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Sample records for actions significantly affecting

  1. Significant Life Experiences Affect Environmental Action: A Confirmation Study in Eastern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    2009-01-01

    Two field studies form the basis of this article. The major purposes of Study 1 were to examine significant life experiences affecting the cultivation of environmental activists in eastern Taiwan, and to reconstruct the life paths followed by those active people who engaged in effective environmental action. 40 usable autobiographical memories…

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  3. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  4. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Legislative actions pertaining to Washington public higher education during the last two years are described. The reports list the major resolutions passed, laws enacted, and legislative appropriations. State legislation dealt with: establishment of the Washington library network; retirement systems; bookkeeping transactions; travel expenses; bond…

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  8. Affect and the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Victor Manoel

    2005-06-01

    In connection with controversial IJP articles by Stern et al. and Fonagy on the interpretation of the repressed and the recovery of past memories, the author maintains that the affect that is inherent in positive transference is at the heart of therapeutic action. Points of view put forward in the controversy (based on neurobiological knowledge) are related to Freudian metapsychology, as well as to their precursors whose scope was necessarily limited by a lack of access to more recent scientific discoveries. The author demonstrates metapsychological elements of therapeutic action inherent in the intersubjective relationship, especially identification, manifested in introjection and empathy. He describes cognitive development as spontaneously blossoming from the affective nucleus, and he explains the neuroscientific bases of this step forward. The classic (interpretative) psychoanalytic method makes up the cognitive superstructure necessary for the organisation of the mind that has sprung from the affective substructure. As a primary factor in psychic change, interpretation is limited in effectiveness to pathologies arising from the verbal phase, related to explicit memories, with no effect in the pre-verbal phase where implicit memories are to be found. Interpretation--the method used to the exclusion of all others for a century--is only partial; when used in isolation it does not meet the demands of modern broad-spectrum psychoanalysis, as the clinical material presented illustrates.

  9. Statistical extraction affects visually guided action

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Jennifer E.; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The visual system summarizes average properties of ensembles of similar objects. We demonstrated an adaptation aftereffect of one such property, mean size, suggesting it is encoded along a single visual dimension (Corbett, et al., 2012), in a similar manner as basic stimulus properties like orientation and direction of motion. To further explore the fundamental nature of ensemble encoding, here we mapped the evolution of mean size adaptation over the course of visually guided grasping. Participants adapted to two sets of dots with different mean sizes. After adaptation, two test dots replaced the adapting sets. Participants first reached to one of these dots, and then judged whether it was larger or smaller than the opposite dot. Grip apertures were inversely dependent on the average dot size of the preceding adapting patch during the early phase of movements, and this aftereffect dissipated as reaches neared the target. Interestingly, perceptual judgments still showed a marked aftereffect, even though they were made after grasping was completed more-or-less veridically. This effect of mean size adaptation on early visually guided kinematics provides novel evidence that mean size is encoded fundamentally in both perception and action domains, and suggests that ensemble statistics not only influence our perceptions of individual objects but can also affect our physical interactions with the external environment. PMID:25383014

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  12. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  13. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  14. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  15. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  16. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  17. Significance of 2,4-dinitrophenol action on spinal motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Krnjević, K; Puil, E; Werman, R

    1978-02-01

    1. Extracellular iontophoretic applications of DNP lead to an increase in the membrane conductance of cat spinal motoneurones, manifested by a rise in input conductance, a slower rate of rise and fall of action potentials, and occlusion of the afterhyperpolarization. 2. There is also some hyperpolarization, but the reversal potential for the action of DNP is only about 12 mV more negative than the resting potential. 3. These effect of DNP can be abolished or significantly reduced by intracellular injections of EGTA. On the other hand, DNP can partly reverse the decreased conductance and the depression of the slow afterhyperpolarization caused by EGTA. 4. Intracellular injections of DNP also induce a rise in input conductance; when repeated, they tend to have a depolarizing effect, mainly irreversible. 5. It is concluded that DNP acts principally inside the motoneurone, by liberating bound internal Ca, the free Ca ions then raising membrane conductance, especially GK.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993: Volume 12, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July-December 1996) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  1. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  4. 75 FR 11112 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Robert Kraaipoel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Robert Kraaipoel In the Matter of: Robert Kraaipoel, P.O. Box 418, Heerhugowaard, Netherlands 1700AK. and Flemming Straat 36, Heerhugowaard, Netherlands 1700AK. Respondent. Order Relating to Robert Kraaipoel The Bureau of Industry and Security,...

