positively affect a plant's vital processes and whose impact is usually more evident under stressful conditions. In this paper, information is provided on the mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant, Atonik, in model species and economically important crops grown under both field and controlled conditions in a growth chamber. The effects of Atonik on plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry (crops and model plant) and yield and yield parameters (crops) is demonstrated. Effects of other biostimulants on studied in this work processes/parameters are also presented in discussion. PMID:25566287

  5. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that (/sup 3/H)BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations.

  6. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection. PMID:26351994

  7. Biological mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant: case study.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Gawrońska, Helena; Gajc-Wolska, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The challenges facing modern plant production involve (i) responding to the demand for food and resources of plant origin from the world's rapidly growing population, (ii) coping with the negative impact of stressful conditions mainly due to anthropopressure, and (iii) meeting consumers' new requirements and preferences for food that is high in nutritive value, natural, and free from harmful chemical additives. Despite employing the most modern plant cultivation technologies and the progress that has been made in breeding programs, the genetically-determined crop potential is still far from being fully exploited. Consequently yield and quality are often reduced, making production less, both profitable and attractive. There is an increasing desire to reduce the chemical input in agriculture and there has been a change toward integrated plant management and sustainable, environmentally-friendly systems. Biostimulants are a category of relatively new products of diverse formulations that positively affect a plant's vital processes and whose impact is usually more evident under stressful conditions. In this paper, information is provided on the mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant, Atonik, in model species and economically important crops grown under both field and controlled conditions in a growth chamber. The effects of Atonik on plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry (crops and model plant) and yield and yield parameters (crops) is demonstrated. Effects of other biostimulants on studied in this work processes/parameters are also presented in discussion. PMID:25566287

  8. Biological mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant: case study.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Gawrońska, Helena; Gajc-Wolska, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The challenges facing modern plant production involve (i) responding to the demand for food and resources of plant origin from the world's rapidly growing population, (ii) coping with the negative impact of stressful conditions mainly due to anthropopressure, and (iii) meeting consumers' new requirements and preferences for food that is high in nutritive value, natural, and free from harmful chemical additives. Despite employing the most modern plant cultivation technologies and the progress that has been made in breeding programs, the genetically-determined crop potential is still far from being fully exploited. Consequently yield and quality are often reduced, making production less, both profitable and attractive. There is an increasing desire to reduce the chemical input in agriculture and there has been a change toward integrated plant management and sustainable, environmentally-friendly systems. Biostimulants are a category of relatively new products of diverse formulations that positively affect a plant's vital processes and whose impact is usually more evident under stressful conditions. In this paper, information is provided on the mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant, Atonik, in model species and economically important crops grown under both field and controlled conditions in a growth chamber. The effects of Atonik on plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry (crops and model plant) and yield and yield parameters (crops) is demonstrated. Effects of other biostimulants on studied in this work processes/parameters are also presented in discussion.

  9. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection.

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W.

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  11. Design of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Davison, Kirsten K.; Gortmaker, Steven; Anand, Shikha; Falbe, Jennifer; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Perkins, Meghan; Giles, Catherine; Criss, Shaniece; Colchamiro, Rachel; Woo Baidal, Jennifer; Land, Thomas; Smith, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is highly prevalent, is associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority and economically deprived children, and represents a major threat to public health. Among the most promising approaches for its prevention and management are multilevel, multisector strategies. Methods/Design: The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) Study was a comprehensive, systematic intervention to prevent and reduce childhood obesity among low-income children ages 2–12 years in two selected cities in Massachusetts. Building on the Obesity Chronic Care Model, MA-CORD expanded a state public health department community-level obesity prevention initiative that incorporated evidence-based interventions in primary healthcare, the Women, Infants, and Children program, early care and education, schools/afterschool programs, as well as community-wide programs to improve food, beverage, physical activity (PA), and messaging environments. The study used a combination of pre– and post–time series and quasi-experimental designs to examine the extent to which the intervention resulted in changes in BMI, individual-level lifestyle behaviors, satisfaction with healthcare services, and quality of life among children, as well as changes in health policies, programs, and environments in the two intervention cities, compared to a comparison city. The intervention period was 2 years. Conclusions: MA-CORD will determine the extent to which a multisetting, multilevel intervention that integrates activities in primary care with broader public health interventions in schools, early care and education, and the community at large can improve children's dietary and PA behaviors and ultimately reduce obesity in low-income children. PMID:25469676

  12. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  13. The role of immediate and final goals in action planning: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Majdandzić, Jasminka; Grol, Meike J; van Schie, Hein T; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-08-15

    To interact effectively with our environment, we need to specify the intended outcomes (goals) of our actions. In this process, immediate goals and final goals can be regarded as different levels within a hierarchically organized system for action planning: immediate goals and movement details are selected to accomplish more remote goals. Behavioral studies support this notion of different levels of action planning, but the neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Using fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of preparing object manipulations based on either the desired end-state (the final goal) or the initial movement towards a target (the immediate goal). Subjects had to insert an object (consisting of a large and a small cube) into one of two corresponding large and small slots. The subjects were cued on either which slot to fill (Final Goal trials) or which object part to grasp (Immediate Goal trials). These actions required similar movements, but different planning. During Final Goal trials, there was differential preparatory activity along the superior frontal gyrus (bilaterally) and in left inferior parietal cortex. Immediate Goal trials evoked differential activity in occipito-parietal and occipito-temporal cortex. These findings support the notion that actions can be planned at different levels. We show that different fronto-parietal circuits plan the same action, by a relative emphasis on either selecting a sequence of movements to achieve a desired end-state, or selecting movements spatially compatible with given object properties.

  14. The different neural correlates of action and functional knowledge in semantic memory: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Nicola; Borgo, Francesca; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela; Falini, Andrea; Buccino, Giovanni; Tettamanti, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2008-04-01

    Previous reports suggest that the internal organization of semantic memory is in terms of different "types of knowledge," including "sensory" (information about perceptual features), "action" (motor-based knowledge of object utilization), and "functional" (abstract properties, as function and context of use). Consistent with this view, a specific loss of action knowledge, with preserved functional knowledge, has been recently observed in patients with left frontoparietal lesions. The opposite pattern (impaired functional knowledge with preserved action knowledge) was reported in association with anterior inferotemporal lesions. In the present study, the cerebral representation of action and functional knowledge was investigated using event-related analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Fifteen subjects were presented with pictures showing pairs of manipulable objects and asked whether the objects within each pair were used with the same manipulation pattern ("action knowledge" condition) or in the same context ("functional knowledge" condition). Direct comparisons showed action knowledge, relative to functional knowledge, to activate a left frontoparietal network, comprising the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobule, and the dorsal premotor cortex. The reverse comparison yielded activations in the retrosplenial and the lateral anterior inferotemporal cortex. These results confirm and extend previous neuropsychological data and support the hypothesis of the existence of different types of information processing in the internal organization of semantic memory.

  15. Memory and action: an experimental study on normal subjects and schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Daprati, Elena; Nico, Daniele; Saimpont, Arnaud; Franck, Nicolas; Sirigu, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Psychologists have shown that recall of sentences describing previously performed actions is enhanced compared to recall of heard-only action-phrases (enactment effect). One interpretation of this effect argues that subjects benefit from a multi-modal encoding where movement plays a major role. In line with this motor account, it is conceivable that the beneficial effect of enactment might rely, at least in part, on procedural learning, thus tapping more directly implicit memory functions. Neuropsychological observations support this hypothesis, as shown by the fact that the enactment effect is quite insensitive to perturbations affecting declarative memories. i.e. Alzheimer disease. Memory for subject performed tasks in patients with Korsakoff syndrome. The present study attempts to evaluate whether pure motor activity is sufficient to guarantee the described memory facilitation or alternatively, whether first-person experience in carrying out the action (i.e. true enactment) would be required. To this purpose, in a first experiment on healthy subjects, we tested whether sentence meaning and content of the executed action should match in order to produce facilitation in recall of enacted action-phrases. In a second experiment, we explored whether the enactment effect is present in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders supposed to spare procedural memory but to alter action awareness (e.g. schizophrenia). We show that better recall for action phrases is found only when the motor component is a true enactment of verbal material. Moreover, this effect is nearly lost in schizophrenia. This latter result, on the one hand, queries the automatic/implicit nature of the enactment effect and supports the role of the experience of having performed the action in the first-person. On the other hand, it questions the nature of the memory impairments detected in schizophrenia.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  18. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  20. [Synthesis of new mandelic acid derivatives with preservative action. Synthesis and acute toxicity study].

    PubMed

    Stan, Cătălina; Năstase, V; Pavelescu, M; Vasile, Cornelia; Dumitrache, M; Gherase, Florenţa; Năstasă, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the antiseptic action of DL mandelic acid, there were synthesized a series of esters of the mandelic acid, esters which could have preservative action. This study present the synthesis, structure validation and the acute toxicity study, for the new synthesized compounds. The esters were obtained by acylating 4-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl, ethyl, methyl esters and salicylic acid with the DL mandelic chloride (that was protected initially by the hydroxylic group). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by quantitative elemental analysis and RMN 1H spectral measurements. The acute toxicity was determined for two of the esters, who proved to had a preservative action (previously studied) and indicated that these esters have a small toxicity.

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  3. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Newmiller, Jeff; Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  4. Significant Life Experiences Affect Environmental Action: A Confirmation Study in Eastern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    2009-01-01

    Two field studies form the basis of this article. The major purposes of Study 1 were to examine significant life experiences affecting the cultivation of environmental activists in eastern Taiwan, and to reconstruct the life paths followed by those active people who engaged in effective environmental action. 40 usable autobiographical memories…

  5. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  6. A Study of the Qualities Teachers Recommend in STS Issues Investigation and Action Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A.; Wiesenmayer, Randall L.

    This study was part of a project to develop science and technology (STS) issue investigation and action materials with the potential for use across science and social studies classes at the secondary level. Special emphasis was given to learning teachers' perspectives on the development of a unit on the impact of pesticides on society. Seven areas…

  7. Understanding the Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Different Graduate Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of affirmative action bans in four states (California, Florida, Texas, and Washington) on the enrollment of underrepresented students of color within six different graduate fields of study: the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, business, education, and humanities. Findings show that affirmative action…

  8. Reconnecting with Your Passion: An Action Research Study Exploring Humanities and Professional Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Melissa J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was two-fold. The first purpose was to examine the process of how nurses engaged in a professional development program that drew upon reading and creative writing related to their lives and work as nurses. Secondly, this study examined the nurses' perspectives on how their involvement in the process…

  9. Reconstructing a Community, Reclaiming a Playground: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzel, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a participatory action research study that examined participant's perceptions of community and of the West End neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio, where the study took place. It is argued that oppressive situations have developed strong collective identities and social capital among residents, which can lead to the development…

  10. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  11. Assessing the condition of bayous and estuaries: Bayou Chico Gulf of Mexico demonstration study

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, K.; Acevedo, M.; Waller, T.; Kennedy, J.; Simons, J.; Mayer, F.; Lewis, M.; Walker, W.; Ammann, L.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration study was conducted in May 1994 on Bayou Chico to assess the utility of various assessment and measurement endpoints in determining the condition of bayous and estuaries. Bayou Chico has water quality problems attributed to its low flushing rate and urban/industrial land use in its watershed. The sampling scheme assessed the within-sampling station and spatial variability of measurement endpoints. Fourteen sampling stations in Bayou Chico and 3 stations in Pensacola Bay were selected based on an intensified EMAP sampling grid. Time and space coordinated sampling was conducted for: sediment contaminants and properties, sediment toxicity, water quality, benthic infauna, zooplankton and phytoplankton populations. Fish and crabs were also collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers and organic chemical residues. Primary productivity was measured via the light bottle dark bottle oxygen method and via diurnal oxygen measurements made with continuous recording data sondes. Stream sites were evaluated for water and sediment quality, water and sediment toxicity, benthic invertebrates and fish. Watershed analyses included assessment of land use/landcover (via SPOT and TM images), soils, pollution sources (point and non-point) and hydrography. These data were coordinated via an Arc/Info GIS system for display and spatial analysis. 1994 survey data were used to parameterize environmental fate models such as SWMM (Storm Water Management Model), DYNHYD5 (WASP5 hydrodynamics model) and WASP5 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) to make predictions about the dynamics and fate of chemical contaminants in Bayou Chico. This paper will present an overview, and report on the results in regards to within-site and spatial variability in Bayou Chico. Conclusions on the efficacy of the assessment and measurement endpoints in evaluating the condition (health) of Bayou Chico will be presented.

  12. An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Muench, Frederick J; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one's drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF's mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance-the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one's estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy's impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one's drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal dissonance

  13. An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Muench, Frederick J.; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one’s drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF’s mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance—the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one’s estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy’s impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one’s drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal

  14. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  15. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  16. Development of Criteria to Measure the Extent of Implementation and the Effectiveness of Demonstration in Vocational Education. Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This document presents case studies of eight demonstration projects selected to assess the practicality and feasibility of a monograph for improving and measuring the impact of vocational education demonstration projects. An introduction provides background of the project that developed that monograph and information on the case studies, including…

  17. A Participatory Action Research Study of Nature Education in Nature: Towards Community-Based Eco-Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sukran; Okur, Emel; Cetinkaya, Zeynep; Uygun, Selcuk

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary nature education is exploring different ways to develop awareness for change and initiate action. Such educational activities go beyond creating understanding and awareness in order to develop a sense of commitment for individual and collective action. This participatory action research study aimed to improve teachers' sensitiveness…

  18. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. Definition of a flight demonstration involving an Automated Beam Builder and the building and assembling of large structures is presented.

  19. A Case Study of Technical Assistance to Demonstration Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, Shirley K.; And Others

    A project to provide technical assistance to staffs of two demonstration programs for preschool handicapped children and their families is described. The focus was technical assistance developed and exercised by the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), which assisted in the development of the Handicapped Children's Early Education…

  20. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  1. Bridging the gap between knowledge and action for health: Case studies.

    PubMed Central

    Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical discoveries could improve people's health only if they are suited to the diverse political and social contexts, health systems and population groups. Knowledge generated through evidence-informed health policy and practice when applied to the local situation enhances the quality and efficiency of health care. This article describes four case studies on bridging the gap between knowledge and action for health in a tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Gaps between knowledge and action for health are classified into "know-do" and "do-know" gaps with knowledge implementation and knowledge generation being the key measures for bridging the gap. PMID:16917646

  2. DFT/B3LYP study of tocopherols and chromans antioxidant action energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Erik; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal

    2007-07-01

    Gas-phase reaction enthalpies related to the individual steps of three phenolic antioxidants action mechanisms - hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single-electron transfer-proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) for four tocopherols and seven chromans - were calculated using DFT/B3LYP method. For α-tocopherol, one of the chromans and phenol, reaction enthalpies in water were computed. In comparison to gas phase, water causes severe changes in the energetics of studied compounds antioxidant action. From the thermodynamic point of view, entering SPLET mechanism represents the most probable process in water.

  3. Regulators of Androgen Action Resource: a one-stop shop for the comprehensive study of androgen receptor action.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Adam D; Fiandalo, Michael V; Schlanger, Simon; Heemers, Frederike; Mohler, James L; Liu, Song; Heemers, Hannelore V

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is the main target for treatment of non-organ-confined prostate cancer (CaP). Failure of life-prolonging AR-targeting androgen deprivation therapy is due to flexibility in steroidogenic pathways that control intracrine androgen levels and variability in the AR transcriptional output. Androgen biosynthesis enzymes, androgen transporters and AR-associated coregulators are attractive novel CaP treatment targets. These proteins, however, are characterized by multiple transcript variants and isoforms, are subject to genomic alterations, and are differentially expressed among CaPs. Determining their therapeutic potential requires evaluation of extensive, diverse datasets that are dispersed over multiple databases, websites and literature reports. Mining and integrating these datasets are cumbersome, time-consuming tasks and provide only snapshots of relevant information. To overcome this impediment to effective, efficient study of AR and potential drug targets, we developed the Regulators of Androgen Action Resource (RAAR), a non-redundant, curated and user-friendly searchable web interface. RAAR centralizes information on gene function, clinical relevance, and resources for 55 genes that encode proteins involved in biosynthesis, metabolism and transport of androgens and for 274 AR-associated coregulator genes. Data in RAAR are organized in two levels: (i) Information pertaining to production of androgens is contained in a 'pre-receptor level' database, and coregulator gene information is provided in a 'post-receptor level' database, and (ii) an 'other resources' database contains links to additional databases that are complementary to and useful to pursue further the information provided in RAAR. For each of its 329 entries, RAAR provides access to more than 20 well-curated publicly available databases, and thus, access to thousands of data points. Hyperlinks provide direct access to gene

  4. Regulators of Androgen Action Resource: a one-stop shop for the comprehensive study of androgen receptor action

    PubMed Central

    Fiandalo, Michael V.; Schlanger, Simon; Heemers, Frederike; Mohler, James L.; Liu, Song; Heemers, Hannelore V.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is the main target for treatment of non-organ-confined prostate cancer (CaP). Failure of life-prolonging AR-targeting androgen deprivation therapy is due to flexibility in steroidogenic pathways that control intracrine androgen levels and variability in the AR transcriptional output. Androgen biosynthesis enzymes, androgen transporters and AR-associated coregulators are attractive novel CaP treatment targets. These proteins, however, are characterized by multiple transcript variants and isoforms, are subject to genomic alterations, and are differentially expressed among CaPs. Determining their therapeutic potential requires evaluation of extensive, diverse datasets that are dispersed over multiple databases, websites and literature reports. Mining and integrating these datasets are cumbersome, time-consuming tasks and provide only snapshots of relevant information. To overcome this impediment to effective, efficient study of AR and potential drug targets, we developed the Regulators of Androgen Action Resource (RAAR), a non-redundant, curated and user-friendly searchable web interface. RAAR centralizes information on gene function, clinical relevance, and resources for 55 genes that encode proteins involved in biosynthesis, metabolism and transport of androgens and for 274 AR-associated coregulator genes. Data in RAAR are organized in two levels: (i) Information pertaining to production of androgens is contained in a ‘pre-receptor level’ database, and coregulator gene information is provided in a ‘post-receptor level’ database, and (ii) an ‘other resources’ database contains links to additional databases that are complementary to and useful to pursue further the information provided in RAAR. For each of its 329 entries, RAAR provides access to more than 20 well-curated publicly available databases, and thus, access to thousands of data points. Hyperlinks provide direct access to

  5. We Did It Together: A Participatory Action Research Study on Poverty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buettgen, Alexis; Richardson, Jason; Beckham, Kristie; Richardson, Kathy; Ward, Michelle; Riemer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the perspective of both non-disabled and developmentally disabled people working together in a research project on poverty and disability. Our study used a participatory action research approach that challenges the norm of exclusion in the research process. Control of the research agenda has been inclusive and shared to…

  6. An Action Research Study: Using Classroom Guidance Lessons to Teach Middle School Students about Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rebecca C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…

  7. Environmental Education in Action - III: Case Studies of Public Involvement in Environmental Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Clay, Comp.; Desinger, John F., Comp.

