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Sample records for action-sentence compatibility effect

  1. Applauding with Closed Hands: Neural Signature of Action-Sentence Compatibility Effects

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Pia; Hurtado, Esteban; Riveros, Rodrigo; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioral studies have provided evidence for an action–sentence compatibility effect (ACE) that suggests a coupling of motor mechanisms and action-sentence comprehension. When both processes are concurrent, the action sentence primes the actual movement, and simultaneously, the action affects comprehension. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain markers of bidirectional impact of language comprehension and motor processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants listened to sentences describing an action that involved an open hand, a closed hand, or no manual action. Each participant was asked to press a button to indicate his/her understanding of the sentence. Each participant was assigned a hand-shape, either closed or open, which had to be used to activate the button. There were two groups (depending on the assigned hand-shape) and three categories (compatible, incompatible and neutral) defined according to the compatibility between the response and the sentence. ACEs were found in both groups. Brain markers of semantic processing exhibited an N400-like component around the Cz electrode position. This component distinguishes between compatible and incompatible, with a greater negative deflection for incompatible. Motor response elicited a motor potential (MP) and a re-afferent potential (RAP), which are both enhanced in the compatible condition. Conclusions/Significance The present findings provide the first ACE cortical measurements of semantic processing and the motor response. N400-like effects suggest that incompatibility with motor processes interferes in sentence comprehension in a semantic fashion. Modulation of motor potentials (MP and RAP) revealed a multimodal semantic facilitation of the motor response. Both results provide neural evidence of an action-sentence bidirectional relationship. Our results suggest that ACE is not an epiphenomenal post-sentence comprehension process. In contrast, motor-language integration

  2. Just out of reach: On the reliability of the action-sentence compatibility effect.

    PubMed

    Papesh, Megan H

    2015-12-01

    The action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE; Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002), a hallmark finding in Embodied Cognition, implicates the motor system in language comprehension. In the ACE, people process sentences implying movement toward or away from themselves, responding with actions toward or away from their bodies. These processes interact, implying a linkage between linguistic and motor systems. From a theoretical perspective, the ACE has been extremely influential, being widely cited evidence in favor of embodied cognition. The present study began as an attempt to extend the ACE in a new direction, but eventually became a series of attempts to simply replicate the effect. Across 8 experiments, I tested whether the ACE extends to a novel mouse-tracking method and/or is susceptible to higher-order cognitive influences. In 3 experiments, attempts were made to "disembody" the ACE by presenting participants' names on the computer screen (as in Markman & Brendl, 2005). In each experiment, the ACE could not be disembodied, because the ACE did not occur. In further experiments, the ACE was not observed in reading times, regardless of response mode (mouse movements vs. button-presses) or stimuli, including those from the original research. Similarly, no ACE was observed in physical movement times. Bayes Factor analyses of the current experiments, and the previous ACE literature, suggest that the evidence for the ACE is generally weak: Many studies considered as positive evidence actually support the null hypothesis, and very few published results offer strong evidence for the ACE. Implications for the embodiment hypothesis are discussed. PMID:26595844

  3. "Just out of reach: On the reliability of the action-sentence compatibility effect": Correction to Papesh (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Just out of reach: On the reliability of the action-sentence compatibility effect" by Megan H. Papesh (, 2015[Dec], Vol 144[6], e116-e141). In the article, the Procedure did not directly state that response options were not visible on the computer screen during Experiments 7 and 8. The first sentence of the Procedure for Experiment 7 should read, "Participants completed a modified button-press version of the experiment described in Experiment 4; unlike Experiment 4, Experiment 7 included no visible on-screen elements apart from the to-be-judged sentences, which came from Glenberg and Kaschak (2002)." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) The action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE; Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002), a hallmark finding in Embodied Cognition, implicates the motor system in language comprehension. In the ACE, people process sentences implying movement toward or away from themselves, responding with actions toward or away from their bodies. These processes interact, implying a linkage between linguistic and motor systems. From a theoretical perspective, the ACE has been extremely influential, being widely cited evidence in favor of embodied cognition. The present study began as an attempt to extend the ACE in a new direction, but eventually became a series of attempts to simply replicate the effect. Across 8 experiments, I tested whether the ACE extends to a novel mouse-tracking method and/or is susceptible to higher-order cognitive influences. In 3 experiments, attempts were made to "disembody" the ACE by presenting participants' names on the computer screen (as in Markman & Brendl, 2005). In each experiment, the ACE could not be disembodied, because the ACE did not occur. In further experiments, the ACE was not observed in reading times, regardless of response mode (mouse movements vs. button-presses) or stimuli, including those from the original research. Similarly, no ACE was observed in physical

  4. The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect: It's All in the Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borreggine, Kristin L.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    When participants are asked to make sensibility judgments on sentences that describe action toward the body (i.e., "Mark dealt the cards to you") or away from the body (i.e., "You dealt the cards to Mark"), they are faster to respond when the response requires an arm movement in the same direction as the action described by the sentence. This…

  5. Language Comprehension in the Balance: The Robustness of the Action-Compatibility Effect (ACE)

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; van der Stoep, Nathan; Guadalupe, Tulio; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    How does language comprehension interact with motor activity? We investigated the conditions under which comprehending an action sentence affects people's balance. We performed two experiments to assess whether sentences describing forward or backward movement modulate the lateral movements made by subjects who made sensibility judgments about the sentences. In one experiment subjects were standing on a balance board and in the other they were seated on a balance board that was mounted on a chair. This allowed us to investigate whether the action compatibility effect (ACE) is robust and persists in the face of salient incompatibilities between sentence content and subject movement. Growth-curve analysis of the movement trajectories produced by the subjects in response to the sentences suggests that the ACE is indeed robust. Sentence content influenced movement trajectory despite salient inconsistencies between implied and actual movement. These results are interpreted in the context of the current discussion of embodied, or grounded, language comprehension and meaning representation. PMID:22363580

  6. Do Not Resonate with Actions: Sentence Polarity Modulates Cortico-Spinal Excitability during Action-Related Sentence Reading

    PubMed Central

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Theories of embodied language suggest that the motor system is differentially called into action when processing motor-related versus abstract content words or sentences. It has been recently shown that processing negative polarity action-related sentences modulates neural activity of premotor and motor cortices. Methods and Findings We sought to determine whether reading negative polarity sentences brought about differential modulation of cortico-spinal motor excitability depending on processing hand-action related or abstract sentences. Facilitatory paired-pulses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pp-TMS) was applied to the primary motor representation of the right-hand and the recorded amplitude of induced motor-evoked potentials (MEP) was used to index M1 activity during passive reading of either hand-action related or abstract content sentences presented in both negative and affirmative polarity. Results showed that the cortico-spinal excitability was affected by sentence polarity only in the hand-action related condition. Indeed, in keeping with previous TMS studies, reading positive polarity, hand action-related sentences suppressed cortico-spinal reactivity. This effect was absent when reading hand action-related negative polarity sentences. Moreover, no modulation of cortico-spinal reactivity was associated with either negative or positive polarity abstract sentences. Conclusions Our results indicate that grammatical cues prompting motor negation reduce the cortico-spinal suppression associated with affirmative action sentences reading and thus suggest that motor simulative processes underlying the embodiment may involve even syntactic features of language. PMID:21347305

  7. TMS-induced modulation of action sentence priming in the ventral premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Small, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence that cortical motor areas, particularly the lateral premotor cortex, are activated during language comprehension, the question of whether motor processes help mediate the semantic encoding of language remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined whether low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) can interfere with the comprehension of sentences describing manual actions, visual properties of manipulable and non-manipulable objects, and actions of the lips and mouth. Using a primed semantic decision task, sixteen participants were asked to determine for a given sentence whether or not an auditorily presented target word was congruent with the sentence. We hypothesized that if the left PMv is contributing semantic information that is used to comprehend action and object related sentences, then TMS applied over PMv should result in a disruption of semantic priming. Our results show that TMS reduces semantic priming, induces a shift in response bias, and increases response sensitivity, but does so only during the processing of manual action sentences. This suggests a preferential contribution of PMv to the processing of sentences describing manual actions compared to other types of sentences. PMID:22178233

  8. Backward compatibility effects in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Alan A; Maquestiaux, François; Festini, Sara B; Frazier, Kathryn; Krimmer, Patricia J

    2016-07-01

    In many dual-task situations, responses to the second of two tasks are slowed when the time between tasks is short. The response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance accounts for this phenomenon by assuming that central processing of the second task is blocked by a bottleneck until central processing of Task 1 is complete. This assumption could be called into question if it could be demonstrated that the response to Task 2 affected the central processing of Task 1, a backward response compatibility effect. Such effects are well-established in younger adults. Backward compatibility effects in older (as well as younger) adults were explored in two experiments. The first experiment found clear backward response compatibility effects for younger adults but no evidence of them for older adults. The second experiment explored backward stimulus compatibility and found similar effects in both younger and older adults. Evidence possibly consistent with some pre-bottleneck processing of Task 2 central stages also was found in the second experiment in both age groups. For younger adults, the results provide further evidence falsifying the claim of an immutable response selection bottleneck. For older adults, the evidence suggested that Task 2 affects Task 1 when there is stimulus compatibility but not when there is response compatibility. PMID:27146993

  9. Reversed effects of spatial compatibility in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Müsseler, Jochen; Aschersleben, Gisa; Arning, Katrin; Proctor, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Effects of spatial stimulus-response compatibility are often attributed to automatic position-based activation of the response elicited by a stimulus. Three experiments examined this assumption in natural scenes. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed simulated driving, and a person appeared periodically on either side of the road. Participants were to turn toward a person calling a taxi and away from a person carelessly entering the street. The spatially incompatible response was faster than the compatible response, but neutral stimuli showed a typical benefit for spatially compatible responses. Placing the people further in the visual periphery eliminated the advantage for the incompatible response and showed an advantage for the compatible response. In Experiment 3, participants made left-right joystick responses to a vicious dog or puppy in a walking scenario. Instructions were to avoid the vicious dog and approach the puppy or vice versa. Results again showed an advantage for the spatially incompatible response. Thus, the typically observed advantage of spatially compatible responses was reversed for dangerous situations in natural scenes. PMID:19827702

  10. An ERP study of motor compatibility effects in action language.

    PubMed

    Santana, Eduardo J; de Vega, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    This ERP study explores the brain's response to the manipulation of motor compatibility in action-related language. In Experiment 1 participants read sentences in which a protagonist performed two different manual actions either simultaneously or consecutively (e.g. While/after cleaning the wound he unrolled the bandage…). The ERPs were measured in the second-clause verb (e.g. unrolled) and noun (e.g. bandage). Notably, only the noun showed compatibility effects, namely a larger N400 in the simultaneous (incompatible) version than in the consecutive (compatible) version, suggesting that readers need to integrate the meaning of the whole sentence to evaluate the feasibility of the actions. In Experiment 2, motor compatibility was manipulated in a different way: all the sentences described the protagonist as performing two simultaneous actions that were both manual (While cleaning the wound he unrolled the bandage), or one action that was perceptual and the other manual (While looking at the wound he unrolled the bandage). The N400 effects for the former incompatible condition were replicated, again in the second-clause noun. The results demonstrated that readers of action language employ their pragmatic world knowledge to test the feasibility of motor actions, taking into account the embodied constraints of such actions. PMID:23796780

  11. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Akio; Michimata, Chikashi

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger) was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features. PMID:23637688

  12. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  13. The negative compatibility effect: A case for self-inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Rowley, Laura; Sembi, Sukhdev; Simmons, Rachel; Whitcomb, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In masked priming, a briefly presented prime stimulus is followed by a mask, which in turn is followed by the task-relevant target. Under certain conditions, negative compatibility effects (NCNCEs) occur, with impaired performance on compatible trials (where prime and target indicate the same response) relative to incompatible trials (where they indicate opposite responses). However, the exact boundary conditions of NCEs, and hence the functional significance of this effect, are still under discussion. In particular, it has been argued that the NCE might be a stimulus-specific phenomenon of little general interest. This paper presents new findings indicating that the NCE can be obtained under a wider variety of conditions, suggesting that it reflects more general processes in motor control. In addition, evidence is provided suggesting that prime identification levels in forced choice tasks – usually employed to estimate prime visibility in masked prime tasks – are affected by prior experience with the prime (Exp. 1) as well as by direct motor priming (Exp. 2 & 3). PMID:20517511

  14. Effective Design of Multifunctional Peptides by Combining Compatible Functions

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Christian; Garza Ramos Martínez, Georgina; Moreno Blas, Daniel; Castillo González, David A.; Corzo, Gerardo; Castro-Obregon, Susana; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctionality is a common trait of many natural proteins and peptides, yet the rules to generate such multifunctionality remain unclear. We propose that the rules defining some protein/peptide functions are compatible. To explore this hypothesis, we trained a computational method to predict cell-penetrating peptides at the sequence level and learned that antimicrobial peptides and DNA-binding proteins are compatible with the rules of our predictor. Based on this finding, we expected that designing peptides for CPP activity may render AMP and DNA-binding activities. To test this prediction, we designed peptides that embedded two independent functional domains (nuclear localization and yeast pheromone activity), linked by optimizing their composition to fit the rules characterizing cell-penetrating peptides. These peptides presented effective cell penetration, DNA-binding, pheromone and antimicrobial activities, thus confirming the effectiveness of our computational approach to design multifunctional peptides with potential therapeutic uses. Our computational implementation is available at http://bis.ifc.unam.mx/en/software/dcf. PMID:27096600

  15. Spatial compatibility interference effects: a double dissociation between two measures

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Alexander J.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In spatial compatibility tasks, when the spatial location of a stimulus is irrelevant it nevertheless interferes when a response is required in a different spatial location. For example, response with a left key-press is slowed when the stimulus is presented to the right as compared to the left side of a computer screen. However, in some conditions this interference effect is not detected in reaction time (RT) measures. It is typically assumed that the lack of effect means the irrelevant spatial code was not analysed or that the information rapidly decayed before response. However, we show that even in conditions where there appears to be no spatial interference when measuring RTs, effects can nevertheless be detected after response when recording facial electromyography responses. This dissociation between two measures highlights the importance of diverging methods to investigate visuomotor processes as conclusions based on only one measure can be misleading. PMID:26924937

  16. Temporal Dynamics of the Action – Sentence Compatibility Effect

    PubMed Central

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated variants of the action–sentence compatibility effect (ACE), wherein the execution of a motor response is facilitated by the comprehension of sentences that describe actions taking place in the same direction as the motor response (e.g., a sentence about action towards one’s body facilitates the execution of an arm movement towards the body). This paper presents an experiment that explores how the timing of the motor response during the processing of sentences affects the magnitude of the ACE that is observed. The results show that the ACE occurs when the motor response is executed at an early point in the comprehension of the sentence, disappears for a time, and then reappears when the motor response is executed right before the end of the sentence. These data help to refine our understanding of the temporal dynamics involved in the activation and use of motor information during sentence comprehension. PMID:18470819

  17. Dual-task backward compatibility effects are episodically mediated.

    PubMed

    Giammarco, Maria; Thomson, Sandra J; Watter, Scott

    2016-02-01

    In dual-task performance, the backward compatibility effect (BCE; faster Task 1 reaction time when Task 1 and Task 2 responses are compatible) is thought to represent automatic activation of Task 2 response information in parallel with attended Task 1 performance. Work by Hommel and Eglau (Psychological Research, 66, 260-273, 2002) has suggested the BCE relies on stimulus-response learning in long-term memory. Subsequent work by Ellenbogen and Meiran (Memory and Cognition, 36, 968-978, 2008), however, proposed that the BCE is mediated by Task 2 rules held in working memory (WM) during Task 1 performance. The present study aimed to dissociate these two theoretical claims. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of prior single-task practice with Task 1 or Task 2 of a subsequent dual-task paradigm. Where the WM-mediated model predicts both BCE and overall reaction time improvement relative to prior task practice, an episodic learning model makes divergent predictions for BCE based on the context specificity of prior Task 2 learning. Results showed a close fit with episodic predictions and contradicted WM model predictions. Experiment 2 examined the finer grained timecourse of BCE over initial development, subsequent interference of this initial learning on BCE development with new conflicting Task 2 response mappings, and finally reestablishment of BCE in the original dual task. Data again showed close agreement with long-term learning predictions. We argue in favor of an episodic account of the BCE, and consider implications of WM and episodic mechanisms of automatic response activation on other aspects of dual-task performance. PMID:26572914

  18. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    PubMed

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  19. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  20. Effects of compatability on the conductivity of conducting polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Mingjun; Nowak, C.K.; Gregory, R.V.

    1995-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of chemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) blends with nylon 6,6 and polystyrene was measured. The conductivities of the top and bottom of the films cast from blend solutions were found to differ. This effect was most pronounced at low percent loadings of PANI. The maximum difference in conductivity between two sides of the same film was found to be five orders of magnitude in the case of a 5% PANI blend with polystyrene. In this case the conductive polymer appears to be rich on one side of the film rather than more homogeneously dispersed on both sides. SEM provides evidence for the formation of a percolation cluster on one side of the film which is most notable in polystyrene blends. X-ray and FTIR indicated that greater interaction between PANI and nylon 6,6 than PANI and polystyrene. It is proposed that the magnitude of the variation in conductivity between the two sides of the film depends on the compatibility of the conducting and insulating host polymers.

  1. From Sunshine to Double Arrows: An Evaluation Window Account of Negative Compatibility Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Dittrich, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    In category priming, target stimuli are to be sorted into 2 categories. Prime stimuli preceding targets typically facilitate processing of targets when primes and targets are members of the same category, relative to the case in which both stem from different categories, a positive compatibility effect (PCE). But negative compatibility effects…

  2. Dissociation of S-R Compatibility and Simon Effects with Mixed Tasks and Mappings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Robert W.; Yamaguchi, Motonori; Dutt, Varun; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2013-01-01

    Binary-choice reactions are typically faster when the stimulus location corresponds with that of the response than when it does not. This advantage of spatial correspondence is known as the "stimulus-response compatibility" (SRC) effect when the mapping of stimulus location, as the relevant stimulus dimension, is varied to be compatible or…

  3. 75 FR 63764 - Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of New Legislation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... to the rules governing hearing aid compatibility of mobile handsets. 75 FR 54546 (Sept. 8, 2010... of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Hearing Aid Compatibility Proceeding; Request That Comments Address Effects of...

  4. TRoPICALS: A Computational Embodied Neuroscience Model of Compatibility Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caligiore, Daniele; Borghi, Anna M.; Parisi, Domenico; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving objects activates the representation of their affordances. For example, experiments on compatibility effects showed that categorizing objects by producing certain handgrips (power or precision) is faster if the requested responses are compatible with the affordance elicited by the size of objects (e.g., small or large). The article…

  5. Reference Valence Effects of Affective S–R Compatibility: Are Visual and Auditory Results Consistent?

    PubMed Central

    Xiaojun, Zhao; Xuqun, You; Changxiu, Shi; Shuoqiu, Gan; Chaoyi, Hu

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be faster to avoid negative words than to approach negative words, and faster to approach positive words than to avoid positive words. That is an example of affective stimulus–response (S–R) compatibility. The present study identified the reference valence effects of affective stimulus–response (S–R) compatibility when auditory stimulus materials are used. The researchers explored the reference valence effects of affective S–R compatibility using a mixed-design experiment based on visual words, visual pictures and audition. The study computed the average compatibility effect size. A t-test based on visual pictures showed that the compatibility effect size was significantly different from zero, t (22) = 2.43, p<.05 (M = 485 ms). Smaller compatibility effects existed when switching the presentation mode from visual stimuli to auditory stimuli. This study serves as an important reference for the auditory reference valence effects of affective S–R compatibility. PMID:24743797

  6. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p < 0.05). Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  7. Negative compatibility effect: the object-updating hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    A prime even if backward masked can affect the reaction to a subsequently presented target. According to the object-updating hypothesis, negative CE (i.e. longer reactions in the compatible than incompatible trials) occurs due to the interaction between prime and a subsequent stimulus (usually a mask or flanker). Its crucial assumption is that only new elements of the mask can affect the response. As the masks are usually composed of figures that call for both possible responses, the masks' new element calls for a response opposite to that initialized by the prime. Here an experiment is described in which the prime and target were two arrowheads pointing to left or right. Two different flankers were composed from the two heads pointing to the opposite directions. In contrast to the OU hypothesis, NCEs were different for the two flankers. This finding contradicts the OU hypothesis. PMID:19156401

  8. Fabric compatibility and cleaning effectiveness of drycleaning with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.B.; Laintz, K.E.; Spall, W.D.; bustos, L.; Taylor, C.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers an environmentally sound replacement solvent to the currently used drycleaning solvent, perchloroethylene (PERC). In addition to the health and safety benefits of a CO{sub 2} based cleaning system, large savings in solvent costs provide an incentive for conversion to the new system. Lower operating costs for the new technology provide further incentive. Experimental studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} in both small scale and pilot scale test systems in order to address fabric compatibility with this alternative cleaning method. Results from these tests show that fabric shrinkage using CO{sub 2} is controlled to the same level as current drycleaning methods. In addition, tests to evaluate the cleaning performance of liquid CO{sub 2} drycleaning were also conducted. These results show the prototype liquid CO{sub 2} cleaning system to be better than PERC at soil removal, and worse than PERC at inorganic salt removal.

  9. Relative effects of gamete compatibility and hydrodynamics on fertilization in the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis.

    PubMed

    Kregting, Louise T; Thomas, Florence I M; Bass, Anna L; Yund, Philip O

    2014-08-01

    Intraspecific variation in gamete compatibility among male/female pairs causes variation in the concentration of sperm required to achieve equivalent fertilization levels. Gamete compatibility is therefore potentially an important factor controlling mating success. Many broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, however, also live in a dynamic environment where hydrodynamic conditions can affect the concentration of sperm reaching eggs during spawning. Thus flow conditions may moderate the effects of gamete compatibility on fertilization. Using the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis as a model system, we assessed the relative effects of gamete compatibility (the concentration of sperm required to fertilize 50% of the eggs in specific male/female pairs; F50) and the root-mean-square of total velocity (urms; 0.01-0.11 m s(-1)) on fertilization in four locations near a spawning female (water column, wake eddy, substratum, and aboral surface) in both unidirectional and oscillatory flows. Percent fertilization decreased significantly with increasing urms at all locations and both flow regimes. However, although gamete compatibility varied by almost 1.5 orders of magnitude, it was not a significant predictor of fertilization for most combinations of position and flow. The notable exception was a significant effect of gamete compatibility on fertilization on the aboral surface under unidirectional flow. Our results suggest that selection on variation in gamete compatibility may be strongest in eggs fertilized on the aboral surface of sea urchins and that hydrodynamic conditions may add environmental noise to selection outcomes. PMID:25216500

  10. How do you hold your mouse? Tracking the compatibility effect between hand posture and stimulus size.

    PubMed

    Flumini, Andrea; Barca, Laura; Borghi, Anna M; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    In keeping with the idea that observing objects activates possible motor responses, several experiments revealed compatibility effects between the hand postures used to report a choice and some characteristics of the stimuli. The real-time dynamics of such compatibility effects are currently unknown. We tracked the time course of a categorization experiment requiring subjects to categorize as natural or artifact figures of big and small objects. Participants reported their choice using either a big mouse (requiring a power grip: a hand posture compatible with the grasping of big objects) or a small mouse (requiring a precision grip: a hand posture compatible with the grasping of small objects). We found a compatibility effect between the grip required by the mouse and the grip elicited by objects, even if it was irrelevant to the task. In a following experiment with the same paradigm, lexical stimuli failed to reproduce the same effect. Nevertheless, a compatibility effect mediated by the target-word category (artificial vs. natural) was observed. We discuss the results in the context of affordance effects literature and grounded theories of cognition. PMID:25349026

  11. S-R compatibility effects on motor potentials associated with hand and foot movements.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Two four-choice reaction time (RT) experiments used the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and the limb selection potential (LSP) to assess the effects of spatial S-R compatibility on motor processes. Individual stimuli were presented at one corner of a square centered at fixation, and each response was made with the left or right hand or foot. In Experiment 1, the correct response was determined by stimulus location, whereas in Experiment 2 it was determined by stimulus identity. Horizontal and vertical compatibility affected both RT and response accuracy, but the LRP and LSP results suggested that compatibility had little or no direct effect on the duration of motor processes. In addition, the results suggest that the relatively new LSP measure is a useful index of motor activation processes. Its insensitivity to horizontal stimulus artifacts makes it especially useful for studying the effects of horizontal spatial compatibility. PMID:26544150

  12. Attentional factors in the occurrence of stimulus-response compatibility effects.

    PubMed

    Verfaellie, M; Bowers, D; Heilman, K M

    1988-01-01

    Two major hypotheses have been advanced to account for stimulus-response compatibility effects in the situation in which the location of the target is irrelevant for choosing the correct response. According to the attentional hypothesis, compatibility effects reflect a response bias, favoring the effector on the same side as the stimulus. According to the coding hypothesis, compatibility effects result from a correspondence between the spatial codes of the stimulus and effector. In the present study, two components of attention--selective attention and intention--were independently manipulated by providing selective preparatory information before onset of a target stimulus. Attentional information indicated where the target stimulus would occur; intentional information indicated which hand would have to be used to respond. Compatibility effects were observed only in the condition in which intentional information, but no attentional information, was provided. These findings support the attentional hypothesis and indicate that a specific aspect of attention, namely a selective readiness to respond to the stimulus, is a necessary condition for compatibility effects to occur. PMID:3374802

  13. Cultural modulations of space-time compatibility effects.

    PubMed

    Vallesi, Antonino; Weisblatt, Yael; Semenza, Carlo; Shaki, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    The representation of elapsing time may require spatial attention. In certain circumstances, this spatial representation develops from left to right. This is suggested by a performance advantage in responding short with the left hand and long with the right hand (spatial-temporal association between response codes [STEARC]). The present study tests whether one possible determinant of the directionality of the STEARC effect is cultural. In particular, we investigated whether reading/writing habits can affect STEARC direction by administering a visual time judgment task to Italian participants, who were exposed to a left-to-right reading/writing system, and Israeli participants, who mainly used a right-to-left system. The Italian participants showed a left-to-right STEARC effect, while this effect was not present in the Israeli group. The study demonstrates that cultural habits can influence the way in which spatial attention supports the representation of time, similar to the pattern found in other nonspatial domains such as numbers. PMID:24163172

  14. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: evidence from the motion-numerical compatibility effect.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Ge, Hui; Andoni, Deljfina; Ding, Xianfeng; Fan, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011) and Fischer (2012), suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher et al. (2008) found that participants' behavior in a random number generation task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e., a motion-numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion-numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g., arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008) finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out. PMID:26594188

  15. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: evidence from the motion-numerical compatibility effect

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Ge, Hui; Andoni, Deljfina; Ding, Xianfeng; Fan, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011) and Fischer (2012), suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher et al. (2008) found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e., a motion-numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion-numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g., arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.’s (2008) finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out. PMID:26594188

  16. The effect of compatible solute ectoines on the structural organization of lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Wulff, Stephanie; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2010-08-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes responsible for osmotic balance and at the same time compatible with the cellular metabolism. Here, we have investigated the effect of the compatible solutes, ectoine and hydroxyectoine, on the fluid-rigid domain structure of lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes. Mainly saturated dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine membranes exhibiting a clear le/lc phase transition were used. Fluorescence microscopy showed that ectoines added to the aqueous subphase expand and fluidize the lipid monolayers especially at surface pressures below 30mN/m. The domain structure at the le/lc phase transition is sensitively modified leading to smaller but more numerous domains in the presence of ectoines. Hydroxyectoine was more efficient than ectoine. These results are explained by the replacement theory assuming that the ectoines are likely to be expelled from the membrane surface thus favoring the hydration of the lipid membrane. This effect reduces the line tension, which is the interfacial energy at the domain edges leading to reduced domain sizes and increased number of rigid domains. Isotherms of negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membranes show a similar expansion, while unsaturated lipids are less affected. Mixed phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol membranes exhibit the same effect on the line tension increasing the tendency for a phase separation. This could be shown also in bilayer vesicles, where the compatible solutes have only a minor effect on the lipid main phase transition in pure DPPC membranes but reduce the extent of the pretransition. In mixed DPPC/DPPG bilayer membranes ectoines cause a phase separation leading to the enrichment of expanded DPPC domains. In conclusion, our study gives for the first time evidence that ectoines have an effect on lipid membranes increasing the hydration of the surface and thus increasing the mobility of the lipid head groups and fluidizing the lipid layer accordingly. This increased

  17. The negative compatibility effect with nonmasking flankers: a case for mask-triggered inhibition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-09-01

    Visual targets which follow a prime stimulus and a mask can be identified faster when they are incompatible rather than compatible with the prime (negative compatibility effect--NCE). According to the self-inhibition hypothesis, the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime based on its identity. This activation leads to benefits for compatible trials and costs for incompatible trials. This motor activation is followed by an inhibition phase, leading to an NCE if perceptual evidence of the prime is immediately removed by the mask. The object-updating and mask-triggered inhibition hypotheses emphasize the role of the mask content (i.e. whether the mask possesses target-like features). We show that the NCE may appear even if nonmasking neutral flankers are presented instead of a mask. Moreover, although with target-like flankers the NCE is larger, it occurred if flankers and targets are built from dissimilar elements. Therefore, masks/flankers can evoke an inhibition phase independently of whether or not they remove evidence for the prime and whether they are similar to the targets. PMID:18226925

  18. The negative compatibility effect with relevant masks: a case for automatic motor inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Brenda; Finkbeiner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For many years controversy has surrounded the so-called “negative compatibility effect” (NCE), a surprising phenomenon whereby responses to a target stimulus are delayed when the target is preceded by an unconscious, response-compatible prime. According to proponents of the “self-inhibition” hypothesis, the NCE occurs when a low-level self-inhibitory mechanism supresses early motor activations that are no longer supported by perceptual evidence. This account has been debated, however, by those who regard the NCE to be a stimulus-specific phenomenon that can be explained without recourse to a self-inhibitory mechanism. The present study used a novel reach-to-touch paradigm to test whether unconscious response priming would manifest as motor activation of the opposite-to-prime response (supporting mask-induced priming accounts), or motor inhibition of the primed response (supporting the notion of low-level self-inhibition). This paper presents new findings that show the emergence of positive and negative compatibility effects as they occur in stimulus processing time. In addition, evidence is provided suggesting that the NCE is not driven by the activation of the incorrect, “opposite-to-prime” response, but rather might reflect automatic motor inhibition. PMID:24265623

  19. A subliminal inhibitory mechanism for the negative compatibility effect: a continuous versus threshold mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Xuhai; Dai, Dongyang; Wang, Yongchun; Wang, Yonghui

    2014-07-01

    The current study investigated the mechanism underlying subliminal inhibition using the negative compatibility effect (NCE) paradigm. We hypothesized that a decrease in prime activation affects the subsequent inhibitory process, delaying onset of inhibition and reducing its strength. Two experiments tested this hypothesis using arrow stimuli as primes and targets. Two different irrelevant masks (i.e., a mask sharing no prime features) were presented in succession in each trial to not only ensure that primes were processed subliminally, but also avoid feature updating between primes and masks. Prime/target compatibility and prime background density were manipulated in Experiment 1. Results showed that under subliminal inhibitory condition, the NCE disappears when the density increases (i.e., pixel density in the prime's background of 25 %) in Experiment 1. However, when we fixed the prime's background at the density of 25 % and manipulated prime/target compatibility as well as inter-stimuli-interval (ISI) between mask and target in Experiment 2, behavioral results showed marginally significant NCEs in the 150-ms ISI condition. Electrophysiological evidence showed the lateralized readiness potential for compatible trials was significantly more positive than that for incompatible trials during the two consecutive time windows (i.e., 400-450 and 450-500 ms) in the 150-ms ISI condition. In addition, the NCE size was significant smaller in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. All of the results support predictions of the continuous subliminal inhibitory mechanism hypothesis which posits that decreases in prime activation strength lead to delay in inhibitory onset and decline in inhibitory strength. PMID:24715101

  20. Does the compatibility effect in the race Implicit Association Test reflect familiarity or affect?

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Peek-O'Leary, Marie

    2005-06-01

    In the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) involving race classification (white vs. black), an apparent compatibility effect is found between the "pleasant" attribute and the "white" category. This race IAT effect has been interpreted in terms of "implicit prejudice"--that is, more positive evaluation of whites than of blacks that is not open to consciousness. We suggested instead that the race IAT effect is better interpreted in terms of the salience asymmetry account proposed by Rothermund and Wentura (2004), whereby greater familiarity with the white category makes it more salient. Evidence that has been presented against the familiarity interpretation is considered, and alternative interpretations of findings related to the race IAT effect are discussed. PMID:16235627

  1. Maternal effects, but no good or compatible genes for sperm competitiveness in Australian crickets.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Damian K; Nystrand, Magdalena; Simmons, Leigh W

    2010-05-01

    Explanations for the evolution of polyandry often center on the idea that females garner genetic benefits for their offspring by mating multiply. Furthermore, postcopulatory processes are thought to be fundamental to enabling polyandrous females to screen for genetic quality. Much attention has focused on the potential for polyandrous females to accrue such benefits via a sexy- or good-sperm mechanism, whereby additive variation exists among males in sperm competitiveness. Likewise, attention has focused on an alternative model, in which offspring quality (in this context, the sperm competitiveness of sons) hinges on an interaction between parental haplotypes (genetic compatibility). Sperm competitiveness that is contingent on parental compatibility will exhibit nonadditive genetic variation. We tested these models in the Australian cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, using a design that allowed us to partition additive, nonadditive genetic, and parental variance for sperm competitiveness. We found an absence of additive and nonadditive genetic variance in this species, challenging the direct relevance of either model to the evolution of sperm competitiveness in particular, and polyandry in general. Instead, we found maternal effects that were possibly sex-linked or cytoplasmically linked. We also found effects of focal male age on sperm competitiveness, with small increments in age conferring more competitive sperm. PMID:20002162

  2. Ideomotor compatibility in the psychological refractory period effect: 29 years of oversimplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W.; Allen, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect can be eliminated with ideomotor compatible (IM) but not stimulus-response compatible (SR) tasks, as reported by A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973). Their tasks were used: a left or right movement to a left- or right-pointing arrow (IM) or to the word left or right (SR) for Task 1; saying "A" or "B" (IM) or "1" or "2" (SR) to an auditory A or B for Task 2. The stimulus onset asynchronies were 0, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 ms in Experiment 1, and only 0, 100, 200, and 1,000 ms in Experiments 2-4. The arrow was in the center of the screen in Experiments 1-3 and to the left or right in Experiment 4. As in Greenwald and Shulman's Experiment 2, the instructions stated that most often the 2 stimuli would be presented simultaneously. A PRP effect was obtained in all conditions, most likely because response-selection decisions are required even for IM tasks.

  3. Stimulus-response compatibility and psychological refractory period effects: implications for response selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to provide insight into the nature of response selection by reviewing the literature on stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effects and the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect individually and jointly. The empirical findings and theoretical explanations of SRC effects that have been studied within a single-task context suggest that there are two response-selection routes-automatic activation and intentional translation. In contrast, all major PRP models reviewed in this paper have treated response selection as a single processing stage. In particular, the response-selection bottleneck (RSB) model assumes that the processing of Task 1 and Task 2 comprises two separate streams and that the PRP effect is due to a bottleneck located at response selection. Yet, considerable evidence from studies of SRC in the PRP paradigm shows that the processing of the two tasks is more interactive than is suggested by the RSB model and by most other models of the PRP effect. The major implication drawn from the studies of SRC effects in the PRP context is that response activation is a distinct process from final response selection. Response activation is based on both long-term and short-term task-defined S-R associations and occurs automatically and in parallel for the two tasks. The final response selection is an intentional act required even for highly compatible and practiced tasks and is restricted to processing one task at a time. Investigations of SRC effects and response-selection variables in dual-task contexts should be conducted more systematically because they provide significant insight into the nature of response-selection mechanisms.

