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Sample records for action word processing

  1. Motor Simulation during Action Word Processing in Neurosurgical Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasino, Barbara; Ceschia, Martina; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The role that human motor areas play in linguistic processing is the subject of a stimulating debate. Data from nine neurosurgical patients with selective lesions of the precentral and postcentral sulcus could provide a direct answer as to whether motor area activation is necessary for action word processing. Action-related verbs (face-, hand-,…

  2. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  3. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  4. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., "love") which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories - related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts - was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or 'epiphenomenal' to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into modality

  5. Early Combinations of Words and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Cecilia

    Previous research has shown a similar starting time for early combinations of words and play actions in children and has suggested that similar cognitive processes underlie the transition to combining activities in language, symbolic play, and manipulative play. A study was undertaken to investigate combining activities in these three domains and…

  6. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

  7. Word Processing. A Handbook for Business Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey R., Jr., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to help teachers keep abreast of changes in word processing and to develop necessary teaching skills. The handbook is divided into two main parts: understanding word processing and teaching word processing skills. In the introduction the part word processing plays in the business scheme of a company…

  8. Word Processing: Coordination without Centralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seim, Sandra K.; Stoneking, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    In February 1980, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago appointed a task force to study word processing/office automation and to make recommendations for acquisition, implementation, and administration. The group's working approach, findings, and conclusions are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  9. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  10. Word Processing Through the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Lee R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the two worlds of word processing: a theoretical world found in textbooks and magazines, and a "real" world found in offices where some form of word processing has been introduced. Suggestions for business teachers are included. (CT)

  11. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis. PMID:27593455

  12. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  13. A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

    1980-01-01

    A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

  14. Natural Language Processing: Word Recognition without Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Khalid; Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of automatic recognition of hand and machine-written cursive text using the Arabic alphabet focuses on an algorithm for word recognition. Describes results of testing words for recognition without segmentation and considers the algorithms' use for words of different fonts and for processing whole sentences. (Author/LRW)

  15. Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

  16. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  17. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  18. Associative Vocabulary Learning: Development and Testing of Two Paradigms for the (Re-) Acquisition of Action- and Object-Related Words

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  19. Project Bank: Word Processing on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavin, Robert F.

    Project Bank was initiated at Triton College (Illinois) to increase student awareness of the merits of word processing as it affects their class work and related assignments; to make faculty aware of advances in word processing programs; and to increase the utilization of the college's computer laboratory. All fall 1985 incoming freshmen were…

  20. Word Processing for Technical Writers and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Carolyn J.; West, Thomas W.

    This discussion of the computing network and word processing facilities available to professionals on the Indiana University campuses identifies the word and text processing needs of technical writers and faculty, describes the current computing network, and outlines both long- and short-range objectives, policies, and plans for meeting these…

  1. Semantic Processing of Previews within Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that previews of words prior to fixation can be processed orthographically, but not semantically, during reading of sentences (K. Rayner, D. A. Balota, & A. Pollatsek, 1986). The present study tested whether semantic processing of previews can occur within words. The preview of the second constituent of…

  2. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action.

    PubMed

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this "language-to-action" link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance ("action-to-language" link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an "embodied or not" focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the link between

  3. People Considerations in Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Marion L.

    1984-01-01

    Business educators preparing students for jobs in business and industry should become aware of the problems faced by workers in a typical large office environment. Word processor operators face many of the same problems as factory assembly line workers--lack of personalization, lack of incentive, and removal from the mainstream. (JOW)

  4. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Bilingual Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Brown, Timothy T.; Travis, Katherine E.; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Halgren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding), and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from ~135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At ~400ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved. PMID:20004256

  5. "How to do things with words": role of motor cortex in semantic representation of action words.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Blum, Elizabeth R; Ladden, Stacy Levin; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W

    2012-12-01

    Language, believed to have originated from actions, not only functions as a medium to access other minds, but it also helps us commit actions and enriches our social life. This fMRI study investigated the semantic and neural representations of actions and mental states. We focused mainly on language semantics (comprehending sentences with action words versus those with mental state words). While in an fMRI scanner, twenty-four healthy, right-handed adult volunteers read a series of sentences with a verb depicting either a mental state (e.g., deceive, persuade) or an action (e.g., punch, kick), and answered a comprehension question that followed. Overall, this task showed brain activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the left posterior superior temporal sulci. While comprehending sentences with mental state terms, participants showed greater activation in left orbitofrontal, and in left precuneus areas. On the other hand, the action sentences recruited more primary motor, left inferior parietal, bilateral occipital, right superior temporal, and right inferior frontal areas. The findings of this study underscore the role of motor and visuospatial involvement in action word representation in the human brain. PMID:22982513

  6. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this “language-to-action” link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance (“action-to-language” link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an “embodied or not” focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the

  7. Grasp It Loudly! Supporting Actions with Semantically Congruent Spoken Action Words

    PubMed Central

    Boulenger, Véronique; Nazir, Tatjana A.; Paulignan, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for cross-talk between motor and language brain structures has accumulated over the past several years. However, while a significant amount of research has focused on the interaction between language perception and action, little attention has been paid to the potential impact of language production on overt motor behaviour. The aim of the present study was to test whether verbalizing during a grasp-to-displace action would affect motor behaviour and, if so, whether this effect would depend on the semantic content of the pronounced word (Experiment I). Furthermore, we sought to test the stability of such effects in a different group of participants and investigate at which stage of the motor act language intervenes (Experiment II). For this, participants were asked to reach, grasp and displace an object while overtly pronouncing verbal descriptions of the action (“grasp” and “put down”) or unrelated words (e.g. “butterfly” and “pigeon”). Fine-grained analyses of several kinematic parameters such as velocity peaks revealed that when participants produced action-related words their movements became faster compared to conditions in which they did not verbalize or in which they produced words that were not related to the action. These effects likely result from the functional interaction between semantic retrieval of the words and the planning and programming of the action. Therefore, links between (action) language and motor structures are significant to the point that language can refine overt motor behaviour. PMID:22292014

  8. Word Processing: What Are Educators Facing Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Paty

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the organization of the clerical staff, career paths, and job requirements at various levels in her company and offers suggestions for the educational preparation of word processing clerks, as an entry into office occupations. (SK)

  9. Phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Deanna C; Jared, Debra; Haigh, Corinne A

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming. English-French and French-English bilinguals named interlingual heterophonic homographs (i.e., words that share orthography but not meaning or pronunciation across languages), heterophonic cognates (i.e., words that share both orthography and meaning across languages, but not pronunciations), interlingual homophones (i.e., words that share pronunciation, but not orthography or meaning across languages), and single-language matched control words in both English and French naming tasks. Cross-language phonological activation was strongest in bilinguals' second language. The results provided evidence for feedforward activation of phonological representations in the nontarget language, as well as feedback activation of these phonological representations from semantic representations. Results are interpreted within the more recent Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA+) framework. PMID:25383476

  10. The Processing of Novel and Lexicalised Prefixed Words in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatsek, Alexander; Slattery, Timothy J.; Juhasz, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments compared how relatively long novel prefixed words (e.g., "overfarm") and existing prefixed words were processed in reading. The use of novel prefixed words allows one to examine the roles of whole-word access and decompositional processing in the processing of non-novel prefixed words. The two experiments found that, although there…

  11. Action relevance in linguistic context drives word-induced motor activity

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Pia; Courson, Mélody; Frak, Victor; Cheylus, Anne; Paulignan, Yves; Deprez, Viviane; Nazir, Tatjana A.

    2014-01-01

    Many neurocognitive studies on the role of motor structures in action-language processing have implicitly adopted a “dictionary-like” framework within which lexical meaning is constructed on the basis of an invariant set of semantic features. The debate has thus been centered on the question of whether motor activation is an integral part of the lexical semantics (embodied theories) or the result of a post-lexical construction of a situation model (disembodied theories). However, research in psycholinguistics show that lexical semantic processing and context-dependent meaning construction are narrowly integrated. An understanding of the role of motor structures in action-language processing might thus be better achieved by focusing on the linguistic contexts under which such structures are recruited. Here, we therefore analyzed online modulations of grip force while subjects listened to target words embedded in different linguistic contexts. When the target word was a hand action verb and when the sentence focused on that action (John signs the contract) an early increase of grip force was observed. No comparable increase was detected when the same word occurred in a context that shifted the focus toward the agent's mental state (John wants to sign the contract). There mere presence of an action word is thus not sufficient to trigger motor activation. Moreover, when the linguistic context set up a strong expectation for a hand action, a grip force increase was observed even when the tested word was a pseudo-verb. The presence of a known action word is thus not required to trigger motor activation. Importantly, however, the same linguistic contexts that sufficed to trigger motor activation with pseudo-verbs failed to trigger motor activation when the target words were verbs with no motor action reference. Context is thus not by itself sufficient to supersede an “incompatible” word meaning. We argue that motor structure activation is part of a dynamic process

  12. Words in Action: Rethinking Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a research project exploring the thought it takes to do physical work, the cognitive processes involved in various blue collar and service occupations like waitressing, hairstyling, plumbing, welding, industrial assembly, and the like. Considers the way occupations are categorized, defines intelligence, and thinks about learning and…

  13. The Power of Words: A Crucial Conversation at the Launch of an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Torill; Solvberg, Astrid M.

    2012-01-01

    Action research in schools implies that the researchers and the teachers should collaborate on solving problems and improving practice. One underlying premise when choosing, such an approach, is that the participants are interested in, and willing to participate in such a process. In this article, the authors explore how words and utterances…

  14. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  15. Word Order Processing in the Bilingual Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Dorothee; Baumgaertner, Annette; Moehring, Anja; Buchel, Christian; Bonnesen, Matthias; Rose, Michael; Musso, Mariachristina; Meisel, Jurgen M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the issues debated in the field of bilingualism is the question of a "critical period" for second language acquisition. Recent studies suggest an influence of age of onset of acquisition (AOA) particularly on syntactic processing; however, the processing of word order in a sentence context has not yet been examined specifically. We used…

  16. Action and Object Processing in Aphasia: From Nouns and Verbs to the Effect of Manipulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, A.; Perani, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Butler, A.; Bates, E.; Dronkers, N.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis (1) targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items…

  17. Memory disorders as a function of traumatic brain injury. Word completion, recall of words and actions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C; Rönnberg, J

    1987-01-01

    The memory performance of a group with traumatic brain injury and a matched control group was assessed using the following methods (a) word completion, (b) immediate free, final free and final cued recall of words and (c) immediate free and final free recall of subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and SPTs without motor action (SPTs-WA). The brain-injured (BI) group was significantly inferior relative to the control group in all recall tests except immediate free recall of words. No difference was revealed in the word completion test. The BI-group benefitted less by cues presented either at retrieval (final cued recall of words) or at the time of encoding already built-in in the stimulus (SPTs and SPTs-WA). The results were discussed in terms of the neuropathological background of the patients in the BI-group suggesting that frontal dysfunction could play a critical role. When comparing the tests within the BI-group, however, the performance was better when cues were present and especially so for long-term memory. Motor activity also facilitated long-term memory. Finally, an attempt was made to specify conditions for guidance in the construction of training programmes. PMID:3441777

  18. Processing Novel and Lexicalized Finnish Compound Words

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Participants read sentences in which novel and lexicalized two-constituent compound words appeared while their eye movements were measured. The frequency of the first constituent of the compounds was also varied factorially and the frequency of the lexicalized compounds was equated over the two conditions. The sentence frames prior to the target word were matched across conditions. Both lexicality and first constituent frequency had large and significant effects on gaze durations on the target word; moreover the constituent frequency effect was significantly larger for the novel words. These results indicate that first constituent frequency has an effect in two stages: in the initial encoding of the compound and in the construction of meaning for the novel compound. The difference between this pattern of results and those for English prefixed words (Pollatsek, Slattery, & Juhasz, 2008) is apparently due to differences in the construction of meaning stage. A general model of the relationship of the processing of polymorphemic words to how they are fixated is presented. PMID:22518273

  19. Parallels Between Action-Object Mapping and Word-Object Mapping in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Kevin J; Mather, Emily; Hyde, Grace; Simpson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of four experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds we demonstrate how cognitive mechanisms supporting noun learning extend to the mapping of actions to objects. In Experiment 1 (n = 61) the demonstration of a novel action led children to select a novel, rather than a familiar object. In Experiment 2 (n = 78) children exhibited long-term retention of novel action-object mappings and extended these actions to other category members. In Experiment 3 (n = 60) we showed that children formed an accurate sensorimotor record of the novel action. In Experiment 4 (n = 54) we demonstrate limits on the types of actions mapped to novel objects. Overall these data suggest that certain aspects of noun mapping share common processing with action mapping and support a domain-general account of word learning. PMID:26110970

  20. Neural substrates underlying evaluation of pain in actions depicted in words.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Han, Shihui

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has shown that evaluation of pain shown in pictures is mediated by a cortical circuit consisting of the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (SI and SII), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula. SI and SII subserve the sensory-discriminative component of pain processing whereas ACC and the insula mediate the affective-motivational aspect of pain processing. The current work investigated the neural correlates of evaluation of pain depicted in words. Subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while reading words or phrases depicting painful or neutral actions. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity of the painful actions depicted in words or counting the number of Chinese characters in the words. Relative to the counting task, rating pain intensity induced activations in SII, the insula, the right middle frontal gyrus, the left superior temporal sulcus and the left middle occipital gyrus. Our results suggest that both the sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational components of the pain matrix are engaged in the processing of pain depicted in words. PMID:17512615

  1. On the Nonautomaticity of Visual Word Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence That Word Processing Requires Central Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Cornett, Logan; Goodin, Zachary; Allen, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine the degree to which people can process words while devoting central attention to another task. Experiments 1-4 measured the N400 effect, which is sensitive to the degree of mismatch between a word and the current semantic context. Experiment 5 measured the P3 difference between…

  2. Young children's referent selection is guided by novelty for both words and actions.

    PubMed

    Dysart, Erin L; Mather, Emily; Riggs, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Young children are biased to select novel, name-unknown objects as referents of novel labels and to similarly favor novel, action-unknown objects as referents of novel actions. What process underlies these common behaviors? In the case of word learning, children may be driven by a novelty bias favoring novel objects as referents. Our study investigated this bias further by investigating whether novelty also affects children's selection of novel objects when a new action is given. In a pre-exposure session, 40 3- and 4-year-olds were shown eight novel objects for 1min. In subsequent referent selection trials, children were shown two pre-exposed objects and one super-novel object and either heard a novel name or saw a novel action. The super-novel object was selected significantly more than the pre-exposed objects on both word and action trials. Our data add to the growing literature suggesting that an endogenous attentional bias to novelty plays a role in children's referent selection and demonstrates further parallels between word and action learning. PMID:26897305

  3. Teaching Word Processing in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Elizabeth A.; Jenkins, Sylvia M.

    A description is provided of a program developed at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC), in Illinois, for providing word processing instruction in the library, including recommendations for program development based on MVCC experience and results from a survey of program participants. The first part of the paper discusses a model development…

  4. Words speak louder: conforming to preferences more than actions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanping; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-08-01

    Whereas people generally conform to others' choices, this research documents that conformity decreases once others have acted on their chosen options. It suggests words speak louder than actions-people are more likely to conform to others' preferences than their actions. Specifically, people are less likely to follow another person's food choice if that person has already eaten his or her selected food (Study 1), and are less likely to follow others' choices of household items if these choices are framed in terms of action (others "want to have it") rather than preference (others "like it"; Study 2). People's tendency to mentally share others' actions causes the decrease in conformity. Indeed, people recall greater past consumption of items that others have had (Study 3), choose differently only when they can complement (vs. contradict) what others have (Study 4), and are more strongly affected by the choices of those close to them (vs. strangers; Study 5). Finally, even when information about others' actions and preferences are simultaneously available (e.g., in online shopping and the consumption of social media), people are more likely to follow what others prefer, rather than what others have (Study 6). PMID:26191960

  5. Application of word processing to engineering documentation

    SciTech Connect

    McGirr, C.J.

    1980-08-25

    Word processing has increased the production rate of engineering documents at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department. Time reductions are 10 percent for original typing, 35 percent for document revisions, and 90 percent for repetitive typing. Total man-hours saved annually are 1155. The system consists of two work stations, a master central processing unit, and a daisy printer. These are ties into a large-scale computer. 4 figures.

  6. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    PubMed

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete. PMID:26008637

  7. [Recognition processes for Chinese and original words written in Hangul].

    PubMed

    Cho, K D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine recognition processes for Chinese and original words written in Hangul. It was tested whether or not the processing time for Chinese words is different from that for original words. In the first experiment, naming latencies for Chinese words were longer than those for original words. Also, the naming latencies for high-frequency-Chinese-words with final consonant (CVC + CVC) were shorter than those for high-frequency-Chinese-words without final consonant (CV + CV). The second experiment was conducted to clarify the lexical process by using the lexical decision task. The lexical decision times for Chinese words were not different from those for original words. The data suggest that the reading of Hangul words is mediated by lexical information as well as by phonological information. PMID:9278965

  8. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  9. Individual differences in emotion word processing: A diffusion model analysis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christina J; Kuchinke, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The exploratory study investigated individual differences in implicit processing of emotional words in a lexical decision task. A processing advantage for positive words was observed, and differences between happy and fear-related words in response times were predicted by individual differences in specific variables of emotion processing: Whereas more pronounced goal-directed behavior was related to a specific slowdown in processing of fear-related words, the rate of spontaneous eye blinks (indexing brain dopamine levels) was associated with a processing advantage of happy words. Estimating diffusion model parameters revealed that the drift rate (rate of information accumulation) captures unique variance of processing differences between happy and fear-related words, with highest drift rates observed for happy words. Overall emotion recognition ability predicted individual differences in drift rates between happy and fear-related words. The findings emphasize that a significant amount of variance in emotion processing is explained by individual differences in behavioral data. PMID:26860908

  10. Processing compound words: Evidence from synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Jennifer L; Thompson, Christopher; Branigan, Holly P; Simner, Julia

    2016-05-01

    This study used grapheme-colour synaesthesia, a neurological condition where letters evoke a strong and consistent impression of colour, as a tool to investigate normal language processing. For two sets of compound words varying by lexical frequency (e.g., football vs lifevest) or semantic transparency (e.g., flagpole vs magpie), we asked 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes to choose their dominant synaesthetic colour using an online colour palette. Synaesthetes could then select a second synaesthetic colour for each word if they experienced one. For each word, we measured the number of elicited synaesthetic colours (zero, one, or two) and the nature of those colours (in terms of their saturation and luminance values). In the first analysis, we found that the number of colours was significantly influenced by compound frequency, such that the probability of a one-colour response increased with frequency. However, semantic transparency did not influence the number of synaesthetic colours. In the second analysis, we found that the luminance of the dominant colour was predicted by the frequency of the first constituent (e.g. rain in rainbow). We also found that the dominant colour was significantly more luminant than the secondary colour. Our results show the influence of implicit linguistic measures on synaesthetic colours, and support multiple/dual-route models of compound processing. PMID:26848730

  11. Assessing the usefulness of google books' word frequencies for psycholinguistic research on word processing.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies. PMID:21713191

  12. Assessing the Usefulness of Google Books’ Word Frequencies for Psycholinguistic Research on Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies. PMID:21713191

  13. The Processing of Compound Words in English: Effects of Word Length on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated morphological processing in English using bilexemic compound words. Long and short compound words were presented in neutral sentences and eye movements were recorded while participants read the sentences to investigate the time course of compound word recognition. In Experiment 1, the frequency of…

  14. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  15. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  16. Ultra-rapid access to words in chronic aphasia: the effects of intensive language action therapy (ILAT).

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Lucy J; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    Effects of intensive language action therapy (ILAT) on automatic language processing were assessed using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Auditory magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses to words and pseudowords were recorded in twelve patients with chronic aphasia before and immediately after two weeks of ILAT. Following therapy, Patients showed significant clinical improvements of auditory comprehension as measured by the Token Test and in word retrieval and naming as measured by the Boston Naming Test. Neuromagnetic responses dissociated between meaningful words and meaningless word-like stimuli ultra-rapidly, approximately 50 ms after acoustic information first allowed for stimulus identification. Over treatment, there was a significant increase in the left-lateralisation of this early word-elicited activation, observed in perilesional fronto-temporal regions. No comparable change was seen for pseudowords. The results may reflect successful, therapy-induced, language restitution in the left hemisphere. PMID:25403745

  17. Process Evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jeannie Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This program evaluation of The Instant Word Notebook was conducted by two educators who created an instructional tool to teach and assess the most frequently occurring words in written text, commonly known as Instant Words. In an effort to increase the reading scores of first and second grade students, teachers were instructed to teach Instant…

  18. Developmental Differences for Word Processing in the Ventral Stream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olulade, Olumide A.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2013-01-01

    The visual word form system (VWFS), located in the occipito-temporal cortex, is involved in orthographic processing of visually presented words (Cohen et al., 2002). Recent fMRI studies in children and adults have demonstrated a gradient of increasing word-selectivity along the posterior-to-anterior axis of this system (Vinckier et al., 2007), yet…

  19. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution: Word Processing, Recognition and Context Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the lexical ambiguity resolution is presented. The paper is specifically focused on the processing of words, models of word recognition, context effect, trying to find an answer to how the reader-listener determines the contextually appropriate meaning of a word. Ambiguity resolution is analyzed and explored in two perspectives: the…

  20. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  1. [The effect of taboo word on language processing].

    PubMed

    Huszár, Tamás; Makra, Emese; Hallgató, Emese; Janacsek, Karolina; Németh, Dezsö

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about how we process taboo words brings us closer to the and emotional processes, and broadens the interpretative framework in psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this study the lexical decision paradigm was used. Subjects were presented neutral words, taboo words and pseudowords in a random order, and they had to indicate whether the presented word was meaningful (neutral and taboo words) or meaningless (pseudowords). Each target word was preceded by a prime word (either taboo or neutral). SOA differed in the two experimental conditions (it was 250 msec in the experimental group, and 500 msec in the control group). In the experimental group, response latencies increased for target words that were preceded by taboo prime words, as compared to those that were preceded by neutral prime words. In the control group prime had no such differential effects on response latencies. Results indicate that emotional processing of taboo words occur very early and the negative effect of taboo words on the following lexical decision fades away in 500 msec. Our experiment and other empirical data are presented in this paper. PMID:21300999

  2. Developmental Differences for Word Processing in the Ventral Stream

    PubMed Central

    Olulade, Olumide A.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napolielo, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2012-01-01

    The Visual Word Form System (VWFS), located in the occipito-temporal cortex, is involved in orthographic processing of visually presented words (Cohen et al., 2002). Recent fMRI studies in children and adults have demonstrated a gradient of increasing word-selectivity along the posterior-to-anterior axis of this system (Vinckier et al., 2007), yet whether this pattern is modified by the increased reading experience afforded by age is still in question. In this study, we employed fMRI and an implicit word-processing task, and then used a region of interest analysis approach along the occipito-temporal cortex to test the prediction that the selectivity for words along the extent of the VWFS differs between older experienced and younger novice readers. Our results showed differences between children and adults during word processing in the anterior left occipito-temporal cortex, providing evidence of developmental refinement for word recognition along the VWFS. PMID:22564748

  3. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in Int J Billing 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in Am J Psychol, in press), and rapid serial visual processing (Knickerbocker and Altarriba in Vis Cogn 21(5):599-627, 2013). Each of these studies has found significant differences in emotion and emotion-laden word processing. The current study investigated this word type distinction using a bilingual sample, to assess emotion and emotion-laden word processing in a bilingual's two languages. Sixty Spanish-English bilinguals performed a masked LDT with positive and negative emotion and emotion-laden word pairs, in either Spanish or English. Overall, the four-way interaction of relatedness, word type, valence, and language was significant. Response times (RTs) to emotion words were significantly faster than RTs to emotion-laden words, but only in English. These results indicate that the emotion/emotion-laden word type distinction may be the most robust in a person's dominant language. PMID:25732384

  4. Decomposition of repetition priming processes in word translation.

    PubMed

    Francis, Wendy S; Durán, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K; Luévano, Genoveva; Arzate, José C; Sáenz, Silvia P

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish–English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial combination to evaluate the degree of process overlap or dependence. In Experiment 1, symmetric priming between semantic classification and translation tasks indicated that bilinguals do not covertly translate words during semantic classification. In Experiments 2 and 3, semantic classification of words and word-cued picture drawing facilitated word-comprehension processes of translation, and picture naming facilitated word-production processes. These effects were independent, consistent with a sequential model and with the conclusion that neither semantic classification nor word-cued picture drawing elicits covert translation. Experiment 4 showed that 2 tasks involving word-retrieval processes--written word translation and picture naming--had subadditive effects on later translation. Incomplete transfer from written translation to spoken translation indicated that preparation for articulation also benefited from repetition in the less-fluent language. PMID:21058875

  5. Four-Year-Olds' Disambiguation of Action and Object Word Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, William E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments explored the tendency of preschoolers to map novel nouns and verbs onto unfamiliar rather than familiar objects or actions. This disambiguation effect has been interpreted as evidence that youngsters expect object or action labels to be mutually exclusive. The effect was stronger for object than for action words. (MDM)

  6. Adaptation Processes in Chinese: Word Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasierbsky, Fritz

    The typical pattern of Chinese word formation is to have native material adapt to changed circumstances. The Chinese language neither borrows nor lends words, but it does occasionally borrow concepts. The larger cultural pattern in which this occurs is that the Chinese culture borrows, if necessary, but ensures that the act of borrowing does not…

  7. A New Perspective on Visual Word Processing Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Townsend, James T.; Donkin, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    As a fundamental part of our daily lives, visual word processing has received much attention in the psychological literature. Despite the well established advantage of perceiving letters in a word or in a pseudoword over letters alone or in random sequences using accuracy, a comparable effect using response times has been elusive. Some researchers continue to question whether the advantage due to word context is perceptual. We use the capacity coefficient, a well established, response time based measure of efficiency to provide evidence of word processing as a particularly efficient perceptual process to complement those results from the accuracy domain. PMID:24334151

  8. A new perspective on visual word processing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T; Donkin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental part of our daily lives, visual word processing has received much attention in the psychological literature. Despite the well established advantage of perceiving letters in a word or in a pseudoword over letters alone or in random sequences using accuracy, a comparable effect using response times has been elusive. Some researchers continue to question whether the advantage due to word context is perceptual. We use the capacity coefficient, a well established, response time based measure of efficiency to provide evidence of word processing as a particularly efficient perceptual process to complement those results from the accuracy domain. PMID:24334151

  9. Parafoveal Processing of Word n + 2 during Reading: Do the Preceding Words Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    We used the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to test two hypotheses that might explain why no conclusive evidence has been found for the existence of n + 2 preprocessing effects. In Experiment 1, we tested whether parafoveal processing of the second word to the right of fixation (n + 2) takes place only when the preceding word (n + 1) is very…

  10. Mitchell College: Word Processing within the Freshman English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Marc; Robertson, Ann

    Since spring 1987, Mitchell College has included a computer laboratory component in its basic writing curriculum to teach students word processing skills. The development of the program posed a number of challenges: (1) introducing word processing to all students without revising the curriculum; (2) designing a computer facility that could serve…

  11. Word Processing and Its Implications for Business Communications Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Leonard B.