    Presented here are 27 case studies of public involvement in environmental policy. These are examples of environmental education or communications programs developed by local, state, regional or national environmental action groups. The reports tell how the groups have successfully, or unsuccessfully, mobilized public opinion in favor of beneficent…

  8. Prospects for the Future: The Use of Participatory Action Research to Study Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Emily Alana

    2005-01-01

    Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a…

  9. In-Service Teacher Training and Coaching on Marzano's Instructional Strategies: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shenequa C.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this action research study was the implementation of a professional development initiative comprised of two phases: a training program for teachers on Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies, and the implementation, supported by follow-up coaching, during "Pear Mountain" High School's (a pseudonym) six-week…

  10. How Trainee Music Teachers Learn about Teaching by Talking to Each Other: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an action research study into how trainee music teachers in England use a structured discussion process called "Collegial Consultation" to learn about teaching. The research shows that, in Collegial Consultation, trainees learn from each other by offering several solutions to a problem, offering reasons for their ideas,…

  11. An Action Research Study on the Effect of Interactive Technology and Active Learning on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…

  12. Learning How to Manage Bias: A Case Study of Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…

  13. Exploring Student Experiences of Belonging within an Urban High School Choral Ensemble: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to describe adolescent singers' experiences of belonging within one urban high school choral ensemble. Understanding student perspectives on belonging within music ensembles can assist choral educators, parents and administrators in order to more fully support adolescent emotional and social…

  14. Authentic Tasks: A Participatory Action Research Study on a Teaching Method for the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruffy, Wendy Raso

    2012-01-01

    The way in which education is taught is forever changing. Therefore, a new method in which content is delivered is a central component in examining areas for improvement. In this paper, participatory action research (PAR) was used to investigate authentic tasks in the inclusive tenth and eleventh grade classroom. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. Business, Community, Schools, and University Perceptions of the Partnership Process: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene G.; And Others

    Findings from an action research study that sought to understand the partnership process from the perspectives of persons involved in a partnership project, the Cooperative Alliance for Gifted Education (CAGE), are presented in this paper. The CAGE project utilized three partners in Ohio--Kent State University, the Cleveland Public Schools, and…

  16. Characterizing Teaching Effectiveness in the Joint Action Theory in Didactics: An Exploratory Study in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensevy, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of two consecutive reading sessions conducted in primary school by two different teachers. Our purpose is twofold. From a theoretical viewpoint, we propose a tentative set of conditions of teaching effectiveness by relying on the Joint Action Theory in Didactics. From a methodological viewpoint, drawing on…

  17. Joint Action in Didactics and Classroom Ecology: Comparing Theories Using a Case Study in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amade-Escot, Chantal; Venturini, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the respective contribution of two theoretical approaches to teaching and learning: the classroom ecology (CE) framework from Anglo-American research and the joint action in didactics (JAD) framework, which is part of French "didactique" research. This theoretical comparison is grounded in data from a case study in a…

  18. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science Teachers through Action Research: A Case Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer; Khan, Manzoor Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the action research undertaken by Khan as a teacher researcher in a private school as part of the degree requirement of his M.Ed. program in Teacher Education at the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development. The purpose of this analysis undertaken by the first author and supervisor of the study…

  19. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Mural Making and Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetto, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study of interview data from 8 community artists, the author sought to discover commonalities and differences in the worldviews and philosophies of self that underlie community mural making as they relate to art therapy as social action and art therapy practice within a traditional Western cultural framework.…

  20. A Community Organizes for Action: A Case Study of the Mon-Yough Region in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert W.; Chesler, Herbert A.

    This case study examines the development and problems of the Mon-Yough Community Action Committee, Inc. (MYCAC), one of the local anti-poverty agencies in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The agency's major effort is to overcome problems created by the decline of the local steel industry by supporting existing welfare agencies, and through such…

  1. Implementing an Action Research Project: A Case Study in Making Decisions and Managing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges involved in implementing an action research project. It discusses a project which uses a series of interventions (unfreezing techniques, cases studies in conjunction with analogical encoding and lecturer input) to encourage students to critically reflect on their approach to career decision-making. This paper…

  2. Human Securitability: A Participatory Action Research Study Involving Novice Teachers and Youngsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravale-Paulina, Marite; Olehnovica, Eridiana

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, initiative and interest in current events can bridge the alienation felt towards national and municipal institutions, thereby enabling individuals to improve their quality of life and contribute to all-round sustainable development of their resident state. This paper reports on a participatory action research study into civic…

  3. Scientist-Teacher Partnerships as Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcuts, Meredith Harris

    2009-01-01

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership…

  4. An Intervention to Increase the Use of Asthma Action Plans in Schools: A MASNRN Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulcini, Joyce; DeSisto, Marie C.; McIntyre, C. Lynne

    2007-01-01

    School nurses, in collaboration with primary care providers (PCPs), can work to better manage asthma by using the Asthma Action Plan (AAP) with peak flow monitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention to increase the number of AAPs in schools for students with asthma by having school nurses provide…

  5. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs through Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory…

  6. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  7. Self-Study in Teaching and Teacher Development: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pithouse, Kathleen; Mitchell, Claudia; Weber, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This article maps out key features of self-study in teaching and teacher development, particularly in relation to social action. As teacher educator-researchers, we have become increasingly interested in how self-reflexivity in teaching and teacher development can illuminate social and educational challenges that have resonance beyond the self and…

  8. Applying the Participatory Action Research Model to the Study of Social Inclusion at Worksites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…

  9. Interdisciplinary Literacy through Social Media in the Mathematics Classroom: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at how social and participatory media can be used to strengthen interdisciplinary literacy and connects the multimodality of social environments with Middle-Years Mathematics curriculum and delivery. The article reports on part of an eighteen months action research study in an Australian public high school within the…

  10. Using Professional Development to Improve Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Teaching: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that it is common for elementary teachers to possess limited mathematics content knowledge, high levels of math anxiety, and low levels of mathematics teacher efficacy. Assuming action research as the chosen methodology, this research study was developed with the ultimate goal of improving how elementary teachers in my district…

  11. Resolving Leadership Dilemmas in New Zealand Kindergartens: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardno, Carol; Reynolds, Bronwyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine dilemmas encountered by kindergarten head teachers with the further aim of developing their capability to recognise and resolve "leadership dilemmas". Design/methodology/approach: Action research was used to conduct a three-phase study involving 16 kindergarten head teachers and six system managers…

  12. Exploring a Science Teacher's Uncertainty with Integrating Engineering Design: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines a fifth grade science teacher's attempts at integrating engineering design using the construct of uncertainty. Collaborative action research served as a supportive mechanism to uncover and confront the teacher's uncertainties. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, reflections, classroom observations, lesson…

  13. Training and Work Organisation: An Action-Research Study in a Sales and Distribution Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes, Alda Cristina; Lopes, Albino Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to define a method of designing work-linked training, based on day-to-day work practices and the collaboration between all those involved. From diagnosis to evaluation, no training is designed or given without considering the opinions and interests of the parties involved. The method used is based on action research (AR) and on…

  14. An Evaluation of Professional Development to Improve Teachers' Perspectives and Behaviors: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…

  15. Education as Sustainability: An Action Research Study of the Burns Model of Sustainability Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Postsecondary teaching and learning must be reoriented to equip learners with the knowledge, skills, and values they will need for creating a more sustainable world. This action research study examined the effects of implementing the "Burns model of sustainability pedagogy" in university courses taught by the researcher. This model is comprised of…

  16. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching: An Action-Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…

  17. Improving Middle School Parental Engagement in Transition to Common Core State Standards: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harla, Donna K.

    2014-01-01

    Parental involvement in schools is an important potential contributor to improving American education and making the U.S. more globally competitive. This qualitative and quantitative mixed-methodology action research study probed the viability of engaging parents around issues of educational improvement by inviting them to participate in training…

  18. Emotional stimuli modulate readiness for action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Anouk M; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; van Stegeren, Anda H; Hajcak, Greg; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-05-01

    Emotional stimuli may prime the motor system and facilitate action readiness. Direct evidence for this effect has been shown by recent studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When administered over the primary motor cortex involved in responding, TMS pulses elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the represented muscles. The amplitudes of these MEPs reflect the state of corticospinal excitability. Here, we investigated the dynamic effects of induced emotions on action readiness, as reflected by corticospinal excitability. Subjects performed a choice task while viewing task-irrelevant emotional and neutral pictures. The pattern of MEP amplitudes showed a typical increase as the TMS pulse was presented closer in time to the imminent response. This dynamic pattern was amplified by both pleasant and unpleasant emotional stimuli, but more so when unpleasant pictures were viewed. These patterns present novel evidence in support of the notion that emotional stimuli modulate action readiness.

  19. Investigating the neural basis of cooperative joint action. An EEG hyperscanning study.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Vogel, P; Mattia, D; Babiloni, F; Ciaramidaro, A; Siniatchkin, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the neurophysiological basis of the cognitive functions underlying the execution of joint actions, by means of the recent technique called hyperscanning. Neuroelectrical hyperscanning is based on the simultaneous recording of brain activity from multiple subjects and includes the analysis of the functional relation between the brain activity of all the interacting individuals. We recorded simultaneous high density electroencephalography (hdEEG) from 16 pairs of subjects involved in a computerized joint action paradigm, with controlled levels of cooperation. Results of cortical connectivity analysis returned significant differences, in terms of inter-brain functional causal links, between the condition of cooperative joint action and a condition in which the subjects were told they were interacting with a PC, while actually interacting with another human subject. Such differences, described by selected brain connectivity indices, point toward an integration between the two subjects' brain activity in the cooperative condition, with respect to control conditions.

  20. Case Study of The ARRA-Funded GSHP Demonstration at the Natural Sources Building, Montana Tech

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-04-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Montana Tech of the University of Montana for a 56,000 sq ft, newly constructed, on-campus research facility – the Natural Resources Building (NRB) located in Butte, Montana. This demonstrated GSHP system consists of a 50 ton water-to-water heat pump and a closed-loop ground heat exchanger with two redundant 7.5 hp constant-speed pumps to use water in the nearby flooded mines as a heat source or heat sink. It works in conjunction with the originally installed steam HX and an aircooled chiller to provide space heating and cooling. It is coupled with the existing hot water and chilled water piping in the building and operates in the heating or cooling mode based on the outdoor air temperature. The ground loop pumps operate in conjunction with the existing pumps in the building hot and chilled water loops for the operation of the heat pump unit. The goal of this demonstration project is to validate the technical and economic feasibility of the demonstrated commercial-scale GSHP system in the region, and illustrate the feasibility of using mine waters as the heat sink and source for GSHP systems. Should the demonstration prove satisfactory and feasible, it will encourage similar GSHP applications using mine water, thus help save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The actual performance of the system is analyzed with available measured data for January through July 2014. The annual energy performance is predicted and compared with a baseline scenario, with the heating and cooling provided by the originally designed systems. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally

  1. A case study of the development of environmental action projects from the framework of participatory action research within two middle school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmatz, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to understand student and teacher empowerment through a socially critical environmental education perspective. The main research question guiding this study was: How do participants make sense of a learning experience in which students design and carry out an environmental action project in their community? This study used participatory action research and critical theory as practical and theoretical frameworks. These frameworks were relevant as this study sought to examine social change, power, and relationships through participants' experiences. The context of this study was within one seventh and one eighth grade classroom participating in environmental projects. The study was conducted in spring 2005 with an additional follow-up data collection period during spring 2006. The school was located in a densely populated metropolitan suburb. Fifty-three students, a teacher researcher, and three science teachers participated. Data sources were written surveys, scores on Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey Instrument (MSELI), observations, interviews, and student work. This study used a mixed methodological approach. Quantitative data analysis involved dependent samples t-test scores on the MSELI before and after the completion of the projects. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive analysis approach. This study has implications for educators interested in democratic education. Environmental action projects provide a context for students and teachers to learn interdisciplinary content knowledge, develop personal beliefs, and learn ways to take action in their communities. This pedagogy has the potential to increase cooperation, communication, and tensions within school communities. Students' participation in the development of environmental action projects may lead to feelings of empowerment or being able to make a difference in their community, as an individual or member of a group. Future research is needed to discern

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for college level chemistry courses including: "Electrochemical Cells Using Sodium Silicate" and "A Simple, Vivid Demonstration of Selective Precipitation." Lists materials, preparation, procedures, and precautions. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  10. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations used in laboratory chemistry courses. Discusses a "pH-activated" display used to chemically and visually supplement lecture demonstrations. Outlines another demonstration designed to show that copper(II) chloride is made of two ions, blue and yellow, which are combined to produce green. (TW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  16. Cells from Degenerative Intervertebral Discs Demonstrate Unfavorable Responses to Mechanical and Inflammatory Stimuli: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Coelho, J. Paulo; Vo, Nam V.; Pacek, Corey; Westrick, Edward; Kang, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mechanical forces and inflammatory signaling influence intervertebral disc matrix homeostasis. We hypothesized that annulus fibrosus cells from degenerative discs would have altered responses to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli compared with cells isolated from normal discs. Design Annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits with normal and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed degenerative discs created by annular stab. Cells were cultured with and without inflammatory and mechanical stimuli (tensile strain). After 4 or 24 hrs, the mRNA expression of inflammatory, catabolic, and anabolic genes was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Baseline gene expression differences were noted between cells from normal and degenerative discs. Degenerative cells demonstrated a more proinflammatory response profile to inflammatory and mechanical stimuli and loss of the beneficial effects of mechanical signaling. Decreased expression of catabolic and anabolic genes was observed in degenerative cells under conditions of inflammatory and mechanical stimuli. Conclusions These data demonstrate that degenerative cells have a decreased capacity to respond positively to beneficial levels of mechanical strain and demonstrate an exaggerated response to an inflammatory stimulus. This may, in part, help to explain differential responses to motion-based therapies in patients with intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:22760106

  17. Reduction of Tendon Adhesions following Administration of Adaprev, a Hypertonic Solution of Mannose-6-Phosphate: Mechanism of Action Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason K. F.; Metcalfe, Anthony D.; Wong, Richard; Bush, Jim; Platt, Chris; Garcon, Arnaud; Goldspink, Nick; McGrouther, Duncan A.; Ferguson, Mark W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Repaired tendons may be complicated by progressive fibrosis, causing adhesion formation or tendon softening leading to tendon rupture and subsequent reduced range of motion. There are few therapies available which improve the gliding of damaged tendons in the hand. We investigate the role of Mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) in a 600 mM hypertonic solution (Adaprev) on tendon adhesion formation in vivo using a mouse model of severed tendon in conjunction with analysis of collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and receptors involved in TGF beta signalling. Cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring tissue residency, mechanical strength and cell viability of tendons after treatment with Adaprev. To elicit potential modes of action, in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed investigating phosphorylation of p38, cell migration and proliferation. Adaprev treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced the development of adhesions and improved collagen organisation without reducing overall collagen synthesis following tendon injury in vivo. The bioavailability of Adaprev saw a 40% reduction at the site of administration over 45 minutes and tendon fibroblasts tolerated up to 120 minutes of exposure without significant loss of cell viability or tensile strength. These favourable effects were independent of CI-MPR and TGF-β signalling and possibly highlight a novel mechanism of action related to cellular stress demonstrated by phosphorylation of p38. The effect of treatment reduced tendon fibroblast migration and transiently halted tendon fibroblast proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. Our studies demonstrate that the primary mode of action for Adaprev is potentially via a physical, non-chemical, hyperosmotic effect. PMID:25383548

  18. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2010-11-01

    Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium's therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene manipulation studies support the notion that glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling are lithium's main mechanisms of action, leading to enhanced cell survival pathways and alteration of a wide variety of downstream effectors. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, lithium also contributes to calcium homeostasis and suppresses calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, lithium decreases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by inhibiting phosphoinositol phosphatases, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. Through these mechanisms, therapeutic doses of lithium have been demonstrated to defend neuronal cells against diverse forms of death insults and to improve behavioral as well as cognitive deficits in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, as well as Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases, among others. Several clinical trials are also underway to assess the therapeutic effects of lithium for treating these disorders. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the potential targets involved in lithium's neuroprotective effects, and the implication of these findings for the treatment of a variety of diseases.

  19. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium’s therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene manipulation studies support the notion that glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling are lithium’s main mechanisms of action, leading to enhanced cell survival pathways and alteration of a wide variety of downstream effectors. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, lithium also contributes to calcium homeostasis and suppresses calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, lithium decreases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by inhibiting phosphoinositol phosphatases, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. Through these mechanisms, therapeutic doses of lithium have been demonstrated to defend neuronal cells against diverse forms of death insults and to improve behavioral as well as cognitive deficits in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, as well as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases, among others. Several clinical trials are also underway to assess the therapeutic effects of lithium for treating these disorders. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the potential targets involved in lithium’s neuroprotective effects, and the implication of these findings for the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:20705090

  20. Final corrective action study for the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-04-20

    Past operations at a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Ramona, Kansas, resulted in low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater that slightly exceed the regulatory standard in only one location. As requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the CCC/USDA has prepared a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address groundwater impacted by the former CCC/USDA facility but not releases caused by other potential groundwater contamination sources in Ramona. Four remedial alternatives were considered in the CAS. The recommended remedial alternative in the CAS consists of Environmental Use Control to prevent the inadvertent use of groundwater as a water supply source, coupled with groundwater monitoring to verify the continued natural improvement in groundwater quality. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) has directed Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Corrective Action Study (CAS), consistent with guidance from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2001a), for the CCC/USDA grain storage facility formerly located in Ramona, Kansas. This effort is pursuant to a KDHE (2007a) request. Although carbon tetrachloride levels at the Ramona site are low, they remain above the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L (Kansas 2003, 2004). In its request for the CAS, the KDHE (2007a) stated that, because of these levels, risk is associated with potential future exposure to contaminated groundwater. The KDHE therefore determined that additional measures are warranted to limit future use of the property and/or exposure to contaminated media as part of site closure. The KDHE further requested comparison of at least two corrective

  1. Feasibility study of endoscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography: Simulation demonstration and phantom application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Cao, Xin; Yang, Defu; Chen, Dongmei; Ripoll, Jorge; Tian, Jie

    2013-08-28

    Even though endoscopic fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (eFDOT) exhibits significant potential, currently its application is limited due to the existence of strong autofluorescence and the imaging inaccuracy caused by a very short source-detector distance. Motivated by the emerging X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) technology, we presented an endoscopic XLCT (eXLCT) methodology. In the methodology, the aperture angle of the objective was incorporated into the forward model, providing a more accurate description of light propagation. Numerical simulation with a heterogeneous geometry and an imaging experiment with a physical phantom were illustrated to demonstrate the feasibility of the presented eXLCT methodology.