  4. PRP training shows Task1 response selection is the locus of the backward response compatibility effect.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Sandra J; Danis, Lila K; Watter, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of practice in a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm on the backward compatibility effect (BCE), in order to determine the locus of this response priming effect on Task1 performance. In two experiments, we show that the size of the BCE is closely associated with the duration of the response selection stage in Task1. When this stage is shortened through PRP practice, the magnitude of the BCE decreases. Subsequently increasing the duration of Task1 response selection results in a larger BCE, but manipulating the same stage in Task2 does not. Our results suggest that the BCE reflects crosstalk of unattended response information for Task2 acting on the response selection stage in Task1, and that response information for two tasks may be activated simultaneously. PMID:24845877

  5. Embodiment of abstract categories in space… grounding or mere compatibility effects? The case of politics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2016-05-01

    In two experiments, the role played by stimulus response compatibility in driving the spatial grounding of abstract concepts is examined. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to classify politics-related words appearing to the left or the right side of a computer monitor as socialist or conservative. Responses were given by pressing vertically aligned keys and thus orthogonal to the spatial information that may have been implied by the words. Responses given by left or right index finger were counterbalanced. In Experiment 2, a lexical decision task, participants categorized political words or non-words presented to the left or the right auditory channels, by pressing the top/bottom button of a response box. The response category labels (word or non-word) were also orthogonal to the spatial information that may have been implied by the stimulus words. In both experiments, responses were faster when socialism-related words were presented on the left and conservatism-related words were presented on the right, irrespective of the reference of the response keys or labels. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial grounding of abstract concepts (or at least politics-related ones) is independent of experimentally driven stimulus-response compatibility effects. PMID:27043255

  6. The Compatibility Effect Of Coupling Agent On Rheological-Morphological Relationship Of Banana Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. Y.; Shamsudin, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The rheological properties of banana fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP/BF) composites at different composition were analysed using Shimadzu capillary rheometer. The effect of coupling agent concentration on the rheological properties was studied and followed by drawing a relationship of rheological-morphological properties of PP/BF composites. It was found that all composite system exhibits pseudoplasticity and incorporation of treated fibres consequents enhanced viscosity due to improved interfacial adhesion at fibre-matrix interface. However, it was observed that PP/BF composite with 2 wt% silane concentration does not yield further enhancement in the rheological properties when compared to that of 1 wt%. Composites with 1 wt% silane concentration were found to yield most promising compatibility effect with well-oriented and uniformly dispersed fibre morphology.

  7. Reversing the affordance effect: negative stimulus-response compatibility observed with images of graspable objects.

    PubMed

    Kostov, Kiril; Janyan, Armina

    2015-09-01

    Responses are faster when the task-irrelevant orientation of a graspable object's handle corresponds to the location of the response hand. Over the past decade, research has focused on dissociating between two competing accounts of this effect: One rooted in motoric object affordances and the other resting on attentional mechanisms (i.e., Simon effect). Following this avenue of inquiry, we conducted three experiments, in which subjects had to respond bimanually to grayscale photographs of frying pans and saucepans. In addition to horizontal orientation (control/leftward/rightward handles), Experiments 1 and 2 also manipulated the direction of exogenous attentional shifts (left/right) using laterally placed, colored markers within the objects. Both experiments yielded regular Simon effects based on the location of the colored markers. However, in stark contrast to previous research, a negative stimulus-response compatibility effect was obtained with regard to the orientation of the graspable handles. This reversed affordance effect was also observed using the original, unedited grayscale photographs (Experiment 3), which suggested that its occurrence cannot be attributed to the use of colored markers. These unexpected findings appear to support the idea that Simon effects result from automatic and exogenous attentional orienting mechanisms, whereas affordances arise from controlled and endogenous attentional processes. Such a top-down attentional account of affordance can accommodate the observed reversal of the effect in the context of task characteristics. PMID:26233530

  8. Biological denitrification of brine: the effect of compatible solutes on enzyme activities and fatty acid degradation.

    PubMed

    Cyplik, Paweł; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Czarny, Jakub; Drozdzyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the addition of compatible solutes (ectoine and trehalose) on the denitrification process of saline wastewater was studied. In saline wastewater, it was observed that the initial concentration of nitrates was 500 mg N l⁻¹. A fatty substance isolated from oiled bleaching earth (waste of vegetable oil refining process) was used as a source of carbon.The consortium, which was responsible for the denitrification process originated from the wastewater of the vegetable oil industry. The consortium of microorganisms was identified by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and sequencing techniques. It was noted that ectoine affects significantly the activity of lipase and nitrate reductase, and resulted in faster denitrification compared to saline wastewater with the addition of trehalose or control saline wastewater (without compatible solutes). It was observed that relative enzyme activities of lipase and nitrate reductase increased by 32 and 35%, respectively, in the presence of 1 mM ectoine. This resulted in an increase in specific nitrate reduction rate in the presence of 1 mM ectoine to 5.7 mg N g⁻¹ VSS h⁻¹, which was higher than in the absence of ectoine (3.2 mg N g⁻¹ VSS h⁻¹). The addition of trehalose did not have an effect on nitrate removals. Moreover, it was found that trehalose was used up completely by bacteria as a source of carbon in the denitrification process. The fatty acids were biodegraded by 74% in the presence of 1 mM ectoine. PMID:22286267

  9. Incorporating Ecologically Relevant Measures of Pesticide Effect for Estimating the Compatibility of Pesticides and Biocontrol Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compatibility of biological control agents with pesticides is a central concern in integrated pest management programs. The most common assessments of compatibility consist of simple comparisons of acute toxicity among pest species and select biocontrol agents. A more sophisticated approach, d...

  10. Two-digit number comparison: Decade-unit and unit-decade produce the same compatibility effect with number words.

    PubMed

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo

    2010-03-01

    This study explored the processing of 2-digit number words by examining the unit-decade compatibility effect in Spanish. Participants were required to choose the larger of 2-digit number words presented in verbal notation. In compatible trials the decade and unit comparisons led to the same response (e.g., 53-68) while in incompatible trials the decade and unit comparisons led to different responses (e.g., 59-74). Participants were slower on compatible trials as compared to incompatible trials. In Experiments 2 and 3, we evaluated whether the reverse compatibility effect in Spanish was only due to a pure left-to-right encoding which favours the decade processing in this language (decade-unit order). When participants processed 2-digit number words presented in reverse form (in the unit-decade order), the same reverse compatibility effect was found. This pattern of results suggests that participants have learnt a language-dependent process for analysing written numbers which is used irrespective of the specific arrangement of units and decades in the comparison task. PMID:20384414

  11. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  12. Stimulus-Response Compatibility Effect in the Near-Far Dimension: A Developmental Study

    PubMed Central

    Richez, Aurélien; Olivier, Gerard; Coello, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the developmental aspect of stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect in 8–11-years-old children. The task consisted in manually responding to the color of a pawn presented on a chessboard at different distances. Manual responses were provided by reaching a proximal or distal location depending on the color of the stimulus. We found that reaction time was affected by the conflict generated by the response suggested by the location of the stimulus and the response required according to its color. This was not the case for movement time despite we found a higher rate of long duration movements in the incongruent than in the congruent spatial condition. The SRC effect was, however, observed in children older than 10 years old. These findings provide additional evidence for a reorganization of the perceptual system during the period of 8–10 years, integrating progressively multimodal information and preparing more efficiently the body to act in the environment. PMID:27547194

  13. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon nanowire biofield-effect transistors as affinity biosensors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xuexin; Rajan, Nitin K; Izadi, Mohammad Hadi; Reed, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    Affinity biosensors use biorecognition elements and transducers to convert a biochemical event into a recordable signal. They provides the molecule binding information, which includes the dynamics of biomolecular association and dissociation, and the equilibrium association constant. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible silicon (Si) nanowires configured as a field-effect transistor (NW FET) have shown significant advantages for real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of biomolecules. Most research has focused on reducing the detection limit of Si-NW FETs but has provided less information about the real binding parameters of the biomolecular interactions. Recently, Si-NW FETs have been demonstrated as affinity biosensors to quantify biomolecular binding affinities and kinetics. They open new applications for NW FETs in the nanomedicine field and will bring such sensor technology a step closer to commercial point-of-care applications. This article summarizes the recent advances in bioaffinity measurement using Si-NW FETs, with an emphasis on the different approaches used to address the issues of sensor calibration, regeneration, binding kinetic measurements, limit of detection, sensor surface modification, biomolecule charge screening, reference electrode integration and nonspecific molecular binding. PMID:24156488

  14. Converting HAZUS capacity curves to seismic hazard-compatible building fragility functions: effect of hysteretic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryu, Hyeuk; Luco, Nicolas; Baker, Jack W.; Karaca, Erdem

    2008-01-01

    A methodology was recently proposed for the development of hazard-compatible building fragility models using parameters of capacity curves and damage state thresholds from HAZUS (Karaca and Luco, 2008). In the methodology, HAZUS curvilinear capacity curves were used to define nonlinear dynamic SDOF models that were subjected to the nonlinear time history analysis instead of the capacity spectrum method. In this study, we construct a multilinear capacity curve with negative stiffness after an ultimate (capping) point for the nonlinear time history analysis, as an alternative to the curvilinear model provided in HAZUS. As an illustration, here we propose parameter values of the multilinear capacity curve for a moderate-code low-rise steel moment resisting frame building (labeled S1L in HAZUS). To determine the final parameter values, we perform nonlinear time history analyses of SDOF systems with various parameter values and investigate their effects on resulting fragility functions through sensitivity analysis. The findings improve capacity curves and thereby fragility and/or vulnerability models for generic types of structures.

  15. Automatic imitation in rhythmical actions: kinematic fidelity and the effects of compatibility, delay, and visual monitoring.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Daniel L; Turgeon, Martine; Vogt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that observation of everyday rhythmical actions biases subsequent motor execution of the same and of different actions, using a paradigm where the observed actions were irrelevant for action execution. The cycle time of the distractor actions was subtly manipulated across trials, and the cycle time of motor responses served as the main dependent measure. Although distractor frequencies reliably biased response cycle times, this imitation bias was only a small fraction of the modulations in distractor speed, as well as of the modulations produced when participants intentionally imitated the observed rhythms. Importantly, this bias was not only present for compatible actions, but was also found, though numerically reduced, when distractor and executed actions were different (e.g., tooth brushing vs. window wiping), or when the dominant plane of movement was different (horizontal vs. vertical). In addition, these effects were equally pronounced for execution at 0, 4, and 8 s after action observation, a finding that contrasts with the more short-lived effects reported in earlier studies. The imitation bias was also unaffected when vision of the hand was occluded during execution, indicating that this effect most likely resulted from visuomotor interactions during distractor observation, rather than from visual monitoring and guidance during execution. Finally, when the distractor was incompatible in both dimensions (action type and plane) the imitation bias was not reduced further, in an additive way, relative to the single-incompatible conditions. This points to a mechanism whereby the observed action's impact on motor processing is generally reduced whenever this is not useful for motor planning. We interpret these findings in the framework of biased competition, where intended and distractor actions can be represented as competing and quasi-encapsulated sensorimotor streams. PMID:23071623

  16. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  17. Compatible solutes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  18. Characteristics of Mindless Teaching Evaluations and the Moderating Effects of Image Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunegan, Kenneth J.; Hrivnak, Mary W.

    2003-01-01

    At 3 times, 164 management students completed student evaluations of teaching (SET), 150 completed an image compatibility questionnaire, and 155 evaluated instructors' overall performance. SET scores and overall evaluations were significantly correlated only when actual and ideal images of instructors were incompatible. When teaching was…

  19. The effect of SNARC compatibility on perceptual accuracy: evidence from object substitution masking.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Greg; Pratt, Jay

    2016-07-01

    If given a relatively small number and asked to make a speeded parity judgment using the left and right responses, people typically respond faster with their left response. Conversely, if given a relatively large number, people usually respond faster with their right response. This finding, however, has primarily been shown using speeded tasks with response time as the primary measure. Here, we report an experiment testing if this remains to be the case in a non-speeded target identification. Using an object-substitution masking paradigm with no emphasis on response speed, number magnitude compatibility with the response hand influenced the accuracy of parity judgments. Given the non-speeded nature of the task, accuracy changes indicate that compatibility affects perception, rather than just response selection. This is explained using a common coding, feature integration approach in which stimuli and responses are represented in a common code and bidirectionally influence each other. PMID:26067890

  20. Photocatalytic formulations for protein fibers: experimental analysis of the effect of preparation on compatibility and photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Tung, Wing Sze; Daoud, Walid A

    2008-10-01

    In this article, we report an optimization study of a photocatalytic self-cleaning sol-gel formulation. In particular we studied the effect of formulation preparation time on the formation of anatase titanium dioxide sol and its compatibility to protein keratin-type wool fibers. The sols were formed by a low temperature sol-gel process. The nucleated anatase was characterized by UV-vis transmission, particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The compatibility between the formulations and wool fibers is evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, UV transmission, and mechanical properties. The photocatalytic self-cleaning activity of coated fibers and its reproducibility are also discussed. PMID:18691723

  1. [Attenuation effects of compatible medicines on arsenical and lead toxicity of badu shengji san].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanli; He, Rong; Peng, Bo; Gao, Jie; Li, Jianrong

    2011-08-01

    Badu Shengji San(BDSJS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for drawing out toxin, eliminating suppuration and promoting granulation. Toxic minerals such as arsenic and lead are the two most important components of BDSJS. Previous hypothesis indicated that according to the compatibility theory of TCM, the toxicity of the entire BDSJS was weaker than that of arsenic and lead, respectively. In the present study, SD rats with injured skin were treated with distilled water and different composition of BDSJS (complete formulations, compatible herbs, mineral medicine containing arsenic and lead, mineral medicine containing arsenic and mineral medicine containing lead) once a day for consecutive 2 weeks. Kidney coefficient and urinary beta-N-acetyl glucosidase (NAG) were used as the indicators of renal toxicity and the content of malondiadehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) in the renal tissue were measured. Our data showed that kidney coefficient, the severity of renal pathological lesion and MT level in the kidney of the entire BDSJS group decreased significantly compared with arsenic and lead group. Additionally, the NAG content of the entire BDSJS group had the decreased trend. The kidney CuZn-SOD level of the entire BDSJS group had the increased trend, but the MDA, GSH-PX, GSH level had no obvious difference. Our results suggested that compatible herbs in BDSJS relieved renal injury induced by arsenic and lead, and the attenuation mechanism may be related to MT and CuZn-SOD, but not to MDA, GSH-PX and GSH directly. PMID:22066453

  2. Cost-Effective Cementitious Material Compatible with Yucca Mountain Repository Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, LR

    2004-12-17

    The current plans for the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository project (YMP) use steel structures to stabilize the disposal drifts and connecting tunnels that are collectively over 100 kilometers in length. The potential exist to reduce the underground construction cost by 100s of millions of dollars and improve the repository's performance. These economic and engineering goals can be achieved by using the appropriate cementitious materials to build out these tunnels. This report describes the required properties of YM compatible cements and reviews the literature that proves the efficacy of this approach. This report also describes a comprehensive program to develop and test materials for a suite of underground construction technologies.

  3. The in vivo blood compatibility of bio-inspired small diameter vascular graft: effect of submicron longitudinally aligned topography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide and the arterial reconstructive surgery remains the treatment of choice. Although large diameter vascular grafts have been widely used in clinical practices, there is an urgent need to develop a small diameter vascular graft with enhanced blood compatibility. Herein, we fabricated a small diameter vascular graft with submicron longitudinally aligned topography, which mimicked the tunica intima of the native arterial vessels and were tested in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Methods Vascular grafts with aligned and smooth topography were prepared by electrospinning and were connected to the abdominal aorta of the SD rats to evaluate their blood compatibility. Graft patency and platelet adhesion were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound and immunofluorescence respectively. Results We observed a significant higher patency rate (p = 0.021) and less thrombus formation in vascular graft with aligned topography than vascular graft with smooth topography. However, no significant difference between the adhesion rates on both vascular grafts (smooth/aligned: 0.35‰/0.12‰, p > 0.05) was observed. Moreover, both vascular grafts had few adherent activated platelets on the luminal surface. Conclusion Bionic vascular graft showed enhanced blood compatibility due to the effect of surface topography. Therefore, it has considerable potential for using in clinical application. PMID:24083888

  4. Materials compatibility.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-04-01

    Objectives are to enable development and implementation of codes and standards for H{sub 2} containment components: (1) Evaluate data on mechanical properties of materials in H{sub 2} gas - Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials; (2) Generate new benchmark data on high-priority materials - Pressure vessel steels, stainless steels; and (3) Establish procedures for reliable materials testing - Sustained-load cracking, fatigue crack propagation. Summary of this presentation are: (1) Completed measurement of cracking thresholds (K{sub TH}) for Ni-Cr-Mo pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - K{sub TH} measurements required in ASME Article KD-10 (2) Crack arrest test methods appear to yield non-conservative results compared to crack initiation test methods - (a) Proposal to insert crack initiation test methods in Article KD-10 will be presented to ASME Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks, and (b) Crack initiation methods require test apparatus designed for dynamic loading of specimens in H{sub 2} gas; and (3) Demonstrated ability to measure fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - (a) Fatigue crack growth data in H{sub 2} required in ASME Article KD-10, and (b) Test apparatus is one of few in U.S. or abroad for measuring fatigue crack growth in >100 MPa H{sub 2} gas.

  5. Surface modification of polymeric materials and its effect on blood compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Archuleta, T.; Barthell, B.L.; Kossowsky, R.; London, J.E.; Lehnert, B.E.; Duchane, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of commercially available polymeric materials have been modified through the chemical infusion process and physical vapor deposition. The surfaces of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been modified through a chemical infusion process by treatment of the sample with a solution containing varying amounts of titanium(IV)isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The surfaces of silicone rubber samples have been coated with a thin coating of titanium dioxide with an ion beam sputtering technique. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and neutron activation analysis. The infused samples were evaluated for blood compatibility using two biological assays: an adherence assay in which the adherence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the samples was determined, and a hemolysis assay using rat blood erythrocytes to determine the hemolytic activity of the samples. Based on the results of these assays, the PMMA samples treated with PVP alone resulted in an improvement in reactivity with the blood cells. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. [Effect of different compatibility of zhizi dahuang decoction on pharmacokinetics of naringenin and hesperetin].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Feng, Fang

    2014-07-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the determination of total naringenin and total hesperetin in rat plasma after oral administration of Citrus aurantium Immaturus extracts and Zhizi Dahuang decoction. Plasma samples were pretreated with liquid-liquid extraction procedure and acid hydrolysis method was used for converting conjugated naringenin and hesperetin to their respective free forms. Plasma samples were separated on a C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm), using 0.1% phosphoric acid and methanol as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1) with gradient elution. DAS 2.0 software was applied to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters while the SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Significant differences were observed, the C(max) AUC(0-t) of total naringenin in ZS group was 73.5% and 65.9% higher than those in ZZDHD group, respectively; the C(max), AUC(0-t) of total hesperetin in ZS group was 63.5% and 119.1% higher than those in ZZDHD group, respectively. There is a obvious decrease in C(max) and AUC(0-t) of total naringenin and total hesperetin after compatibility and their pharmacokinetic characteristics changed greatly due to the combination of other herbs. The established method was rapid, sensitive, selective and accurate, and it could be applied in the determination of total naringenin and total hesperetin in rat plasma. PMID:25276981

  7. Differential Effects of Rare Specific Flavonoids on Compatible and Incompatible Strains in the Myrica gale-Frankia Actinorhizal Symbiosis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Jean; Comte, Gilles; Bagnarol, Émilie; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Bellvert, Floriant; Bertrand, Cédric; Fernandez, Maria P.

    2010-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites, and specifically phenolics, play important roles when plants interact with their environment and can act as weapons or positive signals during biotic interactions. One such interaction, the establishment of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing symbioses, typically involves phenolic-based recognition mechanisms between host plants and bacterial symbionts during the early stages of interaction. While these mechanisms are well studied in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, little is known about the role of plant phenolics in the symbiosis between actinorhizal plants and Frankia genus strains. In this study, the responsiveness of Frankia strains to plant phenolics was correlated with their symbiotic compatibility. We used Myrica gale, a host species with narrow symbiont specificity, and a set of compatible and noncompatible Frankia strains. M. gale fruit exudate phenolics were extracted, and 8 dominant molecules were purified and identified as flavonoids by high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Total fruit exudates, along with two purified dihydrochalcone molecules, induced modifications of bacterial growth and nitrogen fixation according to the symbiotic specificity of strains, enhancing compatible strains and inhibiting incompatible ones. Candidate genes involved in these effects were identified by a global transcriptomic approach using ACN14a strain whole-genome microarrays. Fruit exudates induced differential expression of 22 genes involved mostly in oxidative stress response and drug resistance, along with the overexpression of a whiB transcriptional regulator. This work provides evidence for the involvement of plant secondary metabolites in determining symbiotic specificity and expands our understanding of the mechanisms, leading to the establishment of actinorhizal symbioses. PMID:20190089

  8. Effect of compatible and noncompatible osmolytes on the enzymatic activity and thermal stability of bovine liver catalase.

    PubMed

    Sepasi Tehrani, H; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Ghourchian, H; Ahmad, F; Kiany, A; Atri, M S; Ariaeenejad, Sh; Kavousi, K; Saboury, A A

    2013-12-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of H2O2 into harmless water and molecular oxygen. Due to various applications of the enzyme in different sectors of industry as well as medicine, the enhancement of stability of the enzyme is important. Effect of various classes of compatible as well as noncompatible osmolytes on the enzymatic activity, disaggregation, and thermal stability of bovine liver catalase have been investigated. Compatible osmolytes, proline, xylitol, and valine destabilize the denatured form of the enzyme and, therefore, increase its disaggregation and thermal stability. The increase in the thermal stability is accompanied with a slight increase of activity in comparison to the native enzyme at 25 °C. On the other hand, histidine, a noncompatible osmolyte stabilizes the denatured form of the protein and hence causes an overall decrease in the thermal stability and enzymatic activity of the enzyme. Chemometric results have confirmed the experimental results and have provided insight into the distribution and number of mole fraction components for the intermediates. The increase in melting temperature (Tm) and enzymatic rate could be further amplified by the intrinsic effect of temperature enhancement on the enzymatic activity for the industrial purposes. PMID:23249140

  9. Control-display alignment determines the prevalent compatibility effect in two-dimensional stimulus-response tasks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Samuel; Miles, James D; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2016-04-01

    Responses are faster and more accurate when they are spatially compatible with a stimulus than when they are incompatible (the stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect). In studies using two-dimensional (2-D) stimulus and response sets in which stimuli and responses have both vertical (top-bottom) and horizontal (right-left) spatial relations, SRC effects are generally larger along the horizontal dimension, an effect called right-left prevalence. Several accounts have been posited to explain this asymmetry, including frames of reference to the body and spatio-anatomical constraints. We propose a new account of the right-left prevalence effect in which prevalence effects are largely determined by the spatial alignment between elements on the stimulus display and response locations on the control panel-the control-display alignment (CDA). For example, when responses are aligned below a display, 2-D stimulus and response sets share a common vertical midline that emphasizes a right-left distinction. When responses are to the right or left of the display, the shared midline is horizontal, emphasizing the top-bottom distinction and should instead lead to top-bottom prevalence effects. Participants completed two-choice, 2-D SRC tasks in four control-display configurations with a response panel centered above, below, left, and right of a projected display. As hypothesized, right-left prevalence was elicited using vertical CDA and top-bottom prevalence was elicited using horizontal CDA. The findings demonstrate that CDA largely determines prevalence effects and should be taken into account when using multidimensional stimulus and response sets. PMID:26169949

  10. Effect of cross-link density and hydrophilicity of PU on blood compatibility of hydrophobic PS/hydrophilic PU IPNs.

    PubMed

    Roh, H W; Song, M J; Han, D K; Lee, D S; Ahn, J H; Kim, S C

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain structure on blood compatibility, a series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) composed of hydrophilic polyurethane (PU) and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) was prepared. One series was prepared with varying cross-link densities of each network, the other with varying hydrophilicity of the PU component. All PU/PS IPNs exhibited microphase-separated structures that had dispersed PS domains in the continuous PU matrix. The domain size decreased with decreasing the hydrophilicity of the PU component and increasing the cross-link density of each network. As the cross-link density and hydrophobicity of the PU component was increased, an inward shift of Tgs was observed, which was due to the decrease in phase separation between the hydrophobic PS component and hydrophilic PU component. In the in vitro platelet adhesion test, as the microdomain size of PU/PS IPN surface decreased, the number of adhered platelets on the PU/PS IPN surface was reduced and deformation of the adhered platelets decreased. It could be concluded that blood compatibility of PU/PS IPN was mainly affected by the degree of mixing between PU and PS component, which was reflected by the domain size of PS rich phase. PMID:10091927

  11. Effect of crystallographic compatibility and grain size on the functional fatigue of sputtered TiNiCuCo thin films.

    PubMed

    Chluba, C; Ge, W; Dankwort, T; Bechtold, C; de Miranda, R Lima; Kienle, L; Wuttig, M; Quandt, E

    2016-08-13

    The positive influence of crystallographic compatibility on the thermal transformation stability has been already investigated extensively in the literature. However, its influence on the stability of the shape memory effect or superelasticity used in actual applications is still unresolved. In this investigation sputtered films of a highly compatible TiNiCuCo composition with a transformation matrix middle eigenvalue of 1±0.01 are exposed to thermal as well as to superelastic cycling. In agreement with previous results the thermal transformation of this alloy is with a temperature shift of less than 0.1 K for 40 cycles very stable; on the other hand, superelastic degradation behaviour was found to depend strongly on heat treatment parameters. To reveal the transformation dissimilarities between the differently heat-treated samples, the microstructure has been analysed by transmission electron microscopy, in situ stress polarization microscopy and synchrotron analysis. It is found that good crystallographic stability is not a sufficient criterion to avoid defect generation which guarantees high superelastic stability. For the investigated alloy, a small grain size was identified as the determining factor which increases the yield strength of the composition and decreases the functional degradation during superelastic cycling.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402935

  12. The effects of display-control I/O, compatibility, and integrality on dual-task performance and subjective workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Pamela S.; Hart, Sandra G.; Vidulich, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    The utility of speech technology was evaluated in terms of three dual task principles: resource competition between the time shared tasks, stimulus central processing response compatibility, and task integrality. Empirical support for these principles was reviewed. Two studies investigating the interactive effects of the three principles were described. Objective performance and subjective workload ratings for both single and dual tasks were examined. It was found that the single task measures were not necessarily good predictors for the dual task measures. It was shown that all three principles played an important role in determining an optimal task configuration. This was reflected in both the performance measures and the subjective measures. Therefore, consideration of all three principles is required to insure proper use of speech technology in a complex environment.

  13. Ultra-sensitive nucleic acids detection with electrical nanosensors based on CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Gao, Anran; Dai, Pengfei; Li, Tie; Wang, Yi; Gao, Xiuli; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Yuelin

    2013-10-01

    Silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have recently emerged as a type of powerful nanoelectronic biosensors due to their ultrahigh sensitivity, selectivity, label-free and real-time detection capabilities. Here, we present a protocol as well as guidelines for detecting DNA with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible SiNW-FET sensors. SiNWs with high surface-to-volume ratio and controllable sizes were fabricated with an anisotropic self-stop etching technique. Probe DNA molecules specific for the target DNA were covalently modified onto the surface of the SiNWs. The SiNW-FET nanosensors exhibited an ultrahigh sensitivity for detecting the target DNA as low as 1 fM and good selectivity for discrimination from one-base mismatched DNA. PMID:23886908

  14. WDM compatible and electrically tunable SPE-OCDMA system based on the temporal self-imaging effect.

    PubMed

    Tainta, S; Amaya, W; Erro, M J; Garde, M J; Sales, S; Muriel, M A

    2011-02-01

    A coding/decoding setup for a spectral phase encoding optical code-division multiple access (SPE-OCDMA) system has been developed. The proposal is based on the temporal self-imaging effect and the use of an easily tunable electro-optic phase modulator to achieve line-by-line coding of the transmitted signal, thus assuring compatibility with WDM techniques. Modulation of the code is performed at the same rate as the data, avoiding the use of high-bandwidth electro-optic modulators. As proof of concept of the technique, experimental results are presented for a back-to-back coder/decoder setup transmitting a 10 GHz unmodulated optical pulse train within an 80 GHz optical window and using 8-chip Hadamard codes. PMID:21283203

  15. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management. PMID:26803817

  16. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  17. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  18. Perceptuo-motor effects of response-distractor compatibility in speech: beyond phonemic identity.

    PubMed

    Roon, Kevin D; Gafos, Adamantios I

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have found faster response times in a production task when a speaker perceives a distractor syllable that is identical to the syllable they are required to produce. No study has found such effects when a response and a distractor are not identical but share parameters below the level of the phoneme. Results from Experiment 1 show some evidence of a response-time effect of response-distractor voicing congruency. Experiment 2 showed a robust effect of articulator congruency: perceiving a distractor that has the same articulatory organ as that implicated in the planned motor response speeds up response times. These results necessitate a more direct and specific formulation of the perception-production link than warranted by previous experimental evidence. Implications for theories of speech production are also discussed. PMID:24865282

  19. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Gotić, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution. PMID:24822073

  20. Graphene/Si-quantum-dot heterojunction diodes showing high photosensitivity compatible with quantum confinement effect.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jong Min; Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Kyeong Won; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Chang Oh; Choi, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kyung Joong

    2015-04-24

    Graphene/Si quantum dot (QD) heterojunction diodes are reported for the first time. The photoresponse, very sensitive to variations in the size of the QDs as well as in the doping concentration of graphene and consistent with the quantum-confinement effect, is remarkably enhanced in the near-ultraviolet range compared to commercially available bulk-Si photodetectors. The photoresponse proves to be dominated by the carriertunneling mechanism. PMID:25776865

  1. Evaluation of Effecting Parameters on Optimum Arrangement of Urban Land Uses and Assessment of Their Compatibility Using Adjacency Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, S.; Mesgari, M. S.; Kaviary, F.

    2015-12-01

    Todays, stability of human life is threatened by a set of parameters. So sustainable urban development theory is introduced after the stability theory to protect the urban environment. In recent years, sustainable urban development gains a lot of attraction by different sciences and totally becomes a final target for urban development planners and managers to use resources properly and to establish a balanced relationship among human, community, and nature. Proper distribution of services for decreasing spatial inequalities, promoting the quality of living environment, and approaching an urban stability requires an analytical understanding of the present situation. Understanding the present situation is the first step for making a decision and planning effectively. This paper evaluates effective parameters affecting proper arrangement of land-uses using a descriptive-analytical method, to develop a conceptual framework for understanding of the present situation of urban land-uses, based on the assessment of their compatibility. This study considers not only the local parameters, but also spatial parameters are included in this study. The results indicate that land-uses in the zone considered here are not distributed properly. Considering mentioned parameters and distributing service land-uses effectively cause the better use of these land-uses.

  2. Effects of Osmolyte Precursors on the Distribution of Compatible Solutes in Methanohalophilus portucalensis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, P. M.; Roberts, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    The halophilic methanogen Methanohalophilus portucalensis synthesizes three distinct zwitterions, (beta)-glutamine, N(sup(epsilon))-acetyl-(beta)-lysine (NA(beta)Lys), and glycine betaine, as osmolytes when it is grown at high concentrations of external NaCl. The selective distribution of these three species was determined by growing cells in the presence of osmolyte biosynthetic precursors. Glycine betaine is formed by the stepwise methylation of glycine. Exogenous glycine (10 mM) and sarcosine (10 mM), although internalized, do not bias the cells to accumulate any more betaine. However, exogenous N,N-dimethylglycine (10 mM) is available to the appropriate methyltransferase and the betaine generated from it suppresses the synthesis of other osmolytes. Precursors of the two zwitterionic (beta)-amino acids ((beta)-glutamate for (beta)-glutamine and (alpha)-lysine and diaminopimelate for NA(beta)Lys) have only small effects on (beta)-amino acid accumulation. The largest effect is provided by L-(alpha)-glutamine, suggesting that nitrogen assimilation is a key factor in osmolyte distribution. PMID:16535715

  3. Fluorinated amino acids: compatibility with native protein structures and effects on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Salwiczek, Mario; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Gerling, Ulla I M; Ye, Shijie; Koksch, Beate

    2012-03-21

    Fluorinated analogues of the canonical α-L-amino acids have gained widespread attention as building blocks that may endow peptides and proteins with advantageous biophysical, chemical and biological properties. This critical review covers the literature dealing with investigations of peptides and proteins containing fluorinated analogues of the canonical amino acids published over the course of the past decade including the late nineties. It focuses on side-chain fluorinated amino acids, the carbon backbone of which is identical to their natural analogues. Each class of amino acids--aliphatic, aromatic, charged and polar as well as proline--is presented in a separate section. General effects of fluorine on essential properties such as hydrophobicity, acidity/basicity and conformation of the specific side chains and the impact of these altered properties on stability, folding kinetics and activity of peptides and proteins are discussed (245 references). PMID:22130572

  4. The Effects of LOX Post Biasing on SSME Injector Wall Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Tseng, L. K.; Miner, K. I.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine the effects of LOX post biasing of a shear coaxial injector on the behavior of the spray near a chamber wall. The experimental work was performed with inert propellant simulants in a high-pressure chamber. Injector flow rates and chamber pressure were designed to match the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) injector gas-to-liquid density and velocity ratio at the point of propellant injection. Measurements of liquid mass flux, gas phase velocity and droplet size were made using mechanical patternation and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. The measurements revealed that the liquid mass flux distribution shifts away from the wall with increasing LOX post bias away from the wall. The shift in the liquid flux distribution was much greater than that caused by the angling of the LOX post alone. Gas velocity near the wall simultaneously increased with increasing LOX post bias away from the wall. The increase in wall side gas velocity was due to the higher fraction of gas injected on the wall side of the injector as a result of the eccentricity at the injector exit. The net result is a decrease in mixture ratio near the wall. Estimates of heat transfer and engine performance relative to the unbiased case are presented.