    Word processing, a systematic approach to office work, is currently based on the use of sophisticated dictating and typing machines. The word processing market is rapidly increasing with the paper explosion brought on by such factors as increasing governmental regulation, Internal Revenue Service requirements, and the need for stockholders to be…

  12. Word Processing and Its Implications for Business Communications Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Leonard B.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the role of word processing in offices, and the reluctance on the part of executives to use dictating machines. Suggests that future executives should be taught the use and benefits of word processing machines as part of business communications courses. (JMF)

  13. The involvement of the left motor cortex in learning of a novel action word lexicon.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Hoppe, Julia; Heise, Kirstin; Zimerman, Maximo; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Gerloff, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2010-10-12

    Current theoretical positions assume that action-related word meanings are established by functional connections between perisylvian language areas and the motor cortex (MC) according to Hebb's associative learning principle. To test this assumption, we probed the functional relevance of the left MC for learning of a novel action word vocabulary by disturbing neural plasticity in the MC with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In combination with tDCS, subjects learned a novel vocabulary of 76 concrete, body-related actions by means of an associative learning paradigm. Compared with a control condition with "sham" stimulation, cathodal tDCS reduced success rates in vocabulary acquisition, as shown by tests of novel action word translation into the native language. The analysis of learning behavior revealed a specific effect of cathodal tDCS on the ability to associatively couple actions with novel words. In contrast, we did not find these effects in control experiments, when tDCS was applied to the prefrontal cortex or when subjects learned object-related words. The present study lends direct evidence to the proposition that the left MC is causally involved in the acquisition of novel action-related words. PMID:20888226

  14. Dysfunctional visual word form processing in progressive alexia

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Kindle; Stib, Matthew T.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive alexia is an acquired reading deficit caused by degeneration of brain regions that are essential for written word processing. Functional imaging studies have shown that early processing of the visual word form depends on a hierarchical posterior-to-anterior processing stream in occipito-temporal cortex, whereby successive areas code increasingly larger and more complex perceptual attributes of the letter string. A region located in the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus and adjacent fusiform gyrus shows maximal selectivity for words and has been dubbed the ‘visual word form area’. We studied two patients with progressive alexia in order to determine whether their reading deficits were associated with structural and/or functional abnormalities in this visual word form system. Voxel-based morphometry showed left-lateralized occipito-temporal atrophy in both patients, very mild in one, but moderate to severe in the other. The two patients, along with 10 control subjects, were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they viewed rapidly presented words, false font strings, or a fixation crosshair. This paradigm was optimized to reliably map brain regions involved in orthographic processing in individual subjects. All 10 control subjects showed a posterior-to-anterior gradient of selectivity for words, and all 10 showed a functionally defined visual word form area in the left hemisphere that was activated for words relative to false font strings. In contrast, neither of the two patients with progressive alexia showed any evidence for a selectivity gradient or for word-specific activation of the visual word form area. The patient with mild atrophy showed normal responses to both words and false font strings in the posterior part of the visual word form system, but a failure to develop selectivity for words in the more anterior part of the system. In contrast, the patient with moderate to severe atrophy showed minimal activation of any part

  15. ''How To Do Things with Words'': Role of Motor Cortex in Semantic Representation of Action Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana, Rajesh K.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Ladden, Stacy Levin; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W.

    2012-01-01

    Language, believed to have originated from actions, not only functions as a medium to access other minds, but it also helps us commit actions and enriches our social life. This fMRI study investigated the semantic and neural representations of actions and mental states. We focused mainly on language semantics (comprehending sentences with "action"…

  16. Concreteness Effects in the Processing of Chinese Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chun-yan; Ding, Jin-hong; Wang, Zheng-yan

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between word concreteness and word frequency using event-related potential (ERP) measurements during a lexical decision task. Potential effects of concreteness in the processing of verbs were also examined. ERPs were recorded from 119 scalp electrodes in 23 right-handed participants. The results showed…

  17. Word Processing for Portuguese on the IBM PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vines, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Word processing in Portuguese on the IBM Personal Computer requires software capable of displaying, on the monitor and printouts, the special characters accessible through IBM's extended ACSII set. Among software packages which can do this are: "Alexander,""MultiMate,""Nota Bene,""Volkswriter Deluxe," and "WordPerfect." (CB)

  18. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  19. Orthographic Processing in Visual Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A series of 6 experiments involving 210 subjects from a college subject pool examined orthographic priming effects between briefly presented pairs of letter strings. A theory of othographic priming is presented, and the implications of the findings for understanding word recognition and reading are discussed. (SLD)

  20. What's New About Word-Processed Writing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudol, Ronald A.

    1986-01-01

    Defends the use of the word processor in writing classes. Describes how using it makes revision easier and cleaner, contributes to the speed and fluency of composing at the keyboard, and lends itself to new ways of composing and experiments with alternative structures for writing courses and classes. (EL)

  1. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  2. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  3. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  4. Word Processing without Equipment--It Can Be Done!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Patricia G.; Matthews, Anne L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses ways to teach word processing without equipment expenditures. These include development of basic secretarial skills, machine transcription skills, and supervisory skills; and use of model office simulations. (SK)

  5. Greek-English Word Processing on the Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusten, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the complete Greek-English word processing system of the Apple Macintosh computer. Describes the features of its operating system, shows how the Greek fonts look and work, and enumerates both the advantages and drawbacks of the Macintosh. (SED)

  6. A Comparison of Writing Instruction Using Word Processing, Word Processing with Voice Synthesis, and No Word Processing in Kindergarten and First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Ruth J.; Kurth, Lila M.

    A study was conducted in which word processing and voice synthesis were used to teach beginning writing skills to kindergarten and first grade students. Subjects, 46 children from two elementary schools enrolled in an early education summer school class in writing, were randomly divided into three groups. One group was taught writing using a…

  7. Words in Action. 1996 Annual Report. Southern Education Foundation, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    This annual report defines three broad areas in which the Southern Education Foundation supports research. The first looks to what kinds of teachers will be needed in the future; the second asks how our best thinking can be translated into effective action; and the third asks how seamless education can be. Programs subsumed under education and…

  8. Differential cognitive processing of Kanji and Kana words: do orthographic and semantic codes function in parallel in word matching task.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, A; Hatta, T; Kogure, T

    2001-12-01

    Relative engagements of the orthographic and semantic codes in Kanji and Hiragana word recognition were investigated. In Exp. 1, subjects judged whether the pairs of Kanji words (prime and target) presented sequentially were physically identical to each other in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided whether the target word was valid for the prime sentence presented in advance. The results showed that the response times to the target swords orthographically similar (to the prime) were significantly slower than to semantically related target words in the word condition and that this was also the case in the sentence condition. In Exp. 2, subjects judged whether the target word written in Hiragana was physically identical to the prime word in the word condition. In the sentence condition, subjects decided if the target word was valid for the previously presented prime sentence. Analysis indicated that response times to orthographically similar words were slower than to semantically related words in the word condition but not in the sentence condition wherein the response times to the semantically and orthographically similar words were largely the same. Based on these results, differential contributions of orthographic and semantic codes in cognitive processing of Japanese Kanji and Hiragana words was discussed. PMID:11806593

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

  10. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use. PMID:25893450

  11. Examining the Central and Peripheral Processes of Written Word Production Through Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Jeremy J.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Producing written words requires “central” cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory) as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.). In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002). For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts) that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146). Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus (AG) has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left AG in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. These meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build. PMID:22013427

  12. The role of spatial attention in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Folk, Charles L.; Johnston, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Subjects made lexical decisions on a target letter string presented above or below fixation. In Experiments 1 and 2, target location was cued 100 ms in advance of target onset. Responses were faster on validly than on invalidly cued trials. In Experiment 3, the target was sometimes accompanied by irrelevant stimuli on the other side of fixation; in such cases, responses were slowed (a spatial filtering effect). Both cuing and filtering effects on response time were additive with effects of word frequency and lexical status (words vs. nonwords). These findings are difficult to reconcile with claims that spatial attention is less involved in processing familiar words than in unfamiliar words and nonwords. The results can be reconciled with a late-selection locus of spatial attention only with difficulty, but are easily explained by early-selection models.

  13. Early Action and Gesture "Vocabulary" and Its Relation with Word Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension than word…

  14. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

    2012-01-01

    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  15. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanas, Stephanie A.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in "Int J Billing" 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in "Am J Psychol", in press), and rapid serial visual processing…

  16. How Word Frequency Affects Morphological Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated processing of morphologically complex words in three different frequency ranges in monolingual Finnish speakers and Finnish-Swedish bilinguals. By employing a visual lexical decision task, we found a differential pattern of results in monolinguals vs. bilinguals. Monolingual Finns seemed to process low frequency and…

  17. Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous…

  18. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  19. The Integration of Word Processing with Data Processing in an Educational Environment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lorna; Schlender, Jim

    A project examined the Office of the Future and determined trends regarding an integration of word processing and data processing. It then sought to translate those trends into an educational package to develop the potential information specialist. A survey instrument completed by 33 office managers and word processing and data processing…

  20. The processing of speech, gesture, and action during language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Spencer; Healey, Meghan; Özyürek, Asli; Holler, Judith

    2015-04-01

    Hand gestures and speech form a single integrated system of meaning during language comprehension, but is gesture processed with speech in a unique fashion? We had subjects watch multimodal videos that presented auditory (words) and visual (gestures and actions on objects) information. Half of the subjects related the audio information to a written prime presented before the video, and the other half related the visual information to the written prime. For half of the multimodal video stimuli, the audio and visual information contents were congruent, and for the other half, they were incongruent. For all subjects, stimuli in which the gestures and actions were incongruent with the speech produced more errors and longer response times than did stimuli that were congruent, but this effect was less prominent for speech-action stimuli than for speech-gesture stimuli. However, subjects focusing on visual targets were more accurate when processing actions than gestures. These results suggest that although actions may be easier to process than gestures, gestures may be more tightly tied to the processing of accompanying speech. PMID:25002252

  1. Synchronizing Gestures, Words and Actions in Pattern Generalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabena, Cristina; Radford, Luis; Bardini, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of signs in students' perceptive processes underpinning the generalization of numeric-geometric patterns. Based on a videotaped Grade 9 classroom group activity undertaken by three students and framed by a cultural-semiotic theoretical perspective, we carry out a microgenetic analysis of an elementary form of…

  2. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  3. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  4. Beyond Word Processing: Rhetorical Invention with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    In the area of composition, computer assisted instruction (CAI) must move beyond the limited concerns of the current-traditional rhetoric to address the larger issues of writing, become process-centered, and involve active writing rather than answering multiple-choice questions. Researchers cite four major types of interactive CAI, the last of…

  5. Top-down processing of symbolic meanings modulates the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-08-29

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on humans have identified a region in the left middle fusiform gyrus consistently activated by written words. This region is called the visual word form area (VWFA). Recently, a hypothesis, called the interactive account, is proposed that to effectively analyze the bottom-up visual properties of words, the VWFA receives predictive feedback from higher-order regions engaged in processing sounds, meanings, or actions associated with words. Further, this top-down influence on the VWFA is independent of stimulus formats. To test this hypothesis, we used fMRI to examine whether a symbolic nonword object (e.g., the Eiffel Tower) intended to represent something other than itself (i.e., Paris) could activate the VWFA. We found that scenes associated with symbolic meanings elicited a higher VWFA response than those not associated with symbolic meanings, and such top-down modulation on the VWFA can be established through short-term associative learning, even across modalities. In addition, the magnitude of the symbolic effect observed in the VWFA was positively correlated with the subjective experience on the strength of symbol-referent association across individuals. Therefore, the VWFA is likely a neural substrate for the interaction of the top-down processing of symbolic meanings with the analysis of bottom-up visual properties of sensory inputs, making the VWFA the location where the symbolic meaning of both words and nonword objects is represented. PMID:22933809

  6. Word Learning and Phonetic Processing in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a…

  7. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  8. Effect of Semantic Constraints on Processing Ambiguous Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, David E.

    Native English speakers performed a phoneme-monitoring task to assess whether ambiguous words (homographs) require extra processing capacity under two conditions: no prior context and prior context provided by disambiguating subject-noun and verb combinations. Phoneme detection latencies were reliably longer for homographs than for control words…

  9. Distance-Dependent Processing of Pictures and Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and…

  10. Word Processing for Item Banking and Test Production. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L.

    This report describes the sequence of activities that took place as the Examination Division of the New Jersey Department of Civil Service introduced a word processing system for a test item bank and for production of camera-ready test copy. The equipment selection, installation and orientation procedures are discussed. Keyboard and CRT terminals,…

  11. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  12. Unilateral brain damage effects on processing homonymous and polysemous words.

    PubMed

    Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baum, Shari R

    2005-06-01

    Using an auditory semantic priming paradigm, the present study investigated the abilities of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) non-fluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and normal control individuals to access, out of context, the multiple meanings of three types of ambiguous words, namely homonyms (e.g., "punch"), metonymies (e.g., "rabbit"), and metaphors (e.g., "star"). In addition, the study tested certain predictions of the "suppression deficit" and "coarse semantic coding" hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the linguistic deficits typically observed after RH damage. Homonymous, metonymous, and metaphorical words were used as primes followed after a short (100 ms) or a long (1000 ms) inter-stimulus interval (ISI) by dominant-meaning-related, subordinate-meaning-related or unrelated target words. No significant group effects were found, and for both ISIs, dominant- and subordinate-related targets were facilitated relative to unrelated control targets for the homonymy and metonymy conditions. In contrast, for the metaphor condition, only targets related to the dominant meaning were facilitated. These findings provide only partial support for the "suppression deficit" hypothesis and no support for the "coarse semantic coding" hypothesis (as interpreted herein) indicating that patients with focal LH or RH damage can access the multiple meanings of ambiguous words and exhibit processing abilities comparable to those of older normal control subjects, at least at the single-word level. PMID:15862856

  13. Grounding Action Words in the Sensorimotor Interaction with the World: Experiments with a Simulated iCub Humanoid Robot.

    PubMed

    Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo; Fischer, Kerstin; Belpaeme, Tony

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive robotics model for the study of the embodied representation of action words. The present research will present how an iCub humanoid robot can learn the meaning of action words (i.e. words that represent dynamical events that happen in time) by physically interacting with the environment and linking the effects of its own actions with the behavior observed on the objects before and after the action. The control system of the robot is an artificial neural network trained to manipulate an object through a Back-Propagation-Through-Time algorithm. We will show that in the presented model the grounding of action words relies directly to the way in which an agent interacts with the environment and manipulates it. PMID:20725503

  14. On the processing of canonical word order during eye fixations in reading: Do readers process transposed word previews?

    PubMed

    Rayner, Keith; Angele, Bernhard; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Bicknell, Klinton

    2013-03-01

    Whether readers always identify words in the order they are printed is subject to considerable debate. In the present study, we used the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to manipulate the preview for a two-word target region (e.g. white walls in My neighbor painted the white walls black). Readers received an identical (white walls), transposed (walls white), or unrelated preview (vodka clubs). We found that there was a clear cost of having a transposed preview compared to an identical preview, indicating that readers cannot or do not identify words out of order. However, on some measures, the transposed preview condition did lead to faster processing than the unrelated preview condition, suggesting that readers may be able to obtain some useful information from a transposed preview. Implications of the results for models of eye movement control in reading are discussed. PMID:24003322

  15. Four-year-olds' disambiguation of action and object word reference.

    PubMed

    Merriman, W E; Marazita, J; Jarvis, L H

    1993-12-01

    Preschool-age children show a very strong tendency to map a novel noun onto an unfamiliar rather than a familiar object. This so-called disambiguation effect has been interpreted as evidence that youngers expect object labels to be mutually exclusive. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were observed to map a novel verb onto an unfamiliar action about twice as often as they mapped it onto a familiar one. When the unfamiliar action had been preexposed, but the familiar one had not, the mapping preference was eliminated. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds mapped a novel noun onto an unfamiliar object about five times as often as they mapped it onto a familiar object, and this tendency was not affected by preexposure. Even when action embedding and question complexity were controlled, the disambiguation effect was stronger for object than for action words. An account is presented in which two lexical principles, Mutual Exclusivity and Feeling of Novelty, are hypothesized to apply differently to action than to object words. PMID:8301246

  16. Revisiting the incremental effects of context on word processing: Evidence from single-word event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Payne, Brennan R; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-11-01

    The amplitude of the N400-an event-related potential (ERP) component linked to meaning processing and initial access to semantic memory-is inversely related to the incremental buildup of semantic context over the course of a sentence. We revisited the nature and scope of this incremental context effect, adopting a word-level linear mixed-effects modeling approach, with the goal of probing the continuous and incremental effects of semantic and syntactic context on multiple aspects of lexical processing during sentence comprehension (i.e., effects of word frequency and orthographic neighborhood). First, we replicated the classic word-position effect at the single-word level: Open-class words showed reductions in N400 amplitude with increasing word position in semantically congruent sentences only. Importantly, we found that accruing sentence context had separable influences on the effects of frequency and neighborhood on the N400. Word frequency effects were reduced with accumulating semantic context. However, orthographic neighborhood was unaffected by accumulating context, showing robust effects on the N400 across all words, even within congruent sentences. Additionally, we found that N400 amplitudes to closed-class words were reduced with incrementally constraining syntactic context in sentences that provided only syntactic constraints. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeling word-level variability in ERPs reveals mechanisms by which different sources of information simultaneously contribute to the unfolding neural dynamics of comprehension. PMID:26311477

  17. Suit the action to the word, the word to the action: Hypothetical choices and real decisions in Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Heiss, Florian; McFadden, Daniel; Winter, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, consumer choice has become an important element of public policy. One reason is that consumers differ in their tastes and needs, which they can express most easily through their own choices. Elements that strengthen consumer choice feature prominently in the design of public insurance markets, for instance in the United States in the recent introduction of prescription drug coverage for older individuals via Medicare Part D. For policy makers who design such a market, an important practical question in the design phase of such a new program is how to deduce enrollment and plan selection preferences prior to its introduction. In this paper, we investigate whether hypothetical choice experiments can serve as a tool in this process. We combine data from hypothetical and real plan choices, elicited around the time of the introduction of Medicare Part D. We first analyze how well the hypothetical choice data predict willingness to pay and market shares at the aggregate level. We then analyze predictions at the individual level, in particular how insurance demand varies with observable characteristics. We also explore whether the extent of adverse selection can be predicted using hypothetical choice data alone. PMID:23317633

  18. Suit the action to the word, the word to the action: Hypothetical choices and real decisions in Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Heiss, Florian; McFadden, Daniel; Winter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, consumer choice has become an important element of public policy. One reason is that consumers differ in their tastes and needs, which they can express most easily through their own choices. Elements that strengthen consumer choice feature prominently in the design of public insurance markets, for instance in the United States in the recent introduction of prescription drug coverage for older individuals via Medicare Part D. For policy makers who design such a market, an important practical question in the design phase of such a new program is how to deduce enrollment and plan selection preferences prior to its introduction. In this paper, we investigate whether hypothetical choice experiments can serve as a tool in this process. We combine data from hypothetical and real plan choices, elicited around the time of the introduction of Medicare Part D. We first analyze how well the hypothetical choice data predict willingness to pay and market shares at the aggregate level. We then analyze predictions at the individual level, in particular how insurance demand varies with observable characteristics. We also explore whether the extent of adverse selection can be predicted using hypothetical choice data alone. PMID:23317633

  19. The Long-Term Impact of Words Work! A Five-Year Academic Comparison of Words Work! and Non-Words Work! Ramsey Action Programs Head Start Children in the St. Paul Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Paul Foundation, St. Paul, MN.

    The Words Work! early literacy initiative, in Ramsey Action Program (RAP) Head Start centers, was initiated to prepare children to be successful third-grade readers and mathematicians. These reports reflect the standardized test results collected in years 1 and 2 for the first cohort of Words Work! children from four RAP Head Start centers who…

  20. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  1. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the “early-fixed” task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the “delayed-random” task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the “delayed-random” task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the “early-fixed” task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field. PMID:27375504

  2. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam Ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the "early-fixed" task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the "delayed-random" task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the "delayed-random" task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the "early-fixed" task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field. PMID:27375504

  3. Taken out of Context: Differential Processing in Contextual and Isolated Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that investigate the cognitive processes underlying contextual and isolated word reading. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants were exposed to 75 target words under three conditions. The participants generated 25 words from definitions, read 25 words in context and read 25 in isolation. In Phase 2, volunteers…

  4. Semantic and Phonological Processing in Reading Korean Hangul and Hanja Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2005-01-01

    The Korean orthography uses both alphabetic Hangul and logographic Hanja. Two experiments investigated semantic and phonological processing of words written in the two scripts. In the experiments, Korean readers had to respond to words either in a pure context with words from one single script or in a mixed context with words from the two scripts.…

  5. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  6. Proposed Outline for a One-Year Certificate Program in Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Arnold

    Two courses, Word Processing Concepts and Word Processing Workshop, are described as part of a proposed outline for a one-year certificate program in word processing (WP) to be offered at Nassau Community College. The other courses in the program are: first semester--intermediate typing, introduction to business, data processing, and English…

  7. Hybrid generative-discriminative human action recognition by combining spatiotemporal words with supervised topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang

    2011-02-01

    We present a hybrid generative-discriminative learning method for human action recognition from video sequences. Our model combines a bag-of-words component with supervised latent topic models. A video sequence is represented as a collection of spatiotemporal words by extracting space-time interest points and describing these points using both shape and motion cues. The supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA) topic model, which employs discriminative learning using labeled data under a generative framework, is introduced to discover the latent topic structure that is most relevant to action categorization. The proposed algorithm retains most of the desirable properties of generative learning while increasing the classification performance though a discriminative setting. It has also been extended to exploit both labeled data and unlabeled data to learn human actions under a unified framework. We test our algorithm on three challenging data sets: the KTH human motion data set, the Weizmann human action data set, and a ballet data set. Our results are either comparable to or significantly better than previously published results on these data sets and reflect the promise of hybrid generative-discriminative learning approaches.

  8. Doers of the Word? An Enquiry into the Nature of Action in Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooke, John; Altounyan, Caroline; Young, Angela; Young, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A recent trend in public policy in many countries is the requirement for "joined up thinking" and "joined up working", including partnership within and between agencies, and between agencies and their publics. This in turn has led to a growth of interest in action learning as a means to bring about the organizational and individual development…

  9. What Do Second Language Listeners Know about Spoken Words? Effects of Experience and Attention in Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With a goal of investigating psycholinguistic bases of spoken word processing in a second language (L2), this study examined L2 learners' sensitivity to phonological information in spoken L2 words as a function of their L2 experience and attentional demands of a learning task. Fifty-two Chinese learners of English who differed in amount of L2…

  10. The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Cooper-Pye, Elisa; Dine, Clare; Hauk, Olaf; Nestor, Peter J; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-09-01

    It has been claimed that semantic dementia (SD), the temporal variant of fronto-temporal dementia, is characterized by an across-the-board deficit affecting all types of conceptual knowledge. We here confirm this generalized deficit but also report differential degrees of impairment in processing specific semantic word categories in a case series of SD patients (N = 11). Within the domain of words with strong visually grounded meaning, the patients' lexical decision accuracy was more impaired for color-related than for form-related words. Likewise, within the domain of action verbs, the patients' performance was worse for words referring to face movements and speech acts than for words semantically linked to actions performed with the hand and arm. Psycholinguistic properties were matched between the stimulus groups entering these contrasts; an explanation for the differential degrees of impairment must therefore involve semantic features of the words in the different conditions. Furthermore, this specific pattern of deficits cannot be captured by classic category distinctions such as nouns versus verbs or living versus nonliving things. Evidence from previous neuroimaging research indicates that color- and face/speech-related words, respectively, draw most heavily on anterior-temporal and inferior-frontal areas, the structures most affected in SD. Our account combines (a) the notion of an anterior-temporal amodal semantic "hub" to explain the profound across-the-board deficit in SD word processing, with (b) a semantic topography model of category-specific circuits whose cortical distributions reflect semantic features of the words and concepts represented. PMID:19722916

  11. The Impact of Word Processing on Office Administration in the Medical and Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Naomi Dornfeld

    The effect of word processing equipment on the future medical secretarial science curriculum was studied. A literature search focused on word processing and the medical and allied health professions, word processing and business education, and futuring of and changes in the secretarial science curriculum. Questionnaires to identify various aspects…

  12. Word learning and phonetic processing in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Havy, Mélanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a so-called "consonant bias" in a task simulating word acquisition, that is, when learning new words for unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, the to-be-learned words differed both by a consonant and a vowel (e.g., /byf/-/duf/), and children needed to choose which of the two objects to associate with a third one whose name differed from both objects by either a consonant or a vowel (e.g., /dyf/). In such a conflict condition, children needed to favor (or neglect) either consonant information or vowel information. The results show that only 3-year-olds preferentially chose the consonant identity, thereby neglecting the vowel change. The older children (and adults) did not exhibit any response bias. In Experiment 2, children needed to pick up one of two objects whose names differed on either consonant information or vowel information. Whereas 3-year-olds performed better with pairs of pseudowords contrasting on consonants, the pattern of asymmetry was reversed in 4-year-olds, and 5-year-olds did not exhibit any significant response bias. Interestingly, girls showed overall better performance and exhibited earlier changes in performance than boys. The changes in consonant/vowel asymmetry in preschoolers are discussed in relation with developments in linguistic (lexical and morphosyntactic) and cognitive processing. PMID:20850758

  13. From primed concepts to action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally presented words.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Evan; Chen, Qijia; McAdams, Maxwell; Yi, Jessica; Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis assessed the behavioral impact of and psychological processes associated with presenting words connected to an action or a goal representation. The average and distribution of 352 effect sizes (analyzed using fixed-effects and random-effects models) was obtained from 133 studies (84 reports) in which word primes were incidentally presented to participants, with a nonopposite control group, before measuring a behavioral dependent variable. Findings revealed a small behavioral priming effect (dFE = 0.332, dRE = 0.352), which was robust across methodological procedures and only minimally biased by the publication of positive (vs. negative) results. Theory testing analyses indicated that more valued behavior or goal concepts (e.g., associated with important outcomes or values) were associated with stronger priming effects than were less valued behaviors. Furthermore, there was some evidence of persistence of goal effects over time. These results support the notion that goal activation contributes over and above perception-behavior in explaining priming effects. In summary, theorizing about the role of value and satisfaction in goal activation pointed to stronger effects of a behavior or goal concept on overt action. There was no evidence that expectancy (ease of achieving the goal) moderated priming effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689090

  14. Semantic and phonological processing in reading Korean Hangul and Hanja words.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2005-07-01

    The Korean orthography uses both alphabetic Hangul and logographic Hanja. Two experiments investigated semantic and phonological processing of words written in the two scripts. In the experiments, Korean readers had to respond to words either in a pure context with words from one single script or in a mixed context with words from the two scripts. The task was naming in Experiment 1 and semantic categorization in Experiment 2. The results showed that for Hangul words, there were significant word frequency effects in categorization, but not in naming, and that there were reliable script-switching effects in naming, but not in categorization. For Hanja words, however, there were clear and strong effects of words frequency, regardless of the task used, but significant effects of script-switching were only observed in categorization. These results suggest that the strategies adopted in processing Hangul and Hanja words are determined both by task demand and nature of the script. PMID:16142589

  15. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  16. Task-dependent modulation of word processing mechanisms during modified visual search tasks.