  2. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  3. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures, Volume 2: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure (LSS) technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. It is concluded that an LSS flight demonstration using an Automated Beam Builder and the orbiter as a construction base, could be performed in the 1983-1984 time period. The estimated cost is $24 million exclusive of shuttle launch costs. During the mission, a simple space platform could be constructed in-orbit to accommodate user requirements associated with earth viewing and materials exposure experiments needs.

  4. An Ontology for Requesting Distant Robotic Action: A Case Study in Naming and Action Identification for Planning on the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.; Shalin, Valerie L.; Bass, Deborah S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and use of the abbreviated names as well as an emergent ontology associated with making requests for action of a distant robotic rover during the 2003-2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, run by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The infancy of the domain of Martian telerobotic science, in which specialists request work from a rover moving through the landscape, as well as the need to consider the interdisciplinary teams involved in the work required an empirical approach. The formulation of this ontology is grounded in human behavior and work practice. The purpose of this paper is to identify general issues for an ontology of action (specifically for requests for action), while maintaining sensitivity to the users, tools and the work system within a specific technical domain. We found that this ontology of action must take into account a dynamic environment, changing in response to the movement of the rover, changes on the rover itself, as well as be responsive to the purposeful intent of the science requestors. Analysis of MER mission events demonstrates that the work practice and even robotic tool usage changes over time. Therefore, an ontology must adapt and represent both incremental change and revolutionary change, and the ontology can never be more than a partial agreement on the conceptualizations involved. Although examined in a rather unique technical domain, the general issues pertain to the control of any complex, distributed work system as well as the archival record of its accomplishments.

  5. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the herbicide safener CGA-92194

    SciTech Connect

    Zama, P.

    1986-01-01

    CGA-92194 is a herbicide safener that is used as a seed dressing agent to protect grain sorghum against metolachlor injury. The potential adverse phytotoxic effects and the mechanisms of the protective action of this safener were studied in laboratory experiments. Adverse phytotoxicity was assessed by comparing CGA-92194 and the herbicide safeners cyometrinil and flurazole for their effects on CO/sub 2/ fixation, protein, DNA, RNA and lipid synthesis of enzymatically isolated leaf cells of soybean. The safening action mechanisms of CGA-92194 were studied by examining the potential interactions of this safener with metolachlor at the levels of uptake and macromolecular syntheses in enzymatically isolated leaf mesophyll protoplasts of grain sorghum. When CGA-92194 and metolachlor were given simultaneously, CGA-92194 enhanced /sup 14/C-metolachlor uptake into the sorghum protoplasts in a concentration-dependent pattern. Treatments with metolachlor and CGA-92194 in combination inhibited the incorporation of /sup 14/C-uracil, /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-acetate into sorghum protoplast macromolecules less than metolachlor given alone, suggesting the potential involvement of a competitive antagonism in CGA-92194 mechanism of action. The metabolic activity and growth of sorghum seedlings grown from CGA-92194-pretreated seeds were lower than that of seedlings grown from untreated seeds at 10 or 20 days after planting. These results indicate that a safener-induced stimulation of the spontaneous or enzymatic conjugation of metolachlor with GSH is most likely involved in CGA-92194 protective action.

  6. Demonstration of geophysical methods for burial ground geophysical characterization study at the DOE Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.; MacLean, H.D.; Geotech, R.

    1996-11-01

    Rust Geotech, operating contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO), conducted a demonstration of the trench boundary and large-object location capabilities of five nonintrusive geophysical methods in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The plan for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the SRS LLRWDF specifies inplace compaction of {open_quotes}B-25{close_quotes} metal boxes containing low-level radioactive wastes. The boxes are buried in Engineered Low-Level Trenches (ELLTs) at the facility. To properly guide and control the compaction operation, the coordinates of the trench boundaries must be determined to an accuracy within 5 feet and the outer edges of the metal boxes in the trenches must be determined to within 2 feet.

  7. Prototype demonstration studies of production of methane from municipal solid waste at Pompano Beach, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Faroog, S.; Daly, E.; Dasgupta, A.; Gerrish, M.P.; Sengupta, S.; Wong, K.F.

    1980-12-01

    A prototype demonstration plant for the production of methane from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in amounts up to 100 tons per day is built at Pompano Beach, Florida. The plant is capable of producing 6000 ft/sup 3/ of gas per ton of municipal waste. Approximately half of the gas is methane, the other half CO/sub 2/ along with some trace gases. In this plant the raw municipal solid waste is shredded, ferrous metals removed magnetically and air classified to obtain an organic-rich light weight fraction, which is periodically mixed with sewage sludge and fed into the anaerobic digester. The processed effluent is filtered in a vacuum filter and the emerging filter cake is disposed on the nearby existing sanitary landfill. The filtrate is recirculated into the digester. Various gas, solid and liquid streams coming out of the digester are analyzed for physical, chemical and biological pollution parameters.

  8. Demonstration of the combination of slice imaging and Rydberg tagging for studies of photodissociation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, H. A.; Softley, T. P.

    2004-09-01

    The slice-imaging variant of photofragment ion imaging is combined with Rydberg tagging. The photodissociation of NO2 at 355 nm is used as the test system and the NO fragments are Rydberg tagged by two-photon two-color excitation via the intermediate A2Σ+ state. Images obtained by this method are compared with ion images obtained in the same apparatus using the approach of Kitsopoulos and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3848 (2001)]. Comparable resolution and angular distributions are obtained in the two cases. It is proposed that the method demonstrated here could provide a complementary approach to existing ion-imaging methods, especially where resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization detection of fragments is problematic.

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  2. Complete Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  7. Improving Students' Study Habits by Demonstrating the Mnemonic Benefits of Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; DeLosh, Edward L.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an in-class exercise that illustrates the advantage of semantic over nonsemantic study habits. The exercise includes a survey of students' current study strategies, followed by the presentation of an abbreviated version of Craik and Tulving's(1975) classic levels-of-processing experiment. We observed significant benefits of…

  8. Can Discrete Joint Action Be Synergistic? Studying the Stabilization of Interpersonal Hand Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Veronica; Kallen, Rachel; Riley, Michael A.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The human perceptual-motor system is tightly coupled to the physical and informational dynamics of a task environment. These dynamics operate to constrain the high-dimensional order of the human movement system into low-dimensional, task-specific synergies—functional groupings of structural elements that are temporarily constrained to act as a single coordinated unit. The aim of the current study was to determine whether synergistic processes operate when coacting individuals coordinate to perform a discrete joint-action task. Pairs of participants sat next to each other and each used 1 arm to complete a pointer-to-target task. Using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis for the first time in a discrete joint action, the structure of joint-angle variance was examined to determine whether there was synergistic organization of the degrees of freedom employed at the interpersonal or intrapersonal levels. The results revealed that the motor actions performed by coactors were synergistically organized at both the interpersonal and intrapersonal levels. More importantly, however, the interpersonal synergy was found to be significantly stronger than the intrapersonal synergies. Accordingly, the results provide clear evidence that coacting individuals can become temporarily organized to form single synergistic 2-person systems during performance of a discrete joint action. PMID:26052696

  9. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  10. Granular ferric hydroxide adsorbent for phosphate removal: demonstration preparation and field study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bei; Zhang, Yu; Dou, Xiaomin; Yuan, Hongying; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Ferric hydroxide (FHO), which has high phosphate adsorption capacity, was prepared by precipitation at industrial scale and then fabricated via the drum granulation method with cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as the binder. The optimum binder/FHO powder ratio was 0.6 for producing a granular adsorbent with a high phosphate adsorption capacity and stability. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of powder and granular FHOs were 74.07 mg g⁻¹ and 56.18 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0 ± 0.2, respectively, which were higher than those of other reported phosphate adsorbents under neutral or acidic conditions. Phosphate-loaded granular FHO could be regenerated by NaOH solution. Columns containing the granular FHO were used for phosphate removal from ozonated secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant at space velocity (SV) of 2 and 5 h⁻¹. During more than 2 months' operation, the average removal percentage of PO(4)(3-) was more than 90% and the turbidity and concentration of CODMn in the effluents were lower than in the influents. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray results suggested that active sites inside the granular FHO were available for phosphate removal. The results demonstrated that granular FHO can be applied as an assist technology for phosphate removal from secondary effluents.

  11. Demonstration of digital radiographs by means of ink jet-printed paper copies: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Nilsson, J; Lyttkens, K; Andersson, B; Holmer, N G

    1992-11-01

    Different digital medical images have been printed on paper with a continuous ink jet printer, and the quality has been evaluated. The emphasis has been on digital chest radiographs from a computed radiography system. The ink jet printing technique is described as well as the handling of the image data from image source to printer. Different versions of paper prints and viewing conditions were compared to find the optimum alternative. The evaluation has been performed to maximize the quality of the paper images to make them conform with the corresponding film prints and monitor images as much as possible. The continuous ink jet technique offers high-quality prints on paper at a considerably lower cost per copy compared with the cost of a film print. With a future switch-over from diagnosing of digital images on film to diagnosing them on monitors, hard copies for demonstration purposes will occasionally be needed. This need can be filled by ink jet-printed paper copies.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  13. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study.

    PubMed

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others' behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants' arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  14. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  15. [Study of the action of sultopride on psychomotor agitation. Apropos of 31 cases].

    PubMed

    Mouren, P; Poinso, Y; Guigou, G

    1976-06-23

    A study of sultopride, a new derivative of the substituted anisamides, has shown that this neuroleptic drug reduces markedly and rapidly psychomotor agitation, especially its aggressive component. It also has an action on hallucinations. Its indications, in order of efficacy, are states of acute agitation, psychotic states during the active phase, acute manifestations of alcoholism and behaviour disorders such as expansivity, impulsivity and agressivity. Its tolerance is good considering its strong activity.

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations suitable for chemistry instruction. One involves fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface and the other deals with molecular weights and music. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Two demonstrations are presented: a verification of the discontinuity of matter based on the law of definite proportions, and a series of consecutive chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria. (BB)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  6. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  8. DESIGN OF A SURFACTANT REMEDIATION FIELD DEMONSTRATION BASED ON LABORATORY AND MODELINE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation is being evaluated as an innovative technology for expediting ground-water remediation. This paper reports on laboratory and modeling studies conducted in preparation for a pilot-scale field test of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remedia...

  9. The Adult Teacher Competencies Study. Final Report. A 353 Special Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Sherry

    A study was conducted to develop a set of instructor standards that describe high-quality teaching behavior for adult literacy teachers, program administrators, state staff, and stakeholders. The standards were created by a task force of 15 experienced adult literacy practitioners and reviewed and revised by focus groups of practitioners at seven…

  10. The Warm-Cold Study: A Classroom Demonstration of Impression Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symbaluk, Diane G.; Cameron, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure for teaching experimental design to students in the social sciences. Argues that by replicating Solomon Asch's and H. Kelley's classic studies on impression formation, students learn how to conduct experiments, analyze data, and evaluate the significance of research. Provides instructions for implementing the strategy. (DSK)

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  12. Reforming primary science assessment practices: A case study of one teacher's professional development through action research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Carol; Wells, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    Calls for reform have suggested that classroom practice can best be changed by teachers who engage in their own research. This interpretive study examines the process of action research and how it contributes to the professional development of a first-grade teacher. The purpose of the study was to explore the research process experienced by the teacher as she examined whether portfolios could be used as an effective means for facilitating and assessing young children's development of science process skills. Data sources included a journal kept by the teacher, documents produced by the teacher and students as part of the portfolio implementation process, hand-written records of teacher's informal interviews with students, and anecdotal records from research team meetings during the study. Data analysis was designed to explore how the teacher's classroom practices and thinking evolved as she engaged in action research and attempted to solve the problems associated with deciding what to assess and how to implement portfolio assessment. We also examined the factors that supported the teacher's learning and change as she progressed through the research process. Data are presented in the form of four assertions that clarify how the action research process was influenced by various personal and contextual factors. Implications address factors that facilitated the teacher as researcher, and how this research project, initiated by the teacher, affected her professional development and professional life.

  13. A study of New York City obstetrics units demonstrates the potential for reducing hospital inpatient capacity.

    PubMed

    Green, Linda V; Liu, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Hospitals are under significant pressure from payers to reduce costs. The single largest fixed cost for a hospital is inpatient beds, yet there is significant variation in hospital capacity utilization. We study bed capacity in New York City hospital obstetrics units and find that while many hospitals have an insufficient number of beds to provide timely access to care, overall there is significant excess capacity. Our findings, coupled with current demographic and clinical practice trends, indicate that a large fraction of obstetrics units nationwide could likely reduce their bed capacity while assuring timely access to care, resulting in large savings in capital and staffing costs. Given emerging health care delivery and payment models that will likely decrease demand for other types of hospital beds, our study suggests that data-based methodologies should be used by hospitals and policy makers to identify opportunities for reducing excess bed capacity in other inpatient units as well.

  14. CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study demonstrates insufficient diagnosis and treatment of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Spurney, Christopher; Shimizu, Reiko; Hache, Lauren P.; Kolski, Hanna; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clemens, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiomyopathy is a common cause of morbidity and death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods A cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from a multi-institutional, international CINRG DMD Natural History Study of 340 DMD patients aged 2 to 28 years. Cardiomyopathy was defined as shortening fraction (SF) <28% or ejection fraction (EF) <55%. Results 231 participants reported a prior clinical echocardiogram study, and 174 had data for SF or EF. The prevalence of cardiomyopathy was 27% (47/174), and it was significantly associated with age and clinical stage. The association of cardiomyopathy with age and clinical stage was not changed by glucocorticoid use as a covariate (P>0.68). In patients with cardiomyopathy, 57 % (27/47) reported not taking any cardiac medications. Cardiac medications were used in 12% (15/127) of patients without cardiomyopathy. Discussion Echocardiograms were underutilized, and cardiomyopathy was undertreated in this DMD natural history cohort. PMID:24395289

  15. Demonstration of multi- and single-reader sample size program for diagnostic studies software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillis, Stephen L.; Schartz, Kevin M.

    2015-03-01

    The recently released software Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies, written by Kevin Schartz and Stephen Hillis, performs sample size computations for diagnostic reader-performance studies. The program computes the sample size needed to detect a specified difference in a reader performance measure between two modalities, when using the analysis methods initially proposed by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (DBM) and Obuchowski and Rockette (OR), and later unified and improved by Hillis and colleagues. A commonly used reader performance measure is the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. The program can be used with typical common reader-performance measures which can be estimated parametrically or nonparametrically. The program has an easy-to-use step-by-step intuitive interface that walks the user through the entry of the needed information. Features of the software include the following: (1) choice of several study designs; (2) choice of inputs obtained from either OR or DBM analyses; (3) choice of three different inference situations: both readers and cases random, readers fixed and cases random, and readers random and cases fixed; (4) choice of two types of hypotheses: equivalence or noninferiority; (6) choice of two output formats: power for specified case and reader sample sizes, or a listing of case-reader combinations that provide a specified power; (7) choice of single or multi-reader analyses; and (8) functionality in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.

  16. The CARN/ARNA Inaugural Study Day Inquiry: What Happens to Action Research after the Master's Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shosh, Joseph M.; McAteer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN) held its first American study day on the east coast of the United States in conjunction with the Action Research Network of the Americas (ARNA) 2014 conference in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. Study day participants visited three American secondary schools, one each in Pennsylvania, New York, and…

  17. Participatory Action Research and the Reconstruction of Teachers' Practical Thinking: Lesson Studies and Core Reflection. An Experience in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose

    2010-01-01

    Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core…

  18. "Ready To Learn" Transmedia Demonstration Station Study: A Report to the CPB-PBS "Ready to Learn Initiative"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnik, Shelley; Llorente, Carlin

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Transmedia Demonstration Stations program study is part of the multiyear CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn" summative evaluation initiative by Education Development Center, Inc., (EDC) and SRI International (SRI). Through a series of related studies, the authors are documenting, and, whenever possible, measuring the impact of PBS KIDS transmedia…

  19. 78 FR 63477 - Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... investigators who conduct studies using active controls and have a basic understanding of statistical principles... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New Animal Drug for Use in Companion Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food...