  5. Constrained postures and spatial S-R compatibility as measured by the Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Kreutzfeldt, Magali; Leisten, Marco; Müsseler, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    Whereas working under constrained postures is known to influence the worker's perceived comfort and health, little is known in regard to its influence on performance. Employing an Auditory Simon task while varying posture, we investigated the relationship between constrained postures and cognitive processes in three experiments. In Experiment 1 and 2, participants operated a rocker switch or a control knob with one hand either in front or in the back of their body and while either sitting or kneeling. Perceived musculoskeletal exertion was gathered with a questionnaire. Results of the first two experiments showed differently perceived comfort and a minor effect of constrained posture on cognitive performance. However, results indicated that spatial coding in the back compares to either a virtual turn of the observer towards the control device (front-device coding) or along the observer's hand (effector coding). To clarify this issue the rocker switch was operated with one or two hands in Experiment 3, showing a comparable coding only in the one-hand condition and indicating evidence for the effector-coding hypothesis in the back. PMID:25139464

  6. A fiberoptic compatible midinfrared laser with CO2 laser-like effect: application to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oz, M C; Treat, M R; Trokel, S L; Andrew, J E; Nowygrod, R

    1989-12-01

    In theory, pulses of laser light in the 2-microns range should ablate tissue in a manner similar to that of the 10.6-microns CO2 laser with the added advantage of efficient transmission through flexible quartz fibers. Using 200-microseconds pulses of 2.15-microns thulium-holmium-chromium:YAG (THC:YAG) laser light, we were able to create 700-microns-diameter holes through calcific atherosclerosis in vitro. In vivo evaluation of thrombogenicity and healing was accomplished by exposing the luminal surface of rabbit aortas to the THC:YAG laser. Serial histologic examinations of laser-treated rabbit aortae revealed a time course of resolution of the lesions which was very similar to that observed with like-sized lesions created with the same amount of continuous wave CO2 energy. No significant differences in thrombogenicity nor healing response were noted. The excellent in vivo response observed is due in part to the pulsed nature of the THC:YAG laser output as well as to the efficient tissue absorption at the 2.15-microns wavelength. We feel that excellent ablative effects with minimal collateral thermal damage can be obtained through fiberoptic delivery systems by taking advantage of laser wavelengths corresponding to the infrared absorption peak of water in the 2-microns region and pulsed delivery of the laser energy. PMID:2511380

  7. Heterologous expression of Septoria lycopersici tomatinase in Cladosporium fulvum: effects on compatible and incompatible interactions with tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    Melton, R E; Flegg, L M; Brown, J K; Oliver, R P; Daniels, M J; Osbourn, A E

    1998-03-01

    The anti-fungal, steroidal, glycoalkaloid saponin, alpha-tomatine, is present in uninfected tomato plants in substantial concentrations, and may contribute to the protection of tomato plants against attack by phytopathogenic fungi. In general, successful fungal pathogens of tomato are more resistant to alpha-tomatine in vitro than fungi that do not infect this plant. For a number of tomato pathogens, this resistance has been associated with the ability to detoxify alpha-tomatine through the action of enzymes known as tomatinases. In contrast, the biotrophic tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is sensitive to alpha-tomatine and is unable to detoxify this saponin. This paper describes the effects of heterologous expression of the cDNA encoding tomatinase from the necrotroph Septoria lycopersici in two different physiological races of C. fulvum. Tomatinase-producing C. fulvum transformants showed increased sporulation on cotyledons of susceptible tomato lines. They also caused more extensive infection of seedlings of resistant tomato lines. Thus, alpha-tomatine may contribute to the ability of tomato to restrict the growth of C. fulvum in both compatible and incompatible interactions. PMID:9487697

  8. Silicon-nanowire-based CMOS-compatible field-effect transistor nanosensors for ultrasensitive electrical detection of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Anran; Lu, Na; Dai, Pengfei; Li, Tie; Pei, Hao; Gao, Xiuli; Gong, Yibin; Wang, Yuelin; Fan, Chunhai

    2011-09-14

    We herein report the design of a novel semiconducting silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) biosensor array for ultrasensitive label-free and real-time detection of nucleic acids. Highly responsive SiNWs with narrow sizes and high surface-to-volume-ratios were "top-down" fabricated with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique. When SiNWs were covalently modified with DNA probes, the nanosensor showed highly sensitive concentration-dependent conductance change in response to specific target DNA sequences. This SiNW-FET nanosensor revealed ultrahigh sensitivity for rapid and reliable detection of 1 fM of target DNA and high specificity single-nucleotide polymorphism discrimination. As a proof-of-concept for multiplex detection with this small-size and mass producible sensor array, we demonstrated simultaneous selective detection of two pathogenic strain virus DNA sequences (H1N1 and H5N1) of avian influenza. PMID:21848308

  9. Effect of water structure on blood compatibility--thermal analysis of water in poly(meth)acrylate.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Mochizuki, Akira

    2004-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the main factor causing excellent blood compatibility of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)(PMEA) by the comparison between PMEA and seven PMEA analogous polymers. The polymers have a typical functional group as ester side chains such as methoxyethyl, hydroxyethyl, phenoxyethyl, and alkyl groups. The properties of the polymers relating to water were investigated in terms of contact angle, equilibrium water content (EWC), and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry. The water in PMEA could be classified into three types: nonfreezing water, freezing bound water, and free water while the water in the analogous polymers was classified into just two types: free and nonfreezing waters, regardless of the chemical structure of the side chain. The surface property represented by the contact angle of water corresponded to the content of the bound water (nonfreezing water + freezing bound water). The platelet compatibility in vitro did not depend on the contents of these waters, or on the contact angle. On the basis of the results of this work and the previous work on the platelet compatibility of poly(MEA-co-HEMA) (Tanaka et al. Biomacromolecules 2002;3;36-41), the main factor causing the excellent compatibility of PMEA is discussed. PMID:14986323

  10. METHODS FOR DETERMINING EXPOSURE TO AND POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GENE FLOW FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS TO COMPATIBLE RELATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE QUESTIONS:

    -Does gene flow occur from genetically modified (GM) crop plants to compatible plants?

    -How can it be measured?

    -Are there ecological consequences of GM crop gene flow to plant communities?



    RESEARCH:

    The objectives ...

  11. Effects of types and length of soft-segments on the physical properties and blood compatibility of polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih Hao; Tsao, Ching Ting; Chang, Ken Yu; Chen, Szu Hsien; Han, Jin Lin; Hsieh, Kuo Huang

    2012-01-01

    Segmented polyurethane (SPU) materials based on different soft-segment component (PPG, PTMO and PBA) and various length of soft-segment (molecular weight of PBA: 500, 700 and 1000) were synthesized in this research. The soft-segment components were synthesized from polyether-polyols (PPG and PTMO) or from polyester-polyol (PBA). The physical properties and structure characterization of the synthesized SPUs were fully investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and stress-strain measurements. Blood compatibility was evaluated with the platelet adhesion ratio (PAR) and the morphological observation for adhering platelets. Our results showed that the physical properties and blood compatibility of SPUs were closely related to its composition, which was controlled by (1) the types of the soft-segment component employed and (2) the length of soft segments. Polyether-polyol-based SPUs exhibited greater phase separations, poorer tensile strengths, and better blood compatibility, compared with polyester-polyol-based SPUs. SPUs with shorter soft-segment component exhibited greater phase mixing, higher tensile strength, but lower blood compatibility of SPUs, as compared with its counterparts with longer soft-segment component. PMID:23114466

  12. On Software Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershov, Andrei P.

    The problem of compatibility of software hampers the development of computer application. One solution lies in standardization of languages, terms, peripherais, operating systems and computer characteristics. (AB)

  13. Signalling-Dependent Adverse Health Effects of Carbon Nanoparticles Are Prevented by the Compatible Solute Mannosylglycerate (Firoin) In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kroker, Matthias; Hornstein, Tamara; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Stöckmann, Daniel; Bilstein, Andreas; Albrecht, Catrin; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Suschek, Christoph V.; Krutmann, Jean; Unfried, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of combustion-derived nanoparticles leads to adverse health effects in the airways. In this context the induction of membrane-coupled signalling is considered as causative for changes in tissue homeostasis and pro-inflammatory reactions. The identification of these molecular cell reactions allowed to seek for strategies which interfere with these adverse effects. In the current study, we investigated the structurally different compatible solutes mannosylglycerate (firoin) from thermophilic bacteria and ectoine from halophilic bacteria for their capability to reduce signalling pathways triggered by carbon nanoparticles in target cells in the lung. The pre-treatment of lung epithelial cells with both substances decreased the particle-specific activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and also the endpoints proliferation and apoptosis. Firoin applied into the lungs of animals, like ectoine, led to a significant reduction of the neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by particle exposure. The pro-inflammatory effect of carbon nanoparticles on human neutrophil granulocytes ex vivo was significantly reduced by both substances via the reduction of the anti-apoptotic membrane-dependent signalling. The data of this study together with earlier studies demonstrate that two structurally non-related compatible solutes are able to prevent pathogenic reactions of the airways to carbon nanoparticles by interfering with signalling events. The findings highlight the preventive or therapeutic potential of compatible solutes for adverse health effects caused by particle exposure of the airways. PMID:25415441

  14. Brazing of photocathode RF gun structures in Hydrogen atmosphere: Process qualification, effect of brazing on RF properties and vacuum compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kak, Ajay; Kulshreshtha, P.; Lal, Shankar; Kaul, Rakesh; Ganesh, P.; Pant, K. K.; Abhinandan, Lala

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a brazing process for an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible photocathode RF gun structure developed at our Centre. The choice of brazing alloy and its form, brazing clearance between parts to be joined and the brazing cycle adopted have been qualified through metallographic examination of identical joints on an OFE copper prototype that was cut open after brazing. The quality of brazed joint not only affects the UHV compatibility of the gun, but also influences the RF parameters finally achieved. A 2-D electromagnetic code, SUPERFISH, was used to predict the variation in RF parameters before and after brazing considering actual brazing clearances provided between the parts to be joined. Results obtained from low power RF measurements on the brazed gun structure confirm the integrity of the brazed joints and show good agreement with those predicted by electromagnetic simulations. The brazed gun structure has been leak-tested and pumped down to a vacuum level limited by the vacuum compatibility of the flange-fittings employed in the setup.

  15. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Nine Active Compounds of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang and Analysis of the Relationship between Therapeutical Effect and Compatibility of Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guijun; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jingjuan; Zeng, Weixin; Gao, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC-DAD detection method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine compounds including oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang (SGT) and we analyze the relationship between therapeutical effect and compatibility of medicines by using an Agilent extend-C18 column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and glycyrrhizic acid; 276 nm for liquiritin and liquiritigenin; 360 nm for isoliquiritin and isoliquiritigenin. The total contents of the nine compounds in SGT varied from 4.65 to 20.06 mg/mL. The results of this study showed that the content of chemical compounds of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription is mainly influenced by the dosage and compatibility of medicines and the therapeutical effect of Traditional Chinese Medicinal prescription is mainly influenced by the dosage and compatibility of medicines. The method could be suitable for quality control of SGT with bioactive multicompounds. PMID:25431610

  17. Isothermal Calorimetric Observations of the Effect of Welding on Compatibility of Stainless Steels with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) is receiving renewed interest as a monopropellant and as the oxidizer for bipropellant systems. HTP is hydrogen peroxide having concentrations ranging from 70 to 98%. In these applications the energy and oxygen released during decomposition of HTP is used for propulsion. In propulsion systems components must be fabricated and connected using available joining processes. Welding is a common joining method for metallic components. The goal of this study was to compare the HTP compatibility of welded vs. unwelded stainless steel.

  18. Differences in the rheological properties and mixing compatibility with heparinoid cream of brand name and generic steroidal ointments: The effects of their surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Yutani, Reiko; Kodani, Rhu-Ichi; Teraoka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Most steroidal ointments contain propylene glycol (PG) and surfactants, which improve the solubility of corticosteroids in white petrolatum. Surfactants aid the uniform dispersal of PG within white petrolatum. Since the surfactants used in generic ointments are usually different from those used in brand name ointments, we investigated the effects of surfactants on the rheological properties of three brand name ointments and six equivalent generic ointments. We detected marked differences in hardness, adhesiveness, and spreadability among the ointments. Further examinations of model ointments consisting of white petrolatum, PG, and surfactants revealed that the abovementioned properties, especially hardness and adhesiveness, were markedly affected by the surfactants. Since steroidal ointments are often admixed with moisturizing creams prior to use, we investigated the mixing compatibility of the ointments with heparinoid cream and how this was affected by their surfactants. We found that the ointments containing glyceryl monostearate demonstrated good mixing compatibility, whereas those containing non-ionic surfactants with polyoxyethylene chains exhibited phase separation. These results were also consistent with the findings for the model ointments, which indicates that the mixing compatibility of steroidal ointments with heparinoid cream is determined by the emulsifying capacity of the surfactants in their oily bases. PMID:26958460

  19. Differences in the rheological properties and mixing compatibility with heparinoid cream of brand name and generic steroidal ointments: The effects of their surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Yutani, Reiko; Kodani, Rhu-ichi; Teraoka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Most steroidal ointments contain propylene glycol (PG) and surfactants, which improve the solubility of corticosteroids in white petrolatum. Surfactants aid the uniform dispersal of PG within white petrolatum. Since the surfactants used in generic ointments are usually different from those used in brand name ointments, we investigated the effects of surfactants on the rheological properties of three brand name ointments and six equivalent generic ointments. We detected marked differences in hardness, adhesiveness, and spreadability among the ointments. Further examinations of model ointments consisting of white petrolatum, PG, and surfactants revealed that the abovementioned properties, especially hardness and adhesiveness, were markedly affected by the surfactants. Since steroidal ointments are often admixed with moisturizing creams prior to use, we investigated the mixing compatibility of the ointments with heparinoid cream and how this was affected by their surfactants. We found that the ointments containing glyceryl monostearate demonstrated good mixing compatibility, whereas those containing non-ionic surfactants with polyoxyethylene chains exhibited phase separation. These results were also consistent with the findings for the model ointments, which indicates that the mixing compatibility of steroidal ointments with heparinoid cream is determined by the emulsifying capacity of the surfactants in their oily bases. PMID:26958460

  20. Effects of He + ion implantation on surface properties of UV-cured Bis-GMA/TEGDMA bio-compatible resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, G. G.; Esparza, J.; Rodríguez, R. J.; Manso-Silván, M.; Palomares, J.; Juhasz, J.; Best, S.; Mattilla, R.; Vallittu, P.; Achanta, S.; Giazzon, M.; Weder, G.; Donati, I.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports on the surface characterisation of 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxyl-oxypropoxy)phenyl]propane/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate bio-compatible resins after high energy He + ion implantation treatments. The samples have been characterised by diffuse reflectance FT-IR, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, ultramicro-hardness and nano-scratch wear tests. In addition, osteblast cell assays MG-63 have been used to test the bio-compatibility of the resin surfaces after the ion implantation treatments. It has been observed that the maximum surface hardening of the resin surfaces is achieved at He-ion implantation energies of around 50 keV and fluences of 1 × 10 16 cm -2. At 50 keV of He-ion bombardment, the wear rate of the resin surface decreases by a factor 2 with respect to the pristine resin. Finally, in vitro tests indicate that the He-ion implantation does not affect to the cell-proliferation behaviour of the UV-cured resins. The enhancement of the surface mechanical properties of these materials can have beneficial consequences, for instance in preventing wear and surface fatigue of bone-fixation prostheses, whose surfaces are continuously held to sliding and shearing contacts of sub-millimetre scale lengths.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Compounds from a Chinese Herb: Compatibility and Dose Optimization of Compounds from N-Butanol Extract of Ipomoea stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congyi; Chen, Yicun; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Jiang, Jiyang; Xu, Han; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    The herbal medicine Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has previously been shown to have considerable anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and in vitro. To establish a method for exploring the synergistic effects of multiple compounds, we study the compatibility and dose optimization of compounds isolated from n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS). Raw264.7 cell was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of compounds from BE-IS, namely scopoletin, umbelliferone, esculetin, hesperetin and curcumin, using the orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method. To verify the best efficacy of principal constituents in vivo, the uniform design was used in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. The results from LPS-induced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) show that, esculetin, curcumin and hesperetin were the principal constituents that had synergistic effects when used at the optimal ratio. Additionally, the principal constituents were found to work synergistically in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model at low doses. It turned out that the three experimental optimization and analysis methods (orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method) can be effectively used to solve both compatibility and dose optimization for combined use of multiple compounds. PMID:27255791

  2. Synergistic Effect of Compounds from a Chinese Herb: Compatibility and Dose Optimization of Compounds from N-Butanol Extract of Ipomoea stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Congyi; Chen, Yicun; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Jiang, Jiyang; Xu, Han; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    The herbal medicine Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has previously been shown to have considerable anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and in vitro. To establish a method for exploring the synergistic effects of multiple compounds, we study the compatibility and dose optimization of compounds isolated from n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS). Raw264.7 cell was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of compounds from BE-IS, namely scopoletin, umbelliferone, esculetin, hesperetin and curcumin, using the orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method. To verify the best efficacy of principal constituents in vivo, the uniform design was used in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. The results from LPS-induced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) show that, esculetin, curcumin and hesperetin were the principal constituents that had synergistic effects when used at the optimal ratio. Additionally, the principal constituents were found to work synergistically in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model at low doses. It turned out that the three experimental optimization and analysis methods (orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method) can be effectively used to solve both compatibility and dose optimization for combined use of multiple compounds. PMID:27255791

  3. Formula Compatibility Identification of Dachengqi Decoction Based on the Effects of Absorbed Components in Cerulein-Injured Pancreatic AR42J Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jianlei; Zhao, Xianlin; Guo, Hui; Li, Juan; Tang, Wenfu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the herbal formula compatibility law based on the effects of the absorbed components from DCQD on the cerulein-injured AR42J cells. Methods. AR42J cells were pretreated for 30 min with or without the different concentrations of the absorbed components from DCQD individually or in combination or DCQD and coincubated with cerulein (10 nM) for a further 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the levels of apoptosis and necrosis were measured. Results. Compared to DCQD, the individual or combination components partially protected cerulein-injured AR42J cells by increasing cell viability, reducing LDH release, and promoting apoptosis. Rhein, naringin, and honokiol were the main absorbed components from DCQD in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, rhein in combination with naringin and honokiol had synergistic effects in protecting cerulein-injured AR42J cells and was better than the individual or the pairwise combination of the three components. Conclusions. The ten effective components from DCQD may elicit similar protective effects as DCQD on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The principle of the formula compatibility of DCQD may be identified based on the effects of its absorbed components in cerulein-injured AR42J cells. PMID:27123032

  4. Formula Compatibility Identification of Dachengqi Decoction Based on the Effects of Absorbed Components in Cerulein-Injured Pancreatic AR42J Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jianlei; Zhao, Xianlin; Guo, Hui; Li, Juan; Tang, Wenfu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the herbal formula compatibility law based on the effects of the absorbed components from DCQD on the cerulein-injured AR42J cells. Methods. AR42J cells were pretreated for 30 min with or without the different concentrations of the absorbed components from DCQD individually or in combination or DCQD and coincubated with cerulein (10 nM) for a further 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the levels of apoptosis and necrosis were measured. Results. Compared to DCQD, the individual or combination components partially protected cerulein-injured AR42J cells by increasing cell viability, reducing LDH release, and promoting apoptosis. Rhein, naringin, and honokiol were the main absorbed components from DCQD in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, rhein in combination with naringin and honokiol had synergistic effects in protecting cerulein-injured AR42J cells and was better than the individual or the pairwise combination of the three components. Conclusions. The ten effective components from DCQD may elicit similar protective effects as DCQD on cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The principle of the formula compatibility of DCQD may be identified based on the effects of its absorbed components in cerulein-injured AR42J cells. PMID:27123032

  5. Electro-magnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, H.

    1980-05-01

    The historical background to the growth in problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in UK Military aircraft is reviewed and the present approach for minimizing these problems during development is discussed. The importance of using representative aircraft for final EMC assessments is stressed, and the methods of approach in planning and executing such tests are also outlined. The present equipment qualification procedures are based on assumptions regarding the electromagnetic fields present within the airframe, and the nature of the coupling mechanisms. These cannot be measured with any certainty in representative aircraft. Thus EMC assessments rely on practical tests. Avionics systems critical to flight safety, and systems vital to mission effectiveness require test methods that provide a measure of the safety and performance margins available to account for variations that occur in production and service use. Some proven methods are available, notably for detonator circuits, but in most other areas further work is required. Encouraging process has been made in the use of current probes for the measurement of interfering signals on critical signal lines, in conjunction with complementary test house procedures, as a means for obtaining the safety margins required in flight and engine control systems. Performance margins for mission systems using digital techniques are difficult to determine, and there is a need for improved test techniques. The present EMC qualification tests for equipment in the laboratory do not guarantee freedom from interference when installed, and the results are limited in value for correlating with aircraft tests.

  6. Correlation of chain length compatibility and surface properties of mixed foaming agents with fluid displacement efficiency and effective air mobility in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.K.; Bringham, W.E.; Shah, D.O.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of chain length compatibility and surface properties of mixed foaming agents on fluid displacement efficiency and effective air mobility in porous media were investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (C/sub 12/H/sub 25/SO/sub 4/Na) and various alkyl alcohols (e.g., C/sub 8/OH,C/sub 10/OH,C/sub 12/OH,C/sub 14/OH, and C/sub 16/OH) were used as mixed foaming agents. It was observed that the surface properties of surfactant solutions and flow behavior of foams through porous media were influenced by the chain length compatibility of the surfactant molecules. The increase in the length of porous media improved fluid displacement efficiency while breakthrough time per unit length decreased slightly with increase in the length of porous media. For mixed surfactant systems, a minimum in surface tension, a maximum in surface viscosity, a minimum in bubble size, a maximum in breakthrough time, a maximum in fluid displacement efficiency, and a minimum in effective air mobility were observed when the two components of the surfactant system had the same chain length. These results indicate that the surface properties of foaming solutions and molecular packing at interfaces exhibit a striking correlation with breakthrough time, fluid displacement efficiency, and effective air mobility in porous media.

  7. Evaluation of mechanism of non-thermal plasma effect on the surface of polypropylene films for enhancement of adhesive and hemo compatible properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K.; Deshmukh, R. R.; Arunkumar, A.; Ramkumar, M. C.; Ruzybayev, I.; Ismat Shah, S.; Su, Pi-Guey; Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The hydro-carbon based polymers have attracted attention of scientists for its use in bio-medical field as various implants due to inherent flexibility. However, they have poor surface properties; particularly they have low surface energy (SE). Hence, blood components (platelets, blood proteins, etc.)-polymer surface interaction is the major concern when it comes in contact with blood. Thus, surface modification is required to develop the perfect antithrombogenic property without affecting the materials bulk. The present study describes the improvement in adhesive and blood compatible properties of polypropylene (PP) by low temperature (non-thermal) plasma of various gases such as Ar, O2, air and Ar + O2 for biomedical applications. The changes in surface morphological, chemical and hydrophilic modification induced by the gaseous plasma treatment were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively. Moreover, the stability of plasma effect was also studied for the different storage conditions. Variation in adhesive strength of the plasma treated PP film was studied by T-Peel and Lap-Shear strength tests. The blood compatibility of the surface modified PP films was investigated by in vitro analysis. It was found that gaseous plasma treatment improved the blood compatibility as well as adhesive strength of the PP films without affecting materials bulk which may be due to the significant morphological and chemical changes induced by the gaseous plasma treatment. Among the various gaseous plasma treatments, Ar + O2 mixture has provided remarkable physico-chemical changes compared with other plasma treatments studied.

  8. Effect of film compatibility on electro-optic properties of dye doped polymer DR1/SU-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Xie, Ying; Zhao, Xuliang; Li, Dehui; Zhao, Shimin; Yue, Yuanbin; Wang, Xibin; Sun, Jian; Liang, Lei; Chen, Changming; Zhang, Daming; Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2013-11-01

    The physic-chemical compatibility of passive cladding and poled Dispersed Red 1 (DR1) doped ultraviolet (UV) curable polymer SU-8 was investigated. The multilayer films consisting of DR1/SU-8 core and Norland Optical Adhensive 73 (NOA73), SU-8, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) upper-cladding were fabricated on the silicon substrate, respectively. The interface morphologies were characterized through scan electronic microscope. Parallel plate electric field poling was carried out to align the polarity of chromophores in SU-8. The core-cladding interface with no chemical erosion or delamination was obtained by adopting an excess UV exposure and higher temperature dealing when NOA73 was used as the upper-cladding. The root mean square roughness of the upper-cladding surface was measured by atomic force microscope to verify the poling process. The electro-optic (EO) signal response amplitude of these multilayer films was used to characterize the polarizability alignment of DR1 chromophores by means of Teng-Man method after poling. Resistivity of claddings was measured at the glass transition temperature of DR1/SU-8 to explain the EO response difference. The configuration of NOA73/(DR1/SU-8) exhibited the best EO performance and time relaxation in amplitude within 550 h by prolonging the cooling time in poling process. A channel waveguide was fabricated to study the poling-induced optical loss. The results show that the selection of passive cladding with favorable electrical and chemical property is essential to establish optical nonlinearity in the dye-polymer system.

  9. The exclusion of glycine betaine from anionic biopolymer surface: why glycine betaine is an effective osmoprotectant but also a compatible solute.

    PubMed

    Felitsky, Daniel J; Cannon, Jonathan G; Capp, Michael W; Hong, Jiang; Van Wynsberghe, Adam W; Anderson, Charles F; Record, M Thomas

    2004-11-23

    Paradoxically, glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethyl glycine; GB) in vivo is both an effective osmoprotectant (efficient at increasing cytoplasmic osmolality and growth rate) and a compatible solute (without deleterious effects on biopolymer function, including stability and activity). For GB to be an effective osmoprotectant but not greatly affect biopolymer stability, we predict that it must interact very differently with folded protein surface than with that exposed in unfolding. To test this hypothesis, we quantify the preferential interaction of GB with the relatively uncharged surface exposed in unfolding the marginally stable lacI helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding domain using circular dichroism and with the more highly charged surfaces of folded hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using all-gravimetric vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) and compare these results with results of VPO studies (Hong et al. (2004), Biochemistry, 43, 14744-14758) of the interaction of GB with polyanionic duplex DNA. For these four biopolymer surfaces, we observe that the extent of exclusion of GB per unit of biopolymer surface area increases strongly with increasing fraction of anionic oxygen (protein carboxylate or DNA phosphate) surface. In addition, GB is somewhat more excluded from the surface exposed in unfolding the lacI HTH and from the folded surface of HEWL than expected from their small fraction of anionic surface, consistent with moderate exclusion of GB from polar amide surface, as predicted by the osmophobic model of protein stability (Bolen and Baskakov (2001) J. Mol. Biol. 310, 955-963). Strong exclusion of GB from anionic surface explains how it can be both an effective osmoprotectant and a compatible solute; analysis of this exclusion yields a lower bound on the hydration of anionic protein carboxylate surface of two layers of water (>or=0.22 H(2)O A(-)(2)). PMID:15544344

  10. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  11. Thermoelectric efficiency and compatibility.

    PubMed

    Snyder, G Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan S

    2003-10-01

    The intensive reduced efficiency eta(r) is derived for thermoelectric power generation (in one dimension) from intensive fields and currents, giving eta(r)=(E x J) divided by (- inverted Delta)T x J(S). The overall efficiency is derivable from a thermodynamic state function, Phi=1 divided by u + alphaT, where we introduce u=J divided by kappa (inverted Delta)T as the relative current density. The method simplifies the computation and clarifies the physics behind thermoelectric devices by revealing a new materials property s=(sqrt[1+zT]-1) divided by (alphaT), which we call the compatibility factor. Materials with dissimilar compatibility factors cannot be combined by segmentation into an efficient thermoelectric generator because of constraints imposed on u. Thus, control of the compatibility factor s is, in addition to z, essential for efficient operation of a thermoelectric device, and thus will facilitate rational materials selection, device design, and the engineering of functionally graded materials. PMID:14611561

  12. SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) meets SPARC (spatial-pitch association of response codes): Automaticity and interdependency in compatibility effects.

    PubMed

    Weis, Tina; Estner, Barbara; van Leeuwen, Cees; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Concepts, including the mental number line, or addressing pitch as high and low, suggest that the spatial-numerical and spatial-pitch association of response codes (SNARC and SPARC) effects are domain-specific and thus independent. Alternatively, there may be dependencies between these effects, because they share common automatic or controlled decision mechanisms. In two experiments, participants were presented with spoken numbers in different pitches; their numerical value, pitch, and response compatibility were varied systematically. This allowed us to study SNARC and SPARC effects in a factorial design (see also Fischer, Riello, Giordano, & Rusconi, 2013 ). Participants judged the stimuli on numerical magnitude, pitch, or parity (odd-even). In all tasks, the SNARC and SPARC effects had superadditive interactions. These were interpreted as both effects sharing a common mechanism. The task variation probes the mechanism: In the magnitude judgement task, numerical magnitude was explicit, whereas pitch was implicit; in the pitch judgement task, it was vice versa. In the parity judgement task, both dimensions were implicit. Regardless of whether they were implicit or explicit, both SNARC and SPARC effects occurred in all tasks. We concluded that by not requiring focal attention the common mechanism operates automatically. PMID:26274895

  13. Teaching science in light of world view: The effect of contextualized instruction on the scientific compatibility of religious college students' world views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossard, Paula Rae

    Authors of recent science reform documents promote the goal of scientific literacy for all Americans (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989, 1993). Some students, however, feel apprehensive about learning science due to perceptions that science is antagonistic to their world views (Alters, 2005; Esbenshade, 1993). This study investigated the effect of an introductory science course taught in the context of a Christian, theistic world view on the scientific compatibility of religious college students' world views. For the purposes of this study, students' understanding of the nature of science, affective attitudes toward science, and beliefs regarding creation were used as indicators of the scientific compatibility of their world views. One hundred and seventy-one students enrolled in a core curriculum, introductory science course at a Christian university participated in this study by completing pre-instruction and post-instruction survey packets that included demographic information, the Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (Liang et al., 2006), the Affective Attitude toward Science Scale (Francis & Greer, 1999), and the Origins Survey (Tenneson & Badger, personal communication, June, 2008). Two-tailed paired samples t tests were used to test for significant mean differences in the indicator variables at a .05 level before and after instruction. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine if relationships were present among the indicator variables at a .05 level before and after instruction. Students' self-identified positions regarding creation were analyzed using a chi-square contingency table. Results indicated that there were statistically significant changes in all indicator variables after instruction of the contextualized course. The direction of these changes and shifts in students' self-identified positions regarding creation supported the conclusion that students developed a more

  14. Material compatibility with gaseous fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Harold G , Jr; Douglass, Howard W

    1957-01-01

    Static tests on the compatibility of fluorine with non-metals at atmospheric temperature eliminated many materials from further consideration for use in fluorine systems. Several materials were found compatible at atmospheric pressures. Only Teflon and ruby (aluminum oxide) were compatible at 1500 pounds per square inch gage.

  15. From compatible factorization to near-compatible factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiabat, Raja'i.; Ibrahim, Haslinda

    2014-12-01

    A compatible factorization of order ν, is an ν× ν-1/2 array in which the entries in row i form a near-one-factor with focus i, and the triples associated with the rows contain no repetitions. In this paper, we aim to amend this compatible factorization so that we can display ν(ν-1)/2 - 2ν/3 triples with the minimum repeated triples. Throughout this paper we propose a new type of factorization called near-compatible factorization. First, we present the compatible factorization towards developing a near-compatible factorization. Second, we discuss briefly the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of near-compatible factorization. Then, we exemplify the construction for case ν = 9 as a groundwork in developing near-compatible factorization.

  16. The Effects of Recall Cue and Cognitive Trace Compatibility When Learning from Mediated Instruction: An Applied View of Encoding Specificity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelos, James; And Others

    This study investigated the research construct of encoding specificity using an applied research orientation. Encoding specificity considers the effects on memory of the interactive relationship among encoding, the stored memory trace, and external retrieval cues. Subjects were 273 undergraduate students enrolled in the College of Engineering at…

  17. Commitment and Compatibility: Teachers' Perspectives on the Implementation of an Effective School-Based, Peer-Led Smoking Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audrey, Suzanne; Holliday, Jo; Campbell, Rona

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although current UK policy argues that schools have a key role in raising health standards, emphasis on the core curriculum restricts teachers' opportunities to undertake health promotion activities. The challenge is to design effective health promotion interventions that minimize pressures on teaching staff and curriculum space. Here…

  18. Effects of response eccentricity and relative position on orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility with joystick and keypress responses.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert W; Cho, Yang Seok

    2003-02-01

    When unimanual left-right movement responses are made to up-down stimuli, performance is better with the up-right/down-left mapping when responding in the right hemispace and with the up-left/down-right mapping when responding in the left hemispace. We evaluated whether this response eccentricity effect is explained best in terms of rotational properties of the hand (the end-state comfort hypothesis) or asymmetric coding of the stimulus and response alternatives (the salient features coding hypothesis). Experiment 1 showed that bimanual keypresses yield a response eccentricity effect similar to that obtained with unimanual movement responses. In Experiment 2, an inactive response apparatus was placed to the left or right of the active response apparatus to provide a referent. For half of the participants, the active and inactive apparatuses were joysticks, and for half they were response boxes with keys. For both response types, an up-right/down-left advantage was evident when the relative position of the active response apparatus was right but not when it was left. That bimanual keypresses yield similar eccentricity and relative location effects to those for unimanual movements is predicted by the salient features coding perspective but not by the end-state comfort hypothesis. PMID:12613566

  19. Hydrazine Materials Compatibility Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. W.

    2004-10-01

    Anhydrous hydrazine and its methyl derivatives MMH and UDMH have been safely used as monopropellants and bipropellant fuels in thousands of satellites and space probes, hundreds of expendable launch vehicles and hundreds of piloted reusable launch vehicle flights. The term hydrazine(s) is used here to describe the three propellant hydrazines and their mixtures. Over the years, a significant amount of experience has accumulated in the selection of compatible materials of construction for these and other rocket propellants. Only a few materials incompatibility issues have arisen in the recent past. New materials of construction have become available during the past decades which have not yet been extensively tested for long-term compatibility with hydrazine(s). These new materials promise lightweight (i. e., lighter weight) propulsion system designs and increased payloads in launch vehicles and satellites. Other new materials offer reduced contamination caused by leached ingredients, e. g. less silica leaching from diaphragms in propellant management devices in propellant tanks. This translates into longer mission life.

  20. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Eun-Joo; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Sungtae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay (14 days of incubation) and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation) revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P < 0.05). Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose. PMID:26436096

  1. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted. PMID:25129040

  2. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-03-01

    Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product's compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235

  3. Effect of Azotobacter vinelandii and compatible solutes on germination wheat seeds and root concentrations of sodium and potassium under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Silini, A; Silini-Chérif, H; Ghoul, M

    2012-02-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and exogenous application of compatible solutes on seed germination and root concentrations of sodium and potassium of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.) were evaluated under saline stress. In this experiment, Azotobacter vinelandii strain DSM85, glycine betaine and proline were used. Inoculated seeds for each variety were placed on Whatman paper in 9 cm Petri dishes containing 15 mL of distilled water or NaCl solutions at various concentrations (control, 100, 200, 300 mM) supplemented with or without glycine betaine (GB) or proline at 5 mM. The results indicated that addition of proline (5 mM) stimulated the production of indol acetic acid and the growth of A. vinelandii at 200 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. The germination rate index and the germination final percentage decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing salinity level. The germination was significantly diminished at 300 mM with significant variation among varieties and Waha variety had higher germination percentage than Bousselam variety. Inoculation of seeds by A. vinelandii and exogenous application of proline had significantly positive effect on the germination at this concentration of NaCl. The rate of accumulation of Na+ in roots was important at 100 mM and increased at 200 mM. The concentration of K+ decreased when salinity increased. The effect of inoculation or inoculation with proline decreased the accumulation of Na' and reduced the loss of K+ under salt stress. From the present study we can conclude that the use of A. vinelandii strain DSM85 and external application of low concentrations of proline on seeds might be considered as a strategy for the protection of plants under saline stress. PMID:22866543

  4. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo. PMID:26281604

  5. Ferroelastic dynamics and strain compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lookman, T.; Shenoy, S. R.; Rasmussen, K. Ø.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    We derive underdamped evolution equations for the order-parameter (OP) strains of a proper ferroelastic material undergoing a structural transition, using Lagrangian variations with Rayleigh dissipation, and a free energy as a polynomial expansion in the N=n+Nop symmetry-adapted strains. The Nop strain equations are structurally similar in form to the Lagrange-Rayleigh one-dimensional strain dynamics of Bales and Gooding (BG), with “strain accelerations” proportional to a Laplacian acting on a sum of the free-energy strain derivative and frictional strain force assuming geometric linearity. The tensorial St. Venant’s elastic compatibility constraints that forbid defects, are used to determine the n non-order-parameter strains in terms of the OP strains, generating anisotropic and long-range OP contributions to the free energy, friction, and noise. The same OP equations are obtained by either varying the displacement vector components, or by varying the N strains subject to the Nc compatibility constraints. A Fokker-Planck equation, based on the BG dynamics in more than one dimension with noise terms, is set up. The BG dynamics corresponds to a set of nonidentical nonlinear (strain) oscillators labeled by wave vector k→, with competing short- and long-range couplings. The oscillators have different “strain-mass” densities ρ(k)˜1/k2 and dampings ˜1/ρ(k)˜k2, so the lighter large-k oscillators equilibrate first, corresponding to earlier formation of smaller-scale oriented textures. This produces a sequential-scale scenario for post-quench nucleation, elastic patterning, and hierarchical growth. Neglecting inertial effects yields a late-time dynamics for identifying extremal free-energy states, that is, of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau form, with nonlocal, anisotropic Onsager coefficients that become constants for special parameter values. We consider in detail the two-dimensional (2D) unit-cell transitions from a triangular to a centered

  6. Materials Compatibility in High Test Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    1999-01-01

    Previous ratings of the compatibility of high test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials are not adequate for current needs. The goal of this work was to develop a new scheme of evaluation of compatibility of HTP with various materials. Procedures were developed to enrich commercially available hydrogen peroxide to 90% concentration and to assay the product. Reactivity testing, accelerated aging of materials and calorimetry studies were done on HTP with representative metallic and non-metallic materials. It was found that accelerated aging followed by concentration determination using refractive index effectively discriminated between different Class 2 metallic materials. Preliminary experiments using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) suggest that a calorimetry experiment is the most sensitive means to assay the compatibility of HTP with materials.

