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Sample records for action word processing

  1. Motor Simulation during Action Word Processing in Neurosurgical Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasino, Barbara; Ceschia, Martina; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The role that human motor areas play in linguistic processing is the subject of a stimulating debate. Data from nine neurosurgical patients with selective lesions of the precentral and postcentral sulcus could provide a direct answer as to whether motor area activation is necessary for action word processing. Action-related verbs (face-, hand-,…

  2. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for use in teaching secondary-level word processing courses, this teaching guide is divided into three major sections. Among the topics presented in the introductory section are the history of word processing, components of word processing, five phases of word processing, the future of word processing and information systems, and job…

  3. The processing of actions and action-words in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Cecchetto, Cinzia; Mazzon, Giulia; Granello, Giulia; Cattaruzza, Tatiana; Verriello, Lorenzo; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with prime consequences on the motor function and concomitant cognitive changes, most frequently in the domain of executive functions. Moreover, poorer performance with action-verbs versus object-nouns has been reported in ALS patients, raising the hypothesis that the motor dysfunction deteriorates the semantic representation of actions. Using action-verbs and manipulable-object nouns sharing semantic relationship with the same motor representations, the verb-noun difference was assessed in a group of 21 ALS-patients with severely impaired motor behavior, and compared with a normal sample's performance. ALS-group performed better on nouns than verbs, both in production (action and object naming) and comprehension (word-picture matching). This observation implies that the interpretation of the verb-noun difference in ALS cannot be accounted by the relatedness of verbs to motor representations, but has to consider the role of other semantic and/or morpho-phonological dimensions that distinctively define the two grammatical classes. Moreover, this difference in the ALS-group was not greater than the noun-verb difference in the normal sample. The mental representation of actions also involves an executive-control component to organize, in logical/temporal order, the individual motor events (or sub-goals) that form a purposeful action. We assessed this ability with action sequencing tasks, requiring participants to re-construct a purposeful action from the scrambled presentation of its constitutive motor events, shown in the form of photographs or short sentences. In those tasks, ALS-group's performance was significantly poorer than controls'. Thus, the executive dysfunction manifested in the sequencing deficit -but not the selective verb deficit- appears as a consistent feature of the cognitive profile associated with ALS. We suggest that ALS can offer a valuable model to study the relationship between

  4. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., "love") which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories - related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts - was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or 'epiphenomenal' to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into modality

  5. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  6. How do conceptual representations interact with processing demands: An fMRI study on action- and abstract-related words.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    This fMRI study investigated the functional mechanisms related to mental simulation of abstract- and action-related words and measured the effect of the type of stimulus (Abstract vs. action verbs) and the type of task (imagery vs. control task) to explore how conceptual representations interact with processing demands. A significant task by stimuli interaction showed that action-related words activated the left sensorimotor cortex during explicit imagery (as compared to the control task), whereas abstract-related verbs did not automatically activate this area. Rather, as we made sure that Abstract verbs were not associated with motor states (as tested in a rating study of our stimulus list), imagery elicited by abstract verb processing (as compared to Action verbs, and controlled for letter detection) differentially activated a right hemisphere neural network including the right supramarginal (SMG) gyrus and the precuneus which might be related to mental imagery of emotion-related scenes and not to the semantics of the stimuli per se. Our results confirmed the view that the activation of the sensorimotor cortex during language processing of abstract- and action-related words is strategy-dependent.

  7. Word Processing and Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Paul A.; Benson, Phillip G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses changes in organizational design and staffing necessitated by word processing systems. Also presents results of an attitudinal survey of word processor operators, traditional secretaries, and administrative support persons. (JOW)

  8. Early Combinations of Words and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Cecilia

    Previous research has shown a similar starting time for early combinations of words and play actions in children and has suggested that similar cognitive processes underlie the transition to combining activities in language, symbolic play, and manipulative play. A study was undertaken to investigate combining activities in these three domains and…

  9. Processing Words without Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Patricia; And Others

    Three studies were conducted in an attempt to replicate previous research concluding that semantic meaning is accessed in the absence of conscious awareness. A pattern mask was used to interrupt the processing of stimulus words after 30 milliseconds; at this duration subjects were not able to identify the stimulus words or even to determine…

  10. Word Processing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia A.; Kusek, Robert W.

    A combination of facts, examples, models, tools, and sources useful in developing and teaching word processing (WP) programs is provided in this guide. Eight sections are included. Sections 1 and 2 present introductory information on WP (e.g., history, five phases of WP, problems occurring in WP offices, factors of people, procedures, and…

  11. The Dilemma of Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Richard

    1977-01-01

    Word processing is a system of communicating which suggests heavy dependence on the use of transcribing machines rather than manual shorthand. The pros and cons of this system are noted, including suggestions for changes in the business education curriculum relevant to the need for shorthand and/or word processing skill development. (SH)

  12. CPT Word Processing Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaymaker, Josephine; Eakman, Donna

    A project to develop a student word processing manual was developed by using input from: (1) information specialists, employees, and educators; and (2) students using the manual. These instructional materials provide workbook assignments and reading for an individualized unit on CPT word processing to be used by 30 to 40 high school students per…

  13. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants.

  14. Putting an "end" to the motor cortex representations of action words.

    PubMed

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Arciuli, Joanne; McMahon, Katie

    2013-11-01

    Language processing is an example of implicit learning of multiple statistical cues that provide probabilistic information regarding word structure and use. Much of the current debate about language embodiment is devoted to how action words are represented in the brain, with motor cortex activity evoked by these words assumed to selectively reflect conceptual content and/or its simulation. We investigated whether motor cortex activity evoked by manual action words (e.g., caress) might reflect sensitivity to probabilistic orthographic-phonological cues to grammatical category embedded within individual words. We first review neuroimaging data demonstrating that nonwords evoke activity much more reliably than action words along the entire motor strip, encompassing regions proposed to be action category specific. Using fMRI, we found that disyllabic words denoting manual actions evoked increased motor cortex activity compared with non-body-part-related words (e.g., canyon), activity which overlaps that evoked by observing and executing hand movements. This result is typically interpreted in support of language embodiment. Crucially, we also found that disyllabic nonwords containing endings with probabilistic cues predictive of verb status (e.g., -eve) evoked increased activity compared with nonwords with endings predictive of noun status (e.g., -age) in the identical motor area. Thus, motor cortex responses to action words cannot be assumed to selectively reflect conceptual content and/or its simulation. Our results clearly demonstrate motor cortex activity reflects implicit processing of ortho-phonological statistical regularities that help to distinguish a word's grammatical class. PMID:23806137

  15. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  16. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  17. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis. PMID:27593455

  18. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  19. Spoken Word Processing Creates a Lexical Bottleneck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Alexandra A.; Tamminen, Jakke; Quinlan, Philip T.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 experiments that examined whether presentation of a spoken word creates an attentional bottleneck associated with lexical processing in the absence of a response to that word. A spoken word and a visual stimulus were presented in quick succession, but only the visual stimulus demanded a response. Response times to the visual stimulus…

  20. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  1. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  2. Where is the action? Action sentence processing in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2013-01-01

    According to an influential view of conceptual representation, action concepts are understood through motoric simulations, involving motor networks of the brain. A stronger version of this embodied account suggests that even figurative uses of action words (e.g., grasping the concept) are understood through motoric simulations. We investigated these claims by assessing whether Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder affecting the motor system, is associated with selective deficits in comprehending action-related sentences. Twenty PD patients and 21 age-matched controls performed a sentence comprehension task, where sentences belonged to one of four conditions: literal action, non-idiomatic metaphoric action, idiomatic action, and abstract. The same verbs (referring to hand/arm actions) were used in the three action-related conditions. Patients, but not controls, were slower to respond to literal and idiomatic action than to abstract sentences. These results indicate that sensory-motor systems play a functional role in semantic processing, including processing of figurative action language. PMID:23624313

  3. Word processing in the parafoveal region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Kyungill

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the role of words viewed in the parafoveal region during reading. In contrast to previous work, the present experiments used a reading-aloud paradigm that was postulated to encourage letter-to-sound processing, as is typical for beginning readers and for skilled readers who are reading difficult material. The three experiments in this study examined the role of orthographic and semantic information in the parafoveal region on the processing of a word in the foveal region. For this, two words, one in the foveal region and the other in the parafoveal region, were presented side by side to resemble normal reading. Participants were instructed to read aloud the word on the left side, ignoring the word on the right side. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the presence of a word in the parafoveal region slowed naming of target words, and that this delay was attributable to linguistic interference. This pattern indicates that the information in the parafoveal region affect the processing of the target. Experiment 3 showed an effect of parafoveal semantic information on processing of the target word. In sum the results of the current study suggest that information in the parafoveal region appears to be linguistically processed but to a weaker degree than the focused word. In sum, the results of the experiments in the current study indicate that the influence of parafoveal information is quite lexical and semantic information in the parafoveal region affects processing of the target in the foveal region.

  4. Project Bank: Word Processing on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavin, Robert F.

    Project Bank was initiated at Triton College (Illinois) to increase student awareness of the merits of word processing as it affects their class work and related assignments; to make faculty aware of advances in word processing programs; and to increase the utilization of the college's computer laboratory. All fall 1985 incoming freshmen were…

  5. Word Processing Job Descriptions and Duties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajewski-Johnson, Marlyce

    In order to develop a word processing career file at Milwaukee Area Technical College, employment managers at 124 Milwaukee-area businesses were asked to provide job descriptions for all word processing positions in the company; skill and knowledge requirements necessary to obtain these positions; employee appraisal forms; wage scales; a list of…

  6. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action.

    PubMed

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this "language-to-action" link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance ("action-to-language" link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an "embodied or not" focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the link between

  7. People Considerations in Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Marion L.

    1984-01-01

    Business educators preparing students for jobs in business and industry should become aware of the problems faced by workers in a typical large office environment. Word processor operators face many of the same problems as factory assembly line workers--lack of personalization, lack of incentive, and removal from the mainstream. (JOW)

  8. The time course of action and action-word comprehension in the human brain as revealed by neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Hauk, O; Shtyrov, Y; Pulvermüller, F

    2008-01-01

    Numerous previous neuroimaging studies suggest an involvement of cortical motor areas not only in action execution but also in action recognition and understanding. Motor areas of the human brain have also been found to activate during the processing of written and spoken action-related words and sentences. Even more strikingly, stimuli referring to different bodily effectors produced specific somatotopic activation patterns in the motor areas. However, metabolic neuroimaging results can be ambiguous with respect to the processing stage they reflect. This is a serious limitation when hypotheses concerning linguistic processes are tested, since in this case it is usually crucial to distinguish early lexico-semantic processing from strategic effects or mental imagery that may follow lexico-semantic information access. Timing information is therefore pivotal to determine the functional significance of motor areas in action recognition and action-word comprehension. Here, we review attempts to reveal the time course of these processes using neurophysiological methods (EEG, MEG and TMS), in visual and auditory domains. We will highlight the importance of the choice of appropriate paradigms in combination with the corresponding method for the extraction of timing information. The findings will be discussed in the general context of putative brain mechanisms of word and object recognition.

  9. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Bilingual Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Brown, Timothy T.; Travis, Katherine E.; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Halgren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding), and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from ~135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At ~400ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved. PMID:20004256

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bilingual word processing.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Brown, Timothy T; Travis, Katherine E; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2010-02-15

    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding) and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from approximately 135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At approximately 400 ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved.

  11. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Hommel, Bernhard; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001a), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing - an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Memelink and Hommel, 2012), whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010). The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  12. Movement priming of EEG/MEG brain responses for action-words characterizes the link between language and action

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Giovanna; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Activation in sensorimotor areas of the brain following perception of linguistic stimuli referring to objects and actions has been interpreted as evidence for strong theories of embodied semantics. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated this “language-to-action” link, important questions about how activation in the sensorimotor system affects language performance (“action-to-language” link) are yet unanswered. As several authors have recently pointed out, the debate should move away from an “embodied or not” focus, and rather aim to characterize the functional contributions of sensorimotor systems to language processing in more detail. For this purpose, we here introduce a novel movement priming paradigm in combination with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), which allows investigating effects of motor cortex pre-activation on the spatio-temporal dynamics of action-word evoked brain activation. Participants initiated experimental trials by either finger- or foot-movements before executing a two alternative forced choice task employing action-words. We found differential brain activation during the early stages of subsequent hand- and leg-related word processing, respectively, albeit in the absence of behavioral effects. Distributed source estimation based on combined EEG/MEG measurements revealed that congruency effects between effector type used for response initiation (hand or foot) and action-word category (hand- or foot-related) occurred not only in motor cortex, but also in a classical language comprehension area, posterior superior temporal cortex, already 150 msec after the visual presentation of the word stimulus. This suggests that pre-activation of hand- and leg-motor networks may differentially facilitate the ignition of semantic cell assemblies for hand- and leg-related words, respectively. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of movement priming in combination with neuroimaging to functionally characterize the

  13. Effects of intentional motor actions on embodied language processing.

    PubMed

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lindemann, Oliver; van Rooij, Daan; van Dam, Wessel; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Embodied theories of language processing suggest that this motor simulation is an automatic and necessary component of meaning representation. If this is the case, then language and action systems should be mutually dependent (i.e., motor activity should selectively modulate processing of words with an action-semantic component). In this paper, we investigate in two experiments whether evidence for mutual dependence can be found using a motor priming paradigm. Specifically, participants performed either an intentional or a passive motor task while processing words denoting manipulable and nonmanipulable objects. The performance rates (Experiment 1) and response latencies (Experiment 2) in a lexical-decision task reveal that participants performing an intentional action were positively affected in the processing of words denoting manipulable objects as compared to nonmanipulable objects. This was not the case if participants performed a secondary passive motor action (Experiment 1) or did not perform a secondary motor task (Experiment 2). The results go beyond previous research showing that language processes involve motor systems to demonstrate that the execution of motor actions has a selective effect on the semantic processing of words. We suggest that intentional actions activate specific parts of the neural motor system, which are also engaged for lexical-semantic processing of action-related words and discuss the beneficial versus inhibitory nature of this relationship. The results provide new insights into the embodiment of language and the bidirectionality of effects between language and action processing. PMID:20178948

  14. Input: Enter the Word-Processing Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Dorothy Grant

    1981-01-01

    Describes ways that word-processing computers can be used to teach writing and editing skills and related attitudes. Explores the advantages and disadvantages of using computers in writing programs, as well as some misconceptions about computers. (HTH)

  15. Words in Action: Rethinking Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a research project exploring the thought it takes to do physical work, the cognitive processes involved in various blue collar and service occupations like waitressing, hairstyling, plumbing, welding, industrial assembly, and the like. Considers the way occupations are categorized, defines intelligence, and thinks about learning and…

  16. Phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Deanna C; Jared, Debra; Haigh, Corinne A

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated phonological processing dynamics in bilingual word naming. English-French and French-English bilinguals named interlingual heterophonic homographs (i.e., words that share orthography but not meaning or pronunciation across languages), heterophonic cognates (i.e., words that share both orthography and meaning across languages, but not pronunciations), interlingual homophones (i.e., words that share pronunciation, but not orthography or meaning across languages), and single-language matched control words in both English and French naming tasks. Cross-language phonological activation was strongest in bilinguals' second language. The results provided evidence for feedforward activation of phonological representations in the nontarget language, as well as feedback activation of these phonological representations from semantic representations. Results are interpreted within the more recent Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA+) framework. PMID:25383476

  17. Unconscious processing of dichoptically masked words.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, A G; Klinger, M R; Liu, T J

    1989-01-01

    In three experiments, the subjects' task was to decide whether each of a series of words connoted something good (e.g., fame, comedy, rescue) or bad (stress, detest, malaria). One-half second before the presentation of each such target word, an evaluatively polarized priming word was presented briefly to the nondominant eye and was masked dichoptically by either the rapidly following (Experiment 1) or simultaneous (Experiments 2 and 3) presentation of a random letter-fragment pattern to the dominant eye. (The effectiveness of the masking procedure was demonstrated by the subjects' inability to discriminate the left vs. right position of a test series of words.) In all experiments, significant masked priming effects were obtained; evaluative decisions to congruent masked prime-target combinations (such as a positive masked prime followed by a positive target) were significantly faster than those to incongruent (e.g., negative prime/positive target) or noncongruent (e.g., neutral prime/positive target) combinations. Also, in two of the three experiments, when subjects were at chance accuracy in discriminating word position, their position judgments were nevertheless significantly influenced by the irrelevant semantic content (LEFT vs. RIGHT) of the masked position-varying words. The series of experiments demonstrated that two very different tasks--speeded judgment of evaluative meaning and nonspeeded judgment of word position--yielded statistically significant and replicable influences of the semantic content of apparently undetectable words. Coupled with previous research by others using the lexical decision task, these findings converge in establishing the reliability of the empirical phenomenon of semantic processing of words that are rendered undetectable by dichoptic pattern masking.

  18. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  19. Action and Object Processing in Aphasia: From Nouns and Verbs to the Effect of Manipulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, A.; Perani, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Butler, A.; Bates, E.; Dronkers, N.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis (1) targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items…

  20. Moving the hands and feet specifically impairs working memory for arm- and leg-related action words.

    PubMed

    Shebani, Zubaida; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Language and action systems of the human brain are functionally interwoven. Speaking about actions and understanding action-related speech sparks the motor system of the human brain and, conversely, motor system activation has an influence on the comprehension of action words and sentences. Although previous research has shown that motor systems become active when we understand language, a major question still remains whether these motor system activations are necessary for processing action words. We here report that rhythmic movements of either the hands or the feet lead to a differential impairment of working memory for concordant arm- and leg-related action words, with hand/arm movements predominantly impairing working memory for words used to speak about arm actions and foot/leg movements primarily impairing leg-related word memory. The resulting cross-over double dissociation demonstrates that body part specific and meaning-related processing resources in specific cortical motor systems are shared between overt movements and working memory for action-related words, thus documenting a genuine motor locus of semantic meaning.

  1. Memory disorders as a function of traumatic brain injury. Word completion, recall of words and actions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C; Rönnberg, J

    1987-01-01

    The memory performance of a group with traumatic brain injury and a matched control group was assessed using the following methods (a) word completion, (b) immediate free, final free and final cued recall of words and (c) immediate free and final free recall of subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and SPTs without motor action (SPTs-WA). The brain-injured (BI) group was significantly inferior relative to the control group in all recall tests except immediate free recall of words. No difference was revealed in the word completion test. The BI-group benefitted less by cues presented either at retrieval (final cued recall of words) or at the time of encoding already built-in in the stimulus (SPTs and SPTs-WA). The results were discussed in terms of the neuropathological background of the patients in the BI-group suggesting that frontal dysfunction could play a critical role. When comparing the tests within the BI-group, however, the performance was better when cues were present and especially so for long-term memory. Motor activity also facilitated long-term memory. Finally, an attempt was made to specify conditions for guidance in the construction of training programmes. PMID:3441777

  2. Action and object word writing in a case of bilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Anyfantis, Emmanouil

    2012-01-01

    We report the spoken and written naming of a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency and script Greek and English. AA presented with difficulties in spoken picture naming together with preserved written picture naming for action words in Greek. In English, AA showed similar performance across both tasks for action and object words, i.e. difficulties retrieving action and object names for both spoken and written naming. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive processes used for spoken and written naming are independent components of the language system and can be selectively impaired after brain injury. In the case of bilingual speakers, such processes impact on both languages. We conclude grammatical category is an organizing principle in bilingual dysgraphia.

  3. Reprint of "Young children's referent selection is guided by novelty for both words and actions".

    PubMed

    Dysart, Erin L; Mather, Emily; Riggs, Kevin J

    2016-11-01

    Young children are biased to select novel, name-unknown objects as referents of novel labels and to similarly favor novel, action-unknown objects as referents of novel actions. What process underlies these common behaviors? In the case of word learning, children may be driven by a novelty bias favoring novel objects as referents. Our study investigated this bias further by investigating whether novelty also affects children's selection of novel objects when a new action is given. In a pre-exposure session, 40 3- and 4-year-olds were shown eight novel objects for 1min. In subsequent referent selection trials, children were shown two pre-exposed objects and one super-novel object and either heard a novel name or saw a novel action. The super-novel object was selected significantly more than the pre-exposed objects on both word and action trials. Our data add to the growing literature suggesting that an endogenous attentional bias to novelty plays a role in children's referent selection and demonstrates further parallels between word and action learning. PMID:27566944

  4. Teaching Word Processing in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Elizabeth A.; Jenkins, Sylvia M.

    A description is provided of a program developed at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC), in Illinois, for providing word processing instruction in the library, including recommendations for program development based on MVCC experience and results from a survey of program participants. The first part of the paper discusses a model development…

  5. Scientific Word Processing for Personal Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canham, Geoffrey W. Rayner

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the variables teachers should consider when selecting scientific word processing software. Briefly describes some of the attributes of 17 software packages that were developed to accommodate scientific formulae and chemical structures. Provides the names and addresses of the respective software producers. (TW)

  6. Word Processing: Teach It or Ignore It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addams, H. Lon; Baker, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Provides background information on what is involved in word processing (WP), reviews the attitudes of business people and educators, and offers business teachers methods and suggestions for incorporating WP training into their business programs and for enlisting the help of organizations, businesses, and educational institutions. (TA)

  7. Words speak louder: conforming to preferences more than actions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanping; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-08-01

    Whereas people generally conform to others' choices, this research documents that conformity decreases once others have acted on their chosen options. It suggests words speak louder than actions-people are more likely to conform to others' preferences than their actions. Specifically, people are less likely to follow another person's food choice if that person has already eaten his or her selected food (Study 1), and are less likely to follow others' choices of household items if these choices are framed in terms of action (others "want to have it") rather than preference (others "like it"; Study 2). People's tendency to mentally share others' actions causes the decrease in conformity. Indeed, people recall greater past consumption of items that others have had (Study 3), choose differently only when they can complement (vs. contradict) what others have (Study 4), and are more strongly affected by the choices of those close to them (vs. strangers; Study 5). Finally, even when information about others' actions and preferences are simultaneously available (e.g., in online shopping and the consumption of social media), people are more likely to follow what others prefer, rather than what others have (Study 6). PMID:26191960

  8. Words speak louder: conforming to preferences more than actions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanping; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-08-01

    Whereas people generally conform to others' choices, this research documents that conformity decreases once others have acted on their chosen options. It suggests words speak louder than actions-people are more likely to conform to others' preferences than their actions. Specifically, people are less likely to follow another person's food choice if that person has already eaten his or her selected food (Study 1), and are less likely to follow others' choices of household items if these choices are framed in terms of action (others "want to have it") rather than preference (others "like it"; Study 2). People's tendency to mentally share others' actions causes the decrease in conformity. Indeed, people recall greater past consumption of items that others have had (Study 3), choose differently only when they can complement (vs. contradict) what others have (Study 4), and are more strongly affected by the choices of those close to them (vs. strangers; Study 5). Finally, even when information about others' actions and preferences are simultaneously available (e.g., in online shopping and the consumption of social media), people are more likely to follow what others prefer, rather than what others have (Study 6).

  9. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  10. Inserting spaces before and after words affects word processing differently in Chinese: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan

    2014-02-01

    Unlike in English, there are no spaces between printed words in Chinese. In this study, we explored how inserting a space before or after a word affects the processing of that word in Chinese reading. Native Chinese readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences with different presentation conditions. The results show that inserting a space after a word facilitates its processing, but inserting a space before a word does not show this effect and inhibits the processing of that word in some cases. Our results are consistent with the prediction of a word segmentation and recognition model in Chinese Li et al., 2009, Cognit. Psychol., 58, 525. Additionally, we found that a space guides the initial landing position on the word: the initial landing position was further away from the space that inserted into the text, whether it was before or after a word.

  11. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production. PMID:25954182

  12. Assessing the usefulness of google books' word frequencies for psycholinguistic research on word processing.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective Article we assess the usefulness of Google's new word frequencies for word recognition research (lexical decision and word naming). We find that, despite the massive corpus on which the Google estimates are based (131 billion words from books published in the United States alone), the Google American English frequencies explain 11% less of the variance in the lexical decision times from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) than the SUBTLEX-US word frequencies, based on a corpus of 51 million words from film and television subtitles. Further analyses indicate that word frequencies derived from recent books (published after 2000) are better predictors of word processing times than frequencies based on the full corpus, and that word frequencies based on fiction books predict word processing times better than word frequencies based on the full corpus. The most predictive word frequencies from Google still do not explain more of the variance in word recognition times of undergraduate students and old adults than the subtitle-based word frequencies. PMID:21713191

  13. Word order processing in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Baumgaertner, Annette; Moehring, Anja; Büchel, Christian; Bonnesen, Matthias; Rose, Michael; Musso, Mariachristina; Meisel, Jürgen M

    2009-01-01

    One of the issues debated in the field of bilingualism is the question of a "critical period" for second language acquisition. Recent studies suggest an influence of age of onset of acquisition (AOA) particularly on syntactic processing; however, the processing of word order in a sentence context has not yet been examined specifically. We used functional MRI to examine word order processing in two groups of highly proficient German-French bilinguals who had either acquired French or German after the age of 10, and a third group which had acquired both languages before the age of three. Subjects listened to French and German sentences in which the order of subject and verb was systematically varied. In both groups of late bilinguals, processing of L2 compared to L1 resulted in higher levels of activation mainly of the left inferior frontal cortex while early bilinguals showed no activation difference in any of these areas. A selective increase in activation for late bilinguals only suggests that AOA contributes to modulating overall syntactic processing in L2. In addition, native speakers of French showed significantly higher activation for verb-subject-order than native German speakers. These data suggest that AOA effects may in particular affect those grammatical structures which are marked in the first language.

  14. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  15. The Processing of Compound Words in English: Effects of Word Length on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated morphological processing in English using bilexemic compound words. Long and short compound words were presented in neutral sentences and eye movements were recorded while participants read the sentences to investigate the time course of compound word recognition. In Experiment 1, the frequency of…

  16. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  17. Word Processing differences between dyslexic and control children

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Isabella; Bott, Christof; Wienbruch, Christian; Elbert, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate brain responses triggered by different wordclasses in dyslexic and control children. The majority of dyslexic children have difficulties to phonologically assemble a word from sublexical parts following grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences. Therefore, we hypothesised that dyslexic children should mainly differ from controls processing low frequent words that are unfamiliar to the reader. Methods We presented different wordclasses (high and low frequent words, pseudowords) in a rapid serial visual word (RSVP) design and performed wavelet analysis on the evoked activity. Results Dyslexic children had lower evoked power amplitudes and a higher spectral frequency for low frequent words compared to control children. No group differences were found for high frequent words and pseudowords. Control children had higher evoked power amplitudes and a lower spectral frequency for low frequent words compared to high frequent words and pseudowords. This pattern was not present in the dyslexic group. Conclusion Dyslexic children differed from control children only in their brain responses to low frequent words while showing no modulated brain activity in response to the three word types. This might support the hypothesis that dyslexic children are selectively impaired reading words that require sublexical processing. However, the lacking differences between word types raise the question if dyslexic children were able to process the words presented in rapid serial fashion in an adequate way. Therefore the present results should only be interpreted as evidence for a specific sublexical processing deficit with caution. PMID:16441886

  18. Ultra-rapid access to words in chronic aphasia: the effects of intensive language action therapy (ILAT).

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Lucy J; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    Effects of intensive language action therapy (ILAT) on automatic language processing were assessed using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Auditory magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses to words and pseudowords were recorded in twelve patients with chronic aphasia before and immediately after two weeks of ILAT. Following therapy, Patients showed significant clinical improvements of auditory comprehension as measured by the Token Test and in word retrieval and naming as measured by the Boston Naming Test. Neuromagnetic responses dissociated between meaningful words and meaningless word-like stimuli ultra-rapidly, approximately 50 ms after acoustic information first allowed for stimulus identification. Over treatment, there was a significant increase in the left-lateralisation of this early word-elicited activation, observed in perilesional fronto-temporal regions. No comparable change was seen for pseudowords. The results may reflect successful, therapy-induced, language restitution in the left hemisphere. PMID:25403745

  19. Do words hurt? Brain activation during the processing of pain-related words.

    PubMed

    Richter, Maria; Eck, Judith; Straube, Thomas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that areas of the pain matrix of the human brain are recruited by the processing of pain-related environmental cues such as pain-related pictures or descriptors of pain. However, it is still sketchy whether those activations are specific to the pain-relevance of the stimuli or simply reflect a general effect of negative valence or increased arousal. The present study investigates the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words. Pain-related words were matched to negative words regarding valence and arousal, and to positive words regarding arousal. Sixteen healthy subjects were scanned during two tasks, imagination and distraction, using functional MRI. When subjects were instructed to image a situation associated with the word presented (imagination task), we found increased activation within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior patietal gyri (IPG), and precuneus when processing pain-related words compared to other words. However, when attention was focused on a foreground task and words were presented in the background (distraction task), we found a decrease in activation within dorsal anterior cingulum (dACC) and a relative increase in activation within the subgenual ventral anterior cingulum (sACC) when processing pain related words compared to other words. Thus, activations to pain-related words are strongly modulated by the attention demands of the task. Most remarkably, the differences in processing pain-related words compared to non-pain-related words are specific to the pain-relevance of the words and cannot simply be explained by their valence or arousal.

  20. Processing Segmental and Prosodic Information in Cantonese Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate how subsyllabic, syllabic, and prosodic information is processed in Cantonese monosyllabic word production. A picture-word interference task was used in which a target picture and a distractor word were presented simultaneously or sequentially. In the first 3 experiments with visually presented…

  1. Developmental Differences for Word Processing in the Ventral Stream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olulade, Olumide A.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2013-01-01

    The visual word form system (VWFS), located in the occipito-temporal cortex, is involved in orthographic processing of visually presented words (Cohen et al., 2002). Recent fMRI studies in children and adults have demonstrated a gradient of increasing word-selectivity along the posterior-to-anterior axis of this system (Vinckier et al., 2007), yet…

  2. Automated Braille production from word-processed documents.

    PubMed

    Blenkhorn, P; Evans, G

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for automatically generating Braille documents from word-processed (Microsoft Word) documents. In particular it details how, by using the Word Object Model, the translation system can map the layout information (format) in the print document into an appropriate Braille equivalent.

  3. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  4. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of fixation location within words.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Kurtev, Stoyan; Xu, Mengyun

    2010-03-01

    It has been claimed that word recognition is affected fundamentally by the precise location at which a word is fixated because a precise split in hemispheric processing at the point of fixation causes all letters to the left and right of fixation to project to different, contralateral hemispheres. To assess this claim, 5-letter words (and nonwords) were presented for lexical decision when participants fixated the space immediately to the left (location 1) or right (location 6) of each stimulus, or one of the four possible inter-letter spaces (locations 2-5). Fixation location was controlled using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display and all stimuli were presented entirely within foveal vision to avoid confounding influences of extrafoveal hemispheric projections. Performance was equally poorest when fixating locations 1 and 6 (when words were shown entirely to either the right and left of fixation), intermediate for location 5, and equally superior for locations 2, 3, and 4. Additional word-specific analyses also showed no evidence of the effects of fixation location on optimal word recognition predicted by split-fovea processing. These findings suggest that, while fixation location influences word recognition, word recognition is apparently not affected by a split in hemispheric processing at the point of fixation and does not depend critically on the precise location at which a word is fixated. Implications of these findings for the role of fixation location in word recognition are discussed.