  5. 75 FR 337 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Ning Wen

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31367] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security [07-BIS-02] Action Affecting... Ning Wen The Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce (``BIS'') has initiated an...: 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy To Export Electronic Components to People's Republic of China Without...

  6. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  7. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation.

  8. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  9. How Saccade Intrusions Affect Subsequent Motor and Oculomotor Actions

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Yasuo; Fukuda, Hideki; Tokushige, Shin-ichi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    In daily activities, there is a close spatial and temporal coupling between eye and hand movements that enables human beings to perform actions smoothly and accurately. If this coupling is disrupted by inadvertent saccade intrusions, subsequent motor actions suffer from delays, and lack of coordination. To examine how saccade intrusions affect subsequent voluntary actions, we used two tasks that require subjects to make motor/oculomotor actions in response to a visual cue. One was the memory guided saccade (MGS) task, and the other the hand reaction time (RT) task. The MGS task required subjects to initiate a voluntary saccade to a memorized target location, which is indicated shortly before by a briefly presented cue. The RT task required subjects to release a button on detection of a visual target, while foveating on a central fixation point. In normal subjects of various ages, inadvertent saccade intrusions delayed subsequent voluntary motor, and oculomotor actions. We also studied patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who are impaired not only in initiating voluntary saccades but also in suppressing unwanted reflexive saccades. Saccade intrusions also delayed hand RT in PD patients. However, MGS was affected by the saccade intrusion differently. Saccade intrusion did not delay MGS latency in PD patients who could perform MGS with a relatively normal latency. In contrast, in PD patients who were unable to initiate MGS within the normal time range, we observed slightly decreased MGS latency after saccade intrusions. What explains this paradoxical phenomenon? It is known that motor actions slow down when switching between controlled and automatic behavior. We discuss how the effect of saccade intrusions on subsequent voluntary motor/oculomotor actions may reflect a similar switching cost between automatic and controlled behavior and a cost for switching between different motor effectors. In contrast, PD patients were unable to initiate internally guided MGS in

  10. How Saccade Intrusions Affect Subsequent Motor and Oculomotor Actions.

    PubMed

    Terao, Yasuo; Fukuda, Hideki; Tokushige, Shin-Ichi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    In daily activities, there is a close spatial and temporal coupling between eye and hand movements that enables human beings to perform actions smoothly and accurately. If this coupling is disrupted by inadvertent saccade intrusions, subsequent motor actions suffer from delays, and lack of coordination. To examine how saccade intrusions affect subsequent voluntary actions, we used two tasks that require subjects to make motor/oculomotor actions in response to a visual cue. One was the memory guided saccade (MGS) task, and the other the hand reaction time (RT) task. The MGS task required subjects to initiate a voluntary saccade to a memorized target location, which is indicated shortly before by a briefly presented cue. The RT task required subjects to release a button on detection of a visual target, while foveating on a central fixation point. In normal subjects of various ages, inadvertent saccade intrusions delayed subsequent voluntary motor, and oculomotor actions. We also studied patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who are impaired not only in initiating voluntary saccades but also in suppressing unwanted reflexive saccades. Saccade intrusions also delayed hand RT in PD patients. However, MGS was affected by the saccade intrusion differently. Saccade intrusion did not delay MGS latency in PD patients who could perform MGS with a relatively normal latency. In contrast, in PD patients who were unable to initiate MGS within the normal time range, we observed slightly decreased MGS latency after saccade intrusions. What explains this paradoxical phenomenon? It is known that motor actions slow down when switching between controlled and automatic behavior. We discuss how the effect of saccade intrusions on subsequent voluntary motor/oculomotor actions may reflect a similar switching cost between automatic and controlled behavior and a cost for switching between different motor effectors. In contrast, PD patients were unable to initiate internally guided MGS in

  11. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  12. 47 CFR 1.1307 - Actions that may have a significant environmental effect, for which Environmental Assessments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... actions with respect to the following types of facilities may significantly affect the environment and... designated wildlife preserve. (3) Facilities that: (i) May affect listed threatened or endangered species or... Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. (4) Facilities that may...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1307 - Actions that may have a significant environmental effect, for which Environmental Assessments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... actions with respect to the following types of facilities may significantly affect the environment and... designated wildlife preserve. (3) Facilities that: (i) May affect listed threatened or endangered species or... Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. (4) Facilities that may...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1307 - Actions that may have a significant environmental effect, for which Environmental Assessments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... actions with respect to the following types of facilities may significantly affect the environment and... designated wildlife preserve. (3) Facilities that: (i) May affect listed threatened or endangered species or... Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. (4) Facilities that may...