  7. Compatibility Conditions of Structural Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of elasticity has camouflaged a deficiency in the compatibility formulation since 1860. In structures the ad hoc compatibility conditions through virtual "cuts" and closing "gaps" are not parallel to the strain formulation in elasticity. This deficiency in the compatibility conditions has prevented the development of a direct stress determination method in structures and in elasticity. We have addressed this deficiency and attempted to unify the theory of compatibility. This work has led to the development of the integrated force method for structures and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation for elasticity. The improved accuracy observed in the solution of numerical examples by the integrated force method can be attributed to the compliance of the compatibility conditions. Using the compatibility conditions allows mapping of variables and facile movement among different structural analysis formulations. This paper reviews and illustrates the requirement of compatibility in structures and in elasticity. It also describes the generation of the conditions and quantifies the benefits of their use. The traditional analysis methods and available solutions (which have been obtained bypassing the missed conditions) should be verified for compliance of the compatibility conditions.

  8. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure. PMID:26726356

  9. Compatibility of segmented thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J.; Ursell, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that power generation efficiency improves when materials with appropriate properties are combined either in a cascaded or segmented fashion across a temperature gradient. Past methods for determining materials used in segmentation weremainly concerned with materials that have the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. However, the example of SiGe segmented with Bi2Te3 and/or various skutterudites shows a marked decline in device efficiency even though SiGe has the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. The origin of the incompatibility of SiGe with other thermoelectric materials leads to a general definition of compatibility and intrinsic efficiency. The compatibility factor derived as = (Jl+zr - 1) a is a function of only intrinsic material properties and temperature, which is represented by a ratio of current to conduction heat. For maximum efficiency the compatibility factor should not change with temperature both within a single material, and in the segmented leg as a whole. This leads to a measure of compatibility not only between segments, but also within a segment. General temperature trends show that materials are more self compatible at higher temperatures, and segmentation is more difficult across a larger -T. The compatibility factor can be used as a quantitative guide for deciding whether a material is better suited for segmentation orcascading. Analysis of compatibility factors and intrinsic efficiency for optimal segmentation are discussed, with intent to predict optimal material properties, temperature interfaces, and/or currentheat ratios.

  10. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  11. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  12. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  13. Microwave spectrum compatibility in planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmeth, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of solar system exploration, basic functions of the Deep Space Network (DSN), deep space microwave links, space research compatibility problems, and DSN's interference susceptibility. To maintain the operational integrity of competing radio systems using the microwave spectrum, the technology must extend to make possible the shared use of the spectral ranges without the ill effects of interferences. Suggestions are given which are only examples of many possible techniques that can eliminate or reduce interferences.

  14. Compatibility testing with anhydrous ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M.; Schweickart, Russell B.

    1992-01-01

    Anhydrous ammonia has been proposed as the working fluid for a number of two-phase thermal control systems to be used in future space applications, including the Space Station Freedom and the Earth Observing Station (EOS). The compatibility of ammonia with the components in these systems is a major concern due to the corrosive nature of the fluid. Compatibility of ammonia with stainless steel and some aluminum alloys is well documented; however, data on other materials potentially suitable for aerospace use is less common. This paper documents the compatibility testing of nine materials with both gaseous and liquid ammonia. The test procedures are presented along with the resulting measurement data. Tensile strength was the only mechanical property tested that indicated a significant material incompatibility.

  15. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Bryan; Wilcox, R. C.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the chemical compatibility of titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) with GaAs and CdZnTe, and Inconel with HgCdTe and HgZnTe. At the present time, no other studies regarding the compatibility of these crystal components and their respective cartridge materials have been performed. This study was to identify any possible problems between these materials to insure proper containment of possibly hazardous fumes during crystal growth experiments. In this study, the reaction zone between the materials was studied and the amount of degradation to the system was measured. Detailed results are presented.

  16. Rubber composition compatible with hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repar, J.

    1973-01-01

    Formulation improves compatibility of butyl rubbers with hydrazine while reducing permeation to low levels necessary for prolonged storage in space. This is accomplished by replacing carbon-black filler with inert materials such as hydrated silica or clay. Pressure increases suggest that hydrazine is decomposed only slightly by new type of rubber.

  17. A Novel Sub-20 V Contact Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor with Fully Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Compatible Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Te Liang; Tsang Tsai, Ming; King, Ya Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a novel sub-20 V device which is called contact gate MOSFET (CGMOS) with fully CMOS logic compatible process is proposed and demonstrated. Comparing with lateral double diffusion MOSFET (LDMOS), CGMOS uses P substrate instead of N minus layer as drift region in logic process, and a contact on resistance protection oxide (RPO) layers to form an extra gate on the drain side of the channel region to provide a better gate control and reduce the surface field. This new device significantly rises up the breakdown voltage to 18 V with specific on-resistance 8.8 mΩ.mm2 in a small high voltage (HV) MOSFET area. Since there is no extra mask for creating the drift region or additional step for the wire bonding, CGMOS makes the integration of high voltage and logic circuits much simpler and area-saving.

  18. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain

    PubMed Central

    Lira-De León, Karla I.; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V.; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F.; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50–100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76–56.17% against F. solani and 2.02–69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77–12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops. PMID:25147544

  19. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain.

    PubMed

    Lira-De León, Karla I; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50-100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76-56.17% against F. solani and 2.02-69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops. PMID:25147544

  20. 77 FR 14461 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI... requirements. On February 16, 2012, the FAA approved the W.K. Kellogg Airport noise compatibility program. All... effective date of the FAA's approval of the Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Kellogg Airport is...

  1. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Roy C.; Zee, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    This twelve month progress report deals with the chemical compatibility of semiconductor crystals grown in zero gravity. Specifically, it studies the chemical compatibility between TZM, a molybdenum alloy containing titanium and zirconium, and WC 103, a titanium alloy containing Niobium and Hafnium, and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and Cadmium Zinc Tellurite (CdZnTe). Due to the health hazards involved, three approaches were used to study the chemical compatibility between the semiconductor and cartridge materials: reaction retort, thermogravimetric analysis, and bulk cylindrical cartridge containers. A scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer was used to examine all samples after testing. The first conclusion drawn is that reaction rates with TZM were not nearly as great as they were with WC 103. Second, the total reaction between GaAs and WC 103 was almost twice that with TZM. Therefore, even though WC 103 is easier to fabricate, at least half of the cartridge thickness will be degraded if contact is made with one of the semiconductor materials leading to a loss of strength properties.

  2. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Colabelli-Gisoldi, Rossella Annamaria; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Calienno, Roberta; Agnifili, Luca; Nubile, Mario; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes) eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2%) in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology). No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation). However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. PMID:26221061

  3. Strong and oriented immobilization of single domain antibodies from crude bacterial lysates for high-throughput compatible cost-effective antibody array generation

    PubMed Central

    Even-Desrumeaux, Klervi; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Antibodies microarrays are among the novel class of rapidly emerging proteomic technologies that will allow us to efficiently perform specific diagnosis and proteome analysis. Recombinant antibody fragments are especially suited for this approach but their stability is often a limiting factor. Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains (HCAbs) of which the single N-terminal domain is fully capable of antigen binding. When produced as an independent domain, these so-called single domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) have several advantages for biotechnological applications thanks to their unique properties of size (15 kDa), stability, solubility, and expression yield. These features should allow sdAbs to outperform other antibody formats in a number of applications, notably as capture molecule for antibody arrays. In this study, we have produced antibody microarrays using direct and oriented immobilization of sdAbs produced in crude bacterial lysates to generate proof-of-principle of a high-throughput compatible array design. Several sdAb immobilization strategies have been explored. Immobilization of in vivo biotinylated sdAbs by direct spotting of bacterial lysate on streptavidin and sandwich detection was developed to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, whereas immobilization of “multi-tagged” sdAbs via anti-tag antibodies and direct labeled sample detection strategy was optimized for the design of high-density antibody arrays for high-throughput proteomics and identification of potential biomarkers. PMID:20859568

  4. Effects of compatibility of polymer binders with solvate ionic liquid electrolytes on discharge and charge reactions of lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Toshitada; Ikoma, Ai; Kido, Ryosuke; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions in Li-S cells with a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) electrolyte composed of tetraglyme (G4) and Li[TFSA] (TFSA: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) are studied. The sulfur cathode (S cathode) comprises sulfur, carbon powder, and a polymer binder. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-x) with different degrees of saponification (x%) are used as binders to prepare the composite cathodes. For the Li-S cell containing PEO binder, lithium polysulfides (Li2Sm, 2 ≤ m ≤ 8), reaction intermediates of the S cathode, dissolve into the electrolyte, and Li2Sm acts as a redox shuttle in the Li-S cell. In contrast, in the Li-S cell with PVA-x binder, the dissolution of Li2Sm is suppressed, leading to high columbic efficiencies during charge-discharge cycles. The compatibility of the PVA-x binder with the SIL electrolyte changes depending on the degree of saponification. Decreasing the degree of saponification leads to increased electrolyte uptake by the PVA-x binder, increasing the charge and discharge capacities of Li-S cell. The rate capability of Li-S cell is also enhanced by the partial swelling of the PVA-x binder. The enhanced performance of Li-S cell containing PVA-x is attributed to the lowering of resistance of Li+ ion transport in the composite cathode.

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  6. Compatible poliomyelitis cases in India during 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Kathryn A.; Hlady, W. Gary; Banerjee, Kaushik; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Francis, Paul; Durrani, Sunita; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Sutter, Roland W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases and to assess the programmatic implications of clusters of such cases in India. METHODS: We described the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases, identified clusters of compatible cases (two or more in the same district or neighbouring districts within two months), and examined their relationship to wild poliovirus cases. FINDINGS: There were 362 compatible cases in 2000. The incidence of compatible cases was higher in districts with laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases than in districts without laboratory-confirmed cases. Of 580 districts, 96 reported one compatible case and 72 reported two or more compatible cases. Among these 168 districts with at least one compatible case, 123 had internal or cross- border clusters of compatible cases. In 27 districts with clusters of compatible cases, no wild poliovirus was isolated either in the same district or in neighbouring districts. Three of these 27 districts presented laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases during 2001. CONCLUSION: Most clusters of compatible cases occurred in districts identified as areas with continuing wild poliovirus transmission and where mopping-up vaccination campaigns were carried out. As certification nears, areas with compatible poliomyelitis cases should be investigated and deficiencies in surveillance should be corrected in order to ensure that certification is justified. PMID:12640469

  7. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  8. Compatibility of desoximetasone and tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Jacob; Feldman, Terry; Riss, Ildiko; Leung, On-Tai

    2003-12-01

    The physical and chemical compatibility of desoximetasone ointment 0.25% and tacrolimus ointment 0.1%, both widely used to treat atopic dermatitis, were determined. A 1:1 (w/w) mixture of desoximetasone ointment 0.25% (Topicort, Taro Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.) and tacrolimus ointment 0.1% (Protopic, Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc.) were prepared and stored under three different temperature/relative humidity conditions: 25 degrees C/60% RH; 30 degrees C/60% RH; and 40 degrees C/75% RH. Unmixed ointments stored under the same temperature and humidity conditions as the mixture served as controls. Samples were evaluated at days 1, 2, 7, 14, and 28 for color, degree of physical separation, and chemical stability via reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Ranges of relative recovery for each active ingredient for all storage conditions ((% Mixture/% Control) x 100) were 89.6-109.3% for tacrolimus and 99.0-103.4% for desoximetasone. No significant difference in physical appearance or chromatographic profile between the mixture and controls was observed. Therefore, we conclude that desoximetasone ointment 0.25% (Topicort) and tacrolimus ointment 0.1% (Protopic) are physically and chemically compatible up to four weeks when mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (w/w). PMID:14711143

  9. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility.... We also invite you to share your concrete ideas on how greater compatibility could be achieved in...

  10. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  11. Nonmetallic Material Compatibility with Liquid Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Harold G , Jr; Douglass, Howard W

    1957-01-01

    Static tests were made on the compatibility of liquid fluorine with several nonmetallic materials at -3200 F and at pressures of 0 and 1500 pounds per square inch gage. The results are compared with those from previous work with gaseous fluorine at the same pressures, but at atmospheric temperature. In general, although environmental effects were not always consistent, reactivity was least with the low-temperature, low-pressure liquid fluorine. Reactivity was greatest with the warm, high-pressure gaseous fluorine. None of the liquids and greases tested was found to be entirely suitable for use in fluorine systems. Polytrifluorochloroethylene and N-43, the formula for which is (C4F9)3N, did not react with liquid fluorine at atmospheric pressure or 1500 pounds per square inch gage under static conditions, but they did react when injected into liquid fluorine at 1500 pounds per square inch gage; they also reacted with gaseous fluorine at 1500 pounds per square inch gage. While water did not react with liquid fluorine at 1500 pounds per square inch gage, it is known to react violently with fluorine under other conditions. The pipe-thread lubricant Q-Seal did not react with liquid fluorine, but did react with gaseous fluorine at 1500 pounds per square inch gage. Of the solids, ruby (Al2O3) and Teflon did not react under the test conditions. The results show that the compatibility of fluorine with nonmetals depends on the state of the fluorine and the system design.

  12. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1992-10-01

    During the compatibility study of 10 pure refrigerants with 24 motor materials, it was observed that the greatest damage to the insulation system was caused by absorption of refrigerant followed by rapid desorption. The observed effects were blisters, cracking, internal bubbles and delamination. Measured results includes decreased bond strength, dielectric strength and overall integrity of the material. Refrigerants HCFC-22, HFC-32, HFC-134 and HFC-152a exhibited this phenomena. The effect of HCFC-22 was most severe of the tested refrigerants. Since HCFC-22 has an excellent reliability history with many of the materials tested, compatibility with the new refrigerants is expected.

  13. Compatibility of repair mortar with migrating corrosion inhibiting admixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Bjegovic, D.; Ukrainczyk, V.; Ukrainczyk, B.; Miksic, B.

    1997-08-01

    One of the methods for corrosion protection of reinforced concrete is the use of migrating corrosion inhibitor as an admixture in repair mortars. The admixture must be effective for corrosion protection and compatible with polymers added to repair mortar to improve properties of fresh and hardened mortar. This paper presents experimental results on compatibility of a migrating corrosion inhibitor added to two repair mortars based on an inorganic binder modified with polymers. The influence of a migrating inhibitor on the properties of fresh and hardened mortars was tested. The effectiveness on reinforcement corrosion protection has been tested according to ASTM G 109. Test results prove that the investigated migrating inhibitor is compatible with repair mortars and that it delays corrosion of the reinforcement.

  14. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1995-04-24

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. Goal is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations, could possibly result in an unreviewed safety question. Waste transfer decision rules are presented as a process for assessing compatibility of wastes or waste mixtures. The process involves characterizing the waste comparing waste characteristics with the criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities, and documenting the process.

  15. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    SciTech Connect

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  16. Propellant material compatibility program and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, L. R.; Cannon, W. A.; Coulbert, C. D.; Long, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of long-term (up to 10 years) contact of inert materials with earth-storable propellants were studied for the purpose of designing chemical propulsion system components that can be used for current as well as future planetary spacecraft. The primary experimental work, and results to date are reported. Investigations include the following propellants: hydrazine, hydrazine-hydrazine nitrate blends, monomethyl-hydrazine, and nitrogen tetroxide. Materials include: aluminum alloys, corrosion-resistant steels, and titanium alloys. More than 700 test specimen capsules were placed in long-term storage testing at 43 C in the special material compatibility facility. Material ratings relative to the 10-year requirement have been assigned.

  17. When is it worth being a self-compatible hermaphrodite? Context-dependent effects of self-pollination on female advantage in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, Emna; Touzet, Pascal; Billard, Emmanuelle; Dufay, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    In gynodioecious plant species with nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, females and hermaphrodites plants can coexist whenever female have higher seed fitness than hermaphrodites. Although the effect of self fertilization on seed fitness in hermaphrodites has been considered theoretically, this effect is far from intuitive, because it can either increase the relative seed fitness of the females (if it leads hermaphrodites to produce inbred, low quality offspring) or decrease it (if it provides reproductive assurance to hermaphrodites). Hence, empirical investigation is needed to document whether relative seed fitness varies with whether pollen is or is not limiting to seed production. In the current study, we measured fruit set and seed production in both females and hermaphrodites and the selfing rate in hermaphrodites in two experimental patches that differed in sex ratios in the gynodioecious plant Silene nutans. We found an impact of plant gender, patch, and their interaction, with females suffering from stronger pollen limitation when locally frequent. In the most pollen-limited situation, the selfing rate of hermaphrodites increased and provided hermaphrodites with a type of reproductive assurance that is not available to females. By integrating both the beneficial (reproductive assurance) and costly effects (through inbreeding depression) of self-pollination, we showed that whether females did or did not exhibit higher seed fitness depended on the degree of pollen limitation on seed production. PMID:26140201

  18. Efficacy-oriented compatibility for component-based Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-hua; Zhu, Yan; Fan, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Bo-li

    2015-01-01

    Single-target drugs have not achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects for complex diseases involving multiple factors. Instead, innovations in recent drug research and development have revealed the emergence of compound drugs, such as cocktail therapies and “polypills”, as the frontier in new drug development. A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that is usually composed of several medicinal herbs can serve a typical representative of compound medicines. Although the traditional compatibility theory of TCM cannot be well expressed using modern scientific language nowadays, the fundamental purpose of TCM compatibility can be understood as promoting efficacy and reducing toxicity. This paper introduces the theory and methods of efficacy-oriented compatibility for developing component-based Chinese medicines. PMID:25864650

  19. Hydrocarbon-fuel/combustion-chamber-liner materials compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of material compatibility experiments using hydrocarbon fuels in contact with copper-based combustion chamber liner materials are presented. Mil-Spec RP-1, n- dodecane, propane, and methane fuels were tested in contact with OFHC, NASA-Z, and ZrCu coppers. Two distinct test methods were employed. Static tests, in which copper coupons were exposed to fuel for long durations at constant temperature and pressure, provided compatibility data in a precisely controlled environment. Dynamic tests, using the Aerojet Carbothermal Test Facility, provided fuel and copper compatibility data under realistic booster engine service conditions. Tests were conducted using very pure grades of each fuel and fuels to which a contaminant, e.g., ethylene or methyl mercaptan, was added to define the role played by fuel impurities. Conclusions are reached as to degradation mechanisms and effects, methods for the elimination of these mechanisms, selection of copper alloy combustion chamber liners, and hydrocarbon fuel purchase specifications.

  20. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during initial... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171...

  1. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  2. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  3. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during initial... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171...

  4. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during initial... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171...

  5. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  6. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during initial... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171...

  7. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during initial... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171...

  8. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  9. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  10. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatibility. 1193.51 Section 1193.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Devices and Specialized Customer Premises Equipment § 1193.51 Compatibility. When required by subpart B...

  11. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    SciTech Connect

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2001-10-19

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process.

  12. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    SciTech Connect

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-07-12

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process.

  13. Effect of long-term salinity on cellular antioxidants, compatible solute and fatty acid profile of Sweet Annie (Artemisia annua L.).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M Irfan; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Ahmad, Javed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2013-11-01

    Impact of long-term salinity and subsequent oxidative stress was studied on cellular antioxidants, proline accumulation and lipid profile of Artemisia annua L. (Sweet Annie or Qinghao) which yields artemisinin (Qinghaosu), effective against cerebral malaria-causing strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Under salinity (0.0-160 mM NaCl), in A. annua, proline accumulation, contents of ascorbate and glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) increased, but the contents of reduced forms of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate declined. The fatty-acid profiling revealed a major salinity-induced shift towards long-chain and mono-saturated fatty acids. Myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and erucic acid (22:1) increased by 141%, 186%, 34% and 908%, respectively, in comparison with the control. Contents of oleic acid (18:1), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0) decreased by 50%, 17%, 44% and 78%, respectively. Thus, in A. annua, salinity declines ascorbate and GSH contents. However, increased levels of proline and total glutathione (GSH+GSSG), and activities of antioxidant enzymes might provide a certain level of tolerance. Modification in fatty-acid composition might be a membrane adaptation to long-term salinity and oxidative stress. PMID:23871298

  14. The resupply interface mechanism RMS compatibility test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Stewart W.; Gallo, Frank G.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft on-orbit servicing consists of exchanging components such as payloads, orbital replacement units (ORUs), and consumables. To accomplish the exchange of consumables, the receiving vehicle must mate to the supplier vehicle. Mating can be accomplished by a variety of docking procedures. However, these docking schemes are mission dependent and can vary from shuttle bay berthing to autonomous rendezvous and docking. Satisfying the many docking conditions will require use of an innovative docking device. The device must provide fluid, electrical, pneumatic and data transfer between vehicles. Also, the proper stiffness must be obtained and sustained between the vehicles. A device to accomplish this, the resupply interface mechanism (RIM), was developed. The RIM is a unique device because it grasps the mating vehicle, draws the two vehicles together, simultaneously mates all connectors, and rigidizes the mating devices. The NASA-Johnson Manipulator Development Facility was used to study how compatible the RIM is to on orbit docking and berthing. The facility contains a shuttle cargo bay mockup with a remote manipulator system (RMS). This RMS is used to prepare crew members for shuttle missions involving spacecraft berthing operations. The MDF proved to be an excellant system for testing the RIM/RMS compatibility. The elements examined during the RIM JSC test were: RIM gross and fine alignment; berthing method sequence; visual cuing aids; utility connections; and RIM overall performance. The results showed that the RIM is a good device for spacecraft berthing operations. Mating was accomplished during every test run and all test operators (crew members) felt that the RIM is an effective device. The purpose of the JSC RIM test and its results are discussed.

  15. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  16. 77 FR 32712 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies of your...-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement: Effectiveness of the Primary and Secondary Energy-Absorbing...-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Enhancing...

  17. Compatibility of motion facilitates visuomotor synchronization.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Spivey, Michael J; Krumhansl, Carol L

    2010-12-01

    Prior research indicates that synchronized tapping performance is very poor with flashing visual stimuli compared with auditory stimuli. Three finger-tapping experiments compared flashing visual metronomes with visual metronomes containing a spatial component, either compatible, incompatible, or orthogonal to the tapping action. In Experiment 1, synchronization success rates increased dramatically for spatiotemporal sequences of both geometric and biological forms over flashing sequences. In Experiment 2, synchronization performance was best when target sequences and movements were directionally compatible (i.e., simultaneously down), followed by orthogonal stimuli, and was poorest for incompatible moving stimuli and flashing stimuli. In Experiment 3, synchronization performance was best with auditory sequences, followed by compatible moving stimuli, and was worst for flashing and fading stimuli. Results indicate that visuomotor synchronization improves dramatically with compatible spatial information. However, an auditory advantage in sensorimotor synchronization persists. PMID:20695698

  18. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a connector by the user. (b) Connection point for external audio processing devices. Products providing auditory output shall provide the auditory signal at a standard signal level through an industry...) TTY signal compatibility. Products, including those providing voice communication functionality,...

  19. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a connector by the user. (b) Connection point for external audio processing devices. Products providing auditory output shall provide the auditory signal at a standard signal level through an industry...) TTY signal compatibility. Products, including those providing voice communication functionality,...

  20. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a connector by the user. (b) Connection point for external audio processing devices. Products providing auditory output shall provide the auditory signal at a standard signal level through an industry...) TTY signal compatibility. Products, including those providing voice communication functionality,...

  1. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the user. (b) Connection point for external audio processing devices. Products providing auditory output shall provide the auditory signal at a standard signal level through an industry standard... signal compatibility. Products, including those providing voice communication functionality,...

  2. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Marshall, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Originally selected for the HEDS dust & soil payload for the 2001 Mars Surveyor Lander, The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) has now been completed, tested, and is ready for flight. This paper will review the four MECA instruments.

  3. Compatibility of alternative refrigerants with varnished magnet wire

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1993-10-01

    The compatibility of 24 motor materials with 11 pure refrigerators and 17 refrigerant-lubricant combinations was determined. This is summary of the effect of refrigerants on varnished magnet wire. Of the refrigerants tested, exposure to HCFC-22 produced the most deleterious effects on the magnet wire insulation and varnishes. Since many of the materials tested have excellent reliability with HCFC-22 in current applications, these materials are expected to be reliable when used with new refrigerants.

  4. Water structure and blood compatibility of poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate).

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Akira; Hatakeyama, Tatsuko; Tomono, Yuka; Tanaka, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), which has excellent blood compatibility, contains a large amount of freezing bound water. In order to confirm the role of freezing bound water in determining blood compatibility, poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate) (PTHFA) was newly synthesized and the thermal properties of water in PTHFA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as freezing bound water was observed as cold crystallization in DSC heating curves. In addition, the blood compatibility of PTHFA, including activations of platelets, the coagulation system and the complement system, was investigated. The temperature of cold crystallization of water in PTHFA was higher than that of water in PMEA; moreover, the amount of freezing bound water in PTHFA was smaller than that in PMEA. The effect of freezing bound water on blood compatibility was investigated by comparing PTHFA, PMEA, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(2-methoxyethyl methacrylate) (PMEMA). The latter two samples showed no cold crystallization. Activations of platelets, the coagulation system and the complement system were enhanced in the following order: PMEA < PHEMA < PTHFA < PMEMA, PMEA < PMEMA < PTHFA < PHEMA and PMEA < PTHFA < PMEMA < PHEMA, respectively. The above results were reasonably explained by the amount and/or the stability of freezing bound water. PMID:19323878

  5. Compatibility of Canadian Snowfall and Snow Cover Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodison, B. E.

    1981-08-01

    The accuracy and compatibility of Canadian snowfall and snow survey data were investigated in the Cold Creek research basin in southern Ontario. Problems in obtaining compatible point measurements of snowfall precipitation from gauge and ruler measurements are discussed. However, it is shown that correction of gauge measurements (MSC Nipher, Universal, Fischer and Porter) of snowfall water equivalent for catch variations caused by environmental factors, notably wind speed, results in compatible storm or seasonal totals. Accurate statistics of basin snow cover were determined from snow courses specifically sited in relation to basin land use. At the time of peak accumulation, which might occur at any time during the winter, there was a statistically significant difference in snow cover between land use categories. Mean basin snow cover was calculated by weighting the snow survey measurements in proportion to basin land use. The need to consider the effect of changing land use on snow course measurements is demonstrated. Results show that as an alternative to direct snow survey measurements, accumulated precipitation may be used to estimate snow cover up to peak accumulation. Net snow cover determined from accumulated corrected gauge data less short-term melt losses and snow evaporation was within the confidence limits of the basin mean snow cover measured during the winter. Compatible results are only achieved when precipitation measurements are corrected for gauge catch variations and snow survey data are representative of basin land use.

  6. Risk assessment compatible fire models (RACFMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Sherman, M.P.

    1998-07-01

    A suite of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs) has been developed to represent the hazard posed by a pool fire to weapon systems transported on the B52-H aircraft. These models represent both stand-off (i.e., the weapon system is outside of the flame zone but exposed to the radiant heat load from fire) and fully-engulfing scenarios (i.e., the object is fully covered by flames). The approach taken in developing the RACFMs for both scenarios was to consolidate, reconcile, and apply data and knowledge from all available resources including: data and correlations from the literature, data from an extensive full-scale fire test program at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) at China Lake, and results from a fire field model (VULCAN). In the past, a single, effective temperature, T{sub f}, was used to represent the fire. The heat flux to an object exposed to a fire was estimated using the relationship for black body radiation, {sigma}T{sub f}{sup 4}. Significant improvements have been made by employing the present approach which accounts for the presence of temperature distributions in fully-engulfing fires, and uses best available correlations to estimate heat fluxes in stand-off scenarios.

  7. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  8. Training of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically Related Action Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Matteo; Gatti, Roberto; Tettamanti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the reactivation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce. In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. Nineteen participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in three complex manual actions (e.g., origami). Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions), 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated), and 12 filler incongruent pairs. Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times (RTs) to both target and non-target congruent sentence-picture pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the RTs for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2 × 2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training. The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions. PMID:23233846

  9. TMS-Induced Modulation of Action Sentence Priming in the Ventral Premotor Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence that cortical motor areas, particularly the lateral premotor cortex, are activated during language comprehension, the question of whether motor processes help mediate the semantic encoding of language remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined whether low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial…

  10. Chemical Compatibility of Polymeric Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solen, Kenneth A.; Kuchar, Marvin C.

    1990-01-01

    Presents some principles for specifying general classes of polymers for predicting relative chemical attack from acids, bases, oxidants, and certain common antagonists. Also discusses predicting relative solvent effects. Suggests uses of this information in two or three lectures in a chemical engineering materials course. (YP)

  11. Environmentally compatible hand wipe cleaning solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Catherine P.; Kovach, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Several solvents of environmental concern have previously been used for hand wipe cleaning of SRB surfaces, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, toluene, xylene, and MEK. USBI determined the major types of surfaces involved, and qualification requirements of replacement cleaning agents. Nineteen environmentally compatible candidates were tested on 33 material substrates with 26 types of potential surface contaminants, involving over 7,000 individual evaluations. In addition to the cleaning performance evaluation, bonding, compatibility, and corrosion tests were conducted. Results showed that one cleaner was not optimum for all surfaces. In most instances, some of the candidates cleaned better than the 1,1,1-trichloroethane baseline control. Aqueous cleaners generally cleaned better, and were more compatible with nonmetallic materials, such as paints, plastics, and elastomers. Organic base cleaners were better on metal surfaces. Five cleaners have been qualified and are now being implemented in SRB hand wipe cleaning operations.

  12. Fusion reactor breeder material safety compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Cohen, S.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1983-09-01

    Tritium breeder material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Breeder material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize breeder-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate the following. 1. Ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are chemically compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ reactions with water generate heat, aerosol, and hydrogen. 2. Lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release. 3. Liquid lithium reacts substantially, while 17Li83Pb alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen. 4. Liquid lithium-air reactions may present some major safety concerns. Additional scoping tests are needed, but the ternary oxides, lithium oxide, and 17Li-83Pb have definite safety advantages over liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/. The ternary oxides present minimal safetyrelated problems when used with water as coolant, air or concrete; but they do require neutron multipliers, which may have safety compatibility concerns with surrounding materials. The combined favorable neutronics and minor safety compatibility concerns of lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb make them prime candidates as breeder materials. Current safety efforts are directed toward assessing the compatibility of lithium oxide and the lithium-lead alloy with coolants and other materials.

  13. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  14. Micro-Compatibility Testing of Polysulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, H; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Vance, A

    2004-09-28

    Polysulfone has many useful properties, and its compatibility with other materials is of interest. It is a tough, rigid, high-strength thermoplastic that maintains its properties over a wide temperature range. It is chemically resistant to mineral acids and alkali and moderately resistant to hydrocarbon oils; however, it is not resistant to polar organic solvents such as ketones, chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. Micro-compatibility experiments were initiated to determine possible detrimental interactions in a sealed environment between polysulfone components and a number of other organic species.

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  16. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (CG-ENG-5... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  17. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (CG-ENG-5... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  18. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  19. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (CG-ENG-5... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  20. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  1. Study of IC Compatible On-Chip Thermoelectric Coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Seong-Ho; Wijngaards, Davey D. L.; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2005-07-01

    A thin-film-based thermoelectric micro-cooler has been studied and realized using the standard integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology and bulk micromachining technology in sequence. The whole fabrication process is kept IC compatible by postponing potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching step to the last part of the fabrication sequence. Considering the fabrication compatibility, polycrystalline silicon germanium (polySiGe) is chosen as thermoelectric material even though bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is one of the most effective thermoelectric materials. The influence of non-idealities on device performance, such as Joule heating due to contact resistance and parasitic heat loss through supporting membrane, is analyzed. The characterized thermoelectric, thermal and electric properties of the fabricated polySiGe thermoelectric material correspond well to those from literatures. Measured cooling performance demonstrates that an on-chip micro-cooler can be applied for thermal stabilization near ambient temperature.

  2. 49 CFR 355.25 - Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMPATIBILITY OF STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS AFFECTING INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER OPERATIONS... in effect or enforce any State law or regulation pertaining to commercial motor vehicle safety...

  3. 49 CFR 355.25 - Adopting and enforcing compatible laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMPATIBILITY OF STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS AFFECTING INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER OPERATIONS... in effect or enforce any State law or regulation pertaining to commercial motor vehicle safety...

  4. Compatibility of Motion Facilitates Visuomotor Synchronization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Michael J.; Spivey, Michael J.; Krumhansl, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that synchronized tapping performance is very poor with flashing visual stimuli compared with auditory stimuli. Three finger-tapping experiments compared flashing visual metronomes with visual metronomes containing a spatial component, either compatible, incompatible, or orthogonal to the tapping action. In Experiment 1,…

  5. Catholic Educator Perceptions about Brain Compatible Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenen, Amie

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…

  6. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed...

  7. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed...

  8. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed...

  9. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed...

  10. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed...

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, J.; Prussel, M.

    1986-02-01

    EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) is being largely ignored in the design of nuclear power instrumentation and control systems. As a result, EMI (electromagnetic interference) is causing costly startup delays and spurious reactor trips. This paper describes existing problems, basic causes, and approaches to their solutions.

  12. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Hill, Geoffrey E; Johnson, James D

    2013-10-01

    Why females assess ornaments when choosing mates remains a central question in evolutionary biology. We hypothesize that the imperative for a choosing female to find a mate with nuclear oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes that are compatible with her mitochondrial OXPHOS genes drives the evolution of ornaments. Indicator traits are proposed to signal the efficiency of OXPHOS function thus enabling females to select mates with nuclear genes that are compatible with maternal mitochondrial genes in the formation of OXPHOS complexes. Species-typical pattern of ornamentation is proposed to serve as a marker of mitochondrial type ensuring that females assess prospective mates with a shared mitochondrial background. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis predicts that the production of ornaments will be closely linked to OXPHOS pathways, and that sexual selection for compatible mates will be strongest when genes for nuclear components of OXPHOS complexes are Z-linked. The implications of this hypothesis are that sexual selection may serve as a driver for the evolution of more efficient cellular respiration. PMID:23945683

  13. [MRI compatibility of deep brain stimulator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy develops rapidly in clinical application. The structures of deep brain stimulator and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment are introduced, the interactions are analyzed, and the two compatible problems of radio frequency (RF) heating and imaging artifact are summarized in this paper. PMID:24195387

  14. Compatibility Issues Affecting Information Systems and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid; Smith, Linda C.

    This UNISIST publication discusses issues related to the compatibility and standardization of bibliograpic records, index languages, software, hardware, and other information systems and services. Following an executive summary, definitions of terms, and other introductory material, existing information systems with common standards are briefly…

  15. Brain-Compatible Assessments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronis, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    Diane Ronis, a recognized expert in brain-compatible learning and assessment, goes beyond the world of standardized testing to show educators how to build and use targeted assessments based on the latest neuroscientific research. Updated to reflect recent findings about how the brain learns, this book provides readers with revised tools for…

  16. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  17. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  18. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  19. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  20. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS...

  1. 78 FR 73085 - Mission Compatibility Evaluation Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 211 Mission Compatibility Evaluation Process AGENCY: Office of the... with other proposal review processes not included in section 358, such as those applied by the Bureau... interim final rule in the Federal Register on October 20, 2011, at 76 FR 65112. The public comment...

  2. 76 FR 65112 - Mission Compatibility Evaluation Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 211 Mission Compatibility Evaluation Process AGENCY: Office of the Under... rule deal with other clearance processes not included in section 358, such as those applied by the... participation of DoD in the Federal Aviation Administration's process under 49 ] U.S.C. 44718 to the...