  5. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

  6. Toward a Model for Picture and Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Joan Gay

    A model was developed to account for similarities and differences between picture and word processing in a variety of semantic and episodic memory tasks. The model contains three levels of processing: low-level processing of the physical characteristics of externally presented pictures and words; an intermediate level where the low-level processor…

  7. Students' Editing Skills and Attitudes toward Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joram, Elana; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the writing attitudes and text editing skills of students with considerable experience using word-processing systems toward word processing for different phases of the writing process. Finds the students are poor at text editing and typing. Finds that the students prefer paper and pencil for composing first drafts and prefer word…

  8. Parafoveal processing within and between words.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyönä, Jukka; Drieghe, Denis; Rayner, Keith

    2009-07-01

    Parafoveal preview was examined within and between words in two eye movement experiments. In Experiment 1, unspaced and spaced English compound words were used (e.g., basketball, tennis ball). Prior to fixating the second lexeme, either a correct or a partial parafoveal preview (e.g., ball or badk) was provided using the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975). There was a larger effect of parafoveal preview on unspaced compound words than on spaced compound words. However, the parafoveal preview effect on spaced compound words was larger than would be predicted on the basis of prior research. Experiment 2 examined whether this large effect was due to spaced compounds forming a larger linguistic unit by pairing spaced compounds with nonlexicalized adjective-noun pairs. There were no significant interactions between item type and parafoveal preview, suggesting that it is the syntactic predictability of the noun that is driving the large preview effect.

  9. A new perspective on visual word processing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T; Donkin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental part of our daily lives, visual word processing has received much attention in the psychological literature. Despite the well established advantage of perceiving letters in a word or in a pseudoword over letters alone or in random sequences using accuracy, a comparable effect using response times has been elusive. Some researchers continue to question whether the advantage due to word context is perceptual. We use the capacity coefficient, a well established, response time based measure of efficiency to provide evidence of word processing as a particularly efficient perceptual process to complement those results from the accuracy domain. PMID:24334151

  10. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words.

    PubMed

    Portch, Emma; Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke 'specific' emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective 'context' is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., 'sadness', 'anger', Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or 'typical', action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., "If you are feeling 'sad' how likely would you be to act in the following way?" … 'cry.' Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring affective grounding, it may then be

  11. Distance-dependent processing of pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-08-01

    A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and words that represent proximal objects. These results were obtained with various psychological distance dimensions (spatial, temporal, and social), different tasks (classification and categorization), and different measures (speed of processing and selective attention). The authors argue that differences in the processing of pictures and words emanate from the physical similarity of pictures, but not words, to the referents. Consequently, perceptual analysis is commonly applied to pictures but not to words. Pictures thus impart a sense of closeness to the referent objects and are preferably used to represent such objects, whereas words do not convey proximity and are preferably used to represent distal objects in space, time, and social perspective.

  12. Distance-dependent processing of pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-08-01

    A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and words that represent proximal objects. These results were obtained with various psychological distance dimensions (spatial, temporal, and social), different tasks (classification and categorization), and different measures (speed of processing and selective attention). The authors argue that differences in the processing of pictures and words emanate from the physical similarity of pictures, but not words, to the referents. Consequently, perceptual analysis is commonly applied to pictures but not to words. Pictures thus impart a sense of closeness to the referent objects and are preferably used to represent such objects, whereas words do not convey proximity and are preferably used to represent distal objects in space, time, and social perspective. PMID:19653798

  13. Parafoveal Processing of Word n + 2 during Reading: Do the Preceding Words Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    We used the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to test two hypotheses that might explain why no conclusive evidence has been found for the existence of n + 2 preprocessing effects. In Experiment 1, we tested whether parafoveal processing of the second word to the right of fixation (n + 2) takes place only when the preceding word (n + 1) is very…

  14. Word Processing and Its Implications for Business Communications Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Leonard B.

    Word processing, a systematic approach to office work, is currently based on the use of sophisticated dictating and typing machines. The word processing market is rapidly increasing with the paper explosion brought on by such factors as increasing governmental regulation, Internal Revenue Service requirements, and the need for stockholders to be…

  15. UTC Word Processing Services and Center Evaluation and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lloyd

    This study evaluated the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga's Word Processing Center by surveying faculty and administrative use of word processing and personal computers. Questionnaires were sent to all faculty and academic and administrative departments, and 130 responses were received from faculty, 33 from academic departments, and 47 from…

  16. Word semantics is processed even without attentional effort.

    PubMed

    Relander, Kristiina; Rämä, Pia; Kujala, Teija

    2009-08-01

    We examined the attentional modulation of semantic priming and the N400 effect for spoken words. The aim was to find out how the semantics of spoken language is processed when attention is directed to another modality (passive task), to the phonetics of spoken words (phonological task), or to the semantics of spoken words (word task). Equally strong behavioral priming effects were obtained in the phonological and the word tasks. A significant N400 effect was found in all tasks. The effect was stronger in the word and the phonological tasks than in the passive task, but there was no difference in the magnitude of the effect between the phonological and the word tasks. The latency of the N400 effect did not differ between the tasks. Although the N400 effect had a centroparietal maximum in the phonological and the word tasks, it was largest at the parietal recording sites in the passive task. The effect was more pronounced at the left than right recording sites in the phonological task, but there was no laterality effect in the other tasks. The N400 effect in the passive task indicates that semantic priming occurs even when spoken words are not actively attended. However, stronger N400 effect in the phonological and the word tasks than in the passive task suggests that controlled processes modulate the N400 effect. The finding that there were no differences in the N400 effect between the phonological and the word tasks indicates that the semantics of attended spoken words is processed regardless of whether semantic processing is relevant for task performance.

  17. ''How To Do Things with Words'': Role of Motor Cortex in Semantic Representation of Action Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana, Rajesh K.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Ladden, Stacy Levin; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W.

    2012-01-01

    Language, believed to have originated from actions, not only functions as a medium to access other minds, but it also helps us commit actions and enriches our social life. This fMRI study investigated the semantic and neural representations of actions and mental states. We focused mainly on language semantics (comprehending sentences with "action"…

  18. Orthographic Processing in Visual Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A series of 6 experiments involving 210 subjects from a college subject pool examined orthographic priming effects between briefly presented pairs of letter strings. A theory of othographic priming is presented, and the implications of the findings for understanding word recognition and reading are discussed. (SLD)

  19. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  20. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  1. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  2. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation.

  3. The Effect of Word Processing on the Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vicki M.

    1983-01-01

    Provides methods for assessing the need for adding word processing (WP) to the business curriculum, how to develop WP curriculum once the decision to add it has been made, and discusses necessary WP equipment. (NRJ)

  4. ERP analyses of task effects on semantic processing from words.

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Valdés, Berenice; Cullen, Doug J D; Catena, Andrés; Houghton, George

    2005-05-01

    Semantic (positive) priming refers to the facilitated processing of a probe word when preceded by a related prime word, and is a widely used technique for investigating semantic activation. However, the effect is interrupted or eliminated when attention is directed to low-level features of the prime word, such as its letters, a result which has been used to question the automaticity of semantic processing. We investigated this issue using both behavioural [reaction time (RT)] and electrophysiological measures [event-related potentials (ERPs)]. Subjects performed semantic categorization (living vs. nonliving) and letter search ("A" or "E") tasks on prime words followed by lexical decision on the probe. RT results showed the expected elimination of semantic priming following letter search. However, both prime tasks were affected by the semantic category of the prime, indicating that the meaning was processed. The ERP results supported this conclusion: an early component previously associated with automatic semantic processing [the Recognition Potential (RP)] was sensitive to the category of the prime word irrespective of the prime task. However, a later component (N400) was significantly affected by the task, in both the prime (categorization task) and probe words (semantic priming). The results dissociate rapid, automatic semantic processing from semantic priming. We suggest that a later inhibitory control mechanism suppresses this semantic activation when it is not relevant to the task, and that this produces the loss of semantic priming. PMID:15820637

  5. Words in Action. 1996 Annual Report. Southern Education Foundation, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    This annual report defines three broad areas in which the Southern Education Foundation supports research. The first looks to what kinds of teachers will be needed in the future; the second asks how our best thinking can be translated into effective action; and the third asks how seamless education can be. Programs subsumed under education and…

  6. Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-06-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which limbic regions respond differentially to items with different valences (positive or negative) or to different stimulus types (pictures or words). In the present event-related fMRI study, 21 participants viewed words and pictures that were neutral, negative, or positive. Negative and positive items were equated on arousal. The participants rated each item for whether it depicted or described something animate or inanimate or something common or uncommon. For both pictures and words, the amygdala, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventromedial PFC responded equally to all high-arousal items, regardless of valence. Laterality effects in the amygdala were based on the stimulus type (word = left, picture = bilateral). Valence effects were most apparent when the individuals processed pictures, and the results revealed a lateral/medial distinction within the PFC: The lateral PFC responded differentially to negative items, whereas the medial PFC was more engaged during the processing of positive pictures.

  7. Electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yingchun; Hu, Weiping; Fang, Zhuo; Zhang, John X.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of morphological processing in Chinese compound word reading using a delayed repetition priming paradigm. Participants were asked to passively view lists of two-character compound words containing prime-target pairs separated by a few items. In a Whole Word repetition condition, the prime and target were the same real words (e.g., , manager-manager). In a Constituent repetition condition, the prime and target were swapped in terms of their constituent position (e.g., , the former is a pseudo-word and the later means nurse). Two ERP components including N200 and N400 showed repetition effects. The N200 showed a negative shift upon repetition in the Whole Word condition but this effect was delayed for the Constituent condition. The N400 showed comparable amplitude reduction across the two priming conditions. The results reveal different aspects of morphological processing with an early stage associated with N200 and a late stage with N400. There was also a possibility that the N200 effect reflect general cognitive processing, i.e., the detection of low-probability stimuli. PMID:24068994

  8. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use.

  9. Concepts within reach: Action performance predicts action language processing in stroke.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rutvik H; Herter, Troy; Riccardi, Nicholas; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between the brain's conceptual or semantic and sensory-motor systems remains controversial. Here, we tested manual and conceptual abilities of 41 chronic stroke patients in order to examine their relationship. Manual abilities were assed through a reaching task using an exoskeleton robot. Semantic abilities were assessed with implicit as well as explicit semantic tasks, for both verbs and nouns. The results show that that the degree of selective impairment for action word processing was predicted by the degree of impairment in reaching performance. Moreover, the implicit semantic measures showed a correlation with a global reaching parameter, while the explicit semantic similarity judgment task predicted performance in action initiation. These results suggest that action concepts are dynamically grounded through motoric simulations, and that more details are simulated for more explicit semantic tasks. This is evidence for a close and causal relationship between sensory-motor and conceptual systems of the brain. PMID:25858602

  10. Early Action and Gesture "Vocabulary" and Its Relation with Word Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension than word…

  11. The role of spatial attention in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Folk, Charles L.; Johnston, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Subjects made lexical decisions on a target letter string presented above or below fixation. In Experiments 1 and 2, target location was cued 100 ms in advance of target onset. Responses were faster on validly than on invalidly cued trials. In Experiment 3, the target was sometimes accompanied by irrelevant stimuli on the other side of fixation; in such cases, responses were slowed (a spatial filtering effect). Both cuing and filtering effects on response time were additive with effects of word frequency and lexical status (words vs. nonwords). These findings are difficult to reconcile with claims that spatial attention is less involved in processing familiar words than in unfamiliar words and nonwords. The results can be reconciled with a late-selection locus of spatial attention only with difficulty, but are easily explained by early-selection models.

  12. Effects of word form on brain processing of written Chinese.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shimin; Chen, Yiping; Smith, Stephen; Iversen, Susan; Matthews, P M

    2002-11-01

    Both logographic characters and alphabetic pinyins can be used to write words in Chinese. Here we use fMRI to address the question of whether the written form affects brain processing of a word. Fifteen healthy, right-handed, native Chinese-reading volunteers participated in our study and were asked to read silently either Chinese characters (8 subjects) or pinyins (7 subjects). The stimulus presentation rate was varied for both tasks to allow us to identify brain regions with word-load-dependent activation. Rate effects (fast minus slow presentations) for Chinese character reading were observed in striate and extrastriate visual cortex, superior parietal lobule, left posterior middle temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyri, and bilateral superior frontal gyri. Rate effects for pinyin reading were observed in bilateral fusiform, lingual, and middle occipital gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobule/precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus. These results demonstrate that common regions of the brain are involved in reading both Chinese characters and pinyins, activated apparently independently of the surface form of the word. There also appear to be brain regions in which activation is dependent on word form. However, it is unlikely that these are entirely specific for a given word form; their activation more likely reflects relative functional specializations within broader networks for processing written language.

  13. The processing of speech, gesture, and action during language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Spencer; Healey, Meghan; Özyürek, Asli; Holler, Judith

    2015-04-01

    Hand gestures and speech form a single integrated system of meaning during language comprehension, but is gesture processed with speech in a unique fashion? We had subjects watch multimodal videos that presented auditory (words) and visual (gestures and actions on objects) information. Half of the subjects related the audio information to a written prime presented before the video, and the other half related the visual information to the written prime. For half of the multimodal video stimuli, the audio and visual information contents were congruent, and for the other half, they were incongruent. For all subjects, stimuli in which the gestures and actions were incongruent with the speech produced more errors and longer response times than did stimuli that were congruent, but this effect was less prominent for speech-action stimuli than for speech-gesture stimuli. However, subjects focusing on visual targets were more accurate when processing actions than gestures. These results suggest that although actions may be easier to process than gestures, gestures may be more tightly tied to the processing of accompanying speech. PMID:25002252

  14. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanas, Stephanie A.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in "Int J Billing" 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in "Am J Psychol", in press), and rapid serial visual processing…

  15. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

    2012-01-01

    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  16. How Word Frequency Affects Morphological Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated processing of morphologically complex words in three different frequency ranges in monolingual Finnish speakers and Finnish-Swedish bilinguals. By employing a visual lexical decision task, we found a differential pattern of results in monolinguals vs. bilinguals. Monolingual Finns seemed to process low frequency and…

  17. Microcomputers and Word Processing Programs: An Evaluation and Critique. Research Monograph Series Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Brian

    The use of word processing as an instructional tool is the focus of this monograph. The introductory section provides an overview of word processing and its use in higher education, while the second section explores the use of word processing in writing courses, including word processing for basic writers and learning disabled students, word…

  18. Automatic processing of word meaning: intralingual and interlingual interference.

    PubMed

    Goodman, G S; Haith, M M; Guttentag, R E; Rao, S

    1985-02-01

    Automatic processing of word meaning was studied in bilingual children and children in various stages of second-language acquisition in 2 experiments. A picture-word interference task was used. The children named outlined pictures as rapidly as possible while attempting to ignore distractor words printed inside the pictures' borders. For children proficient in the 2 languages (Experiment 1), the printed distractors interfered with naming on both intralingual trials, for which the distractor and naming language were the same, and on interlingual trials, for which they were different. The pattern of interference across 6 levels of name-distractor relation was similar for the intralingual and interlingual conditions and indicated that at least part of the interference occurred at a semantic level. For children who were in various phases of learning a second language (Experiment 2), second-language words were automatically processed to the level of meaning early in the course of second-language reading instruction. As was found for the more proficient groups, both the pattern and the amount of interlingual interference matched that for intralingual interference. The results question whether an "input switch" operates for bilingual word processing.

  19. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  20. The Gestalt Process Approach and Word Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth

    To whet the curiosity and interest of teachers who may be frustrated with the reading vocabulary achievement of pupils, an informal study compared Piaget's cognitive development theory, recent brain research, and the reading process, and examined how the theory and research apply to reading instruction. The Gestalt Process Approach to teaching…

  1. An Analysis of the Managerial Responsibilities and Educational Needs of Word Processing Managers with Implications for Future Word Processing Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loth, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the perceived managerial preparedness of word processing managers in selected Ohio businesses and compared the findings with current literature, word processing curricula in two-and four-year colleges and universities, and the curricular elements in the IBM Word Processing Managers' Seminar. Developed specific training topics for word…

  2. Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words

    PubMed Central

    Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous words (e.g., ball) or unambiguous words (e.g., athlete), and targets were either semantically related to the dominant (i.e., most frequent) meaning of the ambiguous prime word (e.g., soccer) or to the subordinate (i.e., less frequent) meaning (e.g., dance). Results showed increased activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for ambiguous related compared to unambiguous related stimulus pairs, demonstrating that prefrontal areas are activated even in an implicit task where participants are not required to explicitly analyze the semantic content of the stimuli and to make an overt selection of a particular meaning based on this analysis. Additionally, increased activation was found in the left IFG and the left cingulate gyrus for subordinate meaning compared to dominant meaning conditions, suggesting that additional resources are recruited in order to resolve increased competition demands in accessing the subordinate meaning of an ambiguous word. PMID:18702579

  3. Corrective action management (CAM) process guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutter, T.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-18

    Consistent direction for identification, long-term reporting and trending, and correction of conditions adverse to the environment, safety and health will facilitate a successful transition and follow- on for the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC). Continuity of the corrective action management process is vital. It provides consistency via reporting and trending on corrective action management activities at the Site during the transition process. To ensure success,consideration of the business rules and the Hanford Action Tracking System (HATS), the automated tool that supports them, is essential. This document provides a consolidated synopsis of corrective action management business rules, the process, and the HATS to support the transition process at Hanford. It applies to the baseline of corrective action work the PHMC and its subcontractors will inherit. HATS satisfies the requirement for collection of data that enables long-term reporting and trending. The information contains all originating document, condition,and action data. HATS facilitates consistent tracking,reporting, closure, and trending of the corrective action work in progress across the Site. HATS follows the glossary standard definitions for commitment tracking listed in Appendix A and Site data value standards that are applicable. For long term access and use, HATS data are fed to a full text search and retrieval system called Search Hanford Accessible Reports Electronically(SHARE). An individual, organization, or company has the ability, through SHARE, to pull together the appropriate information as needed.

  4. Beyond Word Processing: Rhetorical Invention with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    In the area of composition, computer assisted instruction (CAI) must move beyond the limited concerns of the current-traditional rhetoric to address the larger issues of writing, become process-centered, and involve active writing rather than answering multiple-choice questions. Researchers cite four major types of interactive CAI, the last of…

  5. Limitations of the dual-process-theory regarding the writing of words and non-words to dictation.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Oliver; Trumpp, Christian; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-12-01

    It is generally assumed that the lexical and phonological systems are involved in writing to dictation. In an experiment concerned with the writing of words and non-words to dictation, the handwriting of female students was registered using a digitising tablet. The data contradict the assumption that the phonological system represents an alexical process. Both words and non-words which were acoustically presented to the subjects were lexically parsed. The analysis of kinematic data revealed significant differences between the subjects' writing of words and non-words. The findings reveal gross disturbances of handwriting fluency during the writing of non-words. The findings of the experiment cannot be explained by the dual-process-theory.

  6. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  7. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  8. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  9. Top-down processing of symbolic meanings modulates the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-08-29

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on humans have identified a region in the left middle fusiform gyrus consistently activated by written words. This region is called the visual word form area (VWFA). Recently, a hypothesis, called the interactive account, is proposed that to effectively analyze the bottom-up visual properties of words, the VWFA receives predictive feedback from higher-order regions engaged in processing sounds, meanings, or actions associated with words. Further, this top-down influence on the VWFA is independent of stimulus formats. To test this hypothesis, we used fMRI to examine whether a symbolic nonword object (e.g., the Eiffel Tower) intended to represent something other than itself (i.e., Paris) could activate the VWFA. We found that scenes associated with symbolic meanings elicited a higher VWFA response than those not associated with symbolic meanings, and such top-down modulation on the VWFA can be established through short-term associative learning, even across modalities. In addition, the magnitude of the symbolic effect observed in the VWFA was positively correlated with the subjective experience on the strength of symbol-referent association across individuals. Therefore, the VWFA is likely a neural substrate for the interaction of the top-down processing of symbolic meanings with the analysis of bottom-up visual properties of sensory inputs, making the VWFA the location where the symbolic meaning of both words and nonword objects is represented.

  10. Top-down processing of symbolic meanings modulates the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-08-29

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on humans have identified a region in the left middle fusiform gyrus consistently activated by written words. This region is called the visual word form area (VWFA). Recently, a hypothesis, called the interactive account, is proposed that to effectively analyze the bottom-up visual properties of words, the VWFA receives predictive feedback from higher-order regions engaged in processing sounds, meanings, or actions associated with words. Further, this top-down influence on the VWFA is independent of stimulus formats. To test this hypothesis, we used fMRI to examine whether a symbolic nonword object (e.g., the Eiffel Tower) intended to represent something other than itself (i.e., Paris) could activate the VWFA. We found that scenes associated with symbolic meanings elicited a higher VWFA response than those not associated with symbolic meanings, and such top-down modulation on the VWFA can be established through short-term associative learning, even across modalities. In addition, the magnitude of the symbolic effect observed in the VWFA was positively correlated with the subjective experience on the strength of symbol-referent association across individuals. Therefore, the VWFA is likely a neural substrate for the interaction of the top-down processing of symbolic meanings with the analysis of bottom-up visual properties of sensory inputs, making the VWFA the location where the symbolic meaning of both words and nonword objects is represented. PMID:22933809

  11. Word Processing for Item Banking and Test Production. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L.

    This report describes the sequence of activities that took place as the Examination Division of the New Jersey Department of Civil Service introduced a word processing system for a test item bank and for production of camera-ready test copy. The equipment selection, installation and orientation procedures are discussed. Keyboard and CRT terminals,…

  12. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  13. Word Learning and Phonetic Processing in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Bertoncini, Josiane; Nazzi, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Consonants and vowels have been shown to play different relative roles in different processes, including retrieving known words from pseudowords during adulthood or simultaneously learning two phonetically similar pseudowords during infancy or toddlerhood. The current study explores the extent to which French-speaking 3- to 5-year-olds exhibit a…

  14. Effect of Semantic Constraints on Processing Ambiguous Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, David E.

    Native English speakers performed a phoneme-monitoring task to assess whether ambiguous words (homographs) require extra processing capacity under two conditions: no prior context and prior context provided by disambiguating subject-noun and verb combinations. Phoneme detection latencies were reliably longer for homographs than for control words…

  15. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  16. Grounding Action Words in the Sensorimotor Interaction with the World: Experiments with a Simulated iCub Humanoid Robot

    PubMed Central

    Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo; Fischer, Kerstin; Belpaeme, Tony

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive robotics model for the study of the embodied representation of action words. The present research will present how an iCub humanoid robot can learn the meaning of action words (i.e. words that represent dynamical events that happen in time) by physically interacting with the environment and linking the effects of its own actions with the behavior observed on the objects before and after the action. The control system of the robot is an artificial neural network trained to manipulate an object through a Back-Propagation-Through-Time algorithm. We will show that in the presented model the grounding of action words relies directly to the way in which an agent interacts with the environment and manipulates it. PMID:20725503

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Word Processing by First-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Robert E.; Haith, Marshall M.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve first-grade children were tested on word-reading and automaticity of letter and word processing. Word-reading speed increased steadily during the year. Apparently, their ability to process letters automatically was acquired prior to the ability to read words rapidly and accurately. (Author/CP)

  18. Suit the action to the word, the word to the action: Hypothetical choices and real decisions in Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Heiss, Florian; McFadden, Daniel; Winter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, consumer choice has become an important element of public policy. One reason is that consumers differ in their tastes and needs, which they can express most easily through their own choices. Elements that strengthen consumer choice feature prominently in the design of public insurance markets, for instance in the United States in the recent introduction of prescription drug coverage for older individuals via Medicare Part D. For policy makers who design such a market, an important practical question in the design phase of such a new program is how to deduce enrollment and plan selection preferences prior to its introduction. In this paper, we investigate whether hypothetical choice experiments can serve as a tool in this process. We combine data from hypothetical and real plan choices, elicited around the time of the introduction of Medicare Part D. We first analyze how well the hypothetical choice data predict willingness to pay and market shares at the aggregate level. We then analyze predictions at the individual level, in particular how insurance demand varies with observable characteristics. We also explore whether the extent of adverse selection can be predicted using hypothetical choice data alone. PMID:23317633

  19. Suit the action to the word, the word to the action: Hypothetical choices and real decisions in Medicare Part D.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Heiss, Florian; McFadden, Daniel; Winter, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, consumer choice has become an important element of public policy. One reason is that consumers differ in their tastes and needs, which they can express most easily through their own choices. Elements that strengthen consumer choice feature prominently in the design of public insurance markets, for instance in the United States in the recent introduction of prescription drug coverage for older individuals via Medicare Part D. For policy makers who design such a market, an important practical question in the design phase of such a new program is how to deduce enrollment and plan selection preferences prior to its introduction. In this paper, we investigate whether hypothetical choice experiments can serve as a tool in this process. We combine data from hypothetical and real plan choices, elicited around the time of the introduction of Medicare Part D. We first analyze how well the hypothetical choice data predict willingness to pay and market shares at the aggregate level. We then analyze predictions at the individual level, in particular how insurance demand varies with observable characteristics. We also explore whether the extent of adverse selection can be predicted using hypothetical choice data alone. PMID:23317633

  20. On the processing of canonical word order during eye fixations in reading: Do readers process transposed word previews?

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Angele, Bernhard; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Bicknell, Klinton

    2013-01-01

    Whether readers always identify words in the order they are printed is subject to considerable debate. In the present study, we used the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to manipulate the preview for a two-word target region (e.g. white walls in My neighbor painted the white walls black). Readers received an identical (white walls), transposed (walls white), or unrelated preview (vodka clubs). We found that there was a clear cost of having a transposed preview compared to an identical preview, indicating that readers cannot or do not identify words out of order. However, on some measures, the transposed preview condition did lead to faster processing than the unrelated preview condition, suggesting that readers may be able to obtain some useful information from a transposed preview. Implications of the results for models of eye movement control in reading are discussed. PMID:24003322

  1. The influence of sublexical and lexical representations on the processing of spoken words in English

    PubMed Central

    VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sublexical and lexical representations are involved in spoken word recognition. The current experiment examined when sublexical and lexical representations are used in the processing of real words in English. The same set of words varying in phonotactic probability/neighbourhood density was presented in three different versions of a same-different matching task: (1) mostly real words as filler items, (2) an equal number of words and nonsense words as filler items and (3) mostly nonsense words as filler items. The results showed that lexical representations were used in version 1 of the same-different matching task to process the words, whereas sublexical representations were used in version 3 of the same-different matching task to process the words. Finally, in version 2 of the same-different matching task individual variation was observed in the form of distinct sublexical and lexical biases. Implications for the processing of spoken words are discussed. PMID:14564833

  2. Doers of the Word? An Enquiry into the Nature of Action in Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooke, John; Altounyan, Caroline; Young, Angela; Young, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A recent trend in public policy in many countries is the requirement for "joined up thinking" and "joined up working", including partnership within and between agencies, and between agencies and their publics. This in turn has led to a growth of interest in action learning as a means to bring about the organizational and individual development…

  3. Hybrid generative-discriminative human action recognition by combining spatiotemporal words with supervised topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang

    2011-02-01

    We present a hybrid generative-discriminative learning method for human action recognition from video sequences. Our model combines a bag-of-words component with supervised latent topic models. A video sequence is represented as a collection of spatiotemporal words by extracting space-time interest points and describing these points using both shape and motion cues. The supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA) topic model, which employs discriminative learning using labeled data under a generative framework, is introduced to discover the latent topic structure that is most relevant to action categorization. The proposed algorithm retains most of the desirable properties of generative learning while increasing the classification performance though a discriminative setting. It has also been extended to exploit both labeled data and unlabeled data to learn human actions under a unified framework. We test our algorithm on three challenging data sets: the KTH human motion data set, the Weizmann human action data set, and a ballet data set. Our results are either comparable to or significantly better than previously published results on these data sets and reflect the promise of hybrid generative-discriminative learning approaches.

  4. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam Ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the "early-fixed" task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the "delayed-random" task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the "delayed-random" task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the "early-fixed" task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field. PMID:27375504

  5. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam Ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the "early-fixed" task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the "delayed-random" task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the "delayed-random" task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the "early-fixed" task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field.