    PubMed

    Dampure, Julien; Benraiss, Abdelrhani; Vibert, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    During visual search for words, the impact of the visual and semantic features of words varies as a function of the search task. This event-related potential (ERP) study focused on the way these features of words are used to detect similarities between the distractor words that are glanced at and the target word, as well as to then reject the distractor words. The participants had to search for a target word that was either given literally or defined by a semantic clue among words presented sequentially. The distractor words included words that resembled the target and words that were semantically related to the target. The P2a component was the first component to be modulated by the visual and/or semantic similarity of distractors to the target word, and these modulations varied according to the task. The same held true for the later N300 and N400 components, which confirms that, depending on the task, distinct processing pathways were sensitized through attentional modulation. Hence, the process that matches what is perceived with the target acts during the first 200 ms after word presentation, and both early detection and late rejection processes of words depend on the search task and on the representation of the target stored in memory. PMID:26176489

  17. An electrophysiological analysis of contextual and temporal constraints on parafoveal word processing

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Horacio A.; van der Meij, Maartje; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    During natural reading, parafoveal information is processed to some degree. Although isolated words can be fully processed in the parafovea, not all sentence reading experiments have found evidence of semantic processing in the parafovea. We suggest a possible reconciliation for these mixed results via two ERP studies in which volunteers read sentences presented word by word at fixation, flanked bilaterally by the next word to its right and the previous word to its left. Half the words in the right parafovea of critical triads and in the fovea for the subsequent triad were semantically incongruent. The conditions under which parafoveal words elicit canonical visual N400 congruity effects suggest that they are processed in parallel with foveal words, but that the extraction of semantic information parafoveally is a function of contextual constraint and presentation rate, most likely under high contextual constraint and at slower rates. PMID:23153323

  18. The Effect of Word Frequency on Judgments of Learning: Contributions of Beliefs and Processing Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Ping; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuchi; Cao, Wei; Cao, Liren; Li, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that word frequency affects judgments of learning (JOLs). Specifically, people give higher JOLs for high-frequency (HF) words than for low-frequency (LF) words. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is largely unknown. The present study replicated and extended previous work by exploring the contributions of processing fluency and beliefs to the word frequency effect. In Experiment 1, participants studied HF and LF words and made immediate JOLs. The findings showed that participants gave higher JOLs for HF words than for LF ones, reflecting the word frequency effect. In Experiment 2a (measuring the encoding fluency by using self-paced study time) and Experiment 2b (disrupting perceptual fluency by presenting words in an easy or difficult font style), we evaluated the contribution of processing fluency. The findings of Experiment 2a revealed no significant difference in self-paced study time between HF and LF words. The findings of Experiment 2b showed that the size of word frequency effect did not decrease or disappear even when presenting words in a difficult font style. In Experiment 3a (a questionnaire-based study) and Experiment 3b (making pre-study JOLs), we evaluated the role of beliefs in this word frequency effect. The results of Experiment 3a showed that participants gave higher estimates for HF as compared to LF words. That is, they estimated that hypothetical participants would better remember the HF words. The results of Experiment 3b showed that participants gave higher pre-study JOLs for HF than for LF words. These results across experiments suggested that people’s beliefs, not processing fluency, contribute substantially to the word frequency effect on JOLs. However, considering the validation of the indexes reflecting the processing fluency in the current study, we cannot entirely rule out the possible contribution of processing fluency. The relative contribution of processing fluency and beliefs to word

  19. Context predicts word order processing in Broca's region.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Line Burholt; Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2014-12-01

    The function of the left inferior frontal gyrus (L-IFG) is highly disputed. A number of language processing studies have linked the region to the processing of syntactical structure. Still, there is little agreement when it comes to defining why linguistic structures differ in their effects on the L-IFG. In a number of languages, the processing of object-initial sentences affects the L-IFG more than the processing of subject-initial ones, but frequency and distribution differences may act as confounding variables. Syntactically complex structures (like the object-initial construction in Danish) are often less frequent and only viable in certain contexts. With this confound in mind, the L-IFG activation may be sensitive to other variables than a syntax manipulation on its own. The present fMRI study investigates the effect of a pragmatically appropriate context on the processing of subject-initial and object-initial clauses with the IFG as our ROI. We find that Danish object-initial clauses yield a higher BOLD response in L-IFG, but we also find an interaction between appropriateness of context and word order. This interaction overlaps with traditional syntax areas in the IFG. For object-initial clauses, the effect of an appropriate context is bigger than for subject-initial clauses. This result is supported by an acceptability study that shows that, given appropriate contexts, object-initial clauses are considered more appropriate than subject-initial clauses. The increased L-IFG activation for processing object-initial clauses without a supportive context may be interpreted as reflecting either reinterpretation or the recipients' failure to correctly predict word order from contextual cues. PMID:25000525

  20. The influence of punctuation and word class on distributed processing in normal reading.

    PubMed

    Pynte, Joël; Kennedy, Alan

    2007-04-01

    A series of multiple regression analyses was conducted on a corpus of eye movement data to examine whether the influence of properties of words n-1 and n+1 on the time spent fixating word n changes as a function of whether word n is associated with a punctuation mark (i.e., whether or not a punctuation mark separates word n from either word n-1 or word n+1). The results suggest that distributed processing is not significantly impaired. However, punctuation marks also carry word class information and word classes are not evenly distributed across positions relative to punctuation marks. Word class probability does modulate parafoveal-on-foveal effects. PMID:17275060

  1. Independence of Early Speech Processing from Word Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chan, Alexander M.; Torres, Christina; Sizemore, Marisa L.; Qu, Zhe; Eskandar, Emad; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Cash, Sydney S.; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ∼60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ∼217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception. PMID:22875868

  2. Independence of early speech processing from word meaning.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Leonard, Matthew K; Chan, Alexander M; Torres, Christina; Sizemore, Marisa L; Qu, Zhe; Eskandar, Emad; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric

    2013-10-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ∼60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ∼217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception. PMID:22875868

  3. N170 ERPs could represent a logographic processing strategy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory; Petit, Laurent; Bernard, Christian; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Background Occipito-temporal N170 component represents the first step where face, object and word processing are discriminated along the ventral stream of the brain. N170 leftward asymmetry observed during reading has been often associated to prelexical orthographic visual word form activation. However, some studies reported a lexical frequency effect for this component particularly during word repetition that appears in contradiction with this prelexical orthographic step. Here, we tested the hypothesis that under word repetition condition, discrimination between words would be operated on visual rather than orthographic basis. In this case, N170 activity may correspond to a logographic processing where a word is processed as a whole. Methods To test such an assumption, frequent words, infrequent words and pseudowords were presented to the subjects that had to complete a visual lexical decision task. Different repetition conditions were defined 1 – weak repetition, 2 – massive repetition and 3 – massive repetition with font alternation. This last condition was designed to change visual word shape during repetition and therefore to interfere with a possible visual strategy during word recognition. Results Behavioral data showed an important frequency effect for the weak repetition condition, a lower but significant frequency effect for massive repetition, and no frequency effect for the changing font repetition. Moreover alternating font repetitions slowed subject's responses in comparison to "simple" massive repetition. ERPs results evidenced larger N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere for frequent than both infrequent words and pseudowords during massive repetition. Moreover, when words were repeated with different fonts this N170 effect was not present, suggesting a visual locus for such a N170 frequency effect. Conclusion N170 represents an important step in visual word recognition, consisting probably in a prelexical orthographic processing. But during

  4. Slow Mapping: Color Word Learning as a Gradual Inductive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Katie; Dobkins, Karen; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Most current accounts of color word acquisition propose that the delay between children's first production of color words and adult-like understanding is due to problems abstracting color as a domain of meaning. Here we present evidence against this hypothesis, and show that, from the time children produce color words in a labeling task they use…

  5. Frequent Words Do Not Break Continuous Flash Suppression Differently from Infrequent or Nonexistent Words: Implications for Semantic Processing of Words in the Absence of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flash suppression (CFS) has been used as a paradigm to probe the extent to which word stimuli are processed in the absence of awareness. In the two experiments reported here, no evidence is obtained that word stimuli are processed up to the semantic level when suppressed through CFS. In Experiment 1, word stimuli did not break suppression faster than their pseudo-word variants nor was suppression time modulated by word frequency. Experiment 2 replicated these findings, but more critically showed that differential effects can be obtained with this paradigm using a simpler stimulus. In addition, pixel density of the stimuli did prove to be related to suppression time in both experiments, indicating that the paradigm is sensitive to differences in detectability. A third and final experiment replicated the well-known face inversion effect using the same set-up as Experiments 1 and 2, thereby demonstrating that the employed methodology can capture more high-level effects as well. These results are discussed in the context of previous evidence on unconscious semantic processing and two potential explanations are advanced. Specifically, it is argued that CFS might act at a level too low in the visual system for high-level effects to be observed or that the widely used breaking CFS paradigm is merely ill-suited to capture effects in the context of words. PMID:25116265

  6. Frequent words do not break continuous flash suppression differently from infrequent or nonexistent words: implications for semantic processing of words in the absence of awareness.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Tom; Moors, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flash suppression (CFS) has been used as a paradigm to probe the extent to which word stimuli are processed in the absence of awareness. In the two experiments reported here, no evidence is obtained that word stimuli are processed up to the semantic level when suppressed through CFS. In Experiment 1, word stimuli did not break suppression faster than their pseudo-word variants nor was suppression time modulated by word frequency. Experiment 2 replicated these findings, but more critically showed that differential effects can be obtained with this paradigm using a simpler stimulus. In addition, pixel density of the stimuli did prove to be related to suppression time in both experiments, indicating that the paradigm is sensitive to differences in detectability. A third and final experiment replicated the well-known face inversion effect using the same set-up as Experiments 1 and 2, thereby demonstrating that the employed methodology can capture more high-level effects as well. These results are discussed in the context of previous evidence on unconscious semantic processing and two potential explanations are advanced. Specifically, it is argued that CFS might act at a level too low in the visual system for high-level effects to be observed or that the widely used breaking CFS paradigm is merely ill-suited to capture effects in the context of words. PMID:25116265

  7. Sensorimotor and linguistic information attenuate emotional word processing benefits: an eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Naveed A; Titone, Debra A

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have reported that emotional words are processed faster than neutral words, though emotional benefits may not depend solely on words' emotionality. Drawing on an embodied approach to representation, we examined interactions between emotional, sensorimotor, and linguistic sources of information for target words embedded in sentential contexts. Using eye-movement measures for 43 native English speakers, we observed emotional benefits for negative and positive words and sensorimotor benefits for words high in concreteness, but only when target words were low in frequency. Moreover, emotional words were maximally faster than neutral words when words were low in concreteness (i.e., highly abstract), and sensorimotor benefits occurred only when words were not emotionally charged (i.e., emotionally neutral). Furthermore, emotional and concreteness benefits were attenuated by individual differences that attenuate and amplify emotional and sensorimotor information, respectively. Our results suggest that behavior is functionally modulated by embodied information (i.e., emotional and sensorimotor) when linguistic contributions to representation are not enhanced by high frequency. Furthermore, emotional benefits are maximal when words are not already embodied by sensorimotor contributions to representation (and vice versa). Our work is consistent with recent studies that have suggested that abstract words are grounded in emotional experiences, analogous to how concrete words are grounded in sensorimotor experiences. PMID:23647453

  8. Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints. PMID:23250954

  9. Phonological and Visual Processes in Word Recognition by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaldieh, Salim A.

    A study investigated the roles of phonological encoding and visual processes in word recognition in American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. Subjects were 36 individuals with proficiency ranging from beginning to native. Two experiments in word recognition were conducted, one at word and one at sentence level. At each level, the word…

  10. Concreteness in Word Processing: ERP and Behavioral Effects in a Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Horacio A.; Otten, Leun J.; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Relative to abstract words, concrete words typically elicit faster response times and larger N400 and N700 event-related potential (ERP) brain responses. These effects have been interpreted as reflecting the denser links to associated semantic information of concrete words and their recruitment of visual imagery processes. Here, we examined…

  11. Effects of Speed of Word Processing on Semantic Access: The Case of Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clara D.; Costa, Albert; Dering, Benjamin; Hoshino, Noriko; Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers generally manifest slower word recognition than monolinguals. We investigated the consequences of the word processing speed on semantic access in bilinguals. The paradigm involved a stream of English words and pseudowords presented in succession at a constant rate. English-Welsh bilinguals and English monolinguals were asked to…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Letter Processing and Word Processing Skills in Deaf and Hearing Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldenoglu, Birkan; Miller, Paul; Kargin, Tevhide

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between letter processing and word processing skills in deaf and hearing readers. The participants were 105 students (51 of them hearing, 54 of them deaf) who were evenly and randomly recruited from two levels of education (primary = 3rd-4th graders; middle = 6th-7th graders). The students were…

  13. Word-Processing "Efficiency"--By Means of Personalized Word-Frequency Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concept of the efficiency with which text is entered into a word processor--from the perspective of effective use of keyboard shortcuts. Illustrates how the possibility for productiveness offered by shortcuts, available through the use of features such as Autotext, are often under-utilized by many word processor users, academics being…

  14. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146374

  15. Configural information is processed differently in human action.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that observers' sensitivity to configural information in dynamic human action is disrupted when action is inverted, whereas sensitivity to featural action information is not. The current research involved two experiments that expand upon this basic finding. Experiment 1 revealed that featural and configural action information are processed similarly in static representations of action as in dynamic action. Experiment 2 indicated that configural processing is uniquely sensitive to orientation only in human action as compared to a similar control stimulus. These findings further support the idea that the perception of action recruits specialized orientation-specific configural processing, and parallel similar findings in face perception and visual expertise. PMID:22208127

  16. Gesture and word analysis: the same or different processes?

    PubMed

    De Marco, Doriana; De Stefani, Elisa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    The present study aimed at determining whether elaboration of communicative signals (symbolic gestures and words) is always accompanied by integration with each other and, if present, this integration can be considered in support of the existence of a same control mechanism. Experiment 1 aimed at determining whether and how gesture is integrated with word. Participants were administered with a semantic priming paradigm with a lexical decision task and pronounced a target word, which was preceded by a meaningful or meaningless prime gesture. When meaningful, the gesture could be either congruent or incongruent with word meaning. Duration of prime presentation (100, 250, 400 ms) randomly varied. Voice spectra, lip kinematics, and time to response were recorded and analyzed. Formant 1 of voice spectra, and mean velocity in lip kinematics increased when the prime was meaningful and congruent with the word, as compared to meaningless gesture. In other words, parameters of voice and movement were magnified by congruence, but this occurred only when prime duration was 250 ms. Time to response to meaningful gesture was shorter in the condition of congruence compared to incongruence. Experiment 2 aimed at determining whether the mechanism of integration of a prime word with a target word is similar to that of a prime gesture with a target word. Formant 1 of the target word increased when word prime was meaningful and congruent, as compared to meaningless congruent prime. Increase was, however, present for whatever prime word duration. Experiment 3 aimed at determining whether symbolic prime gesture comprehension makes use of motor simulation. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation was delivered to left primary motor cortex 100, 250, 500 ms after prime gesture presentation. Motor Evoked Potential of First Dorsal Interosseus increased when stimulation occurred 100 ms post-stimulus. Thus, gesture was understood within 100 ms and integrated with the target word within 250 ms

  17. Neuromagnetic hand and foot motor sources recruited during action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Niccolai, Valentina; Terhalle, Anselm; Geisler, Hans; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated sensorimotor involvement in the processing of verbs describing actions performed with the hands, feet, or no body part. Actual movements were used to identify neuromagnetic sources for hand and foot actions. These sources constrained the analysis of verb processing. While hand and foot sources picked up activation in all three verb conditions, peak amplitudes showed an interaction of source and verb condition at 200 ms after word onset, thereby reflecting effector-specificity. Specifically, hand verbs elicited significantly higher peak amplitudes than foot verbs in hand sources. Our results are in line with theories of embodied cognition that assume an involvement of sensorimotor areas in early stages of lexico-semantic processing, even for single words without a semantic or motor task. PMID:24412808

  18. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R.; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F.; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N = 17; mean age 10;5) and adults (N = 17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  19. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  20. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  1. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…

  2. Words and Pictures: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Domain Specific Processing in Native Chinese and English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Yen Na; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of word and picture processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) are contaminated by gross physical differences between the two types of stimuli. In the present study, we tackle this problem by comparing picture processing with word processing in an alphabetic and a logographic script, that are also characterized by gross physical…

  3. Learning to Read: Developing Processes for Recognizing, Understanding and Pronouncing Written Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Morag

    2006-01-01

    Major theories of how skilled readers recognize, understand and pronounce written words include processes for phonological recoding (i.e., translating segments of print to their corresponding segments of sound) and processes by which direct access is achieved from printed words to their meanings. If these are the processes employed in skilled…

  4. Concurrent Processing of Words and Their Replacements during Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Catchpole, Ciara M.; de Jong, Nivja H.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Two picture naming experiments, in which an initial picture was occasionally replaced with another (target) picture, were conducted to study the temporal coordination of abandoning one word and resuming with another word in speech production. In Experiment 1, participants abandoned saying the initial name, and resumed with the name of the target…

  5. Speaker Variability Augments Phonological Processing in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McMurray, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Infants in the early stages of word learning have difficulty learning lexical neighbors (i.e. word pairs that differ by a single phoneme), despite their ability to discriminate the same contrast in a purely auditory task. While prior work has focused on top-down explanations for this failure (e.g. task demands, lexical competition), none has…

  6. The Logical Syntax of Number Words: Theory, Acquisition and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. "Cognition 93", 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar…

  7. Processing Reduced Word Forms: The Suffix Restoration Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Rachel; Ernestus, Mirjam; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Listeners cannot recognize highly reduced word forms in isolation, but they can do so when these forms are presented in context (Ernestus, Baayen, & Schreuder, 2002). This suggests that not all possible surface forms of words have equal status in the mental lexicon. The present study shows that the reduced forms are linked to the canonical…

  8. Competitive Processes in Cross-Situational Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. However, the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This article investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition.…

  9. Digital Transformation of Words in Learning Processes: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saga, Hiroo

    1999-01-01

    Presents some negative aspects of society's dependence on digital transformation of words by referring to works by Walter Ong and Martin Heidegger. Discusses orality, literacy and digital literacy and describes three aspects of the digital transformation of words. Compares/contrasts art with technology and discusses implications for education.…

  10. Development of Embodied Word Meanings: Sensorimotor Effects in Children's Lexical Processing.

    PubMed

    Inkster, Michelle; Wellsby, Michele; Lloyd, Ellen; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed an effect of words' rated body-object interaction (BOI) in children's visual word naming performance, but only in children 8 years of age or older (Wellsby and Pexman, 2014a). In that study, however, BOI was established using adult ratings. Here we collected ratings from a group of parents for children's BOI experience (child-BOI). We examined effects of words' child-BOI and also words' imageability on children's responses in an auditory word naming task, which is suited to the lexical processing skills of younger children. We tested a group of 54 children aged 6-7 years and a comparison group of 25 adults. Results showed significant effects of both imageability and child-BOI on children's auditory naming latencies. These results provide evidence that children younger than 8 years of age have richer semantic representations for high imageability and high child-BOI words, consistent with an embodied account of word meaning. PMID:27014129

  11. Belief-Desire Reasoning in the Explanation of Behavior: Do Actions Speak Louder than Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Annie E.; German, Tamsin C.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underwriting our commonsense psychology, or "theory of mind", have been extensively investigated via reasoning tasks that require participants to "predict" the action of agents based on information about beliefs and desires. However, relatively few studies have investigated the processes contributing to a central component of…

  12. Do You "See'" What I "See"? Differentiation of Visual Action Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Joël; Cirelli, Laura; Szeligo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Dickinson and Szeligo ("Can J Exp Psychol" 62(4):211--222, 2008) found that processing time for simple visual stimuli was affected by the visual action participants had been instructed to perform on these stimuli (e.g., see, distinguish). It was concluded that these effects reflected the differences in the durations of these various…

  13. Words with and without internal structure: what determines the nature of orthographic and morphological processing?

    PubMed

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or letter-transposition priming are not found in Hebrew. In four experiments, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to the fact that Semitic words have an underlying structure that constrains the possible alignment of phonemes and their respective letters. The experiments contrasted typical Semitic words which are root-derived, with Hebrew words of non-Semitic origin, which are morphologically simple and resemble base-words in European languages. Using RSVP, TL priming, and form-priming manipulations, we show that Hebrew readers process Hebrew words which are morphologically simple similar to the way they process English words. These words indeed reveal the typical form-priming and TL priming effects reported in European languages. In contrast, words with internal structure are processed differently, and require a different code for lexical access. We discuss the implications of these findings for current models of visual word recognition. PMID:21163472

  14. Motivational priming and processing interrupt: startle reflex modulation during shallow and deep processing of emotional words.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Valence-driven modulation of the startle reflex, that is larger eyeblinks during viewing of unpleasant pictures and inhibited blinks while viewing pleasant pictures, is well documented. The current study investigated, whether this motivational priming pattern also occurs during processing of unpleasant and pleasant words, and to what extent it is influenced by shallow vs. deep encoding of verbal stimuli. Emotional and neutral adjectives were presented for 5s, and the acoustically elicited startle eyeblink response was measured while subjects memorized the words by means of shallow or deep processing strategies. Results showed blink potentiation to unpleasant and blink inhibition to pleasant adjectives in subjects using shallow encoding strategies. In subjects using deep-encoding strategies, blinks were larger for pleasant than unpleasant or neutral adjectives. In line with this, free recall of pleasant words was also better in subjects who engaged in deep processing. The results suggest that motivational priming holds as long as processing is perceptual. However, during deep processing the startle reflex appears to represent a measure of "processing interrupt", facilitating blinks to those stimuli that are more deeply encoded. PMID:20171998

  15. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:12435377

  16. How Early Does the Brain Distinguish between Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Pseudowords during the Reading Process? Evidence from Neurochronometric TMS.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Devlin, Joseph T; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Morais, José; Goldman, Serge; Kolinsky, Régine

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive theories on reading propose that the characteristics of written stimuli determine how they are processed in the brain. However, whether the brain distinguishes between regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords already at an early stage of the reading process is still subject to debate. Here we used chronometric TMS to address this issue. During the first 140 msec of regular word, irregular word, and pseudoword reading, TMS was used to disrupt the function of the ventral occipitotemporal, posterior middle temporal, and supramarginal gyri, which are key areas involved in orthographic, semantic, and phonological processing, respectively. Early TMS stimulation delivered on posterior middle temporal and supramarginal gyri affected regular and irregular word, but not pseudoword, reading. In contrast, ventral occipitotemporal disruption affected both word and pseudoword reading. We thus found evidence for an early distinction between word and pseudoword processing in the semantic and phonological systems, but not in the orthographic system. PMID:25603024

  17. Emotions in Word and Face Processing: Early and Late Cortical Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as…

  18. "I've Lost My Story!" Integrating Word Processing with Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget M.; And Others

    Focusing on ways to teach fourth-grade students the machine skills they need to make the computer a fluent writing tool, this study sought to identify the word processing skills that students need to learn and the ones that are most difficult, and the instructional approaches that work best in teaching word processing skills. The problems and…

  19. Syllables and Bigrams: Orthographic Redundancy and Syllabic Units Affect Visual Word Recognition at Different Processing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Markus; Carreiras, Manuel; Tamm, Sascha; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing evidence for syllabic processing during visual word recognition. If syllabic effects prove to be independent from orthographic redundancy, this would seriously challenge the ability of current computational models to account for the processing of polysyllabic words. Three experiments are presented to…

  20. Constituent Integration during the Processing of Compound Words: Does It Involve the Use of Relational Structures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that the processing of compound words involves the integration of the constituents, not much is known about what integration entails. Three experiments suggest that integration draws on both linguistic and conceptual knowledge about the constituents and the compound word; ease of processing (as reflected by…

  1. How to Lose Money Electronically: Word Processing and the Social Structure of Scholarly Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Jack

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the issue of possible savings of time and money for authors and publishers resulting from author word processing and automation of scholarly book publishing industry. Automation and taxes, newspaper publishing, editing, routine expenses in the copy editing of word-processed works, and the effect on costs for libraries are covered. (EJS)

  2. The Effect of Word Processing on Students' Grades and Attitudes toward Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Renate I.

    The impact of word processing on students' attitudes and grades was studied using 235 students in 15 sections of freshmen composition at a large midwestern university. Students in the word-processing sections wrote and revised their papers on the Macintosh Plus using the software MacWrite. Students in the traditional sections used paper, pencils,…

  3. Comparing the Word Processing and Reading Comprehension of Skilled and Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldenoglu, I. Birkan; Kargin, Tevhide; Miller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the word processing and reading comprehension skilled in and less skilled readers. Forty-nine, 2nd graders (26 skilled and 23 less skilled readers) participated in this study. They were tested with two experiments assessing their processing of isolated real word and pseudoword pairs as well as their reading…

  4. Neural Correlates of Written Emotion Word Processing: A Review of Recent Electrophysiological and Hemodynamic Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, Francesca M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature investigating the neural correlates of emotion word processing has emerged in recent years. Written words have been shown to represent a suitable means to study emotion processing and most importantly to address the distinct and interactive contributions of the two dimensions of emotion: valence and arousal. The aim of…

  5. How to Choose and Incorporate Word Processing Equipment into Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Patty L.

    This two-part document describes the development of a word processing instructional program at NEKA Vo-Tech School (Kansas) and offers recommendations for incorporating word processing into the curriculum. Program development steps which are discussed include: assessing community needs; developing implementation phases; contacting other…

  6. The Relationship between Previous Training in Computer Science and the Acquisition of Word Processing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Brian D.

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated whether computer science educational background makes secondary students more adept at using word processing capabilities, and compared computer science and non-computer science students' writing improvement with word processing use. Computer science students used more sophisticated program features but student writing did…

  7. Word Processing in Elementary Schools: Seven Case Studies. Education and Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jack; And Others

    As a result of preliminary observations of word processing in elementary level language the seven case studies presented in this report reveal the effectiveness of current word processing (WP) activities within their respective instructional contexts. Each study is presented separately, detailing the classroom context, tasks and outcomes, program…

  8. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  9. Learning Computers, Speaking English: Cooperative Activities for Learning English and Basic Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quann, Steve; Satin, Diana

    This textbook leads high-beginning and intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students through cooperative computer-based activities that combine language learning with training in basic computer skills and word processing. Each unit concentrates on a basic concept of word processing while also focusing on a grammar topic. Skills are…

  10. Processing Words and Short Message Service Shortcuts in Sentential Contexts: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Krott, Andrea; Frisson, Steven; Meyer, Antje S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether Short Message Service shortcuts are more difficult to process in sentence context than the spelled-out word equivalent and, if so, how any additional processing difficulty arises. Twenty-four student participants read 37 Short Message Service shortcuts and word equivalents embedded in semantically plausible…

  11. Dual-route processing of complex words: new fMRI evidence from derivational suffixation.

    PubMed

    Vannest, Jennifer; Polk, Thad A; Lewis, Richard L

    2005-03-01

    Many behavioral models of the comprehension of suffixed words assume a dual-route mechanism in which these words are accessed sometimes from the mental lexicon as whole units and sometimes in terms of their component morphemes (such as happi+ness). In related neuropsychological work, Ullman et al. (1997) proposed a dual-route model for past tense processing, in which the lexicon (used for access to irregularly inflected forms) corresponds to declarative memory and a medial temporal/ parietal circuit, and the rule system (used for computation of regularly inflected forms) corresponds to procedural memory and a frontal (including Broca's area)/basal ganglia circuit. We used functional MRI and a memory encoding task to test this model for derivationally suffixed words, comparing those words that show evidence of decompositional processing in behavioral studies (-ness, -less, and -able words) with derived words that do not show decomposition effects (-ity and -ation words). By examining Broca's area and the basal ganglia as regions of interest, we found that "decomposable" derived and inflected words showed increases in activity relative to nondecomposable suffixed words. Results support a dual-route model of lexical access of complex words that is consistent with the Ullman et al. proposal. PMID:15913009

  12. Immediate Auditory Repetition of Words and Nonwords: An ERP Study of Lexical and Sublexical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Riddell, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    ERPs were elicited to (1) words, (2) pseudowords derived from these words, and (3) nonwords with no lexical neighbors, in a task involving listening to immediately repeated auditory stimuli. There was a significant early (P200) effect of phonotactic probability in the first auditory presentation, which discriminated words and pseudowords from nonwords; and a significant somewhat later (N400) effect of lexicality, which discriminated words from pseudowords and nonwords. There was no reliable effect of lexicality in the ERPs to the second auditory presentation. We conclude that early sublexical phonological processing differed according to phonotactic probability of the stimuli, and that lexically-based redintegration occurred for words but did not occur for pseudowords or nonwords. Thus, in online word recognition and immediate retrieval, phonological and/or sublexical processing plays a more important role than lexical level redintegration. PMID:24642662

  13. Word learning in linguistic context: Processing and memory effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Arnold, Alison R

    2016-11-01

    During language acquisition, children exploit syntactic cues within sentences to learn the meanings of words. Yet, it remains unknown how this strategy develops alongside an ability to access cues during real-time language comprehension. This study investigates how on-line sensitivity to syntactic cues impacts off-line interpretation and recall of word meanings. Adults and 5-year-olds heard novel words embedded in sentences that were (1) consistent with an agent-first bias (e.g., "The blicket will be eating the seal"→"the blicket" is an agent), (2) required revision of this bias (e.g., "The blicket will be eaten by the seal"→"the blicket" is a theme), or (3) weakened this bias through a familiar NP1 (e.g., "The seal will be eating/eaten by the blicket"→"the seal" is an agent or theme). Across both ages, eye-movements during sentences revealed decreased sensitivity to syntactic cues in contexts that required syntactic revision. In children, the magnitude of on-line sensitivity was positively associated with the accuracy of learning after the sentence. Parsing challenges during the word-learning task also negatively impacted children's later memory for word meanings during a recall task. Altogether, these results suggest that real-time demands impact word learning, through interpretive failures and memory interference. PMID:27513871

  14. Processing emotional words in two languages with one brain: ERP and fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2015-10-01

    Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2. PMID:26143622

  15. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  16. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  17. Actions speak louder than words: Outsiders' perceptions of diversity mixed messages.