  15. Methodology significantly affects genome size estimates: quantitative evidence using bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Bainard, Jillian D; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G

    2010-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is commonly used to determine plant genome size estimates. Methodology has improved and changed during the past three decades, and researchers are encouraged to optimize protocols for their specific application. However, this step is typically omitted or undescribed in the current plant genome size literature, and this omission could have serious consequences for the genome size estimates obtained. Using four bryophyte species (Brachythecium velutinum, Fissidens taxifolius, Hedwigia ciliata, and Thuidium minutulum), three methodological approaches to the use of FCM in plant genome size estimation were tested. These included nine different buffers (Baranyi's, de Laat's, Galbraith's, General Purpose, LB01, MgSO(4), Otto's, Tris.MgCl(2), and Woody Plant), seven propidium iodide (PI) staining periods (5, 10, 15, 20, 45, 60, and 120 min), and six PI concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 microg ml(-1)). Buffer, staining period and staining concentration all had a statistically significant effect (P = 0.05) on the genome size estimates obtained for all four species. Buffer choice and PI concentration had the greatest effect, altering the 1C-values by as much as 8% and 14%, respectively. As well, the quality of the data varied with the different methodology used. Using the methodology determined to be the most accurate in this study (LB01 buffer and PI staining for 20 min at 150 microg ml(-1)), three new genome size estimates were obtained: B. velutinum: 0.46 pg, H. ciliata: 0.30 pg, and T. minutulum: 0.46 pg. While the peak quality of flow cytometry histograms is important, researchers must consider that changes in methodology can also affect the relative peak positions and therefore the genome size estimates obtained for plants using FCM.

  16. Social class affects Mu-suppression during action observation.

    PubMed

    Varnum, Michael E W; Blais, Chris; Brewer, Gene A

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to differences in the degree to which people are attuned to others. Those who are lower in SES also tend to be more interpersonally attuned. However, to date, this work has not been demonstrated using neural measures. In the present electroencephalogram study, we found evidence that lower SES was linked to stronger Mu-suppression during action observation. This finding adds to the growing literature on factors that affect Mu-suppression and suggests that the mirror neuron system may be influenced by one's social class.

  17. What experimental experience affects dogs' comprehension of human communicative actions?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Marc D; Comins, Jordan A; Pytka, Lisa M; Cahill, Donal P; Velez-Calderon, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of dogs report that individuals reliably respond to the goal-directed communicative actions (e.g., pointing) of human experimenters. All of these studies use some version of a multi-trial approach, thereby allowing for the possibility of rapid learning within an experimental session. The experiments reported here ask whether dogs can respond correctly to a communicative action based on only a single presentation, thereby eliminating the possibility of learning within the experimental context. We tested 173 dogs. For each dog reaching our test criteria, we used a single presentation of six different goal-directed actions within a session, asking whether they correctly follow to a target goal (container with concealed food) a (1) distal hand point, (2) step toward one container, (3) hand point to one container followed by step toward the other, (4) step toward one container and point to the other, (5) distal foot point with the experimenter's hands free, and (6) distal foot point with the experimenter's hands occupied. Given only a single presentation, dogs selected the correct container when the experimenter hand pointed, foot pointed with hands occupied, or stepped closer to the target container, but failed on the other actions, despite using the same method. The fact that dogs correctly followed foot pointing with hands occupied, but not hands free, suggests that they are sensitive to environmental constraints, and use this information to infer rational, goal-directed action. We discuss these results in light of the role of experience in recognizing communicative gestures, as well as the significance of coding criteria for studies of canine competence.

  18. Does Parkinson's disease affect judgement about another person's action?

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, E; Galpin, A J; Dick, J P R; Tipper, S P

    2010-07-01

    The observer's motor system has been shown to be involved in observing the actions of another person. Recent findings suggest that people with Parkinson's disease do not show the same motor facilitatory effects when observing the actions of another person. We studied whether Parkinson's patients were able to make unspeeded judgements about another person's action. Participants were asked to watch video clips of an actor lifting a box containing different weights (100, 200, 300 or 400 g) and to guess the weight that was being lifted on a 9-point scale. We compared the performance of 16 patients with PD with 16 healthy age-matched controls. Both groups were able to do the task, showing a significant relationship between the real weight and the guessed weight, albeit with a tendency to overestimate the lowest weight and underestimate the heaviest weight. The PD patients, however, showed a reduced slope value. These results show that despite their own motor deficits, PD patients are still able to judge the weight being lifted by another person, albeit with a slight reduction in accuracy. Further research will be required to determine whether PD patients use a motor simulation or a visual compensatory strategy to achieve this.