  6. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the “early-fixed” task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the “delayed-random” task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the “delayed-random” task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the “early-fixed” task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field. PMID:27375504

  7. Processing segmental and prosodic information in Cantonese word production.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2008-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate how subsyllabic, syllabic, and prosodic information is processed in Cantonese monosyllabic word production. A picture-word interference task was used in which a target picture and a distractor word were presented simultaneously or sequentially. In the first 3 experiments with visually presented distractors, null effects on naming latencies were found when the distractor and the picture name shared the onset, the rhyme, the tone, or both the onset and tone. However, significant facilitation effects were obtained when the target and the distractor shared the rhyme + tone (Experiment 2), the segmental syllable (Experiment 3), or the syllable + tone (Experiment 3). Similar results were found in Experiments 4 and 5 with spoken rather than visual distractors. Moreover, a significant facilitation effect was observed in the rhyme-related condition in Experiment 5, and this effect was not affected by the degree of phonological overlap between the target and the distractor. These results are interpreted in an interactive model, which allows feedback sending from the subsyllabic to the lexical level during the phonological encoding stage in Cantonese word production. PMID:18763899

  8. Taken out of Context: Differential Processing in Contextual and Isolated Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that investigate the cognitive processes underlying contextual and isolated word reading. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants were exposed to 75 target words under three conditions. The participants generated 25 words from definitions, read 25 words in context and read 25 in isolation. In Phase 2, volunteers…

  9. The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Cooper-Pye, Elisa; Dine, Clare; Hauk, Olaf; Nestor, Peter J; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-09-01

    It has been claimed that semantic dementia (SD), the temporal variant of fronto-temporal dementia, is characterized by an across-the-board deficit affecting all types of conceptual knowledge. We here confirm this generalized deficit but also report differential degrees of impairment in processing specific semantic word categories in a case series of SD patients (N = 11). Within the domain of words with strong visually grounded meaning, the patients' lexical decision accuracy was more impaired for color-related than for form-related words. Likewise, within the domain of action verbs, the patients' performance was worse for words referring to face movements and speech acts than for words semantically linked to actions performed with the hand and arm. Psycholinguistic properties were matched between the stimulus groups entering these contrasts; an explanation for the differential degrees of impairment must therefore involve semantic features of the words in the different conditions. Furthermore, this specific pattern of deficits cannot be captured by classic category distinctions such as nouns versus verbs or living versus nonliving things. Evidence from previous neuroimaging research indicates that color- and face/speech-related words, respectively, draw most heavily on anterior-temporal and inferior-frontal areas, the structures most affected in SD. Our account combines (a) the notion of an anterior-temporal amodal semantic "hub" to explain the profound across-the-board deficit in SD word processing, with (b) a semantic topography model of category-specific circuits whose cortical distributions reflect semantic features of the words and concepts represented. PMID:19722916

  10. Word Processing: A Guide to Program Planning. Leadership Training Series No. 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Wilma Jean; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist vocational education program planners and curriculum specialists in selecting appropriate word processing curriculum materials. Discussed in the introductory section of the guide are the development of the field of word processing and procedures for organizing word processing education and training. The next…

  11. From primed concepts to action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally presented words.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Evan; Chen, Qijia; McAdams, Maxwell; Yi, Jessica; Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis assessed the behavioral impact of and psychological processes associated with presenting words connected to an action or a goal representation. The average and distribution of 352 effect sizes (analyzed using fixed-effects and random-effects models) was obtained from 133 studies (84 reports) in which word primes were incidentally presented to participants, with a nonopposite control group, before measuring a behavioral dependent variable. Findings revealed a small behavioral priming effect (dFE = 0.332, dRE = 0.352), which was robust across methodological procedures and only minimally biased by the publication of positive (vs. negative) results. Theory testing analyses indicated that more valued behavior or goal concepts (e.g., associated with important outcomes or values) were associated with stronger priming effects than were less valued behaviors. Furthermore, there was some evidence of persistence of goal effects over time. These results support the notion that goal activation contributes over and above perception-behavior in explaining priming effects. In summary, theorizing about the role of value and satisfaction in goal activation pointed to stronger effects of a behavior or goal concept on overt action. There was no evidence that expectancy (ease of achieving the goal) moderated priming effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689090

  12. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  13. An electrophysiological analysis of contextual and temporal constraints on parafoveal word processing

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Horacio A.; van der Meij, Maartje; Kutas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    During natural reading, parafoveal information is processed to some degree. Although isolated words can be fully processed in the parafovea, not all sentence reading experiments have found evidence of semantic processing in the parafovea. We suggest a possible reconciliation for these mixed results via two ERP studies in which volunteers read sentences presented word by word at fixation, flanked bilaterally by the next word to its right and the previous word to its left. Half the words in the right parafovea of critical triads and in the fovea for the subsequent triad were semantically incongruent. The conditions under which parafoveal words elicit canonical visual N400 congruity effects suggest that they are processed in parallel with foveal words, but that the extraction of semantic information parafoveally is a function of contextual constraint and presentation rate, most likely under high contextual constraint and at slower rates. PMID:23153323

  14. Oscillatory brain dynamics associated with the automatic processing of emotion in words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the automaticity of processing the emotional aspects of words, and characterizes the oscillatory brain dynamics that accompany this automatic processing. Participants read emotionally negative, neutral and positive nouns while performing a color detection task in which only perceptual-level analysis was required. Event-related potentials and time frequency representations were computed from the concurrently measured EEG. Negative words elicited a larger P2 and a larger late positivity than positive and neutral words, indicating deeper semantic/evaluative processing of negative words. In addition, sustained alpha power suppressions were found for the emotional compared to neutral words, in the time range from 500 to 1000ms post-stimulus. These results suggest that sustained attention was allocated to the emotional words, whereas the attention allocated to the neutral words was released after an initial analysis. This seems to hold even when the emotional content of the words is task-irrelevant.

  15. Independence of early speech processing from word meaning.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Leonard, Matthew K; Chan, Alexander M; Torres, Christina; Sizemore, Marisa L; Qu, Zhe; Eskandar, Emad; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric

    2013-10-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ∼60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ∼217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception. PMID:22875868

  16. N170 ERPs could represent a logographic processing strategy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory; Petit, Laurent; Bernard, Christian; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Background Occipito-temporal N170 component represents the first step where face, object and word processing are discriminated along the ventral stream of the brain. N170 leftward asymmetry observed during reading has been often associated to prelexical orthographic visual word form activation. However, some studies reported a lexical frequency effect for this component particularly during word repetition that appears in contradiction with this prelexical orthographic step. Here, we tested the hypothesis that under word repetition condition, discrimination between words would be operated on visual rather than orthographic basis. In this case, N170 activity may correspond to a logographic processing where a word is processed as a whole. Methods To test such an assumption, frequent words, infrequent words and pseudowords were presented to the subjects that had to complete a visual lexical decision task. Different repetition conditions were defined 1 – weak repetition, 2 – massive repetition and 3 – massive repetition with font alternation. This last condition was designed to change visual word shape during repetition and therefore to interfere with a possible visual strategy during word recognition. Results Behavioral data showed an important frequency effect for the weak repetition condition, a lower but significant frequency effect for massive repetition, and no frequency effect for the changing font repetition. Moreover alternating font repetitions slowed subject's responses in comparison to "simple" massive repetition. ERPs results evidenced larger N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere for frequent than both infrequent words and pseudowords during massive repetition. Moreover, when words were repeated with different fonts this N170 effect was not present, suggesting a visual locus for such a N170 frequency effect. Conclusion N170 represents an important step in visual word recognition, consisting probably in a prelexical orthographic processing. But during

  17. Slow Mapping: Color Word Learning as a Gradual Inductive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Katie; Dobkins, Karen; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Most current accounts of color word acquisition propose that the delay between children's first production of color words and adult-like understanding is due to problems abstracting color as a domain of meaning. Here we present evidence against this hypothesis, and show that, from the time children produce color words in a labeling task they use…

  18. Customizing Word Processing Manuals for Business Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gayle H.; Zelman, Stacy

    1992-01-01

    Describes how the authors designed, tested, and implemented simple guides for Microsoft Word 5.0 and 5.5, WordPerfect 5.1, Rightwriter for the IBM Personal Computer and Microsoft Word, and Excel for Macintosh SE and/or LC. Urges business writing teachers to develop pragmatic translations of software manuals. (MM)

  19. Three stages of emotional word processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; He, Weiqi; Wang, Ting; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Li, Hong; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-12-01

    Rapid responses to emotional words play a crucial role in social communication. This study employed event-related potentials to examine the time course of neural dynamics involved in emotional word processing. Participants performed a dual-target task in which positive, negative and neutral adjectives were rapidly presented. The early occipital P1 was found larger when elicited by negative words, indicating that the first stage of emotional word processing mainly differentiates between non-threatening and potentially threatening information. The N170 and the early posterior negativity were larger for positive and negative words, reflecting the emotional/non-emotional discrimination stage of word processing. The late positive component not only distinguished emotional words from neutral words, but also differentiated between positive and negative words. This represents the third stage of emotional word processing, the emotion separation. Present results indicated that, similar with the three-stage model of facial expression processing; the neural processing of emotional words can also be divided into three stages. These findings prompt us to believe that the nature of emotion can be analyzed by the brain independent of stimulus type, and that the three-stage scheme may be a common model for emotional information processing in the context of limited attentional resources.

  20. Frequent Words Do Not Break Continuous Flash Suppression Differently from Infrequent or Nonexistent Words: Implications for Semantic Processing of Words in the Absence of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous flash suppression (CFS) has been used as a paradigm to probe the extent to which word stimuli are processed in the absence of awareness. In the two experiments reported here, no evidence is obtained that word stimuli are processed up to the semantic level when suppressed through CFS. In Experiment 1, word stimuli did not break suppression faster than their pseudo-word variants nor was suppression time modulated by word frequency. Experiment 2 replicated these findings, but more critically showed that differential effects can be obtained with this paradigm using a simpler stimulus. In addition, pixel density of the stimuli did prove to be related to suppression time in both experiments, indicating that the paradigm is sensitive to differences in detectability. A third and final experiment replicated the well-known face inversion effect using the same set-up as Experiments 1 and 2, thereby demonstrating that the employed methodology can capture more high-level effects as well. These results are discussed in the context of previous evidence on unconscious semantic processing and two potential explanations are advanced. Specifically, it is argued that CFS might act at a level too low in the visual system for high-level effects to be observed or that the widely used breaking CFS paradigm is merely ill-suited to capture effects in the context of words. PMID:25116265

  1. Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints.

  2. Effects of speed of word processing on semantic access: the case of bilingualism.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clara D; Costa, Albert; Dering, Benjamin; Hoshino, Noriko; Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers generally manifest slower word recognition than monolinguals. We investigated the consequences of the word processing speed on semantic access in bilinguals. The paradigm involved a stream of English words and pseudowords presented in succession at a constant rate. English-Welsh bilinguals and English monolinguals were asked to count the number of letters in pseudowords and actively disregard words. They were not explicitly told that pairs of words in immediate succession were embedded and could either be semantically related or not. We expected that slower word processing in bilinguals would result in semantic access indexed by semantic priming. As expected, bilinguals showed significant semantic priming, indexed by an N400 modulation, whilst monolinguals did not. Moreover, bilinguals were slower in performing the task. The results suggest that bilinguals cannot discriminate between pseudowords and words without accessing semantic information whereas monolinguals can dismiss English words on the basis of subsemantic information.

  3. Effects of Speed of Word Processing on Semantic Access: The Case of Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clara D.; Costa, Albert; Dering, Benjamin; Hoshino, Noriko; Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers generally manifest slower word recognition than monolinguals. We investigated the consequences of the word processing speed on semantic access in bilinguals. The paradigm involved a stream of English words and pseudowords presented in succession at a constant rate. English-Welsh bilinguals and English monolinguals were asked to…

  4. Concreteness in Word Processing: ERP and Behavioral Effects in a Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Horacio A.; Otten, Leun J.; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Relative to abstract words, concrete words typically elicit faster response times and larger N400 and N700 event-related potential (ERP) brain responses. These effects have been interpreted as reflecting the denser links to associated semantic information of concrete words and their recruitment of visual imagery processes. Here, we examined…

  5. Phonological and Visual Processes in Word Recognition by American Learners of Arabic as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaldieh, Salim A.

    A study investigated the roles of phonological encoding and visual processes in word recognition in American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. Subjects were 36 individuals with proficiency ranging from beginning to native. Two experiments in word recognition were conducted, one at word and one at sentence level. At each level, the word…

  6. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146374

  7. Word-Processing "Efficiency"--By Means of Personalized Word-Frequency Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concept of the efficiency with which text is entered into a word processor--from the perspective of effective use of keyboard shortcuts. Illustrates how the possibility for productiveness offered by shortcuts, available through the use of features such as Autotext, are often under-utilized by many word processor users, academics being…

  8. Neuromagnetic hand and foot motor sources recruited during action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Niccolai, Valentina; Terhalle, Anselm; Geisler, Hans; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated sensorimotor involvement in the processing of verbs describing actions performed with the hands, feet, or no body part. Actual movements were used to identify neuromagnetic sources for hand and foot actions. These sources constrained the analysis of verb processing. While hand and foot sources picked up activation in all three verb conditions, peak amplitudes showed an interaction of source and verb condition at 200 ms after word onset, thereby reflecting effector-specificity. Specifically, hand verbs elicited significantly higher peak amplitudes than foot verbs in hand sources. Our results are in line with theories of embodied cognition that assume an involvement of sensorimotor areas in early stages of lexico-semantic processing, even for single words without a semantic or motor task. PMID:24412808

  9. Printing Method Considering Character Structures of Word-processed Sentenceswith Personal Fonts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Tsunemasa; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Hayashi, Akihiro

    Although word-processed sentences are easy to read because of the use of standardized character fonts and their orderly arrangement, these sentences lack a writer’s individual style and thus fail to convey the writer’s true message. Recently in response to this, word-processed sentences with personal fonts are desired. On the other hand, distinguished calligraphers decide character arrangements in consideration of the character structures. In order to create word-processed sentences with personal fonts, we measure character arrangements and structures, and investigate the relationship between them by means of multiple-regression analysis. We propose based on the results a new printing method of word-processed sentences with personal fonts. When the method is used, character arrangements of word-processed sentences with personal fonts resemble handwritten sentences. Word-processed sentences made by this method give readers a better feeling than those made by the traditional one.

  10. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing.

  11. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing. PMID:22910144

  12. The logical syntax of number words: theory, acquisition and processing.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-04-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. Cognition93, 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar implicatures: Experiments at the semantics-pragmatics interface. Cognition, 86, 253-282; Hurewitz, F., Papafragou, A., Gleitman, L., Gelman, R. (2006). Asymmetries in the acquisition of numbers and quantifiers. Language Learning and Development, 2, 76-97; Huang, Y. T., Snedeker, J., Spelke, L. (submitted for publication). What exactly do numbers mean?]. Specifically, these studies have shown that data from experimental investigations of child language can be used to illuminate core theoretical issues in the semantic and pragmatic analysis of number terms. In this article, I extend this approach to the logico-syntactic properties of number words, focusing on the way numerals interact with each other (e.g. Three boys are holding two balloons) as well as with other quantified expressions (e.g. Three boys are holding each balloon). On the basis of their intuitions, linguists have claimed that such sentences give rise to at least four different interpretations, reflecting the complexity of the linguistic structure and syntactic operations involved. Using psycholinguistic experimentation with preschoolers (n=32) and adult speakers of English (n=32), I show that (a) for adults, the intuitions of linguists can be verified experimentally, (b) by the age of 5, children have knowledge of the core aspects of the logical syntax of number words, (c) in spite of this knowledge, children nevertheless differ from adults in systematic ways, (d) the differences observed between children and adults can be accounted for on the basis of an independently motivated, linguistically-based processing model [Geurts, B. (2003). Quantifying kids. Language

  13. A touch with words: Dynamic synergies between manual actions and language.

    PubMed

    García, Adolfo M; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2016-09-01

    Manual actions are a hallmark of humanness. Their underlying neural circuitry gives rise to species-specific skills and interacts with language processes. In particular, multiple studies show that hand-related expressions - verbal units evoking manual activity - variously affect concurrent manual actions, yielding apparently controversial results (interference, facilitation, or null effects) in varied time windows. Through a systematic review of 108 experiments, we show that such effects are driven by several factors, such as the level of verbal processing, action complexity, and the time-lag between linguistic and motor processes. We reconcile key empirical patterns by introducing the Hand-Action-Network Dynamic Language Embodiment (HANDLE) model, an integrative framework based on neural coupling dynamics and predictive-coding principles. To conclude, we assess HANDLE against the backdrop of other action-cognition theories, illustrate its potential applications to understand high-level deficits in motor disorders, and discuss key challenges for further development. In sum, our work aligns with the 'pragmatic turn', moving away from passive and static representationalist perspectives to a more dynamic, enactive, and embodied conceptualization of cognitive processes. PMID:27189784

  14. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…

  15. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R.; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F.; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N = 17; mean age 10;5) and adults (N = 17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  16. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  17. Word Processing as Decision-Making: Writers' Choices of Writing Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Christina

    A study examined two writers and their use of word processing and pen and paper in order to set up and draw out the important variables that influence writers' decisions about word processing. Subjects, a college freshman and an engineer, were interviewed about their writing processes and were observed in their natural environment. Results…

  18. Words and Pictures: An Electrophysiological Investigation of Domain Specific Processing in Native Chinese and English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Yen Na; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons of word and picture processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) are contaminated by gross physical differences between the two types of stimuli. In the present study, we tackle this problem by comparing picture processing with word processing in an alphabetic and a logographic script, that are also characterized by gross physical…

  19. Spatial and frequency differences of neuromagnetic activities in processing concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinhong; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Yingying; Vannest, Jennifer J; Byars, Anna W; Rose, Douglas F

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the neuromagnetic spatial and frequency differences between recognizing concrete and abstract words using a 275 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. The stimuli consisted of 100 concrete words and 100 abstract words which were presented visually and auditorily simultaneously. The data of 12 right-handed healthy subjects in six different frequency bands were analyzed with synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) which can identify the frequency-dependent volumetric distribution of the evoked magnetic field. Concrete and abstract words evoked a very similar neuromagnetic activation pattern in the primary visual and auditory cortices. However, concrete words evoked stronger synchronization in the right hemisphere and abstract words evoked stronger synchronization in the left hemisphere in 1-8 Hz. In addition, concrete words evoked more desynchronization in the left posterior temporal and parietal cortex; while abstract words evoked a clear synchronization in the left posterior temporal cortex and desynchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex in 70-120 Hz. Furthermore, concrete words evoked clear desynchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex while abstract words evoked strong synchronization in the left posterior temporal cortex in 200-300 Hz. These findings suggested that concrete words and abstract words are processed differently in the brain not only in anatomical substrates, but also in the frequency band of neural activation.

  20. Digital Transformation of Words in Learning Processes: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saga, Hiroo

    1999-01-01

    Presents some negative aspects of society's dependence on digital transformation of words by referring to works by Walter Ong and Martin Heidegger. Discusses orality, literacy and digital literacy and describes three aspects of the digital transformation of words. Compares/contrasts art with technology and discusses implications for education.…

  1. Competitive Processes in Cross-Situational Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. However, the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This article investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition.…

  2. Concurrent Processing of Words and Their Replacements during Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Catchpole, Ciara M.; de Jong, Nivja H.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Two picture naming experiments, in which an initial picture was occasionally replaced with another (target) picture, were conducted to study the temporal coordination of abandoning one word and resuming with another word in speech production. In Experiment 1, participants abandoned saying the initial name, and resumed with the name of the target…

  3. The Logical Syntax of Number Words: Theory, Acquisition and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. "Cognition 93", 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar…

  4. A Study of the Requirements and Business Training Procedures for Word Processing Personnel with Implications for Word Processing Curriculum Development in Two-Year Post Secondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche

    1982-01-01

    Reports on a study to identify competencies needed by secretaries and supervisory personnel for word processing (WP). Presents guidelines for a WP curriculum for two-year institutions that were developed from the data collected. (SK)

  5. Do You "See'" What I "See"? Differentiation of Visual Action Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Joël; Cirelli, Laura; Szeligo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Dickinson and Szeligo ("Can J Exp Psychol" 62(4):211--222, 2008) found that processing time for simple visual stimuli was affected by the visual action participants had been instructed to perform on these stimuli (e.g., see, distinguish). It was concluded that these effects reflected the differences in the durations of these various…

  6. It's all in the delivery: Effects of context valence, arousal, and concreteness on visual word processing.

    PubMed

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2016-11-01

    Prior research has examined how distributional properties of contexts (number of unique contexts or their informativeness) influence the effort of word recognition. These properties do not directly interrogate the semantic properties of contexts. We evaluated the influence of average concreteness, valence (positivity) and arousal of the contexts in which a word occurs on response times in the lexical decision task, age of acquisition of the word, and word recognition memory performance. Using large corpora and norming mega-studies we quantified semantics of contexts for thousands of words and demonstrated that contextual factors were predictive of lexical representation and processing above and beyond the influence shown by concreteness, valence and arousal of the word itself. Our findings indicate that lexical representations are influenced not only by how diverse the word's contexts are, but also by the embodied experiences they elicit.

  7. Development of Embodied Word Meanings: Sensorimotor Effects in Children's Lexical Processing.

    PubMed

    Inkster, Michelle; Wellsby, Michele; Lloyd, Ellen; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed an effect of words' rated body-object interaction (BOI) in children's visual word naming performance, but only in children 8 years of age or older (Wellsby and Pexman, 2014a). In that study, however, BOI was established using adult ratings. Here we collected ratings from a group of parents for children's BOI experience (child-BOI). We examined effects of words' child-BOI and also words' imageability on children's responses in an auditory word naming task, which is suited to the lexical processing skills of younger children. We tested a group of 54 children aged 6-7 years and a comparison group of 25 adults. Results showed significant effects of both imageability and child-BOI on children's auditory naming latencies. These results provide evidence that children younger than 8 years of age have richer semantic representations for high imageability and high child-BOI words, consistent with an embodied account of word meaning. PMID:27014129

  8. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:12435377

  9. How Early Does the Brain Distinguish between Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Pseudowords during the Reading Process? Evidence from Neurochronometric TMS.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Devlin, Joseph T; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Morais, José; Goldman, Serge; Kolinsky, Régine

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive theories on reading propose that the characteristics of written stimuli determine how they are processed in the brain. However, whether the brain distinguishes between regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords already at an early stage of the reading process is still subject to debate. Here we used chronometric TMS to address this issue. During the first 140 msec of regular word, irregular word, and pseudoword reading, TMS was used to disrupt the function of the ventral occipitotemporal, posterior middle temporal, and supramarginal gyri, which are key areas involved in orthographic, semantic, and phonological processing, respectively. Early TMS stimulation delivered on posterior middle temporal and supramarginal gyri affected regular and irregular word, but not pseudoword, reading. In contrast, ventral occipitotemporal disruption affected both word and pseudoword reading. We thus found evidence for an early distinction between word and pseudoword processing in the semantic and phonological systems, but not in the orthographic system.

  10. Comparing the Word Processing and Reading Comprehension of Skilled and Less Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldenoglu, I. Birkan; Kargin, Tevhide; Miller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the word processing and reading comprehension skilled in and less skilled readers. Forty-nine, 2nd graders (26 skilled and 23 less skilled readers) participated in this study. They were tested with two experiments assessing their processing of isolated real word and pseudoword pairs as well as their reading…

  11. Emotions in Word and Face Processing: Early and Late Cortical Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as…

  12. Constituent Integration during the Processing of Compound Words: Does It Involve the Use of Relational Structures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that the processing of compound words involves the integration of the constituents, not much is known about what integration entails. Three experiments suggest that integration draws on both linguistic and conceptual knowledge about the constituents and the compound word; ease of processing (as reflected by…

  13. The Effect of Word Processing on Students' Grades and Attitudes toward Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Renate I.

    The impact of word processing on students' attitudes and grades was studied using 235 students in 15 sections of freshmen composition at a large midwestern university. Students in the word-processing sections wrote and revised their papers on the Macintosh Plus using the software MacWrite. Students in the traditional sections used paper, pencils,…

  14. How to Lose Money Electronically: Word Processing and the Social Structure of Scholarly Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Jack

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the issue of possible savings of time and money for authors and publishers resulting from author word processing and automation of scholarly book publishing industry. Automation and taxes, newspaper publishing, editing, routine expenses in the copy editing of word-processed works, and the effect on costs for libraries are covered. (EJS)

  15. Neural Correlates of Written Emotion Word Processing: A Review of Recent Electrophysiological and Hemodynamic Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, Francesca M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature investigating the neural correlates of emotion word processing has emerged in recent years. Written words have been shown to represent a suitable means to study emotion processing and most importantly to address the distinct and interactive contributions of the two dimensions of emotion: valence and arousal. The aim of…

  16. Word/Information Processing with Microcomputers in Business Education. Final Narrative Report for the Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascension Parish School Board, Donaldsonville, LA.

    This demonstration introduced microcomputers into St. Amant High School in Louisiana by instituting a word/information processing program. Microcomputers, printers, and necessary software were purchased, and the manufacturer's educational representative instructed the word/information processing teacher on the operation of the equipment. The…

  17. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  18. Actions speak louder than words: Outsiders' perceptions of diversity mixed messages.

    PubMed

    Windscheid, Leon; Bowes-Sperry, Lynn; Kidder, Deborah L; Cheung, Ho Kwan; Morner, Michèle; Lievens, Filip

    2016-09-01

    To attract a gender diverse workforce, many employers use diversity statements to publicly signal that they value gender diversity. However, this often represents a misalignment between words and actions (i.e., a diversity mixed message) because most organizations are male dominated, especially in board positions. We conducted 3 studies to investigate the potentially indirect effect of such diversity mixed messages through perceived behavioral integrity on employer attractiveness. In Study 1, following a 2 × 2 design, participants (N = 225) were either shown a pro gender diversity statement or a neutral statement, in combination with a gender diverse board (4 men and 4 women) or a uniform all-male board (8 men). Participants' perceived behavioral integrity of the organization was assessed. In Study 2, participants (N = 251) either read positive or negative reviews of the organization's behavioral integrity. Employer attractiveness was then assessed. Study 3 (N = 427) investigated the impact of board gender composition on perceived behavioral integrity and employer attractiveness using a bootstrapping procedure. Both the causal-chain design of Study 1 and 2, as well as the significance test of the proposed indirect relationship in Study 3, revealed that a diversity mixed message negatively affected an organization's perceived behavioral integrity, and low behavioral integrity in turn negatively impacted employer attractiveness. In Study 3, there was also evidence for a tipping point (more than 1 woman on the board was needed) with regard to participants' perceptions of the organization's behavioral integrity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Actions speak louder than words: Outsiders' perceptions of diversity mixed messages.

    PubMed

    Windscheid, Leon; Bowes-Sperry, Lynn; Kidder, Deborah L; Cheung, Ho Kwan; Morner, Michèle; Lievens, Filip

    2016-09-01

    To attract a gender diverse workforce, many employers use diversity statements to publicly signal that they value gender diversity. However, this often represents a misalignment between words and actions (i.e., a diversity mixed message) because most organizations are male dominated, especially in board positions. We conducted 3 studies to investigate the potentially indirect effect of such diversity mixed messages through perceived behavioral integrity on employer attractiveness. In Study 1, following a 2 × 2 design, participants (N = 225) were either shown a pro gender diversity statement or a neutral statement, in combination with a gender diverse board (4 men and 4 women) or a uniform all-male board (8 men). Participants' perceived behavioral integrity of the organization was assessed. In Study 2, participants (N = 251) either read positive or negative reviews of the organization's behavioral integrity. Employer attractiveness was then assessed. Study 3 (N = 427) investigated the impact of board gender composition on perceived behavioral integrity and employer attractiveness using a bootstrapping procedure. Both the causal-chain design of Study 1 and 2, as well as the significance test of the proposed indirect relationship in Study 3, revealed that a diversity mixed message negatively affected an organization's perceived behavioral integrity, and low behavioral integrity in turn negatively impacted employer attractiveness. In Study 3, there was also evidence for a tipping point (more than 1 woman on the board was needed) with regard to participants' perceptions of the organization's behavioral integrity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281185

  20. Word learning in linguistic context: Processing and memory effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Arnold, Alison R

    2016-11-01

    During language acquisition, children exploit syntactic cues within sentences to learn the meanings of words. Yet, it remains unknown how this strategy develops alongside an ability to access cues during real-time language comprehension. This study investigates how on-line sensitivity to syntactic cues impacts off-line interpretation and recall of word meanings. Adults and 5-year-olds heard novel words embedded in sentences that were (1) consistent with an agent-first bias (e.g., "The blicket will be eating the seal"→"the blicket" is an agent), (2) required revision of this bias (e.g., "The blicket will be eaten by the seal"→"the blicket" is a theme), or (3) weakened this bias through a familiar NP1 (e.g., "The seal will be eating/eaten by the blicket"→"the seal" is an agent or theme). Across both ages, eye-movements during sentences revealed decreased sensitivity to syntactic cues in contexts that required syntactic revision. In children, the magnitude of on-line sensitivity was positively associated with the accuracy of learning after the sentence. Parsing challenges during the word-learning task also negatively impacted children's later memory for word meanings during a recall task. Altogether, these results suggest that real-time demands impact word learning, through interpretive failures and memory interference. PMID:27513871

  1. Immediate auditory repetition of words and nonwords: an ERP study of lexical and sublexical processing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    ERPs were elicited to (1) words, (2) pseudowords derived from these words, and (3) nonwords with no lexical neighbors, in a task involving listening to immediately repeated auditory stimuli. There was a significant early (P200) effect of phonotactic probability in the first auditory presentation, which discriminated words and pseudowords from nonwords; and a significant somewhat later (N400) effect of lexicality, which discriminated words from pseudowords and nonwords. There was no reliable effect of lexicality in the ERPs to the second auditory presentation. We conclude that early sublexical phonological processing differed according to phonotactic probability of the stimuli, and that lexically-based redintegration occurred for words but did not occur for pseudowords or nonwords. Thus, in online word recognition and immediate retrieval, phonological and/or sublexical processing plays a more important role than lexical level redintegration.

  2. [Words before actions- the significance of counselling in the Praena-Test era].

    PubMed

    Tschudin, Sibil

    2014-04-23

    Due to new offers in prenatal diagnostics pregnant women are forced to make choices. In Switzerland physicians are obliged to inform previous to prenatal tests and to obtain informed consent. Considering the complexity of this information and the consequences of a positive result, counselling is challenging, especially in an intercultural context. A questionnaire-based study compared information processing, test interpretation and emotional response of pregnant women from Switzerland and adjacent countries with Turkish women. Knowledge of the latter was significantly lower and they found counselling more unsettling, but their acceptance of prenatal tests was significantly higher. An empathetic approach and the right words are decisive, and counselling will even gain importance when considering the increase in options patients are confronted with. PMID:24755499

  3. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  4. Processing emotional words in two languages with one brain: ERP and fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2015-10-01

    Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2.

  5. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I.; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word’s perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output. PMID:26217288

  6. Resting state neural networks for visual Chinese word processing in Chinese adults and children.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liu, Jiangang; Chen, Feiyan; Feng, Lu; Li, Hong; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the resting state neural networks for visual Chinese word processing in Chinese children and adults. Both the functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approaches were used to analyze the fMRI data collected when Chinese participants were not engaged in any specific explicit tasks. We correlated time series extracted from the visual word form area (VWFA) with those in other regions in the brain. We also performed ALFF analysis in the resting state FC networks. The FC results revealed that, regarding the functionally connected brain regions, there exist similar intrinsically organized resting state networks for visual Chinese word processing in adults and children, suggesting that such networks may already be functional after 3-4 years of informal exposure to reading plus 3-4 years formal schooling. The ALFF results revealed that children appear to recruit more neural resources than adults in generally reading-irrelevant brain regions. Differences between child and adult ALFF results suggest that children's intrinsic word processing network during the resting state, though similar in functional connectivity, is still undergoing development. Further exposure to visual words and experience with reading are needed for children to develop a mature intrinsic network for word processing. The developmental course of the intrinsically organized word processing network may parallel that of the explicit word processing network.