    PubMed

    Windscheid, Leon; Bowes-Sperry, Lynn; Kidder, Deborah L; Cheung, Ho Kwan; Morner, Michèle; Lievens, Filip

    2016-09-01

    To attract a gender diverse workforce, many employers use diversity statements to publicly signal that they value gender diversity. However, this often represents a misalignment between words and actions (i.e., a diversity mixed message) because most organizations are male dominated, especially in board positions. We conducted 3 studies to investigate the potentially indirect effect of such diversity mixed messages through perceived behavioral integrity on employer attractiveness. In Study 1, following a 2 × 2 design, participants (N = 225) were either shown a pro gender diversity statement or a neutral statement, in combination with a gender diverse board (4 men and 4 women) or a uniform all-male board (8 men). Participants' perceived behavioral integrity of the organization was assessed. In Study 2, participants (N = 251) either read positive or negative reviews of the organization's behavioral integrity. Employer attractiveness was then assessed. Study 3 (N = 427) investigated the impact of board gender composition on perceived behavioral integrity and employer attractiveness using a bootstrapping procedure. Both the causal-chain design of Study 1 and 2, as well as the significance test of the proposed indirect relationship in Study 3, revealed that a diversity mixed message negatively affected an organization's perceived behavioral integrity, and low behavioral integrity in turn negatively impacted employer attractiveness. In Study 3, there was also evidence for a tipping point (more than 1 woman on the board was needed) with regard to participants' perceptions of the organization's behavioral integrity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281185

  18. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I.; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word’s perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output. PMID:26217288

  19. A Thousand Words Are Worth a Picture: Snapshots of Printed-Word Processing in an Event-Related Potential Megastudy.

    PubMed

    Dufau, Stéphane; Grainger, Jonathan; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2015-12-01

    In the experiment reported here, approximately 1,000 words were presented to 75 participants in a go/no-go lexical decision task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Partial correlations were computed for variables selected to reflect orthographic, lexical, and semantic processing, as well as for a novel measure of the visual complexity of written words. Correlations were based on the item-level ERPs at each electrode site and time slice while a false-discovery-rate correction was applied. Early effects of visual complexity were seen around 50 ms after word onset, followed by the earliest sustained orthographic effects around 100 to 150 ms, with the bulk of orthographic and lexical influences arising after 200 ms. Effects of a semantic variable (concreteness) emerged later, at around 300 ms. The overall time course of these ERP effects is in line with hierarchical, cascaded, interactive accounts of word recognition, in which fast feed-forward influences are consolidated by top-down feedback via recurrent processing loops. PMID:26525074

  20. [Words before actions- the significance of counselling in the Praena-Test era].

    PubMed

    Tschudin, Sibil

    2014-04-23

    Due to new offers in prenatal diagnostics pregnant women are forced to make choices. In Switzerland physicians are obliged to inform previous to prenatal tests and to obtain informed consent. Considering the complexity of this information and the consequences of a positive result, counselling is challenging, especially in an intercultural context. A questionnaire-based study compared information processing, test interpretation and emotional response of pregnant women from Switzerland and adjacent countries with Turkish women. Knowledge of the latter was significantly lower and they found counselling more unsettling, but their acceptance of prenatal tests was significantly higher. An empathetic approach and the right words are decisive, and counselling will even gain importance when considering the increase in options patients are confronted with. PMID:24755499

  1. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    PubMed

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation. PMID:26519144

  2. A computational model associating learning process, word attributes, and age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach. PMID:24223699

  3. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  4. Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children’s Retention of Learned Words

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N = 216) and adults’ (N = 54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings at a rapid rate. Moreover, these patterns of forgetting parallel forgetting functions of domain-general memory processes. Memory processes are critical to children’s word learning and the role of one such process, forgetting, is discussed in detail – forgetting supports extended mapping by promoting the memory and generalization of words and categories. PMID:22375132

  5. Relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Baker, Anne E; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The effect of using signed communication on the spoken language development of deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) is much debated. We report on two studies that investigated relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with a CI who are exposed to signs in addition to spoken language. Study 1 assessed rapid word and sign learning in 13 children with a CI and found that performance in both language modalities correlated positively. Study 2 tested the effects of using sign-supported speech on spoken word processing in eight children with a CI, showing that simultaneously perceiving signs and spoken words does not negatively impact their spoken word recognition or learning. Together, these two studies suggest that sign exposure does not necessarily have a negative effect on speech processing in some children with a CI. PMID:24080074

  6. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  7. The role of attention in processing morphologically complex spoken words: an EEG/MEG study

    PubMed Central

    Leminen, Alina; Lehtonen, Minna; Leminen, Miika; Nevalainen, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Kujala, Teija

    2013-01-01

    This study determined to what extent morphological processing of spoken inflected and derived words is attention-independent. To answer these questions EEG and MEG responses were recorded from healthy participants while they were presented with spoken Finnish inflected, derived, and monomorphemic words. In the non-attended task, the participants were instructed to ignore the incoming auditory stimuli and concentrate on the silent cartoon. In the attended task, previously reported by Leminen et al. (2011), the participants were to judge the acceptability of each stimulus. Importantly, EEG and MEG responses were time-locked to the onset of critical information [suffix onset for the complex words and uniqueness point (UP) for the monomorphemic words]. Early after the critical point, word type did not interact with task: in both attended and non-attended tasks, the event-related potentials (ERPs) showed larger negativity to derived than inflected or monomorphemic words ~100 ms after the critical point. MEG source waveforms showed a similar pattern. Later than 100 ms after the critical point, there were no differences between word types in the non-attended task either in the ERP or source modeling data. However, in the attended task inflected words elicited larger responses than other words ~200 ms after the critical point. The results suggest different brain representations for derived and inflected words. The early activation after the critical point was elicited both in the non-attended and attended tasks. As this stage of word recognition was not modulated by attention, it can be concluded to reflect an automatic mapping of incoming acoustic information onto stored representations. In contrast, the later differences between word types in the attended task were not observed in the non-attended task. This indicates that later compositional processes at the (morpho)syntactic-semantic level require focused attention. PMID:23316156

  8. Processing Trade-Offs in the Reading of Dutch Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2010-01-01

    This eye-tracking study explores visual recognition of Dutch suffixed words (e.g., "plaats+ing" "placing") embedded in sentential contexts, and provides new evidence on the interplay between storage and computation in morphological processing. We show that suffix length crucially moderates the use of morphological properties. In words with shorter…

  9. Context Effects in Processing of Chinese Academic Words: An Eye-Tracking Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Chen, Ming-Lei; Ko, Hwa-wei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated context effects of online processing of Chinese academic words during text reading. Undergraduate participants were asked to read Chinese texts that were familiar or unfamiliar (containing physics terminology) to them. Physics texts were selected first, and then we replaced the physics terminology with familiar words; other…

  10. The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative…

  11. Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

  12. The Role of Additional Processing Time and Lexical Constraint in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.; Patterson, David

    2007-01-01

    Three phoneme monitoring experiments examined the manner in which additional processing time influences spoken word recognition. Experiment 1a introduced a version of the phoneme monitoring paradigm in which a silent interval is inserted prior to the word-final target phoneme. Phoneme monitoring reaction time decreased as the silent interval…

  13. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  14. Word Processing Programs and Weaker Writers/Readers: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Paul; Graham, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Since its advent word processing has become a common writing tool, providing potential advantages over writing by hand. Word processors permit easy revision, produce legible characters quickly, and may provide additional supports (e.g., spellcheckers, speech recognition). Such advantages should remedy common difficulties among weaker…

  15. The Influence of Emotional Words on Sentence Processing: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Fernandez, Anabel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Casado, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most previous studies on emotion in language have focussed on single words, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of a word on the syntactic and semantic processes unfolding during sentence comprehension, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 assessed how positive, negative, and neutral adjectives…

  16. Word and Nonword Processing without Meaning Support in Korean-Speaking Children with and without Hyperlexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to…

  17. Parafoveal Processing of Transposed-Letter Words and Nonwords: Evidence against Parafoveal Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.; Dunne, Maxine D.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments explored the parafoveal processing of transposed-letter (TL) neighbors by using an eye-movement-contingent boundary change paradigm. In Experiment 1 readers received a parafoveal preview of a target word (e.g., "calm") that was either (1) identical to the target word ("calm"), (2) a TL-neighbor ("clam"), or (3) a…

  18. The Lexical Status of the Root in Processing Morphologically Complex Words in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalhoub-Awwad, Yasmin; Leikin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Arabic root in the visual word recognition process among young readers in order to explore its role in reading acquisition and its development within the structure of the Arabic mental lexicon. We examined cross-modal priming of words that were derived from the same root of the target…

  19. Processing of Emotion Words by Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Reaction Times and EEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated processing of emotion words in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using reaction times and event-related potentials (ERP). Adults with (n = 21) and without (n = 20) ASD performed a lexical decision task on emotion and neutral words while their brain activity was recorded. Both groups showed faster responses to emotion words…

  20. Word Recognition Processing Efficiency as a Component of Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of the speeded lexical decision task to L2 aural processing efficiency. One-hundred and twenty Japanese university students completed an aural word/nonword task. When the variation of lexical decision time (CV) was correlated with reaction time (RT), the results suggested that the single-word recognition…

  1. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  2. Comparability of Scores on Word-Processed and Handwritten Essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Cooper, Peter

    Essays for the Graduate Management Admissions Test must be written with a word processor (except in some foreign countries). The test sponsors, the Graduate Management Admissions Council, believed that this is fair because some word processing skill is a prerequisite for advanced management education. Furthermore, it might also be unfair to…

  3. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  4. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  5. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Visual Word-Form Processing: Progress, Conflict, and Evaluating Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsolek, Chad J.; Deason, Rebecca G.

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous left-hemisphere advantage in visual word processing can be accounted for in different ways. Competing theories have been tested recently using cAsE-aLtErNaTiNg words to investigate boundary conditions for the typical effect. We briefly summarize this research and examine the disagreements and commonalities across the theoretical…

  6. Foveal vs. Parafoveal Processing in Anxiety: Broadened Spatial Attention for Threat Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the processing of threat-related, positive, and neutral words in parafoveal and in foveal vision as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety. In a lexical-decision task, word primes were presented for 150 ms either parafoveally (2.2[degrees] away from fixation; Experiment 1) or foveally (at fixation; Experiment 3)…

  7. The linguistic context effects on the processing of body-object interaction words: An ERP study on second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2015-07-10

    Embodied theories of cognition argue that the processing of both concrete and abstract concepts requires the activation of sensorimotor systems. The present study examined the time course for embedding a sensorimotor context in order to elicit sensitivity to the sensorimotor consequences of understanding body-object interaction (BOI) words. In the study, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed a sentence acceptability task. Target BOI words were preceded by rich or poor sensorimotor sentential contexts. The behavioural results replicated previous findings in that high BOI words received a response faster than low BOI words. In addition to this, however, there was a context effect in the sensorimotor region as well as a BOI effect in the parietal region (involved in object representation). The results indicate that the sentential sensorimotor context contributes to the subsequent BOI processing and that action-and perception-related language leads to the activation of the same brain areas, which is consistent with the embodiment theory. PMID:25858488

  8. Mapping Novel Labels to Actions: How the Rhythm of Words Guides Infants' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Campbell, Jennifer; Hufnagle, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide word-action…

  9. Unilateral Brain Damage Effects on Processing Homonymous and Polysemous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepousniotou, E.; Baum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Using an auditory semantic priming paradigm, the present study investigated the abilities of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) non-fluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and normal control individuals to access, out of context, the multiple meanings of three types of ambiguous words, namely homonyms (e.g., ''punch''), metonymies (e.g.,…

  10. In the Beginning Was the Word: Basic Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis F.

    1981-01-01

    The articles in this section describe research on reading in areas of visual persistence, letter identification, letter probability, word superiority effect, proofreader errors and order effects. This review challenges fellow basic researchers to become more aware of the components of reading before adding new data purporting to delineate the…

  11. Manipulations of word frequency reveal differences in the processing of morphologically complex and simple words in German

    PubMed Central

    Bronk, Maria; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We tested current models of morphological processing in reading with data from four visual lexical decision experiments using German compounds and monomorphemic words. Triplets of two semantically transparent noun-noun compounds and one monomorphemic noun were used in Experiments 1a and 1b. Stimuli within a triplet were matched for full-form frequency. The frequency of the compounds' constituents was varied. The compounds of a triplet shared one constituent, while the frequency of the unshared constituent was either high or low, but always higher than full-form frequency. Reactions were faster to compounds with high-frequency constituents than to compounds with low-frequency constituents, while the latter did not differ from the monomorphemic words. This pattern was not influenced by task difficulty, induced by the type of pseudocompounds used. Pseudocompounds were either created by altering letters of an existing compound (easy pseudocompound, Experiment 1a) or by combining two free morphemes into a non-existing, but morphologically legal, compound (difficult pseudocompound, Experiment 1b). In Experiments 2a and 2b, frequency-matched pairs of semantically opaque noun-noun compounds and simple nouns were tested. In Experiment 2a, with easy pseudocompounds (of the same type as in Experiment 1a), a reaction-time advantage for compounds over monomorphemic words was again observed. This advantage disappeared in Experiment 2b, where difficult pseudocompounds were used. Although a dual-route might account for the data, the findings are best understood in terms of decomposition of low-frequency complex words prior to lexical access, followed by processing costs due to the recombination of morphemes for meaning access. These processing costs vary as a function of intrinsic factors such as semantic transparency, or external factors such as the difficulty of the experimental task. PMID:23986731

  12. To Write or to Type? The Effects of Handwriting and Word-Processing on the Written Style of Examination Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogey, Nora; Hartley, James

    2013-01-01

    There is much debate about whether or not these days students should be able to word-process essay-type examinations as opposed to handwriting them, particularly when they are asked to word-process everything else. This study used word-processing software to examine the stylistic features of 13 examination essays written by hand and 24 by…

  13. The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding

  14. Emotion effects during reading: Influence of an emotion target word on eye movements and processing.

    PubMed

    Knickerbocker, Hugh; Johnson, Rebecca L; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Scott, O'Donnell and Sereno reported that words of high valence and arousal are processed with greater ease than neutral words during sentence reading. However, this study unsystematically intermixed emotion (label a state of mind, e.g., terrified or happy) and emotion-laden words (refer to a concept that is associated with an emotional state, e.g., debt or marriage). We compared the eye-movement record while participants read sentences that contained a neutral target word (e.g., chair) or an emotion word (no emotion-laden words were included). Readers were able to process both positive (e.g., happy) and negative emotion words (e.g., distressed) faster than neutral words. This was true across a wide range of early (e.g., first fixation durations) and late (e.g., total times on the post-target region) measures. Additional analyses revealed that State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores interacted with the emotion effect and that the emotion effect was not due to arousal alone. PMID:25034443

  15. The advantage of word-based processing in Chinese reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingshan; Gu, Junjuan; Liu, Pingping; Rayner, Keith

    2013-05-01

    In 2 experiments, we tested the prediction that reading is more efficient when characters belonging to a word are presented simultaneously than when they are not in Chinese reading using a novel variation of the moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). In Experiment 1, we found that reading was slowed down when Chinese readers could not see characters belonging to a word simultaneously compared to when they could do so. In Experiment 2, when Chinese readers could choose whether the 2 characters in the moving window contained a word or 2 characters that did not constitute a word, they had a clear tendency to look at 2 characters belonging to a word simultaneously. The results of the current study provide strong evidence that character processing is affected by word knowledge and the processing of other characters belonging to the same word in Chinese reading, and add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that words do have psychological reality for Chinese readers. The results also suggest that the eye movement control strategy of Chinese readers is rather flexible in that it can be adjusted online to modify the characteristics of the window. PMID:23088542

  16. Temporospatial analysis of explicit and implicit processing of negative content during word comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J A; Albert, J; López-Martín, S; Carretié, L

    2014-06-01

    Although divergences between explicit and implicit processing of affective content during word comprehension have been reported, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. Prior studies focused on either the timing or the spatial location of the effects. The present study examined the precise dynamics of the processing of negative words when attention is directed to affective content or to non-emotional properties by capitalizing on fine temporal resolution of the event-related potentials (ERPs) and recent advances in source localization. Tasks were used that required accessing knowledge about different semantic properties of negative and neutral words. In the direct task, participants' attention was directed towards emotional information. By contrast, subjects had to decide whether the words' referent could be touched or not in the indirect task. Regardless of being processed explicitly or implicitly, negative compared to neutral words were associated with more errors and greater key pressure responses. Electrophysiologically, affective processing was reflected in larger amplitudes to negative words in a late positive component (LPC) at the scalp level, and in increased activity in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) at the voxel level. Interestingly, an interaction between emotion and type of task was observed. Negative words were associated with more errors, larger anterior distributed LPC amplitudes and increased activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the direct compared to the indirect task. This LPC effect was modulated by the concreteness of the words. Finally, a task effect was found in a posterior negativity around 220ms, with enhanced amplitudes to words in the direct compared to the indirect task. The present results suggest that negative information contained in written language is processed irrespective of controlled attention is directed to it or not, but that this processing is reinforced in the former case

  17. Calligrapher or Keyboard Operator? Multilingual Word-Processing in the Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chana, Urmi; Edwards, Viv; Walker, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Explores the educational applications and potential of using multilingual word-processing in primary schools and offers solutions to technical difficulties. It provides tips on software selection, training, and introducing the program to parents and pupils. (GR)

  18. Wernicke’s Area Revisited: Parallel Streams and Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Iain; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory word-form recognition was originally proposed by Wernicke to occur within left superior temporal gyrus (STG), later further specified to be in posterior STG. To account for clinical observations (specifically paraphasia), Wernicke proposed his sensory speech center was also essential for correcting output from frontal speech-motor regions. Recent work, in contrast, has established a role for anterior STG, part of the auditory ventral stream, in the recognition of species-specific vocalizations in nonhuman primates and word-form recognition in humans. Recent work also suggests monitoring self-produced speech and motor control are associated with posterior STG, part of the auditory dorsal stream. Working without quantitative methods or evidence of sensory cortex’ hierarchical organization, Wernicke co-localized functions that today appear dissociable. “Wernicke’s area” thus may be better construed as two cortical modules, an auditory word-form area (AWFA) in the auditory ventral stream and an “inner speech area” in the auditory dorsal stream. PMID:24404576

  19. A Study of the Requirements and Business Training Procedures for Word Processing Personnel with Implications for Word Processing Curriculum Development in Two-Year Postsecondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche

    A study identified competencies needed by secretarial and supervisory/managerial personnel in word processing (WP) environments and used the data collected to develop guidelines for a WP curriculum for two-year postsecondary institutions. Data on competencies, knowledge, and behavioral traits that individuals should possess to perform jobs in WP…

  20. The way you say it, the way I feel it: emotional word processing in accented speech

    PubMed Central

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Baus, Cristina; Costa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether processing words with affective connotations in a listener's native language may be modulated by accented speech. To address this question, we used the Event Related Potential (ERP) technique and recorded the cerebral activity of Spanish native listeners, who performed a semantic categorization task, while listening to positive, negative and neutral words produced in standard Spanish or in four foreign accents. The behavioral results yielded longer latencies for emotional than for neutral words in both native and foreign-accented speech, with no difference between positive and negative words. The electrophysiological results replicated previous findings from the emotional language literature, with the amplitude of the Late Positive Complex (LPC), associated with emotional language processing, being larger (more positive) for emotional than for neutral words at posterior scalp sites. Interestingly, foreign-accented speech was found to interfere with the processing of positive valence and go along with a negativity bias, possibly suggesting heightened attention to negative words. The manipulation employed in the present study provides an interesting perspective on the effects of accented speech on processing affective-laden information. It shows that higher order semantic processes that involve emotion-related aspects are sensitive to a speaker's accent. PMID:25870577

  1. Stress intensifies demands on response selection during action cascading processes.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ali; Wolf, Oliver T; Beste, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Stress has been shown to modulate a number of cognitive processes including action control. These functions are important in daily life and are mediated by various cognitive subprocesses. However, it is unknown if stress affects the whole processing cascade, or exerts specific effects on a restricted subset of processes involved in the chaining of actions. We examine the effects of stress on action selection processes in a stop-change paradigm and apply event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with source localization analysis to examine potentially restricted effects of stress on subprocesses mediating action cascading. The results show that attentional selection processes, as well as processes related to allocation of processing resources were not affected by stress. Stress only seems to affect response selection functions during action cascading and leads to slowing of responses when two actions are executed in succession. These changes are related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Changes in response selection were predictable on the basis of individual salivary cortisol levels. The results show that stress does not affect the whole processing cascade involved in the cascading of different actions, but seems to exert circumscribed effects on response selection processes which have previously been shown to depend on dopaminergic neural transmission. PMID:24636514

  2. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-10-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed. PMID:26643309

  3. The direction of word stress processing in German: evidence from a working memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Domahs, Frank; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Domahs, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There are contradicting assumptions and findings on the direction of word stress processing in German. To resolve this question, we asked participants to read tri-syllabic non-words and stress ambiguous words aloud. Additionally, they also performed a working memory (WM) task (2-back task). In non-word reading, participants' individual WM capacity was positively correlated with assignment of main stress to the antepenultimate syllable, which is most distant to the word's right edge, while a (complementary) negative correlation was observed with assignment of stress to the ultimate syllable. There was no significant correlation between WM capacity and stress assignment to the penultimate syllable, which has been claimed to be the default stress pattern in German. In reading stress ambiguous words, a similar but non-significant pattern was observed as in non-word reading. In sum, our results provide first psycholinguistic evidence supporting leftward stress processing in German. Our results do not lend support to the assumption of penultimate default stress in German. A specification of the lemma model is proposed which seems able to reconcile our findings and apparently contradicting assumptions and evidence. PMID:24966845

  4. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

  5. Gesturing has a larger impact on problem-solving than action, even when action is accompanied by words

    PubMed Central

    Trofatter, Caroline; Kontra, Carly; Beilock, Sian; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The coordination of speech with gesture elicits changes in speakers’ problem-solving behavior beyond the changes elicited by the coordination of speech with action. Participants solved the Tower of Hanoi puzzle (TOH1); explained their solution using speech coordinated with either Gestures (Gesture+Talk) or Actions (Action+Talk), or demonstrated their solution using Actions alone (Action); then solved the puzzle again (TOH2). For some participants (Switch group), disk weights during TOH2 were reversed (smallest = heaviest). Only in the Gesture+Talk Switch group did performance worsen from TOH1 to TOH2 – for all other groups, performance improved. In the Gesture+Talk Switch group, more one-handed gestures about the smallest disk during the explanation hurt subsequent performance, compared to all other groups. These findings contradict the hypothesis that gesture affects thought by promoting the coordination of task-relevant hand movements with task-relevant speech, and lend support to the hypothesis that gesture grounds thought in action via its representational properties. PMID:25664327

  6. Alpha and theta brain oscillations index dissociable processes in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-08-15

    Slow neural oscillations (~1-15 Hz) are thought to orchestrate the neural processes of spoken language comprehension. However, functional subdivisions within this broad range of frequencies are disputed, with most studies hypothesizing only about single frequency bands. The present study utilizes an established paradigm of spoken word recognition (lexical decision) to test the hypothesis that within the slow neural oscillatory frequency range, distinct functional signatures and cortical networks can be identified at least for theta- (~3-7 Hz) and alpha-frequencies (~8-12 Hz). Listeners performed an auditory lexical decision task on a set of items that formed a word-pseudoword continuum: ranging from (1) real words over (2) ambiguous pseudowords (deviating from real words only in one vowel; comparable to natural mispronunciations in speech) to (3) pseudowords (clearly deviating from real words by randomized syllables). By means of time-frequency analysis and spatial filtering, we observed a dissociation into distinct but simultaneous patterns of alpha power suppression and theta power enhancement. Alpha exhibited a parametric suppression as items increasingly matched real words, in line with lowered functional inhibition in a left-dominant lexical processing network for more word-like input. Simultaneously, theta power in a bilateral fronto-temporal network was selectively enhanced for ambiguous pseudowords only. Thus, enhanced alpha power can neurally 'gate' lexical integration, while enhanced theta power might index functionally more specific ambiguity-resolution processes. To this end, a joint analysis of both frequency bands provides neural evidence for parallel processes in achieving spoken word recognition. PMID:24747736

  7. Drafting and Revision Using Word Processing by Undergraduate Student Writers: Changing Conceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Anish M.; Russell, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of drafting and revision were developed out of process theory and research done in the early 1980s, an era when word processing was not as pervasive or standardized as it is now. This paper reexamines those concepts, drawing on an analysis of two decades of previous college-level studies of writing processes in relation to word…

  8. Developmental Change in Neutral Processing of Words by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michelle A.; Bates, Juliana C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the development of neural processing of auditorally presented words in high functioning children with autism. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that electrophysiological abnormalities associated with impairments in early cortical processing and in semantic processing persist into early adolescence in autistic individuals.…

  9. Action Learning--A Process Which Supports Organisational Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how action learning sets (ALSs) were used to support organisational change initiatives. It sets the scene with contextualising the inclusion of change projects in a masters programme. Action learning is understood to be a dynamic process where a team meets regularly to help individual members address issues through a highly…

  10. Event related potentials reveal differences between morphological (prefixes) and phonological (syllables) processing of words.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alberto; Alija, Maira; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Mauel

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral measures in visual priming tasks show opposite effects for syllables and morphemes, which indicate that they are processed by two independent systems. We used event related potentials (ERPs) to explore two priming situations in Spanish: prefix related words (reacción-REFORMA [reaction-reform]), in which prime and target words shared a first syllable that was also a prefix, and syllable related words (regalo-REFORMA [gift-reform.]), in which the shared first syllable was a pseudoprefix in the prime word. Prefix related pairs, unlike syllable related pairs, evoked a very early positivity in reaction to the target (at 150-250ms window), suggesting that the prefix information is immediately available, at a prelexical stage. By contrast, syllable related pairs showed a larger N400 effect. This late negativity may be caused by lateral inhibition among lexical candidates activated in the lexicon by the prime's first syllable. PMID:16996688

  11. Sequential then Interactive Processing of Letters and Words in the Left Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Thesen, Thomas; McDonald, Carrie R.; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Cash, Syd; Sherfey, Jason; Felsovalyi, Olga; Girard, Holly; Barr, William; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies, it is unclear if letters are identified prior to word-form encoding during reading, or if letters and their combinations are encoded simultaneously and interactively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that a ‘letter-form’ area (responding more to consonant strings than false fonts) can be distinguished from an immediately anterior ‘visual word-form area’ in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (responding more to words than consonant strings). Letter-selective magnetoencephalographic responses begin in the letter-form area ~60ms earlier than word-selective responses in the word-form area. Local field potentials confirm the latency and location of letter-selective responses. This area shows increased high gamma power for ~400ms, and strong phase-locking with more anterior areas supporting lexico-semantic processing. These findings suggest that during reading, visual stimuli are first encoded as letters before their combinations are encoded as words. Activity then rapidly spreads anteriorly, and the entire network is engaged in sustained integrative processing. PMID:23250414

  12. Word-Decoding as a Function of Temporal Processing in the Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Steven R.; Náñez, José E.; Seitz, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between visual processing and word-decoding ability in a normal reading population. Forty participants were recruited at Arizona State University. Flicker fusion thresholds were assessed with an optical chopper using the method of limits by a 1-deg diameter green (543 nm) test field. Word decoding was measured using reading-word and nonsense-word decoding tests. A non-linguistic decoding measure was obtained using a computer program that consisted of Landolt C targets randomly presented in four cardinal orientations, at 3-radial distances from a focus point, for eight compass points, in a circular pattern. Participants responded by pressing the arrow key on the keyboard that matched the direction the target was facing. The results show a strong correlation between critical flicker fusion thresholds and scores on the reading-word, nonsense-word, and non-linguistic decoding measures. The data suggests that the functional elements of the visual system involved with temporal modulation and spatial processing may affect the ease with which people read. PMID:24376782

  13. The direction of word stress processing in German: evidence from a working memory paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Domahs, Frank; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Domahs, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There are contradicting assumptions and findings on the direction of word stress processing in German. To resolve this question, we asked participants to read tri-syllabic non-words and stress ambiguous words aloud. Additionally, they also performed a working memory (WM) task (2-back task). In non-word reading, participants’ individual WM capacity was positively correlated with assignment of main stress to the antepenultimate syllable, which is most distant to the word’s right edge, while a (complementary) negative correlation was observed with assignment of stress to the ultimate syllable. There was no significant correlation between WM capacity and stress assignment to the penultimate syllable, which has been claimed to be the default stress pattern in German. In reading stress ambiguous words, a similar but non-significant pattern was observed as in non-word reading. In sum, our results provide first psycholinguistic evidence supporting leftward stress processing in German. Our results do not lend support to the assumption of penultimate default stress in German. A specification of the lemma model is proposed which seems able to reconcile our findings and apparently contradicting assumptions and evidence. PMID:24966845

  14. Word stress processing in specific language impairment: auditory or representational deficits?

    PubMed

    Haake, Caroline; Kob, Malte; Willmes, Klaus; Domahs, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Word stress processing has repeatedly been reported to be affected in specific language impairment (SLI) with potential consequences for various aspects of language development. However, it still remains unresolved whether word stress impairments in SLI are due to deficits in basic auditory processing or to a degraded phonological representation or both. We addressed this question examining an unselected sample of 10 children with SLI and 11 typically developing (TD) children, aged about 8 years, with respect to their basic auditory processing (duration and skewness discrimination) and phonological representation of prosodic (word stress) and segmental (consonant) contrasts. Our results show lower performance of the SLI group compared to the TD group in all tasks. Crucially, two subgroups of children with SLI emerged from our analyses: While one group was impaired in basic auditory perception, particularly affecting duration discrimination, the other showed no significant auditory processing deficits but a representational impairment. PMID:23806129

  15. Emotion Words, Regardless of Polarity, Have a Processing Advantage over Neutral Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the interface between emotion and cognition, the role of emotion in cognitive tasks is unclear. According to one hypothesis, negative valence is more relevant for survival and is associated with a general slowdown of the processing of stimuli, due to a defense mechanism that freezes activity in the face of threat.…

  16. Resilient Actions in the Diagnostic Process and System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Giardina, Traber Davis; Murphy, Daniel R.; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by ‘resilient’ actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analyzed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs’ actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Results Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Discussion Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs’ actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of ‘downstream’ measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety. PMID:23813210

  17. DPADL: An Action Language for Data Processing Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which will provide automation for an ecosystem forecasting system called TOPS.