  19. Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation.

    PubMed

    Brugè, Francesca; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2011-10-01

    Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a member of the vitamin K2 family, performs several functions, all related to its recognised effect on post-translational carboxylation of certain protein-bound glutamate residues. Due to its lipophilic structure MK-7 is soluble in olive oil, so the aim of the present study was to test whether extra-virgin (EV) olive oil enriched with MK-7 significantly increases MK-7 plasma levels and has an effect on osteocalcin and its carboxylation status. Healthy young volunteers (n 12) were administered 20 ml EV olive oil per d for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of the same amount of olive oil enriched with 45 μg and then 90 μg MK-7, with an appropriate washout time in between. Blood was collected and plasma separated in each phase of the study. We found that integration of the diet with EV olive oil alone did not produce any significant variation of MK-7 plasma levels compared with baseline. Supplementation with MK-7-enriched olive oil resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in plasma levels. The high dose also significantly increased carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and decreased undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) plasma levels, resulting in a significant increase in the cOC:ucOC ratio. A significant correlation was also found between percentage variation of plasma cOCA:ucOC ratio and increase in plasma MK-7 levels. We conclude that regular consumption of MK-7-enriched olive oil may constitute a valid approach in order to preserve some key biochemical mechanisms controlling bone mineralisation.

  20. Is Global Warming significantly affecting atmospheric circulation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; Penland, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although the anthropogenic influence on 20th century global warming is well established, the influence on the atmospheric circulation, especially on regional scales at which natural variability is relatively large, has proved harder to ascertain. And yet assertions are often made to this effect, especially in the media whenever an extreme warm or cold or dry or wet spell occurs and is tied to an apparent trend in the large-scale atmospheric circulation pattern. We are addressing this important issue using the longest currently available global atmospheric circulation dataset, an ensemble of 56 equally likely estimates of the atmospheric state within observational error bounds generated for every 6 hours from 1871 to the present in the 20th Century Reanalysis Project (20CR; Compo et al, QJRMS 2011). We previously presented evidence that long-term trends in the indices of several major modes of atmospheric circulation variability, including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the tropical Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC), were weak or non-existent over the full period of record in the 20CR dataset. We have since investigated the possibility of a change in the probability density functions (PDFs) of the daily values of these indices, including changes in their tails, from the first to the second halves of the 20th century and found no statistically significant change. This was done taking into account the generally skewed and heavy-tailed character of these PDFs, and using both raw histograms and fitted "SGS" probability distributions (whose relevance in describing large-scale atmospheric variability was demonstrated in Sardeshmukh and Sura, J. Climate 2009) to assess the significance of any changes through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We stress that without such an explicit accounting of departures from normal distributions, detection and attribution studies of changes in climate extremes may be seriously compromised and lead to wrong conclusions. Our

  1. Land use type significantly affects microbial gene transcription in soil.

    PubMed

    Nacke, Heiko; Fischer, Christiane; Thürmer, Andrea; Meinicke, Peter; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Soil microorganisms play an essential role in sustaining biogeochemical processes and cycling of nutrients across different land use types. To gain insights into microbial gene transcription in forest and grassland soil, we isolated mRNA from 32 sampling sites. After sequencing of generated complementary DNA (cDNA), a total of 5,824,229 sequences could be further analyzed. We were able to assign nonribosomal cDNA sequences to all three domains of life. A dominance of bacterial sequences, which were affiliated to 25 different phyla, was found. Bacterial groups capable of aromatic compound degradation such as Phenylobacterium and Burkholderia were detected in significantly higher relative abundance in forest soil than in grassland soil. Accordingly, KEGG pathway categories related to degradation of aromatic ring-containing molecules (e.g., benzoate degradation) were identified in high abundance within forest soil-derived metatranscriptomic datasets. The impact of land use type forest on community composition and activity is evidently to a high degree caused by the presence of wood breakdown products. Correspondingly, bacterial groups known to be involved in lignin degradation and containing ligninolytic genes such as Burkholderia, Bradyrhizobium, and Azospirillum exhibited increased transcriptional activity in forest soil. Higher solar radiation in grassland presumably induced increased transcription of photosynthesis-related genes within this land use type. This is in accordance with high abundance of photosynthetic organisms and plant-infecting viruses in grassland.