  7. Action and object processing in aphasia: from nouns and verbs to the effect of manipulability.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, A; Perani, D; Cappa, S F; Butler, A; Bates, E; Dronkers, N

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis 1 targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items for both patients and control participants. For Analysis 2 we used data collected in a concurrent gesture norming study to re-categorize the noun-verb items along hand imagery parameters (i.e., objects that can/cannot be manipulated and actions which do/do not involve fine hand movements). Here, patients displayed relative difficulty with the 'manipulable' items, while controls displayed the opposite pattern. Therefore, whereas the noun-verb distinction resulted simply in lower verb accuracy across groups, the 'manipulability' distinction revealed a 'double-dissociation' between patients and control participants. These results carry implications for theories of embodiment, lexico-semantic dissociations, and the organization of meaning in the brain. PMID:16949143

  8. Building words on actions: verb enactment and verb recognition in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Levi, Gabriel; Colonnello, Valentina; Giacchè, Roberta; Piredda, Maria Letizia; Sogos, Carla

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that language processing is grounded in actions. Multiple independent research findings indicate that children with specific language impairment (SLI) show subtle difficulties beyond the language domain. Uncertainties remain on possible association between body-mediated, non-linguistic expression of verbs and early manifestation of SLI during verb acquisition. The present study was conducted to determine whether verb production through non-linguistic modalities is impaired in children with SLI. Children with SLI (mean age 41 months) and typically developing children (mean age 40 months) were asked to recognize target verbs while viewing video clips showing the action associated with the verb (verb-recognition task) and to enact the action corresponding to the verb (verb-enacting task). Children with SLI performed more poorly than control children in both tasks. The present study demonstrates that early language impairment emerges at the bodily level. These findings are consistent with the embodied theories of cognition and underscore the role of action-based representations during language development. PMID:24629540

  9. Evaluating a split processing model of visual word recognition: effects of orthographic neighborhood size.

    PubMed

    Lavidor, Michal; Hayes, Adrian; Shillcock, Richard; Ellis, Andrew W

    2004-03-01

    The split fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition of centrally presented words is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation being projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation being projected to the left hemisphere (LH). Two lexical decision experiments aimed to elucidate word recognition processes under the split fovea theory are described. The first experiment showed that when words were presented centrally, such that the initial letters were in the left visual field (LVF/RH), there were effects of orthographic neighborhood, i.e., there were faster responses to words with high rather than low orthographic neighborhoods for the initial letters ('lead neighbors'). This effect was limited to lead-neighbors but not end-neighbors (orthographic neighbors sharing the same final letters). When the same words were fully presented in the LVF/RH or right visual field (RVF/LH, Experiment 2), there was no effect of orthographic neighborhood size. We argue that the lack of an effect in Experiment 2 was due to exposure to all of the letters of the words, the words being matched for overall orthographic neighborhood count and the sub-parts no longer having a unique effect. We concluded that the orthographic activation found in Experiment 1 occurred because the initial letters of centrally presented words were projected to the RH. The results support the split fovea theory, where the RH has primacy in representing lead neighbors of a written word.

  10. Extraction of linguistic information from successive words during reading: evidence for spatially distributed lexical processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W

    2013-06-01

    Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The eyes skipped a masked target on more than a quarter of the trials, and the following fixation must have been mislocated, if word recognition and saccade targeting progressed from one word to the next. Readers responded to the skipping parafoveally masked target words with relatively long viewing duration for the following posttarget word or with corrective saccades that returned the eyes from the posttarget word to the target. Experiment 2 manipulated the time-line of posttarget onset after target skipping, so that the posttarget word was either visible immediately upon fixation or after a short delay. The delay influenced posttarget viewing even when attention should have been focused at the target location according to E-Z Reader 10 simulations. These findings favor theoretical conceptions according to which lexical processing can encompass more than one word at a time.

  11. Cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing in written word production.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production. PMID:25163539

  12. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  13. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    PubMed

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation. PMID:26519144

  14. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    PubMed

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation.

  15. The Acceleration of Spoken-Word Processing in Children's Native-Language Acquisition: An ERP Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Healthy adults can identify spoken words at a remarkable speed, by incrementally analyzing word-onset information. It is currently unknown how this adult-level speed of spoken-word processing emerges during children's native-language acquisition. In a picture-word mismatch paradigm, we manipulated the semantic congruency between picture contexts…

  16. Relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Baker, Anne E; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The effect of using signed communication on the spoken language development of deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) is much debated. We report on two studies that investigated relationships between spoken word and sign processing in children with a CI who are exposed to signs in addition to spoken language. Study 1 assessed rapid word and sign learning in 13 children with a CI and found that performance in both language modalities correlated positively. Study 2 tested the effects of using sign-supported speech on spoken word processing in eight children with a CI, showing that simultaneously perceiving signs and spoken words does not negatively impact their spoken word recognition or learning. Together, these two studies suggest that sign exposure does not necessarily have a negative effect on speech processing in some children with a CI. PMID:24080074

  17. Processing of emotion words by patients with autism spectrum disorders: evidence from reaction times and EEG.

    PubMed

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Kan, Cornelis C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated processing of emotion words in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using reaction times and event-related potentials (ERP). Adults with (n = 21) and without (n = 20) ASD performed a lexical decision task on emotion and neutral words while their brain activity was recorded. Both groups showed faster responses to emotion words compared to neutral, suggesting intact early processing of emotion in ASD. In the ERPs, the control group showed a typical late positive component (LPC) at 400-600 ms for emotion words compared to neutral, while the ASD group showed no LPC. The between-group difference in LPC amplitude was significant, suggesting that emotion words were processed differently by individuals with ASD, although their behavioral performance was similar to that of typical individuals.

  18. Word Processing Programs and Weaker Writers/Readers: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphy, Paul; Graham, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Since its advent word processing has become a common writing tool, providing potential advantages over writing by hand. Word processors permit easy revision, produce legible characters quickly, and may provide additional supports (e.g., spellcheckers, speech recognition). Such advantages should remedy common difficulties among weaker…

  19. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine how sensory modality, language type, and language proficiency interact during two fundamental stages of word processing: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language. PMID:23847496

  20. Processing Trade-Offs in the Reading of Dutch Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2010-01-01

    This eye-tracking study explores visual recognition of Dutch suffixed words (e.g., "plaats+ing" "placing") embedded in sentential contexts, and provides new evidence on the interplay between storage and computation in morphological processing. We show that suffix length crucially moderates the use of morphological properties. In words with shorter…

  1. Rebounding Activation Caused by Lexical Homophony in the Processing of Japanese Two-Kanji Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of lexical homophony on the processing of Japanese two-kanji compound words. Experiment 1 showed that participants took longer to perform lexical decisions for words with a high degree of lexical homophony than those with no homophony. Interestingly, the same inhibitory trend was found in the naming task…

  2. Word Recognition Processing Efficiency as a Component of Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of the speeded lexical decision task to L2 aural processing efficiency. One-hundred and twenty Japanese university students completed an aural word/nonword task. When the variation of lexical decision time (CV) was correlated with reaction time (RT), the results suggested that the single-word recognition…

  3. Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

  4. Context Effects in Processing of Chinese Academic Words: An Eye-Tracking Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Chen, Ming-Lei; Ko, Hwa-wei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated context effects of online processing of Chinese academic words during text reading. Undergraduate participants were asked to read Chinese texts that were familiar or unfamiliar (containing physics terminology) to them. Physics texts were selected first, and then we replaced the physics terminology with familiar words; other…

  5. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Visual Word-Form Processing: Progress, Conflict, and Evaluating Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsolek, Chad J.; Deason, Rebecca G.

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous left-hemisphere advantage in visual word processing can be accounted for in different ways. Competing theories have been tested recently using cAsE-aLtErNaTiNg words to investigate boundary conditions for the typical effect. We briefly summarize this research and examine the disagreements and commonalities across the theoretical…

  7. The Lexical Status of the Root in Processing Morphologically Complex Words in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalhoub-Awwad, Yasmin; Leikin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Arabic root in the visual word recognition process among young readers in order to explore its role in reading acquisition and its development within the structure of the Arabic mental lexicon. We examined cross-modal priming of words that were derived from the same root of the target…

  8. Comparability of Scores on Word-Processed and Handwritten Essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Cooper, Peter

    Essays for the Graduate Management Admissions Test must be written with a word processor (except in some foreign countries). The test sponsors, the Graduate Management Admissions Council, believed that this is fair because some word processing skill is a prerequisite for advanced management education. Furthermore, it might also be unfair to…

  9. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  10. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  11. Foveal vs. Parafoveal Processing in Anxiety: Broadened Spatial Attention for Threat Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the processing of threat-related, positive, and neutral words in parafoveal and in foveal vision as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety. In a lexical-decision task, word primes were presented for 150 ms either parafoveally (2.2[degrees] away from fixation; Experiment 1) or foveally (at fixation; Experiment 3)…

  12. Processing of Emotion Words by Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Reaction Times and EEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated processing of emotion words in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using reaction times and event-related potentials (ERP). Adults with (n = 21) and without (n = 20) ASD performed a lexical decision task on emotion and neutral words while their brain activity was recorded. Both groups showed faster responses to emotion words…

  13. Parafoveal Processing of Transposed-Letter Words and Nonwords: Evidence against Parafoveal Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.; Dunne, Maxine D.

    2012-01-01

    The current experiments explored the parafoveal processing of transposed-letter (TL) neighbors by using an eye-movement-contingent boundary change paradigm. In Experiment 1 readers received a parafoveal preview of a target word (e.g., "calm") that was either (1) identical to the target word ("calm"), (2) a TL-neighbor ("clam"), or (3) a…

  14. The Influence of Emotional Words on Sentence Processing: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Fernandez, Anabel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Casado, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most previous studies on emotion in language have focussed on single words, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of a word on the syntactic and semantic processes unfolding during sentence comprehension, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 assessed how positive, negative, and neutral adjectives…

  15. Word and Nonword Processing without Meaning Support in Korean-Speaking Children with and without Hyperlexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to…

  16. Mapping Novel Labels to Actions: How the Rhythm of Words Guides Infants' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Campbell, Jennifer; Hufnagle, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of lexical stress on 16-month-olds' ability to form associations between labels and paths of motion. Disyllabic English nouns tend to have a strong-weak (trochaic) stress pattern, and verbs tend to have a weak-strong (iambic) pattern. We explored whether infants would use word stress information to guide word-action…

  17. Naming and semantic processing of action-related stimuli following right versus left hemispherectomy.

    PubMed

    Esopenko, C; Crossley, M; Haugrud, N; Borowsky, R

    2011-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has shown left hemisphere dominance during the semantic processing of embodied action-related stimuli. The goal of our research was to examine how action-related stimuli are processed in individuals after right or left hemispherectomy. S.M. (right hemispherectomy), J.H. (left hemispherectomy), and healthy control participants completed naming and semantic generation tasks with picture and word stimuli with referents that are used by arms or legs. Our results showed evidence of a dissociation for pictures of objects used by legs. Specifically, the naming task showed that, relative to controls, S.M. is impaired on accuracy, whereas J.H. performs closer to normal levels. For the semantic generation task, the opposite result was obtained and is consistent with the response time data. Our results suggest that the right hemisphere is critical for normal picture naming, whereas the left hemisphere is critical for normal semantic generation of action-related knowledge.

  18. The linguistic context effects on the processing of body-object interaction words: An ERP study on second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2015-07-10

    Embodied theories of cognition argue that the processing of both concrete and abstract concepts requires the activation of sensorimotor systems. The present study examined the time course for embedding a sensorimotor context in order to elicit sensitivity to the sensorimotor consequences of understanding body-object interaction (BOI) words. In the study, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed a sentence acceptability task. Target BOI words were preceded by rich or poor sensorimotor sentential contexts. The behavioural results replicated previous findings in that high BOI words received a response faster than low BOI words. In addition to this, however, there was a context effect in the sensorimotor region as well as a BOI effect in the parietal region (involved in object representation). The results indicate that the sentential sensorimotor context contributes to the subsequent BOI processing and that action-and perception-related language leads to the activation of the same brain areas, which is consistent with the embodiment theory.

  19. The linguistic context effects on the processing of body-object interaction words: An ERP study on second language learners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2015-07-10

    Embodied theories of cognition argue that the processing of both concrete and abstract concepts requires the activation of sensorimotor systems. The present study examined the time course for embedding a sensorimotor context in order to elicit sensitivity to the sensorimotor consequences of understanding body-object interaction (BOI) words. In the study, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects performed a sentence acceptability task. Target BOI words were preceded by rich or poor sensorimotor sentential contexts. The behavioural results replicated previous findings in that high BOI words received a response faster than low BOI words. In addition to this, however, there was a context effect in the sensorimotor region as well as a BOI effect in the parietal region (involved in object representation). The results indicate that the sentential sensorimotor context contributes to the subsequent BOI processing and that action-and perception-related language leads to the activation of the same brain areas, which is consistent with the embodiment theory. PMID:25858488

  20. Computerized Word-Processing as an Aid to Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment at Montana State University in which 12 professors and four freshman composition students were trained to use the university's central computer as a word processor. Concludes that the computer can be a powerful revision aid for writing students. (FL)

  1. Unilateral Brain Damage Effects on Processing Homonymous and Polysemous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepousniotou, E.; Baum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Using an auditory semantic priming paradigm, the present study investigated the abilities of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) non-fluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and normal control individuals to access, out of context, the multiple meanings of three types of ambiguous words, namely homonyms (e.g., ''punch''), metonymies (e.g.,…

  2. In the Beginning Was the Word: Basic Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis F.

    1981-01-01

    The articles in this section describe research on reading in areas of visual persistence, letter identification, letter probability, word superiority effect, proofreader errors and order effects. This review challenges fellow basic researchers to become more aware of the components of reading before adding new data purporting to delineate the…

  3. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  4. Neural processing of emotional pictures and words: a comparison of young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings have revealed age-related changes in neural recruitment during the processing of emotional information. The present study examined whether these age-related changes would be more pronounced for words, thought to be processed in a controlled manner versus relatively automatically processed pictures. Compared to young adults, older adults showed less amygdala activation, and more medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, for negative than positive pictures. The opposite pattern was observed for words. Older adults showed a positivity effect in memory for words, but not for pictures, suggesting that their positivity effect may stem from age-related changes in medial PFC engagement during encoding.

  5. Word processing speed in peripheral vision measured with a saccadic choice task.

    PubMed

    Chanceaux, Myriam; Vitu, Françoise; Bendahman, Luisa; Thorpe, Simon; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    A saccadic choice task (Kirchner & Thorpe, 2006) was used to measure word processing speed in peripheral vision. To do so, word targets were accompanied by distractor stimuli, which were random strings of consonants presented in the contralateral visual field. Participants were also tested with the animal stimuli of Kirchner and Thorpe's original study. The results obtained with the animal stimuli provide a straightforward replication of prior findings, with the estimated fastest saccade latencies to animal targets being 140 ms. With the word targets, the fastest reliable saccades occurred with latencies of around 200 ms. The results obtained with word targets provide a timing estimate for word processing in peripheral vision that is incompatible with sequential-attention-shift (SAS) accounts of eye movement control in reading. PMID:22306679

  6. Manipulations of word frequency reveal differences in the processing of morphologically complex and simple words in German

    PubMed Central

    Bronk, Maria; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We tested current models of morphological processing in reading with data from four visual lexical decision experiments using German compounds and monomorphemic words. Triplets of two semantically transparent noun-noun compounds and one monomorphemic noun were used in Experiments 1a and 1b. Stimuli within a triplet were matched for full-form frequency. The frequency of the compounds' constituents was varied. The compounds of a triplet shared one constituent, while the frequency of the unshared constituent was either high or low, but always higher than full-form frequency. Reactions were faster to compounds with high-frequency constituents than to compounds with low-frequency constituents, while the latter did not differ from the monomorphemic words. This pattern was not influenced by task difficulty, induced by the type of pseudocompounds used. Pseudocompounds were either created by altering letters of an existing compound (easy pseudocompound, Experiment 1a) or by combining two free morphemes into a non-existing, but morphologically legal, compound (difficult pseudocompound, Experiment 1b). In Experiments 2a and 2b, frequency-matched pairs of semantically opaque noun-noun compounds and simple nouns were tested. In Experiment 2a, with easy pseudocompounds (of the same type as in Experiment 1a), a reaction-time advantage for compounds over monomorphemic words was again observed. This advantage disappeared in Experiment 2b, where difficult pseudocompounds were used. Although a dual-route might account for the data, the findings are best understood in terms of decomposition of low-frequency complex words prior to lexical access, followed by processing costs due to the recombination of morphemes for meaning access. These processing costs vary as a function of intrinsic factors such as semantic transparency, or external factors such as the difficulty of the experimental task. PMID:23986731

  7. Words, words, words!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    Words matter. They are the "atoms" of written and oral communication. Students rely on words in textbooks and other instructional resources and in classroom lectures and discussions. As instructors, there are times when we need to think carefully about the words we use. Sometimes there are problems that may not be initially apparent and we may introduce confusion when we were aiming for clarity.

  8. The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding

  9. The mechanism of valence-space metaphors: ERP evidence for affective word processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say "feeling down" or "cheer up" in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations

  10. To Write or to Type? The Effects of Handwriting and Word-Processing on the Written Style of Examination Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogey, Nora; Hartley, James

    2013-01-01

    There is much debate about whether or not these days students should be able to word-process essay-type examinations as opposed to handwriting them, particularly when they are asked to word-process everything else. This study used word-processing software to examine the stylistic features of 13 examination essays written by hand and 24 by…

  11. Emotion effects during reading: Influence of an emotion target word on eye movements and processing.

    PubMed

    Knickerbocker, Hugh; Johnson, Rebecca L; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Scott, O'Donnell and Sereno reported that words of high valence and arousal are processed with greater ease than neutral words during sentence reading. However, this study unsystematically intermixed emotion (label a state of mind, e.g., terrified or happy) and emotion-laden words (refer to a concept that is associated with an emotional state, e.g., debt or marriage). We compared the eye-movement record while participants read sentences that contained a neutral target word (e.g., chair) or an emotion word (no emotion-laden words were included). Readers were able to process both positive (e.g., happy) and negative emotion words (e.g., distressed) faster than neutral words. This was true across a wide range of early (e.g., first fixation durations) and late (e.g., total times on the post-target region) measures. Additional analyses revealed that State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores interacted with the emotion effect and that the emotion effect was not due to arousal alone.

  12. How sound symbolism is processed in the brain: a study on Japanese mimetic words.

    PubMed

    Kanero, Junko; Imai, Mutsumi; Okuda, Jiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the systematic and non-arbitrary link between word and meaning. Although a number of behavioral studies demonstrate that both children and adults are universally sensitive to sound symbolism in mimetic words, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been extensively investigated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how Japanese mimetic words are processed in the brain. In Experiment 1, we compared processing for motion mimetic words with that for non-sound symbolic motion verbs and adverbs. Mimetic words uniquely activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). In Experiment 2, we further examined the generalizability of the findings from Experiment 1 by testing another domain: shape mimetics. Our results show that the right posterior STS was active when subjects processed both motion and shape mimetic words, thus suggesting that this area may be the primary structure for processing sound symbolism. Increased activity in the right posterior STS may also reflect how sound symbolic words function as both linguistic and non-linguistic iconic symbols.

  13. The Perfect Marriage: Integrated Word Processing and Data Base Management Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrow, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of database integration and how it operates includes recommendations on compatible brand name word processing and database management programs, and a checklist for evaluating essential and desirable features of the available programs. (MBR)

  14. The effects of an action's "age-of-acquisition" on action-sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Gilead, Michael; Liberman, Nira; Maril, Anat

    2016-11-01

    How does our brain allow us comprehend abstract/symbolic descriptions of human action? Whereas past research suggested that processing action language relies on sensorimotor brain regions, recent work suggests that sensorimotor activation depends on participants' task goals, such that focusing on abstract (vs. concrete) aspects of an action activates "default mode network" (rather than sensorimotor) regions. Following a Piagetian framework, we hypothesized that for actions acquired at an age wherein abstract/symbolic cognition is fully-developed, even when participants focus on the concrete aspects of an action, they should retrieve abstract-symbolic mental representations. In two studies, participants processed the concrete (i.e., "how") and abstract (i.e., "why") aspects of late-acquired and early-acquired actions. Consistent with previous research, focusing on the abstract (vs. concrete) aspects of an action resulted in greater activation in the "default mode network". Importantly, the activation in these regions was higher when processing later-acquired (vs. earlier acquired) actions-also when participants' goal was to focus on the concrete aspects of the action. We discuss the implications of the current findings to research on the involvement of concrete representations in abstract cognition. PMID:27431759

  15. A Study of the Requirements and Business Training Procedures for Word Processing Personnel with Implications for Word Processing Curriculum Development in Two-Year Postsecondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche

    A study identified competencies needed by secretarial and supervisory/managerial personnel in word processing (WP) environments and used the data collected to develop guidelines for a WP curriculum for two-year postsecondary institutions. Data on competencies, knowledge, and behavioral traits that individuals should possess to perform jobs in WP…

  16. Gesturing has a larger impact on problem-solving than action, even when action is accompanied by words

    PubMed Central

    Trofatter, Caroline; Kontra, Carly; Beilock, Sian; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The coordination of speech with gesture elicits changes in speakers’ problem-solving behavior beyond the changes elicited by the coordination of speech with action. Participants solved the Tower of Hanoi puzzle (TOH1); explained their solution using speech coordinated with either Gestures (Gesture+Talk) or Actions (Action+Talk), or demonstrated their solution using Actions alone (Action); then solved the puzzle again (TOH2). For some participants (Switch group), disk weights during TOH2 were reversed (smallest = heaviest). Only in the Gesture+Talk Switch group did performance worsen from TOH1 to TOH2 – for all other groups, performance improved. In the Gesture+Talk Switch group, more one-handed gestures about the smallest disk during the explanation hurt subsequent performance, compared to all other groups. These findings contradict the hypothesis that gesture affects thought by promoting the coordination of task-relevant hand movements with task-relevant speech, and lend support to the hypothesis that gesture grounds thought in action via its representational properties. PMID:25664327

  17. The way you say it, the way I feel it: emotional word processing in accented speech

    PubMed Central

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Baus, Cristina; Costa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether processing words with affective connotations in a listener's native language may be modulated by accented speech. To address this question, we used the Event Related Potential (ERP) technique and recorded the cerebral activity of Spanish native listeners, who performed a semantic categorization task, while listening to positive, negative and neutral words produced in standard Spanish or in four foreign accents. The behavioral results yielded longer latencies for emotional than for neutral words in both native and foreign-accented speech, with no difference between positive and negative words. The electrophysiological results replicated previous findings from the emotional language literature, with the amplitude of the Late Positive Complex (LPC), associated with emotional language processing, being larger (more positive) for emotional than for neutral words at posterior scalp sites. Interestingly, foreign-accented speech was found to interfere with the processing of positive valence and go along with a negativity bias, possibly suggesting heightened attention to negative words. The manipulation employed in the present study provides an interesting perspective on the effects of accented speech on processing affective-laden information. It shows that higher order semantic processes that involve emotion-related aspects are sensitive to a speaker's accent. PMID:25870577

  18. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-10-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed.

  19. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of word length during monocular viewing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Kurtev, Stoyan; Xu, Mengyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have claimed that, when fixating a word, a precise split in foveal processing causes all letters to the left and right of fixation to project to different, contralateral hemispheres (split-fovea theory--SFT). In support of this claim, Lavidor et al. (2001; hereafter LES&B) reported that lexical decisions were affected by the number of letters to the left of fixation but not the right, and that this indicates a functional division in hemispheric processing at the point of fixation. Jordan, Paterson, and Stachurski (Cortex, 2009; hereafter JP&S) re-evaluated these claims over 3 experiments using LES&B's original stimuli and procedures and found no support for the findings of LES&B. Following LES&B, JP&S presented stimuli binocularly (i.e., as in normal viewing). However, this procedure has its own complications for SFT (and for assessing the validity of the theory) because the two eyes often do not fixate the same location. Consequently, we report two further experiments which used an eye-tracker to ensure fixation accuracy and monocular viewing to eliminate influences of fixation disparity. Experiment 1 used the same-sized typeface as JP&S, and Experiment 2 used a larger typeface to approximate normal reading size. In line with the findings of JP&S, neither experiment could replicate the findings of LES&B and both experiments showed simply that word recognition was easier when fixations were made towards the beginning of words. Thus, after a total of 5 separate experiments, using binocular and monocular viewing conditions and stimuli presented in a range of sizes, none of these experiments has been able to replicate the findings of LES&B or provide any evidence for a functional division in hemispheric processing at the point of fixation.

  20. Evaluating hemispheric divisions in processing fixated words: the evidence from Arabic.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Almabruk, Abubaker A A; McGowan, Victoria A; Paterson, Kevin B

    2011-09-01

    Some studies have claimed that, when fixating a word, a precise split in foveal processing produces substantial effects on word recognition because all letters to the left and right of fixation project to different, contralateral hemispheres. Recently in this Journal, Jordan, Paterson, Kurtev, and Xu (2010, Cortex, 46, 298-309) evaluated this claim using precisely-controlled procedures of fixation and stimulus presentation and found no evidence of split-foveal processing. However, in line with other research in this area, these findings were obtained using a Latinate alphabetic language (in this case English) which may induce specific effects on performance. Consequently, here we report a further study which used stimuli from a fundamentally different, non-Latinate alphabetic language (Arabic) with characteristics better suited to revealing effects of split-foveal processing, if they exist. Participants made lexical decisions to five-letter Arabic words (and nonwords) when fixations were made immediately to the right (location 1) or left (location 6) of each stimulus, or at one of the four possible inter-letter locations (locations 2-5). Fixation location was carefully controlled using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display and all stimuli were presented within foveal vision to avoid confounding influences of extrafoveal projections. Performance was equally poorest when fixating locations 1 and 6 (i.e., when words were shown entirely to either the left or right of fixation), equally intermediate for locations 2 and 5, and equally superior for locations 3 and 4 (i.e., the centre of words). Moreover, additional, word-specific analyses showed no evidence of the effects of fixation location on individual word recognition also predicted by split-foveal processing. These findings from a non-Latinate language complement those reported previously for English to provide further evidence that while fixation location influences word recognition, these

  1. When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meteyard, Lotte; Stoppard, Emily; Snudden, Dee; Cappa, Stefano F; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. "moo", "splash"). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all tasks, with consistent group effects emerging in reading aloud and auditory lexical decision. Both these tasks rely on mapping between semantics and phonology. We conclude that iconicity aids spoken word processing for individuals with aphasia. This advantage is due to a stronger connection between semantic information and phonological forms.

  2. DPADL: An Action Language for Data Processing Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which will provide automation for an ecosystem forecasting system called TOPS.

  3. Crossroads: The Merger of Word and Data Processing in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, David D.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a course in information processing which combines word processing (WP) and date processing (DP). The purpose of the course is to make students aware that WP and DP should not work in isolation but together for the common good of the organization. (JOW)

  4. Orthographic processing of polysyllabic words by native and nonnative English speakers.

    PubMed

    Taft, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    How polysyllabic English words are analyzed in silent reading was examined in three experiments by comparing lexical decision responses to words physically split on the screen. The gap was compatible either with the Maximal Onset Principle or the Maximal Coda Principle. The former corresponds to the spoken syllable (e.g., ca det), except when the word has a stressed short first vowel (e.g., ra dish), while the reverse is true for the latter (giving cad et and rad ish). Native English speakers demonstrated a general preference for the Max Coda analysis and a correlation with reading ability when such an analysis did not correspond with the spoken syllable. Native Japanese speakers, on the other hand, showed a Max Onset preference regardless of the type of word, while native Mandarin Chinese speakers showed no preference at all. It is concluded that a maximization of the coda is the optimal representation of polysyllabic words in English and that poorer native readers are more influenced by phonology than are better readers. The way that nonnative readers mentally represent polysyllabic English words is affected by the way such words are structured in their native language, which may not lead to optimal English processing.

  5. Laminar profile of spontaneous and evoked theta: Rhythmic modulation of cortical processing during word integration.

    PubMed

    Halgren, Eric; Kaestner, Erik; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Cash, Sydney S; Wang, Chunmao; Schomer, Donald L; Madsen, Joseph R; Ulbert, Istvan

    2015-09-01

    Theta may play a central role during language understanding and other extended cognitive processing, providing an envelope for widespread integration of participating cortical areas. We used linear microelectrode arrays in epileptics to define the circuits generating theta in inferotemporal, perirhinal, entorhinal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In all locations, theta was generated by excitatory current sinks in middle layers which receive predominantly feedforward inputs, alternating with sinks in superficial layers which receive mainly feedback/associative inputs. Baseline and event-related theta were generated by indistinguishable laminar profiles of transmembrane currents and unit-firing. Word presentation could reset theta phase, permitting theta to contribute to late event-related potentials, even when theta power decreases relative to baseline. Limited recordings during sentence reading are consistent with rhythmic theta activity entrained by a given word modulating the neural background for the following word. These findings show that theta occurs spontaneously, and can be momentarily suppressed, reset and synchronized by words. Theta represents an alternation between feedforward/divergent and associative/convergent processing modes that may temporally organize sustained processing and optimize the timing of memory formation. We suggest that words are initially encoded via a ventral feedforward stream which is lexicosemantic in the anteroventral temporal lobe; its arrival may trigger a widespread theta rhythm which integrates the word within a larger context. PMID:25801916

  6. Laminar profile of spontaneous and evoked theta: Rhythmic modulation of cortical processing during word integration.

    PubMed

    Halgren, Eric; Kaestner, Erik; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Cash, Sydney S; Wang, Chunmao; Schomer, Donald L; Madsen, Joseph R; Ulbert, Istvan

    2015-09-01

    Theta may play a central role during language understanding and other extended cognitive processing, providing an envelope for widespread integration of participating cortical areas. We used linear microelectrode arrays in epileptics to define the circuits generating theta in inferotemporal, perirhinal, entorhinal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In all locations, theta was generated by excitatory current sinks in middle layers which receive predominantly feedforward inputs, alternating with sinks in superficial layers which receive mainly feedback/associative inputs. Baseline and event-related theta were generated by indistinguishable laminar profiles of transmembrane currents and unit-firing. Word presentation could reset theta phase, permitting theta to contribute to late event-related potentials, even when theta power decreases relative to baseline. Limited recordings during sentence reading are consistent with rhythmic theta activity entrained by a given word modulating the neural background for the following word. These findings show that theta occurs spontaneously, and can be momentarily suppressed, reset and synchronized by words. Theta represents an alternation between feedforward/divergent and associative/convergent processing modes that may temporally organize sustained processing and optimize the timing of memory formation. We suggest that words are initially encoded via a ventral feedforward stream which is lexicosemantic in the anteroventral temporal lobe; its arrival may trigger a widespread theta rhythm which integrates the word within a larger context.

  7. Word attributes and lateralization revisited: implications for dual coding and discrete versus continuous processing.

    PubMed

    Boles, D B

    1989-01-01

    Three attributes of words are their imageability, concreteness, and familiarity. From a literature review and several experiments, I previously concluded (Boles, 1983a) that only familiarity affects the overall near-threshold recognition of words, and that none of the attributes affects right-visual-field superiority for word recognition. Here these conclusions are modified by two experiments demonstrating a critical mediating influence of intentional versus incidental memory instructions. In Experiment 1, subjects were instructed to remember the words they were shown, for subsequent recall. The results showed effects of both imageability and familiarity on overall recognition, as well as an effect of imageability on lateralization. In Experiment 2, word-memory instructions were deleted and the results essentially reinstated the findings of Boles (1983a). It is concluded that right-hemisphere imagery processes can participate in word recognition under intentional memory instructions. Within the dual coding theory (Paivio, 1971), the results argue that both discrete and continuous processing modes are available, that the modes can be used strategically, and that continuous processing can occur prior to response stages.