  3. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis of sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Geoffrey E.; Johnson, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Why females assess ornaments when choosing mates remains a central question in evolutionary biology. We hypothesize that the imperative for a choosing female to find a mate with nuclear oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes that are compatible with her mitochondrial OXPHOS genes drives the evolution of ornaments. Indicator traits are proposed to signal the efficiency of OXPHOS function thus enabling females to select mates with nuclear genes that are compatible with maternal mitochondrial genes in the formation of OXPHOS complexes. Species-typical pattern of ornamentation is proposed to serve as a marker of mitochondrial type ensuring that females assess prospective mates with a shared mitochondrial background. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis predicts that the production of ornaments will be closely linked to OXPHOS pathways, and that sexual selection for compatible mates will be strongest when genes for nuclear components of OXPHOS complexes are Z-linked. The implications of this hypothesis are that sexual selection may serve as a driver for the evolution of more efficient cellular respiration. PMID:23945683

  4. External audio for IBM-compatible computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous applications benefit from the presentation of computer-generated auditory stimuli at points discontiguous with the computer itself. Modification of an IBM-compatible computer for use of an external speaker is relatively easy but not intuitive. This modification is briefly described.

  5. Preparation of small bio-compatible microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such a hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  6. Instant Print-Braille Compatibility with COBRA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durre, Ingeborg K.; Durre, Imke

    1999-01-01

    Describes an eight-dot computer Braille notation, COBRA, with integrated mathematical and scientific notation that achieves immediate print-Braille compatibility through one-to-one representation of letters and other characters. Text can be entered from the Braille or the Qwerty Keyboard and can be viewed simultaneously on the Braille display and…

  7. Progress toward developing high performance immersion compatible materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Karen; Patel, Kaushal; Chen, Rex; Li, Wenjie; Kwong, Ranee; Lawson, Peggy; Varanasi, Rao; Robinson, Chris; Holmes, Steven J.; Gil, Dario; Kimmel, Kurt; Slezak, Mark; Dabbagh, Gary; Chiba, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tsutomu

    2005-05-01

    To make immersion lithography a reality in manufacturing, several challenges related to materials and defects must be addressed. Two such challenges include the development of water immersion compatible materials, and the vigorous pursuit of defect reduction with respect to both the films and the processes. Suitable resists and topcoats must be developed to be compatible with the water-soaked environment during exposure. Going beyond the requisite studies of component leaching from films into the water, and absorption of water into the films, application-specific optimization of photoresists and top coats will be required. This would involve an understanding of how a wide array of resist chemistry and formulations behave under immersion conditions. The intent of this paper is to compare lithographic performance under immersion and dry conditions of resists containing different polymer platforms, protecting groups, and formulations. The compatibility of several developer-soluble top-coat materials with a variety of resists is also studied with emphasis on profile control issues. With respect to defects, the sources are numerous. Bubbles and particles created during the imaging process, material remnants from incomplete removal of topcoats, and image collapse as related to resist swelling from water infusion are all sources of yield-limiting defects. Parallel efforts are required in the material development cycle focusing both on meeting the lithographic requirements, and on understanding and eliminating sources of defects. In this paper, efforts in the characterization and reduction of defects as related to materials chemistry and processing effects will be presented.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical compatibility of several compounds with Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between Fe-19.8Cr-4.8Al (weight percent), which is the base composition for the commercial superalloy MA956, and several carbides, borides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides was analyzed from thermodynamic considerations. The effect of addition of minor alloying elements, such as Ti, Y, and Y2O3, to the Fe-Cr-Al alloy on chemical compatibility between the alloy and various compounds was also analyzed. Several chemically compatible compounds that can be potential reinforcement materials and/or interface coating materials for Fe-Cr-Al based composites were identified.

  9. Asymptotic approach to special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D.

    2010-10-15

    We propose a general framework to describe Planckian deviations from special relativity compatible with a relativistic principle. They are introduced as the leading corrections in an asymptotic approach to special relativity going beyond the energy power expansion of effective field theories. We discuss the conditions in which these Planckian effects might be experimentally observable in the near future, together with the nontrivial limits of applicability of this asymptotic approach that such a situation would produce, both at the very high (ultraviolet) and the very low (infrared) energy regimes.

  10. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  11. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  12. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  13. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Petach, Trevor A.; Baum, Brian K.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  14. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    PubMed Central

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  15. Career and Family – Are They Compatible?

    PubMed Central

    Hancke, K.; Toth, B.; Igl, W.; Ramsauer, B.; Bühren, A.; Wöckel, A.; Jundt, K.; Ditsch, N.; Gingelmaier, A.; Rhiem, K.; Vetter, K.; Friese, K.; Kreienberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, most gynaecologists are female and the compatibility of job-related career and family life is an upcoming issue. The working group “Gender and Career” of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) designed a survey to reflect the present situation with a focus on the compatibility of career and family. Material and Methods: A web-based 74-item survey was filled out by members of the DGGG. In total, there were 1037 replies, 75 % female (n = 775) and 25 % male (n = 261) gynaecologists. Results: 62 % of the female and 80 % of the male respondents had already finished their doctoral theses and 2 % female and 13 % male had finished their PhD. Mean number of children was 1.06 (SD 1.08) in female and 1.68 (SD 1.34) in male gynaecologists. The majority of females desired day care for their children, but only 5 to 13 % of employers offer any day care. 88 % of the female and 72 % of the male physicians think that job-related career and family are not compatible. Conclusion: The majority of female gynaecologists wished to have professional child care, but most employers or other institutions do not offer this. This might be one of the reasons why career and family appear incompatible. PMID:25298544

  16. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

  17. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  18. Central cross-talk in task switching: Evidence from manipulating input-output modality compatibility.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-07-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and between 2 incompatible tasks (auditory-manual vs. visual-vocal). The resulting switch costs were smaller in compatible tasks compared to incompatible tasks. Experiment 2 manipulated the response-stimulus interval (RSI) to examine the time course of the compatibility effect. The effect on switch costs was confirmed with short RSI, but the effect was diminished with long RSI. Together, the data suggest that task sets are modality specific. Reduced switch costs in compatible tasks may be due to special linkages between input and output modalities, whereas incompatible tasks increase cross-talk, presumably due to dissipating interference of correct and incorrect response modalities. PMID:20565224

  19. Liquid oxygen-compatible filament-winding matrix resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1973-01-01

    Polyurethanes derived from hydroxy terminated polyperfluoro propylene oxide prepolymers were evaluated as matrix resins for filament wound composites which would be exposed to liquid (and 100% gaseous) oxygen environments. A number of structural modifications were brought about by variations in prepolymer molecular weight, and alternative curing agents which allowed retention of the oxygen compatibility. Although satisfactory performance was achieved at sub-ambient temperatures, the derived composites suffered considerable property loss at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures. To attain overall effectiveness of the composite system, upgrading of the polymer thermomechanical properties must first be achieved.

  20. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments.

  1. RFID in healthcare environment: electromagnetic compatibility regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Bartolini, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Several wireless technology applications (RFID, WiFi, GSM, GPRS) have been developed to improve patient care, reaching a significant success and diffusion in healthcare. Given the potential development of such a technology, care must be paid on the potential risks deriving from the use of wireless device in healthcare, among which one of the most important is the electromagnetic interference with medical devices. The analysis of the regulatory issues concerning the electromagnetic compatibility of medical devices is essential to evaluate if and how the application of the current standards allows an effective control of the possible risks associated to the electromagnetic interference on medical devices. PMID:21096973

  2. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-03-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/ f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed.

  3. Dual-Task Performance with Ideomotor-Compatible Tasks: Is the Central Processing Bottleneck Intact, Bypassed, or Shifted in Locus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; McCann, Robert S.; Ruthruff, Eric; Proctor, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether the central bottleneck, assumed to be primarily responsible for the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect, is intact, bypassed, or shifted in locus with ideomotor (IM)-compatible tasks. In 4 experiments, factorial combinations of IM- and non-IM-compatible tasks were used for Task 1 and Task 2. All…

  4. Dual-task performance with ideomotor-compatible tasks: is the central processing bottleneck intact, bypassed, or shifted in locus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; McCann, Robert S.; Ruthruff, Eric; Proctor, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether the central bottleneck, assumed to be primarily responsible for the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect, is intact, bypassed, or shifted in locus with ideomotor (IM)-compatible tasks. In 4 experiments, factorial combinations of IM- and non-IM-compatible tasks were used for Task 1 and Task 2. All experiments showed substantial PRP effects, with a strong dependency between Task 1 and Task 2 response times. These findings, along with model-based simulations, indicate that the processing bottleneck was not bypassed, even with two IM-compatible tasks. Nevertheless, systematic changes in the PRP and correspondence effects across experiments suggest that IM compatibility shifted the locus of the bottleneck. The findings favor an engage-bottleneck-later hypothesis, whereby parallelism between tasks occurs deeper into the processing stream for IM- than for non-IM-compatible tasks, without the bottleneck being actually eliminated.

  5. The role of input-output modality compatibility in task switching.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2011-11-01

    Input-output (I-O) modality compatibility refers to the similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. A previous study found higher switch costs in task switching in I-O modality incompatible tasks (auditory-manual and visual-vocal) than in I-O modality compatible tasks (auditory-vocal and visual-manual). However, these tasks had spatially compatible S-R mappings, which implied dimensional overlap (DO). DO may have led to automatic activation of the corresponding compatible responses in the incorrect response modality, thus increasing interference effects. The present study was aimed to examine the influence of DO on I-O modality compatibility effects. In two experiments, we found that I-O modality compatibility affects task switching even in tasks without DO, which even tended to result in further increased modality influences. This finding suggests that I-O modality mappings affect response selection by affecting between-task cross-talk not on the level of specific response codes but on the level of modality-specific processing pathways. PMID:21858664

  6. Tri-Axial MRI Compatible Fiber-optic Force Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tan, U-Xuan; Yang, Bo; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gaining popularity over standard imaging modalities like ultrasound and CT because of its ability to provide excellent soft-tissue contrast. However, due to the working principle of MRI, a number of conventional force sensors are not compatible. One popular solution is to develop a fiber-optic force sensor. However, the measurements along the principal axes of a number of these force sensors are highly cross-coupled. One of the objectives of this paper is to minimize this coupling effect. In addition, this paper describes the design of elastic frame structures that are obtained systematically using topology optimization techniques for maximizing sensor resolution and sensor bandwidth. Through the topology optimization approach, we ensure that the frames are linked from the input to output. The elastic frame structures are then fabricated using polymers materials, such as ABS and Delrin®, as they are ideal materials for use in MRI environment. However, the hysteresis effect seen in the displacement-load graph of plastic materials is known to affect the accuracy. Hence, this paper also proposes modeling and addressing this hysteretic effect using Prandtl-Ishlinskii play operators. Finally, experiments are conducted to evaluate the sensor’s performance, as well as its compatibility in MRI under continuous imaging. PMID:21666783

  7. An Evaluation of Blood Compatibility of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Lai, Wenjia; Cui, Menghua; Liang, Ling; Lin, Yuchen; Fang, Qiaojun; Liu, Ying; Xie, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have tremendous potentials in medical devices due to their excellent antimicrobial properties. Blood compatibility should be investigated for AgNPs due to the potential blood contact. However, so far, most studies are not systematic and have not provided insights into the mechanisms for blood compatibility of AgNPs. In this study, we have investigated the blood biological effects, including hemolysis, lymphocyte proliferation, platelet aggregation, coagulation and complement activation, of 20 nm AgNPs with two different surface coatings (polyvinyl pyrrolidone and citrate). Our results have revealed AgNPs could elicit hemolysis and severely impact the proliferation and viability of lymphocytes at all investigated concentrations (10, 20, 40 μg/mL). Nevertheless, AgNPs didn't show any effect on platelet aggregation, coagulation process, or complement activation at up to ~40 μg/mL. Proteomic analysis on AgNPs plasma proteins corona has revealed that acidic and small molecular weight blood plasma proteins were preferentially adsorbed onto AgNPs, and these include some important proteins relevant to hemostasis, coagulation, platelet, complement activation and immune responses. The predicted biological effects of AgNPs by proteomic analysis are mostly consistent with our experimental data since there were few C3 components on AgNPs and more negative than positive factors involving platelet aggregation and thrombosis. PMID:27145858

  8. An Evaluation of Blood Compatibility of Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Lai, Wenjia; Cui, Menghua; Liang, Ling; Lin, Yuchen; Fang, Qiaojun; Liu, Ying; Xie, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have tremendous potentials in medical devices due to their excellent antimicrobial properties. Blood compatibility should be investigated for AgNPs due to the potential blood contact. However, so far, most studies are not systematic and have not provided insights into the mechanisms for blood compatibility of AgNPs. In this study, we have investigated the blood biological effects, including hemolysis, lymphocyte proliferation, platelet aggregation, coagulation and complement activation, of 20 nm AgNPs with two different surface coatings (polyvinyl pyrrolidone and citrate). Our results have revealed AgNPs could elicit hemolysis and severely impact the proliferation and viability of lymphocytes at all investigated concentrations (10, 20, 40 μg/mL). Nevertheless, AgNPs didn’t show any effect on platelet aggregation, coagulation process, or complement activation at up to ~40 μg/mL. Proteomic analysis on AgNPs plasma proteins corona has revealed that acidic and small molecular weight blood plasma proteins were preferentially adsorbed onto AgNPs, and these include some important proteins relevant to hemostasis, coagulation, platelet, complement activation and immune responses. The predicted biological effects of AgNPs by proteomic analysis are mostly consistent with our experimental data since there were few C3 components on AgNPs and more negative than positive factors involving platelet aggregation and thrombosis. PMID:27145858

  9. Tri-Axial MRI Compatible Fiber-optic Force Sensor.

    PubMed

    Tan, U-Xuan; Yang, Bo; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gaining popularity over standard imaging modalities like ultrasound and CT because of its ability to provide excellent soft-tissue contrast. However, due to the working principle of MRI, a number of conventional force sensors are not compatible. One popular solution is to develop a fiber-optic force sensor. However, the measurements along the principal axes of a number of these force sensors are highly cross-coupled. One of the objectives of this paper is to minimize this coupling effect. In addition, this paper describes the design of elastic frame structures that are obtained systematically using topology optimization techniques for maximizing sensor resolution and sensor bandwidth. Through the topology optimization approach, we ensure that the frames are linked from the input to output. The elastic frame structures are then fabricated using polymers materials, such as ABS and Delrin(®), as they are ideal materials for use in MRI environment. However, the hysteresis effect seen in the displacement-load graph of plastic materials is known to affect the accuracy. Hence, this paper also proposes modeling and addressing this hysteretic effect using Prandtl-Ishlinskii play operators. Finally, experiments are conducted to evaluate the sensor's performance, as well as its compatibility in MRI under continuous imaging. PMID:21666783

  10. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  11. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  12. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  13. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  14. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  15. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program on compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B to Part 150 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B to Part 150 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B to Part 150 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and purpose. Sec. B150.3Requirement for noise map. Sec....

  20. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program on compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters...

  1. A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE COMPATIBILITY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a method for determining the compatibility of the binary combinations of hazardous wastes. The method consists of two main parts, namely: (1) the step-by-step compatibility analysis procedures, and (2) the hazardous wastes compatibility chart. The key elemen...

  2. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  3. Liquid-Oxygen-Compatible Cement for Gaskets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, N. L.; Neale, B. C.

    1984-01-01

    Fluorelastomer and metal bonded reliably by new procedure. To cure fluoroelastomer cement, metal plate/gasket assembly placed in vacuum bag evacuated to minimum vacuum of 27 inches (69 cm) of mercury. Vacuum maintained throughout heating process and until assembly returns to ambient room temperature. Used to seal gaskets and O-rings or used to splice layers of elastomer to form non-standard sized O-rings. Another possible use is to apply protective, liquid-oxygen-compatible coating to metal parts.

  4. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  5. Advanced satellite design and ISDN compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1992-03-01

    The present evaluation of numerous strategies that can be pursued to upgrade satellite-based communications notes that such services will remain an important option for users even in a world of broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services. Standards organizations concerned with satellite communications should accordingly develop ISDN and ATM standards that are compatible with satellites, fiber-optics, and hybrid systems, including those standards relating to improving satellite performance in such areas of strategic weakness as onboard processing and artificially intelligent ultrasmall aperture terminals.

  6. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  7. Compatibility of header materials with pyrotechnic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    The intent of this research program is to qualify several stainless steels, nickel-base alloys and a titanium alloy as candidates for explosive component applications. This report focuses on the compatibility of these materials with pyrotechnic powder. The powder is a combined titanium subhydride-potassium perchlorate mixture, used both wet and dry. Hollow tensile bars were utilized to discern interactions between the metal and powder which underwent accelerated aging. Metallography was employed along with the mechanical property results to characterize the extent of interaction. No degradation in mechanical properties was noted. 6 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    SciTech Connect

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D

    2009-09-22

    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  9. CMOS-compatible RF MEMS switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakamraju, Narendra V.; Kim, Bruce; Phillips, Stephen M.

    2004-08-01

    Mobile technologies have relied on RF switches for a long time. Though the basic function of the switch has remained the same, the way they have been made has changed in the recent past. In the past few years work has been done to use MEMS technologies in designing and fabricating an RF switch that would in many ways replace the electronic and mechanical switches that have been used for so long. The work that is described here is an attempt to design and fabricate an RF MEMS switch that can handle higher RF power and have CMOS compatible operating voltages.

  10. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  11. Pollen Tube Growth and Self-Compatibility in Almond

    PubMed Central

    Socias i Company, Rafel; Kodad, Ossama; Fernández i Martí, Àngel; Alonso, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Although pollen tube growth has been an important criterion for self-compatibility evaluation in almond, there is not a clear-cut separation between positive and negative growth of pollen tubes in the different genotypes. The examination of pollen tube growth after selfing almond seedlings has allowed establishing different levels of compatibility, but not a clear-cut separation between self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) genotypes, related to the presence of pseudo-self-compatibility in almond. Consequently, a relationship between pollen tube growth and self-compatibility in almond may be established for evaluating the seedlings in breeding programs. PMID:27137365

  12. Compatibility of polymers and chemical oxidants for enhanced groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan M; Silva, Jeff A K; Munakata-Marr, Junko; McCray, John E

    2008-12-15

    Polymer floods provide a promising method to more effectively deliver conventional groundwater treatment agents to organic contaminants distributed within heterogeneous aquifer systems. Combinations of nontoxic polymers (xanthan and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) and common chemical oxidants (potassium permanganate and sodium persulfate) were investigated to determine the suitability of these mixtures for polymer-enhanced in situ chemical oxidation applications. Oxidant demand and solution viscosity were utilized as initial measures of chemical compatibility. After 72 h of reaction with both test oxidants, solution viscosities in mixtures containing hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were decreased by more than 90% (final viscosities approximately 2 cP), similar to the 95% viscosity loss (final viscosities approximately 1 cP, near that of water) observed in xanthan/persulfate experiments. In contrast, xanthan solutions exposed to potassium permanganate preserved 60-95% of initial viscosity after 72 h. Permanganate depletion in xanthan-containing experiments ranged from 2% to 24% over the same test period. Although oxidant consumption in xanthan/permanganate solutions appeared to be correlated with increasing xanthan concentrations, solutions of up to 2000 mg/L xanthan did not inhibit permanganate from oxidizing a dissolved-phase test contaminant (tetrachloroethene, PCE) in xanthan solution. These advantageous characteristics (high viscosity retention, moderate oxidant demand, and lack of competitive effects on PCE oxidation rate) render xanthan/permanganate the most compatible polymer/oxidant combination of those tested for remediation by polymer-enhanced chemical oxidation. PMID:19174907

  13. Is religious education compatible with science education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.

  14. Integrated environmentally compatible soldering technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Frear, D.R.; Iman, R.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Lopez, E.P.; Peebles, H.C.; Sorensen, N.R.; Vianco, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    Chemical fluxes are typically used during conventional electronic soldering to enhance solder wettability. Most fluxes contain very reactive, hazardous constituents that require special storage and handling. Corrosive flux residues that remain on soldered parts can severely degrade product reliability. The residues are removed with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), or other hazardous solvents that contribute to ozone depletion, release volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere, or add to the solvent waste stream. Alternative materials and processes that offer the potential for the reduction or elimination of cleaning are being developed to address these environmental issues. Timing of the effort is critical, since the targeted chemicals will soon be heavily taxed or banned. DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE/EM) has supported Sandia National Laboratories` Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID). Part of the ECM program involves the integration of several environmentally compatible soldering technologies for assembling electronics devices. Fluxless or {open_quotes}low-residue/no clean{close_quotes} soldering technologies (conventional and ablative laser processing, controlled atmospheres, ultrasonic tinning, protective coatings, and environmentally compatible fluxes) have been demonstrated at Sandia (SNL/NM), the University of California at Berkeley, and Allied Signal Aerospace-Kansas City Division (AS-KCD). The university demonstrations were directed under the guidance of Sandia staff. Results of the FY93 Soldering ID are presented in this report.

  15. What is a "DNA-Compatible" Reaction?

    PubMed

    Malone, Marie L; Paegel, Brian M

    2016-04-11

    DNA-encoded synthesis can generate vastly diverse screening libraries of arbitrarily complex molecules as long as chemical reaction conditions do not compromise DNA's informational integrity, a fundamental constraint that "DNA-compatible" reaction development does not presently address. We devised DNA-encoded reaction rehearsal, an integrated analysis of reaction yield and impact on DNA, to acquire these key missing data. Magnetic DNA-functionalized sensor beads quantitatively report the % DNA template molecules remaining viable for PCR amplification after exposure to test reaction conditions. Analysis of solid-phase bond forming (e.g., Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, reductive amination) and deprotection reactions (e.g., allyl esters, silyl ethers) guided the definition and optimization of DNA-compatible reaction conditions (>90% yield, >30% viable DNA molecules), most notably in cases that involved known (H(+), Pd) and more obscure (Δ, DMF) hazards to DNA integrity. The data provide an empirical yet mechanistically consistent and predictive framework for designing successful DNA-encoded reaction sequences for combinatorial library synthesis. PMID:26971959

  16. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals.

  17. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; van der Werf, K. O.; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, A.

    1989-05-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh-vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice-coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed-through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe geometry, flexibility of probe geometry, amplitude of oscillation, and pure parallel vibration. Automatic setup and constant spacing features are achieved using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) steered offset potential. The combination of very low driver noise pick-up and data-acquisition system (DAS) signal processing techniques results in a work function (wf ) resolution, under optimal conditions, of <0.1 meV. Due to its high surface sensitivity and compatibility with standard sample cleaning and analysis techniques this design has numerous applications in surface studies, e.g., adsorption kinetics, sample topography and homogeneity, sputter profiles, etc. For semiconductor specimens the high wf resolution makes it eminently suitable for surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy.

  18. Compatibility considerations in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, P W; Vanderveen, T W

    1984-05-01

    Information on compatibility of nutrients and drugs with parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions is reviewed and evaluated. Precipitation of calcium phosphate when calcium and phosphate salts are added can be affected by pH, amino acid concentration, amino acid product, temperature, sequence of additives, specific salt used, and time since admixture; precipitate formation can occur gradually over 24 hours. Insulin is chemically stable in PN solutions, but adsorption to the infusion system can cause decreased availability. Poor delivery of vitamin A via PN solutions has been reported. The sodium bisulfite content of amino acid injections may cause degradation of thiamine, but studies simulating clinical use are needed. Folic acid stability in PN solutions has been demonstrated, and phytonadione appears to be stable. Drug administration via PN solutions may be advantageous when fluid intake is restricted or peripheral vein access is limited and in home PN therapy. Summarized are results of studies involving heparin, cimetidine hydrochloride, aminophylline, amphotericin B, iron dextran, hydrochloric acid, corticosteroids, narcotics, metoclopramide, digoxin, and fluorouracil. Many antibiotics are probably stable, especially when administered by co-infusion rather than by direct mixture in the PN solution container. When lipids are mixed in the same container with amino acid-dextrose solutions, compatibility and stability of electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements must be reassessed. Practical research is needed, and availability of additives should be studied in specific patient populations and for specific PN formulations. Valid conclusions are dependent on careful study design. PMID:6328980

  19. Stimulus-Response Compatibility with Pure and Mixed Mappings in a Flight Task Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Proctor, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect in a simulated flight environment. Experiments 1 and 2 tested the effect with pure and mixed mappings in flight tasks by using attitude displays with inside-out and outside-in formats, whereas Experiments 3 and 4 used a simplified display and tasks. The SRC effect was…

  20. The compatibility heuristic in non-categorical hypothetical reasoning: inferences between conditionals and disjunctions.

    PubMed

    Espino, Orlando; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2013-11-01

    A new theory explains how people make hypothetical inferences from a premise consistent with several alternatives to a conclusion consistent with several alternatives. The key proposal is that people rely on a heuristic that identifies compatible possibilities. It is tested in 7 experiments that examine inferences between conditionals and disjunctions. Participants accepted inferences between conditionals and inclusive disjunctions when a compatible possibility was immediately available, in their binary judgments that a conclusion followed or not (Experiment 1a) and ternary judgments that included it was not possible to know (Experiment 1b). The compatibility effect was amplified when compatible possibilities were more readily available, e.g., for 'A only if B' conditionals (Experiment 2). It was eliminated when compatible possibilities were not available, e.g., for 'if and only if A B' bi-conditionals and exclusive disjunctions (Experiment 3). The compatibility heuristic occurs even for inferences based on implicit negation e.g., 'A or B, therefore if C D' (Experiment 4), and between universals 'All A's are B's' and disjunctions (Experiment 5a) and universals and conditionals (Experiment 5b). The implications of the results for alternative theories of the cognitive processes underlying hypothetical deductions are discussed. PMID:23968595

  1. Compatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes correlates with the quantitative trait of lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuobin; Lu, Qing; Zeng, Fangfang; Wang, Junjing; Huang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial genome have epistatic effects on organisms depending on the nuclear background, but a role for the compatibility of mitochondrial-nuclear genomes (mit-n) in the quantitative nature of a complex trait remains unexplored. We studied a panel of recombinant inbred advanced intercrossed lines (RIAILs) of C. elegans that were established from a cross between the N2 and HW strains. We determined the HW nuclear genome content and the mitochondrial type (HW or N2) of each RIAIL strain. We found that the degree of mit-n compatibility was correlated with the lifespans but not the foraging behaviors of RIAILs. Several known aging-associated QTLs individually showed no relationship with mitotypes but collectively a weak trend consistent with a role in mit-n compatibility. By association mapping, we identified 293 SNPs that showed linkage with lifespan and a relationship with mitotypes consistent with a role in mit-n compatibility. We further found an association between mit-n compatibility and several functional characteristics of mitochondria as well as the expressions of genes involved in the respiratory oxidation pathway. The results provide the first evidence implicating mit-n compatibility in the quantitative nature of a complex trait, and may be informative to certain evolutionary puzzles on hybrids. PMID:26601686

  2. Conditions for compatibility of quantum-state assignments

    SciTech Connect

    Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger

    2002-12-01

    Suppose N parties describe the state of a quantum system by N possibly different density operators. These N state assignments represent the beliefs of the parties about the system. We examine conditions for determining whether the N state assignments are compatible. We distinguish two kinds of procedures for assessing compatibility, the first based on the compatibility of the prior beliefs on which the N state assignments are based and the second based on the compatibility of predictive measurement probabilities they define. The first procedure leads to a compatibility criterion proposed by Brun, Finkelstein, and Mermin [BFM, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032315 (2002)]. The second procedure leads to a hierarchy of measurement-based compatibility criteria which is fundamentally different from the corresponding classical situation. Quantum mechanically none of the measurement-based compatibility criteria is equivalent to the BFM criterion.

  3. Compatibility experiments of facilities, materials, and propellants for electrothermal thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.; Sovey, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the compatibility of materials and propellants for electro-thermal thrusters. Candidate propellants for resistojet propulsion include carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The materials being examined are grain stabilized platinum for resistojets for Space station and rhenium for high performance resistojets for satellites. Heater mass loss and deterioration of materials were evaluated. A coiled tube of platinum, with yttria dispersed throughout the base material to inhibit grain growth, was tested in carbon dioxide at 1300 C for 2000 hr. Post-test examination indicated the platinum-yttria heater would last over 100 000 hr with less than 10 percent mass loss. Short-term compatibility tests were conducted to test the integrity of the platinum-yttria in hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide/methane mixtures and ammonia environments. In each of these 100 hr tests, the platinum-yttria mass change indicated a minimum coil life of 100 000 hr. Facility related effects were investigated in materials tests using rhenium heated to high tempertures. Vacuum facility water reduction was monitored using a mass spectrometer. In vacuum environments obtained using only diffusion pumping and those obtained with the assistance of cryogenic equipment there were mass gains in the rhenium heaters. These mass gains were the result of the high amount of oxygen and water contained in the gas. Propellant purity and preferred test facility environments are discussed.

  4. Glucosylated polymeric nanoparticles: a sweetened approach against blood compatibility paradox.

    PubMed

    Thasneem, Y M; Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2013-08-01

    Surface functionalization strategies in generating stealth nano-carriers have garnered considerable attention in pharmaceutical research. In this regard, our investigation reports on the preparation and evaluation of glucose decorated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles as blood compatible nanoparticulate drug delivery system, with enhanced cellular uptake. Terminal carboxylic acid groups on PLGA were modified with the amino group of glucosamine and nanoparticles were generated by modified solvent diffusion (nano-precipitation) technique. Detailed in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the eminence of glucose functionalization over unmodified nanoparticles, in terms of their hemocompatibility and cellular uptake. Glucosylation was confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy; PLGA and modified particles had average size in the range of 125nm. Glucosylation was an effective strategy in reducing plasma protein adsorption, complement activation and platelet plugging of PLGA nanoparticles. PLGA and their glucose modified versions were quite compatible with the blood cells and were non-cytotoxic. Moreover the uptake behaviour of glucose modified PLGA nanoparticles were enhanced in comparison to standard PLGA nanoparticles as emphasized by the z stacking analysis following confocal imaging. Precisely the stealth properties of glucose modified PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Glu), with enhanced cellular internalization, seems to be a safe and efficient system for intravenous drug delivery applications. PMID:23563302

  5. Environmental compatibility of closed landfills - assessing future pollution hazards.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills need to be managed after closure. This so-called aftercare comprises the treatment and monitoring of residual emissions as well as the maintenance and control of landfill elements. The measures can be terminated when a landfill does not pose a threat to the environment any more. Consequently, the evaluation of landfill environmental compatibility includes an estimation of future pollution hazards as well as an assessment of the vulnerability of the affected environment. An approach to assess future emission rates is presented and discussed in view of long-term environmental compatibility. The suggested method consists (a) of a continuous model to predict emissions under the assumption of constant landfill conditions, and (b) different scenarios to evaluate the effects of changing conditions within and around the landfill. The model takes into account the actual status of the landfill, hence different methods to gain information about landfill characteristics have to be applied. Finally, assumptions, uncertainties, and limitations of the methodology are discussed, and the need for future research is outlined. PMID:21068055

  6. Compatibility experiments of facilities, materials, and propellants for electrothermal thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.; Sovey, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the compatibility of materials and propellants for electro-thermal thrusters. Candidate propellants for resistojet propulsion include carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The materials being examined are grain stabilized platinum for resistojets for space station and rhenium for high performance resistojets for satellites. Heater mass loss and deterioration of materials were evaluated. A coiled tube of platinum, with yttria dispersed throughout the base material to inhibit grain growth, was tested in carbon dioxide at 1300 C for 2000 hr. Post-test examination indicated the platinum-yttria heater would last over 100,000 hr with less than 10 percent mass loss. Short-term compatibility tests were conducted to test the integrity of the platinum-yttria in hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide/methane mixtures and ammonia environments. In each of these 100 hr tests, the platinum-yttria mass change indicated a minimum coil life of 100,000 hr. Facility related effects were investigated in materials tests using rhenium heated to high temperatures. Vacuum facility water reduction was monitored using a mass spectrometer. In vacuum environments obtained using only diffusion pumping and those obtained with the assistance of cryogenic equipment there were mass gains in the rhenium heaters. These mass gains were the result of the high amount of oxygen and water contained in the gas. Propellant purity and preferred test facility environments are discussed.

  7. Development of hazard-compatible building fragility and vulnerability models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karaca, E.; Luco, N.

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology for transforming the structural and non-structural fragility functions in HAZUS into a format that is compatible with conventional seismic hazard analysis information. The methodology makes use of the building capacity (or pushover) curves and related building parameters provided in HAZUS. Instead of the capacity spectrum method applied in HAZUS, building response is estimated by inelastic response history analysis of corresponding single-degree-of-freedom systems under a large number of earthquake records. Statistics of the building response are used with the damage state definitions from HAZUS to derive fragility models conditioned on spectral acceleration values. Using the developed fragility models for structural and nonstructural building components, with corresponding damage state loss ratios from HAZUS, we also derive building vulnerability models relating spectral acceleration to repair costs. Whereas in HAZUS the structural and nonstructural damage states are treated as if they are independent, our vulnerability models are derived assuming "complete" nonstructural damage whenever the structural damage state is complete. We show the effects of considering this dependence on the final vulnerability models. The use of spectral acceleration (at selected vibration periods) as the ground motion intensity parameter, coupled with the careful treatment of uncertainty, makes the new fragility and vulnerability models compatible with conventional seismic hazard curves and hence useful for extensions to probabilistic damage and loss assessment.

  8. Compatability of dispersion-strengthened platinum with resistojet propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Margaret V.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets for the Space Station require long life and multipropellant capability. The choice of available materials to meet these requirements is limited. Dispersion-strengthened platinum was selected. Past results indicated that it should be suffieiently inert in candidate propellant environments and should be capable of operating at moderate temperatures for extended periods. A series of propellant compatibility tests was done with platinum strengthened with either yttria or zirconia. Data presented included the results of 1000-hr tests in CO2, H2, ammonia (NH3), N2, steam, hydrazine (N2H4), and methane (CH4); and 2000-hr tests in H2 and NH3. The platinum samples were tested at 1400 C in CO2, H2, NH3, N2, steam, and N2H4; at 500 C in CH4; and at 800 C in N2H4. The mass-loss results indicated material life, exptrapolated from experimental mass-loss data, in excess of 100 000 hr in all environments except steam and N2H4, where it was greater than or =45000 hr. Generally, on the basis of mass loss, there were no compatibility concerns in any of the environments considered. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the effect of propellants on the material surface and to evaluate material stability.

  9. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  10. Curvature corrections and Kac Moody compatibility conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Hanany, Amihay; Henneaux, Marc; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-10-01

    We study possible restrictions on the structure of curvature corrections to gravitational theories in the context of their corresponding Kac Moody algebras, following the initial work on E 10 in Damour and Nicolai [Class Quant Grav 22:2849 (2005)]. We first emphasize that the leading quantum corrections of M-theory can be naturally interpreted in terms of (non-gravity) fundamental weights of E 10. We then heuristically explore the extent to which this remark can be generalized to all over-extended algebras by determining which curvature corrections are compatible with their weight structure, and by comparing these curvature terms with known results on the quantum corrections for the corresponding gravitational theories.

  11. Making Diabetes Clinic Records Computer-Compatible

    PubMed Central

    McKendry, J. B. Ralph; Braaten, Jan T.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient paper records are prerequisites for success in computerizing clinical data on chronic, multi-system diseases such as diabetes. Clinic/office charts can be made more efficient manual records and computer-compatible by use of formats and procedures facilitating collection, selective abstraction, coding and entry of data-to-be-saved. A dated Health Events List is essential. A clinical status profiling process to represent salient features in concise, comprehensible and computer-digestible codes is useful, as is a subsystem to capture and apply patient-generated data. An IBM PC/KnowledgeMan-based diabetes information system subserved by formatted paper records incorporating these devices is in use for clinical care and research purposes.

  12. Is Christian Education Compatible With Science Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael

    Science education and Christian education are not compatible if by Christian education one means teaching someone to be a Christian. One goal of science education is to give students factual knowledge. Even when there is no actual conflict of this knowledge with the dogmas of Christianity, there exists the potential for conflict. Another goal of science education is to teach students to have the propensity to be sensitive to evidence: to hold beliefs tentatively in light of evidence and to reject these beliefs in the light of new evidence if rejection is warranted by this evidence. This propensity conflicts with one way in which beliefs are often taught in Christian education: namely as fundamental dogmas, rather than as subject to revision in the light of the evidence.