  18. Diverging receptive and expressive word processing mechanisms in a deep dyslexic reader.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Irene; Radach, Ralph

    2016-01-29

    We report on KJ, a patient with acquired dyslexia due to cerebral artery infarction. He represents an unusually clear case of an "output" deep dyslexic reader, with a distinct pattern of pure semantic reading. According to current neuropsychological models of reading, the severity of this condition is directly related to the degree of impairment in semantic and phonological representations and the resulting imbalance in the interaction between the two word processing pathways. The present work sought to examine whether an innovative eye movement supported intervention combining lexical and segmental therapy would strengthen phonological processing and lead to an attenuation of the extreme semantic over-involvement in KJ's word identification process. Reading performance was assessed before (T1) between (T2) and after (T3) therapy using both analyses of linguistic errors and word viewing patterns. Therapy resulted in improved reading aloud accuracy along with a change in error distribution that suggested a return to more sequential reading. Interestingly, this was in contrast to the dynamics of moment-to-moment word processing, as eye movement analyses still suggested a predominantly holistic strategy, even at T3. So, in addition to documenting the success of the therapeutic intervention, our results call for a theoretically important conclusion: Real-time letter and word recognition routines should be considered separately from properties of the verbal output. Combining both perspectives may provide a promising strategy for future assessment and therapy evaluation. PMID:26656873

  19. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Wilkie, Gianna; Kuperberg, Gina

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine how different dimensions of emotion-valence and arousal-influence different stages of word processing under different task demands. In two experiments, two groups of participants viewed the same single emotional and neutral words while carrying out different tasks. In both experiments, valence (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) was fully crossed with arousal (high and low). We found that the task made a substantial contribution to how valence and arousal modulated the late positive complex (LPC), which is thought to reflect sustained evaluative processing (particularly of emotional stimuli). When participants performed a semantic categorization task in which emotion was not directly relevant to task performance, the LPC showed a larger amplitude for high-arousal than for low-arousal words, but no effect of valence. In contrast, when participants performed an overt valence categorization task, the LPC showed a large effect of valence (with unpleasant words eliciting the largest positivity), but no effect of arousal. These data show not only that valence and arousal act independently to influence word processing, but that their relative contributions to prolonged evaluative neural processes are strongly influenced by the situational demands (and by individual differences, as revealed in a subsequent analysis of subjective judgments). PMID:26833048

  20. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  1. Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2010-01-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

  2. Word Recognition and Basic Cognitive Processes among Reading-Disabled and Normal Readers in Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Share, David; Mansour, Maysaloon Said

    2003-01-01

    Investigates word identification in Arabic and basic cognitive processes in reading-disabled (RD) and normal level readers of the same chronological age, and in younger normal readers at the same reading level. Indicates significant deficiencies in morphology, working memory, and syntactic and visual processing, with the most severe deficiencies…

  3. Exploring the Processing Continuum of Single-Word Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moineau, Suzanne; Dronkers, Nina F.; Bates, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the vulnerability of lexical processing in individuals with aphasia. Though classical teaching of aphasia syndromes holds that people with Broca's aphasia have intact comprehension at the single-word level, the nature and extent of this purported sparing were explored under suboptimal processing conditions. A combination of…

  4. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  5. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  6. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli. PMID:25955719

  7. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-01-01

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social–emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475

  8. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-01-01

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social-emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475

  9. How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Eddington, Chelsea M; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-02-01

    The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind. Several review papers and books have been written on the subject of semantic ambiguity (e.g., Adriaens, Small, Cottrell, & Tanenhaus, 1988; Burgess & Simpson, 1988; Degani & Tokowicz, 2010; Gorfein, 1989, 2001; Simpson, 1984). However, several more recent studies (e.g., Klein & Murphy, 2001; Klepousniotou, 2002; Klepousniotou & Baum, 2007; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2002) have investigated the role of the semantic similarity between the multiple meanings of ambiguous words on processing and representation, whereas this was not the emphasis of previous reviews of the literature. In this review, we focus on the current state of the semantic ambiguity literature that examines how different types of ambiguous words influence processing and representation. We analyze the consistent and inconsistent findings reported in the literature and how factors such as semantic similarity, meaning/sense frequency, task, timing, and modality affect ambiguous word processing. We discuss the findings with respect to recent parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of ambiguity processing (Armstrong & Plaut, 2008, 2011; Rodd, Gaskell, & Marslen-Wilson, 2004). Finally, we discuss how experience/instance-based models (e.g., Hintzman, 1986; Reichle & Perfetti, 2003) can inform a comprehensive understanding of semantic ambiguity resolution. PMID:24889119

  10. The Integration of an Information Processing Center into a Modern Office/Word Processing Technology Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVan, Jan; Arndt, Maridene

    A report and related materials are provided from an activity to set up an operating information processing center that would do the work initiated by personnel in the district and to incorporate the center into the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology course. The report details objectives, population and sample, and conclusions and…

  11. Perceptual Processing of Partially and Fully Assimilated Words in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

    2008-01-01

    Models of speech perception attribute a different role to contextual information in the processing of assimilated speech. This study concerned perceptual processing of regressive voice assimilation in French. This phonological variation is asymmetric in that assimilation is partial for voiced stops and nearly complete for voiceless stops. Two…

  12. The influence of vertical motor responses on explicit and incidental processing of power words.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Sun, Lining; Zhu, Lei

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating that power judgment is affected by vertical information. Such interaction between vertical space and power (i.e., response facilitation under space-power congruent conditions) is generally elicited in paradigms that require participants to explicitly evaluate the power of the presented words. The current research explored the possibility that explicit evaluative processing is not a prerequisite for the emergence of this effect. Here we compared the influence of vertical information on a standard explicit power evaluation task with influence on a task that linked power with stimuli in a more incidental manner, requiring participants to report whether the words represented people or animals or the font of the words. The results revealed that although the effect is more modest, the interaction between responses and power is also evident in an incidental task. Furthermore, we also found that explicit semantic processing is a prerequisite to ensure such an effect. PMID:25840358

  13. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Darlene G.; da Silva, Patrícia B.; Dias, Natália M.; Seabra, Alessandra G.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8–13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

  14. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

  15. Modeling the meaning of words: neural correlates of abstract and concrete noun processing.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Frida; Roll, Mikael; Apt, Pia; Horne, Merle

    2011-01-01

    We present a model relating analysis of abstract and concrete word meaning in terms of semantic features and contextual frames within a general framework of neurocognitive information processing. The approach taken here assumes concrete noun meanings to be intimately related to sensory feature constellations. These features are processed by posterior sensory regions of the brain, e.g. the occipital lobe, which handles visual information. The interpretation of abstract nouns, however, is likely to be more dependent on semantic frames and linguistic context. A greater involvement of more anteriorly located, perisylvian brain areas has previously been found for the processing of abstract words. In the present study, a word association test was carried out in order to compare semantic processing in healthy subjects (n=12) with subjects with aphasia due to perisylvian lesions (n=3) and occipital lesions (n=1). The word associations were coded into different categories depending on their semantic content. A double dissociation was found, where, compared to the controls, the perisylvian aphasic subjects had problems associating to abstract nouns and produced fewer semantic framebased associations, whereas the occipital aphasic subject showed disturbances in concrete noun processing and made fewer semantic feature based associations. PMID:22237493

  16. The relationship between visual word and face processing lateralization in the fusiform gyri: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Johnston, Samantha; Tashakkor, Yashar; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Visual words and faces activate similar networks but with complementary hemispheric asymmetries, faces being lateralized to the right and words to the left. A recent theory proposes that this reflects developmental competition between visual word and face processing. We investigated whether this results in an inverse correlation between the degree of lateralization of visual word and face activation in the fusiform gyri. 26 literate right-handed healthy adults underwent functional MRI with face and word localizers. We derived lateralization indices for cluster size and peak responses for word and face activity in left and right fusiform gyri, and correlated these across subjects. A secondary analysis examined all face- and word-selective voxels in the inferior occipitotemporal cortex. No negative correlations were found. There were positive correlations for the peak MR response between word and face activity within the left hemisphere, and between word activity in the left visual word form area and face activity in the right fusiform face area. The face lateralization index was positively rather than negatively correlated with the word index. In summary, we do not find a complementary relationship between visual word and face lateralization across subjects. The significance of the positive correlations is unclear: some may reflect the influences of general factors such as attention, but others may point to other factors that influence lateralization of function. PMID:27178362

  17. Effects of orthographic consistency on eye movement behavior: German and English children and adults process the same words differently.

    PubMed

    Rau, Anne K; Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Landerl, Karin

    2015-02-01

    The current study investigated the time course of cross-linguistic differences in word recognition. We recorded eye movements of German and English children and adults while reading closely matched sentences, each including a target word manipulated for length and frequency. Results showed differential word recognition processes for both developing and skilled readers. Children of the two orthographies did not differ in terms of total word processing time, but this equal outcome was achieved quite differently. Whereas German children relied on small-unit processing early in word recognition, English children applied small-unit decoding only upon rereading-possibly when experiencing difficulties in integrating an unfamiliar word into the sentence context. Rather unexpectedly, cross-linguistic differences were also found in adults in that English adults showed longer processing times than German adults for nonwords. Thus, although orthographic consistency does play a major role in reading development, cross-linguistic differences are detectable even in skilled adult readers. PMID:25462034

  18. Processing of zero-derived words in English: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Wheeldon, Linda; Lahiri, Aditi; Hansen, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Derivational morphological processes allow us to create new words (e.g. punish (V) to noun (N) punishment) from base forms. The number of steps from the basic units to derived words often varies (e.g., nationalityprocesses in which morphological complexity is related to a change in surface form. It is therefore unclear whether the effects reported are attributable to underlying morphological complexity or to the processing of multiple surface morphemes. Here we report the first study to investigate morphological processing where derivational steps are not overtly marked (e.g., bridge-N>bridge-V) i.e., zero-derivation (Aronoff, 1980). We compared the processing of one-step (soakingwords (grumble) in an fMRI experiment. Participants were presented with derived forms of words (soaking, bridging) in a lexical decision task. Although the surface derived -ing forms can be contextually participles, gerunds, or even nouns, they are all derived from verbs since the suffix -ing can only be attached to verb roots. Crucially, the verb root is the basic form for the one-step words, whereas for the two-step words the verb root is zero derived from a basic noun. Significantly increased brain activity was observed for complex (one-step and two-step) versus simple (zero-step) forms in regions involved in morphological processing, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). Critically, activation was also more pronounced for two-step compared to one-step forms. Since both types of derived words have the same surface structure, our findings suggest that morphological processing is based on underlying morphological complexity, independent of overt

  19. Proactive action preparation: seeing action preparation as a continuous and proactive process.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Ognibene, Dimitri

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we aim to elucidate the processes that occur during action preparation from both a conceptual and a computational point of view. We first introduce the traditional, serial model of goal-directed action and discuss from a computational viewpoint its subprocesses occurring during the two phases of covert action preparation and overt motor control. Then, we discuss recent evidence indicating that these subprocesses are highly intertwined at representational and neural levels, which undermines the validity of the serial model and points instead to a parallel model of action specification and selection. Within the parallel view, we analyze the case of delayed choice, arguing that action preparation can be proactive, and preparatory processes can take place even before decisions are made. Specifically, we discuss how prior knowledge and prospective abilities can be used to maximize utility even before deciding what to do. To support our view, we present a computational implementation of (an approximated version of) proactive action preparation, showing its advantages in a simulated tennis-like scenario. PMID:22643383

  20. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Morphological Processing in Visual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Eddy; Colé, Pascale; Badier, Jean-Michel; Zielinski, Christelle; Chanoine, Valérie; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of morphological, orthographic, and semantic processing were investigated in a primed lexical decision task in French using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The goal was to investigate orthographic and semantic contributions to morphological priming and compare these effects with pure orthographic and semantic priming. The time course of these effects was analyzed in anatomically defined ROIs that were selected according to previous MEG and fMRI findings. The results showed that morphological processing was not localized in one specific area but distributed over a vast network that involved left inferior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left orbitofrontal gyrus. Second, all morphological effects were specific, that is, in none of the ROIs could morphology effects be explained by pure orthographic or pure semantic overlap. Third, the ventral route was sensitive to both the orthographic and semantic "part" of the morphological priming effect in the M350 time window. Fourth, the earliest effects of morphology occurred in left superior temporal gyrus around 250 msec and reflected the semantic contribution to morphological facilitation. Together then, the present results show that morphological processing is not just an emergent property of processing form or meaning and that semantic contributions to morphological facilitation can occur as early as 250 msec in the left superior temporal gyrus. PMID:27027543

  1. Competency-Based Instruction for the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVan, Jan

    This report describes and provides materials developed by a project to set up competency-based instruction for designated competency levels in the Modern Office/Word Processing Technology Course in an area vocational school. Following an abstract and a report that details conclusions and recommendations, materials developed by the project are…

  2. Secretarial Administration: Word Processing Instruction: Should Business Education Be Proactive or Reactive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcoe, Annell Lacy

    1980-01-01

    It is time to take a look at the methods of teaching traditional clerical skills such as typing, shorthand, machine transcription, and decision making in view of the advances in word processing and other technical advances in business equipment. Further research is encouraged in order to update curricula and business programs. (CT)

  3. fMRI of Two Measures of Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition: Ecological Validity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, William J.; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the…

  4. Integrated Multi-Strategic Web Document Pre-Processing for Sentence and Word Boundary Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Junhyeok; Kim, Dongseok; Cha, Jeongwon; Lee, Gary Geunbae; Seo, Jungyun

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of natural language processing focuses on a multi-strategic integrated text preprocessing method for difficult problems of sentence boundary disambiguation and word boundary disambiguation of Web texts. Describes an evaluation of the method using Korean Web document collections. (Author/LRW)

  5. Strange Words: Autistic Traits and the Processing of Non-Literal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Peter E.; Glass, Alexandra; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Corley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations into metonymy comprehension in ASD have confounded metonymy with anaphora, and outcome with process. Here we show how these confounds may be avoided, using data from non-diagnosed participants classified using Autism Quotient. Participants read sentences containing target words with novel or established metonymic senses…

  6. A Word Processing Module. A Short Unit for the IBM PC and Apple IIe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    This unit introduces students to the basic skills, procedures, and formats used in operating most word processing equipment. Introductory materials include an overview of the three-week unit, its scope, and student behavioral objectives. Teacher materials provided are a lesson plan outline, glossary, and some masters for visual aids. Two student…

  7. Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of…

  8. The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech on the Writing Process of Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of word prediction and text-to-speech software on the writing process of translating. Participants for this study included 10 elementary and middle school students who had a diagnosis of disorder of written expression. A modified multiple case series was used to collect data…

  9. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 323 - Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards D Appendix D to Part 323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 323, App. D Appendix D...

  10. The Role of Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming, and Orthographic Processing in Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason; McIntosh, David; Huffman, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of three subskills associated with word decoding. The skills utilized for this study were phonological, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. To do this, six separate models were utilized to define different ways that these three subskills (represented as factors)…

  11. A Comparison of Updating Processes in Children Good or Poor in Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the updating ability of poor or good problem solvers. Seventy-eight fourth-graders, 43 good and 35 poor arithmetic word problem-solvers, performed the Updating Test used in Palladino et al. [Palladino, P., Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., and Pazzaglia F. (2002). Working memory and updating processes in reading comprehension. Memory…

  12. Campus Word Processing: Seven Design Principles for a New Academic Writing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuman, Myron

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the impact of word processing on the teaching of college composition at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa. Describes seven design principles developed by writing teachers at the university in outlining a solution to the problem of how students can really work together collaboratively over a computer network. (RS)

  13. Calloway & Pletcher, Inc. A Word Processing Administrative Support Secretary Position Simulation. Employer's Manual. [and] Forms Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savannah Area Vocational-Technical School, GA.

    This word processing administrative support secretary position simulation has been developed for use in an office applications laboratory at the postsecondary level. Its purpose is to give the student an opportunity to become familiar with the tasks and duties that may be performed by an administrative support secretary. This employer manual…

  14. Colliding Cues in Word Segmentation: The Role of Cue Strength and General Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Gerfen, Chip; Mitchel, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    The process of word segmentation is flexible, with many strategies potentially available to learners. This experiment explores how segmentation cues interact, and whether successful resolution of cue competition is related to general executive functioning. Participants listened to artificial speech streams that contained both statistical and…

  15. Word Processing: A Motivational Force in Developmental English. A Comparison of Two Developmental English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Lucille

    More than half of the entering freshmen at Rio Grande College in Ohio are required to take developmental English. In addition to having grammar, reading, and writing difficulties to overcome, most of these students have negative attitudes toward writing. In an effort to improve students' writing skills and attitudes, word processing instruction…

  16. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 323 - Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards D Appendix D to Part 323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 323, App. D Appendix D...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 323 - Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards D Appendix D to Part 323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 323, App. D Appendix D...

  18. Repetition and Focus on Form in Processing L2 Spanish Words: Implications for Pronunciation Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Situated in the context of learning second language (L2) pronunciation, this article discusses from information-processing and pedagogical perspectives the role of repetitive practice with L2 input and of explicit focus on its form-related (phonological) properties. First, we report the results of an auditory word-priming experiment with 60 L2…

  19. Is There Cross-Language Modulation when Bilinguals Process Number Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Paolieri, Daniela; Roman, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of cross-language activation when bilinguals process number words in their first language (Italian) and their second language (German). Italian monolinguals (Experiment 1), German monolinguals (Experiment 2), and Italian/German bilinguals (Experiment 3) were required to decide the larger of two number words…

  20. ERP Evidence for Ultra-Fast Semantic Processing in the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dell'acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Peressotti, Francesca; Mulatti, Claudio; Navarrete, Eduardo; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    We used the event-related potential (ERP) approach combined with a subtraction technique to explore the timecourse of activation of semantic and phonological representations in the picture-word interference paradigm. Subjects were exposed to to-be-named pictures superimposed on to-be-ignored semantically related, phonologically related, or unrelated words, and distinct ERP waveforms were generated time-locked to these different classes of stimuli. Difference ERP waveforms were generated in the semantic condition and in the phonological condition by subtracting ERP activity associated with unrelated picture-word stimuli from ERP activity associated with related picture-word stimuli. We measured both latency and amplitude of these difference ERP waveforms in a pre-articulatory time-window. The behavioral results showed standard interference effects in the semantic condition, and facilitatory effects in the phonological condition. The ERP results indicated a bimodal distribution of semantic effects, characterized by the extremely rapid onset (at about 100 ms) of a primary component followed by a later, distinct, component. Phonological effects in ERPs were characterized by components with later onsets and distinct scalp topography of ERP sources relative to semantic ERP components. Regression analyses revealed a covariation between semantic and phonological behavioral effect sizes and ERP component amplitudes, and no covariation between the behavioral effects and ERP component latency. The early effect of semantic distractors is thought to reflect very fast access to semantic representations from picture stimuli modulating on-going orthographic processing of distractor words. PMID:21833238

  1. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  2. Hierarchical processing in music, language, and action: Lashley revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-05-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized "syntax of action" necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion-that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions-is consistent with considerable experimental data. PMID:24697242

  3. Adult Environmental Education: A Workbook To Move from Words to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camozzi, Anne

    This workbook, developed for an international workshop held in the Philippines in 1994, is designed to enrich adult environmental education worldwide and to ensure that the International Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility is implemented in an action-oriented program. The workbook is organized in…

  4. Doing Participatory Action Research and Doing a PhD: Words of Encouragement for Prospective Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klocker, Natascha

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) carries the promise that academics can make a difference, an appealing prospect for many postgraduate students. This paper is written by an early career researcher who "survived" a PAR PhD. Despite acknowledging the unique challenges faced by students attempting PAR, it argues that these have been overstated in…

  5. Adaptive phase estimation and its application in EEG analysis of word processing.

    PubMed

    Schack, B; Rappelsberger, P; Weiss, S; Möller, E

    1999-10-30

    Oscillations are a general phenomenon of neuronal activity during information processing. Mostly, widespread networks are involved in brain functioning. In order to investigate network activity coherence analysis turned out to be a useful tool for examining the functional relationship between different cortical areas. This parameter allows the investigation of synchronisation phenomena with regard to defined frequencies or frequency bands. Coherence and cross phase are closely connected spectral parameters. Coherence may be understood as a measure of phase stability. Whereas coherence describes the amount of information transfer, the corresponding phase, from which time delays can be computed, hints at the direction of information transfer. Mental processes can be very brief and coupling between different areas may be highly dynamic. For this reason a two-dimensional approach of adaptive filtering was developed to estimate coherence and phase continuously in time. Statistical and dynamic properties of instantaneous phase are discussed. In order to demonstrate the value of this method for studying higher cognitive processes the method was applied to EEG recorded during word processing. During visual presentation of abstract nouns an information transfer from visual areas to frontal association areas in the Alpha1 frequency band could be verified within the first 400 ms. The Alpha1 band predominately seems to reflect sensory processing and attentional processes. In addition to conventional coherence analyses during word processing phase estimations may yield valuable new insights into the physiological mechanisms during word processing. PMID:10598864

  6. Cue to action processing in motor cortex populations

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (MI) commands motor output after kinematics are planned from goals, thought to occur in a larger premotor network. However, there is a growing body of evidence that MI is involved in processes beyond action generation, and neuronal subpopulations may perform computations related to cue-to-action processing. From multielectrode array recordings in awake behaving Macaca mulatta monkeys, our results suggest that early MI ensemble activity during goal-directed reaches is driven by target information when cues are closely linked in time to action. Single-neuron activity spanned cue presentation to movement, with the earliest responses temporally aligned to cue and the later responses better aligned to arm movements. Population decoding revealed that MI's coding of cue direction evolved temporally, likely going from cue to action generation. We confirmed that a portion of MI activity is related to visual target processing by showing changes in MI activity related to the extinguishing of a continuously pursued visual target. These findings support a view that MI is an integral part of a cue-to-action network for immediate responses to environmental stimuli. PMID:24174650

  7. Reasoning about nondeterministic and concurrent actions: A process algebra approach

    SciTech Connect

    De Giacomo, G.; Chen, Xiao Jun

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study reasoning about actions following a model checking approach in contrast to the usual validity checking one. Specifically, we model a dynamic system as a transition graph which represents all the possible system evolutions in terms of state changes caused by actions. Such a transition graph is defined by means of a suitable process algebra associated with an explicit global store. To reason about system properties we introduce an extension of modal {mu}-calculus. This setting, although directly applicable only when complete information on the system is available, has several interesting features for reasoning about actions. On one hand, it inherits from the vast literature on process algebras tools for dealing with complex systems, treating suitably important aspects like parallelism, communications, interruptions, coordinations among agents. On the other hand, reasoning by model checking is typically much easier than more general logical services such as validity checking.