  20. Demonstrating the synergy of synthetic, mechanistic, and computational studies in a regioselective aniline synthesis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian W; Marcoux, Jean-François; Kuethe, Jeffery T; Lankshear, Michael D; Taylor, Jeremy D O; Tsou, Nancy; Dormer, Peter G; Hughes, David L; Houk, K N; Guner, Vildan

    2004-02-20

    Tri- and tetrasubstituted anilines are formed in good to excellent yields by the addition of ketones to vinamidinium salts (up to 98%). The reaction proceeds via the formation of dienone intermediates, which react to form an enamine with the liberated amine. In the case of a nitro, or dimethylaminomethylene substituent, the enamines undergo a facile electrocyclic ring closure to form a cyclohexadiene, which goes on to form anilines with a high degree of selectivity (up to 50:1) with a minor competing pathway proceeding via the enol providing phenols. Competition experiments using isotopic substitution reveal that the rate determining step en route to dienone is enol/enolate addition to the vinamidinium salt, which is characterized by an inverse secondary isotope effect (k(H/D) 0.7-0.9). Computational studies have been used to provide a framework for understanding the reaction pathway. The original proposal for a [1,5]-H shift was ruled out on the basis of the calculations, which did not locate a thermally accessible transition state. The minimum energy conformation of the enamine is such that a facile electrocyclic ring closure is ensured, which is corroborated by the experimental studies. A framework for understanding the reaction pathway is presented. PMID:14961684

  1. Dictyostelium discoideum to human cells: pharmacogenetic studies demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen; Min, Junxia; Alexander, Hannah

    2006-03-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the treatment of cancer and a subject of extensive research. Numerous mechanisms of drug resistance have been proposed, and they differ for different drugs. Nevertheless, it is clear that our understanding of this important problem is still incomplete, and that new targets for modulating therapy still await discovery. The attractive biology and the availability of powerful molecular techniques have made the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a powerful non-mammalian model for drug target discovery, and the problem of drug resistance. To understand the molecular basis of chemoresistance to the widely used drug cisplatin, both genetic and pharmacological approaches have been applied to this versatile experimental system. These studies have resulted in the identification of novel molecular pathways which can be used to increase the efficacy of cisplatin, and brought attention to the role of sphingolipids in mediating the cellular response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the following review, we will describe the history and utility of D. discoideum in pharmacogenetics, and discuss recent studies which focus attention on the role of sphingolipids in chemotherapy and chemoresistance. PMID:16403600

  2. A genome-wide association study demonstrates significant genetic variation for fracture risk in Thoroughbred racehorses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thoroughbred racehorses are subject to non-traumatic distal limb bone fractures that occur during racing and exercise. Susceptibility to fracture may be due to underlying disturbances in bone metabolism which have a genetic cause. Fracture risk has been shown to be heritable in several species but this study is the first genetic analysis of fracture risk in the horse. Results Fracture cases (n = 269) were horses that sustained catastrophic distal limb fractures while racing on UK racecourses, necessitating euthanasia. Control horses (n = 253) were over 4 years of age, were racing during the same time period as the cases, and had no history of fracture at the time the study was carried out. The horses sampled were bred for both flat and National Hunt (NH) jump racing. 43,417 SNPs were employed to perform a genome-wide association analysis and to estimate the proportion of genetic variance attributable to the SNPs on each chromosome using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Significant genetic variation associated with fracture risk was found on chromosomes 9, 18, 22 and 31. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 (62.05 Mb – 62.15 Mb) and one SNP on chromosome 1 (14.17 Mb) reached genome-wide significance (p < 0.05) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Two of the SNPs on ECA 18 were located in a haplotype block containing the gene zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A). One haplotype within this block has a protective effect (controls at 1.95 times less risk of fracture than cases, p = 1 × 10-4), while a second haplotype increases fracture risk (cases at 3.39 times higher risk of fracture than controls, p = 0.042). Conclusions Fracture risk in the Thoroughbred horse is a complex condition with an underlying genetic basis. Multiple genomic regions contribute to susceptibility to fracture risk. This suggests there is the potential to develop SNP-based estimators for genetic risk of fracture in the Thoroughbred racehorse, using methods

  3. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang-Chung; Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Laura; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439) who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124) who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years) was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001). Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model). Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke in adult

  4. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the capacity available to the 'New ParticipACTION': A qualitative study of Canadian organizations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the original ParticipACTION campaign effects focused on individual awareness, recall, and understanding. Less studied has been the impact such campaigns have had on the broader organizational capacity to mobilize and advocate for physical activity. With the relaunch of ParticipACTION, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore baseline organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services within the Canadian context. Methods Using a purposeful sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analysed using a thematic analytic approach. Results Key informants painted a generally positive picture of current organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services in Canada. Will and leadership were clear strengths while infrastructure limitations remained the greatest concern. Some specific challenges included: 1) funding issues: the absence of core funding in a climate of shifting funding priorities; 2) the difficulty of working without a national physical activity policy (lack of leadership); 3) inconsistent provincial and educational sector level policies; and 4) a persistent focus on obesity rather than physical inactivity. Conclusion The data generated here can be utilized to monitor the future impact of ParticipACTION on enhancing and utilizing this organizational capacity. A range of indicators are suggested that could be used to illustrate ParticipACTION's impact on the broad field of physical activity promotion in the future. PMID:19995458

  5. Demonstration of an advanced circulation fludized bed coal combustor phase 1: Cold model study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Govind, R.

    1993-03-20

    It was found that there was a strong dependence of the density profile on the secondary air injection location and that there was a pronounced solid separation from the conveying gas, due to the swirl motion. Furthermore, the swirl motion generated strong internal circulation patterns and higher slip velocities than in the case of nonswirl motion as in an ordinary circulating fluidized bed. Radial solids flux profiles were measured at different axial locations. The general radial profile in a swirling circulating fluidized bed indicated an increased downward flow of solids near the bed walls, and strong variations in radial profiles along the axial height. For swirl numbers less than 0.9, which is typical for swirling circulating fluidized beds, there is no significant increase in erosion due to swirl motion inside the bed. Pending further investigation of swirl motion with combustion, at least from our cold model studies, no disadvantages due to the introduction of swirl motion were discovered.

  6. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  7. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes. PMID:26579021

  8. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents' face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents' body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes.

  9. Atomic force microscopy study of the antimicrobial action of Sushi peptides on Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, A; Lee, P Y; Ho, B; Ding, J L; Lim, C T

    2007-03-01

    The antibacterial effect of the endotoxin-binding Sushi peptides against Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is investigated in this study. Similar characteristics observed for Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of peptide-treated Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the Sushi peptides (S3) evoke comparable mechanism of action against different strains of GNB. The results also indicate that the Sushi peptides appear to act in three stages: damage of the bacterial outer membrane, permeabilization of the inner membrane and disintegration of both membranes. The AFM approach has provided vivid and detailed close-up images of the GNB undergoing various stages of antimicrobial peptide actions at the nanometer scale. The AFM results support our hypothesis that the S3 peptide perturbs the GNB membrane via the "carpet-model" and thus, provide important insights into their antimicrobial mechanisms.

  10. [The influence of selected antibiotics on the central action of aminophyllines--experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Szmygin, K

    1996-01-01

    Methylxanthines and some antibiotics can cause side effects, provoked by their central action, e.g. seizures. The epileptogenic effects of given drugs can be intensified during combined treatment, as a result of pharmacological interactions. In the present study the author investigated the influence of some commonly used antibiotics: benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, doxycycline and amikacin upon central activity of methylxanthines in mice. The obtained results suggest, that all tested antibiotics, mainly benzylpenicillin, enhanced epileptogenicity of aminophylline in chemical seizures test. benzylpenicillin as only one among chosen antibiotics presented her own convulsant activity. During electrostimulation test, benzylpenicillin, doxycycline and amikacin intensified convulsions induced by methylxanthines. Only cefuroxime had no influence upon central action of methylxanthines in that experiments. Analysis of drugs' plasma levels, with using immunofluorescence methods, excluded pharmacokinetic interactions between them. Results of present investigation indicate, that there is a possibility of intensification of drugs' convulsant activity during combined treatment-aminophylline with some antibiotics in medical practice.

  11. Intermittent flow system for population toxicity studies demonstrated with Daphnia and copper

    SciTech Connect

    van Leeuwen, C.J.; Buechner, J.L.; van Dijk, H. )

    1988-05-01

    Until the introduction of continuous-flow procedures, the physical aspects of testing the toxicity of chemicals and aqueous effluents to aquatic organisms had been of minor consideration. Today's devices ranging from pneumatic systems to electric pumps, all have some drawback or other but many of them are reduced to a minimum by the use of the proportional diluter, which is a well-established and reliable dosing apparatus. However, the Mount-Brungs diluter cannot be used for testing volatile chemicals, nor does it allow simultaneous dosing of a constant food suspension and several toxicant concentrations, which are important conditions for population toxicity studies with small invertebrates like the crustacean Daphnia magna. These restrictions are removed by the use of electric pumps, solenoids and time relays. The system described here provides for the delivery of 250 mL every 5 min to 6 h with no perceptible current-induced effects on the test organisms; it allows the automatic supply of known concentrations of food at each dilution cycle as well as the testing of volatile chemicals. In order to illustrate its usefulness in tests with Daphnia populations, the toxicity of copper was tested.

  12. Intermittent flow system for population toxicity studies demonstrated with Daphnia and copper

    SciTech Connect

    van Leeuwen, C.J.; Buechner, J.L.; van Dijk, H.

    1988-04-01

    Until the introduction of continuous-flow procedures, the physical aspects of testing the toxicity of chemicals and aqueous effluents to aquatic organisms had been of minor consideration. Today's devices ranging from pneumatic systems to electric pumps, all have some drawback or other but many of them are reduced to a minimum by the use of the proportional diluter, which is a well-established and reliable dosing apparatus. However, the Mount-Brungs diluter cannot be used for testing volatile chemicals, nor does it allow simultaneous dosing of a constant food suspension and several toxicant concentrations, which are important conditions for population toxicity studies with small invertebrates like the crustacean Daphnia magna. These restrictions are removed by the use of electric pumps, solenoids and time relays. The system described here provides for the delivery of 250 mL every 5 min to 6 h with no perceptible current-induced effects on the test organisms; it allows the automatic supply of known concentrations of food at each dilution cycle as well as the testing of volatile chemicals. The system has operated for almost 3 years and has proven to be reliable, accurate and easy to maintain. In order to illustrate its usefulness in tests with Daphnia populations, the toxicity of copper was tested.

  13. Development study of precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for flight demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Okai, Keiichi; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Masaki, Daisaku; Hongo, Motoyuki; Ohta, Toyohiko

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a development study of a precooled-cycle hypersonic turbojet engine for the first stage of TSTO space plane and hypersonic airplane. With reflecting the key technologies accumulated from ATREX (expander cycle ATR engine) ground tests, the next flyable subscale engine "S-engine" is now developed. S-engine has 23cm×23cm of rectangular cross-section, 2.2 m of the overall length and about 100 kg of the weight employing a variable-geometry rectangular inlet and nozzle. It produces 1.2 kN of thrust at SLS, which corresponds to {1}/{4} of the ATREX engine. Design of the hypersonic components such as the inlet, precooler and nozzle has been finished and their aerodynamic performances were verified by wind tunnel tests and CFD analyses. A prototype model of the diagonal-flow compressor whose pressure ratio is 6 was manufactured. Its rotating tests under the very-low pressure conditions are now in progress. The reverse-flow annular combustion chamber was successfully tested. The first flight test of the S-engine is to be conducted in 2008 by the balloon-based operation vehicle (BOV) which is about 5 m in length, 0.55 m in diameter and 500 kg in weight. The vehicle is dropped from an altitude of 40 km by a high altitude balloon. After 40-s free-fall, the vehicle pulls up and S-engine operates for 30 s at about Mach 2. High altitude tests of the engine components corresponding to the BOV's flight condition have been conducted.

  14. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly.

  15. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly. PMID:26734989

  16. Entrepreneurial Learning through Action: A Case Study of the Six-Squared Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Luke; Missing, Caroline; Hudson, Nigel; Maragh, Dean

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of "action" in entrepreneurial learning and illustrates how programs designed to support action learning can enhance management development in entrepreneurial businesses. The paper begins by exploring action learning and the way "action" is conceived in different types of program. In the second part, the paper details…

  17. Including stratigraphic hierarchy information in geostatistical simulation: a demonstration study on analogs of alluvial sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comunian, Alessandro; Felletti, Fabrizio; Giacobbo, Francesca; Giudici, Mauro; Bersezio, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    When building a geostatistical model of the hydrofacies distribution in a volume block it is important to include all the relevant available information. Localised information about the observed hydrofacies (hard data) are routinely included in the simulation procedures. Non stationarities in the hydrofacies distribution can be handled by considering auxiliary (soft) data extracted, for example, from the results of geophysical surveys. This piece of information can be included as auxiliary data both in variogram based methods (i.e. co-Kriging) and in multiple-point statistics (MPS) methods. The latter methods allow to formalise some soft knowledge about the considered model of heterogeneity using a training image. However, including information related to the stratigraphic hierarchy in the training image is rarely straightforward. In this work, a methodology to include the information about the stratigraphic hierarchy in the simulation process is formalised and implemented in a MPS framework. The methodology is applied and tested by reconstructing two model blocks of alluvial sediments with an approximate volume of few cubic meters. The external faces of the blocks, exposed in a quarry, were thoroughly mapped and their stratigraphic hierarchy was interpreted in a previous study. The bi-dimensional (2D) maps extracted from the faces, which are used as training images and as hard data, present a vertical trend and complex stratigraphic architectures. The training images and the conditioning data are classified according to the proposed stratigraphic hierarchy, and the hydrofacies codes are grouped to allow a sequence of interleaved binary MPS simulation. Every step of the simulation sequence corresponds to a group of hydrofacies defined in the stratigraphic hierarchy. The blocks simulated with the proposed methodology are compared with blocks simulated with a standard MPS approach. The comparisons are performed on many realisations using connectivity indicators and

  18. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  8. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  9. Time-dependent viscometry study of endoglucanase action on xyloglucan: A real-time approach.

    PubMed

    Spier, Vivian Cristina; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Ibrahim, Amid Tony; Scholze Baum, Jéssica C; Silveira, Joana Lea M; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolysis of xyloglucan from Tamarindus indica and Hymenaea courbaril seeds with endoglucanase (EGII), which randomly breaks the (1→4)-linked β-glycosidic bonds of the polymer chain, was monitored in real time using time-dependent viscometry analysis (TDV). For both samples there was a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity ([η]), viscosity average molar mass (Mv), radius de gyration (Rg) and persistence length (Lp) immediately after the addition of the enzyme. It was observed the formation of oligosaccharides and oligomers composed of ∼2 units, up to 140min. Galactose-containing side chains two positions away from the non-substituted glucose, modulated the action of EGII, and the complete hydrolysis of the XG oligomers occurred after 24h. The results demonstrate for the first time the real-time degradation of xyloglucan as well the macromolecular and oligosaccharide composition during the EGII hydrolysis process.

  10. Time-dependent viscometry study of endoglucanase action on xyloglucan: A real-time approach.

    PubMed

    Spier, Vivian Cristina; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Ibrahim, Amid Tony; Scholze Baum, Jéssica C; Silveira, Joana Lea M; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolysis of xyloglucan from Tamarindus indica and Hymenaea courbaril seeds with endoglucanase (EGII), which randomly breaks the (1→4)-linked β-glycosidic bonds of the polymer chain, was monitored in real time using time-dependent viscometry analysis (TDV). For both samples there was a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity ([η]), viscosity average molar mass (Mv), radius de gyration (Rg) and persistence length (Lp) immediately after the addition of the enzyme. It was observed the formation of oligosaccharides and oligomers composed of ∼2 units, up to 140min. Galactose-containing side chains two positions away from the non-substituted glucose, modulated the action of EGII, and the complete hydrolysis of the XG oligomers occurred after 24h. The results demonstrate for the first time the real-time degradation of xyloglucan as well the macromolecular and oligosaccharide composition during the EGII hydrolysis process. PMID:26297307

  11. Effect of eplerenone on insulin action in essential hypertension: a randomised, controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    McMurray, E M; Wallace, I R; Ennis, C; Hunter, S J; Atkinson, A B; Bell, P M

    2014-10-01

    An association exists between hyperaldosteronism, hypertension and impaired insulin action. Eplerenone is a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; however, little is known about its effects on insulin action. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of eplerenone on insulin action in hypertensive adults, using the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, crossover design was employed. After a 6-week washout period, hypertensive, non-diabetic patients were treated with either eplerenone 25 mg twice daily or doxazosin 2 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. After each treatment period, insulin action was assessed by a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, with isotope dilution methodology. After washout, treatment groups were crossed over. Fifteen patients completed the study. There were no differences in fasting glucose, or fasting insulin between treatment with eplerenone or doxazosin. The measure of overall insulin sensitivity, exogenous glucose infusion rates during the last 30 min of the clamp, was similar with both treatments; 23.4 (3.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) after eplerenone and 23.3 (3.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) after doxazosin (P=0.83). Isotopically determined fasting endogenous glucose production rates were similar after both treatments (eplerenone 9.4 (0.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs doxazosin 10.6 (0.7) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). There was a trend for lower endogenous glucose production rates during hyperinsulinaemia following eplerenone compared with doxazosin (2.0 (0.8) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs 4.1 (0.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). There was no difference in insulin stimulated peripheral glucose utilisation rates after treatment with eplerenone or doxazosin (25.4 (3.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs 27.0 (3.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). This study gives reassuring evidence of the neutral effect of eplerenone on insulin action in hypertensive, non-diabetic patients.

  12. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  13. Experimental study on bubble pulse features under the combined action of horizontal and vertical walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-ping; Chu, Wen-hua; Zhang, A.-man

    2014-06-01

    The pulse features of a bubble have a close connection with the boundary condition. When a bubble moves near a rigid wall, it will be attracted by the Bjerknes force of the wall, and a jet pointing at the wall will be generated. In real application, the bubble may move under the combined action of walls in different directions when it forms at the corner of a pipe or at the bottom of a dam. The motion of the bubble shows complex and nonlinear characteristics under these conditions. In order to investigate the bubble pulse features near complex walls, a horizontal wall and a vertical wall are put into the experimental water tank synchronously, and an electric circuit with 200 voltages is designed to generate discharge bubbles, and then experimental study on the bubble pulse features under the combined action of horizontal and vertical walls is carried out. The influences of the combined action of two walls on the bubble shape, pulse period, moving trace and inside jet are obtained by changing the distances from bubble center to the two walls. It aims at providing references for the relevant theoretical and numerical research.

  14. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Jesica Tamara; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio; Perales-Momparler, Sara; Ramón Porta-Sancho, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequences and using event tree modelling for risk calculation. The study area is the city of Oliva, located on the eastern coast of Spain. Results from risk modelling have been used to inform local action planning and to assess the benefits of structural and non-structural risk reduction measures. Results show the potential impact on risk reduction of flood defences and improved warning communication schemes through local action planning: societal flood risk (in terms of annual expected affected population) would be reduced up to 51 % by combining both structural and non-structural measures. In addition, the effect of seasonal population variability is analysed (annual expected affected population ranges from 82 to 107 %, compared with the current situation, depending on occupancy rates in hotels and campsites). Results highlight the need for robust and standardized methods for urban flood risk analysis replicability at regional and national scale.