  13. Toward Clinically Compatible Phase-Contrast Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Kai; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Braig, Eva; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Phase-contrast mammography using laboratory X-ray sources is a promising approach to overcome the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical, absorption-based screening. Current research is mostly centered on identifying potential diagnostic benefits arising from phase-contrast and dark-field mammography and benchmarking the latter with conventional state-of-the-art imaging methods. So far, little effort has been made to adjust this novel imaging technique to clinical needs. In this article, we address the key points for a successful implementation to a clinical routine in the near future and present the very first dose-compatible and rapid scan-time phase-contrast mammograms of both a freshly dissected, cancer-bearing mastectomy specimen and a mammographic accreditation phantom. PMID:26110618

  14. Gateway®-compatible plant transformation vectors.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Mark A; Harwood, Wendy A

    2015-01-01

    Studies in functional genomics and crop improvement programs often rely on the introduction and expression of transgenes in plants. There are two essential components required for in planta transgene expression, a plasmid vector on which the transgene sequence is carried and a delivery system capable of transferring the vector to the target cells. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation and the binary plasmid vector system is the preferred method of transgene delivery. The cloning technologies used for DNA manipulation underpin many of these studies. Increased demand for efficient high-throughput transformation systems is driving forward improvements in gene cloning techniques. This chapter gives an overview of Gateway(®)-compatible binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. It describes a fast, efficient, and robust cloning protocol for the production of an over-expression binary vector using Gateway(®) recombinational cloning. PMID:25300827

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility in high-voltage engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhouten, Marinus Albertus

    1990-09-01

    Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) concepts for an efficient and consistant approach to practical interference problems are described. A critical analysis of 'grounding' is given. The design of a 'differentiated/integrated' system to measure fast voltage transients is described. Measurements of steep transient voltages across interruptions in a Gas Insulated Switchear (GIS) installation, due to switching actions, are presented. Available means to reduce the influence of this interference source on the measuring are discussed. General conclusions are that general, linear and basic design methods for the protection of electronics and (large) interconnected electrical systems against interference can be developed which can save production costs and research time. The design methods described concentrate on the reduction of dangerous voltages between critical points which can be achieved by correct layout choice.

  16. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    PubMed

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected. PMID:17281892

  17. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  18. Small Vacuum Compatible Hyperthermal Atom Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A. (Inventor); Davidson, Mark R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A vacuum compatible hyperthermal atom generator includes a membrane having two sides. the membrane having the capability of dissolving atoms into the membrane's bulk. A first housing is furnished in operative association with the first side of the membrane to provide for the exposure of the first side of the membrane to a gas species. A second housing is furnished in operative association with the second side of the membrane to provide a vacuum environment having a pressure of less than 1 x 10(exp -3) Torr on the second side of the membrane. Exciting means excites atoms adsorbed on the second side of the membrane to a non-binding state so that a portion from 0% to 100% of atoms adsorbed on the second side of is the membrane are released from the second side of the membrane primarily as an atom beam.

  19. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  20. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steve; Moore, D.

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  1. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Watkins, Casey N.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight-saving potential for aerospace applications in propellant and oxidizer tanks. This application for oxygen tanks presents the challenge of being oxygen compatible in addition to complying with the other required material characteristics. This effort reports on the testing procedures and data obtained in examining and selecting potential composite materials for oxygen tank usage. Impact testing of composites has shown that most of these materials initiate a combustion event when impacted at 72 ft-lbf in the presence of liquid oxygen, though testing has also shown substantial variability in reaction sensitivities to impact. Data for screening of 14 potential composites using the Bruceton method is given herein and shows that the 50-percent reaction frequencies range from 17 to 67 ft-lbf. The pressure and temperature rises for several composite materials were recorded to compare the energy releases as functions of the combustion reactions with their respective reaction probabilities. The test data presented are primarily for a test pressure of 300 psia in liquid oxygen. The impact screening process is compared with oxygen index and autogenous ignition test data for both the composite and the basic resin. The usefulness of these supplemental tests in helping select the most oxygen compatible materials is explored. The propensity for mechanical impact ignition of the composite compared with the resin alone is also examined. Since an ignition-free composite material at the peak impact energy of 72 ft-lbf has not been identified, composite reactivity must be characterized over the impact energy level and operating pressure ranges to provide data for hazard analyses in selecting the best potential material for liquid tank usage.

  2. Circuit Compatible Model for Electrostatic Doped Schottky Barrier CNTFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amandeep; Khosla, Mamta; Raj, Balwinder

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a circuit compatible model for electrostatic doped Schottky barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistor (ED-SBCNTFET). The proposed model is an extension of the Schottky barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistor (SBCNTFET) to ED-SBCNTFET by adding polarity gates, which are used to create electrostatic doping. In ED-SBCNTFET, electrostatic doping is responsible for a fermi level shift of source and drain regions. A mathematical relation has been developed between fermi level shift and polarity gate bias. Both current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics have been efficiently modeled. The results are compared with the reported semi-classical model and simulations from NanoTCAD ViDES for validation. The proposed model is much faster than numerical models as it denies self consistent equations. Finally, circuit application is demonstrated by simulating inverter using the proposed model in HSPICE.

  3. Does the anticipation of compatible partner reactions facilitate action planning in joint tasks?

    PubMed

    Müller, Romy

    2016-07-01

    Observing another human's actions influences action planning, but what about merely anticipating them? In joint action settings where a partner's subsequent actions are a consequence of one's own actions, such contingent partner reactions can be regarded as action effects. Therefore, just like automatic effects they might facilitate those of a person's actions that overlap with them in relevant features. In Experiments 1 and 2, the spatial compatibility of contingent partner reactions was manipulated and compared with the influence of automatic effects. Experiment 1 used a simplistic scenario in which lateral keypress actions by the subject were responded to by mouse movements of a partner producing spatially compatible or incompatible visual effects. Experiment 2 transferred the paradigm to a more complex task in which subjects manually relocated virtual objects on a multi-touch display, and these or other objects were subsequently manipulated by the partner. In Experiment 1, compatible partner reactions speeded up subjects' preceding actions, whereas in Experiment 2 the influence was not statistically reliable. To test whether influences of partner reaction compatibility could be found in such naturalistic settings at all, Experiment 3 also used a multi-touch setting but varied temporal instead of spatial compatibility, which has several methodological advantages. This time, a compatibility effect emerged in subjects' movement initiation times, whereas contrast effects were found for movement durations. These findings indicate that the principles of ideomotor action control can be extended to joint action settings. At the same time, they also emphasize the importance of task features in determining whether our own behaviour is influenced by anticipations of another person's reactions. PMID:25957279

  4. 77 FR 3545 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Philadelphia International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... FR 44046 (July 27, 2010). The proposed noise compatibility program will be approved or disapproved on or before July 17, 2012. DATES: Effective Date: The effective date of the start of FAA's review of... provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47504 (the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as...

  5. High Temperature Compatibility of 60-Watt IHS Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C. M.; Merten, C. W.

    1995-11-21

    The 60-Watt Isotopic Heat Source (IHS) utilizes a variety of materials which have been selected for their properties at elevated temperatures. These include iridium, molybdenum, and the T-111 alloy which consists of 90 wt% tantalum, 8 wt% tungsten, and 2 wt% hafnium. Properties of interest in radioisotopic heat source applications include high temperature strength, resistance to oxidation, weldability, and ability to act as a diffusion barrier. Iridium is utilized as a clad for fuel pellets because of its high temperature mechanical properties and good compatibility with carbon and plutonium oxide. Molybdenum retains good high temperature strength and has been used as a diffusion barrier in past applications. However, molybdenum also exhibits poor resistance to oxidation. Therefore, it is necessary to enclose molybdenum components so that they are not exposed to the atmosphere. T-111 exhibits moderate oxidation resistance, good high temperature mechanical properties, and good weldability. For these reasons, it is used as the outer containment boundary for the 60-Watt IHS. Because the temperature in GPHS fueled dads is on the order of 1000 degrees Celsius in the 60-W configuration, the potential for diffusion of dissimilar materials from one into another exists. Deleterious effects of diffusion can include degradation of mechanical strength through the formation of brittle intermetallics, degradation of mechanical properties through simple alloying, or formation of voids through the Kirkendall effect. Because of the possibility of these effects, design methodology calls for use of diffusion barriers between materials likely to exhibit interdiffusion at elevated temperatures. The necessity to assure the long term integrity of the 60-Watt IHS dictates that the diffusion behavior of its component materials be known. This report describes the high temperature compatibility studies which were conducted on the component materials of the 60-Watt IHS.

  6. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.; Waite, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Equipment manufacturers are challenged to replace CFC-based refrigerants and their lubricants with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Information on the compatibility of motor materials with these alternative refrigerants and lubricants is a basic requirement for reliable performance. This report presents compatibility data for 24 commercially used motor materials exposed to 17 refrigerant/lubricant combinations. This compatibility data will enable the phase out of CFC's to continue at its current fast pace and insure the continued reliable performance of refrigerant-based equipment.

  7. 76 FR 2746 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for San Diego International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... requirements, effective November 10, 2009, 74 FR 66400-66401. The proposed noise compatibility program will be... March 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Victor Globa, Federal Aviation Administration,...

  8. MRI-compatible micromanipulator; design and implementation and MRI-compatibility tests.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Yoshihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible micromanipulator, which can be employed to provide medical and biological scientists with the ability to concurrently manipulate and observe micron-scale objects inside an MRI gantry. The micromanipulator formed a two-finger micro hand, and it could handle a micron-scale object using a chopstick motion. For performing operations inside the MRI gantry in a manner such that the MRI is not disturbed, the system was designed to be nonmagnetic and electromagnetically compatible with the MRI. The micro-manipulator was implemented with piezoelectric transducers (PZT) as actuators for micro-motion, strain gauges as sensors for closed-loop control, and a flexure parallel mechanism made of acrylic plastic. Its compatibility with a 2-Tesla MRI was preliminarily tested by checking if the MRI obtained with the micromanipulator were similar to those obtained without the micromanipulator. The tests concluded that the micromanipulator caused no distortion but small artifacts on the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI significantly deteriorated mainly due to the wiring of the micromanipulator. The MRI caused noise of the order of ones of volts in the strain amplifier. PMID:18001990

  9. An Evaluation of the Oxygen Compatibility of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Erin H.; Hall, Joylene

    2003-01-01

    Three tests are described which evaluate the oxygen compatibility characteristics of multiple composite materials: 1) Mechanical Impact Bruceton 'Up and Down' Method; 2) Promoted Combustion; 3) Electrostatic Discharge.

  10. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  11. Neutron irradiation and compatibility testing of Li 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Krsul, J. R.; Laug, M. T.; Walters, L. C.; Tetenbaum, M.

    1984-05-01

    A study was made of the neutron irradiation behavior of 6Li-enriched Li 2O in EBR-II. In addition, a stress corrosion study was performed ex-reactor to test the compatibility of Li 2O with a variety of stainless steels. The irradiation tests showed that tritium and helium retention in the Li 2O (˜ 89% dense) lessened with neutron exposure, and the retentions appear to approach a steady-state after ˜ 1% 6Li burnup. The stress corrosion studies, using 316 stainless steel (Ti-modified) and a 35% Ni alloy, showed that stress does not enhance the corrosion, and that dry Li 2O is not significantly corrosive, the LiOH content producing the corrosive effects. Corrosion, in general, was not severe because a passivation in sealed capsules seemed to occur after a time which greatly reduced corrosion rates.

  12. MRI compatibility and visibility assessment of implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Schueler, B A; Parrish, T B; Lin, J C; Hammer, B E; Pangrle, B J; Ritenour, E R; Kucharczyk, J; Truwit, C L

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a protocol to evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of implantable medical devices. The testing protocol consists of the evaluation of magnetic field-induced movement, electric current, heating, image distortion, and device operation. In addition, current induction is evaluated with a finite element analysis simulation technique that models the effect of radiofrequency fields on each device. The protocol has been applied to several implantable infusion pumps and neurostimulators with associated attachments. Experiments were performed using a 1.5-T whole-body MR system with parameters selected to approximate the intended clinical and worst case configuration. The devices exhibited moderate magnetic field-induced deflection and torque but had significant image artifacts. No heating was detected for any of the devices. Pump operation was halted in the magnetic field, but resumed after removed. Exposure to the magnetic field activated some of the neurostimulators. PMID:10232520

  13. Some observations on uranium carbide alloy/tungsten compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between both pure and thoriated tungsten and uranium carbide alloys was studied at 1800 C for up to 3300 hours. Alloying with zirconium carbide appeared to widen the homogeneity range of uranium carbide, making additional carbon available for reaction with the tungsten. Reaction layers were formed both by vapor phase reaction and by physical contact, producing either or both UWC2 and W2C, dependent upon the phases present in the starting fuel alloy. Formation of UWC2 results in slow growth of the reaction layer with time, while W2C reaction layers grow rapidly, allowing equilibrium to be reached in less than 2500 hours at 1800 C. The presence of a thermal gradient had no effect on the reactions observed nor did the presence of thoria in the tungsten clad.

  14. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  15. Are nonlinear discrete cellular automata compatible with quantum mechanics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2015-07-01

    We consider discrete and integer-valued cellular automata (CA). A particular class of which comprises “Hamiltonian CA” with equations of motion that bear similarities to Hamilton's equations, while they present discrete updating rules. The dynamics is linear, quite similar to unitary evolution described by the Schrödinger equation. This has been essential in our construction of an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models, which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale. Based on Shannon's sampling theory, it leads, for example, to a one-to-one relation between quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. The important issue of linearity of the theory is examined here by incorporating higher-order nonlinearities into the underlying action. These produce inconsistent nonlocal (in time) effects when trying to describe continuously such nonlinear CA. Therefore, in the present framework, only linear CA and local quantum mechanical dynamics are compatible.

  16. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  17. Compatibility of hydrosoluble polymers with corrodible materials

    SciTech Connect

    Audibert, A.; Lecourtier, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that application of water-soluble polymers in the oil industry (e.g., fluid-loss reducer, polymer flooding, and water-based drilling muds) requires hydrosoluble polymers to be compatible with corrodible materials. The behavior of polyacrylamides and xanthans in the presence of various materials used for oil production (steel, stainless steel, carbon steel, and Inconel) has been studied vs. different water salinities, oxygen contents, and temperatures. The influence of such commonly used additives as oxygen scavengers and sequestrants on corrosion and polymer stability has also been investigated. For both types of polymers, as corrosion occurs under anaerobic conditions, strong interactions between polymer chains and divalent cations (Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 2+}) are observed. Such interactions also depend on polymer quality. In the presence of oxygen, corrosion induces a molecular-weight degradation of the polymer followed by a gelation process for xanthan. Some additives may accelerate the transformation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+}, thus inducing polymer degradation, but this reaction depends on the nature of the chelating agent. These results provide guidelines for the implementation of polymers in oil production, including the selection of materials, water treatment, or mud formulation.

  18. Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, A.; BÅ`uf, J.; Bauer, A.; Russ, B.; Löhneysen, H. v.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu _2MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn _3Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

  19. RP-1 Thermal Stability and Copper Based Materials Compatibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegemeier, B. R.; Meyer, M. L.; Driscoll, E.

    2005-01-01

    A series of electrically heated tube tests was performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Heated Tube Facility to investigate the effect that sulfur content, test duration, and tube material play in the overall thermal stability and materials compatibility characteristics of RP-1. Scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) analysis in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the condition of the tube inner wall surface and any carbon deposition or corrosion formed during these runs. Results of the parametric study indicate that tests with standard RP-1 (total sulfur -23 ppm) and pure copper tubing are characterized by a depostion/deposit shedding process producing local wall temperature swings as high as 500 F. The effect of this shedding is to keep total carbon deposition levels relatively constant for run times from 20 minutes up to 5 hours, though increasing tube pressure drops were observed in all runs. Reduction in the total sulfur content of the fuel from 23 ppm to less than 0.1 ppm resulted in the elimination of deposit shedding, local wall temperature variation, and the tube pressure drop increases that were observed in standard sulfur level RP-1 tests. The copper alloy GRCop-84, a copper alloy developed specifically for high heat flux applications, was found to exhibit higher carbon deposition levels compared to identical tests performed in pure copper tubes. Results of the study are consistent with previously published heated tube data which indicates that small changes in fuel total sulfur content can lead to significant differences in the thermal stability of kerosene type fuels and their compatibility with copper based materials. In conjunction with the existing thermal stability database, these findings give insight into the feasibility of cooling a long life, high performance, high-pressure liquid rocket combustor and nozzle with RP-1.

  20. [The compatibility of the new ionophore-coccidiostats with other chemotherapeutics in broilers].

    PubMed

    Laczay, P; Simon, F; Móra, Z; Lehel, J

    1989-10-01

    The compatibility of Salinomycin, Narasin or Maduramycin with Tiamulin, Erythromycin, Tylosin, Kitasamycin, Flumequine, Sulfachlorpyrazine or Sulfaquinoxaline was tested in cockerels in three experiments. It was found that Salinomycin and Narasin are incompatible with Tiamulin, Erythromycin, Sulfachlorpyrazine and Sulfaquinoxaline. The effect of incompatibility was shown more markedly with the administration of Salinomycin than with Narasin. Maduramycin was also shown as incompatible with Tiamulin although this interaction was nowhere near as severe as in the case of Salinomycin or Narasin. It caused a significant weight gain depression without mortality. Because of the significant weight gain depression, however, the administration of Tiamulin in the presence of Maduramycin in feed will not be recommended. At the same time, Maduramycin proved to be fully compatible with Erythromycin, Sulfachlorpyrazine and Sulfaquinoxaline. All three anticoccidials tested showed total compatibility with Tylosin, Kitasamycin and Flumequine. PMID:2583024

  1. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics....

  2. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics....

  3. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics....

  4. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics....

  5. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics....

  9. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar...

  11. 40 CFR 264.172 - Compatibility of waste with containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with containers... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.172 Compatibility of waste with containers. The owner...

  12. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...

  13. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise... acceptable noise exposure map under § 150.21 may, after FAA notice of acceptability and other consultation... operator may submit the noise compatibility program at the same time as the noise exposure map. In...

  14. Guide for Oxygen Compatibility Assessments on Oxygen Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Shoffstall, Michael S.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation evaluating the compatibility of oxygen components and systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Application; 2) Gaining Wide Subscription; 3) Approach; 4) Establish Worst-Case Operating Conditions; 5) Assess Materials Flammability; 6) Evaluate Ignition Mechanisms; 7) Evaluate Kindling Chain; 8) Determine Reaction Affect; 9) Document Results; 10) Example of Documentation; and 11) Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Team.

  15. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both...), and exhaust must be shown to function properly under all operating conditions for which approval...

  16. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  17. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise... acceptable noise exposure map under § 150.21 may, after FAA notice of acceptability and other consultation... operator may submit the noise compatibility program at the same time as the noise exposure map. In...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  20. 77 FR 41919 - Hearing Aid Compatibility Technical Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 76 FR 77747, Dec. 14, 2011 (Second Further Notice). In the Second Further... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 20 Hearing Aid Compatibility Technical Standard AGENCY: Federal Communications... and Technology (Bureaus) adopt the 2011 ANSI Standard for evaluating the hearing aid compatibility...

  1. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise... the basic tier of service. 47 CFR 76.630(a). The request for waiver states (a brief summary of...

  2. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise... the rule prohibiting scrambling of channels on the basic tier of service. 47 CFR 76.630(a)....

  3. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise... the basic tier of service. 47 CFR 76.630(a). The request for waiver states (a brief summary of...

  4. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise... the rule prohibiting scrambling of channels on the basic tier of service. 47 CFR 76.630(a)....

  5. 40 CFR 264.172 - Compatibility of waste with containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with containers... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.172 Compatibility of waste with containers. The owner...

  6. 40 CFR 265.172 - Compatibility of waste with container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with container... WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.172 Compatibility of waste...

  7. Differential Equations Compatible with Boundary Rational qKZ Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyama, Yoshihiro

    2011-10-01

    We give diffierential equations compatible with the rational qKZ equation with boundary reflection. The total system contains the trigonometric degeneration of the bispectral qKZ equation of type (Cěen, Cn) which in the case of type GLn was studied by van Meer and Stokman. We construct an integral formula for solutions to our compatible system in a special case.

  8. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  9. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise... acceptable noise exposure map under § 150.21 may, after FAA notice of acceptability and other consultation... operator may submit the noise compatibility program at the same time as the noise exposure map. In...

  10. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise... acceptable noise exposure map under § 150.21 may, after FAA notice of acceptability and other consultation... operator may submit the noise compatibility program at the same time as the noise exposure map. In...

  11. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise... acceptable noise exposure map under § 150.21 may, after FAA notice of acceptability and other consultation... operator may submit the noise compatibility program at the same time as the noise exposure map. In...

  12. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the basic tier of service. 47 CFR 76.630(a). The request for waiver states (a brief summary of the... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or...

  13. 68 FR 50725 - Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 15 Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment AGENCY... Commission adopted new rules on the labeling of digital television receivers and other consumer electronics... published in the Federal Register on October 27, 2000. This document announces the effective date of...

  14. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... article to be classified Compatibility group Classification code Primary explosive substance A 1.1A Article containing a primary explosive substance and not containing two or more effective protective... propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and containing two or more...

  15. 49 CFR 173.52 - Classification codes and compatibility groups of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... article to be classified Compatibility group Classification code Primary explosive substance A 1.1A Article containing a primary explosive substance and not containing two or more effective protective... propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and containing two or more...

  16. Task switching, modality compatibility, and the supra-modal function of eye movements.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring; Hendler, Jessica; Huestegge, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggested that specific pairings of stimulus and response modalities (visual-manual and auditory-vocal tasks) lead to better dual-task performance than other pairings (visual-vocal and auditory-manual tasks). In the present task-switching study, we further examined this modality compatibility effect and investigated the role of response modality by additionally studying oculomotor responses as an alternative to manual responses. Interestingly, the switch cost pattern revealed a much stronger modality compatibility effect for groups in which vocal and manual responses were combined as compared to a group involving vocal and oculomotor responses, where the modality compatibility effect was largely abolished. We suggest that in the vocal-manual response groups the modality compatibility effect is based on cross-talk of central processing codes due to preferred stimulus-response modality processing pathways, whereas the oculomotor response modality may be shielded against cross-talk due to the supra-modal functional importance of visual orientation. PMID:23047914

  17. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-06-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, {Delta}T, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to {approx}550{degrees}C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to {approx}650{degrees}C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above {approx}600{degrees}C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150{degrees}C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material.

  18. A compatible Lagrangian hydrodynamic scheme for multicomponent flows with mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chong; Stagg, Alan K

    2012-01-01

    We present a Lagrangian time integration scheme and compatible discretization for total energy conservation in multicomponent mixing simulations. Mixing behavior results from relative motion between species. Species velocities are determined by solving species momentum equations in a Lagrangian manner. Included in the species momentum equations are species artificial viscosity (since each species can undergo compression) and inter-species momentum exchange. Thermal energy for each species is also solved, including compression work and thermal dissipation caused by momentum exchange. The present procedure is applicable to mixing of an arbitrary number of species that may not be in pressure or temperature equilibrium. A traditional staggered stencil has been adopted to describe motion of each species. The computational mesh for the mixture is constructed in a Lagrangian manner using the mass-averaged mixture velocity. Species momentum equations are solved at the vertices of the mesh, and temporary species meshes are constructed and advanced in time using the resulting species velocities. Following the Lagrangian step, species quantities are advected (mapped) from the species meshes to the mixture mesh. Momentum exchange between species introduces work that must be included in an energy-conserving discretization scheme. This work has to be transformed to dissipation in order to effect a net change in species thermal energy. The dissipation between interacting species pairs is obtained by combining the momentum exchange work. The dissipation is then distributed to the species involved using a distribution factor based on species specific heats. The resulting compatible discretization scheme provides total energy conservation of the whole mixture. In addition, the numerical scheme includes conservative local energy exchange between species in mixture. Due to the relatively large species interaction coefficients, both the species momenta and energies are calculated

  19. Silicon photomultiplier modules for MRI-compatible PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sul, Woo-Suk; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Cho, Gyuseong

    2015-04-01

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) modules were developed for use in positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), which is a hybrid medical imaging technology. A PET-MRI is very efficient in the early diagnosis of representative senile diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. SiPMs comprise the core image sensor for MR-compatible PET applications since they have a low operational voltage, high gain, good timing resolution, ruggedness, insensitivity to magnetic fields, compactness, and low cost. In PET systems, SiPM microcells can be optimized by making a trade-off between photon detection efficiency (PDE) and dynamic range. The SiPM modules used in this study were fabricated at the National NanoFab Center (NNFC) of South Korea by using a customized CMOS processes. The SiPM modules were evaluated by first packaging them with a cost-effective PCB package instead of with a conventional ceramic package. Measurements on 1,400 SiPMs indicated a uniform breakdown voltage of 20.54 V with a standard deviation of 0.07 V. Moreover, the SiPM modules present a high and uniform energy resolution of 13.6% with a standard deviation of 0.5% at 511 keV with 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (Lu2(1-x)Y2xSiO5:Ce, LYSO) crystal coupling. These results indicated that the proposed devices offer adequate performance to form the foundation of an image sensor technology for MRI-compatible PET.

  20. A review of the compatibility of structural materials with oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, A. F.; Hust, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of the problem of ignition and combustion of structural materials, particularly metals, which may come in contact with oxygen during its production, transport, and use. Following a review of the historical development of compatibility problems and research, a detailed account is given of compatibility testing methods aimed at detecting probable ignition sources, such as mechanical impact, electric sparks or flashes, heat, sound waves, abrasion, and surface fractures. A summary is presented of the ignition and combustion research reported in the literature, dwelling particularly on papers concerning oxygen-related accidents and the compatibility of metals with high-pressure oxygen. The relative oxygen compatibility of a number of common materials is discussed, including that of nickel and copper alloys, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, and titanium alloys. Finally, an effort is made to pinpoint research areas which would enhance understanding of the compatibility of bulk materials.

  1. Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, James Henry; Sawyer, Patricia Sue

    2006-02-01

    Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.

  2. Impact of compatibility on the organization of mutualistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Deok-Sun

    2013-08-01

    Distinct relationships such as activation, inhibition, cooperation, and competition are not established independently but in a correlated manner in complex systems. Thus the patterns of one type of interaction may reflect the impacts of other classes of interactions, but its quantitative understanding remains to be done. Referring to the plant-pollinator mutualistic networks, here we propose and investigate the structural features of a model bipartite network, in which the mutualistic relationship between two different types of nodes is established under the influence of the compatibility among the nodes of the same type. Interestingly, we find that the degree distributions obtained for extremely broad compatibility distributions are similar to those for a constant compatibility, both of which deviate from those for the Gaussian compatibility distributions. We present the analytic arguments to explain this finding. Also the dependence of the topological similarity of two nodes on their compatibility is illustrated. We discuss the application of our findings to complex systems.

  3. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  4. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters. PMID:21658266

  5. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  6. Summary of Mercury Compatibility Issues for the Spallation Neutron Source Target Containment and Ancillary Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2003-04-08

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the primary results of the Hg compatibility research in support of the SNS target. In the absence of possible synergisms resulting from beam/irradiation effects, wetting of 316L/316LN stainless steel under SNS conditions by the Hg target is expected to be very limited. As a result, significant interactions such as dissolution, mass transfer, and embrittlement affecting general compatibility are not anticipated. A wide range of experiments on 316L/316LN stainless steel, including thermal convection and pumped loops, confirmed low corrosion/penetration rates in Hg up to 305 C and little or no wetting or mass transfer below about 250 C. A variety of standard mechanical tests comparing behavior of 316L in air and Hg revealed limited wetting and no degradation of mechanical properties such as reduced elongation or development of brittle fracture features. Preliminary fatigue tests indicated a negative effect (reduced cycles to failure and intergranular cracking) at very high loads for 316LN, but little or no effect at more modest loading. Annealed 316LN was found to be somewhat susceptible to cavitation-erosion damage, but significant improvement was realized with a kolsterizing surface treatment or coldworking the material. Within the scope of these test conditions, no compatibility-limited operations were identified for type 316L/316LN stainless steel (and variations thereof) as the Hg target containment material. More limited compatibility data on other materials are also reported.

  7. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meloy, Thomas P.; Marshall, John; Hecht, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. In addition to objectives related to human exploration, the MECA data set will be rich in information relevant to basic geology, paleoclimate, and exobiology issues. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg and a peak power usage of 15 W within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm (figures I and 2). The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Using an array of ion-specific electrodes (ISEs), cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical techniques, the chemistry cells will wet soil samples for measurement of basic soil properties of pH, redox potential, and conductivity. Total dissolved material, as well as targeted ions will be detected to the ppm level, including important exobiological ions such as Na, K+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+, Cl, S04-, HC03, as well as more toxic ions such as Cu++, Pb++, Cd++, Hg++, and C104-. MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to image dust and soil particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Illumination by red, green, and blue LEDs is augmented by an ultraviolet LED intended to excite

  8. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  9. Cross-match-compatible platelets improve corrected count increments in patients who are refractory to randomly selected platelets

    PubMed Central

    Elhence, Priti; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.; Nityanand, Soniya

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-match-compatible platelets are used for the management of thrombocytopenic patients who are refractory to transfusions of randomly selected platelets. Data supporting the effectiveness of platelets that are compatible according to cross-matching with a modified antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA or MACE) are limited. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of cross-match-compatible platelets in an unselected group of refractory patients. Materials and methods One hundred ABO compatible single donor platelet transfusions given to 31 refractory patients were studied. Patients were defined to be refractory if their 24-hour corrected count increment (CCI) was <5×109/L following two consecutive platelet transfusions. Platelets were cross-matched by MACE and the CCI was determined to monitor the effectiveness of platelet transfusions. Results The clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MACE-cross-matched platelets for post-transfusion CCI were 88%, 54.6%, 39.3% and 93.2%, respectively. The difference between adequate and inadequate post-transfusion 24-hour CCI for MACE cross-matched-compatible vs incompatible single donor platelet transfusions was statistically significant (p=0.000). The 24-hour CCI (mean±SD) was significantly higher for cross-match-compatible platelets (9,250±026.6) than for incompatible ones (6,757.94±2,656.5) (p<0.0001). Most of the incompatible cross-matches (73.2%) were due to anti-HLA antibodies, alone (55.3% of cases) or together with anti-platelet glycoprotein antibodies (17.9%). Discussion The clinical sensitivity and negative predictive value of platelet cross-matching by MACE were high in this study and such tests may, therefore, be used to select compatible platelets for refractory patients. A high negative predictive value demonstrates the greater chance of an adequate response with cross-matched-compatible platelets. PMID

  10. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymurski, S. R.; Hawley, M.; Hourahan, G. C.; Godwin, D. S.

    1994-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  11. A generic, MATE compatible electro-optic tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David W.

    In order to enhance the testing of electrooptic systems, a US Air Force Modular Automatic Test Equipment (MATE)-compatible electrooptic test station is proposed. This ATE station would consist of two sections; the first section consisting of a MATE-compatible analog, digital, radio frequency (RF), or radar/electronic warfare (R/EW) ATE station, and the second section consisting of a roll-up, reconfigurable, electrooptic subassembly. The author discusses these two sections, along with the electrooptic ATE components involved, and how these electrooptic ATE components are integrated into a MATE-compatible test station.

  12. Research Update: ARTI Materials Compatibility and Lubricant Research (MCLR) program

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    Since September 1991, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) has been conducting materials compatibility and lubricants research on chlorfluorocarbons (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) refrigerant alternatives. During the first two years of this program, ARTI has subcontracted and managed sixteen research projects totaling over $4 million. This research has included materials compatibility tests, refrigerant-lubricant interaction studies, measurement of thermophysical properties, and development of accelerated test methods. This paper summarizes results to date and discusses plans for future research for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program.

  13. Genetic Compatibility Underlies Benefits of Mate Choice in an External Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-05-01

    Mate choice is a common feature of sexually reproducing species. In sessile or sedentary external fertilizers, however, direct interactions between reproductive partners are minimal, and instead mate recognition and choice must occur at the level of gametes. It is common for some sperm and egg combinations to have higher fertilization success than others, but it remains unclear whether differences in fertilization reflect gamete-level mate choice (GMC) for paternal quality or parental compatibility. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying GMC in an externally fertilizing ascidian. A manipulative mate-choice assay confirmed that offspring viability was greater in clutches where we allowed GMC than in clutches where we precluded GMC. A complementary quantitative genetic experiment then revealed that paternal quality effects were generally weaker than parental compatibility effects, particularly for the trait combination underlying the benefits of GMC. Overall, our data suggest that gametes that are more compatible at fertilization produce more viable offspring than gametes that are less compatible at fertilization. Therefore, although the regalia we typically associate with sexual selection are absent in external fertilizers, mechanisms that allow females to bias fertilization in favor of some males over others produce significant fitness benefits in organisms reproducing via the ancestral strategy. PMID:27104996

  14. Radiation-Tolerant, SpaceWire-Compatible Switching Fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Current and future near-Earth and deep space exploration programs and space defense programs require the development of robust intra-spacecraft serial data transfer electronics that must be reconfigurable, fault-tolerant, and have the ability to operate effectively for long periods of time in harsh environmental conditions. Existing data transfer systems based on state-of-the-art serial data transfer protocols or passive backplanes are slow, power-hungry, and poorly reconfigurable. They provide limited expandability and poor tolerance to radiation effects and total ionizing dose (TID) in particular, which presents harmful threats to modern submicron electronics. This novel approach is based on a standard library of differential cells tolerant to TID, and patented, multi-level serial interface architecture that ensures the reliable operation of serial interconnects without application of a data-strobe or other encoding techniques. This proprietary, high-speed differential interface presents a lowpower solution fully compatible with the SpaceWire (SW) protocol. It replaces a dual data-strobe link with two identical independent data channels, thus improving the system s tolerance to harsh environments through additional double redundancy. Each channel incorporates an automatic line integrity control circuitry that delivers error signals in case of broken or shorted lines.

  15. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  16. Material compatibility and thermal aging of thermoelectric materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardea, Andrew D.; Nishimoto, Ryan; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Whalen, Scott A.; Chames, Jeffrey M.; Clift, W. Miles

    2009-09-01

    In order to design a thermoelectric (TE) module suitable for long-term elevated temperature use, the Department 8651 has conducted parametric experiments to study material compatibility and thermal aging of TE materials. In addition, a comprehensive material characterization has been preformed to examine thermal stability of P- and N-based alloys and their interaction with interconnect diffusion barrier(s) and solder. At present, we have completed the 7-days aging experiments for 36 tiles, from ambient to 250 C. The thermal behavior of P- and N-based alloys and their thermal interaction with both Ni and Co diffusion barriers and Au-Sn solder were examined. The preliminary results show the microstructure, texture, alloy composition, and hardness of P-(Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} and N-Bi{sub 2}(Te,Se){sub 3} alloys are thermally stable up to 7 days annealing at 250 C. However, metallurgical reactions between the Ni-phosphor barriers and P-type base alloy were evident at temperatures {ge} 175 C. At 250 C, the depth (or distance) of the metallurgical reaction and/or Ni diffusion into P-(Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} is approximately 10-15 {micro}m. This thermal instability makes the Ni-phosphor barrier unsuitable for use at temperatures {ge} 175 C. The Co barrier appeared to be thermally stable and compatible with P(Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} at all annealing temperatures, with the exception of a minor Co diffusion into Au-Sn solder at {ge} 175 C. The effects of Co diffusion on long-term system reliability and/or the thermal stability of the Co barrier are yet to be determined. Te evaporation and its subsequent reaction with Au-Sn solder and Ni and Co barriers on the ends of the tiles at temperatures {ge} 175 C were evident. The Te loss and its effect on the long-term required stoichiometry of P-(Bi, Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} are yet to be understood. The aging experiments of 90 days and 180 days are ongoing and scheduled to be completed in 30 days and 150 days, respectively. Material

  17. Standards for compatibility of printed circuit and component lead materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Study of packaging of microminiature electronic components reveals methods of improving compatibility of lead materials, joining techniques, transfer molding concepts, printed circuit board materials, and process and material specifications.