  8. Emotion-word Processing Difficulties in Abstinent Alcoholics with and without Lifetime Externalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Michael J.; Fein, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that abstinent alcoholics have difficulties processing a variety of emotion-laden stimuli, and some of these difficulties may not fully resolve with long-term abstinence. The current study examined whether emotion-word processing difficulties were present in long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; 18+ months of sobriety) with and without a previously diagnosed externalizing (EXT; ASPD and/or ADHD diagnosis) disorder. Method Subjects (N=121) completed an affective go/no-go (AGNG) task with positive, negative, and neutral emotion-word stimuli, and a lexical decision-making (LDM) task with non-emotion word and non-word stimuli. Non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n=38, 50.0 % Female, mean age=48±7.8), LTAA with EXT (n=32, 41% Female, mean age=47.1±6.6 years), and LTAA without EXT (n=51, 47% Female, mean age=49.7±6.5 years) were compared on signal discriminability (d’) and mean RT for correct responses (mcRT). Results In the LDM task, LTAA had lower (d’) values and slower mcRT than NSAC. In the AGNG task, LTAA and NSAC did not differ in AGNG task mcRT. LTAA had lower (d’) values than NSAC, and this effect was partially associated with group differences in LDM task (d’) values. In LTAA, lower AGNG (d’) values also were associated with an earlier age of first drink, greater lifetime alcohol use, and a history of externalizing disorder. Conclusions Our findings suggest that detecting the emotional content of words is impaired in LTAA, and this impairment is over and above LTAA’s more general lexical processing difficulties. Results also suggest that specific emotion processing impairments in LTAA may be exacerbated by greater lifetime alcohol use burden and other comorbid EXT diagnoses. PMID:23278634

  9. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  10. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  11. Knowledge as process: Contextually-cued attention and early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Linda B.; Colunga, Eliana; Yoshida, Hanako

    2010-01-01

    Learning depends on attention. The processes that cue attention in the moment dynamically integrate learned regularities and immediate contextual cues. This paper reviews the extensive literature on cued attention and attentional learning in the adult literature and proposes that these fundamental processes are likely significant mechanisms of change in cognitive development. The value of this idea is illustrated using phenomena in children novel word learning. PMID:21116438

  12. Influence of emotional context on concreteness effects in words processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Jiao, Lihua; Cui, Lixia

    2014-06-18

    The phenomenon that concrete words are easier to process than abstract words is referred to as the word concreteness effect. Previous research has investigated influences of semantic context and word emotionality on concreteness effects. It is still unclear whether word concreteness effects might be influenced by emotional context for individuals with different cognitive styles. The present study showed how affective congruency between picture context and word target impacts concreteness effects in the word processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals using event-related potential measures. The participants evaluated pleasantness of the target word following the presentation of an affective picture. Concrete words were associated with a larger N400 and a smaller late positive component (LPC) than abstract words. Moreover, the LPC concreteness effect occurred only in the affectively incongruent context for field-dependent participants. These findings suggest that emotional context and concreteness modulate the N400 independently, but the LPC concreteness effect is influenced by emotional context and cognitive style. PMID:24709915

  13. Ingenuity in Action: Connecting Tinkering to Engineering Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer; Werner-Avidon, Maia; Newton, Lisa; Randol, Scott; Smith, Brooke; Walker, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science, a science center, seeks to replicate real-world engineering at the "Ingenuity in Action" exhibit, which consists of three open-ended challenges. These problems encourage children to engage in engineering design processes and problem-solving techniques through tinkering. We observed and interviewed 112…

  14. A word in the hand: action, gesture and mental representation in humans and non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Cartmill, Erica A.; Beilock, Sian; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The movements we make with our hands both reflect our mental processes and help to shape them. Our actions and gestures can affect our mental representations of actions and objects. In this paper, we explore the relationship between action, gesture and thought in both humans and non-human primates and discuss its role in the evolution of language. Human gesture (specifically representational gesture) may provide a unique link between action and mental representation. It is kinaesthetically close to action and is, at the same time, symbolic. Non-human primates use gesture frequently to communicate, and do so flexibly. However, their gestures mainly resemble incomplete actions and lack the representational elements that characterize much of human gesture. Differences in the mirror neuron system provide a potential explanation for non-human primates' lack of representational gestures; the monkey mirror system does not respond to representational gestures, while the human system does. In humans, gesture grounds mental representation in action, but there is no evidence for this link in other primates. We argue that gesture played an important role in the transition to symbolic thought and language in human evolution, following a cognitive leap that allowed gesture to incorporate representational elements. PMID:22106432

  15. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Decomposing the Processes Underlying Action Preparation.

    PubMed

    Bestmann, Sven; Duque, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Preparing actions requires the operation of several cognitive control processes that influence the state of the motor system to ensure that the appropriate behavior is ultimately selected and executed. For example, some form of competition resolution ensures that the right action is chosen among alternatives, often in the presence of conflict; at the same time, impulse control ought to be deployed to prevent premature responses. Here we review how state-changes in the human motor system during action preparation can be studied through motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). We discuss how the physiological fingerprints afforded by MEPs have helped to decompose some of the dynamic and effector-specific influences on the motor system during action preparation. We focus on competition resolution, conflict and impulse control, as well as on the influence of higher cognitive decision-related variables. The selected examples demonstrate the usefulness of MEPs as physiological readouts for decomposing the influence of distinct, but often overlapping, control processes on the human motor system during action preparation. PMID:26163320

  16. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  17. From words to actions: the phonetics of eigenlijkin two communicative contexts.

    PubMed

    Plug, Leendert

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the distribution of phonetic variants of the Dutch discourse marker eigenlijk, combining phonetic and conversation analytic methods. The paper shows that the phonetic form of eigenlijk depends to some extent on the sequential environment in which the item is used; moreover, it shows that in the case of two such environments, the forms of eigenlijk are representative of tempo and reduction patterns spanning entire turns or turn-constructional units. These patterns can be related to the interactive function of the turns; thus, the findings presented here contribute to our as yet limited knowledge of the phonetic correlates of communicative actions. PMID:16391499

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of automatic processing of phonological information in visual words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Yin-Yuan; A-Ping Liu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Sensory-specific cortices appear to be sensitive to information from another modality. Here we investigate whether the human brain automatically extracts the phonological information in visual words in early visual processing. We continuously presented native Chinese speakers peripherally with Chinese homophone characters in an oddball paradigm, while they performed a visual detection task presented in the centre of the visual field. We found the lexical tone phonology embedded in the characters is processed automatically by the brain of native speakers, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN). Source solution further revealed the MMN involved the neural activations from the visual cortex to the auditory cortex (130-460 ms). The spatial-temporal dynamics indicate a visual-auditory interaction in the early, automatic processing of phonological information in visual words. PMID:24336606

  19. Neuronal interactions between mentalising and action systems during indirect request processing.

    PubMed

    van Ackeren, Markus J; Smaragdi, Areti; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2016-09-01

    Human communication relies on the ability to process linguistic structure and to map words and utterances onto our environment. Furthermore, as what we communicate is often not directly encoded in our language (e.g. in the case of irony, jokes or indirect requests), we need to extract additional cues to infer the beliefs and desires of our conversational partners. Although the functional interplay between language and the ability to mentalise has been discussed in theoretical accounts in the past, the neurobiological underpinnings of these dynamics are currently not well understood. Here, we address this issue using functional imaging (fMRI). Participants listened to question-reply dialogues. In these dialogues, a reply is interpreted as a direct reply, an indirect reply or a request for action, depending on the question. We show that inferring meaning from indirect replies engages parts of the mentalising network (mPFC) while requests for action also activate the cortical motor system (IPL). Subsequent connectivity analysis using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) revealed that this pattern of activation is best explained by an increase in effective connectivity from the mentalising network (mPFC) to the action system (IPL). These results are an important step towards a more integrative understanding of the neurobiological basis of indirect speech processing. PMID:27131039

  20. Staying Mindful in Action: The Challenge of "Double Awareness" on Task and Process in an Action Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a well-proven method to integrate "task" and "process", as learning about team and self (process) takes place while delivering on a task or business challenge of real importance (task). An Action Lab® is an intensive Action Learning programme lasting for 5 days, which aims at balancing and integrating…

  1. Is VIRTU4L larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic processing of number quantity and lexical representations in leet words.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as numbers (i.e., in terms of access to their quantity representation). To address this question, we conducted 2 experiments that examined the size congruity effect (i.e., when comparisons of the physical size of numbers are affected by their numerical magnitudes) in a physical-size judgment task. Participants were presented with pairs of leet words that were nominally identical except for the embedded digit (e.g., VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L) and were asked to decide as quickly and accurately as possible which word in the pair appeared in a bigger font. In Experiment 1, we examined the congruity effect (congruent: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL vs. incongruent: VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L vs. neutral: VIR7UAL-VIR7UAL) and the numerical distance effect (distance 1: PAN3L-P4NEL vs. distance 3: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL). To examine whether the meaning of these words was accessed, we also manipulated word frequency (i.e., a marker of lexical access) in Experiment 2. Results revealed effects of congruity, distance, and word frequency, thus suggesting automatic access to both number quantity and word representations for leet words. These findings favor multidimensional accounts of number/word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641447

  2. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, Masumi

    2014-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. PMID:24478668

  3. Development of Embodied Word Meanings: Sensorimotor Effects in Children’s Lexical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Inkster, Michelle; Wellsby, Michele; Lloyd, Ellen; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed an effect of words’ rated body–object interaction (BOI) in children’s visual word naming performance, but only in children 8 years of age or older (Wellsby and Pexman, 2014a). In that study, however, BOI was established using adult ratings. Here we collected ratings from a group of parents for children’s BOI experience (child-BOI). We examined effects of words’ child-BOI and also words’ imageability on children’s responses in an auditory word naming task, which is suited to the lexical processing skills of younger children. We tested a group of 54 children aged 6–7 years and a comparison group of 25 adults. Results showed significant effects of both imageability and child-BOI on children’s auditory naming latencies. These results provide evidence that children younger than 8 years of age have richer semantic representations for high imageability and high child-BOI words, consistent with an embodied account of word meaning. PMID:27014129

  4. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  5. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  6. Do Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word n + 2? A Test of Serial Attention Shift versus Distributed Lexical Processing Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Brown, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from serial lexical processing and parallel distributed models of eye movement control in reading. The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used, and the boundary location was set either at the end of word n - 1 (the word just to the left of the target word) or at the end of word n - 2. Serial lexical…

  7. Strange Words: Autistic Traits and the Processing of Non-Literal Language.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Peter E; Glass, Alexandra; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Corley, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Previous investigations into metonymy comprehension in ASD have confounded metonymy with anaphora, and outcome with process. Here we show how these confounds may be avoided, using data from non-diagnosed participants classified using Autism Quotient. Participants read sentences containing target words with novel or established metonymic senses (e.g., Finland, Vietnam) in literal- or figurative-supporting contexts. Participants took longer to read target words in figurative contexts, especially where the metonymic sense was novel. Importantly, participants with higher AQs took longer still to read novel metonyms. This suggests a focus for further exploration, in terms of potential differences between individuals diagnosed with ASD and their neurotypical counterparts, and more generally in terms of the processes by which comprehension is achieved. PMID:26093391

  8. Beginning to Write with Word Processing: Integrating Writing Process and Technology in a Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leeuwen, Charlene A.; Gabriel, Martha A.

    2007-01-01

    Writing behaviors of grade 1 children were explored as they used word processors to support their writing. Information was gathered in the form of field notes and audiotape transcripts from classroom observation sessions, along with informal interviews with students and teachers. Themes which emerged from the data analysis suggested a combination…

  9. Merging Spreadsheet and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging spreadsheet and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet and word processor files, transferring spreadsheet files to the clipboard, merging spreadsheet and…

  10. Merging Data Base and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging database and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading database files, transferring database files to the clipboard, merging database files into word processor files,…

  11. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  12. The Uses of Word Processing Programs for Clinical Writing. Part II: Program Features for Developing Report Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Arthur H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article demonstrates the use of word processing commands for the creation of sections of diagnostic reports, intervention plans, and progress summaries. The use of basic commands for searching and finding key words in a core report is illustrated, along with chaining sequences for writing objectives. (Author/CL)

  13. Merging Data Base and Word Processing Files Using Appleworks V1.3 and the Apple IIe Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Schlenker, Deborah S.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging database and word processing files using Appleworks and the Apple IIe computer with a Duodisk or two disk drives. Step-by-step directions are provided for transferring the database file, printing the file, moving to the word processor file, and merging documents. Also included are…

  14. Using AppleWorks V1.3 To Construct Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V1.3 to construct word processing files for the Apple IIe computer covers (1) program loading; (2) selecting the add files to the desktop option; (3) selecting a different disk; (4) selecting disk 2; (5) selecting the word processor option; (6) naming the file; (7) setting tabs; (8) selecting print…

  15. Towards an Understanding of How Children Read and Spell Irregular Words: The Role of Nonword and Orthographic Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona; McGeown, Sarah; Moxon, Gerri Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined, in 180 children aged from 6 to 9?years, to what extent irregular word reading and spelling were predicted by vocabulary knowledge, reading frequency, orthographic processing and nonword reading skill. Consistent with models of reading highlighting the quasi-regular nature of irregular words, it was found that nonword reading…

  16. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  17. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  18. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  19. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  20. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. PMID:25952466

  1. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  2. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  3. Modulation of Arm Reaching Movements during Processing of Arm/Hand-Related Action Verbs with and without Emotional Connotation

    PubMed Central

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Gallese, Vittorio; Fragola, Michele; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The theory of embodied language states that language comprehension relies on an internal reenactment of the sensorimotor experience associated with the processed word or sentence. Most evidence in support of this hypothesis had been collected using linguistic material without any emotional connotation. For instance, it had been shown that processing of arm-related verbs, but not of those leg-related verbs, affects the planning and execution of reaching movements; however, at present it is unknown whether this effect is further modulated by verbs evoking an emotional experience. Showing such a modulation might shed light on a very debated issue, i.e. the way in which the emotional meaning of a word is processed. To this end, we assessed whether processing arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with negative connotations (e.g. to stab) affects reaching movements differently from arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with neutral connotation (e.g. to comb). We exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm-reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing emotional hand actions, neutral hand actions or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when no-effector-related verbs were presented. Reaction times and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector as used to give the response. However, we also found that the size of this interference decreased when the arm/hand-related verbs had a negative emotional connotation. Crucially, we show that such modulation only occurred when the verb semantics had to be retrieved. These results suggest that the comprehension of negatively valenced verbs might require the simultaneous reenactment of the neural circuitry associated with the processing of the emotion evoked by their meaning and of the neural circuitry associated with their motor features. PMID:25093410

  4. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Content and Volume Level in Spoken Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Annika; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2016-01-01

    For visual stimuli of emotional content as pictures and written words, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in the early posterior negativity (EPN), a component of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing attention allocation during visual sensory encoding. In the present study, we addressed the question whether this enhanced relevance of larger (visual) stimuli might generalize to the auditory domain and whether auditory emotion effects are modulated by volume. Therefore, subjects were listening to spoken words with emotional or neutral content, played at two different volume levels, while ERPs were recorded. Negative emotional content led to an increased frontal positivity and parieto-occipital negativity—a scalp distribution similar to the EPN—between ~370 and 530 ms. Importantly, this emotion-related ERP component was not modulated by differences in volume level, which impacted early auditory processing, as reflected in increased amplitudes of the N1 (80–130 ms) and P2 (130–265 ms) components as hypothesized. However, contrary to effects of stimulus size in the visual domain, volume level did not influence later ERP components. These findings indicate modality-specific and functionally independent processing triggered by emotional content of spoken words and volume level. PMID:27458359

  5. Word order processing in a second language: from VO to OV.

    PubMed

    Erdocia, Kepa; Zawiszewski, Adam; Laka, Itziar

    2014-12-01

    Event-related potential studies on second language processing reveal that L1/L2 differences are due either to proficiency, age of acquisition or grammatical differences between L1 and L2 (Kotz in Brain Lang 109(2-3):68-74, 2009). However, the relative impact of these and other factors in second language processing is still not well understood. Here we present evidence from behavioral and ERP experiments on Basque sentence word order processing by L1Spanish-L2Basque early bilinguals (Age of Aquisition [Formula: see text] 3 years) with very high proficiency in their L2. Results reveal that these L2 speakers have a preference towards canonical Subject-Object-Verb word order, which they processed faster and with greater ease than non-canonical Object-Subject-Verb. This result converges with the processing preferences shown by natives and reported in Erdocia et al. (Brain Lang 109(1):1-17, 2009). However, electrophysiological measures associated to canonical (SOV) and non-canonical (OSV) sentences revealed a different pattern in the non-natives, as compared to that reported previously for natives. The non-native group elicited a P600 component that native group did not show when comparing S and O at sentence's second position. This pattern of results suggests that, despite high proficiency, non-native language processing recruits neural resources that are different from those employed in native languages. PMID:24368710

  6. Information architecture: Standards adoption and retirement process service action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.

  7. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  8. Appropriate Content and Learning Activities for Teaching Word Processing in the Two-Year Postsecondary Office Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoufer, Bonita

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the importance of word processing in the postsecondary secretarial science curriculum. Indicates that students must be provided with the background and motivation for job advancement along with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed for job entry. (JOW)

  9. Further evidence for the interaction of central and peripheral processes: the impact of double letters in writing English words

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on spelling processes suppose that the activation of orthographic representations is over before we start to write. The goal of the present study was to provide evidence indicating that the orthographic representations activated during spelling production interact continuously with the motor processes during movement production. We manipulated gemination to assess the influence of the orthographic properties of words on the kinematic parameters of production. Native English-speaking participants wrote words containing double letters and control words on a digitizer [e.g., DISSIPATE (Geminate) and DISGRACE (Control)]. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a doublet at the same position. The results revealed that latencies were shorter for Geminates than Controls, indicating that spelling processes were facilitated by the presence of a doublet in the word. Critically, the impact of letter doubling was also observed during production, with shorter letter durations (e.g., D, I, S) and intervals (DI, IS) for Geminates than Controls. Letter doubling therefore affected the whole process of word writing: from spelling recall to movement preparation and production. The spelling processes that were involved before movement initiation cascaded into processes that regulate movement execution. The activation spread onto peripheral processing until the production of the doublet was completely programmed (e.g., letter S). PMID:24133473

  10. Morpho-semantic processing in word recognition: evidence from balanced and biased ambiguous morphemes.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-11-01

    The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In addition, the relative frequency of the alternative meanings of ambiguous morphemes could be balanced (i.e., the alternative meanings are of similar frequency) or biased (i.e., one of the meanings is used much more frequently). The recognition of subordinate targets was facilitated by the subordinate primes for both balanced and biased items, regardless of the priming procedure. However, the subordinate primes did not facilitate the recognition of dominant targets, except for biased items in masked priming. These results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that morphemic meaning is activated to constrain morphological priming even at the early stage of processing. Yet, morpho-semantic activation is modulated by the frequency of the intended morphemic interpretations. Therefore, because of the high frequency of use, the dominant meanings of biased ambiguous morphemes can nevertheless be activated by the subordinate primes. PMID:23834058

  11. Process safety management and interim or remedial action plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, M.J.; Henney, D.A.; Heitzman, V.K.; Day, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Remedial Actions, including Interim Remedial Activities, often require the use of treatment facilities or stabilization techniques using on-site chemical processes. As such, the 29 CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM Standard) and the USEPA regulations for Risk Management Planning require that these chemicals and their attendant potential hazards be identified. A Hazard and Operation (HAZOP) study, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis, or equivalent graphic presentation of processes must be completed. These studies form a segment of the Process Hazard Analysis (PHA). HAZOP addresses each system and each element of a system that could deviate from normal operations and thus cause a hazard. A full assessment of each process is produced by looking at the hazards, consequences, causes and personnel protection needed. Many variables must be considered when choosing the appropriate PHA technique including the size of the plant, the number of processes, the types of processes, and the types of chemicals used. A mixture of these techniques may be required to adequately transmit information about the process being evaluated.

  12. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Eric C.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2016-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC. PMID:26793138

  13. Comprehending Text versus Reading Words in Young Readers with Varying Reading Ability: Distinct Patterns of Functional Connectivity from Common Processing Hubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2016-01-01

    Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation ("word-level processing"; "WL") and extracting meaning from text ("discourse-level processing"; "DL"); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as…

  14. 10 CFR 1021.211 - Interim actions: Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., except as provided at 40 CFR 1506.1. Actions that are covered by, or are a part of, a DOE proposal for... unless they qualify as interim actions under 40 CFR 1506.1. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim actions: Limitations on actions during the...

  15. Functional differences in the semantic processing of concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Fernández-Frías, C; Rubia, F J

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable debate as to whether the semantic system is a unitary one in which meanings are available in a peculiar, perceptual-free format, or whether it is functionally segregated into anatomically discrete, modality-specific but semantic regions. In the former case, concrete and abstract words should not differ in the amount of activation of semantic areas. Neuroimaging studies in this field are, however, far from conclusive, and one reason for this may be that the degree of imageability of the stimuli - probably a crucial variable - has not been considered. Recognition Potential (RP) reflects semantic processing and appears to originate in basal extrastriate regions involved in semantic processing. In this study, we compared the RP of concrete and abstract words that actually differ in their degree of imageability. Results indicate that the semantic processing areas in which the RP originates display a higher activation for concrete (more imageable) material, but that abstract material also evokes a notably larger RP component compared with pseudowords or unpronounceable letter strings. Accordingly, the study appears to suggest that there is no full functional segregation of the semantic systems. Rather, our data support the existence of a semantic system that is specialised in concrete, imageable material, and that is also activated, though to a lower extent, by abstract material. PMID:11440761

  16. Unconscious Processes in a Career Counselling Case: An Action-Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Brenda; Pizzorno, Maria Chiara; Qu, Kejia; Valach, Ladislav; Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Although clients and counselors can often account for their actions in counselling, sometimes the link between the action taken and the larger goal is not apparent. This article accounts for counterproductive, paradoxical actions within the counselling process by addressing unconscious processes as links between immediate actions and larger…

  17. Implicit Statistical Learning in Language Processing: Word Predictability is the Key

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Baurnschmidt, Althea; Huang, Sean; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental learning abilities related to the implicit encoding of sequential structure have been postulated to underlie language acquisition and processing. However, there is very little direct evidence to date supporting such a link between implicit statistical learning and language. In three experiments using novel methods of assessing implicit learning and language abilities, we show that sensitivity to sequential structure -- as measured by improvements to immediate memory span for structurally-consistent input sequences -- is significantly correlated with the ability to use knowledge of word predictability to aid speech perception under degraded listening conditions. Importantly, the association remained even after controlling for participant performance on other cognitive tasks, including short-term and working memory, intelligence, attention and inhibition, and vocabulary knowledge. Thus, the evidence suggests that implicit learning abilities are essential for acquiring long-term knowledge of the sequential structure of language -- i.e., knowledge of word predictability – and that individual differences on such abilities impact speech perception in everyday situations. These findings provide a new theoretical rationale linking basic learning phenomena to specific aspects of spoken language processing in adults, and may furthermore indicate new fruitful directions for investigating both typical and atypical language development. PMID:19922909

  18. Strength of perceptual experience predicts word processing performance better than concreteness or imageability.

    PubMed

    Connell, Louise; Lynott, Dermot

    2012-12-01

    Abstract concepts are traditionally thought to differ from concrete concepts by their lack of perceptual information, which causes them to be processed more slowly and less accurately than perceptually-based concrete concepts. In two studies, we examined this assumption by comparing concreteness and imageability ratings to a set of perceptual strength norms in five separate modalities: sound, taste, touch, smell and vision. Results showed that concreteness and imageability do not reflect the perceptual basis of concepts: concreteness ratings appear to be based on two different intersecting decision criteria, while imageability ratings are visually biased. Analysis of lexical decision and word naming performance showed that maximum perceptual strength (i.e., strength in the dominant perceptual modality) consistently outperformed both concreteness and imageability ratings in accounting for variance in response latency and accuracy. We conclude that so-called concreteness effects in word processing emerge from the perceptual strength of a concept's representation and discuss the implications for theories of conceptual representation. PMID:22935248

  19. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information. PMID:27363253

  20. Developmental differences of neurocognitive networks for phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Jin, Zhen; Fan, Ning; Deng, Yuan; Booth, James R

    2009-03-01

    Developmental differences in the neurocognitive networks for phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading were examined in 13 adults and 13 children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Rhyming and semantic association judgments were made to two-character words that were presented sequentially in the visual modality. These lexical tasks were compared with a nonlinguistic control task involving judgment of line patterns. The first main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children in right middle occipital gyrus on both the meaning and rhyming task, suggesting adults more effectively engage right hemisphere brain regions involved in the visual-spatial analysis of Chinese characters. The second main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children in left inferior parietal lobule for the rhyming as compared with the meaning task, suggesting greater specialization of phonological processing in adults. The third main finding was that children who had better performance in the rhyming task on characters with conflicting orthographic and phonological information relative to characters with nonconflicting information showed greater activation in left middle frontal gyrus, suggesting greater engagement of brain regions involved in the integration of orthography and phonology. PMID:18330872

  1. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  2. Discourse-Based Word Anticipation during Language Processing: Prediction or Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Marte; Van Berkum, Jos J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Language is an intrinsically open-ended system. This fact has led to the widely shared assumption that readers and listeners do not predict upcoming words, at least not in a way that goes beyond simple priming between words. Recent evidence, however, suggests that readers and listeners do anticipate upcoming words "on the fly" as a text unfolds.…

  3. Cross-Linguistic Activation in Bilingual Sentence Processing: The Role of Word Class Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof; Hofman, Fabrice; Loeys, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how categorial (word class) semantics influences cross-linguistic interactions when reading in L2. Previous homograph studies paid little attention to the possible influence of different word classes in the stimulus material on cross-linguistic activation. The present study examines the word recognition performance of…

  4. Morpho-Semantic Processing in Word Recognition: Evidence from Balanced and Biased Ambiguous Morphemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2013-01-01

    The role of morphemic meaning in Chinese word recognition was examined with the masked and unmasked priming paradigms. Target words contained ambiguous morphemes biased toward the dominant or the subordinate meanings. Prime words either contained the same ambiguous morphemes in the subordinate interpretations or were unrelated to the targets. In…

  5. Extraction of Linguistic Information from Successive Words during Reading: Evidence for Spatially Distributed Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The…

  6. Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

  7. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Non-linear processing of a linear speech stream: The influence of morphological structure on the recognition of spoken Arabic words.