  8. Left ventral occipitotemporal activation during orthographic and semantic processing of auditory words.

    PubMed

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Schurz, Matthias; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present fMRI study investigated the hypothesis that activation of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) in response to auditory words can be attributed to lexical orthographic rather than lexico-semantic processing. To this end, we presented auditory words in both an orthographic ("three or four letter word?") and a semantic ("living or nonliving?") task. In addition, a auditory control condition presented tones in a pitch evaluation task. The results showed that the left vOT exhibited higher activation for orthographic relative to semantic processing of auditory words with a peak in the posterior part of vOT. Comparisons to the auditory control condition revealed that orthographic processing of auditory words elicited activation in a large vOT cluster. In contrast, activation for semantic processing was only weak and restricted to the middle part vOT. We interpret our findings as speaking for orthographic processing in left vOT. In particular, we suggest that activation in left middle vOT can be attributed to accessing orthographic whole-word representations. While activation of such representations was experimentally ascertained in the orthographic task, it might have also occurred automatically in the semantic task. Activation in the more posterior vOT region, on the other hand, may reflect the generation of explicit images of word-specific letter sequences required by the orthographic but not the semantic task. In addition, based on cross-modal suppression, the finding of marked deactivations in response to the auditory tones is taken to reflect the visual nature of representations and processes in left vOT. PMID:26419390

  9. Emotion Words, Regardless of Polarity, Have a Processing Advantage over Neutral Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the interface between emotion and cognition, the role of emotion in cognitive tasks is unclear. According to one hypothesis, negative valence is more relevant for survival and is associated with a general slowdown of the processing of stimuli, due to a defense mechanism that freezes activity in the face of threat.…

  10. Investigating the Effect of Contextual Clues on the Processing of Unfamiliar Words in Second Language Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of contextual clues on the use of strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, world knowledge, and others) for processing unfamiliar words in listening comprehension. Three types of words were investigated: words with local co-text clues, global co-text clues and extra-textual…

  11. Event related potentials reveal differences between morphological (prefixes) and phonological (syllables) processing of words.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alberto; Alija, Maira; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Mauel

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral measures in visual priming tasks show opposite effects for syllables and morphemes, which indicate that they are processed by two independent systems. We used event related potentials (ERPs) to explore two priming situations in Spanish: prefix related words (reacción-REFORMA [reaction-reform]), in which prime and target words shared a first syllable that was also a prefix, and syllable related words (regalo-REFORMA [gift-reform.]), in which the shared first syllable was a pseudoprefix in the prime word. Prefix related pairs, unlike syllable related pairs, evoked a very early positivity in reaction to the target (at 150-250ms window), suggesting that the prefix information is immediately available, at a prelexical stage. By contrast, syllable related pairs showed a larger N400 effect. This late negativity may be caused by lateral inhibition among lexical candidates activated in the lexicon by the prime's first syllable. PMID:16996688

  12. Event related potentials reveal differences between morphological (prefixes) and phonological (syllables) processing of words.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alberto; Alija, Maira; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Mauel

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral measures in visual priming tasks show opposite effects for syllables and morphemes, which indicate that they are processed by two independent systems. We used event related potentials (ERPs) to explore two priming situations in Spanish: prefix related words (reacción-REFORMA [reaction-reform]), in which prime and target words shared a first syllable that was also a prefix, and syllable related words (regalo-REFORMA [gift-reform.]), in which the shared first syllable was a pseudoprefix in the prime word. Prefix related pairs, unlike syllable related pairs, evoked a very early positivity in reaction to the target (at 150-250ms window), suggesting that the prefix information is immediately available, at a prelexical stage. By contrast, syllable related pairs showed a larger N400 effect. This late negativity may be caused by lateral inhibition among lexical candidates activated in the lexicon by the prime's first syllable.

  13. Word stress processing in specific language impairment: auditory or representational deficits?

    PubMed

    Haake, Caroline; Kob, Malte; Willmes, Klaus; Domahs, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Word stress processing has repeatedly been reported to be affected in specific language impairment (SLI) with potential consequences for various aspects of language development. However, it still remains unresolved whether word stress impairments in SLI are due to deficits in basic auditory processing or to a degraded phonological representation or both. We addressed this question examining an unselected sample of 10 children with SLI and 11 typically developing (TD) children, aged about 8 years, with respect to their basic auditory processing (duration and skewness discrimination) and phonological representation of prosodic (word stress) and segmental (consonant) contrasts. Our results show lower performance of the SLI group compared to the TD group in all tasks. Crucially, two subgroups of children with SLI emerged from our analyses: While one group was impaired in basic auditory perception, particularly affecting duration discrimination, the other showed no significant auditory processing deficits but a representational impairment.

  14. The direction of word stress processing in German: evidence from a working memory paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Domahs, Frank; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Domahs, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There are contradicting assumptions and findings on the direction of word stress processing in German. To resolve this question, we asked participants to read tri-syllabic non-words and stress ambiguous words aloud. Additionally, they also performed a working memory (WM) task (2-back task). In non-word reading, participants’ individual WM capacity was positively correlated with assignment of main stress to the antepenultimate syllable, which is most distant to the word’s right edge, while a (complementary) negative correlation was observed with assignment of stress to the ultimate syllable. There was no significant correlation between WM capacity and stress assignment to the penultimate syllable, which has been claimed to be the default stress pattern in German. In reading stress ambiguous words, a similar but non-significant pattern was observed as in non-word reading. In sum, our results provide first psycholinguistic evidence supporting leftward stress processing in German. Our results do not lend support to the assumption of penultimate default stress in German. A specification of the lemma model is proposed which seems able to reconcile our findings and apparently contradicting assumptions and evidence. PMID:24966845

  15. Word-Decoding as a Function of Temporal Processing in the Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Steven R.; Náñez, José E.; Seitz, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between visual processing and word-decoding ability in a normal reading population. Forty participants were recruited at Arizona State University. Flicker fusion thresholds were assessed with an optical chopper using the method of limits by a 1-deg diameter green (543 nm) test field. Word decoding was measured using reading-word and nonsense-word decoding tests. A non-linguistic decoding measure was obtained using a computer program that consisted of Landolt C targets randomly presented in four cardinal orientations, at 3-radial distances from a focus point, for eight compass points, in a circular pattern. Participants responded by pressing the arrow key on the keyboard that matched the direction the target was facing. The results show a strong correlation between critical flicker fusion thresholds and scores on the reading-word, nonsense-word, and non-linguistic decoding measures. The data suggests that the functional elements of the visual system involved with temporal modulation and spatial processing may affect the ease with which people read. PMID:24376782

  16. Word-decoding as a function of temporal processing in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Steven R; Náñez, José E; Seitz, Aaron R

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between visual processing and word-decoding ability in a normal reading population. Forty participants were recruited at Arizona State University. Flicker fusion thresholds were assessed with an optical chopper using the method of limits by a 1-deg diameter green (543 nm) test field. Word decoding was measured using reading-word and nonsense-word decoding tests. A non-linguistic decoding measure was obtained using a computer program that consisted of Landolt C targets randomly presented in four cardinal orientations, at 3-radial distances from a focus point, for eight compass points, in a circular pattern. Participants responded by pressing the arrow key on the keyboard that matched the direction the target was facing. The results show a strong correlation between critical flicker fusion thresholds and scores on the reading-word, nonsense-word, and non-linguistic decoding measures. The data suggests that the functional elements of the visual system involved with temporal modulation and spatial processing may affect the ease with which people read. PMID:24376782

  17. A perception- and PDE-based nonlinear transformation for processing spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yingyong; Xin, Jack

    2001-02-01

    Speech signals are often produced or received in the presence of noise, which is known to degrade the performance of a speech recognition system. In this paper, a perception- and PDE-based nonlinear transformation was developed to process spoken words in noisy environment. Our goal is to distinguish essential speech features and suppress noise so that the processed words are better recognized by a computer software. The nonlinear transformation was made on the spectrogram (short-term Fourier spectra) of speech signals, which reveals the signal energy distribution in time and frequency. The transformation reduces noise through time adaptation (reducing temporally slowly varying portions of spectra) and enhances spectral peaks (formants) by evolving a focusing quadratic fourth-order PDE. Short-term spectra of speech signals were initially divided into three (low, mid and high) frequency bands based on the critical bandwidth of human audition. An algorithm was developed to trace the upper and lower intensity envelopes of signal in each band. The difference between the upper and lower envelopes reflects the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of each band. Constant, low SNR signals in each band were adaptively decreased to reduce noise. Then evolution of the focusing PDE was used to enhance the spectral peaks, and further reduce noise interference. Numerical results on noisy spoken words indicated that the transformed spectral pattern of the spoken words was insensitive to noise for SNR ranging from 0 to 20 dB (decibel). The spectral distances between noisy words and original words decreased after the transformation. A numerical experiment was performed on 11 spoken words at SNR=5 dB. A noisy word is recognized numerically by computing the closest L2 spectral distance from the clean template. The experiment reached a recognition rate as high as 100%. Analyses on the properties of the transformation are provided.

  18. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  19. Parallel versus Sequential Processing of Pictures and Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Joan Gay; Antone, George

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to test a proposal by Paivio (1971) that visual memory images are specialized for parallel or spatiol processing, whereas verbal memory codes are specialized for sequential or temporal processing. (Author)

  20. Four Functionally Distinct Regions in the Left Supramarginal Gyrus Support Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, M.; Hope, T. M. H.; Seghier, M. L.; Parker Jones, O.; Prejawa, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI in 85 healthy participants to investigate whether different parts of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are involved in processing phonological inputs and outputs. The experiment involved 2 tasks (speech production (SP) and one-back (OB) matching) on 8 different types of stimuli that systematically varied the demands on sensory processing (visual vs. auditory), sublexical phonological input (words and pseudowords vs. nonverbal stimuli), and semantic content (words and objects vs. pseudowords and meaningless baseline stimuli). In ventral SMG, we found an anterior subregion associated with articulatory sequencing (for SP > OB matching) and a posterior subregion associated with auditory short-term memory (for all auditory > visual stimuli and written words and pseudowords > objects). In dorsal SMG, a posterior subregion was most highly activated by words, indicating a role in the integration of sublexical and lexical cues. In anterior dorsal SMG, activation was higher for both pseudoword reading and object naming compared with word reading, which is more consistent with executive demands than phonological processing. The dissociation of these four “functionally-distinct” regions, all within left SMG, has implications for differentiating between different types of phonological processing, understanding the functional anatomy of language and predicting the effect of brain damage. PMID:27600852

  1. Diverging receptive and expressive word processing mechanisms in a deep dyslexic reader.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Irene; Radach, Ralph

    2016-01-29

    We report on KJ, a patient with acquired dyslexia due to cerebral artery infarction. He represents an unusually clear case of an "output" deep dyslexic reader, with a distinct pattern of pure semantic reading. According to current neuropsychological models of reading, the severity of this condition is directly related to the degree of impairment in semantic and phonological representations and the resulting imbalance in the interaction between the two word processing pathways. The present work sought to examine whether an innovative eye movement supported intervention combining lexical and segmental therapy would strengthen phonological processing and lead to an attenuation of the extreme semantic over-involvement in KJ's word identification process. Reading performance was assessed before (T1) between (T2) and after (T3) therapy using both analyses of linguistic errors and word viewing patterns. Therapy resulted in improved reading aloud accuracy along with a change in error distribution that suggested a return to more sequential reading. Interestingly, this was in contrast to the dynamics of moment-to-moment word processing, as eye movement analyses still suggested a predominantly holistic strategy, even at T3. So, in addition to documenting the success of the therapeutic intervention, our results call for a theoretically important conclusion: Real-time letter and word recognition routines should be considered separately from properties of the verbal output. Combining both perspectives may provide a promising strategy for future assessment and therapy evaluation. PMID:26656873

  2. Exploring the Processing Continuum of Single-Word Comprehension in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moineau, Suzanne; Dronkers, Nina F.; Bates, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the vulnerability of lexical processing in individuals with aphasia. Though classical teaching of aphasia syndromes holds that people with Broca's aphasia have intact comprehension at the single-word level, the nature and extent of this purported sparing were explored under suboptimal processing conditions. A combination of…

  3. Word Processing and Writing in Elementary Classrooms: A Critical Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Literature on word processing (WP) and writing in elementary classrooms is reviewed. Five propositions are constructed to provide a schema for understanding what is known and needs to be learned about young writers and WP. WP's effects on students' composing processes, written products, attitudes, and keyboarding/systems skills are considered.…

  4. Word Recognition and Basic Cognitive Processes among Reading-Disabled and Normal Readers in Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Share, David; Mansour, Maysaloon Said

    2003-01-01

    Investigates word identification in Arabic and basic cognitive processes in reading-disabled (RD) and normal level readers of the same chronological age, and in younger normal readers at the same reading level. Indicates significant deficiencies in morphology, working memory, and syntactic and visual processing, with the most severe deficiencies…

  5. Processing Strategy and PI Effects in Recognition Memory of Word Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Milton H.; Britton, Bruce K.

    Previous research by A. I. Schulman argued that an observed systematic decline in recognition memory in long word lists was due to the build-up of input and output proactive interference (PI). It also suggested that input PI resulted from process automatization; that is, each list item was processed or encoded in much the same way, producing a set…

  6. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing.

  7. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  8. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  9. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience.

  10. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-01-01

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social-emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475

  11. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli.

  12. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-01-01

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social–emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475

  13. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-08-25

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social-emotional perception in adolescents with IGD.

  14. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli. PMID:25955719

  15. Do masked orthographic neighbor primes facilitate or inhibit the processing of Kanji compound words?

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Mariko; Sears, Christopher R; Hino, Yasushi; Lupker, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    In the masked priming paradigm, when a word target is primed by a higher frequency neighbor (e.g., blue-BLUR), lexical decision latencies are slower than when the same word is primed by an unrelated word of equivalent frequency (e.g., care-BLUR). This inhibitory neighbor priming effect (e.g., Davis & Lupker, 2006; Segui & Grainger, 1990) is taken as evidence for the lexical competition process that is an important component of localist activation-based models of visual word recognition (Davis, 2003; Grainger & Jacobs, 1996; McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981). The present research looked for evidence of an inhibitory neighbor priming effect using words written in Japanese Kanji, a logographic, nonalphabetic script. In 4 experiments (Experiments 1A, 1B, 3A, and 3B), inhibitory neighbor priming effects were observed for low-frequency targets primed by higher frequency Kanji word neighbors ([symbol in text]). In contrast, there was a significant facilitation effect when targets were primed by Kanji nonword neighbors ([symbols in text]; Experiments 2 and 3). Significant facilitation was also observed when targets were primed by single constituent Kanji characters ([symbols in text]; Experiment 4). Taken together, these results suggest that lexical competition plays a role in the recognition of Kanji words, just as it does for words in alphabetic languages. However, in Kanji, and likely in other logographic languages, the effect of lexical competition appears to be counteracted by facilitory morphological priming due to the repetition of a morphological unit in the prime and target (i.e., in Kanji, each character represents a morpheme). PMID:24364705

  16. Proactive action preparation: seeing action preparation as a continuous and proactive process.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Ognibene, Dimitri

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we aim to elucidate the processes that occur during action preparation from both a conceptual and a computational point of view. We first introduce the traditional, serial model of goal-directed action and discuss from a computational viewpoint its subprocesses occurring during the two phases of covert action preparation and overt motor control. Then, we discuss recent evidence indicating that these subprocesses are highly intertwined at representational and neural levels, which undermines the validity of the serial model and points instead to a parallel model of action specification and selection. Within the parallel view, we analyze the case of delayed choice, arguing that action preparation can be proactive, and preparatory processes can take place even before decisions are made. Specifically, we discuss how prior knowledge and prospective abilities can be used to maximize utility even before deciding what to do. To support our view, we present a computational implementation of (an approximated version of) proactive action preparation, showing its advantages in a simulated tennis-like scenario.

  17. Perceptual Processing of Partially and Fully Assimilated Words in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

    2008-01-01

    Models of speech perception attribute a different role to contextual information in the processing of assimilated speech. This study concerned perceptual processing of regressive voice assimilation in French. This phonological variation is asymmetric in that assimilation is partial for voiced stops and nearly complete for voiceless stops. Two…

  18. Serial and parallel processing in reading: investigating the effects of parafoveal orthographic information on nonisolated word recognition.

    PubMed

    Dare, Natasha; Shillcock, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel lexical decision task and three boundary paradigm eye-tracking experiments that clarify the picture of parallel processing in word recognition in context. First, we show that lexical decision is facilitated by associated letter information to the left and right of the word, with no apparent hemispheric specificity. Second, we show that parafoveal preview of a repeat of word n at word n + 1 facilitates reading of word n relative to a control condition with an unrelated word at word n + 1. Third, using a version of the boundary paradigm that allowed for a regressive eye movement, we show no parafoveal "postview" effect on reading word n of repeating word n at word n - 1. Fourth, we repeat the second experiment but compare the effects of parafoveal previews consisting of a repeated word n with a transposed central bigram (e.g., caot for coat) and a substituted central bigram (e.g., ceit for coat), showing the latter to have a deleterious effect on processing word n, thereby demonstrating that the parafoveal preview effect is at least orthographic and not purely visual. PMID:22950804

  19. Hierarchical processing in music, language, and action: Lashley revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-05-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized "syntax of action" necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion-that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions-is consistent with considerable experimental data.

  20. The influence of vertical motor responses on explicit and incidental processing of power words.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Sun, Lining; Zhu, Lei

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating that power judgment is affected by vertical information. Such interaction between vertical space and power (i.e., response facilitation under space-power congruent conditions) is generally elicited in paradigms that require participants to explicitly evaluate the power of the presented words. The current research explored the possibility that explicit evaluative processing is not a prerequisite for the emergence of this effect. Here we compared the influence of vertical information on a standard explicit power evaluation task with influence on a task that linked power with stimuli in a more incidental manner, requiring participants to report whether the words represented people or animals or the font of the words. The results revealed that although the effect is more modest, the interaction between responses and power is also evident in an incidental task. Furthermore, we also found that explicit semantic processing is a prerequisite to ensure such an effect.

  1. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear.

  2. Grasping the world through words: from action to linguistic production of verbs in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Levi, Gabriel; Colonnello, Valentina; Giacchè, Roberta; Piredda, Maria Letizia; Sogos, Carla

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether the bodily-mediated production of verbs emerges earlier than verb recognition and oral production during early language acquisition. Children (aged 18-22, 23-27, 28-32, and 33-37 months) viewed animated pictures representing actions related to transitive and intransitive verbs and were asked to (i) orally indicate the verb presented, (ii) recognize the target verb among other verbs, and (iii) perform the actions corresponding to the target verb enunciated by the experimenter. Children 18-22 months showed a capacity to enact the verbs, while their recognition and oral production abilities were not comparably developed. Until 27 months of age, children produced more transitive than intransitive verbs across tasks. The gap between verb recognition and verb oral production was found in all ages tested. This is the first study to directly demonstrate that the ability to produce verbs, especially transitive verbs, via overt body actions emerges ontogenetically earlier than recognition and oral production.

  3. Modeling the meaning of words: neural correlates of abstract and concrete noun processing.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Frida; Roll, Mikael; Apt, Pia; Horne, Merle

    2011-01-01

    We present a model relating analysis of abstract and concrete word meaning in terms of semantic features and contextual frames within a general framework of neurocognitive information processing. The approach taken here assumes concrete noun meanings to be intimately related to sensory feature constellations. These features are processed by posterior sensory regions of the brain, e.g. the occipital lobe, which handles visual information. The interpretation of abstract nouns, however, is likely to be more dependent on semantic frames and linguistic context. A greater involvement of more anteriorly located, perisylvian brain areas has previously been found for the processing of abstract words. In the present study, a word association test was carried out in order to compare semantic processing in healthy subjects (n=12) with subjects with aphasia due to perisylvian lesions (n=3) and occipital lesions (n=1). The word associations were coded into different categories depending on their semantic content. A double dissociation was found, where, compared to the controls, the perisylvian aphasic subjects had problems associating to abstract nouns and produced fewer semantic framebased associations, whereas the occipital aphasic subject showed disturbances in concrete noun processing and made fewer semantic feature based associations.

  4. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations. PMID:27606968

  5. Morphological Decomposition and Semantic Integration in Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Longtin, Catherine-Marie

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we looked at cross-modal priming effects produced by auditory presentation of morphologically complex pseudowords in order to investigate semantic integration during the processing of French morphologically complex items. In Experiment 1, we used as primes pseudowords consisting of a non-interpretable combination of roots and…

  6. Effects of orthographic consistency on eye movement behavior: German and English children and adults process the same words differently.

    PubMed

    Rau, Anne K; Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Landerl, Karin

    2015-02-01

    The current study investigated the time course of cross-linguistic differences in word recognition. We recorded eye movements of German and English children and adults while reading closely matched sentences, each including a target word manipulated for length and frequency. Results showed differential word recognition processes for both developing and skilled readers. Children of the two orthographies did not differ in terms of total word processing time, but this equal outcome was achieved quite differently. Whereas German children relied on small-unit processing early in word recognition, English children applied small-unit decoding only upon rereading-possibly when experiencing difficulties in integrating an unfamiliar word into the sentence context. Rather unexpectedly, cross-linguistic differences were also found in adults in that English adults showed longer processing times than German adults for nonwords. Thus, although orthographic consistency does play a major role in reading development, cross-linguistic differences are detectable even in skilled adult readers. PMID:25462034

  7. Effects of orthographic consistency on eye movement behavior: German and English children and adults process the same words differently.

    PubMed

    Rau, Anne K; Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Landerl, Karin

    2015-02-01

    The current study investigated the time course of cross-linguistic differences in word recognition. We recorded eye movements of German and English children and adults while reading closely matched sentences, each including a target word manipulated for length and frequency. Results showed differential word recognition processes for both developing and skilled readers. Children of the two orthographies did not differ in terms of total word processing time, but this equal outcome was achieved quite differently. Whereas German children relied on small-unit processing early in word recognition, English children applied small-unit decoding only upon rereading-possibly when experiencing difficulties in integrating an unfamiliar word into the sentence context. Rather unexpectedly, cross-linguistic differences were also found in adults in that English adults showed longer processing times than German adults for nonwords. Thus, although orthographic consistency does play a major role in reading development, cross-linguistic differences are detectable even in skilled adult readers.

  8. Reasoning about nondeterministic and concurrent actions: A process algebra approach

    SciTech Connect

    De Giacomo, G.; Chen, Xiao Jun

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study reasoning about actions following a model checking approach in contrast to the usual validity checking one. Specifically, we model a dynamic system as a transition graph which represents all the possible system evolutions in terms of state changes caused by actions. Such a transition graph is defined by means of a suitable process algebra associated with an explicit global store. To reason about system properties we introduce an extension of modal {mu}-calculus. This setting, although directly applicable only when complete information on the system is available, has several interesting features for reasoning about actions. On one hand, it inherits from the vast literature on process algebras tools for dealing with complex systems, treating suitably important aspects like parallelism, communications, interruptions, coordinations among agents. On the other hand, reasoning by model checking is typically much easier than more general logical services such as validity checking.

  9. Doing Participatory Action Research and Doing a PhD: Words of Encouragement for Prospective Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klocker, Natascha

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) carries the promise that academics can make a difference, an appealing prospect for many postgraduate students. This paper is written by an early career researcher who "survived" a PAR PhD. Despite acknowledging the unique challenges faced by students attempting PAR, it argues that these have been overstated in…

  10. When Self-Descriptions Contradict Behavior: Actions Do Speak Louder Than Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amabile, Teresa M.; Kabat, Loren G.

    To examine whether a person's actions are more important in determining impressions of personality than are self-descriptions, subjects in two separate studies viewed two videotapes, one depicting a stimulus person's self-description and the other depicting that person's behavior in a conversation. Subjects rated the stimulus person on several…

  11. The Role of Embodied Manual Action in Second Language Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morett, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has provided evidence that mental imagery and embodied action can facilitate lexical learning in a novel language. However, it is unclear "how" these factors interact--as well as "why" they play a role--in lexical learning. Through a set of four experiments, this research demonstrated that neither mental…

  12. Adult Environmental Education: A Workbook To Move from Words to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camozzi, Anne

    This workbook, developed for an international workshop held in the Philippines in 1994, is designed to enrich adult environmental education worldwide and to ensure that the International Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility is implemented in an action-oriented program. The workbook is organized in…

  13. When parallel processing in visual word recognition is not enough: new evidence from naming.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Martha Anne; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Besner, Derek

    2003-06-01

    Low-frequency irregular words are named more slowly and are more error prone than low-frequency regular words (the regularity effect). Rastle and Coltheart (1999) reported that this irregularity cost is modulated by the serial position of the irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondence, such that words with early irregularities exhibit a larger cost than words with late ones. They argued that these data implicate rule-based serial processing, and they also reported a successful simulation with a model that has a rule-based serial component--the DRC model of reading aloud (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001). However, Zorzi (2000) also simulated these data with a model that operates solely in parallel. Furthermore, Kwantes and Mewhort (1999) simulated these data with a serial processing model that has no rules for converting orthography to phonology. The human data reported by Rastle and Coltheart therefore neither require a serial processing account, nor successfully discriminate among a number of computational models of reading aloud. New data are presented wherein an interaction between the effects of regularity and serial position of irregularity is again reported for human readers. The DRC model simulated this interaction; no other implemented computational model does so. The present results are thus consistent with rule-based serial processing in reading aloud.

  14. Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of…

  15. fMRI of Two Measures of Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition: Ecological Validity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, William J.; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the…

  16. Calloway & Pletcher, Inc. A Word Processing Administrative Support Secretary Position Simulation. Employer's Manual. [and] Forms Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savannah Area Vocational-Technical School, GA.

    This word processing administrative support secretary position simulation has been developed for use in an office applications laboratory at the postsecondary level. Its purpose is to give the student an opportunity to become familiar with the tasks and duties that may be performed by an administrative support secretary. This employer manual…

  17. Integrated Multi-Strategic Web Document Pre-Processing for Sentence and Word Boundary Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Junhyeok; Kim, Dongseok; Cha, Jeongwon; Lee, Gary Geunbae; Seo, Jungyun

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of natural language processing focuses on a multi-strategic integrated text preprocessing method for difficult problems of sentence boundary disambiguation and word boundary disambiguation of Web texts. Describes an evaluation of the method using Korean Web document collections. (Author/LRW)

  18. E-Mail and Word Processing in the ESL Classroom: How the Medium Affects the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun; Weasenforth, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether electronic mail writing will improve academic writing abilities. Nonnative students in an intermediate pre-academic English-as-a-Second-Language course responded to writing prompts using electronic mail and word processing. Their writing was examined for differences in uses of cohesive features, length of text produced in each…

  19. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 323 - Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Word Processing Center (WPC) Safeguards D Appendix D to Part 323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 323, App. D Appendix D...

  20. Strange Words: Autistic Traits and the Processing of Non-Literal Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Peter E.; Glass, Alexandra; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Corley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations into metonymy comprehension in ASD have confounded metonymy with anaphora, and outcome with process. Here we show how these confounds may be avoided, using data from non-diagnosed participants classified using Autism Quotient. Participants read sentences containing target words with novel or established metonymic senses…

  1. The Current Status of Word Processing in Illinois and Its Implications for Postsecondary Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sandra S.

    In 1980, a study was conducted to determine the current status of word processing (WP) in Illinois in order to suggest ways to improve curricula in Illinois postsecondary schools. The study involved: (1) soliciting and evaluating WP textbooks and course materials from 9 textbook publishers; (2) requesting information from 14 WP manufacturers and…

  2. A Comparison of Updating Processes in Children Good or Poor in Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the updating ability of poor or good problem solvers. Seventy-eight fourth-graders, 43 good and 35 poor arithmetic word problem-solvers, performed the Updating Test used in Palladino et al. [Palladino, P., Cornoldi, C., De Beni, R., and Pazzaglia F. (2002). Working memory and updating processes in reading comprehension. Memory…

  3. Orthographic Learning during Reading: The Role of Whole-Word Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Marie-line; Chaves, Nathalie; Largy, Pierre; Valdois, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    The self-teaching hypothesis suggests that knowledge about the orthographic structure of words is acquired incidentally during reading through phonological recoding. The current study assessed whether visual processing skills during reading further contribute to orthographic learning. French children were asked to read pseudowords. The whole…

  4. The Effects of Word Prediction and Text-to-Speech on the Writing Process of Translating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of word prediction and text-to-speech software on the writing process of translating. Participants for this study included 10 elementary and middle school students who had a diagnosis of disorder of written expression. A modified multiple case series was used to collect data…

  5. Campus Word Processing: Seven Design Principles for a New Academic Writing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuman, Myron

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the impact of word processing on the teaching of college composition at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa. Describes seven design principles developed by writing teachers at the university in outlining a solution to the problem of how students can really work together collaboratively over a computer network. (RS)

  6. Principles of Generic Word Processing for Students with Independent Access to Computers (Staffroom Interchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudol, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that university computer labs offer the advantages of decentralizing instruction and drawing attention to students' writing. Notes that, although labs require money and instructional space, the benefits outweigh the limitations. Argues that, once a collaborative atmosphere is established and word processing is practiced, students can…

  7. Is There Cross-Language Modulation when Bilinguals Process Number Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Paolieri, Daniela; Roman, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of cross-language activation when bilinguals process number words in their first language (Italian) and their second language (German). Italian monolinguals (Experiment 1), German monolinguals (Experiment 2), and Italian/German bilinguals (Experiment 3) were required to decide the larger of two number words…

  8. Ingenuity in Action: Connecting Tinkering to Engineering Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer; Werner-Avidon, Maia; Newton, Lisa; Randol, Scott; Smith, Brooke; Walker, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science, a science center, seeks to replicate real-world engineering at the "Ingenuity in Action" exhibit, which consists of three open-ended challenges. These problems encourage children to engage in engineering design processes and problem-solving techniques through tinkering. We observed and interviewed 112…

  9. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds.

  10. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  11. PET studies on the memory processing of word pairs in bilingual Finnish-English subjects.

    PubMed

    Halsband, U; Krause, B J; Sipilä, H; Teräs, M; Laihinen, A

    2002-04-15

    This study examined the fundamental question whether verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Ten right-handed, male Finnish--English adult late bilinguals who had acquired the second language after the age of 10 were scanned whilst either encoding/retrieving word pairs in their mother tongue (Finnish) or in a foreign language (English). Within each language, subjects had to encode and retrieve four sets of 12 visually presented paired word associates which were not semantically related. Two sets consisted of highly imageable words (e.g. monkey-table; koira-lasi) and the other two sets of abstract word pairs (e.g. freedom-moral; uhka-suure). Presentation of pseudowords served as a reference condition. An emission scan was recorded after each intravenous administration of O-15 water. Encoding was associated with prefrontal and hippocampal activation. During memory retrieval, precuneus showed a consistent activation in both languages and for both highly imageable and abstract words. Although the brain mechanisms of the two languages share common components, differential activations were found in Broca's area and in the cerebellum as well as in the angular/supramarginal gyri according to the language used.

  12. Disruption to word or letter processing? The origins of case-mixing effects.

    PubMed

    Mayall, K; Humphreys, G W; Olson, A

    1997-09-01

    MiXeD-cAsE stimuli have long been used to test whether word recognition is based on holistic visual information or preliminary letter identification. However, without knowing which properties of mixed-case stimuli disrupt processing, it is not possible to determine which visual units mediate word recognition. The present studies examined the effects of case mixing on word and nonword naming as a function of (a) whether spaces were inserted between letters and (b) whether letter size was alternated independent of letter case. The results suggest that case-mixing disruption effects are due to at least 2 factors: the introduction of inappropriate grouping between letters with the same size and case, and the disruption of transletter features. The data support a model of visual lexical access based on the input from multiple visually based units.