  18. Hearing Aid-Compatible Mobile Handsets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) modernizes its wireless hearing aid compatibility rules. The Commission adopts these rules to ensure that people with hearing loss have full access to innovative handsets and technologies. PMID:26742181

  19. Kinematical Compatibility Conditions for Vorticity Across Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baty, Roy

    2015-11-01

    This work develops the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity across arbitrary shock waves in compressible, inviscid fluids. The vorticity compatibility conditions are derived from the curl of the momentum equation using singular distributions defined on two-dimensional shock wave surfaces embedded in three-dimensional flow fields. The singular distributions are represented as generalized differential operators concentrated on moving shock wave surfaces. The derivation of the compatibility conditions for vorticity requires the application of second-order generalized derivatives and elementary tensor algebra. The well-known vorticity jump conditions across a shock wave are then shown to follow from the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity by expressing the flow field velocity in vectorial components normal and tangential to a shock surface.

  20. EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) system test and analysis interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, E. F.; Knutson, L.; Carlson, B. L.

    1983-05-01

    One of the major problems in ensuring the electromagnetic compatibility (ECM) of a system is the efficient utilization of equipment level measurements and system level analysis tools. The contents of this report present an indepth evaluation of MIL-STD-461 and the United States Air Force's system level analysis tool, Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program (IEMCAP). Recommended changes to improve system level ECM predictions based on equipment and system level test results are presented along with recommended changes to IEMCAP.

  1. Economics and Environmental Compatibility of Fusion Reactors —Its Analysis and Coming Issues— 4.Economic Effect of Fusion in Energy Market 4.1Economic Impact of Fusion Deployment in Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Tokimatsu, Koji

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment.

  2. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. PMID:26011283

  3. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

  4. Optimizing the Intralayer and Interlayer Compatibility for High-Efficiency Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Chunbo; Fan, Chaochao; Wei, Ying; Han, Fuquan; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A series of phosphine oxide hosts, 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphoryl) dibenzothiophene (DBTDPO) and 4- diphenylphosphoryldibenzothiophene (DBTSPO), and electron transporting materials (ETM), 2-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (2DBSOSPO), 3-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (3DBSOSPO) and 4-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (4DBSOSPO) were developed to support blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) devices with high performance through optimizing intralayer and interlayer compatibility of emissive layers. On the basis of the triplet energy of ~3.0 eV for the hosts and ETMs, excitons can be effectively confined on DMAC-DPS. Compared to DBTSPO, DBTDPO can support the excellent distribution uniformity to blue TADF dye bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine) phenyl] sulfone (DMAC-DPS), owing to their configuration similarity; while 3DBSOSPO and 4DBSOSPO are superior in compatibility with the hosts due to the similar molecular polarity or configuration. Through adjusting the molecular configuration, the electrical performance of ETMs can be feasibly tuned, including the excellent electron mobility (μe) by the order of 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. As the result, DBTDPO and 4DBSOSPO endowed their four-layer blue TADF devices with the maximum current efficiency of 33.5 cd A-1 and the maximum external quantum efficiency more than 17%, which are impressive among the best blue TADF devices. It is showed that intralayer compatibility determines the maximum efficiencies, while interlayer compatibility influences efficiency stability.

  5. Final Report: A CdZnTe detector for MRI-compatible SPECT Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2012-12-27

    The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During the past three years, we have developed (a) a MRI-compatible ultrahigh resolution gamma ray detector and associated readout electronics, (b) a theoretical approach for modeling the effect of strong magnetic field on SPECT image quality, and (c) a maximum-likelihood (ML) based reconstruction routine with correction for the MR-induced distortion. With this support, we have also constructed a four-head MR-compatible SPECT system and tested the system inside a 3-T clinical MR-scanner located on UI campus. The experimental results obtained with this system have clearly demonstrated that sub-500um spatial resolution can be achieved with a SPECT system operated inside a 3-T MRI scanner. During the past three years, we have accomplished most of the major objectives outlined in the original proposal. These research efforts have laid out a solid foundation the development of future MR-compatible SPECT systems for both pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.

  6. Compatible solutes: ectoine and hydroxyectoine improve functional nanostructures in artificial lung surfactants.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Sachan, Amit Kumar; Kerth, Andreas; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Ectoine and hydroxyectoine belong to the family of compatible solutes and are among the most abundant osmolytes in nature. These compatible solutes protect biomolecules from extreme conditions and maintain their native function. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of ectoine and hydroxyectoine on the domain structures of artificial lung surfactant films consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and the lung surfactant specific surfactant protein C (SP-C) in a molar ratio of 80:20:0.4. The pressure-area isotherms are found to be almost unchanged by both compatible solutes. The topology of the fluid domains shown by scanning force microscopy, which is thought to be responsible for the biophysical behavior under compression, however, is modified giving rise to the assumption that ectoine and hydroxyectoine are favorable for a proper lung surfactant function. This is further evidenced by the analysis of the insertion kinetics of lipid vesicles into the lipid-peptide monolayer, which is clearly enhanced in the presence of both compatible solutes. Thus, we could show that ectoine and hydroxyectoine enhance the function of lung surfactant in a simple model system, which might provide an additional rationale to inhalative therapy. PMID:21889490

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1993-05-01

    This volume contains the abstract, scope, discussion of results, charts of motor material compatibility, test procedures, material identifications, and 84 pages of data summary tables. Compatibility test results for 11 pure refrigerants and 17 refrigerant-lubricant combinations with 24 motor materials are included. The greatest effect on the motor materials was caused by adsorption followed by desorption of refrigerants at higher temperatures. High internal pressure of the adsorbed refrigerants and their tendency to evolve from the materials resulted in blisters, cracks, internal bubbles in the varnish, and delamination or bubbles in the sheet insulations. The second effect was extraction or dissolution of materials that lead to embrittlement of some sheet insulations. HCFC-22 and HCFC- 22/mineral oil had the most deleterious effects; the materials are expected to be reliable when used with most of the new refrigerants and lubricants. Tables.

  8. CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Humer, Markus; Furchi, Marco M.; Bachmann, Dominic; Guider, Romain; Fromherz, Thomas; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Optical interconnects are becoming attractive alternatives to electrical wiring in intra- and interchip communication links. Particularly, the integration with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has received considerable interest because of the ability of cost-effective integration of electronics and optics on a single chip. Although silicon enables the realization of optical waveguides and passive components, the integration of another, optically absorbing, material is required for photodetection. Traditionally, germanium or compound semiconductors are used for this purpose; however, their integration with silicon technology faces major challenges. Recently, graphene emerged as a viable alternative for optoelectronic applications, including photodetection. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-wideband CMOS-compatible photodetector based on graphene. We achieved a multigigahertz operation over all fibre-optic telecommunication bands beyond the wavelength range of strained germanium photodetectors, the responsivity of which is limited by their bandgap. Our work complements the recent demonstration of a CMOS-integrated graphene electro-optical modulator, and paves the way for carbon-based optical interconnects.

  9. A Least-Squares Transport Equation Compatible with Voids

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Jon; Peterson, Jacob; Morel, Jim; Ragusa, Jean; Wang, Yaqi

    2014-12-01

    Standard second-order self-adjoint forms of the transport equation, such as the even-parity, odd-parity, and self-adjoint angular flux equation, cannot be used in voids. Perhaps more important, they experience numerical convergence difficulties in near-voids. Here we present a new form of a second-order self-adjoint transport equation that has an advantage relative to standard forms in that it can be used in voids or near-voids. Our equation is closely related to the standard least-squares form of the transport equation with both equations being applicable in a void and having a nonconservative analytic form. However, unlike the standard least-squares form of the transport equation, our least-squares equation is compatible with source iteration. It has been found that the standard least-squares form of the transport equation with a linear-continuous finite-element spatial discretization has difficulty in the thick diffusion limit. Here we extensively test the 1D slab-geometry version of our scheme with respect to void solutions, spatial convergence rate, and the intermediate and thick diffusion limits. We also define an effective diffusion synthetic acceleration scheme for our discretization. Our conclusion is that our least-squares Sn formulation represents an excellent alternative to existing second-order Sn transport formulations

  10. Development of blood compatible materials by glow discharge-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Sasakawa, S.

    Glow discharge-treatment was applied to preparation of blood compatible materials. Plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC) which is used for blood bags was treated in the presence of various gases or monomers. Wettability of PVC was modified by the treatment over a wide range. And leakage of plasticizer, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), was prevented. When platelet concentrates were stored in the treated PVC bags, impairment of platelet functions was suppressed by the prevention of DEHP leakage. But platelet adhesion to the surfaces increased by the treatments. Aldehyde groups were grafted on polyethylene film (PE) by glow discharge-treatment in the presence of formaldehyde gas. Although the aldehyde-grafted PE (HCHO-PE) had higher reactivity with platelet than PE after albumin coating, it exhibited excellent antithrombogenicity after blood plasma coating. HCHO-PE adsorbed proteins with almost the same composition as blood plasma, although non-treated PE adsorbed proteins with higher fibinogen/albumin ratio. Segmented-polyurethane which is well known to exhibit good antithrombogenicity, also formed the adsorption layer having composition like that of blood plasma. These results suggest that protein layer adsorbed with blood plasma composition is hardly recognized by platelets. Glow discharge-treatment is a simple and effective method for surface modification of medical polymers.

  11. A Novel Brain Stimulation Technology Provides Compatibility with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Serano, Peter; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Katnani, Husam; Eskandar, Emad; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical electrical stimulation systems — such as pacemakers and deep brain stimulators (DBS) — are an increasingly common therapeutic option to treat a large range of medical conditions. Despite their remarkable success, one of the significant limitations of these medical devices is the limited compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. During an MRI exam, the leads used with these devices, implanted in the body of the patient, act as an electric antenna potentially causing a large amount of energy to be absorbed in the tissue, which can lead to serious heat-related injury. This study presents a novel lead design that reduces the antenna effect and allows for decreased tissue heating during MRI. The optimal parameters of the wire design were determined by a combination of computational modeling and experimental measurements. The results of these simulations were used to build a prototype, which was tested in a gel phantom during an MRI scan. Measurement results showed a three-fold decrease in heating when compared to a commercially available DBS lead. Accordingly, the proposed design may allow a significantly increased number of patients with medical implants to have safe access to the diagnostic benefits of MRI. PMID:25924189

  12. Shuttle Communications and Tracking, Avionics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deSilva, K.; Hwu, Shian; Kindt, Kaylene; Kroll, Quin; Nuss, Ray; Romero, Denise; Schuler, Diana; Sham, Catherine; Scully, Robert

    2011-01-01

    By definition, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the capability of components, sub-systems, and systems, to operate in their intended electromagnetic environment, within an established margin of safety, and at design levels of performance. Practice of the discipline itself incorporates knowledge of various aspects of applied physics, materials science, and engineering across the board, and includes control and mitigation of undesirable electromagnetic interaction between intentional and unintentional emitters and receivers of radio frequency energy, both within and external to the vehicle; identification and control of the hazards of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and fuels and propellants; and vehicle and system protection from the direct and indirect effects of lightning and various other forms of electrostatic discharge (ESD) threats, such as triboelectrification and plasma charging. EMC is extremely complex and far-reaching, affecting in some degree every aspect of the vehicle s design and operation. The most successful efforts incorporate EMC design features and techniques throughout design and fabrication of the vehicle s structure and components, as well as appropriate operational considerations with regard to electromagnetic threats in the operational environment, from the beginning of the design effort to the end of the life cycle of the manufactured product. This approach yields the highest design performance with the lowest cost and schedule impact.

  13. Label-free immunodetection with CMOS-compatible semiconducting nanowires.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Klemic, James F; Routenberg, David A; Wyrembak, Pauline N; Turner-Evans, Daniel B; Hamilton, Andrew D; LaVan, David A; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Semiconducting nanowires have the potential to function as highly sensitive and selective sensors for the label-free detection of low concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Successful solution-phase nanowire sensing has been demonstrated for ions, small molecules, proteins, DNA and viruses; however, 'bottom-up' nanowires (or similarly configured carbon nanotubes) used for these demonstrations require hybrid fabrication schemes, which result in severe integration issues that have hindered widespread application. Alternative 'top-down' fabrication methods of nanowire-like devices produce disappointing performance because of process-induced material and device degradation. Here we report an approach that uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistor compatible technology and hence demonstrate the specific label-free detection of below 100 femtomolar concentrations of antibodies as well as real-time monitoring of the cellular immune response. This approach eliminates the need for hybrid methods and enables system-scale integration of these sensors with signal processing and information systems. Additionally, the ability to monitor antibody binding and sense the cellular immune response in real time with readily available technology should facilitate widespread diagnostic applications. PMID:17268465

  14. Compatibility of personality and major among freshman undergraduate nursing students of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality traits are major effective factors on student’s learning, educational achievements and employer’s job satisfaction. Metacognitive characteristics such as personality are only changeable up to 30% in the best educational condition. Therefore, students should be evaluated for such characteristics including their personality compatibility with their major. The present study investigated the personality compatibility of freshman undergraduate nursing students of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008 with nursing profession. METHODS: This was a descriptive study using a standard questionnaire based on Holland’s career and personality theory on 82 freshman nursing students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: More than 50% of the participants evaluated their information of nursing profession average. The personality of 41.3% was not compatible with nursing profession and the personality of 26.2% was relatively compatible. Only 32.5% of the participants had completely compatible personalities with this profession. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the limitations of the present study and previous studies, further studies are recommended. It seems that students’ knowledge of majors and careers are increasing, but it is necessary to plan and make more effort to recognize personal characteristics and personality compatibility with professions. Knowledge of professions and personalities along with each other are valuable and neglecting one would be an obstacle to achieve goals including decreasing job resignation, increasing job efficiency and satisfaction. PMID:21589786

  15. Plasmon-enhanced random lasing in bio-compatible networks of cellulose nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Knitter, S.; Liew, S. F.; Omenetto, F. G.; Reinhard, B. M.; Cao, H.; Dal Negro, L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on plasmon-enhanced random lasing in bio-compatible light emitting Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (HPC) nanofiber networks doped with gold nanoparticles. HPC nanofibers with a diameter of 260 ± 30 nm were synthesized by a one step, cost-effective and facile electrospinning technique from a solution-containing Rhodamine 6G and Au nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of controlled diameters from 10 nm to 80 nm were dispersed inside the nanofibers and optically characterized using photoluminescence, dark-field spectroscopy, and coherent backscattering measurements. Plasmon-enhanced random lasing was demonstrated with a lower threshold than that in dye-doped identical HPC networks without Au nanoparticles. These findings provide an effective approach for plasmon-enhanced random lasers based on a bio-compatible host matrix that is particularly attractive for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing, optical tagging, and detection.

  16. An update on pellicle-compatible EUV inner pod development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Rashke, Russ; Newman, Chris; Harris, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    By 2015 EUV pellicle development has made significant progress such that it is mature enough for production testing. To support the implementation of the pellicle, the current EUV Inner Pod (EIP) design is modified to accommodate the addition of a pellicle to the reticle, which primarily involves adding a pellicle pocket to the baseplate of the EIP. Working closely with an EUV lithography customer, Entegris has developed a pellicle-compatible EUV inner pod that has passed this customer's testing. This paper presents the key design features of the Entegris pellicle-compatible EUV pod and the testing results. The non-pellicle EIP baseplate is a flat plate and is designed to maintain a very small distance from the underside (also pattern side) of the reticle. In the pellicle-compatible version a pocket is added to the baseplate to accommodate the pellicle and its frame. For compatibility purpose, the weight of the pellicle-compatible baseplate is kept about the same as the non-pellicle baseplates. In addition, considering that both non-pellicle and pellicalized reticles are going to be used by end users, a feature on the backside of the baseplate that's different between the two versions is going to be used by a sensor in the lithography tool to tell whether it is a pellicle or non-pellicle pod. Test results from several critical defectivity tests are highlighted in this paper including: full system cycle test, reticle handling tests, venting tests, EIP outgassing tests, along with pod shipping test.

  17. Distribution of compatible solutes in the halophilic methanogenic archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, M C; Sowers, K R; Robertson, D E; Roberts, M F; Gunsalus, R P

    1991-01-01

    Accumulation of compatible solutes, by uptake or de novo synthesis, enables bacteria to reduce the difference between osmotic potentials of the cell cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. To examine this process in the halophilic and halotolerant methanogenic archaebacteria, 14 strains were tested for the accumulation of compatible solutes in response to growth in various extracellular concentrations of NaCl. In external NaCl concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 M, the halophilic methanogens accumulated K+ ion and low-molecular-weight organic compounds. beta-Glutamate was detected in two halotolerant strains that grew below 1.5 M NaCl. Two unusual beta-amino acids, N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine and beta-glutamine (3-aminoglutaramic acid), as well as L-alpha-glutamate were compatible solutes among all of these strains. De novo synthesis of glycine betaine was also detected in several strains of moderately and extremely halophilic methanogens. The zwitterionic compounds (beta-glutamine, N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine, and glycine betaine) and potassium were the predominant compatible solutes among the moderately and extremely halophilic methanogens. This is the first report of beta-glutamine as a compatible solute and de novo biosynthesis of glycine betaine in the methanogenic archaebacteria. PMID:1909318

  18. Distribution of compatible solutes in the halophilic methanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Meichin Lai; Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1991-09-01

    Accumulation of compatible solutes, by uptake or de novo synthesis, enables bacteria to reduce the difference between osmotic potentials of the cell cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. To examine this process in the halophilic and halotolerant methanogenic archaebacteria, 14 strains were tested for the accumulation of compatible solutes in response to growth in various extracellular concentrations of NaCl. In external NaCl concentrations of 0.7 to 3.4 M, the halophilic methanogens accumulated K{sup +} ion and low-molecular-weight organic compounds. {beta}-Glutamate was detected in two halotolerant strains that grew below 1.5 M NaCl. Two unusual {beta}-amino acids, N{sub {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine and {beta}-glutamine (3-aminoglutaramic acid), as well as L-{alpha}-glutamate were compatible solutes among all of these strains. De novo synthesis of glycine betaine was also detected in several strains of moderately and extremely halophilic methanogens. The zwitterionic compounds ({beta}-glutamine, N{sub {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine,a nd glycine betaine) and potassium were the predominant compatible solutes among the moderately and extremely halophilic methanogens. This is the first report of {beta}-glutamine as a compatible solute and de novo biosynthesis of glycine betaine in the methanogenic archaebacteria.

  19. Brain-Compatible Learning: Principles and Applications in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the principles of brain-compatible learning research and provide insights into how this research may be applied in athletic training education to benefit the profession. Background: In the past decade, new brain-imaging techniques have allowed us to observe the brain while it is learning. The field of neuroscience has produced a body of empirical data that provides a new understanding of how we learn. This body of data has implications in education, although the direct study of these implications is in its infancy. Description: An overview of how the brain learns at a cellular level is provided, followed by a discussion of the principles of brain-compatible learning. Applications of these principles and implications for the field of athletic training education are also offered. Application: Many educational-reform fads have garnered attention in the past. Brain-compatible learning will not likely be one of those, as its origin is in neuroscience, not education. Brain-compatible learning is not an educational-reform movement. It does not prescribe how to run your classroom or offer specific techniques to use. Rather, it provides empirical data about how the brain learns and suggests guidelines to be considered while preparing lessons for your students. These guidelines may be incorporated into every educational setting, with every type of curriculum and every age group. The field of athletic training lends itself well to many of the basic principles of brain-compatible learning. PMID:16558681

  20. Blood Compatibility Evaluations of Fluorescent Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Liu, Zonghua

    2015-09-01

    Because of their unique advantages, fluorescent carbon dots are gaining popularity in various biomedical applications. For these applications, good biosafety is a prerequisite for their use in vivo. Studies have reported the preliminary biocompatibility evaluations of fluorescent carbon dots (mainly cytotoxicity); however, to date, little information is available about their hemocompatibility, which could impede their development from laboratory to bedside. In this work, we evaluated the hemocompatibility of fluorescent carbon dots, which we prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of α-cyclodextrin. The effects of the carbon dots on the structure and function of key blood components were investigated at cellular and molecular levels. In particular, we considered the morphology and lysis of human red blood cells, the structure and conformation of the plasma protein fibrinogen, the complement activation, platelet activation, and in vitro and in vivo blood coagulation. We found that the carbon dots have obvious concentration-dependent effects on the blood components. Overall, concentrations of the fluorescent carbon dots at ≤0.1 mg/mL had few adverse effects on the blood components, but at higher doses, the carbon dots impair the structure and function of the blood components, causing morphological disruptions and lysis of red blood cells, interference in the local microenvironments of fibrinogen, activation of the complement system, and disturbances in the plasma and whole blood coagulation function in vitro. However, the carbon dots tend to activate platelets only at low concentrations. Intravenous administration of the carbon dots at doses up to 50 mg/kg did not impair the blood coagulation function. These results provide valuable information for the clinical application of fluorescent carbon dots. PMID:26269934

  1. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wakefield, MA, August 20-22, 1985, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on electromagnetic compatibility are presented. The general topics addressed include: EMI transient/impulsive disturbances, electromagnetic shielding, antennas and propagation, measurement technology, anechoic chamber/open site measurements, communications systems, electrostatic discahrge, cables/transmission lines. Also considered are: elecromagnetic environments, antennas, electromagnetic pulse, nonlinear effect, computer/data transmission systems, EMI standards and requirements, enclosures/TEM cells, systems EMC, and test site measurements.

  2. Material Compatibility with Space Storable Propellants. Design Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uney, P. E.; Fester, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of spacecraft for interplanetary missions is the compatibility of storage materials with the propellants. Serious problems can arise because many propellants are either extremely reactive or subject to catalytic decomposition, making the selection of proper materials of construction for propellant containment and control a critical requirement for the long-life applications. To aid in selecting materials and designing and evaluating various propulsion subsystems, available information on the compatibility of spacecraft materials with propellants of interest was compiled from literature searches and personal contacts. The compatibility of both metals and nonmetals with hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, nitrated hydrazine, and diborance fuels and nitrogen tetroxide, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, and Flox oxidizers was surveyed. These fuels and oxidizers encompass the wide variety of problems encountered in propellant storage. As such, they present worst case situations of the propellant affecting the material and the material affecting the propellant. This includes material attack, propellant decomposition, and the formation of clogging materials.

  3. Compatibility conditions of structural mechanics for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions are fundamental to the analyses of structures. However, anyone who undertakes even a cursory generic study of the compatibility conditions can discover, with little effort, that historically this facet of structural mechanics had not been adequately researched by the profession. Now the compatibility conditions (CC's) have been researched and are understood to a great extent. For finite element discretizations, the CC's are banded and can be divided into three distinct categories: (1) the interface CC's; (2) the cluster or field CC's; and (3) the external CC's. The generation of CC's requires the separating of a local region, then writing the deformation displacement relation (ddr) for the region, and finally, the eliminating of the displacements from the ddr. The procedure to generate all three types of CC's is presented and illustrated through examples of finite element models. The uniqueness of the CC's thus generated is shown.

  4. Waste compatibility assessments to support project W-320

    SciTech Connect

    BLAAK, T.M.

    1999-04-06

    The intent of this internal memo is to provide a recommendation for the transfer of tank 241-C-106 waste, Attachment 2, to tank 241-AY-102. This internal memo also identifies additional requirements which have been deemed necessary for safely receiving and storing the waste documented in Attachment 2 from tank 241-C-106 in tank 241-AY-102. This waste transfer is planned in support of tank 241-C-106 solids sluicing activities. Approximately 200,000 gallons of waste and flush water are expected to be pumped from tank 241-C-106 into tank 241-AY-102. Several transfers will be necessary to complete the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 solids. To assure ourselves that this waste transfer will not create any compatibility concerns, a waste compatibility assessment adhering to current waste compatibility requirements has been performed.

  5. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    The materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  6. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR pregrain the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing several research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results is from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  7. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, D.A.; Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-04-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each researcher.

  8. [Study on the compatibility of slip casting aluminous ceramic crowns

    PubMed

    Wan, Q B; Xue, M; You, L; Du, C S; Chao, Y L

    1997-03-01

    One of the key factors for a good slip casting aluminous ceramic crown is good compatibility between its core material and the veneering porcelain.The chemical and thermal compatibility of two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems(In-Ceram and GI-I) were investigated by means of SEM and EDAX,thermal shock tests were also performed to evaluate the crazing resistance.The results showed: the crazing resistance of In-Ceram was 158 degrees centigrade,and that of GI-I was degrees centigrade;there existed tightly bonded interfaces between the slip casting aluminous ceramic cores and the veneering porcelains in both of the two systems,where ion transferences were found.The results also suggested good compatibility of the two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems. PMID:15159959

  9. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible with commonly used fingerprint visualization techniques. In this study, the compatibility of immunolabeling with two different fingerprint visualization techniques, magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, was investigated on fingermarks deposited on glass and on nitrocellulose membranes. With dermcidin as antigen of interest, immunolabeling was performed successfully on all developed fingermarks. We can conclude that immunolabeling is compatible with magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, which can be of great forensic value. PMID:23682987

  10. Compatibility and Kidney Transplantation: The Way to Go

    PubMed Central

    Doxiadis, Ilias I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Long lasting debates in the past questioned the relevance of any sort of compatibility in post mortal kidney transplantation. It is for no say that fully compatible transplants have the highest chances for a long patient and graft survival. In the present report the use of HLA-DR as a representative of the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II genes in the allocation of organs is discussed. The major arguments are the easiness to offer to patients a compatible graft in a relatively short waiting time, an increase in graft survival, the less sensitization during the transplantation period, and the lower waiting time for a retransplant. Even if the number of organ donors remains the same a lowering of the mean waiting time is expected because of the longer period of graft survival. PMID:22593759

  11. Research update: Materials compatibility and lubricant research (MCLR) program

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1994-04-01

    Since September 1991, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) has been conducting materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC and HCFC refrigerant alternatives. This work has been supported by a grant from the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technology, with co-funding from the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARI). During the first two and one-half years of this program, ARTI has subcontracted and managed twenty-one research projects totaling over $5.2 million. This research has included materials compatibility tests, refrigerant-lubricant interaction studies, measurement of thermophysical properties, and development of accelerated test methods. This paper summarizes results to date and discusses plans for future research for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program.

  12. New advances in MR-compatible bioartificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Rex E.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    MR-compatible bioartificial liver (BAL) studies have been performed for 30 years and are reviewed. There are two types of study: (i) metabolism and drug studies using multinuclear MRS; primarily short-term (< 8 h) studies; (ii) the use of multinuclear MRS and MRI to noninvasively define the features and functions of BAL systems for long-term liver tissue engineering. In the latter, these systems often undergo not only modification of the perfusion system, but also the construction of MR radiofrequency probes around the bioreactor. We present novel MR-compatible BALs and the use of multinuclear MRS (13C, 19F, 31P) for the noninvasive monitoring of their growth, metabolism and viability, as well as 1H MRI methods for the determination of flow profiles, diffusion, cell distribution, quality assurance and bioreactor integrity. Finally, a simple flexible coil design and circuit, and life support system, are described that can make almost any BAL MR-compatible. PMID:22351642

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide - Material Compatibility Studied by Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homung, Steven D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Baker, David; Popp, Christopher G.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental and toxicity concerns with current hypergolic propellants have led to a renewed interest in propellant grade hydrogen peroxide (HP) for propellant applications. Storability and stability has always been an issue with HP. Contamination or contact of HP with metallic surfaces may cause decomposition, which can result in the evolution of heat and gas leading to increased pressure or thermal hazards. The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility has developed a technique to monitor the decompositions of hydrogen peroxide at temperatures ranging from 25 to 60 C. Using isothermal microcalorimetry we have measured decomposition rates at the picomole/s/g level showing the catalytic effects of materials of construction. In this paper we will present the results of testing with Class 1 and 2 materials in 90 percent hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Designing berthing mechanisms for international compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winch, John; Gonzalez-Vallejo, Juan J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the technological issues regarding common berthing interfaces for the Space Station Freedom and pressurized modules from U.S., European, and Japanese space programs. The development of the common berthing mechanism (CBM) is based on common requirements concerning specifications, launch environments, and the unique requirements of ESA's Man-Tended Free Flyer. The berthing mechanism is composed of an active and a passive half, a remote manipulator system, 4 capture-latch assemblies, 16 structural bolts, and a pressure gage to verify equalization. Extensive graphic and verbal descriptions of each element are presented emphasizing the capture-latch motion and powered-bolt operation. The support systems to complete the interface are listed, and the manufacturing requirements for consistent fabrication are discussed to ensure effective international development.

  15. Compatibility of polyacetylene with lithium battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The object of this research is to evaluate polyacetylene (CHx) as a replacement for carbon as the cathode material in primary lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOC12) and lithium/sulfur dioxide (Li/SO2) batteries. The choice of the Li/SOC12 inorganic electrolyte cell is based on the fact that it is the highest energy density system known to date. By itself, the favorable ratio of obtainable work to weight is not sufficient. For Navy applications, the rate at which the cell supplies energy - the power density - is very important. CHx is a lightweight material with extremely high effective surface area (60 m squared/g) and good electrical conductivity when doped, thus making it a good candidate for an electrode in a high power density cell.

  16. An optimized method for mycelial compatibility testing in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Michelle R; Kohn, Linda M

    2006-01-01

    Classification of isolates into mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) is used routinely in many laboratories as a quick marker for genotyping Sclerotinia sclerotiorum within populations. Scoring each new sample requires optimization of standardized conditions to support adequate growth of all paired isolates. Appropriate conditions for growth are especially important because diverse compatibility reactions are difficult to categorize and score (e.g., in samples from populations with high genetic diversity, such as those that receive immigration from genetically diverse sources or those that deviate from strict clonality). The current standard medium for MCG testing can be inhibitory to isolates from some samples, confounding scoring of compatibility. We identified two foci for optimization: (i) choice of medium, in this experiment, Patterson's medium amended with red food coloring (termed modified Patterson's medium, MPM, the current standard medium) versus potato dextrose agar (PDA) and (ii) amount of McCormick's red food coloring amended to the growth medium. The red food coloring often yields a red reaction line in incompatible interactions; alternative incompatible reactions are a line of thick or thin hyphae. Based on results to date, self-self pairings of S. sclerotiorum are compatible and are a reliable standard for scoring compatible self-nonself mycelial interactions. PDA amended with 75 microl/L of McCormick's red food coloring was identified as optimal for isolates inhibited by MPM from a highly diverse, recombining population sample. This precisely amended PDA was also suitable for isolates from highly clonal populations that were not inhibited by MPM or by higher concentrations of red food coloring. Under the optimized, standardized conditions all paired isolates grew together and produced interactions that could be scored in repeatedly identifiable categories, compatible or incompatible. Workers are advised to optimize conditions before screening a new

  17. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1992-10-01

    During the compatibility study of 10 pure refrigerants with 24 motor materials, it was observed that the greatest damage to the insulation system was caused by absorption of refrigerant followed by rapid desorption. The observed effects were blisters, cracking, internal bubbles and delamination. Measured results includes decreased bond strength, dielectric strength and overall integrity of the material. Refrigerants HCFC-22, HFC-32, HFC-134 and HFC-152a exhibited this phenomena. The effect of HCFC-22 was most severe of the tested refrigerants. Since HCFC-22 has an excellent reliability history with many of the materials tested, compatibility with the new refrigerants is expected.

  18. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi[sub 5-x]Al[sub x] (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  19. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-09-21

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi{sub 5-x}Al{sub x} (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  20. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration. PMID:21133335

  1. Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, E. A.

    1992-09-01

    This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi(5-x)Al(x) (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

  2. CHEMICAL REACTIVITY TEST: Assessing Thermal Stability and Chemical Compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, J; Tran, T; Gagliardi, F; Fontes, A

    2005-04-21

    The thermal stability of high explosive (HE) and its compatibility with other materials are of critical importance in storage and handling practices. These properties are measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the chemical reactivity test (CRT). The CRT measures the total amount of gas evolved from a material or combination of materials after being heat treated for a designated period of time. When the test result is compared to a threshold value, the relative thermal stability of an HE or the compatibility of an HE with other materials is determined. We describe the CRT testing apparatus, the experimental procedure, and the comparison methodology and provide examples and discussion of results.

  3. Preparation of refractory cermet structures for lithium compatibility testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heestand, R. L.; Jones, R. A.; Wright, T. R.; Kizer, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    High-purity nitride and carbide cermets were synthesized for compatability testing in liquid lithium. A process was developed for the preparation of high-purity hafnium nitride powder, which was subsequently blended with tungsten powder or tantalum nitride and tungsten powders and fabricated into 3 in diameter billets by uniaxial hot pressing. Specimens were then cut from the billets for compatability testing. Similar processing techniques were applied to produce hafnium carbide and zirconium carbide cermets for use in the testing program. All billets produced were characterized with respect to chemistry, structure, density, and strength properties.

  4. MCU MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH CSSX SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F

    2006-01-13

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) plans to use several new materials of construction not previously used with CSSX solvent. SRNL researchers tested seven materials proposed for service in seal and gasket applications. None of the materials leached detectable amounts of components into the CSSX solvent during 96 hour tests. All are judged acceptable for use based on their effect on the solvent. However, some of the materials adsorbed solvent or changed dimensions during contact with solvent. Consultation with component and material vendors with regard to performance impact and in-use testing of the materials is recommended. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), a material selected for use in contactor bearing seals, did not gain weight or change dimensions on contact with CSSX solvent. Analysis of the solvent contacted with this material showed no impurities and the standard dispersion test gave acceptable phase separation results. The material contains a leachable hydrocarbon substance, detectable on exposed surfaces, that did not adversely contaminate the solvent within the limits of the testing. We recommend contacting the vendor to determine the source and purpose of this component, or, alternatively, pursue the infrared analysis of the PEEK in an effort to better define potential impacts.

  5. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  6. Carbollide solubility and chemical compatibility summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.J.

    1993-08-17

    This report examines the value of the cobalt dicarbollide anion as an effective form of in-tank precipitation. The cobalt dicarbollide anion (CDC) has been investigated for the possible replacement of tetraphenyl borate anion (TPB) for precipitation of cesium in SRS High Level Waste (HLW). The solubility of the cesium CDC in 5 M salt solutions and the reactivity with caustic have been studied extensively. The solubility of CSCDC in a mixture of 4 M sodium nitrate and 1 m sodium hydroxide is {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M at 40{degrees}C. Furthermore, the CDC decomposes in 1 M sodium hydroxide solution with apparent first order kinetics with a half-life of 7.3 days at 60 {degrees}C and 94 days at 40{degrees}C. Tank temperatures are currently estimated to approach 60{degrees}C during the ITP filtration cycle. This solubility and rapid decomposition of the CDC under highly alkaline conditions and high temperature would require increasing the quantity of CDC and nonradioactive cesium which must be added, increasing the cost of production. Increasing the quantity of CDC would necessitate recovery of the material, probably using a solvent extraction system. Due to the large amount of nonradioactive cesium which must be added, the total amount of precipitate formed exceeds that for TPB precipitation. Also, formation of sodium and/or potassium precipitates compete with cesium salt precipitation in 5 M salt solutions at lower temperature (<30{degrees}C). Decomposition generates hydrogen, which may lead to process complications.