    PubMed

    Gwilliams, L; Marantz, A

    2015-08-01

    Although the significance of morphological structure is established in visual word processing, its role in auditory processing remains unclear. Using magnetoencephalography we probe the significance of the root morpheme for spoken Arabic words with two experimental manipulations. First we compare a model of auditory processing that calculates probable lexical outcomes based on whole-word competitors, versus a model that only considers the root as relevant to lexical identification. Second, we assess violations to the root-specific Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP), which disallows root-initial consonant gemination. Our results show root prediction to significantly correlate with neural activity in superior temporal regions, independent of predictions based on whole-word competitors. Furthermore, words that violated the OCP constraint were significantly easier to dismiss as valid words than probability-matched counterparts. The findings suggest that lexical auditory processing is dependent upon morphological structure, and that the root forms a principal unit through which spoken words are recognised. PMID:25997171

  9. Development of a dyspnoea word cue set for studies of emotional processing in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Herigstad, Mari; Hayen, Anja; Reinecke, Andrea; Pattinson, Kyle T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic dyspnoea may learn to fear situations that cue dyspnoea onset. Such dyspnoea-specific cues may then cause anxiety, and worsen or trigger dyspnoea even before commencement of physical activity. We therefore developed an experimental tool to probe emotional processing of dyspnoea for use with neuroimaging in COPD. The tool consists of a computerised task comprising multiple presentations of dyspnoea-related word cues with subsequent rating of dyspnoea and dyspnoea-anxiety with a visual analogue scale. Following 3 development stages, sensitivity to clinical change was tested in 34 COPD patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. We measured internal consistency, sensitivity to clinical change and convergence with established dyspnoea measures (including Dyspnoea-12). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90 for dyspnoea and 0.94 for dyspnea-anxiety ratings. Ratings correlated with Dyspnoea-12 (dyspnoea: r = 0.51, P = 0.002; dyspnea-anxiety: r = 0.54, P = 0.001). Reductions in dyspnea-anxiety ratings following pulmonary rehabilitation correlated with reductions in Dyspnoea-12 (r = 0.51, P = 0.002). We conclude that the word-cue task is reliable, and is thus a potentially useful tool for neuroimaging dyspnoea research. PMID:26724604

  10. Rules from words: a dynamic neural basis for a lawful linguistic process.

    PubMed

    Gow, David W; Nied, A Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Listeners show a reliable bias towards interpreting speech sounds in a way that conforms to linguistic restrictions (phonotactic constraints) on the permissible patterning of speech sounds in a language. This perceptual bias may enforce and strengthen the systematicity that is the hallmark of phonological representation. Using Granger causality analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-constrained magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data, we tested the differential predictions of rule-based, frequency-based, and top-down lexical influence-driven explanations of processes that produce phonotactic biases in phoneme categorization. Consistent with the top-down lexical influence account, brain regions associated with the representation of words had a stronger influence on acoustic-phonetic regions in trials that led to the identification of phonotactically legal (versus illegal) word-initial consonant clusters. Regions associated with the application of linguistic rules had no such effect. Similarly, high frequency phoneme clusters failed to produce stronger feedforward influences by acoustic-phonetic regions on areas associated with higher linguistic representation. These results suggest that top-down lexical influences contribute to the systematicity of phonological representation. PMID:24465965

  11. Neural correlates of combinatorial semantic processing of literal and figurative noun noun compound words.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Bálint; Bohrn, Isabel; Baudewig, Jürgen; Hofmann, Markus J; Pléh, Csaba; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-11-15

    The right hemisphere's role in language comprehension is supported by results from several neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies. Special interest surrounds right temporoparietal structures, which are thought to be involved in processing novel metaphorical expressions, primarily due to the coarse semantic coding of concepts. In this event related fMRI experiment we aimed at assessing the extent of semantic distance processing in the comprehension of figurative meaning to clarify the role of the right hemisphere. Four categories of German noun noun compound words were presented in a semantic decision task: a) conventional metaphors; b) novel metaphors; c) conventional literal, and; d) novel literal expressions, controlled for length, frequency, imageability, arousal, and emotional valence. Conventional literal and metaphorical compounds increased BOLD signal change in right temporoparietal regions, suggesting combinatorial semantic processing, in line with the coarse semantic coding theory, but at odds with the graded salience hypothesis. Both novel literal and novel metaphorical expressions increased activity in left inferior frontal areas, presumably as a result of phonetic, morphosyntactic, and semantic unification processes, challenging predictions regarding right hemispheric involvement in processing unusual meanings. Meanwhile, both conventional and novel metaphorical expressions induced BOLD signal change in left hemispherical regions, suggesting that even novel metaphor processing involves more than linking semantically distant concepts. PMID:22836179

  12. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Miller, Gregory A.; Sass, Sarah M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  13. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  14. Intonation processing deficits of emotional words among Mandarin Chinese speakers with congenital amusia: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Liu, Fang; Wu, Daxing; Thompson, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital amusia is a disorder that is known to affect the processing of musical pitch. Although individuals with amusia rarely show language deficits in daily life, a number of findings point to possible impairments in speech prosody that amusic individuals may compensate for by drawing on linguistic information. Using EEG, we investigated (1) whether the processing of speech prosody is impaired in amusia and (2) whether emotional linguistic information can compensate for this impairment. Method: Twenty Chinese amusics and 22 matched controls were presented pairs of emotional words spoken with either statement or question intonation while their EEG was recorded. Their task was to judge whether the intonations were the same. Results: Amusics exhibited impaired performance on the intonation-matching task for emotional linguistic information, as their performance was significantly worse than that of controls. EEG results showed a reduced N2 response to incongruent intonation pairs in amusics compared with controls, which likely reflects impaired conflict processing in amusia. However, our EEG results also indicated that amusics were intact in early sensory auditory processing, as revealed by a comparable N1 modulation in both groups. Conclusion: We propose that the impairment in discriminating speech intonation observed among amusic individuals may arise from an inability to access information extracted at early processing stages. This, in turn, could reflect a disconnection between low-level and high-level processing. PMID:25914659

  15. Parental Involvement in the Habilitation Process Following Children's Cochlear Implantation: An Action Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Young, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Action theory and the qualitative action-project method are used in this study to address and illustrate the complexity of parenting children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) as well as the intentionality of parents engaged in that process. "Action" refers to individual and joint goal-directed and intentional behaviors. Action theory has…

  16. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  17. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  18. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  19. From Perception to Recognition Memory: Time Course and Lateralization of Neural Substrates of Word and Abstract Picture Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillard, Louis; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Baumann, Cedric; Koessler, Laurent; Benar, Christian; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Through study of clinical cases with brain lesions as well as neuroimaging studies of cognitive processing of words and pictures, it has been established that material-specific hemispheric specialization exists. It remains however unclear whether such specialization holds true for all processes involved in complex tasks, such as recognition…

  20. A Neurally Plausible Parallel Distributed Processing Model of Event-Related Potential Word Reading Data

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Plaut, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework has significant potential for producing models of cognitive tasks that approximate how the brain performs the same tasks. To date, however, there has been relatively little contact between PDP modeling and data from cognitive neuroscience. In an attempt to advance the relationship between explicit, computational models and physiological data collected during the performance of cognitive tasks, we developed a PDP model of visual word recognition which simulates key results from the ERP reading literature, while simultaneously being able to successfully perform lexical decision—a benchmark task for reading models. Simulations reveal that the model’s success depends on the implementation of several neurally plausible features in its architecture which are sufficiently domain-general to be relevant to cognitive modeling more generally. PMID:21945392

  1. A neurally plausible parallel distributed processing model of event-related potential word reading data.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Plaut, David C

    2012-03-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework has significant potential for producing models of cognitive tasks that approximate how the brain performs the same tasks. To date, however, there has been relatively little contact between PDP modeling and data from cognitive neuroscience. In an attempt to advance the relationship between explicit, computational models and physiological data collected during the performance of cognitive tasks, we developed a PDP model of visual word recognition which simulates key results from the ERP reading literature, while simultaneously being able to successfully perform lexical decision-a benchmark task for reading models. Simulations reveal that the model's success depends on the implementation of several neurally plausible features in its architecture which are sufficiently domain-general to be relevant to cognitive modeling more generally. PMID:21945392

  2. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  3. Is Early Word-form Processing Stress-full? How Natural Variability Supports Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Heather; Morgan, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants’ recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers’ infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers systematically alternated between emphatic and nonemphatic stress when talking to their infants. Using the headturn preference procedure, we then tested 7.5-month-old infants on their ability to detect familiarized bisyllabic words in fluent speech. Stress of target words (emphatic and nonemphatic) was systematically varied across familiarization and recognition phases of four experiments. Results indicated that, although infants generally prefer listening to words produced with emphatic stress, recognition was enhanced when the degree of emphatic stress at familiarization matched the degree of emphatic stress at recognition. PMID:20159653

  4. Neural processing of spoken words in specific language impairment and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Päivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition and word repetition in young adults with SLI, dyslexia and normal language development using magnetoencephalography. The stimuli were 7-8 letter spoken real words and pseudo-words. They evoked a transient peak at 100 ms (N100m) followed by longer-lasting activation peaking around 400 ms (N400m) in the left and right superior temporal cortex. Both word repetition (first vs. immediately following second presentation) and lexicality (words vs. pseudowords) modulated the N400m response. An effect of lexicality was detected about 400 ms onwards as activation culminated for words but continued for pseudo-words. This effect was more pronounced in the left than right hemisphere in the control subjects. The left hemisphere lexicality effect was also present in the dyslexic adults, but it was non-significant in the subjects with SLI, possibly reflecting their limited vocabulary. The N400m activation between 200 and 700 ms was attenuated by the immediate repetition of words and pseudo-words in both hemispheres. In SLI adults the repetition effect evaluated at 200-400 ms was abnormally weak. This finding suggests impaired short-term maintenance of linguistic activation that underlies word recognition. Furthermore, the size of the repetition effect decreased from control subjects through dyslexics to SLIs, i.e. when advancing from milder to more severe language impairment. The unusually rapid decay of speech-evoked activation could have a detrimental role on vocabulary growth in children with SLI. PMID:19498087

  5. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  6. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  7. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  8. The Contribution of Segmental and Tonal Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Joan A; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-06-01

    Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 48 native Mandarin listeners. Experiment 2 further investigated the minimal segmental overlap needed to trigger priming when tonal information is present. Four prime-target conditions were contrasted: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), only onset segment overlap (re4-ru4), only rime overlap (pu4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 68 native Mandarin listeners. The results showed significant priming effects when both tonal and segmental information overlapped or, although to a lesser extent, when only segmental information overlapped, with no priming found when only tones matched. Moreover, any partial segmental overlap, even with matching tonal cues, resulted in significant inhibition. These data clearly indicate that lexical tones are processed differently from segments, with syllabic structure playing a critical role. These findings are discussed in terms of the overall architecture of the processing system that emerges in Mandarin lexical access. PMID:26677639

  9. The Action Execution Process Implemented in Different Cognitive Architectures: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Daqi; Franklin, Stan

    2014-12-01

    An agent achieves its goals by interacting with its environment, cyclically choosing and executing suitable actions. An action execution process is a reasonable and critical part of an entire cognitive architecture, because the process of generating executable motor commands is not only driven by low-level environmental information, but is also initiated and affected by the agent's high-level mental processes. This review focuses on cognitive models of action, or more specifically, of the action execution process, as implemented in a set of popular cognitive architectures. We examine the representations and procedures inside the action execution process, as well as the cooperation between action execution and other high-level cognitive modules. We finally conclude with some general observations regarding the nature of action execution.

  10. Clinical, Imaging and Pathological Correlates of a Hereditary Deficit in Verb and Action Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Thomas H.; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J.; Xuereb, John H.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I)…

  11. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a diagram of the…

  12. Better Processing of Consonantal over Vocalic Information in Word Learning at 16 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Previous research using the name-based categorization task has shown that 20-month-old infants can simultaneously learn 2 words that only differ by 1 consonantal feature but fail to do so when the words only differ by 1 vocalic feature. This asymmetry was taken as evidence for the proposal that consonants are more important than vowels at the…

  13. Parallel and Serial Reading Processes in Children's Word and Nonword Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluent reading is characterized by rapid and accurate identification of words. It is commonly accepted that such identification relies on the availability of orthographic knowledge. However, whether this orthographic knowledge should be seen as an accumulation of word-specific knowledge in a lexicon acquired through decoding or as a well-developed…

  14. Using Concordancing and Word Processing to Improve EFL Graduate Students' Written English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshaar, Awatif Abu; AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of using concordances and word processors on EFL graduates' performance in academic writing. To achieve this aim, the subjects were asked to use linguistics corpora and word processors to correct their grammatical and spelling mistakes in their written papers in a course that lasted for sixteen weeks. The…

  15. Evaluating a Split Processing Model of Visual Word Recognition: Effects of Orthographic Neighborhood Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal; Hayes, Adrian; Shillcock, Richard; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The split fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition of centrally presented words is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation being projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation being projected to the left hemisphere (LH). Two lexical decision experiments aimed to…

  16. Differential Processing of Thematic and Categorical Conceptual Relations in Spoken Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Hansen, Samuel; McMahon, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of semantic context effects in spoken word production have typically distinguished between categorical (or taxonomic) and associative relations. However, associates tend to confound semantic features or morphological representations, such as whole-part relations and compounds (e.g., BOAT-anchor, BEE-hive). Using a picture-word interference…

  17. Morphological Processing and Lexical Access in Speech Production in Hebrew: Evidence from Picture-Word Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolan, Limor; Leikin, Mark; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of the retrieval architecture of Semitic morphemic entities in word production in Hebrew, a language with a non-concatenated morphology. By taking advantage of the potential for dissociation of form and meaning in Hebrew, we explored the relative contribution of word-form and semantics to morphological…

  18. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

  19. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  20. Words, Hemispheres, and Processing Mechanisms: A Response to Marsolek and Deason (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Ellis, Ansorge and Lavidor (2007) [Ellis, A.W., Ansorge, L., & Lavidor, M. (2007). Words, hemispheres, and dissociable subsystems: The effects of exposure duration, case alternation, priming and continuity of form on word recognition in the left and right visual fields. "Brain and Language," 103, 292-303.] presented three experiments investigating…

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Word Recognition and Process Measures in the Colorado Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, R. K.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects measures of word recognition, phonological coding, and orthographic coding obtained from analyses of identical and fraternal twins to multivariate genetic analysis. Finds that genetic influences on individual differences in word recognition were more strongly related to genetic variance in phonological coding than in orthographic coding.…

  2. On the Functional Neuroanatomy of Visual Word Processing: Effects of Case and Letter Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronbichler, Martin; Klackl, Johannes; Richlan, Fabio; Schurz, Matthias; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasted case-deviant and letter-deviant forms with familiar forms of the same phonological words (e.g., "TaXi" and "Taksi" vs. "Taxi") and found that both types of deviance led to increased activation in a left occipito-temporal region, corresponding to the visual word form area (VWFA). The…

  3. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  4. Rapid Visual Processing by College Students in Reading Irregular Words and Phonologically Regular Pseudowords Presented Singly and in Contiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Agnes; Lovegrove, William

    2006-01-01

    Using normal adult readers, this study examined the relative involvement of magnocellular and parvocellular processes in reading English phonologically regular pseudowords and irregular words presented in isolation and in contiguity from left to right. The data showed that a low temporal frequency visual measure that implied more parvocellular…

  5. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

  6. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  7. Obtaining Help with Appleworks V1.3 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIe Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for word processing using AppleWorks on the Apple IIe computer with a Duodisk or two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading, creating files, accessing and using the help list, copying and moving text, deleting text, using the find option, inserting page breaks,…

  8. Asynchrony of Visual-Orthographic and Auditory-Phonological Word Recognition Processes: An Underlying Factor in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breznitz, Zvia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether asynchrony of speed of processing between visual-orthographic and auditory-phonological modalities can account for word recognition deficits among dyslexic readers. Indicates that dyslexic readers were slower than control readers in most of the experimental tasks. Proposes a theory suggesting that asynchrony between the…

  9. Investigating the Effects of Background Knowledge on Chinese Word Processing during Text Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Ko, Hwa-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of background knowledge on Chinese word processing during silent reading by monitoring adult readers' eye movements. Both higher knowledge (physics major) and lower knowledge (nonphysics major) graduate students were given physics texts to read. Higher knowledge readers spent less time rereading and had…

  10. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  11. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  12. Time-compressed spoken word primes crossmodally enhance processing of semantically congruent visual targets.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Angela; Wentura, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Findings from three experiments support the conclusion that auditory primes facilitate the processing of related targets. In Experiments 1 and 2, we employed a crossmodal Stroop color identification task with auditory color words (as primes) and visual color patches (as targets). Responses were faster for congruent priming, in comparison to neutral or incongruent priming. This effect also emerged for different levels of time compression of the auditory primes (to 30 % and 10 % of the original length; i.e., 120 and 40 ms) and turned out to be even more pronounced under high-perceptual-load conditions (Exps. 1 and 2). In Experiment 3, target-present or -absent decisions for brief target displays had to be made, thereby ruling out response-priming processes as a cause of the congruency effects. Nevertheless, target detection (d') was increased by congruent primes (30 % compression) in comparison to incongruent or neutral primes. Our results suggest semantic object-based auditory-visual interactions, which rapidly increase the denoted target object's salience. This would apply, in particular, to complex visual scenes. PMID:24170379

  13. Behavioral patterns and lesion sites associated with impaired processing of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Rudrauf, David; Manzel, Ken; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    To further investigate the neural substrates of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions, we administered a battery of six tasks to 226 brain-damaged patients with widely distributed lesions in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The tasks probed lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions in a variety of verbal and non-verbal ways, including naming, word-picture matching, attribute judgments involving both words and pictures, and associative comparisons involving both words and pictures. Of the 226 patients who were studied, 61 failed one or more of the six tasks, with four patients being impaired on the entire battery, and varied numbers of patients being impaired on varied combinations of tasks. Overall, the 61 patients manifested a complex array of associations and dissociations across the six tasks. The lesion sites of 147 of the 226 patients were also investigated, using formal methods for lesion-deficit statistical mapping and power analysis of lesion overlap maps. Significant effects for all six tasks were found in the following left-hemisphere regions: the inferior frontal gyrus; the ventral precentral gyrus, extending superiorly into what are likely to be hand-related primary motor and premotor areas; and the anterior insula. In addition, significant effects for 4-5 tasks were found in not only the regions just mentioned, but also in several other left-hemisphere areas: the ventral postcentral gyrus; the supramarginal gyrus; and the posterior middle temporal gyrus. These results converge with previous research on the neural underpinnings of action words and concepts. However, the current study goes considerably beyond most previous investigations by providing extensive behavioral and lesion data for an unusually large and diverse sample of brain-damaged patients, and by incorporating multiple measures of verb comprehension. Regarding theoretical implications, the study provides new support for the Embodied Cognition Framework, which maintains that

  14. The role of prosodic breaks and pitch accents in grouping words during on-line sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Bögels, Sara; Schriefers, Herbert; Vonk, Wietske; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2011-09-01

    The present study addresses the question whether accentuation and prosodic phrasing can have a similar function, namely, to group words in a sentence together. Participants listened to locally ambiguous sentences containing object- and subject-control verbs while ERPs were measured. In Experiment 1, these sentences contained a prosodic break, which can create a certain syntactic grouping of words, or no prosodic break. At the disambiguation, an N400 effect occurred when the disambiguation was in conflict with the syntactic grouping created by the break. We found a similar N400 effect without the break, indicating that the break did not strengthen an already existing preference. This pattern held for both object- and subject-control items. In Experiment 2, the same sentences contained a break and a pitch accent on the noun following the break. We argue that the pitch accent indicates a broad focus covering two words [see Gussenhoven, C. On the limits of focus projection in English. In P. Bosch & R. van der Sandt (Eds.), Focus: Linguistic, cognitive, and computational perspectives. Cambridge: University Press, 1999], thus grouping these words together. For object-control items, this was semantically possible, which led to a "good-enough" interpretation of the sentence. Therefore, both sentences were interpreted equally well and the N400 effect found in Experiment 1 was absent. In contrast, for subject-control items, a corresponding grouping of the words was impossible, both semantically and syntactically, leading to processing difficulty in the form of an N400 effect and a late positivity. In conclusion, accentuation can group words together on the level of information structure, leading to either a semantically "good-enough" interpretation or a processing problem when such a semantic interpretation is not possible. PMID:20961171

  15. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  16. Visual specificity effects on word stem completion: beyond transfer appropriate processing?

    PubMed

    Curran, T; Schacter, D L; Bessenoff, G

    1996-03-01

    An important, but poorly understood, aspect of memory retrieval concerns the conditions under which priming is influenced by perceptual changes in the form of target items. According to transfer appropriate processing perspectives, perceptual specificity effects on priming require a study task that focuses attention on the perceptual, rather than semantic, features of the items. Other research suggests that perceptual specificity effects are enhanced by conditions yielding high levels of explicit memory. The present experiments manipulated encoding tasks and other variables known to influence explicit memory (repetition and retention interval) in order to gain insight into the determinants of perceptual specificity effects on visual word-stem completion. In Experiment 1 we found that perceptual specificity (letter case) effects on stem completion priming depend on perceptual encoding when subjects' awareness of the study-test relationship is limited. In Experiments 2-4 we found that perceptual specificity effects can be obtained after semantic encoding--especially when the study-test retention interval is short. Perceptual specificity effects after short retention intervals were independent of encoding task, and may reflect a form of involuntary explicit memory. PMID:8653095

  17. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning During Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Barry J; Taylor, Kirsten I; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2016-03-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in (distinctiveness/sharedness) and likelihood of co-occurrence (correlational strength)--determine conceptual activation. To test these claims, we investigated the role of distinctiveness/sharedness and correlational strength in speech-to-meaning mapping, using a lexical decision task and computational simulations. Responses were faster for concepts with higher sharedness, suggesting that shared features are facilitatory in tasks like lexical decision that require access to them. Correlational strength facilitated responses for slower participants, suggesting a time-sensitive co-occurrence-driven settling mechanism. The computational simulation showed similar effects, with early effects of shared features and later effects of correlational strength. These results support a general-to-specific account of conceptual processing, whereby early activation of shared features is followed by the gradual emergence of a specific target representation. PMID:26043761

  18. On the importance of being bilingual: word stress processing in a context of segmental variability.

    PubMed

    Abboub, Nawal; Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka; Serres, Josette; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    French-learning infants have language-specific difficulties in processing lexical stress due to the lack of lexical stress in French. These difficulties in discriminating between words with stress-initial (trochaic) and stress-final (iambic) patterns emerge by 10months of age in the easier context of low variability (using a single item pronounced with a trochaic pattern vs. an iambic pattern) as well as in the more challenging context of high segmental variability (using lists of segmentally different trochaic and iambic items). These findings raise the question of stress pattern perception in simultaneous bilinguals learning French and a second language using stress at the lexical level. Bijeljac-Babic, Serres, Höhle, and Nazzi (2012) established that at 10 months of age, in the simpler context of low variability, such bilinguals have better stress discrimination abilities than French-learning monolinguals. The current study explored whether this advantage extends to the more challenging context of high segmental variability. Results first establish stress pattern discrimination in a group of bilingual 10-month-olds learning French and one language with (variable) lexical stress, but not in French-learning 10-month-old monolinguals. Second, discrimination in bilinguals appeared not to be affected by the language balance of the infants, suggesting that sensitivity to stress patterns might be maintained in these bilingual infants provided that they hear at least 30% of a language with lexical stress. PMID:25644083

  19. Processing word prosody—behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for heterogeneous performance in a language with variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Heisterueber, Miriam; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan; Domahs, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the present behavioral and fMRI study, we investigated for the first time interindividual variability in word stress processing in a language with variable stress position (German) in order to identify behavioral predictors and neural correlates underlying these differences. It has been argued that speakers of languages with variable stress should perform relatively well in tasks tapping into the representation and processing of word stress, given that this is a relevant feature of their language. Nevertheless, in previous studies on word stress processing large degrees of interindividual variability have been observed but were ignored or left unexplained. Twenty-five native speakers of German performed a sequence recall task using both segmental and suprasegmental stimuli. In general, the suprasegmental condition activated a subcortico-cortico-cerebellar network including, amongst others, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, cerebellum, the basal ganglia, pre-SMA and SMA, which has been suggested to be dedicated to the processing of temporal aspects of speech. However, substantial interindividual differences were observed. In particular, main effects of group were observed in the left middle temporal gyrus (below vs. above average performance in stress processing) and in the left precuneus (above vs. below average). Moreover, condition (segmental vs. suprasegmental) and group (above vs. below average) interacted in the right hippocampus and cerebellum. At the behavioral level, differences in word stress processing could be partly explained by individual performance in basic auditory perception including duration discrimination and by working memory performance (WM). We conclude that even in a language with variable stress, interindividual differences in behavioral performance and in the neuro-cognitive foundations of stress processing can be observed which may partly be traced back to individual basic auditory processing and WM performance. PMID

  20. Neural Bases of Sequence Processing in Action and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carota, Francesca; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Real-time estimation of what we will do next is a crucial prerequisite of purposive behavior. During the planning of goal-oriented actions, for instance, the temporal and causal organization of upcoming subsequent moves needs to be predicted based on our knowledge of events. A forward computation of sequential structure is also essential for…

  1. Long-range neural synchronization supports fast and efficient reading: EEG correlates of processing expected words in sentences

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Word reading is heavily influenced by the information provided by previous context. In this study, we analyzed the neurophysiological bases of sentence reading through the EEG activity elicited during reading the same word embedded in differently constraining contexts: a) a low-constraining context; b) a high-constraining semantic compositional context; c) a high-constraining collocational context in which the item was in final position of a multi-word fixed-order expression. Cloze-probability of the two high-constraining contexts was equated. Before reading the target word we observed increased EEG gamma phase synchronization for the high-constraining compositional context and increased EEG theta synchronization for the collocational context (both compared to the low-constraining condition). After reading the target word we observed increased frontal positive EEG evoked activity (~220 ms) for the high-constraining compositional context but an even earlier (~120 ms) effect for the high-constraining collocational condition that was distributed over the scalp. A positive correlation was found only between the increased theta synchronization and the early EEG effect for the high-constraining collocational condition. Results indicate that long-range frontal-occipital interactions in the theta band - indexing working memory operations - support early visual-orthographic analysis of an incoming stimulus (such as the expected word); gamma-phase synchronization better represents binding operations between feed-forward activation and matching feedback. These data suggest that internal linguistic knowledge stored in long-term memory - if unambiguously pre-activated - supports the low-level perceptual processes involved in reading. PMID:23357072

  2. Scientific Word Processors Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes most of the currently available scientific word processing software packages. Unless noted, these products (including Molecular Presentation Graphics, ProofWriter, Spellbinder Scientific, Volkswriter Scientific, and WordMARC) run on the IBM PC family of microcomputers. (JN)

  3. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children's ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance.

    PubMed

    Krafnick, Anthony J; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D Lynn; Luetje, Megan M; Napoliello, Eileen M; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F

    2016-06-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of "neuronal recycling", whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this "script invariance" has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group's native writing system and found that it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. PMID:27012502

  4. The Function of Words: Distinct Neural Correlates for Words Denoting Differently Manipulable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; van Rooij, Daan; Lindemann, Oliver; Willems, Roel M.; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that language processing relies on brain areas dedicated to perception and action. For example, processing words denoting manipulable objects has been shown to activate a fronto-parietal network involved in actual tool use. This is suggested to reflect the knowledge the subject has about how objects are moved and used.…

  5. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation early in the NEPA process. 1010.16 Section 1010.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  8. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  9. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  10. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cooperation early in the NEPA process. 1010.16 Section 1010.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  11. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  12. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  13. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  14. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  15. 43 CFR 46.160 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... analysis process. 46.160 Section 46.160 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Quality § 46.160 Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process. During the preparation of a... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.1 when that action is within the scope of, and analyzed in, an existing...

  16. A comparison of brain activity evoked by single content and function words: An fMRI investigation of implicit word processing

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; McCarthy, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Content and function words have different roles in language and differ greatly in their semantic content. Although previous research has suggested that these different roles may be mediated by different neural substrates, the neuroimaging literature on this topic is particularly scant. Moreover, fMRI studies that have investigated differences between content and function words have utilized tasks that focus the subjects’ attention on the differences between these word types. It is possible, then, that task-related differences in attention, working memory, and decision-making contribute to the differential patterns of activation observed. Here, subjects were engaged in a continuous working memory cover task while single, task-irrelevant content and function words were infrequently and irregularly presented. Nonword letter strings were displayed in black font at a fast rate (2/sec). Subjects were required to either remember or retrieve occasional nonwords that were presented in colored fonts. Incidental and irrelevant to the memory task, content and function words were interspersed among nonwords at intervals of 12 to 15 sec. Both word types strongly activated temporal-parietal cortex, middle and anterior temporal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and orbital frontal cortex. Activations were more extensive in the left hemisphere. Content words elicited greater activation than function words in middle and anterior temporal cortex, a sub-region of orbital frontal cortex, and the parahippocampal region. Words also evoked extensive deactivation, most notably in brain regions previously associated with working memory and attention. PMID:19465009

  17. Developing normal reading skills: aspects of the visual processes underlying word recognition.

    PubMed

    Aghababian, V; Nazir, T A

    2000-06-01

    Visual word recognition performance of first graders (mean age: 6.6 years) through fifth graders (mean age: 10.8 years) was investigated using an experimental technique that is known to elicit the "viewing position effect" in skilled readers. The results showed that this effect, which consists of a systematic variation of performance as a function of fixation position within words, emerged early at the end of the 1st year of reading instruction. Visual field asymmetries in recognizing individual letters in words were also observed starting from first grade. Effects of word familiarity were obtained as early as in second grade. In contrast to skilled readers, children showed a marked word-length effect, which persisted through the first 5 years of instruction. No other qualitative differences between beginning and skilled readers were apparent. Hence, the basics of reading skills, as measured by the present technique, seem to be attained very early during acquisition. Further experience mainly reduces the time a reader needs to extract visual information from print. PMID:10788306

  18. The time-course of lexical activation in Japanese morphographic word recognition: evidence for a character-driven processing model.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Koji; Libben, Gary; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This lexical decision study with eye tracking of Japanese two-kanji-character words investigated the order in which a whole two-character word and its morphographic constituents are activated in the course of lexical access, the relative contributions of the left and the right characters in lexical decision, the depth to which semantic radicals are processed, and how nonlinguistic factors affect lexical processes. Mixed-effects regression analyses of response times and subgaze durations (i.e., first-pass fixation time spent on each of the two characters) revealed joint contributions of morphographic units at all levels of the linguistic structure with the magnitude and the direction of the lexical effects modulated by readers' locus of attention in a left-to-right preferred processing path. During the early time frame, character effects were larger in magnitude and more robust than radical and whole-word effects, regardless of the font size and the type of nonwords. Extending previous radical-based and character-based models, we propose a task/decision-sensitive character-driven processing model with a level-skipping assumption: Connections from the feature level bypass the lower radical level and link up directly to the higher character level. PMID:23713954

  19. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898

  20. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance. PMID:20485453

  1. The effect of narrow-band digital processing and bit error rate on the intelligibility of ICAO spelling alphabet words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid

    1987-08-01

    The recognition of ICAO spelling alphabet words (ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, etc.) is compared with diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) scores for the same conditions. The voice conditions include unprocessed speech; speech processed through the DOD standard linear-predictive-coding algorithm operating at 2400 bit/s with random error rates of 0, 2, 5, 8, and 12 percent; and speech processed through an 800-bit/s pattern-matching algorithm. The results suggest that, with distinctive vocabularies, word intelligibility can be expected to remain high even when DRT scores fall into the poor range. However, once the DRT scores fall below 75 percent, the intelligibility can be expected to fall off rapidly; at DRT scores below 50, the recognition of a distinctive vocabulary should also fall below 50 percent.