  15. Nurses’ Empowerment in Self-Care Education to Stroke Patients: An Action Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Khorasani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Self-care needs are major problems among stroke patients. Nurses can support them through interventions such as education, a change in their attitude and emphasis on their remaining abilities. However, research has shown some weak points in the quality of care given to these patients. So the aim of this study was to improve the nurses’ practice in self-care education to stroke patients. Methods: The findings of evaluation phase showed that during action research, approaching the nurses’ empowerment in self-care education to stroke patients has been set in motion. The nursing practice improvement, knowledge based practice, nurses’ attitude change, ability to respond against routinization, and motivation promotion emphasize the success of change process. Facilitators and barriers of educating patients are acknowledged by the participants as a factor influencing the continuation of change. Results: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. Conclusions: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. PMID:27713896

  16. Data Integrity-A Study of Current Regulatory Thinking and Action.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Nader; De Montardy, Regis; Rivera-Martinez, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to breaches of data integrity in the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities have introduced inspection approaches or initiatives with the aim of reducing occurrences of data integrity problems. This review article-based on study of 65 cases of regulatory action from 2002 to 2014-provides an overview of current regulatory thinking and action on breaches of data integrity affecting GxP (health-related regulations) processes supporting non-clinical studies, clinical studies, laboratory controls, and production controls. These case studies largely represent position of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the regulatory agencies affiliated with the European Medicines Agency. Also discussed is the role of human factors as a potential source of data integrity problems. The article concludes by recommending some remedial controls that could be established to avoid or reduce occurrences of data integrity problems.Lay Abstract: In fulfilling their mission to protect public health, regulatory agencies (e.g., U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency) must establish confidence that medical products they approve are fit for their intended use. In so doing they rely on scientific and operational data generated during research, development, manufacturing, sales, marketing, distribution, and post-marketing surveillance activities. The level of confidence they build is directly proportional to the scientific validity and integrity of data presented to them by the sponsors of medical products. In this article we present analysis of 65 case studies that document regulatory action taken by various regulatory agencies on breach of data integrity between 2002 and 2014. The ensuing discussion on current trends largely represents position of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. The article concludes by proposing some remedial controls that could be established by pharmaceutical companies to avoid or reduce

  17. Less irritative action of wine and Japanese sake in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2006-02-01

    The ingestion of alcohol, especially in excess, causes acute gastric lesions and gastritis in humans, yet the mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages remains largely unknown. We examined the mucosal irritative action of whiskey, wine and Japanese sake in the rat stomach both ex vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, then superfused with saline, and the transmucosal potential difference (PD) was measured. After the basal PD had stabilized, the mucosa was exposed for 30 min to 2 ml of 15% ethanol, whiskey (containing 15% ethanol), white wine, or Japanese sake (the ethanol concentration of the latter two is 12-15%). In the in vitro study, rat epithelial cells (RGM1) were treated with the alcoholic beverages for 5 min, and the cell viability was determined with crystal violet. Ethanol or whiskey applied to the chamber caused a decrease in PD, while wine or Japanese sake did not. Histologically, surface epithelial damage was observed after exposure to both ethanol and whiskey, yet no damage was induced by white wine and Japanese sake. Likewise, both ethanol and whiskey markedly reduced the viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min of incubation, while neither white wine nor Japanese sake had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose significantly prevented the reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less pronounced than that of ethanol or whiskey and that the less damaging action of Japanese sake and white wine may be, at least partly, accounted for by the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

  18. Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ping-Song; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Wu, Meng-Ni; Liou, Li-Min; Lu, Shinag-Ru; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a broad range of frontal lobe dysfunctions. However, no study has investigated action monitoring, a crucial domain of frontal cognitive functions, in patients with OSA. By using the modified Flanker task, we tested the hypothesis that patients with OSA have an impaired action monitoring function. We recruited 25 untreated patients with moderate–severe OSA and 12 control participants who were matched for age, sex, apolipoprotein E4, and education level. Every enrolled participant underwent a standard overnight laboratory-based polysomnography and completed a modified Flanker task. Compared with the controls, the patients with OSA presented a significantly lower correct response rate in all trials (78.9% vs 95.9%, P = .008), congruent trials (84.7% vs 98.3%, P = .016), and incongruent trials (77.4% vs 94.7%, P = .009). The post-error correction rate was significantly lower in the patients with OSA than in the controls (74.9% vs 93.8%, P = .005). Furthermore, strong significant correlations were observed between the arousal index and correct rate in all trials (r = −0.390, P < .05) and in the incongruent trials (r = −0.429, P < .01), as well as between the arousal index and rate of post-error correction (r = −0.435, P < .01). We concluded that the action monitoring function was impaired in the patients with OSA. Sleep fragmentation was a major determinant of impaired action monitoring in these patients. PMID:27300504

  19. Less irritative action of wine and Japanese sake in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2006-02-01

    The ingestion of alcohol, especially in excess, causes acute gastric lesions and gastritis in humans, yet the mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages remains largely unknown. We examined the mucosal irritative action of whiskey, wine and Japanese sake in the rat stomach both ex vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, then superfused with saline, and the transmucosal potential difference (PD) was measured. After the basal PD had stabilized, the mucosa was exposed for 30 min to 2 ml of 15% ethanol, whiskey (containing 15% ethanol), white wine, or Japanese sake (the ethanol concentration of the latter two is 12-15%). In the in vitro study, rat epithelial cells (RGM1) were treated with the alcoholic beverages for 5 min, and the cell viability was determined with crystal violet. Ethanol or whiskey applied to the chamber caused a decrease in PD, while wine or Japanese sake did not. Histologically, surface epithelial damage was observed after exposure to both ethanol and whiskey, yet no damage was induced by white wine and Japanese sake. Likewise, both ethanol and whiskey markedly reduced the viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min of incubation, while neither white wine nor Japanese sake had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose significantly prevented the reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less pronounced than that of ethanol or whiskey and that the less damaging action of Japanese sake and white wine may be, at least partly, accounted for by the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages. PMID:16534671

  20. The role of movement representation in episodic memory for actions: A study of patients with apraxia.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouhei; Shirakawa, Masayuki; Higashiyama, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    In attempting to memorize a sentence about an action, such as "Pick up the glass," performing the action (motor encoding) results in better memory performance than simply memorizing the words (verbal encoding). Such enhancement of memory is known as the enactment effect. Several theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon using concepts such as physical motor information associated with speed, form, amplitude of movement and/or movement representations involved in movement imaging, knowledge on manipulating tools, and spatial relationships in the enactment effect. However, there have been no cognitive neuropsychological studies investigating whether the enactment effect is crucially influenced by physical motor information or movement representations. To clarify this issue, we compared healthy adult control participants with two different types of apraxia patients. One patient with left hemisphere lesions caused by cerebral infarction had a disability involving multiple movement representations. The other patient showed symptoms of corticobasal syndrome and was not able to benefit from feedback on the accuracy of her motor movements during enactment. Participants memorized action sentences via either verbal or motor encoding and responded to recall and recognition tests. Results indicated that the patient with the movement representation deficits exhibited worse memory performance than the other patient or control participants following both verbal and motor encoding. Although the enactment effect was present during recall in both patients, the effect was not observed for recognition in the patient with severe movement representation deficits. These results suggest that movement representations are involved in encoding episodic memories of action. Moreover, the role of movement representations appears to depend on the form of retrieval that is being used. PMID:25921790

  1. Insufficient duration of action of antihypertensive drugs mediates high blood pressure in the morning in hypertensive population: the Ohasama study.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nagai, Kenichi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Matsubara, Mitsunobu; Suzuki, Michiko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Araki, Tsutomu; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hisamichi, Shigeru; Imai, Yutaka

    2002-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) usually peaks in the morning. The circadian variation of the onset of cardiovascular disease mimics this circadian BP variation. To examine the determinants of the BP difference between the self-recorded BP in the morning (home BP) and daytime average ambulatory BP a cross sectional study was done in the general population of Ohasama, Japan. 1207 subjects > or = 20 years measured both home (more than 14 times) and ambulatory BPs (326 treated for hypertension and 881 untreated subjects), The prevalence of subjects with the systolic BP difference (home BP in the morning - daytime ambulatory BP) of > or = 10 mmHg (high morning BP) was 5.6% in untreated normotensives, 2.9% in untreated hypertensives, and 25.8% in treated hypertensives. This trend was also observed for diastolic pressure. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age, male sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs were positively associated and day-night difference of BP was negatively associated with the high morning BP, respectively. These results suggest an insufficient duration of antihypertensive action of widely used antihypertensive drugs in Japan from the 1980s to 1990s. The amplitude of the day-night difference of ambulatory BP in subjects with a high morning BP was lower (non-dipping) than that without high morning BP. The high morning BP is not necessarily accompanied by hypertension but might be mediated, at least in part, by an insufficient duration of action of antihypertensive drugs. The high morning BP accompanies so-called non-dipper pattern of circadian BP variation. An insufficient duration of action of drugs may partly mediate non-dipping in subjects with antihypertensive medication.

  2. Toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to alveolar macrophages: comparative study revealing differences in their mechanism of toxic action

    SciTech Connect

    Rietjens, I.M.; Poelen, M.C.; Hempenius, R.A.; Gijbels, M.J.; Alink, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the toxic mechanisms of action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide were compared using an intact cell model. Rat alveolar macrophages were exposed by means of gas diffusion through a Teflon film. In this in vitro system, ozone appeared to be 10 times more toxic than nitrogen dioxide. alpha-Tocopherol protected equally well against ozone and nitrogen dioxide. It was demonstrated that alpha-tocopherol provided its protection by its action as a radical scavenger and not by its stabilizing structural membrane effect, as (1) concentrations of alpha-tocopherol that already provided optimal protection against ozone and nitrogen dioxide did not influence the membrane fluidity of alveolar macrophages and (2) neither one of the structural alpha-tocopherol analogs tested (phytol and the methyl ether of alpha-tocopherol) could provide a protection against ozone or nitrogen dioxide comparable to the one provided by alpha-tocopherol. It was concluded that reactive intermediates scavenged by alpha-tocopherol are important in the toxic mechanism of both ozone and nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage. However, further results presented strongly confirmed that the kind of radicals and/or reactive intermediates, and thus the toxic reaction mechanism involved, must be different in ozone- and nitrogen dioxide-induced cell damage. This was concluded from the observations that showed that (1) vitamin C provided significantly better protection against nitrogen dioxide than against an equally toxic dose of ozone, (2) glutathione depletion affected the cellular sensitivity toward ozone to a significantly greater extent than the sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide, and (3) the scavenging action of alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a significantly greater reduction in its cellular level during nitrogen dioxide exposure than during exposure to ozone.

  3. The functional subdivision of the visual brain: Is there a real illusion effect on action? A multi-lab replication study.

    PubMed

    Kopiske, Karl K; Bruno, Nicola; Hesse, Constanze; Schenk, Thomas; Franz, Volker H

    2016-06-01

    It has often been suggested that visual illusions affect perception but not actions such as grasping, as predicted by the "two-visual-systems" hypothesis of Milner and Goodale (1995, The Visual Brain in Action, Oxford University press). However, at least for the Ebbinghaus illusion, relevant studies seem to reveal a consistent illusion effect on grasping (Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008. Grasping visual illusions: consistent data and no dissociation. Cognitive Neuropsychology). Two interpretations are possible: either grasping is not immune to illusions (arguing against dissociable processing mechanisms for vision-for-perception and vision-for-action), or some other factors modulate grasping in ways that mimic a vision-for perception effect in actions. It has been suggested that one such factor may be obstacle avoidance (Haffenden Schiff & Goodale, 2001. The dissociation between perception and action in the Ebbinghaus illusion: nonillusory effects of pictorial cues on grasp. Current Biology, 11, 177-181). In four different labs (total N = 144), we conducted an exact replication of previous studies suggesting obstacle avoidance mechanisms, implementing conditions that tested grasping as well as multiple perceptual tasks. This replication was supplemented by additional conditions to obtain more conclusive results. Our results confirm that grasping is affected by the Ebbinghaus illusion and demonstrate that this effect cannot be explained by obstacle avoidance.

  4. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  5. Using Reflective Practice to Incorporate Formative Assessment in a Middle School Science Classroom: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trauth-Nare, Amy; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of using reflective practice to guide our action research study of incorporating formative assessment into middle school science teaching and learning. Using participatory action research, we worked collaboratively to incorporate formative assessment into two instructional units, and then engaged in…

  6. Place-based pedagogy in the era of accountability: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracino, Peter C.

    Today's most common method of teaching biology---driven by calls for standardization and high-stakes testing---relies on a standards-based, de-contextualized approach to education. This results in "one size fits all" curriculums that ignore local contexts relevant to students' lives, discourage student engagement and ultimately work against a deep and lasting understanding of content. In contrast, place-based education---a pedagogical paradigm grounded in situated cognition and the progressive education tradition of John Dewey---utilizes the community as an integrating context for learning. It encourages the growth of school-community partnerships with an eye towards raising student achievement while also drawing students into the economic, political, social and ecological life of their communities. Such an approach seeks to provide students with learning experiences that are both academically significant and valuable to their communities. This study explores how high school science teachers can capitalize on the rich affordances offered by a place-based approach despite the constraints imposed by a state-mandated curriculum and high-stakes testing. Using action research, I designed, implemented, evaluated and refined an intervention that grounded a portion of a Living Environment high school course I teach in a place-based experience. This experience served as a unique anchoring event to contextualize students' learning of other required core topics. The overarching question framing this study is: How can science teachers capitalize on the rich affordances offered by a place-based approach despite the constraints imposed by a state-mandated curriculum and high-stakes testing? The following more specific questions were explored within the context of the intervention: (1) Which elements of the place-based paradigm could I effectively integrate into a Living Environment course? (2) In what ways would this integration impact students' interest? (3) In what ways would

  7. The Effect of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature: A Study from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanahoung, Choksin; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Soankwan, Chernchok; Sharma, Manjula D.; Johnston, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations over traditional instruction on university students' understanding of heat and temperature. The participants were 327 first year undergraduate students from two science classes in two academic years from the same university in Thailand. One class…

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  9. Duration of activity and mode of action of modafinil: Studies on sleep and wakefulness in humans.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Belyavin, A J; Nicholson, A N

    2014-07-01

    The duration of activity of modafinil was investigated in healthy male volunteers in two double-blind crossover studies. Mode of action was explored using a statistical model concerned with the relationship between total sleep duration and that of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Nocturnal sleep (23:00-07:00) followed by next-day performance (09:00-17:00) was studied in 12 subjects administered 100, 200, 300 mg modafinil and placebo, 0.5 h before bedtime. Performance overnight (19:00-08:45) followed by sleep (09:15-15:15) was studied in nine subjects administered 100, 200, 300, 400 mg modafinil, 300 mg caffeine and placebo at 22:15. Modafinil dose-dependently reduced sleep duration (nocturnal: 200 mg, p<0.05; 300 mg, p<0.001; morning: 300 and 400 mg, p<0.05) and REM sleep (nocturnal: 300 mg; morning: 400 mg; p<0.05). The statistical model revealed that reduced REM sleep was due to alerting activity, with no evidence of direct suppression of REM sleep, suggesting dopaminergic activity. Enhanced performance with modafinil during overnight work varied with dose (200 mg>100 mg; 300, 400 mg>200, 100 mg, caffeine). However, in the study of next-day performance, the enhancement was attenuated at the highest dose (300 mg) by the greater disturbance of prior sleep. These findings indicate that modafinil has a long duration of action, with alerting properties arising predominantly from dopaminergic activity. PMID:24306135

  10. Experimental Studies on Model Reference Adaptive Control with Integral Action Employing a Rotary Encoder and Tachometer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Shu-Nan; Bai, Yu-Guang; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive law with an integral action is designed and implemented on a DC motor by employing a rotary encoder and tachometer sensors. The stability is proved by using the Lyapunov function. The tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero according to the Barbalat lemma. The tracking performance is specified by a reference model, the convergence rate of Lyapunov function is specified by the matrix Q and the control action and the state weighting are restricted by the matrix Γ. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. The maximum errors of the position and velocity with the integral action are reduced from 0.4 V and 1.5 V to 0.2 V and 0.4 V, respectively. The adaptive control with the integral action gives satisfactory performance, even when it suffers from input disturbance. PMID:23575034

  11. Quantum chemical study of the mechanism of action of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deerfield, David, II; Davis, Charles H.; Wymore, Troy; Stafford, Darrel W.; Pedersen, Lee G.

    Possible model, but simplistic, mechanisms for the action of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) are investigated with quantum mechanical methods (B3LYP/6-311G**). The geometries of proposed model intermediates in the mechanisms are energy optimized. Finally, the energetics of the proposed (pseudo-enzymatic) pathways are compared. We find that the several pathways are all energetically feasible. These results will be useful for designing quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method (QM/MM) studies of the enzymatic pathway once three-dimensional structural data are determined and available for VKOR.

  12. Dexfenfluramine and norfenfluramine: comparison of mechanism of action in feeding and brain Fos-ir studies.

    PubMed

    Rowland, N E; Roth, J D; McMullen, M R; Patel, A; Cespedes, A T

    2000-02-01

    Dexfenfluramine (dF) and dexnorfenfluramine (dNF), its metabolite, are anorectic agents that release serotonin (5-HT) and may have a direct postsynaptic action. The effects on the anorectic effects of dF and dNF of either acute (p-chlorophenylalanine, PCPA) or chronic (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, 5,7-DHT) brain 5-HT depletions were studied in rats and compared with the actions of a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) and 5-HT(1B/2C) receptor agonists [1-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-piperazine and 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine]. The anorexia caused by these agonists was enhanced in rats with 5,7-DHT lesions, possibly a result of receptor supersensitivity. In contrast, fluoxetine anorexia was somewhat reduced in one study and was unchanged in a second. Both dF and dNF anorexias were enhanced in rats with 5,7-DHT lesions. In contrast, the anorectic effects of either dF or dNF were unchanged in PCPA-treated rats relative to controls. Compared with controls, 5, 7-DHT-lesion rats showed greatly increased dF- and dNF-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (ir) in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei, and in the median preoptic area (MnPO), but were similar to controls in most other areas. PCPA pretreatment increased dF- and dNF-induced Fos-ir in the PVN, SON, and MnPO. In controls, equianorectic doses of dF and dNF induced Fos-ir in similar brain regions, but dNF produced relatively larger effects than dF in SON, PVN, and MnPO. The data are discussed in terms of multiple pathways in the anorectic actions of dF and dNF.