  7. Molecular cooperativity and compatibility via full atomistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan Yang, Kenny

    Civil engineering has customarily focused on problems from a large-scale perspective, encompassing structures such as bridges, dams, and infrastructure. However, present day challenges in conjunction with advances in nanotechnology have forced a re-focusing of expertise. The use of atomistic and molecular approaches to study material systems opens the door to significantly improve material properties. The understanding that material systems themselves are structures, where their assemblies can dictate design capacities and failure modes makes this problem well suited for those who possess expertise in structural engineering. At the same time, a focus has been given to the performance metrics of materials at the nanoscale, including strength, toughness, and transport properties (e.g., electrical, thermal). Little effort has been made in the systematic characterization of system compatibility -- e.g., how to make disparate material building blocks behave in unison. This research attempts to develop bottom-up molecular scale understanding of material behavior, with the global objective being the application of this understanding into material design/characterization at an ultimate functional scale. In particular, it addresses the subject of cooperativity at the nano-scale. This research aims to define the conditions which dictate when discrete molecules may behave as a single, functional unit, thereby facilitating homogenization and up-scaling approaches, setting bounds for assembly, and providing a transferable assessment tool across molecular systems. Following a macro-scale pattern where the compatibility of deformation plays a vital role in the structural design, novel geometrical cooperativity metrics based on the gyration tensor are derived with the intention to define nano-cooperativity in a generalized way. The metrics objectively describe the general size, shape and orientation of the structure. To validate the derived measures, a pair of ideal macromolecules

  8. Zwitterionic polymer functionalization of polysulfone membrane with improved antifouling property and blood compatibility by combination of ATRP and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tao; Lu, Ting; Xie, Yi; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Sun, Shu-Dong; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The chemical compositions are very important for designing blood-contacting membranes with good antifouling property and blood compatibility. In this study, we propose a method combining ATRP and click chemistry to introduce zwitterionic polymer of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), negatively charged polymers of poly(sodium methacrylate) (PNaMAA) and/or poly(sodium p-styrene sulfonate) (PNaSS), to improve the antifouling property and blood compatibility of polysulfone (PSf) membranes. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results confirmed the successful grafting of the functional polymers. The antifouling property and blood compatibility of the modified membranes were systematically investigated. The zwitterionic polymer (PSBMA) grafted membranes showed good resistance to protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion; the negatively charged polymer (PNaSS or PNaMAA) grafted membranes showed improved blood compatibility, especially the anticoagulant property. Moreover, the PSBMA/PNaMAA modified membrane showed both antifouling property and anticoagulant property, and exhibited a synergistic effect in inhibiting blood coagulation. The functionalization of membrane surfaces by a combination of ATRP and click chemistry is demonstrated as an effective route to improve the antifouling property and blood compatibility of membranes in blood-contact. PMID:27039977

  9. Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

  10. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  11. 32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land use compatibility guidelines for accident... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.8 Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential. Zones and Footnotes—Land Use Category Compatibility 1 Clear zone APZ I...

  12. 32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land use compatibility guidelines for accident... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.8 Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential. Zones and Footnotes—Land Use Category Compatibility 1 Clear zone APZ I...

  13. General purpose program to generate compatibility matrix for the integrated force method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabhusanam, J.; Patnaik, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient procedure for obtaining the compatibility conditions of finite-element models involves the generation of both field and compatibility conditions from deformation-displacement relations, using (1) the compatibility bandwidth, and (2) the node-determinacy concept. A computer program thus structured will generate sparse and banded compatibility conditions for a structure that is idealized by the finite elements.

  14. MRI Compatible Ultrasound Transducers for Simultaneous Acquisition of Coregistered Ultrasound to MRI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speicher, Daniel; Bartscherer, T.; Becker, F. J.; Jenne, J. W.; Mrosk, K.; Degel, C.; Günther, M.; Tretbar, S.

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become an important part of radiological diagnostics as it shows high resolution volumes of human tissue without any radiation exposure. Beside the high costs for MR imaging the greatest disadvantage of this technology is that it is not real-time capable which leads to possible motion artifacts. Whereas Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool in radiology as it is real-time capable and cost effective. Therefore a combination of both modalities is obvious, not only to reduce motion artifacts in MR imaging but to save costs by reducing time in the MR scanner through coregistering ultrasound and MR images for deformation analysis. This work presents the manufacturing and measurement results of MR compatible ultrasound transducers for motion compensation and deformation analyses for clinical interventions under MRI conditions, based on ultrasound volumes acquired by a full MR compatible 180° rotating 8 MHz phased array.

  15. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X. S.; Wang, H. J.; Feng, L.; Shao, L. X.; Zou, C. W.

    2014-08-01

    Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent.

  16. [Compatibility of intravenous medications needs attention. Catheter occlusion, treatment failure and embolisms can be prevented].

    PubMed

    Colldén, Hannah; Teimori, Kaveh; Asadian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    When dealing with more drugs than available lumens, intravenous medications need to be co-administered in the same catheter. This type of scenario may induce therapeutic risks, such as catheter occlusion, changes in drug effect or embolization of precipitated particles. Various sources are available to provide information on compatibilities of intravenous medications. When using these sources, the applicability of the information must be assessed, comparing concentrations, diluents used and other pharmaceutical aspects. For the last three years, a group of pharmacists at Sahlgrenska University Hospital has worked on a project collecting and validating compatibility data for intravenous medications. In the future, this data will be available to more hospitals in Sweden. PMID:26556450

  17. Embodying animals: Body-part compatibility in mammalian, reptile and aves classes.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Sandra M; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans code homologous body parts of nonhuman mammal, reptilian, and aves animals with respect to the representation of the human body. To this end, participants completed body-part compatibility tasks in which responses were executed to colored targets that were superimposed over the upper limbs, lower limbs or head of different animals in different postures. In Experiment 1, the images were of meekats and lizards in bipedal and quadrupedal postures. In Experiment 2, the images were of a human, a penguin, and an owl in a bipedal posture with upper limbs stretched out. Overall, the results revealed that the limbs of nonhuman mammals (meerkat and human) were consistently mapped onto the homologous human body parts only when the mammals were in a bipedal posture. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects emerged for the human and the meerkat in a bipedal posture, but not the meerkat in the quadrupedal posture. Further, consistent body-part compatibility effects were not observed for the lizard in the quadrupedal posture or for the lizard, penguin, or owl in a bipedal posture. The pattern of results suggests that the human bipedal body representation may distinguish taxonomical classes and is most highly engaged when viewing homologous body parts of mammalian animals. PMID:26233729

  18. Design and calibration of a vacuum compatible scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum compatible scanning tunneling microscope was designed and built, capable of imaging solid surfaces with atomic resolution. The single piezoelectric tube design is compact, and makes use of sample mounting stubs standard to a commercially available surface analysis system. Image collection and display is computer controlled, allowing storage of images for further analysis. Calibration results from atomic scale images are presented.

  19. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414 Section 68.414 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414...

  20. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section 68.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing...

  1. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414 Section 68.414 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414...

  2. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section 68.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing...

  3. Physicochemical compatibility of nebulizable drug admixtures containing colistimethate and tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Wollstadt, A; Krämer, I; Kamin, W

    2013-09-01

    Inhalation therapy with nebulizable antibiotic drugs is a mainstay in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The combination of tobramycin and colistin was found to be superior to monotherapy in killing P. aeruginosa in biofilms. The simultaneous inhalation of tobramycin and colistin might be an option to increase the compliance of patients. The objective of this in-vitro study was to determine whether admixtures of inhalation solutions containing colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) and tobramycin are physicochemically compatible. Physical compatibility was determined by measuring pH and osmolality. Chemical compatibility was determined by testing the antibiotic activity of the mixtures by the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay and comparing the results to those of standard solutions. Samples were analyzed immediately after mixing and after 24 h. Values of pH and osmolality remained unchanged and in physiologically acceptable ranges. Neither for colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) nor for tobramycin losses of antibiotic potency were registered at any time. Admixtures of nebulizer solutions containing CMS and tobramycin were shown to be physicochemically compatible. Further investigations are needed to determine whether drug delivery is affected by mixing the nebulizer solutions to ensure that simultaneous inhalation is recommendable. PMID:24147342

  4. Operation Compatibility: A Neglected Contribution to Dual-Task Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannebakker, Merel M.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in parallel. In 2 psychological refractory period…

  5. Development and Implementation of Environmentally Compatible Solid Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    1998-01-01

    Multi-body launch vehicles require the use of Solid Film Lubricants (SFLS) to allow for unrestricted relative motion between structural assemblies and components during lift-off and ascent into orbit. The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), uses a dual coat, ceramic-bonded high temperature SFL in several locations such as restraint hardware between the SRB aft skirt and the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP), the aft SRB/External Tank (ET) attach struts, and the forward skirt SRB/ET attach ball assembly. Future launch systems may require similar applications of SFLs for attachment and restraint hardware. A family of environmentally compatible non-lead/antimony bearing alternative SFLs have been developed including a compatible repair material. In addition, commercial applications for SFLs on transportation equipment, all types of lubricated fasteners, and energy related equipment allow for wide usage's of these new lubricants. The new SFLs trade named BOOSTERLUBE is a family of single layer thin film (0.001 inch maximum) coatings that are a unique mixture of non-hazardous pigments in a compatible resin system that allows for low temperature curing (450F). Significant savings in energy and processing time as well as elimination of hazardous material usage and disposal would result from the non-toxic one-step SFL application. Compatible air-dry field repair lubricants will help eliminate disassembly of launch vehicle restraint hardware during critical time sensitive assembly operations.

  6. Development and Implementation of Environmentally Compatible Solid Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    1999-01-01

    Multi-body launch vehicles require the use of Solid Film Lubricants (SFLs) to allow for unrestricted relative motion between structural assemblies and components during lift-off and ascent into orbit. The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), uses a dual coat, ceramic-bonded high temperature SFL in several locations such as restraint hardware between the SRB aft skirt and the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP), the aft SRB/External Tank (ET) attach struts, and the forward skirt SRB/ET attach ball assembly. Future launch systems may require similar applications of SFLs for attachment and restraint hardware. A family of environmentally compatible non-lead/antimony bearing alternative SFLs have been developed including a compatible repair material. In addition, commercial applications for SFLs on transportation equipment, all types of lubricated fasteners, and energy related equipment allow for wide usage's of these new lubricants. The new SFLs trade named BOOSTERLUBE is a family of single layer thin film (0.001 inch maximum) coatings that are a unique mixture of non-hazardous pigments in a compatible resin system that allows for low temperature curing (450 F). Significant savings in energy and processing time as well as elimination of hazardous material usage and disposal would result from the non-toxic one-step SFL application. Compatible air-dry field repair lubricants will help eliminate disassembly of launch vehicle restraint hardware during critical time sensitive assembly operations.

  7. Development and Implementation of Environmentally Compatible Solid Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-body launch vehicles require the use of Solid Film Lubricants (SFLs) to allow for unrestricted relative motion between structural assemblies and components during lift off and ascent into orbit. The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), uses a dual coat, ceramic-bonded high temperature SFL in several locations such as restraint hardware between the SRB aft skirt and the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP), the aft SRB/External Tank (ET) attach struts, and the forward skirt SRB/ET attach ball assembly. The proposed National Launch System (NLS) may require similar applications of SFLs for attachment and restraint hardware. A family of environmentally compatible nonlead/antimony bearing alternative SFLs have been developed including a compatible repair material. In addition, commercial applications for SFLs on transportation equipment, all types of lubricated fasteners, and energy related equipment allow for wide usage of these new lubricants. The new SFLs named BOOSTERLUBE is a family of single layer thin film (0.001 inch maximum) coatings that are a unique mixture of non-hazardous pigments in a compatible resin system that allows for low temperature curing (450 F). Significant savings in energy and processing time as well as elimination of hazardous material usage and disposal would result from the non-toxic onestep SFL application. Compatible air-dry field repair lubricants will help eliminate disassembly of launch vehicle restraint hardware during critical time sensitive assembly operations.

  8. 40 CFR 265.172 - Compatibility of waste with container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with container. 265.172 Section 265.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE...

  9. 40 CFR 264.172 - Compatibility of waste with containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with containers. 264.172 Section 264.172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  10. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schostak, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  11. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76.1622 Section 76.1622 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76.1622 Section 76.1622 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76.1622 Section 76.1622 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program...

  14. 76 FR 57644 - Air Installations Compatible Use Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 256 Air Installations Compatible Use Zones AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule removes the DoD's rule concerning air installations...; Federal buildings and facilities; navigation (air); noise control. PART 256-- 0 Accordingly, by...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... associated with various alternative noise reduction techniques, and the responsible impacted land use control... comprehensive and implementable noise reduction techniques and land use controls which, to the maximum extent... shall evaluate the several alternative noise control actions and develop a noise compatibility...

  16. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414 Section 68.414 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414...

  17. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414 Section 68.414 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414...

  18. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414 Section 68.414 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414...

  19. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section 68.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing...

  20. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section 68.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing...

  1. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section 68.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing...

  2. Developing Globally Compatible Institutional Infrastructures for Indian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Raj; Bartning, Augustine; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-01-01

    The authors profile developments in the globalization of Indian higher education, with an emphasis on emerging globally compatible institutional infrastructures. In recent decades, there has been an enormous amount of brain drain: the exodus of the brightest professionals and students to other countries. The article argues that the implementation…

  3. Time Course Analyses Confirm Independence of Imitative and Spatial Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Imitative compatibility, or automatic imitation, has been used as a measure of imitative performance and as a behavioral index of the functioning of the human mirror system (e.g., Brass, Bekkering, Wohlschlager, & Prinz, 2000; Heyes, Bird, Johnson, & Haggard, 2005; Kilner, Paulignan, & Blakemore, 2003). However, the use of imitative compatibility…

  4. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and... BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES General Requirements § 1193.21 Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...

  5. ∗-compatible connections in noncommutative Riemannian geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggs, E. J.; Majid, S.

    2011-01-01

    We develop the formalism for noncommutative differential geometry and Riemmannian geometry to take full account of the ∗-algebra structure on the (possibly noncommutative) coordinate ring and the bimodule structure on the differential forms. We show that ∗-compatible bimodule connections lead to braid operators σ in some generality (going beyond the quantum group case) and we develop their role in the exterior algebra. We study metrics in the form of Hermitian structures on Hilbert ∗-modules and metric compatibility in both the usual form and a cotorsion form. We show that the theory works well for the quantum group Cq[SU2] with its three-dimensional calculus, finding for each point of a three-parameter space of covariant metrics a unique 'Levi-Civita' connection deforming the classical one and characterised by zero torsion, metric preservation and ∗-compatibility. Allowing torsion, we find a unique connection with a classical limit that is metric preserving and ∗-compatible and for which σ obeys the braid relations. It projects to a unique 'Levi-Civita' connection on the quantum sphere. The theory also works for finite groups, and in particular for the permutation group S3, where we find somewhat similar results.

  6. Pupil/Science Teacher Interpersonal Compatibility and Science Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargo, Robert A.

    Reported is a study designed to investigate the relationships among pupil/teacher interpersonal compatibility, student self-concept in science, and student attitude toward science. The sample consisted of 205 ninth-grade earth science students. Two classes each from six school districts were involved, using 13 classrooms and 7 science teachers.…

  7. Next generation keyboards: The importance of cognitive compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amell, John R.; Ewry, Michael E.; Colle, Herbert A.

    1988-01-01

    The computer keyboard of today is essentially the same as it has been for many years. Few advances have been made in keyboard design even though computer systems in general have made remarkable progress in improvements. This paper discusses the future of keyboards, their competition and compatibility with voice input systems, and possible special-application intelligent keyboards for controlling complex systems.

  8. Vacuum compatible, high-speed, 2-D mirror tilt stage

    DOEpatents

    Denham; Paul E.

    2007-09-25

    A compact and vacuum compatible magnetic-coil driven tiltable stage that is equipped with a high efficiency reflective coating can be employed as a scanner in EUV applications. The drive electronics for the scanner is fully in situ programmable and rapidly switchable.

  9. 14 CFR 36.3 - Compatibility with airworthiness requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatibility with airworthiness requirements. 36.3 Section 36.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION General §...

  10. Biophysical Constraints and Ecological Compatibilities of Diverse Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diagnostic approach based on multi-scale integrated analysis and model simulations was employed to identify specific or common biophysical constraints, technological changes and ecological compatibilities of the diverse subsistence and organic agro-ecosystems in the Fertile Crescent of West Asia a...

  11. Brain Compatible Secondary Schools: The Visionary Principal's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnelley, Jeanette C.; Whaley, Janie; Mull, Rhonda; Hott, Glenda

    2003-01-01

    Principals set the tone and create visions for innovation and change. Mounting research about the brain tempered with cautions of over interpretations can aid the principals to provide leadership in implementing more brain compatible schools. Practical strategies encompass the emotional environment of the school, policies, and procedures that…

  12. Miniature self-contained vacuum compatible electronic imaging microscope

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Batson, Phillip J.; Denham, Paul E.; Jones, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    A vacuum compatible CCD-based microscopic camera with an integrated illuminator. The camera can provide video or still feed from the microscope contained within a vacuum chamber. Activation of an optional integral illuminator can provide light to illuminate the microscope subject. The microscope camera comprises a housing with a objective port, modified objective, beam-splitter, CCD camera, and LED illuminator.

  13. 78 FR 56839 - Compatibility of Generally Licensed and Exempt Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    .... Compatibility of 10 CFR 31.6 On January 25, 2012, the NRC published a Federal Register notice (FRN) (77 FR 3640... change requested in PRM-31-5 was filed in response to the 2000 general license rule (65 FR 79162... Agreement State Programs (62 FR 46517; September 3, 1997). Therefore, the NRC believed it was appropriate...

  14. Mate choice for genetic compatibility in the house mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Anna K; Musolf, Kerstin; Weidt, Andrea; König, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In house mice, genetic compatibility is influenced by the t haplotype, a driving selfish genetic element with a recessive lethal allele, imposing fundamental costs on mate choice decisions. Here, we evaluate the cost of genetic incompatibility and its implication for mate choice in a wild house mice population. In laboratory reared mice, we detected no fertility (number of embryos) or fecundity (ability to conceive) costs of the t, and yet we found a high cost of genetic incompatibility: heterozygote crosses produced 40% smaller birth litter sizes because of prenatal mortality. Surprisingly, transmission of t in crosses using +/t males was influenced by female genotype, consistent with postcopulatory female choice for + sperm in +/t females. Analysis of paternity patterns in a wild population of house mice showed that +/t females were more likely than +/+ females to have offspring sired by +/+ males, and unlike +/+ females, paternity of their offspring was not influenced by +/t male frequency, further supporting mate choice for genetic compatibility. As the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is physically linked to the t, we investigated whether females could potentially use variation at the MHC to identify male genotype at the sperm or individual level. A unique MHC haplotype is linked to the t haplotype. This MHC haplotype could allow the recognition of t and enable pre- and postcopulatory mate choice for genetic compatibility. Alternatively, the MHC itself could be the target of mate choice for genetic compatibility. We predict that mate choice for genetic compatibility will be difficult to find in many systems, as only weak fertilization biases were found despite an exceptionally high cost of genetic incompatibility. PMID:23762510

  15. Multi-imager compatible actuation principles in surgical robotics

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, D

    2011-01-01

    Today’s most successful surgical robots are perhaps surgeon-driven systems, such as the daVinci (Intuitive Surgical Inc., USA, www.intuitivesurgical.com). These have already enabled surgery that was unattainable with classic instrumentation; however, at their present level of development, they have limited utility. The drawback of these systems is that they are independent self-contained units, and as such, they do not directly take advantage of patient data. The potential of these new surgical tools lies much further ahead. Integration with medical imaging and information are needed for these devices to achieve their true potential. Surgical robots and especially their subclass of image-guided systems require special design, construction and control compared to industrial types, due to the special requirements of the medical and imaging environments. Imager compatibility raises significant engineering challenges for the development of robotic manipulators with respect to imager access, safety, ergonomics, and above all the non-interference with the functionality of the imager. These apply to all known medical imaging types, but are especially challenging for achieving compatibility with the class of MRI systems. Even though a large majority of robotic components may be redesigned to be constructed of MRI compatible materials, for other components such as the motors used in actuation, prescribing MRI compatible materials alone is not sufficient. The electromagnetic motors most commonly used in robotic actuation, for example, are incompatible by principle. As such, alternate actuation principles using “intervention friendly” energy should be adopted and/or devised for these special surgical and radiological interventions. This paper defines the new concept of Multi-imager Compatibility of surgical manipulators and describes its requirements. Subsequently, the paper gives several recommendations and proposes new actuation principles for this concept. Several

  16. Studies of material and process compatibility in developing compact silicon vapor chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qingjun; Bhunia, Avijit; Tsai, Chialun; Kendig, Martin W.; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.

    2013-06-01

    The performance and long-term reliability of a silicon vapor chamber (SVC) developed for thermal management of high-power electronics critically depend on compatibility of the component materials. A hermetically sealed SVC presented in this paper is composed of bulk silicon, glass-frit as a bonding agent, lead/tin solder as an interface sealant and a copper charging tube. These materials, in the presence of a water/vapor environment, may chemically react and release noncondensable gas (NCG), which can weaken structural strength and degrade the heat transfer performance with time. The present work reports detailed studies on chemical compatibility of the components and potential solutions to avoid the resulting thermal performance degradation. Silicon surface oxidation and purification of operating liquid are necessary steps to reduce performance degradation in the transient period. A lead-based solder with its low reflow temperature is found to be electrochemically stable in water/vapor environment. High glazing temperature solidifies molecular bonding in glass-frit and mitigates PbO precipitation. Numerous liquid flushes guarantee removal of chemical residual after the charging tube is soldered to SVC. With these improvements on the SVC material and process compatibility, high effective thermal conductivity and steady heat transfer performance are obtained.

  17. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  18. Materials Compatibility Studies for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Pawel, S.J.

    1998-09-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high power facility for producing neutrons that utilizes flowing liquid mercury inside an austenitic stainless steel container as the target for a 1.0 GeV proton beam. The energy deposited in the target is transported by two separate mercury flow streams: one to transport heat in the interior target region and one to cool the stainless steel container. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed to predict temperature, velocity, and pressure distributions in the target. Results have generally shown that the power deposited in the bulk mercury can be effectively transported with reasonable flow rates and the bulk mercury temperature should not exceed 160{deg}C. Assuming good thermal contact, the maximum stainless steel wall temperature should be 130 {deg}C. Type 316 SS has been selected as the container material for the mercury and consequences of exposure of 316 SS to radiation, thermal shock, thermal stress, cavitation and hot, flowing mercury are all being addressed by R&D programs. In addition, corrosion studies include evaluation of Inconel 718 because it has been successfully used in previous water cooled spallation neutron systems as a window material. With type 316 SS selected to contain the mercury target of the SNS, two types of compatibility issues have been examined: LME and temperature gradient mass transfer. Studies have shown that mercury does not easily wet type 316 SS below 275{deg}C. In the LME experiments, attempts were made to promote wetting of the steel by mercury either by adding gallium to the mercury or coating the specimen with a tin-silver solder that the mercury easily wets. The latter proved more reliable in establishing wetting, but there was no evidence of LME in any of the constant extension rate tensile tests either at 23 or 100 {deg}C. Inconel 718 also showed no change in room temperature properties when tested in mercwy or mercury-gallium. However, there

  19. Optimizing the Intralayer and Interlayer Compatibility for High-Efficiency Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Chunbo; Fan, Chaochao; Wei, Ying; Han, Fuquan; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A series of phosphine oxide hosts, 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphoryl) dibenzothiophene (DBTDPO) and 4- diphenylphosphoryldibenzothiophene (DBTSPO), and electron transporting materials (ETM), 2-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (2DBSOSPO), 3-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (3DBSOSPO) and 4-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (4DBSOSPO) were developed to support blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) devices with high performance through optimizing intralayer and interlayer compatibility of emissive layers. On the basis of the triplet energy of ~3.0 eV for the hosts and ETMs, excitons can be effectively confined on DMAC-DPS. Compared to DBTSPO, DBTDPO can support the excellent distribution uniformity to blue TADF dye bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl–9,10-dihydroacridine) phenyl] sulfone (DMAC-DPS), owing to their configuration similarity; while 3DBSOSPO and 4DBSOSPO are superior in compatibility with the hosts due to the similar molecular polarity or configuration. Through adjusting the molecular configuration, the electrical performance of ETMs can be feasibly tuned, including the excellent electron mobility (μe) by the order of 10−3 cm2 V−1 s−1. As the result, DBTDPO and 4DBSOSPO endowed their four-layer blue TADF devices with the maximum current efficiency of 33.5 cd A−1 and the maximum external quantum efficiency more than 17%, which are impressive among the best blue TADF devices. It is showed that intralayer compatibility determines the maximum efficiencies, while interlayer compatibility influences efficiency stability. PMID:26822524

  20. Optimizing the Intralayer and Interlayer Compatibility for High-Efficiency Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Diodes.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chunbo; Fan, Chaochao; Wei, Ying; Han, Fuquan; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A series of phosphine oxide hosts, 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphoryl) dibenzothiophene (DBTDPO) and 4- diphenylphosphoryldibenzothiophene (DBTSPO), and electron transporting materials (ETM), 2-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (2DBSOSPO), 3-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (3DBSOSPO) and 4-(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene sulfone (4DBSOSPO) were developed to support blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) devices with high performance through optimizing intralayer and interlayer compatibility of emissive layers. On the basis of the triplet energy of ~3.0 eV for the hosts and ETMs, excitons can be effectively confined on DMAC-DPS. Compared to DBTSPO, DBTDPO can support the excellent distribution uniformity to blue TADF dye bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine) phenyl] sulfone (DMAC-DPS), owing to their configuration similarity; while 3DBSOSPO and 4DBSOSPO are superior in compatibility with the hosts due to the similar molecular polarity or configuration. Through adjusting the molecular configuration, the electrical performance of ETMs can be feasibly tuned, including the excellent electron mobility (μe) by the order of 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). As the result, DBTDPO and 4DBSOSPO endowed their four-layer blue TADF devices with the maximum current efficiency of 33.5 cd A(-1) and the maximum external quantum efficiency more than 17%, which are impressive among the best blue TADF devices. It is showed that intralayer compatibility determines the maximum efficiencies, while interlayer compatibility influences efficiency stability. PMID:26822524

  1. Investigation of drug-excipient compatibility using rheological and thermal tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Maitri R.

    in case of Lac-M and Lac-A, interaction with water of crystallization were not present. Binary mixtures prepared with DCP-D were better flowable while blends with DCP-A were better in stability (physical), compressibility and permeability. Similarly binary mixtures prepared with Lac-M were better flowable and stable in physical compatibility as compared to Lac-A. Lac-A were better in compressibility and permeability. Second part of these research included understanding the powder behavior from wet granulation point of view. Wet granulation includes the formation of agglomerates with powders to form granules in order to have better flowability, content uniformity and compressibility of granular mass. End point determination of powders involving change in powder energies and compressibility, permeability along with thermal analyses were conducted. The effects of water of crystallization on end point determination was studied and based on which overall effects on drug-excipient compatibility using different hydrate forms of excipients were evaluated.

  2. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  3. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  4. Heterosides--compatible solutes occurring in prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, M; Pade, N

    2015-09-01

    The acclimation to osmotic and/or salt stress conditions induces an integrated response at different cellular levels. One acclimation strategy relies on the massive accumulation of low molecular mass compounds, so-called compatible solutes, to balance osmotic gradients and to directly protect critical macromolecules. Heterosides are compounds composed of a sugar and a polyol moiety that represent one chemical class of compatible solutes with interesting features. Well-investigated examples are glucosylglycerol, which is found in many cyanobacteria, and galactosylglycerols (floridoside and isofloridoside), which are accumulated by eukaryotic algae under salt stress conditions. Here, we review knowledge on physiology, biochemistry and genetics of heteroside accumulation in pro- and eukaryotic photoautotrophic organisms. PMID:25996303

  5. Augmenting drug–carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, Francois; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphael; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjorkoy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; et al

    2016-04-13

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug–carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug–carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug’s hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, wemore » applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug’s compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Lastly, our results help elucidate nanomedicines’ in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.« less

  6. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  7. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  8. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J M

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery. PMID:27071376

  9. Augmenting drug–carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug–carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug–carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery. PMID:27071376

  10. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  11. Towards development of an ozone compatible cooling water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of ozone as a biocide in conjunction with conventional chemical treatment for corrosion, scale and deposit control was investigated using bench top and process simulation experiments. Aspects of aqueous ozone chemistry relevant to cooling water operation were discussed. For a given water chemistry, the degradation kinetics of a given chemical vs. microbial kill rate was identified as the parameter of interest. A relatively ozone resistant phosphonate CaCO{sub 3} scale inhibitor and a calcium phosphate dispersant were identified. None of the commercially available yellow metal corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole (TT) and butylbenzotriazole (BBT) were found to be ozone compatible. Results from a field application where ozone is used in conjunction with an identified ozone compatible treatment are presented.

  12. On Rate-Compatible Punctured Turbo Codes Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, Fulvio; Montorsi, Guido; Vatta, Francesca

    2005-12-01

    We propose and compare some design criteria for the search of good systematic rate-compatible punctured turbo code (RCPTC) families. The considerations presented by S. Benedetto et al. (1998) to find the "best" component encoders for turbo code construction are extended to find good rate-compatible puncturing patterns for a given interleaver length[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. This approach is shown to lead to codes that improve over previous ones, both in the maximum-likelihood sense (using transfer function bounds) and in the iterative decoding sense (through simulation results). To find simulation and analytical results, the coded bits are transmitted over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel using an antipodal binary modulation. The two main applications of this technique are its use in hybrid incremental ARQ/FEC schemes and its use to achieve unequal error protection of an information sequence.

  13. Preparation of anionic polyurethane nanoparticles and blood compatible behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Bao, Jianchun; Shen, Jian

    2012-05-01

    The anionic polyurethane nanoparticles (APU-NPs) were obtained by an emulsion polymerization method. It was found that the average size of the prepared APU-NPs is about 84 nm, and the APU-NPs have zeta-potential of -38.9 mV. The bulk characterization of synthesized APU-NPs was investigated by FTIR. The blood compatibility of APU-NPs was characterized by in vitro for coagulation tests, complement activation, platelet activation, cytotoxicity experiments, and hemolysis assay. The results showed that the APU-NPs synthesized in this paper are blood compatible with low level of cell cytotoxicity, and the results were significant for their potential use in vivo. PMID:22852346

  14. Improved in Vitro Blood Compatibility of Polycaprolactone Nanowire Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of polymeric materials currently utilized to prepare a variety of blood-contacting implantable medical devices. These devices include tissue grafts, coronary artery and vascular stents, and orthopedic implants. The thrombogenic nature of such materials can cause serious complications in patients, and ultimately lead to functional failure. To date, there is no truly hemocompatible biomaterial surface. Nanostructured surfaces improve cellular interactions but there is a limited amount of information regarding their blood compatibility. In this study, the in vitro blood compatibility of four different surfaces (control, PCL; nanowire, NW; collagen immobilized control, cPCL; collagen immobilized nanowire, cNW) were investigated for their use as interfaces for blood-contacting implants. The results presented here indicate enhanced in vitro blood compatibility of nanowire surfaces compared control surfaces. Although there were no significant differences in leukocyte adhesion, there was a decrease in platelet adhesion on NW surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a decrease in platelet/leukocyte complexes on cNW surfaces and no apparent complexes were formed on NW surfaces compared to PCL and cPCL surfaces. The increase in these complexes likely contributed to a higher expression of specific markers for platelet and leukocyte activation on PCL and cPCL surfaces. No significant differences were found in contact and complement activation on any surface. Further, thrombin antithrombin complexes were significantly reduced on NW surfaces. A significant increase in hemolysis and fibrinogen adsorption was identified on PCL surfaces likely caused by its hydrophobic surface. This work shows the improved blood-compatibility of nanostructured surfaces, identifying this specific nanoarchitecture as a potential interface for promoting the long-term success of blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:25184556

  15. Compatibility and Outgassing Studies for Directed Stockpile Work (FY05)

    SciTech Connect

    Alviso, C; Harvey, C; Vance, A

    2005-11-23

    Compatibility and outgassing studies of non-nuclear materials were carried out in support of the W80 Life Extension Program. These studies included small-scale laboratory experiments as well as participation in Sandia's Materials Aging and Compatibility test (MAC-1). Analysis of the outgassing signature of removable epoxy foam (REF) revealed unusually high levels of volatile organic compounds in the material. REF was replaced with the polyurethane PMDI. Laboratory compatibility tests of high priority materials were performed and revealed incompatibilities between Viton A (LX-07 binder) and syntactic polysulfide as well as Viton A and REF. With the removal of REF from the system, the incompatibility with Viton A is not an issue. In the case of the viton/polysulfide, both of these materials have a history of reliability in the stockpile, and the observed results, while scientifically interesting, appear to be a laboratory anomaly. Participation in the MAC-1 test led to a detailed study of Viton A degradation. At elevated temperatures up to 70 C, the Viton A samples darkened and exhibited increased crosslinking. Laboratory experiments were pursued to correlate the observed changes to exposure to specific compounds that were present in the MAC-1 canister atmospheres. Exposure to siloxanes resulted in changes similar to those seen in the MAC-1 samples. Knowledge gained from the MAC-1 test will be applied to the upcoming MAC-2 test planned for FY06. Finally, the suitability of isotopically labeled nitrogen fill gas ({sup 15}N{sub 2}) was addressed. This gas will behave as standard nitrogen with no compatibility concerns expected.

  16. Materials compatibility with the volcanic environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Htun, K.M.

    1984-03-08

    Attempts were made to run materials compatibility, volcanic gas collection, and heat transfer experiments during the 1977 Kilauea eruption. Preliminary results from the recovered samples showed that Fe, Ni, and Fe-Ni alloys were the most heavily oxidized. The Mo and W alloys showed some attack and only neglible reaction was seen on 310 stainless, Hastelloy C, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Rene 41, and Nichrome. Results are qualitative only. (DLC)

  17. A compatibility study of FEFO with various containment materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H.; Foster, P.

    1994-01-01

    Compatibility between FEFO (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal) and a number of organic and metallic materials was evaluated at 22 and 74 C for up to 8 months. The metals included common structural alloys and elemental metals that the extrudable explosive might contact in its service life. The organic materials included flexible materials for use as collapsible extrusion membranes or permeation barriers, rigid engineering resins (matrices for composite vessels), and polymer viscosity modifiers.

  18. Fusion-reactor blanket-material safety-compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Keough, R.F.; Cohen, S.

    1982-11-01

    Blanket material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Blanket material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize blanket-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate that : (1) ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/ and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ alloy reactions with water generate heat, aerosol and hydrogen; (2) lithium oxide and Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release; (3) liquid lithium reacts substantially, while Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen; and (4) liquid lithium-air reactions present some major safety concerns.

  19. Compatibility studies of metallic materials with lithium-based oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Dienst, W.

    1988-07-01

    The compatibility of Li 2O, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3 with the cladding materials AISI 316, 1.4914, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625 was investigated at 800-1000°C for annealing times up to 1000 h. A controlled oxygen reactivity was established by adding 1 mol% NiO per mole Li 2O to the Li-based oxides. In addition, some compatibility tests were performed at 600-900°C on Be, which is of interest as a neutron multiplier material, with Li 2SiO 3 as well as AISI 316. Li 2O accounted for the strongest cladding attack, followed by Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3. In the absence of NiO, Li 2SiO 3 caused no chemical interactions at all. With respect to the cladding materials, there was no considerable difference in the reaction rates of AISI 316, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625. However, the steel 1.4914 was clearly more heavily attacked at and above 800°C. The compatibility of Be with Li 2SiO 3 or AISI 316 seems to be tolerable up to about 650°C. At higher temperatures a liquid Li suicide phase is formed which results in strong local attack and penetration into Li 2SiO 3.

  20. Guide for Oxygen Compatibility Assessments on Oxygen Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Shoffstall, Michael S.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and preventing fire hazards is necessary when designing, maintaining, and operating oxygen systems. Ignition risks can be minimized by controlling heat sources and using materials that will not ignite or will not support burning in the end-use environment. Because certain materials are more susceptible to ignition in oxygen-enriched environments, a compatibility assessment should be performed before the component is introduced into an oxygen system. This document provides an overview of oxygen fire hazards and procedures that are consistent with the latest versions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards G63 (1999) and G94 (2005) to address fire hazards associated with oxygen systems. This document supersedes the previous edition, NASA Technical Memorandum 104823, Guide for Oxygen Hazards Analyses on Components and Systems (1996). The step-by-step oxygen compatibility assessment method described herein (see Section 4) enables oxygen-system designers, system engineers, and facility managers to determine areas of concern with respect to oxygen compatibility and, ultimately, prevent damage to a system or injury to personnel.