  2. Making DATA Work: A Process for Conducting Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Kaffenberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual model introduces a process to help school counselors use data to drive decision making and offers examples to implement the process. A step-by-step process is offered to help school counselors and school counselor supervisors address educational issues, close achievement gaps, and demonstrate program effectiveness. To illustrate…

  3. Beyond capacity limitations II: Effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2–12;3), 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task where target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined, the number of non-target competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Results Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high than low frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and CA groups combined. Conclusions Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations. PMID:20705747

  4. Effects of Valence and Origin of Emotions in Word Processing Evidenced by Event Related Potential Correlates in a Lexical Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K; Spustek, Tomasz; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT). We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli) help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects' task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375 ms) at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz) region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670 ms). The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words. PMID:26973569

  5. Effects of Valence and Origin of Emotions in Word Processing Evidenced by Event Related Potential Correlates in a Lexical Decision Task

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.; Spustek, Tomasz; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT). We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli) help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects’ task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290–375 ms) at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz) region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375–670 ms). The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words. PMID:26973569

  6. Other-self confusions in action memory: The role of motor processes.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Isabel; Schain, Cécile; Echterhoff, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    People can come to falsely remember performing actions that they have not actually performed. Common accounts of such false action memories have invoked source confusion from the overlap of sensory features but largely ignored the role of motor processes. We addressed this lacuna with a paradigm in which participants first perform (vs. do not perform) actions and then observe another person performing some of the non-performed actions. In this paradigm, observation of videos showing another's actions can later induce false self-attributions of these actions, the observation-inflation effect. Contrary to a sensory-feature account but consistent with a motor-simulation account, we found the effect even with perceptually impoverished action videos in which the majority of sensory features is absent, but motion cues are preserved (Experiment 1). We then created conditions during action observation that should (vs. should not) impede motor simulation. As predicted we found that the effect of observation was reduced when participants executed movements that were incongruent (vs. congruent) with the observed actions (Experiment 2). We discuss the processes that can produce associations of self with observed others' actions and later affect observers' action memory. PMID:26803394

  7. Language Non-Selective Activation of Orthography during Spoken Word Processing in Hindi-English Sequential Bilinguals: An Eye Tracking Visual World Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistic studies have shown that bilinguals activate lexical items of both the languages during auditory and visual word processing. In this study we examined if Hindi-English bilinguals activate the orthographic forms of phonological neighbors of translation equivalents of the non target language while listening to words either…

  8. Phonetic Processing during the Acquisition of New Words in 3-to-6-Year-Old French-Speaking Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores phonetic processing in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) when they have to learn phonetically similar words. Forty-six 34-to-78-month-old French-speaking deaf children with CIs were tested on 16 different trials. In each trial, they were first trained with two word-object pairings, and then a third object was…

  9. Reading words and other people: A comparison of exception word, familiar face and affect processing in the left and right temporal variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Pressman, Peter S; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Narvid, Jared; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Strain, Paul J; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) typically presents with left-hemisphere predominant rostral temporal lobe (rTL) atrophy and the most significant complaints within the language domain. Less frequently, patients present with right-hemisphere predominant temporal atrophy coupled with marked impairments in processing of famous faces and emotions. Few studies have objectively compared these patient groups in both domains and therefore it is unclear to what extent the syndromes overlap. Clinically diagnosed svPPA patients were characterized as left- (n = 21) or right-predominant (n = 12) using imaging and compared along with 14 healthy controls. Regarding language, our primary focus was upon two hallmark features of svPPA; confrontation naming and surface dyslexia. Both groups exhibited naming deficits and surface dyslexia although the impairments were more severe in the left-predominant group. Familiarity judgments on famous faces and affect processing were more profoundly impaired in the right-predominant group. Our findings suggest that the two syndromes overlap significantly but that early cases at the tail ends of the continuum constitute a challenge for current clinical criteria. Correlational neuroimaging analyses implicated a mid portion of the left lateral temporal lobe in exception word reading impairments in line with proposals that this region is an interface between phonology and semantic knowledge. PMID:27389800

  10. On Processing Chinese Ideographs and English Words: Some Implications from Stroop-Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Irving; Tsao, Yao-Chung

    1979-01-01

    When Chinese adults tried to name the color of characters which represented conflicting color words, they showed greater interference than did English speaking readers of the same task in English. This effect cannot be attributed to bilingualism. There may be fundamental differences in the perceptual demands of reading Chinese and English.…

  11. Processing of a Free Word Order Language: The Role of Syntax and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slioussar, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In languages with flexible constituent order (so-called "free word order languages"), available orders are used to encode given/new distinctions; they therefore differ not only syntactically, but also in their context requirements. In Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading task, we compared Russian S V IO DO (canonical), DO S V IO and DO IO V S…

  12. Strategy Development and Learning to Spell New Words: Generalization of a Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Trudy E.; Varnhagen, Connie K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors used microgenetic methods in 2 experiments to examine children's and adults' progress from initial attempts at spelling nonwords to later direct memory retrieval of the spellings. Participants repeatedly spelled nonwords presented in computerized, dictated-word spelling tests over several weeks. Following each spelling, participants…

  13. The Advantage of Word-Based Processing in Chinese Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Gu, Junjuan; Liu, Pingping; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In 2 experiments, we tested the prediction that reading is more efficient when characters belonging to a word are presented simultaneously than when they are not in Chinese reading using a novel variation of the moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). In Experiment 1, we found that reading was slowed down when Chinese readers could…

  14. Choosing Our Words: Retrieval and Selection Processes Recruit Shared Neural Substrates in Left Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Banich, Marie T.; Munakata, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    When we speak, we constantly retrieve and select words for production in the face of multiple possible alternatives. Our ability to respond in such underdetermined situations is supported by left ventrolateral prefrontal cortical (VLPFC) regions, but there is active debate about whether these regions support (1) selection between competing…

  15. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ("Elision") and pSTM ("Nonword Repetition") from the…

  16. Neural Correlates of Priming Effects in Children during Spoken Word Processing with Orthographic Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Khalid, Kainat; Zaveri, Rishi; Bolger, Donald J.; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Priming effects were examined in 40 children (9-15 years old) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An orthographic judgment task required participants to determine if two sequentially presented spoken words had the same spelling for the rime. Four lexical conditions were designed: similar orthography and phonology (O[superscript…

  17. Feature Statistics Modulate the Activation of Meaning during Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devereux, Barry J.; Taylor, Kirsten I.; Randall, Billi; Geertzen, Jeroen; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spoken words involves a rapid mapping from speech to conceptual representations. One distributed feature-based conceptual account assumes that the statistical characteristics of concepts' features--the number of concepts they occur in ("distinctiveness/sharedness") and likelihood of co-occurrence ("correlational…

  18. Words with and without Internal Structure: What Determines the Nature of Orthographic and Morphological Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or…

  19. Electrophysiological Investigations of Second Language Word Learning, Attrition and Bilingual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkanen, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation examined changes in brain activity associated with learning, forgetting and using a second language. The first experiment investigated the changes that occur when novice adult second language learners acquire and forget second language words. Event-related brain potentials were measured while native…

  20. Phonological Processing and Word Reading in Typically Developing and Reading Disabled Children: Severity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Barry J. A.; van den Bos, Kees P.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study word reading (WR) fluency was used to dichotomously classify 1,598 Dutch children at different cutoffs, indicating (very) poor or (very) good reading performance. Analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristics were used to investigate the effects of rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in predicting…

  1. Communication Mode and the Processing of Printed Words: Evidence from Readers with Prelingually Acquired Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A study of 27 students with deafness raised by hearing parents who advocated a strict oral approach, 22 students with deafness who used Israeli Sign Language, and 39 controls, found both the controls and participants with prelingual deafness who were trained to communicate orally recoded visually presented target words phonologically. (Contains…

  2. Subtitled videos and mismatch negativity (MMN) investigations of spoken word processing.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Catharine M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Ponton, Curtis W; Kei, Joseph; Chenery, Helen J; Alku, Paavo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of subtitles on a distracting, silent video affects the automatic mismatch negativity (MMN) response to simple tones, consonant-vowel (CV) nonwords, or CV words. Two experiments were conducted in this study, each including ten healthy young adult subjects. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of subtitles on the MMN response to simple tones (differing in frequency, duration, and intensity) and speech stimuli (CV nonwords and CV words with a /d/-/g/ contrast). Experiment 2 investigated the effects of subtitles on the MMN response to a variety of CV nonword and word contrasts that incorporated both small (e.g., /d/ vs. /g/) and/or large (e.g., /e:/ vs. /el/) acoustic deviances. The results indicated that the presence or absence of subtitles on the distracting silent video had no effect on the amplitude of the MMN or P3a responses to simple tones, CV nonwords, or CV words. In addition, the results also indicated that movement artifacts may be statistically reduced by the presence of subtitles on a distracting silent video. The implications of these results are that more "engaging" (i.e., subtitled) silent videos can be used as a distraction task for investigations into MMN responses to speech and nonspeech stimuli in young adult subjects, without affecting the amplitude of the responses. PMID:15484597

  3. Word Frequency and Age Effects in Normally Developing Children's Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 11 kindergarten and 11 second-grade students evaluated the effects of target word frequency and age on normally achieving children's performance of naming and phonological awareness tasks. Results supported an explicit connection between lexical retrieval and phonological awareness, mediated by working memory. (CR)

  4. Cueing Spatial Attention during Processing of Words and Letter Strings in Normals. Technical Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieroff, Eric; Posner, Michael I.

    Work with patients with attentional deficits produced by posterior cerebral lesions has shown that such patients can identify words correctly even when they fail to report letters in nonwords contralateral to the lesion. Because of this, it has been assumed in cognitive neuropsychology that lesions do not produce new phenomena but instead provide…

  5. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…

  6. The Reading Process--The Relationship Between Word Recognition and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Warren S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between word recognition and comprehension achieved by second and fifth grade students when reading material at various levels of readability. A random sample of twenty-five second and twenty-five fifth graders, taken from three middle class schools, was administered a…

  7. The Processing of Visual and Phonological Configurations of Chinese One- and Two-Character Words in a Priming Task of Semantic Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bosen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Degao

    2016-01-01

    To separate the contribution of phonological from that of visual-orthographic information in the recognition of a Chinese word that is composed of one or two Chinese characters, we conducted two experiments in a priming task of semantic categorization (PTSC), in which length (one- or two-character words), relation, prime (related or unrelated prime-target pairs), and SOA (47, 87, or 187 ms) were manipulated. The prime was similar to the target in meaning or in visual configuration in Experiment A and in meaning or in pronunciation in Experiment B. The results indicate that the two-character words were similar to the one-character words but were less demanding of cognitive resources than the one-character words in the processing of phonological, visual-orthographic, and semantic information. The phonological primes had a facilitating effect at the SOA of 47 ms but an inhibitory effect at the SOA of 187 ms on the participants' reaction times; the visual-orthographic primes only had an inhibitory influence on the participants' reaction times at the SOA of 187 ms. The visual configuration of a Chinese word of one or two Chinese characters has its own contribution in helping retrieve the word's meanings; similarly, the phonological configuration of a one- or two-character word plays its own role in triggering activations of the word's semantic representations. PMID:26779064

  8. The role of predictability and structure in word stress processing: an ERP study on Cairene Arabic and a cross-linguistic comparison.

    PubMed

    Domahs, Ulrike; Knaus, Johannes A; El Shanawany, Heba; Wiese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents neurolinguistic data on word stress perception in Cairene Arabic, in comparison to previous results on German and Turkish. The main goal is to investigate how central properties of stress systems such as predictability of stress and metrical structure are reflected in the prosodic processing of words. Cairene Arabic is a language with a regular foot-based word stress system, leading to highly predictable placement of word stress. An ERP study on Cairene Arabic is reported, in which a stress violation paradigm is used to investigate the factors predictability of stress and foot structure. The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines prosodic processing. This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns. PMID:25374546

  9. The role of predictability and structure in word stress processing: an ERP study on Cairene Arabic and a cross-linguistic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Domahs, Ulrike; Knaus, Johannes A.; El Shanawany, Heba; Wiese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents neurolinguistic data on word stress perception in Cairene Arabic, in comparison to previous results on German and Turkish. The main goal is to investigate how central properties of stress systems such as predictability of stress and metrical structure are reflected in the prosodic processing of words. Cairene Arabic is a language with a regular foot-based word stress system, leading to highly predictable placement of word stress. An ERP study on Cairene Arabic is reported, in which a stress violation paradigm is used to investigate the factors predictability of stress and foot structure. The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines prosodic processing. This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns. PMID:25374546

  10. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture-insights from sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading. PMID:27321666

  11. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture–insights from sensory deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading. PMID:27321666

  12. Decoding Concrete and Abstract Action Representations During Explicit and Implicit Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Ariani, Giacomo; Greenlee, Mark W; Lingnau, Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Action understanding requires a many-to-one mapping of perceived input onto abstract representations that generalize across concrete features. It is debated whether such abstract action concepts are encoded in ventral premotor cortex (PMv; motor hypothesis) or, alternatively, are represented in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC; cognitive hypothesis). We used fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis to decode observed actions at concrete and abstract, object-independent levels of representation. Participants observed videos of 2 actions involving 2 different objects, using either an explicit or implicit task with respect to conceptual action processing. We decoded concrete action representations by training and testing a classifier to discriminate between actions within each object category. To identify abstract action representations, we trained the classifier to discriminate actions in one object and tested the classifier on actions performed on the other object, and vice versa. Region-of-interest and searchlight analyses revealed decoding in LOTC at both concrete and abstract levels during both tasks, whereas decoding in PMv was restricted to the concrete level during the explicit task. In right inferior parietal cortex, decoding was significant for the abstract level during the explicit task. Our findings are incompatible with the motor hypothesis, but support the cognitive hypothesis of action understanding. PMID:26223260

  13. The Temporal Dynamics of Implicit Processing of Non-Letter, Letter, and Word-Forms in the Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Liotti, Mario; Perez, Ricardo; Fox, Sarabeth P.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2009-01-01

    The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings) embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130 ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at around 180 ms. This right-sided effect was followed by bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g., interhemispheric) processing of those stimuli shortly later. Additional early (130–150 ms) negative-polarity activity over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally distributed responses (>300 ms) were present, likely reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported ‘visual-word-form’ area and N400-related responses, respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal flow of information processing in the brain related to the implicit processing of potentially linguistic information and provide valuable information about the interactions between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic processing. PMID:20046826

  14. 40 CFR 1506.1 - Limitations on actions during NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on actions during NEPA process. 1506.1 Section 1506.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER... quality of the human environment unless such action: (1) Is justified independently of the program; (2)...

  15. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  16. Action Interrupted: Movement and Breakpoints in the Processing of Motion Violations in Toddlers and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret; Pace, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    From early in development, segmenting events unfolding in the world in meaningful ways renders input more manageable and facilitates interpretation and prediction. Yet, little is known about how children process action structure in events composed of multiple coarse-grained actions. More importantly, little is known about the time course of action…

  17. Animating Critical Action Learning: Process-Based Leadership and Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehan, Kiran; Pedler, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention is focusing on the value of critical approaches to enhancing leadership and management development processes. This paper examines how a critical action learning perspectives can be harnessed to produce valuable learning and development through critically reflective practise. Critical action learning approaches not only explore…

  18. Stimulus-dependent deliberation process leading to a specific motor action demonstrated via a multi-channel EEG analysis

    PubMed Central

    Henz, Sonja; Kutz, Dieter F.; Werner, Jana; Hürster, Walter; Kolb, Florian P.; Nida-Ruemelin, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a deliberative process, leading to a motor action, is detectable in high density EEG recordings. Subjects were required to press one of two buttons. In a simple motor task the subject knew which button to press, whilst in a color-word Stroop task subjects had to press the right button with the right index finger when meaning and color coincided, or the left button with the left index finger when meaning and color were disparate. EEG recordings obtained during the simple motor task showed a sequence of positive (P) and negative (N) cortical potentials (P1-N1-P2) which are assumed to be related to the processing of the movement. The sequence of cortical potentials was similar in EEG recordings of subjects having to deliberate over how to respond, but the above sequence (P1-N1-P2) was preceded by slowly increasing negativity (N0), with N0 being assumed to represent the end of the deliberation process. Our data suggest the existence of neurophysiological correlates of deliberative processes. PMID:26190987

  19. Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed compared to neutral ones. Measuring the magnetic resonance blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response or EEG event-related potentials, this has also been demonstrated for emotional versus neutral words. However, it is currently unclear whether emotion effects in word processing can also be detected with other measures such as EEG steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) or optical brain imaging techniques. In the present study, we simultaneously performed SSVEP measurements and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS), a new optical technique for the non-invasive measurement of brain function, to measure brain responses to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant nouns flickering at a frequency of 7.5 Hz. Results The power of the SSVEP signal was significantly modulated by the words' emotional content at occipital electrodes, showing reduced SSVEP power during stimulation with pleasant compared to neutral nouns. By contrast, the DWS signal measured over the visual cortex showed significant differences between stimulation with flickering words and baseline periods, but no modulation in response to the words' emotional significance. Conclusions This study is the first investigation of brain responses to emotional words using simultaneous measurements of SSVEPs and DWS. Emotional modulation of word processing was detected with EEG SSVEPs, but not by DWS. SSVEP power for emotional, specifically pleasant, compared to neutral words was reduced, which contrasts with previous results obtained when presenting emotional pictures. This appears to reflect processing differences between symbolic and pictorial emotional stimuli. While pictures prompt sustained perceptual processing, decoding the significance of emotional words requires more internal associative processing. Reasons for an absence of emotion effects in the DWS signal are discussed. PMID:20663220

  20. From Intent to Action: An Iterative Engineering Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Patrice; Rodet, Jacques; Vacaresse, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Quite by chance, and over the course of a few haphazard meetings, a Master's degree in "E-learning Design" gradually developed in a Faculty of Economics. Its original and evolving design was the result of an iterative process carried out, not by a single Instructional Designer (ID), but by a full ID team. Over the last 10 years it has…

  1. Dissociating the Influence of Affective Word Content and Cognitive Processing Demands on the Late Positive Potential.

    PubMed

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Ouyang, Guang; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin; Zhou, Changsong; Sommer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective stimuli in the event-related brain potential (ERP) is often assumed to be a member of the P3 family. The present study addresses the relationship of the LPP to the classic P3b in a published data set, using a non-parametric permutation test for topographical comparisons, and residue iteration decomposition to assess the temporal features of the LPP and the P3b by decomposing the ERP into several component clusters according to their latency variability. The experiment orthogonally manipulated arousal and valence of words, which were either read or judged for lexicality. High-arousing and positive valenced words induced a larger LPP than low-arousing and negative valenced words, respectively, and the LDT elicited a larger P3b than reading. The experimental manipulation of arousal, valence, and task yielded main effects without any interactions on ERP amplitude in the LPP/P3b time range. The arousal and valence effects partially differed from the task effect in scalp topography; in addition, whereas the late positive component elicited by affective stimuli, defined as LPP, was stimulus-locked, the late positive component elicited by task demand, defined as P3b, was mainly latency-variable. Therefore LPP and P3b manifest different subcomponents. PMID:26012382

  2. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  3. Phoneme-free prosodic representations are involved in pre-lexical and lexical neurobiological mechanisms underlying spoken word processing

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Ulrike; Becker, Angelika B.C.; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that spoken stressed and unstressed primes differently modulate Event Related Potentials (ERPs) of spoken initially stressed targets. ERP stress priming was independent of prime–target phoneme overlap. Here we test whether phoneme-free ERP stress priming involves the lexicon. We used German target words with the same onset phonemes but different onset stress, such as MANdel (“almond”) and manDAT (“mandate”; capital letters indicate stress). First syllables of those words served as primes. We orthogonally varied prime–target overlap in stress and phonemes. ERP stress priming did neither interact with phoneme priming nor with the stress pattern of the targets. However, polarity of ERP stress priming was reversed to that previously obtained. The present results are evidence for phoneme-free prosodic processing at the lexical level. Together with the previous results they reveal that phoneme-free prosodic representations at the pre-lexical and lexical level are recruited by neurobiological spoken word recognition. PMID:25128904

  4. The mutation process in a chlorella population under the combined action of radionuclides and chemical mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyna, S.N.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shvobene, R.Y.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the mutation process under the combined chronic action of radionuclides (/sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr) and inhibitors of repair, acriflavine and caffeine, as well as under the joint action of ethyleneimine and acriflavine, in a Chlorella population. It is shown that the modifying effect of acriflavine is more pronounced under the action of /sup 144/Ce, which is evidently due to its stronger genetic effect, in comparison with /sup 90/Sr. Experiments with inhibitors confirm the participation of the repair systems in the establishment of the visible picture of the mutation process induced by radionuclides and by ethyleneimine (EI).

  5. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  6. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  7. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  8. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  9. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  10. Bixin action in the healing process of rats mouth wounds.

    PubMed

    Piva, Renata Machado; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Costa, Camila Kocler; Miguel, Obdulio Gomez; Rosa, Edvaldo Ribeiro; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Ignacio, Sergio Aparecido; Bettega, Patrícia Vida Cassi; Gregio, Ana Maria Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Oral lesions that manifest as ulcer lesions are quite common and can cause discomfort to the patient. Searching for drugs to accelerate the healing of these lesions is nonstop process. Bixin is a molecule found in annatto (urucum) seeds and is considered a viable therapeutic option to treat such lesions due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and healing properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bixin solution in the ulcer healing process in the oral mucosa of rats. Ulcers were induced with punches of 0.5 cm in the middle of the dorsum of the tongue of 64 Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups, in which 4 groups were treated with saline solution, while the other 4 were treated with the bixin solution. The animals were sacrificed in the periods 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after the beginning of the treatment. The species were histologically processed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius. Fibroblasts, reepithelialization, and wound contraction could be observed, as could the quantification of neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and mature and immature collagen. On the seventh day, the experimental group, when compared to the control group, presented a higher proliferation of fibroblasts, more advanced reepithelialization, and a higher contraction in the wounds. A reduction in the average number of neutrophils in the experimental group, when compared to the control group, could be observed in all periods (p=0.000). Up to two days, the total collagen area was higher (p=0.044) in the experimental group (4139.60±3047.51t han in the control group (1564.81±918.47). The deposition of mature collagen, on the 14(th) day, was higher (p=0.048) in the experimental group (5802.40±3578.18) than in the control group (1737.26±1439.97). The results found in the present study indicate that the bixin solution inhibits the acute inflammatory response with a minor average number of neutrophils and

  11. Word Production Deficits in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Schwartz, Barbara L.; Isaacs, Keren L.

    2004-01-01

    Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is implicated in word production. Data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in word "search," whereas the prefrontal cortex underlies the "selection" of words from among competing alternatives. We explored the role of search and selection processes in word production deficits in schizophrenia patients. In Experiment…

  12. Age-related differences in task goal processing strategies during action cascading.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We are often faced with situations requiring the execution of a coordinated cascade of different actions to achieve a goal, but we can apply different strategies to do so. Until now, these different action cascading strategies have, however, not been examined with respect to possible effects of aging. We tackled this question in a systems neurophysiological study using EEG and source localization in healthy older adults and employing mathematical constraints to determine the strategy applied. The results suggest that older adults seem to apply a less efficient strategy when cascading different actions. Compared to younger adults, older adults seem to struggle to hierarchically organize their actions, which leads to an inefficient and more parallel processing of different task goals. On a systems level, the observed deficit is most likely due to an altered processing of task goals at the response selection level (P3 ERP) and related to changes of neural processes in the temporo-parietal junction. PMID:26025200

  13. Computer-based word-processing system speeds nuke plant startup, cuts cost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The start-up time for Louisiana Power and Light's Waterford III nuclear power plant will be shortened from 26 to 12 months by using the Automated Document Production System (ADOPS), a text management system that will pay for itself in the first half-day of reduced start-up time. With up to a billion megabytes of disc storage, the computer serves as a daytime word processor and as a remote job entry terminal at night. Start-up functions include critical path scheduling, compliance demonstration, and safety tracking and reporting. (DCK)

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  16. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing.

    PubMed

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development. PMID:24710665

  17. RP and N400 ERP components reflect semantic violations in visual processing of human actions.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica

    2009-08-14

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the visual processing of actions belonging to the typical human repertoire. Two hundred and sixty coloured pictures representing persons differing in number, age and gender, engaged in simple actions, were presented to 23 right-handed students. Perception of meaningful actions (e.g., young woman trying shoes in shop) was contrasted with perception of actions lacking an understandable goal (e.g., businesswoman balancing on one foot in desert). The results indicated early recognition of comprehensible behaviour in the form of an enhanced posterior "recognition potential" (RP) (N250), which was followed by a larger negativity (N400) in response to incongruent actions. The results suggest that incoming visual information regarding human gestures is processed similarly to linguistic inputs from a conceptual point of view, thus eliciting a posterior RP when the action code is visually recognized and comprehended, and a later N400 when the action is not recognized or is difficult to integrate with previous knowledge. PMID:19427368

  18. Using the Knowledge to Action Process Model to Incite Clinical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzold, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Menon, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge translation (KT) has only recently emerged in the field of rehabilitation with attention on creating effective KT interventions to increase clinicians' knowledge and use of evidence-based practice (EBP). The uptake of EBP is a complex process that can be facilitated by the use of the Knowledge to Action Process model. This…

  19. Riding the Wave: Student Researcher Reflection on the Action Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…

  20. Do actions speak louder than words? A comparative perspective on implicit versus explicit meta-cognition and theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Church, Barbara; Smith, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Research in non-human animal (hereafter, animal) cognition has found strong evidence that some animal species are capable of meta-cognitively monitoring their mental states. They know when they know and when they do not know. In contrast, animals have generally not shown robust theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. Comparative research uses methods that are non-verbal, and thus might easily be labelled ‘implicit’ using the terminology of traditional human cognition. However, comparative psychology has developed several non-verbal methods that are designed to test for aspects of meta-cognition that – while perhaps not fully explicit – go beyond the merely implicit or associative. We believe similar methods might be useful to developmental researchers who work with young children, and may provide a sound empirical alternative to verbal reports. Comparative psychology has moved away from all-or-none categorical labels (e.g., ‘implicit’ vs. ‘explicit’) towards a theoretical framework that contains a spectrum of mental abilities ranging from implicit to explicit, and from associative to cognitive to fully conscious. We discuss how this same framework might be applied to developmental psychology when it comes to implicit versus explicit processing and ToM. PMID:22429042