  13. Moving mirrors: a high-density EEG study investigating the effect of camera movements on motor cortex activation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Katrin; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Guerra, Michele; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    Action execution-perception links (mirror mechanism) have been repeatedly suggested to play crucial roles in social cognition. Remarkably, the designs of most studies exploring this topic so far excluded even the simplest traces of social interaction, such as a movement of the observer toward another individual. This study introduces a new design by investigating the effects of camera movements, possibly simulating the observer's own approaching movement toward the scene. We conducted a combined high-density EEG and behavioral study investigating motor cortex activation during action observation measured by event-related desynchronization and resynchronization (ERD/ERS) of the mu rhythm. Stimuli were videos showing a goal-related hand action filmed while using the camera in four different ways: filming from a fixed position, zooming in on the scene, approaching the scene by means of a dolly, and approaching the scene by means of a steadycam. Results demonstrated a consistently stronger ERD of the mu rhythm for videos that were filmed while approaching the scene with a steadycam. Furthermore, videos in which the zoom was applied reliably demonstrated a stronger rebound. A rating task showed that videos in which the camera approached the scene were felt as more involving and the steadycam was most able to produce a visual experience close to the one of a human approaching the scene. These results suggest that filming technique predicts time course specifics of ERD/ERS during action observation with only videos simulating the natural vision of a walking human observer eliciting a stronger ERD than videos filmed from a fixed position. This demonstrates the utility of ecologically designed studies for exploring social cognition. PMID:24666130

  14. Capital expenditure decisions: Obtaining commitment to action. A case study for San Diego Gas and Electric Company: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cotteleer, J.; Derby, S.; Matheson, D.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the EPRI Asset Management research initiative is to provide guidelines and tools that help utilities make quality decisions about the management of their assets. This report discusses the importance of the people and processes side of capital budgeting, describes useful decision quality techniques, and illustrates their use at San Diego Gas & Electric Company. The project team applied the techniques of decision quality, decision analysis, and value translation to a set of large capital projects at SDG&E. Decision quality techniques diagnose the current state of an analysis that evaluates options. Decision Analysis is an iterative process for efficiently carrying out the analysis for a decision. Value translation identifies linkages between the outcomes of a decision and high-level corporate values. The evaluated projects-installation of distributed control systems at several units-were chosen because they involved difficult-to-quantify intangibles. The study demonstrated that decision quality techniques can be used to diagnose the quality of a project evaluation analysis. This process helps utilities focus on the areas that will best clarify whether or not to proceed with the project. The study also demonstrates that difficult-to-quantify, highly uncertain intangible contributions to value/cost can be taken into account using decision analysis methods. In fact, decisions made without considering these effects are unlikely to generate management or staff commitment to action, despite analysis recommendations. Finally, the study demonstrates that value translation from high-level corporate goals to measures that are meaningful for business area staff can help ensure that the appropriate projects are recommended for management approval.

  15. Action Research as a Research Methodology for the Study of the Teaching and Learning of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Minstrell, Jim

    This chapter addresses issues of action research from three perspectives. In the first section, what it means to engage in action research as a methodology for investigating teaching and learning in science education is overviewed and various conceptions of action research are explicitly made. The second perspective is that of an individual…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Ariel E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identifies a technique using methylene blue and glucose to explain a genetically related enzyme shortage causing blue skin in humans. Offers a laser technique to study solubility of silver salts of chloride and chromate. Encourages the use of models and class participation in the study of chirality and enantiomers. (ML)

  17. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  18. Studies on the mechanisms of action of picrotoxin, quercetin and pregnanolone at the GABAρ1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Goutman, Juan D; Calvo, Daniel J

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of antagonists of the γ-aminobutyric acid C (GABAC) receptor picrotoxin, quercetin and pregnanolone were studied. Ionic currents (chloride), mediated through human homomeric GABAρ1 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, were recorded by two-electrode voltage clamp. Dose–response (D–R) curves and kinetic measurements of GABAρ1 currents were carried out in the presence or absence of antagonists. Use-dependent actions were also evaluated. Picrotoxin, quercetin and pregnanolone exerted noncompetitive actions. IC50 values measured at the EC50 for GABA (1 μM) were as follows: picrotoxin 0.6±0.1 μM (Hill coefficient n=1.0±0.2); quercetin 4.4±0.4 μM (n=1.5±0.2); pregnanolone 2.1±0.5 μM (n=0.8±0.1). These antagonists produced changes only in the slope of the linear current–voltage relationships, which was indicative of voltage-independent effects. The effect of picrotoxin on GABAρ1 currents was use-dependent, strongly relied on agonist concentration and showed a slow onset and offset. The mechanism was compatible with an allosteric inhibition and receptor activation was a prerequisite for antagonism. The effect of quercetin was use-independent, showed relatively fast onset and offset, and resulted in a slowed time course of the GABA-evoked currents. The effect of pregnanolone was use-independent, presented fast onset and a very slow washout, and did not affect current activation. All the antagonists accelerated the time course of deactivation of the GABAρ1 currents. PMID:14732759

  19. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  20. Bystander Action in Situations of Dating and Sexual Aggression: A Mixed Methodological Study of High School Youth.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Rodenhizer-Stämpfli, Kara Anne; Eckstein, Robert P

    2015-12-01

    Bystander action is a critical component of dating and sexual aggression prevention; however, little is known about barriers and facilitators of bystander action among high school youth and in what situations youth are willing to engage in bystander action. The current study examined bystander action in situations of dating and sexual aggression using a mixed methodological design. Participants included primarily Caucasian (83.0%, n = 181) male (54.6%, n = 119) and female (44.5%, n = 97) high school youth (N = 218). Most (93.6%) students had the opportunity to take action during the past year in situations of dating or sexual aggression; being female and histories of dating and sexual aggression related to bystander action. Thematic analysis of the focus group data identified barriers (e.g., the aggression not meeting a certain threshold, anticipated negative consequences) to bystander action, as well as insight on promising forms of action (e.g., verbally telling the perpetrator to stop, getting a teacher); problematic intervention methods (e.g., threatening or using physical violence to stop the perpetrator) were also noted. Implications for programming are discussed.

  1. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings.

  2. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  3. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  4. The global expansion of alcohol marketing: illustrative case studies and recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    1999-01-01

    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action. PMID:10874398

  5. Synthesis of thiocarbamide derivatives of. beta. -alanine and aminalon and study of their antiradiation action

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.A.; Shlykov, Yu.V.; Mandrugin, A.A.; Semenenko, M.N.; Fedoseev, V.M.; Dontsova, G.V.; Rakhmanina, O.N.; Konstantinova, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have synthesized the carboxyl derivatives of S-(2-Amino-ethyl)isothiourea (AET) and S-(3-Aminopropyl)isothiourea (3-APT), the dihydrobromides of S-(1-carboxy-2-aminoethyl)- and S-(1-carboxy-3-aminopropyl)isothioureas, and studied their toxicity and antiradiation effectiveness. Their work is based on data for the high radiation-protective activity of the corresponding aminoalkylisothioureas and on the fact that the introduction of the carboxylic group into the molecule influences the pharmacological properties of a compound. The starting compound for the preparation of S(1-carboxy-2-aminoethyl)isothiourea was beta-alanine. Mice were used in the investigations and in determining the toxicity of the compounds, the amounts of LD/sub 16/, LD/sub 50/, and LD/sub 84/ are given. In studying the anti-radiation activity, the mice were subjected to the action of /sup 60/Co-gamma rays.

  6. The global expansion of alcohol marketing: illustrative case studies and recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    1999-01-01

    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action.

  7. Experimental semiotics: a new approach for studying communication as a form of joint action.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    In the last few years, researchers have begun to investigate the emergence of novel forms of human communication in the laboratory. I survey this growing line of research, which may be called experimental semiotics, from three distinct angles. First, I situate the new approach in its theoretical and historical context. Second, I review a sample of studies that exemplify experimental semiotics. Third, I present an empirical study that illustrates how the new approach can help us understand the socio-cognitive underpinnings of human communication. The main conclusion of the paper will be that, by reproducing micro samples of historical processes in the laboratory, experimental semiotics offers new powerful tools for investigating human communication as a form of joint action.

  8. Health activism and the logic of connective action. A case study of rare disease patient organisations

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Stefania; Cappai, Franco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This exploratory work investigates the role of digital media in expanding health discourse practices in a way to transform traditional structures of agency in public health. By focusing on a sample of rare disease patient organisations as representative of contemporary health activism, this study investigates the role of digital communication in the development of (1) bottom-up sharing and co-production of health knowledge, (2) health public engagement dynamics and (3) health information pathways. Findings show that digital media affordances for patient organisations go beyond the provision of social support for patient communities; they ease one-way, two-way and crowdsourced processes of health knowledge sharing, exchange and co-production, provide personalised routes to health public engagement and bolster the emergence of varied pathways to health information where experiential knowledge and medical authority are equally valued. These forms of organisationally enabled connective action can help the surfacing of personal narratives that strengthen patient communities, the bottom-up production of health knowledge relevant to a wider public and the development of an informational and eventually cultural context that eases patients’ political action. PMID:27499676

  9. Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating.

  10. Collaborative agency to support integrated care for children, young people and families: an action research study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Kaz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Collaboration was legislated in the delivery of integrated care in the early 2000s in the UK. This research explored how the reality of practice met the rhetoric of collaboration. Theory The paper is situated against a theoretical framework of structure, agency, identity and empowerment. Collectively and contextually these concepts inform the proposed model of ‘collaborative agency’ to sustain integrated care. The paper brings sociological theory on structure and agency to the dilemma of collaboration. Methods Participative action research was carried out in collaborative teams that aspired to achieve integrated care for children, young people and families between 2009 and 2013. It was a part time, PhD study in collaborative practice. Results The research established that people needed to be able to be jointly aware of their context, to make joint decisions, and jointly act in order to deliver integrated services, and proposes a model of collaborative agency derived from practitioner’s experiences and integrated action research and literature on agency. The model reflects the effects of a range of structures in shaping professional identity, empowerment, and agency in a dynamic. The author proposes that the collaborative agency model will support integrated care, although this is, as yet, an untested hypothesis. PMID:24868192

  11. The Characteristics of Action Research in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This review article discusses the use of action research in music education and its potential for producing knowledge and improving practice. The discussion is situated in an analysis of action research studies in music education. The review demonstrates that action research in music education focuses on a wide variety of subject matter,…

  12. Scientist-teacher partnerships as professional development: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcuts, Meredith Harris

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study's findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses -- that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.

  13. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

  14. Influence of the actions observed on cervical motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de-la-Puente-Ranea, Lucía; García-Calvo, Beatriz; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to prove if the action-observation (AOb) improved the cervical range of motion (CROM) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP). Double blind pilot study. A total of 28 subjects were randomly assigned to an effective-movement group (n=14) and an ineffective-movement group (n=14). The follow-up consisted of: pretreatment, posttreatment and 10 min after second measurement (motor imagery). Outcome measures were CROM, and pres-sure pain detection thresholds (PPDTs). No statistical differences were found in baseline on CROM and on the PPDT. Test for independent groups revealed significant changes in cervical rotation movement. Both groups in posttreatment (P=0.042; Cohen d=0.81) and after 10 min (P=0.019; Cohen d=0.9). For intragroup PPDT, the Wilcoxon test revealed significant effects in the effective movement at C2 of the pre to 10-min post (P=0.040). However, the ineffective movement revealed a significant reduction in PPDT in zygapophyseal joint of C5-C6 as the pre to post (P=0.010) as the pre to 10-min post (P=0.041) periods. In conclusions this pilot study demonstrated that the effective AOb produced significant changes versus ineffective AOb in the CROM and it could influences in PPT in subject with CNP immediately. PMID:27656633

  15. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  16. Influence of the actions observed on cervical motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Puente-Ranea, Lucía; García-Calvo, Beatriz; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to prove if the action-observation (AOb) improved the cervical range of motion (CROM) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP). Double blind pilot study. A total of 28 subjects were randomly assigned to an effective-movement group (n=14) and an ineffective-movement group (n=14). The follow-up consisted of: pretreatment, posttreatment and 10 min after second measurement (motor imagery). Outcome measures were CROM, and pres-sure pain detection thresholds (PPDTs). No statistical differences were found in baseline on CROM and on the PPDT. Test for independent groups revealed significant changes in cervical rotation movement. Both groups in posttreatment (P=0.042; Cohen d=0.81) and after 10 min (P=0.019; Cohen d=0.9). For intragroup PPDT, the Wilcoxon test revealed significant effects in the effective movement at C2 of the pre to 10-min post (P=0.040). However, the ineffective movement revealed a significant reduction in PPDT in zygapophyseal joint of C5–C6 as the pre to post (P=0.010) as the pre to 10-min post (P=0.041) periods. In conclusions this pilot study demonstrated that the effective AOb produced significant changes versus ineffective AOb in the CROM and it could influences in PPT in subject with CNP immediately. PMID:27656633

  17. Influence of the actions observed on cervical motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Puente-Ranea, Lucía; García-Calvo, Beatriz; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to prove if the action-observation (AOb) improved the cervical range of motion (CROM) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP). Double blind pilot study. A total of 28 subjects were randomly assigned to an effective-movement group (n=14) and an ineffective-movement group (n=14). The follow-up consisted of: pretreatment, posttreatment and 10 min after second measurement (motor imagery). Outcome measures were CROM, and pres-sure pain detection thresholds (PPDTs). No statistical differences were found in baseline on CROM and on the PPDT. Test for independent groups revealed significant changes in cervical rotation movement. Both groups in posttreatment (P=0.042; Cohen d=0.81) and after 10 min (P=0.019; Cohen d=0.9). For intragroup PPDT, the Wilcoxon test revealed significant effects in the effective movement at C2 of the pre to 10-min post (P=0.040). However, the ineffective movement revealed a significant reduction in PPDT in zygapophyseal joint of C5–C6 as the pre to post (P=0.010) as the pre to 10-min post (P=0.041) periods. In conclusions this pilot study demonstrated that the effective AOb produced significant changes versus ineffective AOb in the CROM and it could influences in PPT in subject with CNP immediately.

  18. Influence of the actions observed on cervical motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de-la-Puente-Ranea, Lucía; García-Calvo, Beatriz; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to prove if the action-observation (AOb) improved the cervical range of motion (CROM) in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain (CNP). Double blind pilot study. A total of 28 subjects were randomly assigned to an effective-movement group (n=14) and an ineffective-movement group (n=14). The follow-up consisted of: pretreatment, posttreatment and 10 min after second measurement (motor imagery). Outcome measures were CROM, and pres-sure pain detection thresholds (PPDTs). No statistical differences were found in baseline on CROM and on the PPDT. Test for independent groups revealed significant changes in cervical rotation movement. Both groups in posttreatment (P=0.042; Cohen d=0.81) and after 10 min (P=0.019; Cohen d=0.9). For intragroup PPDT, the Wilcoxon test revealed significant effects in the effective movement at C2 of the pre to 10-min post (P=0.040). However, the ineffective movement revealed a significant reduction in PPDT in zygapophyseal joint of C5-C6 as the pre to post (P=0.010) as the pre to 10-min post (P=0.041) periods. In conclusions this pilot study demonstrated that the effective AOb produced significant changes versus ineffective AOb in the CROM and it could influences in PPT in subject with CNP immediately.

  19. Studying tungsten under the cyclic action of a plasma gun jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Gusev, V. K.; Demina, E. V.; Novokhatskii, A. N.; Prusakova, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the cyclic action of a plasma gun jet, which modeled nonstationary thermal load related to the edge localized modes (ELMs), on the surface of tungsten elements intended for the ITER divertor. The results revealed significant changes in both the structure and morphology of a surface layer. After 100 irradiation cycles, a columnar or "ridged" structure of elements perpendicular to the initial irradiated surface is formed. Exposure to 1000 cycles changes the mechanism of material degradation and radically modifies the character of the surface topography, since the ridges are melted with the formation of droplet structures. The surface becomes rough, a loose material layer appears under the irradiated surface, and a 100-μm-thick recrystallized layer is formed.

  20. A study of ionisation of free and clustered molecules under the action of femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Apatin, V M; Kompanets, V O; Lokhman, V N; Ogurok, N-D D; Poydashev, D G; Ryabov, E A; Chekalin, S V

    2014-05-30

    We have investigated the processes of excitation and ionisation of monomers and clusters of CF{sub 3}I, IF{sub 2}CCOF and Fe(CO){sub 5} molecules under the action of femtosecond laser radiation at the wavelengths of 266, 400 and 800 nm. It is concluded that the nature of the excitation of free molecules and clustered molecules by femtosecond pulses is different. The simulation of the ionisation yield of the objects under study has shown that the multiphoton ionisation is the key mechanism in the case of free molecules, while the field ionisation may play a significant role for clusters, in particular, in the case of ionisation at the wavelength of λ = 800 nm. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  1. Functionally Optimized Neuritogenic Farinosone C Analogs: SAR-Study and Investigations on Their Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Several natural products derived from entomopathogenic fungi have been shown to initiate neuronal differentiation in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. After the successful completion of the total synthesis program, the reduction of structural complexity while retaining biological activity was targeted. In this study, farinosone C served as a lead structure and inspired the preparation of small molecules with reduced complexity, of which several were able to induce neurite outgrowth. This allowed for the elaboration of a detailed structure–activity relationship. Investigations on the mode of action utilizing a computational similarity ensemble approach suggested the involvement of the endocannabinoid system as potential target for our analogs and also led to the discovery of four potent new endocannabinoid transport inhibitors. PMID:24900793

  2. Enhancing the language development of immigrant ESL nursing students: a case study with recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Malu, K F; Figlear, M R

    1998-01-01

    Immigrant nursing students who use English as a Second Language (ESL) are becoming a significant population in nursing education classrooms today. Frequently, nurse educators feel at a loss as they struggle to help students achieve their educational goals. The authors offer an analysis of one of the problems nurse educators and immigrant ESL nursing students face: language development. A case study that has as its theme the problem of language development is presented. Relevant second language acquisition research findings are outlined and appropriate teaching practices are suggested. This research and these practices are used to identify actions that nurse educators and their students can take to enhance and improve the language development of immigrant ESL nursing students.