  13. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  14. Staying Mindful in Action: The Challenge of "Double Awareness" on Task and Process in an Action Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a well-proven method to integrate "task" and "process", as learning about team and self (process) takes place while delivering on a task or business challenge of real importance (task). An Action Lab® is an intensive Action Learning programme lasting for 5 days, which aims at balancing and integrating…

  15. Why does picture naming take longer than word reading? The contribution of articulatory processes.

    PubMed

    Riès, Stéphanie; Legou, Thierry; Burle, Borís; Alario, F-Xavier; Malfait, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Since the 19th century, it has been known that response latencies are longer for naming pictures than for reading words aloud. While several interpretations have been proposed, a common general assumption is that this difference stems from cognitive word-selection processes and not from articulatory processes. Here we show that, contrary to this widely accepted view, articulatory processes are also affected by the task performed. To demonstrate this, we used a procedure that to our knowledge had never been used in research on language processing: response-latency fractionating. Along with vocal onsets, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of facial muscles while participants named pictures or read words aloud. On the basis of these measures, we were able to fractionate the verbal response latencies into two types of time intervals: premotor times (from stimulus presentation to EMG onset), mostly reflecting cognitive processes, and motor times (from EMG onset to vocal onset), related to motor execution processes. We showed that premotor and motor times are both longer in picture naming than in reading, although than in reading, although articulation is already initiated in the latter measure. Future studies based on this new approach should bring valuable clues for a better understanding of the relation between the cognitive and motor processes involved in speech production.

  16. A word in the hand: action, gesture and mental representation in humans and non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Cartmill, Erica A.; Beilock, Sian; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The movements we make with our hands both reflect our mental processes and help to shape them. Our actions and gestures can affect our mental representations of actions and objects. In this paper, we explore the relationship between action, gesture and thought in both humans and non-human primates and discuss its role in the evolution of language. Human gesture (specifically representational gesture) may provide a unique link between action and mental representation. It is kinaesthetically close to action and is, at the same time, symbolic. Non-human primates use gesture frequently to communicate, and do so flexibly. However, their gestures mainly resemble incomplete actions and lack the representational elements that characterize much of human gesture. Differences in the mirror neuron system provide a potential explanation for non-human primates' lack of representational gestures; the monkey mirror system does not respond to representational gestures, while the human system does. In humans, gesture grounds mental representation in action, but there is no evidence for this link in other primates. We argue that gesture played an important role in the transition to symbolic thought and language in human evolution, following a cognitive leap that allowed gesture to incorporate representational elements. PMID:22106432

  17. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, Masumi

    2014-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. PMID:24478668

  18. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. PMID:24478668

  19. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception.

  20. Neuronal interactions between mentalising and action systems during indirect request processing.

    PubMed

    van Ackeren, Markus J; Smaragdi, Areti; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2016-09-01

    Human communication relies on the ability to process linguistic structure and to map words and utterances onto our environment. Furthermore, as what we communicate is often not directly encoded in our language (e.g. in the case of irony, jokes or indirect requests), we need to extract additional cues to infer the beliefs and desires of our conversational partners. Although the functional interplay between language and the ability to mentalise has been discussed in theoretical accounts in the past, the neurobiological underpinnings of these dynamics are currently not well understood. Here, we address this issue using functional imaging (fMRI). Participants listened to question-reply dialogues. In these dialogues, a reply is interpreted as a direct reply, an indirect reply or a request for action, depending on the question. We show that inferring meaning from indirect replies engages parts of the mentalising network (mPFC) while requests for action also activate the cortical motor system (IPL). Subsequent connectivity analysis using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) revealed that this pattern of activation is best explained by an increase in effective connectivity from the mentalising network (mPFC) to the action system (IPL). These results are an important step towards a more integrative understanding of the neurobiological basis of indirect speech processing. PMID:27131039

  1. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    PubMed

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  2. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    PubMed Central

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  3. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  4. Word and Letter String Processing Networks in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Anomalies and Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Griego, Jacqueline A.; Cortes, Carlos R.; Nune, Sunitha; Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Tagamets, M-A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging studies show that in normal language correlated activity between anterior and posterior brain regions increases as the linguistic and semantic content (i.e., from false fonts, letter strings, pseudo words, to words) of stimuli increase. In schizophrenia however, disrupted functional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions has been frequently reported and these disruptions may change the nature of language organization. We characterized basic linguistic operations in word and letter string processing in a region-of-interest network using structural equation modeling (SEM). Healthy volunteers and volunteers with schizophrenia performed an fMRI one-back matching task with real words and consonant letter strings. We hypothesized that left hemisphere network dysfunction in schizophrenia would be present during processes dealing with linguistic/semantic content. The modeling results suggest aberrant left hemisphere function in schizophrenia, even in tasks requiring minimal access to language. Alternative mechanisms included increases in right hemisphere involvement and increased top-down influence from frontal to posterior regions. PMID:18829095

  5. Word recognition in competing babble and the effects of age, temporal processing, and absolute sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Snell, Karen B; Mapes, Frances M; Hickman, Elizabeth D; Frisina, D Robert

    2002-08-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether speech understanding in a fluctuating background is related to temporal processing as measured by the detection of gaps in noise bursts. Fifty adults with normal hearing or mild high-frequency hearing loss served as subjects. Gap detection thresholds were obtained using a three-interval, forced-choice paradigm. A 150-ms noise burst was used as the gap carrier with the gap placed close to carrier onset. A high-frequency masker without a temporal gap was gated on and off with the noise bursts. A continuous white-noise floor was present in the background. Word scores for the subjects were obtained at a presentation level of 55 dB HL in competing babble levels of 50, 55, and 60 dB HL. A repeated measures analysis of covariance of the word scores examined the effects of age, absolute sensitivity, and temporal sensitivity. The results of the analysis indicated that word scores in competing babble decreased significantly with increases in babble level, age, and gap detection thresholds. The effects of absolute sensitivity on word scores in competing babble were not significant. These results suggest that age and temporal processing influence speech understanding in fluctuating backgrounds in adults with normal hearing or mild high-frequency hearing loss.

  6. Are faces processed like words? A diagnostic test for recognition by parts.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Marialuisa; Majaj, Najib J; Pelli, Denis G

    2005-02-04

    Do we identify an object as a whole or by its parts? This simple question has been surprisingly hard to answer. It has been suggested that faces are recognized as wholes and words are recognized by parts. Here we answer the question by applying a test for crowding. In crowding, a target is harder to identify in the presence of nearby flankers. Previous work has described crowding between objects. We show that crowding also occurs between the parts of an object. Such internal crowding severely impairs perception, identification, and fMRI face-area activation. We apply a diagnostic test for crowding to a word and a face, and we find that the critical spacing of the parts required for recognition is proportional to distance from fixation and independent of size and kind. The critical spacing defines an isolation field around the target. Some objects can be recognized only when each part is isolated from the rest of the object by the critical spacing. In that case, recognition is by parts. Recognition is holistic if the observer can recognize the object even when the whole object fits within a critical spacing. Such an object has only one part. Multiple parts within an isolation field will crowd each other and spoil recognition. To assess the robustness of the crowding test, we manipulated familiarity through inversion and the face- and word-superiority effects. We find that threshold contrast for word and face identification is the product of two factors: familiarity and crowding. Familiarity increases sensitivity by a factor of x1.5, independent of eccentricity, while crowding attenuates sensitivity more and more as eccentricity increases. Our findings show that observers process words and faces in much the same way: The effects of familiarity and crowding do not distinguish between them. Words and faces are both recognized by parts, and their parts -- letters and facial features -- are recognized holistically. We propose that internal crowding be taken as the

  7. The acceleration of spoken-word processing in children's native-language acquisition: an ERP cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-04-01

    Healthy adults can identify spoken words at a remarkable speed, by incrementally analyzing word-onset information. It is currently unknown how this adult-level speed of spoken-word processing emerges during children's native-language acquisition. In a picture-word mismatch paradigm, we manipulated the semantic congruency between picture contexts and spoken words, and recorded event-related potential (ERP) responses to the words. Previous similar studies focused on the N400 response, but we focused instead on the onsets of semantic congruency effects (N200 or Phonological Mismatch Negativity), which contain critical information for incremental spoken-word processing. We analyzed ERPs obtained longitudinally from two age cohorts of 40 primary-school children (total n=80) in a 3-year period. Children first tested at 7 years of age showed earlier onsets of congruency effects (by approximately 70ms) when tested 2 years later (i.e., at age 9). Children first tested at 9 years of age did not show such shortening of onset latencies 2 years later (i.e., at age 11). Overall, children's onset latencies at age 9 appeared similar to those of adults. These data challenge the previous hypothesis that word processing is well established at age 7. Instead they support the view that the acceleration of spoken-word processing continues beyond age 7.

  8. Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: the effect of proficiency.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-07-01

    The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model.

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of automatic processing of phonological information in visual words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Yin-Yuan; A-Ping Liu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Sensory-specific cortices appear to be sensitive to information from another modality. Here we investigate whether the human brain automatically extracts the phonological information in visual words in early visual processing. We continuously presented native Chinese speakers peripherally with Chinese homophone characters in an oddball paradigm, while they performed a visual detection task presented in the centre of the visual field. We found the lexical tone phonology embedded in the characters is processed automatically by the brain of native speakers, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN). Source solution further revealed the MMN involved the neural activations from the visual cortex to the auditory cortex (130-460 ms). The spatial-temporal dynamics indicate a visual-auditory interaction in the early, automatic processing of phonological information in visual words. PMID:24336606

  10. List constituency and orthographic and phonological processing: a shift to high familiarity words from low familiarity words.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Barbara J

    2014-12-01

    Two lexical decision experiments build on established patterns of laterality and hemispheric interaction to test whether the presence of low familiarity words dynamically affects the use of an orthographic or phonological strategy for high familiarity words; and, if so, whether the hemispheres are similarly flexible in adapting to the constituency change. Experiment 1 restricted word strings to the highly familiar. Experiment 2 presented the same high familiarity words, along with an equal number of low familiarity words. Targets for lexical decision were presented at fixation to approximate normal viewing behaviour, either with or without a non-lexical distractor lateralized left visual field (LVF) or right visual field (RVF). Response time and accuracy were measured. Responses were faster in Experiment 1 than Experiment 2 to high familiarity words, pseudowords (orthographically correct), and non-words (orthographically incorrect), suggesting that a different strategy was used. A main effect of distractor location in Experiment 1 was due to more accurate responses to letter strings accompanied by a RVF distractor than no distractor, revealing a cost from hemispheric interaction compared to the right hemisphere when a task is simple. Experiment 2 found an interaction between distractor location and string type in both the response time and accuracy data. Separate analyses of word strings revealed a shift to a left hemisphere advantage: Accuracy to low familiarity words and speed to high familiarity words was better when accompanied by a LVF than a RVF distractor. Critical to a dynamic effect of list constituency is that the right hemisphere slowed to the same high familiarity words that had provoked speedier responses in Experiment 1. The findings are consistent with the use of an orthographic strategy in Experiment 1 and a phonological strategy in Experiment 2, and support the idea that right hemisphere access to familiar phonology is slower than the left

  11. Perceived communicative context and emotional content amplify visual word processing in the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wegrzyn, Martin; Steppacher, Inga; Kissler, Johanna

    2015-04-15

    The personal significance of a language statement depends on its communicative context. However, this is rarely taken into account in neuroscience studies. Here, we investigate how the implied source of single word statements alters their cortical processing. Participants' brain event-related potentials were recorded in response to identical word streams consisting of positive, negative, and neutral trait adjectives stated to either represent personal trait feedback from a human or to be randomly generated by a computer. Results showed a strong impact of perceived sender. Regardless of content, the notion of receiving feedback from a human enhanced all components, starting with the P2 and encompassing early posterior negativity (EPN), P3, and the late positive potential (LPP). Moreover, negative feedback by the "human sender" elicited a larger EPN, whereas positive feedback generally induced a larger LPP. Source estimations revealed differences between "senders" in visual areas, particularly the bilateral fusiform gyri. Likewise, emotional content enhanced activity in these areas. These results specify how even implied sender identity changes the processing of single words in seemingly realistic communicative settings, amplifying their processing in the visual brain. This suggests that the concept of motivated attention extends from stimulus significance to simultaneous appraisal of contextual relevance. Finally, consistent with distinct stages of emotional processing, at least in contexts perceived as social, humans are initially alerted to negative content, but later process what is perceived as positive feedback more intensely. PMID:25878274

  12. Pulling out the Intentional Structure of Action: The Relation between Action Processing and Action Production in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2005-01-01

    Adults and children readily construct action representations organized with respect to an ultimate goal. These representations allow one to predict the consequences of action, interpret and describe actions, and categorize action sequences. In this paper, we explore the ontogeny of hierarchically organized action representations, and its relation…

  13. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  14. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  15. Is VIRTU4L larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic processing of number quantity and lexical representations in leet words.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as numbers (i.e., in terms of access to their quantity representation). To address this question, we conducted 2 experiments that examined the size congruity effect (i.e., when comparisons of the physical size of numbers are affected by their numerical magnitudes) in a physical-size judgment task. Participants were presented with pairs of leet words that were nominally identical except for the embedded digit (e.g., VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L) and were asked to decide as quickly and accurately as possible which word in the pair appeared in a bigger font. In Experiment 1, we examined the congruity effect (congruent: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL vs. incongruent: VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L vs. neutral: VIR7UAL-VIR7UAL) and the numerical distance effect (distance 1: PAN3L-P4NEL vs. distance 3: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL). To examine whether the meaning of these words was accessed, we also manipulated word frequency (i.e., a marker of lexical access) in Experiment 2. Results revealed effects of congruity, distance, and word frequency, thus suggesting automatic access to both number quantity and word representations for leet words. These findings favor multidimensional accounts of number/word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Development of Embodied Word Meanings: Sensorimotor Effects in Children’s Lexical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Inkster, Michelle; Wellsby, Michele; Lloyd, Ellen; Pexman, Penny M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research showed an effect of words’ rated body–object interaction (BOI) in children’s visual word naming performance, but only in children 8 years of age or older (Wellsby and Pexman, 2014a). In that study, however, BOI was established using adult ratings. Here we collected ratings from a group of parents for children’s BOI experience (child-BOI). We examined effects of words’ child-BOI and also words’ imageability on children’s responses in an auditory word naming task, which is suited to the lexical processing skills of younger children. We tested a group of 54 children aged 6–7 years and a comparison group of 25 adults. Results showed significant effects of both imageability and child-BOI on children’s auditory naming latencies. These results provide evidence that children younger than 8 years of age have richer semantic representations for high imageability and high child-BOI words, consistent with an embodied account of word meaning. PMID:27014129

  17. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  18. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  19. Beginning to Write with Word Processing: Integrating Writing Process and Technology in a Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leeuwen, Charlene A.; Gabriel, Martha A.

    2007-01-01

    Writing behaviors of grade 1 children were explored as they used word processors to support their writing. Information was gathered in the form of field notes and audiotape transcripts from classroom observation sessions, along with informal interviews with students and teachers. Themes which emerged from the data analysis suggested a combination…

  20. Do Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word n + 2? A Test of Serial Attention Shift versus Distributed Lexical Processing Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Brown, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from serial lexical processing and parallel distributed models of eye movement control in reading. The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used, and the boundary location was set either at the end of word n - 1 (the word just to the left of the target word) or at the end of word n - 2. Serial lexical…

  1. Contribution of motor representations to action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Finocchiaro, Chiara; Buiatti, Marco; Piazza, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and brain imaging studies show a somatotopic activation of the premotor cortex while subjects process action verbs. This somatotopic motor activation has been taken as an indication that the meaning of action verbs is embedded in motor representations. However, discrepancies in the literature led to the alternative hypothesis that motor representations are activated during the course of a mental imagery process emerging only after the meaning of the action has been accessed. In order to address this issue, we asked participants to decide whether a visually presented verb was concrete or abstract by pressing a button or a pedal (primary task) and then to provide a distinct vocal response to low and high sounds played soon after the verb display (secondary task). Manipulations of the visual display (lower vs. uppercase), verb imageability (concrete vs. abstract), verb meaning (hand vs. foot-related), and response effector (hand vs. foot) allowed us to trace the perceptual, semantic and response stages of verb processing. We capitalized on the psychological refractory period (PRP), which implies that the initiation of the secondary task should be delayed only by those factors that slow down the central decision process in the primary task. In line with this prediction, our results showed that the time cost resulting from the processing of abstract verbs, when compared to concrete verbs, was still observed in the subsequent response to the sounds, whereas the overall advantage of hand over foot responses did not influence sound judgments. Crucially, we also observed a verb-effector compatibility effect (i.e., foot-related verbs are responded faster with the foot and hand-related verbs with the hand) that contaminated the performance of the secondary task, providing clear evidence that motor interference from verb meaning occurred during the central decision stage. These results cannot be explained by a mental imagery process that would deploy only

  2. Towards an Understanding of How Children Read and Spell Irregular Words: The Role of Nonword and Orthographic Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona; McGeown, Sarah; Moxon, Gerri Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined, in 180 children aged from 6 to 9?years, to what extent irregular word reading and spelling were predicted by vocabulary knowledge, reading frequency, orthographic processing and nonword reading skill. Consistent with models of reading highlighting the quasi-regular nature of irregular words, it was found that nonword reading…

  3. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  4. Depth of Processing in Private and Social Speech: Its Role in the Retention of Word Knowledge by Adult EAP Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effect on vocabulary retention of vocalizations involving three cognitive processing depths ("repetition," "manipulation," and "generation"). Eight participants in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context encountered five unknown words when working alone and five different words when working in pairs. In each…

  5. L[subscript 1] and L[subscript 2] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language (L[subscript 1]) and second language (L[subscript 2]) spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of…

  6. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre‐ and post‐testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre‐ to post‐test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five‐point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non‐CN questions—particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 8: 584–592. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25952466

  7. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. PMID:25952466

  8. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge.

  9. Modulation of arm reaching movements during processing of arm/hand-related action verbs with and without emotional connotation.

    PubMed

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Gallese, Vittorio; Fragola, Michele; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The theory of embodied language states that language comprehension relies on an internal reenactment of the sensorimotor experience associated with the processed word or sentence. Most evidence in support of this hypothesis had been collected using linguistic material without any emotional connotation. For instance, it had been shown that processing of arm-related verbs, but not of those leg-related verbs, affects the planning and execution of reaching movements; however, at present it is unknown whether this effect is further modulated by verbs evoking an emotional experience. Showing such a modulation might shed light on a very debated issue, i.e. the way in which the emotional meaning of a word is processed. To this end, we assessed whether processing arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with negative connotations (e.g. to stab) affects reaching movements differently from arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with neutral connotation (e.g. to comb). We exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm-reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing emotional hand actions, neutral hand actions or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when no-effector-related verbs were presented. Reaction times and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector as used to give the response. However, we also found that the size of this interference decreased when the arm/hand-related verbs had a negative emotional connotation. Crucially, we show that such modulation only occurred when the verb semantics had to be retrieved. These results suggest that the comprehension of negatively valenced verbs might require the simultaneous reenactment of the neural circuitry associated with the processing of the emotion evoked by their meaning and of the neural circuitry associated with their motor features.

  10. Modulation of Arm Reaching Movements during Processing of Arm/Hand-Related Action Verbs with and without Emotional Connotation

    PubMed Central

    Spadacenta, Silvia; Gallese, Vittorio; Fragola, Michele; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The theory of embodied language states that language comprehension relies on an internal reenactment of the sensorimotor experience associated with the processed word or sentence. Most evidence in support of this hypothesis had been collected using linguistic material without any emotional connotation. For instance, it had been shown that processing of arm-related verbs, but not of those leg-related verbs, affects the planning and execution of reaching movements; however, at present it is unknown whether this effect is further modulated by verbs evoking an emotional experience. Showing such a modulation might shed light on a very debated issue, i.e. the way in which the emotional meaning of a word is processed. To this end, we assessed whether processing arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with negative connotations (e.g. to stab) affects reaching movements differently from arm/hand-related verbs describing actions with neutral connotation (e.g. to comb). We exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm-reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing emotional hand actions, neutral hand actions or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when no-effector-related verbs were presented. Reaction times and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector as used to give the response. However, we also found that the size of this interference decreased when the arm/hand-related verbs had a negative emotional connotation. Crucially, we show that such modulation only occurred when the verb semantics had to be retrieved. These results suggest that the comprehension of negatively valenced verbs might require the simultaneous reenactment of the neural circuitry associated with the processing of the emotion evoked by their meaning and of the neural circuitry associated with their motor features. PMID:25093410

  11. Information architecture: Standards adoption and retirement process service action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.

  12. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  13. Early lateralization and orientation tuning for face, word, and object processing in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Rossion, Bruno; Joyce, Carrie A; Cottrell, Garrison W; Tarr, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the human brain have shown that object categories can be reliably distinguished as early as 130-170 ms on the surface of occipito-temporal cortex, peaking at the level of the N170 component. Consistent with this finding, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest major functional distinctions within the human object recognition system, particularly in hemispheric advantage, between the processing of words (left), faces (right), and objects (bilateral). Given these observations, our aim was to (1) characterize the differential response properties of the N170 to pictures of faces, objects, and words across hemispheres; and (2) test whether an effect of inversion for highly familiar and monooriented nonface stimuli such as printed words can be observed at the level of the N170. Scalp EEG (53 channels) was recorded in 15 subjects performing an orientation decision task with pictures of faces, words, and cars presented upright or inverted. All three categories elicited at the same latency a robust N170 component associated with a positive counterpart at centro-frontal sites (vertex-positive potential, VPP). While there were minor amplitude differences at the level of the occipital medial P1 between linguistic and nonlinguistic categories, scalp topographies and source analyses indicated strong hemispheric and orientation effects starting at the level of the N170, which was right lateralized for faces, smaller and bilateral for cars, and as large for printed words in the left hemisphere as for faces. The entire N170/VPP complex was accounted for by two dipolar sources located in the lateral inferior occipital cortex/posterior fusiform gyrus. These two locations were roughly equivalent across conditions but differed in strength and lateralization. Inversion delayed the N170 (and VPP) response for all categories, with an increasing delay for cars, words, and faces, respectively, as suggested by source modeling analysis

  14. Reduced repetition suppression in the occipital visual cortex during repeated negative Chinese personality-trait word processing.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fuqiang; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Qianfeng

    2014-12-01

    Reduced neural activation have been consistently observed during repeated items processing, a phenomenon termed repetition suppression. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how stimuli of emotional valence affects repetition suppression by adopting Chinese personality-trait words as materials. Seventeen participants were required to read the negative and neutral Chinese personality-trait words silently. And then they were presented with repeated and novel items during scanning. Results showed significant repetition suppression in the inferior occipital gyrus only for neutral personality-trait words, whereas similar repetition suppression in the left inferior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus was revealed for both the word types. These results indicated common and distinct neural substrates during processing Chinese repeated negative and neutral personality-trait words.

  15. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Content and Volume Level in Spoken Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Annika; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2016-01-01

    For visual stimuli of emotional content as pictures and written words, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in the early posterior negativity (EPN), a component of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing attention allocation during visual sensory encoding. In the present study, we addressed the question whether this enhanced relevance of larger (visual) stimuli might generalize to the auditory domain and whether auditory emotion effects are modulated by volume. Therefore, subjects were listening to spoken words with emotional or neutral content, played at two different volume levels, while ERPs were recorded. Negative emotional content led to an increased frontal positivity and parieto-occipital negativity—a scalp distribution similar to the EPN—between ~370 and 530 ms. Importantly, this emotion-related ERP component was not modulated by differences in volume level, which impacted early auditory processing, as reflected in increased amplitudes of the N1 (80–130 ms) and P2 (130–265 ms) components as hypothesized. However, contrary to effects of stimulus size in the visual domain, volume level did not influence later ERP components. These findings indicate modality-specific and functionally independent processing triggered by emotional content of spoken words and volume level. PMID:27458359

  16. Phonological facilitation from pictures in a word association task: evidence for routine cascaded processing in spoken word production.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Karin R; Boyd, Candice H; Watter, Scott

    2010-12-01

    While most authors now agree that the language production system is in principle cascaded, the strength with which cascaded lemma-to-phoneme activation typically occurs is debated. Picture naming has been shown to be facilitated by phonologically related distractor pictures, but no such facilitation from pictures has been shown for word reading. Picture-picture paradigms have recently been suggested to represent an attentionally facilitated and unusually strong case of cascaded phonological facilitation, not typical of a more general weakly cascaded production system. We used a novel procedure based on picture-word interference paradigms, where participants made speeded verbal free association responses to presented words, with irrelevant picture distractors that were phonologically related to their predicted high-associate responses. Phonological facilitation effects from related picture names were observed on free associate verbal production latencies. These findings represent a far more general demonstration of routine cascaded language production and suggest that the strength and extent of cascaded activation is more substantial than that suggested by traditional picture-word paradigms. PMID:20737355

  17. Word order processing in a second language: from VO to OV.

    PubMed

    Erdocia, Kepa; Zawiszewski, Adam; Laka, Itziar

    2014-12-01

    Event-related potential studies on second language processing reveal that L1/L2 differences are due either to proficiency, age of acquisition or grammatical differences between L1 and L2 (Kotz in Brain Lang 109(2-3):68-74, 2009). However, the relative impact of these and other factors in second language processing is still not well understood. Here we present evidence from behavioral and ERP experiments on Basque sentence word order processing by L1Spanish-L2Basque early bilinguals (Age of Aquisition [Formula: see text] 3 years) with very high proficiency in their L2. Results reveal that these L2 speakers have a preference towards canonical Subject-Object-Verb word order, which they processed faster and with greater ease than non-canonical Object-Subject-Verb. This result converges with the processing preferences shown by natives and reported in Erdocia et al. (Brain Lang 109(1):1-17, 2009). However, electrophysiological measures associated to canonical (SOV) and non-canonical (OSV) sentences revealed a different pattern in the non-natives, as compared to that reported previously for natives. The non-native group elicited a P600 component that native group did not show when comparing S and O at sentence's second position. This pattern of results suggests that, despite high proficiency, non-native language processing recruits neural resources that are different from those employed in native languages.

  18. Louder than words. A multi-institutional system sets ethical standards for corporate action.

    PubMed

    Naber, M M

    1990-01-01

    After establishing its Resource Center for Ethical concerns, Wheaton Franciscan Services, Inc. (WFSI), Wheaton, IL, set out to develop corporate ethics standards. The standards were to manifest a vision that acknowledged the mutuality of relationships among providers and those they serve, and among local and global communities. To establish "ownership" of the standards, WFSI wanted to involve as many people as possible in the planning process. Center staff established a 25-member working task force with broad representation of disciplines and system institutions, then prepared a position paper to serve as a basis for the formulation of the standards. The paper examined current issues in corporate ethics, the theoretical basis of corporate ethics, the appropriateness of corporate ethics for Catholic-sponsored institutions, and the role ethics standards play in an institutional setting. Staff then prepared the first draft of corporate standards. At the first workshop in October 1988, task force members critiqued the draft and modified the proposed corporate standards. Staff sent the draft for critique to a total of 157 persons throughout the system and encouraged them to pass it around to get the advice of others. From the feedback, staff compiled a third draft, which was ultimately approved. WFSI's Corporate Ethics Standards addresses provision of services, relationship with employees, social responsibility, confidentiality, and conflict of interest.

  19. Hemispheric processing of differently valenced and self-relevant attachment words in middle-aged married and separated individuals.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Nicola J; Rowe, Angela C; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The reliance in experimental psychology on testing undergraduate populations with relatively little life experience, and/or ambiguously valenced stimuli with varying degrees of self-relevance, may have contributed to inconsistent findings in the literature on the valence hypothesis. To control for these potential limitations, the current study assessed lateralised lexical decisions for positive and negative attachment words in 40 middle-aged male and female participants. Self-relevance was manipulated in two ways: by testing currently married compared with previously married individuals and by assessing self-relevance ratings individually for each word. Results replicated a left hemisphere advantage for lexical decisions and a processing advantage of emotional over neutral words but did not support the valence hypothesis. Positive attachment words yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the right hemisphere, while emotional words (irrespective of valence) yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the left hemisphere. Both self-relevance manipulations were unrelated to lateralised performance. The role of participant sex and age in emotion processing are discussed as potential modulators of the present findings.

  20. Evidence for opponent-process actions of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, A; Raven, M A; Danluck, D A; Necessary, B D

    1999-11-01

    The present experiment was devised to test a prediction of the Opponent-Process Theory of drug action. This theory presumes that the initial affective experience of a subject treated with cocaine would be diametrically different immediately after administration compared to some point later in time when the positive impact of the drug had subsided. A conditioned place-preference procedure was employed in which a novel environment was paired with the effects of cocaine either immediately after, 5 min after, or 15 min after an intravenous injection of 0.75 mg/kg cocaine. It was hypothesized that animals would come to prefer environments associated with the immediate positive effects of cocaine and avoid environments associated with the drug's subsequent negative effects. The results confirmed this hypothesis. While the 0-min delay and 5-min delay groups exhibited conditioned preferences for the cocaine-paired environment, the 15-min delay group came to avoid the side of the preference apparatus paired with cocaine. These data, therefore, serve as additional support for an Opponent-Process account of cocaine's actions.

  1. Word Reading Fluency: A Transfer Appropriate Processing Account of Fluency Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra Lyn; Levy, Betty Ann

    2006-01-01

    Word reading fluency, as indexed by the fast and accurate identification of single words, predicts both general reading ability and reading comprehension. This study compared the effects of context training and isolated word training on subsequent measures of word reading fluency. Good and poor readers were given 12 repetitions of two sets of…

  2. The Effect of Age of Acquisition in Visual Word Processing: Further Evidence for the Semantic Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghyselinck, Mandy; Custers, Roel; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the meaning of visually presented words is activated faster for early-acquired words than for late-acquired words. They addressed the issue using the semantic Simon paradigm. In this paradigm, participants are instructed to decide whether a stimulus word is printed in uppercase or lowercase letters. However, they…

  3. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: a critical assessment of recent research.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of fixation project only to the right hemisphere whereas all letters to the right of the point of fixation project only to the left hemisphere. An informed assessment of research in this area requires an accurate understanding of the nature of the evidence and arguments that have been used to develop this "split-fovea theory" of word recognition (SFT). The purpose of this article is to facilitate this understanding by assessing recent published support for SFT. In particular, we assess (i) the precision with which experiments have been conducted, (ii) the assumptions made about human visual ability, and (iii) the accuracy with which earlier research has been reported. The assessment reveals shortcomings and errors that are likely to impact on an accurate understanding of research in this area and, therefore, on an accurate understanding of the viability of SFT.