  3. [The hepatotropic action of sodium chloride and hydrocarbonate mineral water containing humic acids (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Verigo, N S; Ulashchik, V S

    2015-01-01

    The present article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the hepatotropic action of native and modified low-mineralized sodium chloride and bicarbonate waters differing in the content of humic acids. It was found that the most beneficial changes after a course of 21 day therapy with the use of such mineral waters for the treatment of experimental hepatitis were observed after the application of the water with a humic acid content of roughly 20 g/dm3. Such treatment resulted in the significant improvement of the liver antitoxic function, intensification of basal metabolism, reduction of the inflammatory processes, normalization of the hepatic enzyme activity, and stimulation of proteinsynthetic function in parallel with positive dynamics of the morphological and histochemical characteristics of the liver.

  4. Studies on antidepressant action of a new oxazolidinone derivative AS-8.

    PubMed

    Kostowski, W; Płaźnik, A; Bidziński, A; Rosnowska, E; Jessa, M; Nazar, M

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of previous laboratory studies AS-8 was suggested to possess antidepressant-like activity. Forced swim test, learned helplessness and conflict Vogel's test were performed after three prior administrations of AS-8 (24, 5 and 1 h before the test). The data have shown that AS-8 produces moderate antidepressant effect but did not induce anxiolytic-like action. Biochemical data revealed increased brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels following AS-8 administration. The combined treatment of rats with AS-8 (100 mg/kg) and amitriptyline (5 mg/kg) or desipramine (1.25 mg/kg) significantly stimulated active behavior in the forced swim test above the level obtained with each of the drug given separately. The present data suggest the potential antidepressant efficacy of AS-8 in conjunction with small doses of tricyclic antidepressants.

  5. Feasibility study to demonstrate cardiac imaging using fast kVp switching dual-energy computed tomography: phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhav, Priti; Imai, Yasuhiro; Narayanan, Suresh; Dutta, Sandeep; Chandra, Naveen; Hsieh, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography is a novel imaging tool that has the potential to reduce beam hardening artifacts and enhance material separation over conventional imaging techniques. Dual-energy acquisitions can be performed by using a fast kVp technology to switch between acquiring adjacent projections at two distinct x-ray spectra (80 and 140 kVp). These datasets can be used to further compute material density and monochromatic images for better material separation and beam hardening reduction by virtue of the projection domain process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using dual-energy in cardiac imaging for myocardial perfusion detection and coronary artery lumen visualization. Data was acquired on a heart phantom, which consisted of the chambers and aorta filled with Iodine density solution (500 HU @ 120 kVp), a defect region between the aorta and chamber (40 HU @ 120 kVp), two Iodinefilled vessels (400 HU @ 120 kVp) of different diameters with high attenuation (hydroxyapatite) plaques (HAP), and with a 30-cm water equivalent body ring around the phantom. Prospective ECG-gated single-energy and prospective ECG-gated dual-energy imaging was performed. Results showed that the generated monochromatic images had minimal beam hardening artifacts which improved the accuracy and detection of the myocardial defect region. Material density images were useful in differentiating and quantifying the actual size of the plaque and coronary artery lumen. Overall, this study shows that dual-energy cardiac imaging will be a valuable tool for cardiac applications.

  6. Strict actions of the human wrist flexors: A study with an electrical neuromuscular stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Narita, Aya; Sagae, Masaaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Takaaki; Sotokawa, Tasuku; Nakano, Haruki; Naganuma, Makoto; Sato, Toshiaki; Fujii, Hiromi; Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Ogino, Toshihiko; Naito, Akira

    2015-08-01

    In order to elucidate strict actions of the human wrist flexors, motion and force produced by electrical neuromuscular stimulation (ENS) to each of musculus (m.) flexsor carpi radialis (FCR) and m. flexsor carpi ulnaris (FCU) with the prone, semiprone, and supine forearm were studied in ten healthy human subjects. Abduction, extension, adduction, and flexion directions were represented by, respectively, 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. ENS to FCR and FCU produced motion in direction of, respectively, 273° (mean) and 265° with the prone, 249° and 232° with the semiprone, and 242° and 229° with the supine forearm to the maximal range. Direction/strength (Nm) of force by ENS to FCR and FCU were, respectively, 298°/1.16 and 239°/1.70 with the prone, 279°/1.30 and 241°/1.62 with the semiprone, and 267°/1.24 and 227°/2.04 with the supine forearm. ENS to FCR exhibited force of 20-29% of maximal flexion and 7-15% of maximal abduction or 1-4% of maximal adduction and that to FCU force of 24-28% of maximal flexion and 15-25% of maximal adduction. The force study results suggest that FCU is a flexor rather than an adductor with every forearm position. FCR should be a flexor rather than an abductor with the prone and semiprone and a flexor with the supine forearm. The action of FCR as the abductor should diminish with supinating the forearm. PMID:25921817

  7. Scientist-Teacher Partnerships as Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    SciTech Connect

    Willcuts, Meredith H.

    2009-04-01

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.

  8. Seasat-A ASVT: Commercial demonstration experiments. Results analysis methodology for the Seasat-A case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The SEASAT-A commercial demonstration program ASVT is described. The program consists of a set of experiments involving the evaluation of a real time data distributions system, the SEASAT-A user data distribution system, that provides the capability for near real time dissemination of ocean conditions and weather data products from the U.S. Navy Fleet Numerical Weather Central to a selected set of commercial and industrial users and case studies, performed by commercial and industrial users, using the data gathered by SEASAT-A during its operational life. The impact of the SEASAT-A data on business operations is evaluated by the commercial and industrial users. The approach followed in the performance of the case studies, and the methodology used in the analysis and integration of the case study results to estimate the actual and potential economic benefits of improved ocean condition and weather forecast data are described.

  9. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface. PMID:27031109

  10. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Roland, Bartholomew P; Zeccola, Alison M; Larsen, Samantha B; Amrich, Christopher G; Talsma, Aaron D; Stuchul, Kimberly A; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S; VanDemark, Andrew P; Palladino, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface. PMID:27031109

  11. Bithionol inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth In Vitro - studies on mechanism(s) of action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    exhibits cytotoxic effects on various ovarian cancer cell lines regardless of their sensitivities to cisplatin. Cell death appears to be via caspases mediated apoptosis. The mechanisms of action appear to be partly via cell cycle arrest, ROS generation and inhibition of ATX. The present study provides preclinical data suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BT against recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:24495391

  12. Action in External Studies. Division of External Studies Occasional Papers No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverina Coll. of Advanced Education, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia).

    Developments in distance education are addressed in four papers. In "A Practical Winery Experience," Malcolm Allen discusses Riverina College of Advanced Education's Bachelor of Applied Science (wine science) course, which is vocationally oriented, mainly enrolls students from the wine industry, and primarily uses correspondence study. It provides…

  13. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  14. A case study of bats and white-nose syndrome demonstrating how to model population viability with evolutionary effects.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Brooke; Fefferman, Nina H

    2015-08-01

    Ecological factors generally affect population viability on rapid time scales. Traditional population viability analyses (PVA) therefore focus on alleviating ecological pressures, discounting potential evolutionary impacts on individual phenotypes. Recent studies of evolutionary rescue (ER) focus on cases in which severe, environmentally induced population bottlenecks trigger a rapid evolutionary response that can potentially reverse demographic threats. ER models have focused on shifting genetics and resulting population recovery, but no one has explored how to incorporate those findings into PVA. We integrated ER into PVA to identify the critical decision interval for evolutionary rescue (DIER) under which targeted conservation action should be applied to buffer populations undergoing ER against extinction from stochastic events and to determine the most appropriate vital rate to target to promote population recovery. We applied this model to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) affected by white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing massive declines in several North American bat populations. Under the ER scenario, the model predicted that the DIER period for little brown bats was within 11 years of initial WNS emergence, after which they stabilized at a positive growth rate (λ = 1.05). By comparing our model results with population trajectories of multiple infected hibernacula across the WNS range, we concluded that ER is a potential explanation of observed little brown bat population trajectories across multiple hibernacula within the affected range. Our approach provides a tool that can be used by all managers to provide testable hypotheses regarding the occurrence of ER in declining populations, suggest empirical studies to better parameterize the population genetics and conservation-relevant vital rates, and identify the DIER period during which management strategies will be most effective for species conservation.

  15. A case study of bats and white-nose syndrome demonstrating how to model population viability with evolutionary effects.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Brooke; Fefferman, Nina H

    2015-08-01

    Ecological factors generally affect population viability on rapid time scales. Traditional population viability analyses (PVA) therefore focus on alleviating ecological pressures, discounting potential evolutionary impacts on individual phenotypes. Recent studies of evolutionary rescue (ER) focus on cases in which severe, environmentally induced population bottlenecks trigger a rapid evolutionary response that can potentially reverse demographic threats. ER models have focused on shifting genetics and resulting population recovery, but no one has explored how to incorporate those findings into PVA. We integrated ER into PVA to identify the critical decision interval for evolutionary rescue (DIER) under which targeted conservation action should be applied to buffer populations undergoing ER against extinction from stochastic events and to determine the most appropriate vital rate to target to promote population recovery. We applied this model to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) affected by white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing massive declines in several North American bat populations. Under the ER scenario, the model predicted that the DIER period for little brown bats was within 11 years of initial WNS emergence, after which they stabilized at a positive growth rate (λ = 1.05). By comparing our model results with population trajectories of multiple infected hibernacula across the WNS range, we concluded that ER is a potential explanation of observed little brown bat population trajectories across multiple hibernacula within the affected range. Our approach provides a tool that can be used by all managers to provide testable hypotheses regarding the occurrence of ER in declining populations, suggest empirical studies to better parameterize the population genetics and conservation-relevant vital rates, and identify the DIER period during which management strategies will be most effective for species conservation. PMID:25808080

  16. Involvement of sigma (sigma) receptors in the acute actions of methamphetamine: receptor binding and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Emily C; McCracken, Kari A; Liu, Yun; Pouw, Buddy; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2005-10-01

    Methamphetamine interacts with sigma (sigma) receptors, suggesting that the drug produces some of its physiological and behavioral effects through these sites. Therefore, in the present report, receptor binding and pharmacological studies were performed to characterize the interaction between methamphetamine and sigma receptors. Of the two major sigma receptor subtypes, sigma1 and sigma2, competition binding studies showed that methamphetamine has a 22-fold preferential affinity for the sigma1 subtype. Saturation binding studies using the sigma1 selective radioligand [3H]+-pentazocine showed that in the presence of methamphetamine, there was a significant change in Kd, but not Bmax, suggesting competitive interactions. In behavioral studies, pretreatment of Swiss Webster mice with the sigma1 receptor antagonists, BD1063 or BD1047, significantly attenuated the locomotor stimulatory effects of methamphetamine. Mice that were administered an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to down-regulate brain sigma1 receptors also exhibited a reduced locomotor stimulatory response to methamphetamine, as compared to control mice receiving mismatch oligonucleotides. Together, the data suggest that sigma1 receptors are involved in the acute actions of methamphetamine and that antagonism of this subtype is sufficient to prevent the locomotor stimulatory effects of methamphetamine. PMID:15939443

  17. Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

  18. String & Sticky Tape Experiments: A Siphon Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a simple demonstration of siphon action by using straws without sucking, or filling and closing one end. Includes the method, figures of the demonstration, and four questions for students on the demonstration. (YP)

  19. Virtual Action Learning: Experiences from a Study of an SME e-Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jean-Anne; Alexander, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a project investigating management development for SME managers using an action learning programme, combining both face-to-face workshops and a virtual action learning environment. This programme was undertaken as part of the ENSeL (Engaging Networks for Sustainable eLearning) project, which was supported by…

  20. Meta-Action Research with Pre-Service Teachers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villacañas de Castro, Luis Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses a case of action research collaboratively conducted by a university teacher and 50 students in a master's course in teacher training. Its originality resides in the socio-economic, academic, and conceptual nature of the obstacles encountered in the module; in the meta-theoretical orientation of the action research that…

  1. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Observing other people's actions facilitates the observer's motor system as compared with observing the same individuals at rest. This motor activation is thought to result from mirror-like activity in fronto-parietal areas, which enhances the excitability of the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways. Although covert motor activation in response to observed actions has been widely investigated between conspecifics, how humans cope with other species' actions has received less attention. For example, it remains unclear whether the human motor system is activated by observing other species' actions, and whether prior familiarity with the non-conspecific agent modulates this activation. Here, we combined single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor-evoked potential recording to explore the impact of familiarity on motor activation during the observation of non-conspecific actions. Videos displaying actions performed either by a conspecific (human) or by a non-conspecific (dog) were shown to individuals who had prior familiarity or no familiarity at all with the non-conspecific agent. We found that, whereas individuals with long-lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions. These findings suggest that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species, and that familiarity plays a key role in tuning this ability. PMID:26666833

  2. Our School at Blair Grocery: A Case Study in Promoting Environmental Action through Critical Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2012-01-01

    Despite wide agreement on the goals of environmental education (EE), the promotion of action is still considered contentious. Critical environmental education (critical EE) teaches students to combine critical reflection with the ability to engage in local action to address social/environmental problems. This article examines a critical urban…

  3. A Relevant War Against Poverty. A Study of Community Action Programs and Observable Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth B.; Hopkins, Jeannette

    Twelve urban community action programs (CAP) were examined in depth to determine how each of them operationally defined community action and to evaluate their performance. The criteria used were: (1) a clear statement of purpose and programs consistent with that purpose; (2) strong independent leadership and a built-in evaluation and…

  4. Neuro-cognitive mechanisms of decision making in joint action: a human-robot interaction study.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Estela; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Louro, Luis; e Silva, Eliana Costa

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present a model for action preparation and decision making in cooperative tasks that is inspired by recent experimental findings about the neuro-cognitive mechanisms supporting joint action in humans. It implements the coordination of actions and goals among the partners as a dynamic process that integrates contextual cues, shared task knowledge and predicted outcome of others' motor behavior. The control architecture is formalized by a system of coupled dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of local but connected neural populations. Different pools of neurons encode task-relevant information about action means, task goals and context in the form of self-sustained activation patterns. These patterns are triggered by input from connected populations and evolve continuously in time under the influence of recurrent interactions. The dynamic model of joint action is evaluated in a task in which a robot and a human jointly construct a toy object. We show that the highly context sensitive mapping from action observation onto appropriate complementary actions allows coping with dynamically changing joint action situations.

  5. Using the "Counting On" Mathematics Strategies: An Action Research Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Katie; Maxwell, Tom W.

    2010-01-01

    Action research (AR) is defined by Macintyre to be: "an investigation, where, as a result of rigorous self-appraisal of current practice, the researcher focuses on a problem,or a topic or an issue which needs to be explained, and on the basis of information, plans, implements, then evaluates an action then draws conclusions on the basis of the…

  6. Does Lean Production Sacrifice Learning in a Manufacturing Environment? An Action Learning Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John

    2001-01-01

    An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…

  7. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  8. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  9. Demonstration of Feasibility of X-Ray Free Electron Laser Studies of Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Entangled Polymer Melts

    PubMed Central

    Carnis, Jerome; Cha, Wonsuk; Wingert, James; Kang, Jinback; Jiang, Zhang; Song, Sanghoon; Sikorski, Marcin; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Chen, San-Wen; Dai, Yeling; Ma, Yicong; Guo, Hongyu; Lurio, Laurence B.; Shpyrko, Oleg; Narayanan, Suresh; Cui, Mengmeng; Kosif, Irem; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P.; Lee, Hae Cheol; Yu, Chung-Jong; Grübel, Gerhard; Sinha, Sunil K.; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) opens new areas of science due to their exceptional brightness, coherence, and time structure. In principle, such sources enable studies of dynamics of condensed matter systems over times ranging from femtoseconds to seconds. However, the studies of “slow” dynamics in polymeric materials still remain in question due to the characteristics of the XFEL beam and concerns about sample damage. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the relaxation dynamics of gold nanoparticles suspended in polymer melts using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), while also monitoring eventual X-ray induced damage. In spite of inherently large pulse-to-pulse intensity and position variations of the XFEL beam, measurements can be realized at slow time scales. The X-ray induced damage and heating are less than initially expected for soft matter materials. PMID:25109363

  10. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  11. Feasibility study of contamination remediation at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California. Volume 1. Remedial-action alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cullinane, M.J.; Lee, C.R.; O'Neil, L.J.

    1988-09-01

    This report identifies and describes potential remedial actions to eliminate or mitigate the release of hazardous substances onto lands of the Naval Weapons Station, Concord, CA. Hazardous substances identified as necessitating remedial actions include lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, and arsenic. The proposed remedial actions are designed to address existing or potential impacts identified in a separate study. These identified impacts include: contamination of soil with metals; contamination and toxicity in plants and soil invertebrates; reduced plant growth; increased soil acidity; surface water contamination; air contamination; loss of quantity and quality of wildlife habitat; loss of wetland function; and loss of ultimate land use. The release of hazardous substances at seven sites was identified in the remedial investigation. The seven individual areas were consolidated into four remedial action subsites (RASS's) based on an analysis of the topography and nature of the habitat.

  12. Action-effect binding by observational learning.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; van Dam, Wessel; Hunnius, Sabine; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-10-01

    The acquisition of bidirectional action-effect associations plays a central role in the ability to intentionally control actions. Humans learn about actions not only through active experience, but also through observing the actions of others. In Experiment 1, we examined whether action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. To this end, participants observed how a model repeatedly pressed two buttons during an observation phase. Each of the buttonpresses led to a specific tone (action effect). In a subsequent test phase, the tones served as target stimuli to which the participants had to respond with buttonpresses. Reaction times were shorter if the stimulus-response mapping in the test phase was compatible with the action-effect association in the observation phase. Experiment 2 excluded the possibility that the impact of perceived action effects on own actions was driven merely by an association of spatial features with the particular tones. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the presence of an agent is necessary to acquire novel action-effect associations through observation. Altogether, the study provides evidence for the claim that bidirectional action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. Our findings are discussed in the context of the idea that the acquisition of action-effect associations through observation is an important cognitive mechanism subserving the human ability for social learning.