  4. Further evidence for the interaction of central and peripheral processes: the impact of double letters in writing English words

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on spelling processes suppose that the activation of orthographic representations is over before we start to write. The goal of the present study was to provide evidence indicating that the orthographic representations activated during spelling production interact continuously with the motor processes during movement production. We manipulated gemination to assess the influence of the orthographic properties of words on the kinematic parameters of production. Native English-speaking participants wrote words containing double letters and control words on a digitizer [e.g., DISSIPATE (Geminate) and DISGRACE (Control)]. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a doublet at the same position. The results revealed that latencies were shorter for Geminates than Controls, indicating that spelling processes were facilitated by the presence of a doublet in the word. Critically, the impact of letter doubling was also observed during production, with shorter letter durations (e.g., D, I, S) and intervals (DI, IS) for Geminates than Controls. Letter doubling therefore affected the whole process of word writing: from spelling recall to movement preparation and production. The spelling processes that were involved before movement initiation cascaded into processes that regulate movement execution. The activation spread onto peripheral processing until the production of the doublet was completely programmed (e.g., letter S). PMID:24133473

  5. Word skipping during sentence reading: effects of lexicality on parafoveal processing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined how lexical status affects the targeting of saccades during reading by using the boundary technique to vary independently the content of a letter string when seen in parafoveal preview and when directly fixated. Experiment 1 measured the skipping rate for a target word embedded in a sentence under three parafoveal preview conditions: full preview (e.g., brain-brain), pseudohomophone preview (e.g., brane-brain), and orthographic nonword control preview (e.g., brant-brain); in the first condition, the preview string was always an English word, while in the second and third conditions, it was always a nonword. Experiment 2 investigated three conditions where the preview string was always a word: full preview (e.g., beach-beach), homophone preview (e.g., beech-beach), and orthographic control preview (e.g., bench-beach). None of the letter string manipulations used to create the preview conditions in the experiments disrupted sublexical orthographic or phonological patterns. In Experiment 1, higher skipping rates were observed for the full (lexical) preview condition, which consisted of a word, than for the nonword preview conditions (pseudohomophone and orthographic control). In contrast, Experiment 2 showed no difference in skipping rates across the three types of lexical preview conditions (full, homophone, and orthographic control), although preview type did influence reading times. This pattern indicates that skipping not only depends on the presence of disrupted sublexical patterns of orthography or phonology, but also is critically dependent on processes that are sensitive to the lexical status of letter strings in the parafovea.

  6. Unconscious Processes in a Career Counselling Case: An Action-Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Brenda; Pizzorno, Maria Chiara; Qu, Kejia; Valach, Ladislav; Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Although clients and counselors can often account for their actions in counselling, sometimes the link between the action taken and the larger goal is not apparent. This article accounts for counterproductive, paradoxical actions within the counselling process by addressing unconscious processes as links between immediate actions and larger…

  7. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends.

  8. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  9. Conceptual processing in music as revealed by N400 effects on words and musical targets.

    PubMed

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Schön, Daniele

    2009-10-01

    The cognitive processing of concepts, that is, abstract general ideas, has been mostly studied with language. However, other domains, such as music, can also convey concepts. Koelsch et al. [Koelsch, S., Kasper, E., Sammler, D., Schulze, K., Gunter, T., & Friederici, A. D. Music, language and meaning: Brain signatures of semantic processing. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 302-307, 2004] showed that 10 sec of music can influence the semantic processing of words. However, the length of the musical excerpts did not allow the authors to study the effect of words on musical targets. In this study, we decided to replicate Koelsch et al. findings using 1-sec musical excerpts (Experiment 1). This allowed us to study the reverse influence, namely, of a linguistic context on conceptual processing of musical excerpts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, we recorded behavioral and electrophysiological responses while participants were presented 50 related and 50 unrelated pairs (context/target). Experiments 1 and 2 showed a larger N400 component of the event-related brain potentials to targets following a conceptually unrelated compared to a related context. The presence of an N400 effect with musical targets suggests that music may convey concepts. The relevance of these results for the comprehension of music as a structured set of conceptual units and for the domain specificity of the mechanisms underlying N400 effects are discussed.

  10. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eric C; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  11. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Eric C.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2016-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC. PMID:26793138

  12. Putting Words into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoroso, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The tradition of a sink-or-swim philosophy for new teachers was and had been common practice in Lakeside Middle School in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey for decades. However, the school's principal has worked to reverse the tradition of a sink-or-swim philosophy for new teachers. He, together with the administrative team, has created the New Teacher…

  13. Interplay of emotional valence and concreteness in word processing: an event-related potential study with verbs.

    PubMed

    Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2013-06-01

    The functional locus of emotional valence in word processing remains an open question. In event-related potentials, emotion has been found to elicit an early posterior negativity (EPN), which is assumed to reflect attention catching by the words' meaning. Previously, the EPN was modulated by word category with verbs exhibiting longer EPN latencies compared with other word categories. Here we examined whether concreteness, a semantic variable, influences emotion processing. Within a lexical decision task for verbs, emotional valence (positive, negative, and neutral) was orthogonally combined with concreteness (concrete and abstract). EPN onset was found already at 250 ms post-stimulus for concrete verbs, whereas it started 50 ms later for abstract verbs. Concreteness effects occurred after the start of main effects of emotion. Thus, the elicitation of the EPN seems to be based on semantic processes, with emotional valence being accessed before other semantic aspects such as concreteness of verbs.

  14. Comprehending Text versus Reading Words in Young Readers with Varying Reading Ability: Distinct Patterns of Functional Connectivity from Common Processing Hubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2016-01-01

    Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation ("word-level processing"; "WL") and extracting meaning from text ("discourse-level processing"; "DL"); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as…

  15. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  16. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. It’s all in the family: brain asymmetry and syntactic processing of word class

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    Although left hemisphere (LH) specialization for language is often viewed as a key example of functional lateralization, there is increasing evidence that the right hemisphere (RH) can also extract meaning from words and sentences. However, the RH’s ability to appreciate syntactic aspects of language remains poorly understood. Here, using separable, functionally well-characterized electrophysiological indices of lexico-semantic and syntactic processes, we demonstrate RH sensitivity to syntactic violations among right-handers with a strong manual preference. Critically, however, the nature of this RH sensitivity to structural information is modulated by a genetically determined factor—familial sinistrality. The RH in right-handers without left-handed family members processes syntactic violations via the words’ accompanying lexico-semantic unexpectedness. In contrast, the RH in right-handers with left-handed family members is able to process syntactic information in a qualitatively similar manner as the LH. PMID:25963616

  18. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information.

  19. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information. PMID:27363253

  20. Implicit Statistical Learning in Language Processing: Word Predictability is the Key

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Christopher M.; Baurnschmidt, Althea; Huang, Sean; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental learning abilities related to the implicit encoding of sequential structure have been postulated to underlie language acquisition and processing. However, there is very little direct evidence to date supporting such a link between implicit statistical learning and language. In three experiments using novel methods of assessing implicit learning and language abilities, we show that sensitivity to sequential structure -- as measured by improvements to immediate memory span for structurally-consistent input sequences -- is significantly correlated with the ability to use knowledge of word predictability to aid speech perception under degraded listening conditions. Importantly, the association remained even after controlling for participant performance on other cognitive tasks, including short-term and working memory, intelligence, attention and inhibition, and vocabulary knowledge. Thus, the evidence suggests that implicit learning abilities are essential for acquiring long-term knowledge of the sequential structure of language -- i.e., knowledge of word predictability – and that individual differences on such abilities impact speech perception in everyday situations. These findings provide a new theoretical rationale linking basic learning phenomena to specific aspects of spoken language processing in adults, and may furthermore indicate new fruitful directions for investigating both typical and atypical language development. PMID:19922909

  1. Foveal crowding in posterior cortical atrophy: a specific early-visual-processing deficit affecting word reading.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2007-12-01

    Visual crowding is a form of masking in which single-letter identification is compromised by the presence of additional letters or other simple visual forms in close proximity. This behavioural phenomenon has been studied most frequently in the context of amblyopic and normal peripheral vision. In the current study, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of two patients with peripheral dyslexia and a third with visual disorientation consequent to bilateral posterior cortical atrophy. In one case, reading showed the effects of word length typical of letter-by-letter reading, whereas the second case was unable to read any whole words. In a series of letter identification tasks, recognition accuracy was shown to decrease significantly in the presence of a range of flanking stimuli (e.g., letters, digits, letter fragments). Compatible with previous reports of the crowding phenomenon, the flanking effect was strengthened by increasing flanker proximity but was unaffected by target or flank size, flank contrast, target-flank lexicality, or flank category. One patient also showed amelioration of the flanking effect when the target and flankers were of opposite contrast polarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of visual crowding in individuals with posterior cortical atrophy. We consider the relevance of these empirical findings to accounts of the letter-by-letter reading form of peripheral dyslexia. In particular, we suggest that crowding constitutes one specific form of early-visual-processing deficit, which impairs the reading process.

  2. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  3. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  4. The Bayesian Reader: Explaining Word Recognition as an Optimal Bayesian Decision Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a theory of visual word recognition that assumes that, in the tasks of word identification, lexical decision, and semantic categorization, human readers behave as optimal Bayesian decision makers. This leads to the development of a computational model of word recognition, the Bayesian reader. The Bayesian reader successfully…

  5. Extraction of Linguistic Information from Successive Words during Reading: Evidence for Spatially Distributed Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether word recognition progressed from one word to the next during reading, as maintained by sequential attention shift models such as the E-Z Reader model. The boundary technique was used to control the visibility of to-be-identified short target words, so that they were either previewed in the parafovea or masked. The…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Activation in Bilingual Sentence Processing: The Role of Word Class Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof; Hofman, Fabrice; Loeys, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how categorial (word class) semantics influences cross-linguistic interactions when reading in L2. Previous homograph studies paid little attention to the possible influence of different word classes in the stimulus material on cross-linguistic activation. The present study examines the word recognition performance of…

  7. Discourse-Based Word Anticipation during Language Processing: Prediction or Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Marte; Van Berkum, Jos J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Language is an intrinsically open-ended system. This fact has led to the widely shared assumption that readers and listeners do not predict upcoming words, at least not in a way that goes beyond simple priming between words. Recent evidence, however, suggests that readers and listeners do anticipate upcoming words "on the fly" as a text unfolds.…

  8. Effects of accelerated reading rate on processing words' syntactic functions by normal and dyslexic readers: event related potentials evidence.

    PubMed

    Breznitz, Z; Leikin, M

    2001-09-01

    In the present study, the authors examined differences in brain activity, as measured by amplitudes and latencies of event related potentials (ERP) components, in Hebrew-speaking adult dyslexic and normal readers when processing sentence components with different grammatical functions. Participants were 20 dyslexic and 20 normally reading male college students aged 18-27 years. The authors examined the processing of normal word strings in word-by-word reading of sentences having subject-verb-object (SVO) syntactic structure in self- and fast-paced conditions. Data revealed that in both reading conditions, the N100 and P300 ERP components were sensitive to internal processes such as recognition of words' grammatical functions. However, the results revealed that fast-paced reading rate might affect this process, as was reflected in the systematic changes of amplitudes and latencies of both ERP components. In accelerated reading, a significant decrease of latencies and increase of amplitudes in dyslexics were shown. It was also found that influence of fast-paced reading rate was realized in the full usage of the word-order strategy in sentence processing. In turn, this fact confirmed the hypothesis concerning a syntactic processing "weakness" in dyslexia.

  9. Processing of invisible stimuli: advantage of upright faces and recognizable words in overcoming interocular suppression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; He, Sheng

    2007-04-01

    Familiar and recognizable stimuli enjoy an advantage of predominance during binocular rivalry, and this advantage is usually attributed to their enhanced processing during the dominant phase. However, do familiar and recognizable stimuli have an advantage in breaking suppression? Test images were gradually introduced to one eye to compete against a standard high-contrast dynamic noise pattern presented to the other eye. Results showed that an upright face took less time than an upside-down face to gain dominance against the identical suppression noise. Results also showed that for Chinese readers, Chinese characters were faster to gain dominance than Hebrew words, whereas for Hebrew readers, the reverse was true. These results suggest that familiar and recognizable information, even when suppressed and invisible, is processed differently from unfamiliar information. Apparently, high-level information about visual form does contribute to the strength of a stimulus during its suppressed phase.

  10. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  11. Pulling out the intentional structure of action: the relation between action processing and action production in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Adults and children readily construct action representations organized with respect to an ultimate goal. These representations allow one to predict the consequences of action, interpret and describe actions, and categorize action sequences. In this paper, we explore the ontogeny of hierarchically organized action representations, and its relation to infants’ ability to produce similar sequences. To do so, we examine infants’ perception and performance of a means-end sequence: pulling a cloth to retrieve a toy. Using a visual habituation paradigm, we demonstrate that 12-month-old infants understand that the initial step of the cloth-pulling sequence is directed toward the ultimate goal of attaining the toy, and use their knowledge of the causal constraints of the sequence to make this goal attribution. Ten-month-olds, however, appear transitional with respect to this understanding: their ability to identify the goal of the cloth-pulling sequence is related to their own ability to planfully solve a similar sequence. These findings are consistent with a burgeoning body of literature suggesting an intimate link between action production and perception, and suggest that this link is in place by at least 10 months of age. PMID:15629472

  12. Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

  13. Rules from words: a dynamic neural basis for a lawful linguistic process.

    PubMed

    Gow, David W; Nied, A Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Listeners show a reliable bias towards interpreting speech sounds in a way that conforms to linguistic restrictions (phonotactic constraints) on the permissible patterning of speech sounds in a language. This perceptual bias may enforce and strengthen the systematicity that is the hallmark of phonological representation. Using Granger causality analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-constrained magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data, we tested the differential predictions of rule-based, frequency-based, and top-down lexical influence-driven explanations of processes that produce phonotactic biases in phoneme categorization. Consistent with the top-down lexical influence account, brain regions associated with the representation of words had a stronger influence on acoustic-phonetic regions in trials that led to the identification of phonotactically legal (versus illegal) word-initial consonant clusters. Regions associated with the application of linguistic rules had no such effect. Similarly, high frequency phoneme clusters failed to produce stronger feedforward influences by acoustic-phonetic regions on areas associated with higher linguistic representation. These results suggest that top-down lexical influences contribute to the systematicity of phonological representation.

  14. Deficient morphological processing in adults with developmental dyslexia: another barrier to efficient word recognition?

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rachel; Raveh, Michal

    2007-05-01

    Research on dyslexia has focused on the phonological level of linguistic analysis. Here we extend the investigation of the linguistic competence of individuals with dyslexia to the morphological level of linguistic analysis. We examine whether adult Hebrew readers with dyslexia extract and represent morphemic units similarly to normal readers. Using the priming paradigm in the word fragment completion task, we measured the magnitude of morphological priming and contrasted this effect with the repetition priming effect. Students with normal reading ability showed the typical repetition priming effect. A comparable repetition priming effect was also found for the dyslexic group as a whole. However, when the dyslexics were classified into three subtypes according to their phonological and orthographic decoding skills, repetition priming effects were significant only for the phonological dyslexia subgroup but not for the surface or mixed dyslexia subgroups. Furthermore, students with normal reading ability showed strong morphological priming, comparable in strength to the repetition priming effect. In contrast, the dyslexic readers did not show morphological priming, neither the dyslexia group as a whole, nor any of the subgroups. Our results highlight an additional source for dyslexics' difficulties with word recognition which lie at the level of morphological processing. PMID:17557687

  15. Rules from Words: A Dynamic Neural Basis for a Lawful Linguistic Process

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.; Nied, A. Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Listeners show a reliable bias towards interpreting speech sounds in a way that conforms to linguistic restrictions (phonotactic constraints) on the permissible patterning of speech sounds in a language. This perceptual bias may enforce and strengthen the systematicity that is the hallmark of phonological representation. Using Granger causality analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- constrained magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data, we tested the differential predictions of rule-based, frequency–based, and top-down lexical influence-driven explanations of processes that produce phonotactic biases in phoneme categorization. Consistent with the top-down lexical influence account, brain regions associated with the representation of words had a stronger influence on acoustic-phonetic regions in trials that led to the identification of phonotactically legal (versus illegal) word-initial consonant clusters. Regions associated with the application of linguistic rules had no such effect. Similarly, high frequency phoneme clusters failed to produce stronger feedforward influences by acoustic-phonetic regions on areas associated with higher linguistic representation. These results suggest that top-down lexical influences contribute to the systematicity of phonological representation. PMID:24465965

  16. Impaired color word processing at an unattended location: evidence from a Stroop task combined with inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Moon; Cho, Yang Seok; Proctor, Robert W

    2009-09-01

    A Stroop task with separate color bar and color word stimuli was combined with an inhibition-of-return procedure to examine whether visual attention modulates color word processing. In Experiment 1, the color bar was presented at the cued location and the color word at the uncued location, or vice versa, with a 100- or 1,050-msec stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between cue and Stroop stimuli. In Experiment 2, on Stroop trials, the color bar was presented at a central fixated location and the color word at a cued or uncued location above or below the color bar. In both experiments, with a 100-msec SOA, the Stroop effect was numerically larger when the color word was displayed at the cued location than when it was displayed at the uncued location, but with the 1,050-msec SOA, this relation between Stroop effect magnitude and location was reversed. These results provide evidence that processing of the color word in the Stroop task is modulated by the location to which visual attention is directed.

  17. Is the processing of words during eye fixations in reading strictly serial?

    PubMed

    Inhoff, A W; Starr, M; Shindler, K L

    2000-10-01

    Extant models of oculomotor control during reading maintain that allocation of attention confines word recognition to one (target) word at a time, and that an eye movement to a new (posttarget) word is computed before attention is shifted to it. To test these assumptions, properties of the posttarget's preview were manipulated during the fixation of the preceding target word. The main results revealed longer target viewing durations when the posttarget preview was visually distinctive or when it was orthographically illegal. The meaning of posttarget text did not affect initial target word reading, although it affected the time spent rereading the target. To account for these findings, extant attention-shift models must assume that readers obtain at least visuospatial and orthographic information from a parafovelly visible word before it is attended. This view has shortcomings, however, and several considerations favor less restrictive model assumptions according to which attention can be allocated to more than one word at a time.

  18. Intonation processing deficits of emotional words among Mandarin Chinese speakers with congenital amusia: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Liu, Fang; Wu, Daxing; Thompson, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital amusia is a disorder that is known to affect the processing of musical pitch. Although individuals with amusia rarely show language deficits in daily life, a number of findings point to possible impairments in speech prosody that amusic individuals may compensate for by drawing on linguistic information. Using EEG, we investigated (1) whether the processing of speech prosody is impaired in amusia and (2) whether emotional linguistic information can compensate for this impairment. Method: Twenty Chinese amusics and 22 matched controls were presented pairs of emotional words spoken with either statement or question intonation while their EEG was recorded. Their task was to judge whether the intonations were the same. Results: Amusics exhibited impaired performance on the intonation-matching task for emotional linguistic information, as their performance was significantly worse than that of controls. EEG results showed a reduced N2 response to incongruent intonation pairs in amusics compared with controls, which likely reflects impaired conflict processing in amusia. However, our EEG results also indicated that amusics were intact in early sensory auditory processing, as revealed by a comparable N1 modulation in both groups. Conclusion: We propose that the impairment in discriminating speech intonation observed among amusic individuals may arise from an inability to access information extracted at early processing stages. This, in turn, could reflect a disconnection between low-level and high-level processing. PMID:25914659

  19. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  20. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Miller, Gregory A.; Sass, Sarah M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  1. Effects of working memory load on processing of sounds and meanings of words in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nadine; Kohen, Francine; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Soveri, Anna; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background Language performance in aphasia can vary depending on several variables such as stimulus characteristics and task demands. This study focuses on the degree of verbal working memory (WM) load inherent in the language task and how this variable affects language performance by individuals with aphasia. Aims The first aim was to identify the effects of increased verbal WM load on the performance of judgments of semantic similarity (synonymy) and phonological similarity (rhyming). The second aim was to determine if any of the following abilities could modulate the verbal WM load effect: semantic or phonological access, semantic or phonological short-term memory (STM) and any of the following executive processing abilities: inhibition, verbal WM updating, and set shifting. Method and Procedures Thirty-one individuals with aphasia and 11 controls participated in this study. They were administered a synonymy judgment task and a rhyming judgment task under high and low verbal WM load conditions that were compared to each other. In a second set of analyses, multiple regression was used to identify which factors (as noted above) modulated the verbal WM load effect. Outcome and Results For participants with aphasia, increased verbal WM load significantly reduced accuracy of performance on synonymy and rhyming judgments. Better performance in the low verbal WM load conditions was evident even after correcting for chance. The synonymy task included concrete and abstract word triplets. When these were examined separately, the verbal WM load effect was significant for the abstract words, but not the concrete words. The same pattern was observed in the performance of the control participants. Additionally, the second set of analyses revealed that semantic STM and one executive function, inhibition ability, emerged as the strongest predictors of the verbal WM load effect in these judgment tasks for individuals with aphasia. Conclusions The results of this study have

  2. From Perception to Recognition Memory: Time Course and Lateralization of Neural Substrates of Word and Abstract Picture Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillard, Louis; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Baumann, Cedric; Koessler, Laurent; Benar, Christian; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Through study of clinical cases with brain lesions as well as neuroimaging studies of cognitive processing of words and pictures, it has been established that material-specific hemispheric specialization exists. It remains however unclear whether such specialization holds true for all processes involved in complex tasks, such as recognition…

  3. Is "processed" a four-letter word? The role of processed foods in achieving dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Fulgoni, Victor L; Clemens, Roger A; Schmidt, David B; Freedman, Marjorie R

    2012-07-01

    This paper, based on the symposium "Is 'Processed' a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations in the U.S." describes ongoing efforts and challenges at the nutrition-food science interface and public health; addresses misinformation about processed foods by showing that processed fruits and vegetables made important dietary contributions (e.g., fiber, folate, potassium, vitamins A and C) to nutrient intake among NHANES 2003-2006 participants, that major sources of vitamins (except vitamin K) were provided by enrichment and fortification and that enrichment and fortification helped decrease the percentage of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin A, thiamin, folate, and iron; describes how negative consumer perceptions and consumer confusion about processed foods led to the development of science-based information on food processing and technology that aligns with health objectives; and examines challenges and opportunities faced by food scientists who must balance consumer preferences, federal regulations, and issues surrounding food safety, cost, unintended consequences, and sustainability when developing healthful foods that align with dietary guidelines.

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Hai; Laird, Angela R; Li, Karl; Fox, Peter T

    2005-05-01

    We used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method to quantitatively synthesize data from 19 published brain mapping studies of phonological processing in reading, six with Chinese and 13 with alphabetic languages. It demonstrated high concordance of cortical activity across multiple studies in each written language system as well as significant differences of activation likelihood between languages. Four neural systems for the phonological processing of Chinese characters included: (1) a left dorsal lateral frontal system at Brodmann area (BA) 9; (2) the dorsal aspect of left inferior parietal system; (3) a bilateral ventral-occipitotemporal system including portions of fusiform gyrus and middle occipital gyrus; and (4) a left ventral prefrontal system covering the superior aspect of inferior frontal gyrus. For phonological processing of written alphabetic words, cortical areas identified here are consistent with the three neural systems proposed previously in the literature: (1) a ventral prefrontal system involving superior portions of left inferior frontal gyrus; (2) a left dorsal temporoparietal system including mid-superior temporal gyri and the ventral aspect of inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal region); and (3) a left ventral occipitotemporal system. Contributions of each of these systems to phonological processing in reading were discussed, and a covariant learning hypothesis is offered to account for the findings that left middle frontal gyrus is responsible for addressed phonology in Chinese whereas left temporoparietal regions mediate assembled phonology in alphabetic languages. Language form, cognitive process, and learning strategy drive the development of functional neuroanatomy.

  5. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  6. Re-evaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: effects of retinal eccentricity on hemispheric dominance.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Stachurski, Marcin

    2008-11-01

    Several studies have claimed that hemispheric asymmetries affect word recognition right up to the point of fixation because each fovea is split precisely at its vertical midline and information presented either side of this midline projects unilaterally to different, contralateral hemispheres. To investigate this claim, four-letter words were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation entirely in foveal vision (0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 degrees from fixation) or further from fixation entirely in extrafoveal vision (2.00, 2.10, and 2.20 degrees from fixation). Fixation location and stimulus presentation were controlled using an eye-tracker linked to a fixation-contingent display and performance was assessed using a forced-choice task to suppress confounding effects of guesswork. A left hemisphere advantage was observed for words presented in extrafoveal locations but no hemisphere advantage (left or right) was observed for words presented in any foveal location. These findings support the well-established view that words encountered outside foveal vision project to different, contralateral hemispheres but indicate that this division for word recognition occurs only outside the fovea and provide no support for the claim that a functional split in hemispheric processing exists at the point of fixation. PMID:18999347

  7. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  8. Sequential processing in hemispheric word recognition: the impact of initial letter discriminability on the OUP naming effect.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Annukka K; Nicholls, Michael E R; Kwantes, Peter J; Castles, Anne

    2005-05-01

    The cerebral hemispheres have been proposed to engage different word recognition strategies: the left hemisphere implementing a parallel, and the right hemisphere, a sequential, analysis. To investigate this notion, we asked participants to name words with an early or late orthographic uniqueness point (OUP), presented horizontally to their left (LVF), right (RVF), or both fields of vision (BVF). Consistent with past foveal research, Experiment 1 produced a robust facilitatory effect of early OUP for RVF/BVF presentations, indicating the presence of sequential processes in lexical retrieval. The effect was absent for LVF trials, which we argue results from the disadvantaged position of initial letters of words presented in the LVF. To test this proposition, Experiment 2 assessed the discriminability of various letter positions in the visual fields using a bar-probe task. The obtained error functions highlighted the poor discriminability of initial letters in the LVF and latter letters in the RVF. To confirm that this asymmetry in initial letter acuity was responsible for the absent OUP effect for LVF presentations, Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using vertical stimulus presentations. Results indicated a marked facilitatory effect of early OUP across visual fields, supporting our contention that the lack of OUP effect for LVF presentations in Experiment 1 resulted from poor discriminability of the initial letters. These findings confirm the presence of sequential processes in both left and right hemisphere word recognition, casting doubt on parallel models of word processing.

  9. The Action Execution Process Implemented in Different Cognitive Architectures: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Daqi; Franklin, Stan

    2014-12-01

    An agent achieves its goals by interacting with its environment, cyclically choosing and executing suitable actions. An action execution process is a reasonable and critical part of an entire cognitive architecture, because the process of generating executable motor commands is not only driven by low-level environmental information, but is also initiated and affected by the agent's high-level mental processes. This review focuses on cognitive models of action, or more specifically, of the action execution process, as implemented in a set of popular cognitive architectures. We examine the representations and procedures inside the action execution process, as well as the cooperation between action execution and other high-level cognitive modules. We finally conclude with some general observations regarding the nature of action execution.

  10. Is Early Word-form Processing Stress-full? How Natural Variability Supports Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Heather; Morgan, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants’ recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers’ infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers systematically alternated between emphatic and nonemphatic stress when talking to their infants. Using the headturn preference procedure, we then tested 7.5-month-old infants on their ability to detect familiarized bisyllabic words in fluent speech. Stress of target words (emphatic and nonemphatic) was systematically varied across familiarization and recognition phases of four experiments. Results indicated that, although infants generally prefer listening to words produced with emphatic stress, recognition was enhanced when the degree of emphatic stress at familiarization matched the degree of emphatic stress at recognition. PMID:20159653

  11. Clinical, Imaging and Pathological Correlates of a Hereditary Deficit in Verb and Action Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Thomas H.; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J.; Xuereb, John H.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I)…

  12. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  13. The Contribution of Segmental and Tonal Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Joan A; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-06-01

    Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 48 native Mandarin listeners. Experiment 2 further investigated the minimal segmental overlap needed to trigger priming when tonal information is present. Four prime-target conditions were contrasted: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), only onset segment overlap (re4-ru4), only rime overlap (pu4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 68 native Mandarin listeners. The results showed significant priming effects when both tonal and segmental information overlapped or, although to a lesser extent, when only segmental information overlapped, with no priming found when only tones matched. Moreover, any partial segmental overlap, even with matching tonal cues, resulted in significant inhibition. These data clearly indicate that lexical tones are processed differently from segments, with syllabic structure playing a critical role. These findings are discussed in terms of the overall architecture of the processing system that emerges in Mandarin lexical access. PMID:26677639

  14. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  15. BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS AND LESION SITES ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED PROCESSING OF LEXICAL AND CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE OF ACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Rudrauf, David; Manzel, Ken; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To further investigate the neural substrates of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions, we administered a battery of six tasks to 226 brain-damaged patients with widely distributed lesions in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The tasks probed lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions in a variety of verbal and non-verbal ways, including naming, word-picture matching, attribute judgments involving both words and pictures, and associative comparisons involving both words and pictures. Of the 226 patients who were studied, 61 failed one or more of the six tasks, with four patients being impaired on the entire battery, and varied numbers of patients being impaired on varied combinations of tasks. Overall, the 61 patients manifested a complex array of associations and dissociations across the six tasks. The lesion sites of 147 of the 226 patients were also investigated, using formal methods for lesion-deficit statistical mapping and power analysis of lesion overlap maps. Significant effects for all six tasks were found in the following left-hemisphere regions: the inferior frontal gyrus; the ventral precentral gyrus, extending superiorly into what are likely to be hand-related primary motor and premotor areas; and the anterior insula. In addition, significant effects for 4-5 tasks were found in not only the regions just mentioned, but also in several other left-hemisphere areas: the ventral postcentral gyrus; the supramarginal gyrus; and the posterior middle temporal gyrus. These results converge with previous research on the neural underpinnings of action words and concepts. However, the current study goes considerably beyond most previous investigations by providing extensive behavioral and lesion data for an unusually large and diverse sample of brain-damaged patients, and by incorporating multiple measures of verb comprehension. Regarding theoretical implications, the study provides new support for the Embodied Cognition Framework, which maintains that

  16. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental assessment accompany the proposed action throughout the Commission decision-making process. (d... proposed action throughout the remainder of the Commission decision-making process. (e) Final EIS. The... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process...

  17. 25 CFR 175.62 - Utility actions pending the appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility actions pending the appeal process. 175.62... POWER UTILITIES Appeals § 175.62 Utility actions pending the appeal process. Pending an appeal, utility... discontinuance of service, the utility is not required to resume such service during the appeal process...

  18. Evaluating a Split Processing Model of Visual Word Recognition: Effects of Orthographic Neighborhood Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal; Hayes, Adrian; Shillcock, Richard; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The split fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition of centrally presented words is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation being projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation being projected to the left hemisphere (LH). Two lexical decision experiments aimed to…

  19. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  20. On the Functional Neuroanatomy of Visual Word Processing: Effects of Case and Letter Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronbichler, Martin; Klackl, Johannes; Richlan, Fabio; Schurz, Matthias; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasted case-deviant and letter-deviant forms with familiar forms of the same phonological words (e.g., "TaXi" and "Taksi" vs. "Taxi") and found that both types of deviance led to increased activation in a left occipito-temporal region, corresponding to the visual word form area (VWFA). The…

  1. Words, Hemispheres, and Processing Mechanisms: A Response to Marsolek and Deason (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Ellis, Ansorge and Lavidor (2007) [Ellis, A.W., Ansorge, L., & Lavidor, M. (2007). Words, hemispheres, and dissociable subsystems: The effects of exposure duration, case alternation, priming and continuity of form on word recognition in the left and right visual fields. "Brain and Language," 103, 292-303.] presented three experiments investigating…

  2. Differential Processing of Thematic and Categorical Conceptual Relations in Spoken Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Hansen, Samuel; McMahon, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of semantic context effects in spoken word production have typically distinguished between categorical (or taxonomic) and associative relations. However, associates tend to confound semantic features or morphological representations, such as whole-part relations and compounds (e.g., BOAT-anchor, BEE-hive). Using a picture-word interference…

  3. Word and Letter String Processing Networks in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Anomalies and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griego, Jacqueline A.; Cortes, Carlos R.; Nune, Sunitha; Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Tagamets, M.-A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging studies show that in normal language correlated activity between anterior and posterior brain regions increases as the linguistic and semantic content (i.e., from false fonts, letter strings, pseudo words, to words) of stimuli increase. In schizophrenia however, disrupted functional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions…

  4. Better Processing of Consonantal over Vocalic Information in Word Learning at 16 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Previous research using the name-based categorization task has shown that 20-month-old infants can simultaneously learn 2 words that only differ by 1 consonantal feature but fail to do so when the words only differ by 1 vocalic feature. This asymmetry was taken as evidence for the proposal that consonants are more important than vowels at the…

  5. Morphological Processing and Lexical Access in Speech Production in Hebrew: Evidence from Picture-Word Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolan, Limor; Leikin, Mark; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of the retrieval architecture of Semitic morphemic entities in word production in Hebrew, a language with a non-concatenated morphology. By taking advantage of the potential for dissociation of form and meaning in Hebrew, we explored the relative contribution of word-form and semantics to morphological…

  6. Individual Differences in Inhibitory Control Relate to Bilingual Spoken Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Julie; Pivneva, Irina; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether individual differences in inhibitory control relate to bilingual spoken word recognition. While their eye movements were monitored, native English and native French English-French bilinguals listened to English words (e.g., "field") and looked at pictures corresponding to the target, a within-language competitor…

  7. Parallel and Serial Reading Processes in Children's Word and Nonword Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluent reading is characterized by rapid and accurate identification of words. It is commonly accepted that such identification relies on the availability of orthographic knowledge. However, whether this orthographic knowledge should be seen as an accumulation of word-specific knowledge in a lexicon acquired through decoding or as a well-developed…

  8. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  9. Improving Process Writing Skills of Seventh Grade At-Risk Students by Increasing Interest through the Use of the Microcomputer, Word Processing Software, and Telecommunications Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoni, Stephen J.

    A practicum was developed to improve process writing skills of seventh grade at-risk students by increasing interest through the use of the microcomputer, word processing software, and telecommunications technology. Sixteen students wrote a series of eight "basic" hand-written essays as part of the regular language arts class. Students then…

  10. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  11. Investigating the Effects of Background Knowledge on Chinese Word Processing during Text Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Ko, Hwa-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of background knowledge on Chinese word processing during silent reading by monitoring adult readers' eye movements. Both higher knowledge (physics major) and lower knowledge (nonphysics major) graduate students were given physics texts to read. Higher knowledge readers spent less time rereading and had…

  12. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  13. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

  14. Obtaining Help with Appleworks V1.3 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIe Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for word processing using AppleWorks on the Apple IIe computer with a Duodisk or two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading, creating files, accessing and using the help list, copying and moving text, deleting text, using the find option, inserting page breaks,…

  15. Obtaining Help with AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for obtaining help with AppleWorks version 2.0 word processing files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading; selecting the help list; and using the help list to copy text, delete text, find parts of a document, identify…

  16. Visual-Action Code Processing by Deaf and Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todman, John; Seedhouse, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    Studied 18 deaf and 18 hearing childrens' (aged 6.8 to 16.6 years) performance on short-term memory tasks involving production of action responses to previously paired visual stimuli. Deaf children showed superior performance on the simultaneous presentation-free recall task and inferior performance on the serial presentation-serial recall task.…

  17. Neural Bases of Sequence Processing in Action and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carota, Francesca; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Real-time estimation of what we will do next is a crucial prerequisite of purposive behavior. During the planning of goal-oriented actions, for instance, the temporal and causal organization of upcoming subsequent moves needs to be predicted based on our knowledge of events. A forward computation of sequential structure is also essential for…

  18. Cues to Action in the Process of Changing Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiller, Lucette K.; Lund, Anker Brink; Kok, Gerjo

    1997-01-01

    Individual men (N=21) were studied as they related to health information over time to uncover motives for changing health habits relevant to prevention of coronary heart disease. Examples are presented, and cues to action are distinguished. Mediating factors and strategies for initiating changes in health behavior are discussed. (EMK)

  19. Temporal prediction restores the evaluative processing of delayed action feedback: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro

    2016-09-28

    The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback. With a typical gambling task in which the participant chose one of two cards and received an action feedback indicating monetary gain or loss, the present study showed that FRN/RewP was significantly elicited even when the action-feedback interval was 6000 ms, when an auditory stimulus sequence was additionally presented during the action-feedback interval as a temporal cue. This result suggests that the undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback can be restored by increasing the accuracy of the prediction on the timing of the action feedback.

  20. Temporal prediction restores the evaluative processing of delayed action feedback: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Motohiro

    2016-09-28

    The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback. With a typical gambling task in which the participant chose one of two cards and received an action feedback indicating monetary gain or loss, the present study showed that FRN/RewP was significantly elicited even when the action-feedback interval was 6000 ms, when an auditory stimulus sequence was additionally presented during the action-feedback interval as a temporal cue. This result suggests that the undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback can be restored by increasing the accuracy of the prediction on the timing of the action feedback. PMID:27513200

  1. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  2. On the costs and benefits of faces and words: process characteristics of feature search in highly meaningful stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Michael J; Townsend, James T

    2006-06-01

    The authors present a comprehensive consideration of the process characteristics of visual search in contexts that vary in their meaningfulness. The authors frame hypotheses regarding process architecture, stopping rule, capacity, and channel independence, using analytic results and a rigorously specified dynamic system to characterize a set of alternative hypotheses that vary along all of these dimensions. Results of the tests of these hypotheses suggest that process architecture and the stopping rule do not distinguish the processing of meaningful and meaningless forms. The major distinction between configural and nonconfigural processing was with regard to processing capacity, potentially implicating channel interdependencies. All of these conclusions hold for both faces and words.

  3. Action speaks louder than words: young children differentially weight perceptual, social, and linguistic cues to learn verbs.

    PubMed

    Brandone, Amanda C; Pence, Khara L; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how children use two possible solutions to the verb-mapping problem: attention to perceptually salient actions and attention to social and linguistic information (speaker cues). Twenty-two-month-olds attached a verb to one of two actions when perceptual cues (presence/absence of a result) coincided with speaker cues but not when these cues were placed into conflict (Experiment 1), and not when both possible referent actions were perceptually salient (Experiment 2). By 34 months, children were able to override perceptual cues to learn the name of an action that was not perceptually salient (Experiment 3). Results demonstrate an early reliance on perceptual information for verb mapping and an emerging tendency to weight speaker information more heavily over developmental time. PMID:17650141

  4. Good, bad and ugly word stress--fMRI evidence for foot structure driven processing of prosodic violations.

    PubMed

    Domahs, Ulrike; Klein, Elise; Huber, Walter; Domahs, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Using a stress violation paradigm, we investigated whether metrical feet constrain the way prosodic patterns are processed and evaluated. Processing of correctly versus incorrectly stressed words was associated with activation in left posterior angular and retrosplenial cortex, indicating the recognition of an expected and familiar pattern, whereas the inverse contrast yielded enhanced bilateral activation in the superior temporal gyrus, reflecting higher costs in auditory (re-)analysis. More fine-grained analyses of severe versus mild stress violations revealed activations of the left superior temporal and left anterior angular gyrus whereas the opposite contrast led to frontal activations including Broca's area and its right-hemisphere homologue, suggesting that detection of mild violations lead to increased effort in working memory and deeper phonological processing. Our results provide first evidence that different incorrect stress patterns are processed in a qualitatively different way and that the underlying foot structure seems to determine potential stress positions in German words.

  5. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  6. On the importance of being bilingual: word stress processing in a context of segmental variability.

    PubMed

    Abboub, Nawal; Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka; Serres, Josette; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    French-learning infants have language-specific difficulties in processing lexical stress due to the lack of lexical stress in French. These difficulties in discriminating between words with stress-initial (trochaic) and stress-final (iambic) patterns emerge by 10months of age in the easier context of low variability (using a single item pronounced with a trochaic pattern vs. an iambic pattern) as well as in the more challenging context of high segmental variability (using lists of segmentally different trochaic and iambic items). These findings raise the question of stress pattern perception in simultaneous bilinguals learning French and a second language using stress at the lexical level. Bijeljac-Babic, Serres, Höhle, and Nazzi (2012) established that at 10 months of age, in the simpler context of low variability, such bilinguals have better stress discrimination abilities than French-learning monolinguals. The current study explored whether this advantage extends to the more challenging context of high segmental variability. Results first establish stress pattern discrimination in a group of bilingual 10-month-olds learning French and one language with (variable) lexical stress, but not in French-learning 10-month-old monolinguals. Second, discrimination in bilinguals appeared not to be affected by the language balance of the infants, suggesting that sensitivity to stress patterns might be maintained in these bilingual infants provided that they hear at least 30% of a language with lexical stress.

  7. Processing word prosody-behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for heterogeneous performance in a language with variable stress.

    PubMed

    Heisterueber, Miriam; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan; Domahs, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the present behavioral and fMRI study, we investigated for the first time interindividual variability in word stress processing in a language with variable stress position (German) in order to identify behavioral predictors and neural correlates underlying these differences. It has been argued that speakers of languages with variable stress should perform relatively well in tasks tapping into the representation and processing of word stress, given that this is a relevant feature of their language. Nevertheless, in previous studies on word stress processing large degrees of interindividual variability have been observed but were ignored or left unexplained. Twenty-five native speakers of German performed a sequence recall task using both segmental and suprasegmental stimuli. In general, the suprasegmental condition activated a subcortico-cortico-cerebellar network including, amongst others, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, cerebellum, the basal ganglia, pre-SMA and SMA, which has been suggested to be dedicated to the processing of temporal aspects of speech. However, substantial interindividual differences were observed. In particular, main effects of group were observed in the left middle temporal gyrus (below vs. above average performance in stress processing) and in the left precuneus (above vs. below average). Moreover, condition (segmental vs. suprasegmental) and group (above vs. below average) interacted in the right hippocampus and cerebellum. At the behavioral level, differences in word stress processing could be partly explained by individual performance in basic auditory perception including duration discrimination and by working memory performance (WM). We conclude that even in a language with variable stress, interindividual differences in behavioral performance and in the neuro-cognitive foundations of stress processing can be observed which may partly be traced back to individual basic auditory processing and WM performance.

  8. Processing word prosody—behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for heterogeneous performance in a language with variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Heisterueber, Miriam; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Heim, Stefan; Domahs, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the present behavioral and fMRI study, we investigated for the first time interindividual variability in word stress processing in a language with variable stress position (German) in order to identify behavioral predictors and neural correlates underlying these differences. It has been argued that speakers of languages with variable stress should perform relatively well in tasks tapping into the representation and processing of word stress, given that this is a relevant feature of their language. Nevertheless, in previous studies on word stress processing large degrees of interindividual variability have been observed but were ignored or left unexplained. Twenty-five native speakers of German performed a sequence recall task using both segmental and suprasegmental stimuli. In general, the suprasegmental condition activated a subcortico-cortico-cerebellar network including, amongst others, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, cerebellum, the basal ganglia, pre-SMA and SMA, which has been suggested to be dedicated to the processing of temporal aspects of speech. However, substantial interindividual differences were observed. In particular, main effects of group were observed in the left middle temporal gyrus (below vs. above average performance in stress processing) and in the left precuneus (above vs. below average). Moreover, condition (segmental vs. suprasegmental) and group (above vs. below average) interacted in the right hippocampus and cerebellum. At the behavioral level, differences in word stress processing could be partly explained by individual performance in basic auditory perception including duration discrimination and by working memory performance (WM). We conclude that even in a language with variable stress, interindividual differences in behavioral performance and in the neuro-cognitive foundations of stress processing can be observed which may partly be traced back to individual basic auditory processing and WM performance. PMID

  9. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation early in the NEPA process. 1010.16 Section 1010.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  10. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  11. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  12. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  13. 43 CFR 46.160 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process. 46.160 Section 46.160 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Quality § 46.160 Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process. During the preparation of...

  14. Long-range neural synchronization supports fast and efficient reading: EEG correlates of processing expected words in sentences

    PubMed Central

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Word reading is heavily influenced by the information provided by previous context. In this study, we analyzed the neurophysiological bases of sentence reading through the EEG activity elicited during reading the same word embedded in differently constraining contexts: a) a low-constraining context; b) a high-constraining semantic compositional context; c) a high-constraining collocational context in which the item was in final position of a multi-word fixed-order expression. Cloze-probability of the two high-constraining contexts was equated. Before reading the target word we observed increased EEG gamma phase synchronization for the high-constraining compositional context and increased EEG theta synchronization for the collocational context (both compared to the low-constraining condition). After reading the target word we observed increased frontal positive EEG evoked activity (~220 ms) for the high-constraining compositional context but an even earlier (~120 ms) effect for the high-constraining collocational condition that was distributed over the scalp. A positive correlation was found only between the increased theta synchronization and the early EEG effect for the high-constraining collocational condition. Results indicate that long-range frontal-occipital interactions in the theta band - indexing working memory operations - support early visual-orthographic analysis of an incoming stimulus (such as the expected word); gamma-phase synchronization better represents binding operations between feed-forward activation and matching feedback. These data suggest that internal linguistic knowledge stored in long-term memory - if unambiguously pre-activated - supports the low-level perceptual processes involved in reading. PMID:23357072

  15. Long-range neural synchronization supports fast and efficient reading: EEG correlates of processing expected words in sentences.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-05-15

    Word reading is heavily influenced by the information provided by previous context. In this study, we analyzed the neurophysiological bases of sentence reading through the EEG activity elicited during reading the same word embedded in differently constraining contexts: a) a low-constraining context; b) a high-constraining semantic compositional context; c) a high-constraining collocational context in which the item was in final position of a multi-word fixed-order expression. Cloze-probability of the two high-constraining contexts was equated. Before reading the target word we observed increased EEG gamma phase synchronization for the high-constraining compositional context and increased EEG theta synchronization for the collocational context (both compared to the low-constraining condition). After reading the target word we observed increased frontal positive EEG evoked activity (~220ms) for the high-constraining compositional context but an even earlier (~120ms) effect for the high-constraining collocational condition that was distributed over the scalp. A positive correlation was found only between the increased theta synchronization and the early EEG effect for the high-constraining collocational condition. Results indicate that long-range frontal-occipital interactions in the theta band - indexing working memory operations - support early visual-orthographic analysis of an incoming stimulus (such as the expected word); gamma-phase synchronization better represents binding operations between feed-forward activation and matching feedback. These data suggest that internal linguistic knowledge stored in long-term memory - if unambiguously pre-activated - supports the low-level perceptual processes involved in reading.

  16. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance.

  17. Making DATA Work: A Process for Conducting Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Kaffenberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual model introduces a process to help school counselors use data to drive decision making and offers examples to implement the process. A step-by-step process is offered to help school counselors and school counselor supervisors address educational issues, close achievement gaps, and demonstrate program effectiveness. To illustrate…

  18. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing.

  19. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children's ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance.

    PubMed

    Krafnick, Anthony J; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D Lynn; Luetje, Megan M; Napoliello, Eileen M; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F

    2016-06-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of "neuronal recycling", whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this "script invariance" has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group's native writing system and found that it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. PMID:27012502

  20. The Function of Words: Distinct Neural Correlates for Words Denoting Differently Manipulable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; van Rooij, Daan; Lindemann, Oliver; Willems, Roel M.; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that language processing relies on brain areas dedicated to perception and action. For example, processing words denoting manipulable objects has been shown to activate a fronto-parietal network involved in actual tool use. This is suggested to reflect the knowledge the subject has about how objects are moved and used.…

  1. Developing normal reading skills: aspects of the visual processes underlying word recognition.

    PubMed

    Aghababian, V; Nazir, T A

    2000-06-01

    Visual word recognition performance of first graders (mean age: 6.6 years) through fifth graders (mean age: 10.8 years) was investigated using an experimental technique that is known to elicit the "viewing position effect" in skilled readers. The results showed that this effect, which consists of a systematic variation of performance as a function of fixation position within words, emerged early at the end of the 1st year of reading instruction. Visual field asymmetries in recognizing individual letters in words were also observed starting from first grade. Effects of word familiarity were obtained as early as in second grade. In contrast to skilled readers, children showed a marked word-length effect, which persisted through the first 5 years of instruction. No other qualitative differences between beginning and skilled readers were apparent. Hence, the basics of reading skills, as measured by the present technique, seem to be attained very early during acquisition. Further experience mainly reduces the time a reader needs to extract visual information from print. PMID:10788306

  2. Between-word processes in children with speech difficulties: insights from a usage-based approach to phonology.

    PubMed

    Newton, Caroline

    2012-08-01

    There are some children with speech and/or language difficulties who are significantly more difficult to understand in connected speech than in single words. The study reported here explores the between-word behaviours of three such children, aged 11;8, 12;2 and 12;10. It focuses on whether these patterns could be accounted for by lenition, as suggested by a usage-based approach to phonology. The children carried out a repetition task, with sentences containing environments that can trigger assimilation and elision. Speech elicited was examined using a combination of perceptual and electropalatographic (EPG) analysis. All of the children produced instances of word boundary behaviours reported in adult speech, as well as some which are considered to be atypical. It is argued that all of these phenomena can be viewed as lenition, and that a usage-based approach to phonology has potential for providing a valuable framework for the description of between-word processes in disordered speech.

  3. The effect of narrow-band digital processing and bit error rate on the intelligibility of ICAO spelling alphabet words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid

    1987-08-01

    The recognition of ICAO spelling alphabet words (ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, etc.) is compared with diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) scores for the same conditions. The voice conditions include unprocessed speech; speech processed through the DOD standard linear-predictive-coding algorithm operating at 2400 bit/s with random error rates of 0, 2, 5, 8, and 12 percent; and speech processed through an 800-bit/s pattern-matching algorithm. The results suggest that, with distinctive vocabularies, word intelligibility can be expected to remain high even when DRT scores fall into the poor range. However, once the DRT scores fall below 75 percent, the intelligibility can be expected to fall off rapidly; at DRT scores below 50, the recognition of a distinctive vocabulary should also fall below 50 percent.

  4. Is “Hit and Run” a Single Word? The Processing of Irreversible Binomials in Neglect Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Arcara, Giorgio; Lacaita, Graziano; Mattaloni, Elisa; Passarini, Laura; Mondini, Sara; Benincà, Paola; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first neuropsychological investigation into the problem of the mental representation and processing of irreversible binomials (IBs), i.e., word pairs linked by a conjunction (e.g., “hit and run,” “dead or alive”). In order to test their lexical status, the phenomenon of neglect dyslexia is explored. People with left-sided neglect dyslexia show a clear lexical effect: they can read IBs better (i.e., by dropping the leftmost words less frequently) when their components are presented in their correct order. This may be taken as an indication that they treat these constructions as lexical, not decomposable, elements. This finding therefore constitutes strong evidence that IBs tend to be stored in the mental lexicon as a whole and that this whole form is preferably addressed in the retrieval process. PMID:22347199

  5. Morphological Processing as We Know It: An Analytical Review of Morphological Effects in Visual Word Identification

    PubMed Central

    Amenta, Simona; Crepaldi, Davide

    2012-01-01

    The last 40 years have witnessed a growing interest in the mechanisms underlying the visual identification of complex words. A large amount of experimental data has been amassed, but although a growing number of studies are proposing explicit theoretical models for their data, no comprehensive theory has gained substantial agreement among scholars in the field. We believe that this is due, at least in part, to the presence of several controversial pieces of evidence in the literature and, consequently, to the lack of a well-defined set of experimental facts that any theory should be able to explain. With this review, we aim to delineate the state of the art in the research on the visual identification of complex words. By reviewing major empirical evidences in a number of different paradigms such as lexical decision, word naming, and masked and unmasked priming, we were able to identify a series of effects that we judge as reliable or that were consistently replicated in different experiments, along with some more controversial data, which we have tried to resolve and explain. We concentrated on behavioral and electrophysiological studies on inflected, derived, and compound words, so as to span over all types of complex words. The outcome of this work is an analytical summary of well-established facts on the most relevant morphological issues, such as regularity, morpheme position coding, family size, semantic transparency, morpheme frequency, suffix allomorphy, and productivity, morphological entropy, and morpho-orthographic parsing. In discussing this set of benchmark effects, we have drawn some methodological considerations on why contrasting evidence might have emerged, and have tried to delineate a target list for the construction of a new all-inclusive model of the visual identification of morphologically complex words. PMID:22807919

  6. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture–insights from sensory deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading. PMID:27321666

  7. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture-insights from sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading. PMID:27321666

  8. Decoding Concrete and Abstract Action Representations During Explicit and Implicit Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Ariani, Giacomo; Greenlee, Mark W; Lingnau, Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Action understanding requires a many-to-one mapping of perceived input onto abstract representations that generalize across concrete features. It is debated whether such abstract action concepts are encoded in ventral premotor cortex (PMv; motor hypothesis) or, alternatively, are represented in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC; cognitive hypothesis). We used fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis to decode observed actions at concrete and abstract, object-independent levels of representation. Participants observed videos of 2 actions involving 2 different objects, using either an explicit or implicit task with respect to conceptual action processing. We decoded concrete action representations by training and testing a classifier to discriminate between actions within each object category. To identify abstract action representations, we trained the classifier to discriminate actions in one object and tested the classifier on actions performed on the other object, and vice versa. Region-of-interest and searchlight analyses revealed decoding in LOTC at both concrete and abstract levels during both tasks, whereas decoding in PMv was restricted to the concrete level during the explicit task. In right inferior parietal cortex, decoding was significant for the abstract level during the explicit task. Our findings are incompatible with the motor hypothesis, but support the cognitive hypothesis of action understanding.

  9. Beyond capacity limitations II: Effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2–12;3), 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task where target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined, the number of non-target competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Results Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high than low frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and CA groups combined. Conclusions Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations. PMID:20705747

  10. Effects of Valence and Origin of Emotions in Word Processing Evidenced by Event Related Potential Correlates in a Lexical Decision Task

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.; Spustek, Tomasz; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT). We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli) help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects’ task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290–375 ms) at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz) region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375–670 ms). The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words. PMID:26973569

  11. Phonetic Processing during the Acquisition of New Words in 3-to-6-Year-Old French-Speaking Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry; Bertoncini, Josiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores phonetic processing in deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) when they have to learn phonetically similar words. Forty-six 34-to-78-month-old French-speaking deaf children with CIs were tested on 16 different trials. In each trial, they were first trained with two word-object pairings, and then a third object was…

  12. Language Non-Selective Activation of Orthography during Spoken Word Processing in Hindi-English Sequential Bilinguals: An Eye Tracking Visual World Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Previous psycholinguistic studies have shown that bilinguals activate lexical items of both the languages during auditory and visual word processing. In this study we examined if Hindi-English bilinguals activate the orthographic forms of phonological neighbors of translation equivalents of the non target language while listening to words either…

  13. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respect to any environmental issue that should be addressed in the analysis may be a cooperating agency... TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  14. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respect to any environmental issue that should be addressed in the analysis may be a cooperating agency... TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  15. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respect to any environmental issue that should be addressed in the analysis may be a cooperating agency... TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  16. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respect to any environmental issue that should be addressed in the analysis may be a cooperating agency... TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  17. Animating Critical Action Learning: Process-Based Leadership and Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehan, Kiran; Pedler, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention is focusing on the value of critical approaches to enhancing leadership and management development processes. This paper examines how a critical action learning perspectives can be harnessed to produce valuable learning and development through critically reflective practise. Critical action learning approaches not only explore…

  18. Action Interrupted: Movement and Breakpoints in the Processing of Motion Violations in Toddlers and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret; Pace, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    From early in development, segmenting events unfolding in the world in meaningful ways renders input more manageable and facilitates interpretation and prediction. Yet, little is known about how children process action structure in events composed of multiple coarse-grained actions. More importantly, little is known about the time course of action…

  19. 40 CFR 1506.1 - Limitations on actions during NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality of the human environment unless such action: (1) Is justified independently of the program; (2) Is... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on actions during NEPA process. 1506.1 Section 1506.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  20. 40 CFR 1506.1 - Limitations on actions during NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality of the human environment unless such action: (1) Is justified independently of the program; (2) Is... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on actions during NEPA process. 1506.1 Section 1506.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  1. 40 CFR 1506.1 - Limitations on actions during NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of the human environment unless such action: (1) Is justified independently of the program; (2) Is... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on actions during NEPA process. 1506.1 Section 1506.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  2. 40 CFR 1506.1 - Limitations on actions during NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality of the human environment unless such action: (1) Is justified independently of the program; (2) Is... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on actions during NEPA process. 1506.1 Section 1506.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY...

  3. The Recursive Process in and of Critical Literacy: Action Research in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Karyn; White, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recursive process of initiating an action research project on literacy for students-at-risk in a Canadian urban elementary school. As this paper demonstrates, this requires development of a school-wide framework, which frames the action research project and desired outcomes, and a shared ownership of this…

  4. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  5. From Intent to Action: An Iterative Engineering Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Patrice; Rodet, Jacques; Vacaresse, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Quite by chance, and over the course of a few haphazard meetings, a Master's degree in "E-learning Design" gradually developed in a Faculty of Economics. Its original and evolving design was the result of an iterative process carried out, not by a single Instructional Designer (ID), but by a full ID team. Over the last 10 years it has…

  6. The Expert Group Work Supervision Process: Apperception, Actions, and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah; Atieno Okech, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    The researchers conducted a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. This article's purpose is to report results that inform intentional practice and illustrate supervision interventions for group work supervisors. Results indicated that participants experienced an interactive…

  7. Learning through Action: Parallel Learning Processes in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Elizabeth A.; Branscomb, Kathryn R.

    2009-01-01

    Experiential learning has become an essential part of many educational settings from infancy through adulthood. While the effectiveness of active learning has been evaluated in youth and adult settings, few known studies have compared the learning processes of children and adults within the same project. This article contrasts the active learning…

  8. Electrophysiological Investigations of Second Language Word Learning, Attrition and Bilingual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkanen, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation examined changes in brain activity associated with learning, forgetting and using a second language. The first experiment investigated the changes that occur when novice adult second language learners acquire and forget second language words. Event-related brain potentials were measured while native…

  9. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ("Elision") and pSTM ("Nonword Repetition") from the…

  10. Vowel Bias in Danish Word-Learning: Processing Biases Are Language-Specific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of…

  11. Strategy Development and Learning to Spell New Words: Generalization of a Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Trudy E.; Varnhagen, Connie K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors used microgenetic methods in 2 experiments to examine children's and adults' progress from initial attempts at spelling nonwords to later direct memory retrieval of the spellings. Participants repeatedly spelled nonwords presented in computerized, dictated-word spelling tests over several weeks. Following each spelling, participants…

  12. Phonological Processing and Word Reading in Typically Developing and Reading Disabled Children: Severity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Barry J. A.; van den Bos, Kees P.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study word reading (WR) fluency was used to dichotomously classify 1,598 Dutch children at different cutoffs, indicating (very) poor or (very) good reading performance. Analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristics were used to investigate the effects of rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in predicting…

  13. The Advantage of Word-Based Processing in Chinese Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Gu, Junjuan; Liu, Pingping; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In 2 experiments, we tested the prediction that reading is more efficient when characters belonging to a word are presented simultaneously than when they are not in Chinese reading using a novel variation of the moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). In Experiment 1, we found that reading was slowed down when Chinese readers could…

  14. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…

  15. Words with and without Internal Structure: What Determines the Nature of Orthographic and Morphological Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that basic effects which are markers of visual word recognition in Indo-European languages cannot be obtained in Hebrew or in Arabic. Although Hebrew has an alphabetic writing system, just like English, French, or Spanish, a series of studies consistently suggested that simple form-orthographic priming, or…

  16. Communication Mode and the Processing of Printed Words: Evidence from Readers with Prelingually Acquired Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A study of 27 students with deafness raised by hearing parents who advocated a strict oral approach, 22 students with deafness who used Israeli Sign Language, and 39 controls, found both the controls and participants with prelingual deafness who were trained to communicate orally recoded visually presented target words phonologically. (Contains…

  17. On Processing Chinese Ideographs and English Words: Some Implications from Stroop-Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Irving; Tsao, Yao-Chung

    1979-01-01

    When Chinese adults tried to name the color of characters which represented conflicting color words, they showed greater interference than did English speaking readers of the same task in English. This effect cannot be attributed to bilingualism. There may be fundamental differences in the perceptual demands of reading Chinese and English.…

  18. Processing of a Free Word Order Language: The Role of Syntax and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slioussar, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In languages with flexible constituent order (so-called "free word order languages"), available orders are used to encode given/new distinctions; they therefore differ not only syntactically, but also in their context requirements. In Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading task, we compared Russian S V IO DO (canonical), DO S V IO and DO IO V S…

  19. The Reading Process--The Relationship Between Word Recognition and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Warren S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between word recognition and comprehension achieved by second and fifth grade students when reading material at various levels of readability. A random sample of twenty-five second and twenty-five fifth graders, taken from three middle class schools, was administered a…

  20. Reading words and other people: A comparison of exception word, familiar face and affect processing in the left and right temporal variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Pressman, Peter S; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Narvid, Jared; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Strain, Paul J; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) typically presents with left-hemisphere predominant rostral temporal lobe (rTL) atrophy and the most significant complaints within the language domain. Less frequently, patients present with right-hemisphere predominant temporal atrophy coupled with marked impairments in processing of famous faces and emotions. Few studies have objectively compared these patient groups in both domains and therefore it is unclear to what extent the syndromes overlap. Clinically diagnosed svPPA patients were characterized as left- (n = 21) or right-predominant (n = 12) using imaging and compared along with 14 healthy controls. Regarding language, our primary focus was upon two hallmark features of svPPA; confrontation naming and surface dyslexia. Both groups exhibited naming deficits and surface dyslexia although the impairments were more severe in the left-predominant group. Familiarity judgments on famous faces and affect processing were more profoundly impaired in the right-predominant group. Our findings suggest that the two syndromes overlap significantly but that early cases at the tail ends of the continuum constitute a challenge for current clinical criteria. Correlational neuroimaging analyses implicated a mid portion of the left lateral temporal lobe in exception word reading impairments in line with proposals that this region is an interface between phonology and semantic knowledge. PMID:27389800