  13. Potential of Plant Essential Oils and Their Components in Animal Agriculture - in vitro Studies on Antibacterial Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Corliss A; Pendleton, Sean J; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components has been recognized for several years. Essential oils are produced as secondary metabolites by many plants and can be distilled from all different portions of plants. The recent emergence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics has spurred research into the use of essential oils as alternatives. Recent research has demonstrated that many of these essential oils have beneficial effects for livestock, including reduction of foodborne pathogens in these animals. Numerous studies have been made into the mode of action of essential oils, and the resulting elucidation of bacterial cell targets has contributed to new perspectives on countering antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of these bacteria. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge about the antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents is provided. PMID:26664964

  14. Potential of Plant Essential Oils and Their Components in Animal Agriculture – in vitro Studies on Antibacterial Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryan, Corliss A.; Pendleton, Sean J.; Crandall, Philip G.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components has been recognized for several years. Essential oils are produced as secondary metabolites by many plants and can be distilled from all different portions of plants. The recent emergence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics has spurred research into the use of essential oils as alternatives. Recent research has demonstrated that many of these essential oils have beneficial effects for livestock, including reduction of foodborne pathogens in these animals. Numerous studies have been made into the mode of action of essential oils, and the resulting elucidation of bacterial cell targets has contributed to new perspectives on countering antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of these bacteria. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge about the antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents is provided. PMID:26664964

  15. Phenome-wide association studies demonstrating pleiotropy of genetic variants within FTO with and without adjustment for body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Robert M.; Field, Julie R.; Bradford, Yuki; Shaffer, Christian M.; Carroll, Robert J.; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Bastarache, Lisa; Edwards, Todd L.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Lin, Simon; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Crane, Paul K.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Carrell, David S.; Crosslin, David R.; Ledbetter, David H.; Carey, David J.; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S.; Larson, Eric B.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Peissig, Peggy L.; Brilliant, Murray H.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Chute, Christopher G.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Bottinger, Erwin; Chisholm, Rex; Smith, Maureen E.; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Joshua C.

    2014-01-01

    Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have demonstrated utility in validating genetic associations derived from traditional genetic studies as well as identifying novel genetic associations. Here we used an electronic health record (EHR)-based PheWAS to explore pleiotropy of genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO), some of which have been previously associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We used a population of 10,487 individuals of European ancestry with genome-wide genotyping from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network and another population of 13,711 individuals of European ancestry from the BioVU DNA biobank at Vanderbilt genotyped using Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. A meta-analysis of the two study populations replicated the well-described associations between FTO variants and obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.11–1.24, p = 2.10 × 10−9) and FTO variants and T2D (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.08–1.21, p = 2.34 × 10−6). The meta-analysis also demonstrated that FTO variant rs8050136 was significantly associated with sleep apnea (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07–1.22, p = 3.33 × 10−5); however, the association was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). Novel phenotype associations with obesity-associated FTO variants included fibrocystic breast disease (rs9941349, OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.74–0.91, p = 5.41 × 10−5) and trends toward associations with non-alcoholic liver disease and gram-positive bacterial infections. FTO variants not associated with obesity demonstrated other potential disease associations including non-inflammatory disorders of the cervix and chronic periodontitis. These results suggest that genetic variants in FTO may have pleiotropic associations, some of which are not mediated by obesity. PMID:25177340

  16. Action Experience and Action Discovery in Medicated Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bednark, Jeffery G.; Reynolds, John N. J.; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-matched controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery (AD) and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, AD was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP), an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected. PMID:27610079

  17. Action Experience and Action Discovery in Medicated Individuals with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Reynolds, John N J; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-matched controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery (AD) and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, AD was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP), an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected. PMID:27610079

  18. Action Experience and Action Discovery in Medicated Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bednark, Jeffery G.; Reynolds, John N. J.; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-matched controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery (AD) and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, AD was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP), an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected.

  19. Science communication and vernal pool conservation: a study of local decision maker attitudes in a knowledge-action system.

    PubMed

    McGreavy, Bridie; Webler, Thomas; Calhoun, Aram J K

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we describe local decision maker attitudes towards vernal pools to inform science communication and enhance vernal pool conservation efforts. We conducted interviews with town planning board and conservation commission members (n = 9) from two towns in the State of Maine in the northeastern United States. We then mailed a questionnaire to a stratified random sample of planning board members in August and September 2007 with a response rate of 48.4% (n = 320). The majority of survey respondents favored the protection and conservation of vernal pools in their towns. Decision makers were familiar with the term "vernal pool" and demonstrated positive attitudes to vernal pools in general. General appreciation and willingness to conserve vernal pools predicted support for the 2006 revisions to the Natural Resource Protection Act regulating Significant Vernal Pools. However, 48% of respondents were unaware of this law and neither prior knowledge of the law nor workshop attendance predicted support for the vernal pool law. Further, concerns about private property rights and development restrictions predicted disagreement with the vernal pool law. We conclude that science communication must rely on specific frames of reference, be sensitive to cultural values, and occur in an iterative system to link knowledge and action in support of vernal pool conservation.

  20. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  1. Effects of Action Video Game on Attention Distribution: A Cognitive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Yan, Bin; Shu, Hua

    Based on the previous researches, Flanker compatibility effect paradigm was applied to explore the degree where people process the visual information presented on to-be-ignored locations. In present study, this paradigm was used to investigate attention distribution of Video Game Players (VGPs) and Non Video Game Players (NVGPs). The results suggested, under low perceptual load, VGPs tried to focus their attention on the task at-hand whereas the NVGPs tried to explore the adjacent locations with the left-over resources from the research task; however, under high perceptual load, the players would process the visual information at the adjacent locations of the target with the left-over resources, because they had comparatively greater attention capability, whereas the non-players focused their attention on the target locations to finish the search task. To conclude, the present study suggested that action video game play could not only enhance the attention capacity but also cause a different way of attention distribution in different perceptual load situations.

  2. Newer technologies for study of the action of nitrates in coronary circulation and myocardial function

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, H.J.

    1985-07-01

    Minimally invasive evaluation of the behavior of the right and the left ventricle can be obtained in a dynamic way by using technetium-99 (99Tc) scintographic ventriculography. The ''first pass'' technique is particularly appropriate to the investigation of short-acting agents, such as nitroglycerin and other nitrates, but information on a 1-minute to 2-minutes steady state response can be obtained by using the ''gated blood pool'' method. Studies in patients with and without coronary heart disease have identified apparent improvement in regional and global left ventricular ejection fractions associated with afterload reduction caused by such interventions. However, part of the normalization of regions of previously abnormal myocardial contraction may be due to more uniform transmural distribution of coronary blood flow. Such techniques, including nitrate administration, have been used to define regional ischemia suitable for revascularization procedures. Sequential thallium studies also suggest that nitroglycerin reduces or prevents stress induced ischemia, although the mechanism (afterload versus coronary vasodilation) has not been completely elucidated. In the future subtraction angiographic techniques may lead to a more accurate estimate of regional distribution of blood flow and its pharmacologic manipulation. Digital techniques will also facilitate accurate measurement of coronary vascular narrowing in a manner that will serve to elucidate the direct actions of nitrates and similar substances on the coronary circulation. 20 references.

  3. In vivo demonstration of ultrasound power delivery to charge implanted medical devices via acute and survival porcine studies.

    PubMed

    Radziemski, Leon; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies are an important step in proving the utility and safety of an ultrasound based implanted battery recharging system. To this end an Ultrasound Electrical Recharging System (USER™) was developed and tested. Experiments in vitro demonstrated power deliveries at the battery of up to 600 mW through 10-15 mm of tissue, 50 mW of power available at tissue depths of up to 50 mm, and the feasibility of using transducers bonded to titanium as used in medical implants. Acute in vivo studies in a porcine model were used to test reliability of power delivery, temperature excursions, and cooling techniques. The culminating five-week survival study involved repeated battery charging, a total of 10.5h of ultrasound exposure of the intervening living tissue, with an average RF input to electrical charging efficiency of 20%. This study was potentially the first long term cumulative living-tissue exposure using transcutaneous ultrasound power transmission to an implanted receiver in situ. Histology of the exposed tissue showed changes attributable primarily due to surgical implantation of the prototype device, and no damage due to the ultrasound exposure. The in vivo results are indicative of the potential safe delivery of ultrasound energy for a defined set of source conditions for charging batteries within implants.

  4. A CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATING LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS FROM CLOSED OR ABANDONED FACILITIES--SOMERSWORTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the activities described in this document is to provide a demonstration of the procedures and methodologies described within the "Guidance for Evaluating Landfill Gas Emissions from Closed or Abandoned Facilities" (Guidance). This demonstration provides an example ...

  5. Action Processing and Mirror Neuron Function in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Persad, Carol; Burkard, David; Welsh, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that social cognition may be affected, such as impairment in theory of mind (ToM) ability. Despite these findings, research in this area is scarce and the investigation of neural mechanisms behind such impairment is absent. Nineteen patients with ALS and eighteen healthy controls participated in this study. Because the mirror neuron system (MNS) is thought to be involved in theory of mind, we first implemented a straightforward action-execution and observation task to assess basic MNS function. Second, we examined the social-cognitive ability to understand actions of others, which is a component of ToM. We used fMRI to assess BOLD activity differences between groups during both experiments. Theory of mind was also measured behaviorally using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RME). ALS patients displayed greater BOLD activity during the action-execution and observation task, especially throughout right anterior cortical regions. These areas included the right inferior operculum, premotor and primary motor regions, and left inferior parietal lobe. A conjunction analysis showed significantly more co-activated voxels during both the observation and action-execution conditions in the patient group throughout MNS regions. These results support a compensatory response in the MNS during action processing. In the action understanding experiment, healthy controls performed better behaviorally and subsequently recruited greater regions of activity throughout the prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Lastly, action understanding performance was able to cluster patients with ALS into high and lower performing groups, which then differentiated RME performance. Collectively, these data suggest that social cognition, particularly theory of mind, may be affected in a subset of patients with ALS. This impairment may be related to functioning of

  6. Action processing and mirror neuron function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Persad, Carol; Burkard, David; Welsh, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that social cognition may be affected, such as impairment in theory of mind (ToM) ability. Despite these findings, research in this area is scarce and the investigation of neural mechanisms behind such impairment is absent. Nineteen patients with ALS and eighteen healthy controls participated in this study. Because the mirror neuron system (MNS) is thought to be involved in theory of mind, we first implemented a straightforward action-execution and observation task to assess basic MNS function. Second, we examined the social-cognitive ability to understand actions of others, which is a component of ToM. We used fMRI to assess BOLD activity differences between groups during both experiments. Theory of mind was also measured behaviorally using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RME). ALS patients displayed greater BOLD activity during the action-execution and observation task, especially throughout right anterior cortical regions. These areas included the right inferior operculum, premotor and primary motor regions, and left inferior parietal lobe. A conjunction analysis showed significantly more co-activated voxels during both the observation and action-execution conditions in the patient group throughout MNS regions. These results support a compensatory response in the MNS during action processing. In the action understanding experiment, healthy controls performed better behaviorally and subsequently recruited greater regions of activity throughout the prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Lastly, action understanding performance was able to cluster patients with ALS into high and lower performing groups, which then differentiated RME performance. Collectively, these data suggest that social cognition, particularly theory of mind, may be affected in a subset of patients with ALS. This impairment may be related to functioning of

  7. Action processing and mirror neuron function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Persad, Carol; Burkard, David; Welsh, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that social cognition may be affected, such as impairment in theory of mind (ToM) ability. Despite these findings, research in this area is scarce and the investigation of neural mechanisms behind such impairment is absent. Nineteen patients with ALS and eighteen healthy controls participated in this study. Because the mirror neuron system (MNS) is thought to be involved in theory of mind, we first implemented a straightforward action-execution and observation task to assess basic MNS function. Second, we examined the social-cognitive ability to understand actions of others, which is a component of ToM. We used fMRI to assess BOLD activity differences between groups during both experiments. Theory of mind was also measured behaviorally using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RME). ALS patients displayed greater BOLD activity during the action-execution and observation task, especially throughout right anterior cortical regions. These areas included the right inferior operculum, premotor and primary motor regions, and left inferior parietal lobe. A conjunction analysis showed significantly more co-activated voxels during both the observation and action-execution conditions in the patient group throughout MNS regions. These results support a compensatory response in the MNS during action processing. In the action understanding experiment, healthy controls performed better behaviorally and subsequently recruited greater regions of activity throughout the prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Lastly, action understanding performance was able to cluster patients with ALS into high and lower performing groups, which then differentiated RME performance. Collectively, these data suggest that social cognition, particularly theory of mind, may be affected in a subset of patients with ALS. This impairment may be related to functioning of

  8. Demonstration/field study of new designs of automated gas chromatographs in Connecticut and other locations, 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Pollack, A.J.; Pate, A.D.

    1993-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to install, test and demonstrate two automated gas chromatographic (GC) systems to state and regional EPA groups. The Dynatherm/Hewlett Packard GC system was designed for the measurement of the 41 toxic compounds listed in EPA's Compendium of Methods for Method TO-14. The second system was a Perkin Elmer GC configured for the analysis of the 55 ozone precursor compounds identified in the EPA Technical Assistance Document No. EPA/600-8-91/215. Both GC systems performed well during the field evaluations with data capture of 98 percent. A method quantitation limit (MQL) of 0.5 ppbv was obtained for most of the target compounds. In examining daily control check runs, the variation of corrected GC retention times for each instrument and detector ranged from 0.023 to 0.044 minutes.

  9. Study of a through-silicon/substrate via filling method based on the combinative effect of capillary action and liquid bridge rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiebin; Liu, Bingjie; Chen, Gaoli; Li, Xinxin

    2016-07-01

    Through-silicon via (TSV) is increasing its importance in advanced device packaging. In this paper, a through-silicon/substrate via filling method based on the combinative effect of liquid bridge rupture and capillary action is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed method is able to achieve alloy vias from the surface of a molten alloy pool. Two different processes were tested in experiments and the results show that one of these processes is able to achieve fully filled vias. In addition, a piece of equipment was specially made for the proposed via filling method. The via filling method studied in this paper has a potential application for TSVs in MEMS packaging.

  10. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-11-30

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  11. Using Goal- and Grip-Related Information for Understanding the Correctness of Other’s Actions: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other’s actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other’s actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips. PMID:22606261

  12. Studies on the kinetics of killing and the proposed mechanism of action of microemulsions against fungi.

    PubMed

    Al-Adham, Ibrahim S I; Ashour, Hana; Al-Kaissi, Elham; Khalil, Enam; Kierans, Martin; Collier, Phillip J

    2013-09-15

    Microemulsions are physically stable oil/water clear dispersions, spontaneously formed and thermodynamically stable. They are composed in most cases of water, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant. Microemulsions are stable, self-preserving antimicrobial agents in their own right. The observed levels of antimicrobial activity associated with microemulsions may be due to the direct effect of the microemulsions themselves on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of this work is to study the growth behaviour of different microbes in presence of certain prepared physically stable microemulsion formulae over extended periods of time. An experiment was designed to study the kinetics of killing of a microemulsion preparation (17.3% Tween-80, 8.5% n-pentanol, 5% isopropyl myristate and 69.2% sterile distilled water) against selected test microorganisms (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rhodotorula spp.). Secondly, an experiment was designed to study the effects of the microemulsion preparation on the cytoplasmic membrane structure and function of selected fungal species by observation of 260 nm component leakage. Finally, the effects of the microemulsion on the fungal membrane structure and function using S. pombe were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared microemulsions are stable, effective antimicrobial systems with effective killing rates against C. albicans, A. niger, S. pombe and Rhodotorula spp. The results indicate a proposed mechanism of action of significant anti-membrane activity, resulting in the gross disturbance and dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure which is followed by cell wall modifications, cytoplasmic coagulation, disruption of intracellular metabolism and cell death. PMID:23830945

  13. The changing role and work of British nurse tutors: a study within two demonstration Project 2000 districts.

    PubMed

    Camiah, S

    1996-02-01

    This study was designed to describe the main changes in the role and work of nurse tutors brought about by Project 2000 initiatives, with a view to exploring what the work of nurse tutors would be in the future. It was centred upon two demonstration Project 2000 districts, chosen to provide contrasts. Data were collected over a 15-month period from a range of stake-holders, but with the priority on nurse tutors themselves, using semi-structured individual and group interviews. The results showed that, in future, the role and work of nurse tutors would adapt to reflect the integration into a higher educational environment. The main changes expected include: alternative approaches to teaching and learning, for example student-centred teaching and open modes of study; greater subject specialization; more teaching across 'schools'; larger class involvement; more effective educational organization and management; closer liaison with the service provider units; and more effective time management. The study found that nurse tutors would be required to diversify their work through new initiatives, to undertake consultancy and research and to compete more for resources--developments which were not universally welcomed. PMID:8708256

  14. NIH study uncovers new mechanism of action for class of chemotherapy drugs

    Cancer.gov

    NIH researchers have discovered a significant new mechanism of action for a class of chemotherapy drugs known as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, or PARP inhibitors. They have also identified differences in the toxic capabilities of three drugs in

  15. Role of Broca's area in encoding sequential human actions: a virtual lesion study.

    PubMed

    Clerget, Emeline; Winderickx, Aline; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne

    2009-10-28

    The exact contribution of Broca's area to motor cognition is still controversial. Here we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (5 Hz, five pulses) to interfere transiently with the function of left BA44 in 13 healthy individuals; the task consisted of reordering human actions or nonbiological events based on three pictures presented on a computer screen and extracted from a video showing the entire sequence beforehand. We found that a virtual lesion of left BA44 impairs individual performance only for biological actions, and more specifically for object-oriented syntactic actions. Our finding provides evidence that Broca's area plays a crucial role in encoding complex human movements, a process which may be crucial for understanding and/or programming actions. PMID:19809371

  16. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  17. Mode of action from dose-response microarray data: case study using 10 environmental chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ligand-activated nuclear receptors regulate many biological processes through complex interactions with biological macromolecules. Certain xenobiotics alter nuclear receptor signaling through direct or indirect interactions. Defining the mode of action of such xenobiotics is di...

  18. Student Teachers' Intentions and Actions on Integrating Technology into Their Classrooms during Student Teaching: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Doris; Wong, Angela F. L.; Gao, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore student teachers' intentions and actions in technology integration in their classrooms. A postgraduate teacher education cohort of 118 Singapore student teachers participated in the study. The results suggested that student teachers in Singapore showed positive intentions to integrate technology to facilitate…

  19. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  20. Reducing Institutional Barriers to Minority Student Success at a Predominantly White University: A Qualitative Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Wesley Dowless

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative action research study investigates the common barriers encountered by successful undergraduate ethnic minority students enrolled in majors that serve as a pipeline for professional health sciences. Through specialized focus group interviews and individual interviews, this study explores the perceived barriers to student success…