  2. Space charges can significantly affect the dynamics of accelerator maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bountis, Tassos; Skokos, Charalampos

    2006-10-01

    Space charge effects can be very important for the dynamics of intense particle beams, as they repeatedly pass through nonlinear focusing elements, aiming to maximize the beam's luminosity properties in the storage rings of a high energy accelerator. In the case of hadron beams, whose charge distribution can be considered as “frozen” within a cylindrical core of small radius compared to the beam's dynamical aperture, analytical formulas have been recently derived [C. Benedetti, G. Turchetti, Phys. Lett. A 340 (2005) 461] for the contribution of space charges within first order Hamiltonian perturbation theory. These formulas involve distribution functions which, in general, do not lead to expressions that can be evaluated in closed form. In this Letter, we apply this theory to an example of a charge distribution, whose effect on the dynamics can be derived explicitly and in closed form, both in the case of 2-dimensional as well as 4-dimensional mapping models of hadron beams. We find that, even for very small values of the “perveance” (strength of the space charge effect) the long term stability of the dynamics changes considerably. In the flat beam case, the outer invariant “tori” surrounding the origin disappear, decreasing the size of the beam's dynamical aperture, while beyond a certain threshold the beam is almost entirely lost. Analogous results in mapping models of beams with 2-dimensional cross section demonstrate that in that case also, even for weak tune depressions, orbital diffusion is enhanced and many particles whose motion was bounded now escape to infinity, indicating that space charges can impose significant limitations on the beam's luminosity.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, January--June 1997; Volume 16, Number 1, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January--June 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  10. Motivationally significant self-control: enhanced action withholding involves the right inferior frontal junction.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David A; Upton, Daniel J; Moore, Jennifer; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, people use self-control to withhold actions. This ability is particularly important when the consequences of action withholding have an impact on the individual's well-being. Despite its importance, it is unclear as to how the neural nodes implicated in action withholding contribute to this real-world type of self-control. By modifying an action withholding paradigm, the go/no-go task, we examined how the brain exerts self-control during a scenario in which the implications of withholding an action are meaningful and motivationally significant. A successfully withheld response contributed to long-term monetary rewards, whereas failure to withhold a response incurred an immediate monetary punishment. Compared with neutral action withholding, participants significantly improved their performance when these contingencies were applied. Crucially, although the right IFG and pre-SMA were found to promote overall action withholding, the enhancement in behavioral performance relative to a neutral condition was only reflected by a physiological change in a region encompassing the right inferior frontal junction and precentral gyrus. We speculate that the ability to flexibly modulate attention to goal-relevant stimuli is crucial to enhanced, motivationally driven action withholding and that this ability is subserved by the right inferior frontal junction. These findings suggest that control-modulating factors, rather than action withholding processes per se, can be critical to improving motivationally significant action withholding outcomes.

  11. Contextualizing Mathematics Related Affect: Significance of Students' Individual and Social Level Affect in Finland and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuohilampi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics related affect turn from positive to negative during comprehensive school years worldwide. There is a clear need to find solutions to the problem. However, some gaps and problems appear in the methodologies and the common approaches used in the field. This article discusses five studies addressing affective development, challenges some…

  12. 40 CFR 230.73 - Actions affecting the method of dispersion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting the method of dispersion. 230.73 Section 230.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.73 Actions affecting the method of dispersion. The effects of...

  13. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  14. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  15. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  16. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  17. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  18. Problems in Making Significant Changes in Teaching Practice through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature about conducting an action research that could help achieving significant changes in teachers' practices. Although an action research can contribute obtaining improvements, this process is not straight-line and without obstacles. The text elaborates three problems the author faced with while dealing with the action…

  19. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  2. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness. PMID:26388812

  3. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness.

  4. Environmental context change affects memory for performed actions.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, Lili

    2010-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental context change between the study and test on the recall of action phrases that either were performed during encoding (subject-performed tasks, SPTs) or were verbally encoded (verbal tasks, VTs). Both SPTs and VTs showed the same magnitude of impaired recall when the study and test contexts mismatched. Furthermore, changing the context between the two study lists reduced cross-list intrusion errors compared to encoding the lists in the same context. Both SPTs and VTs benefited from studying the lists in different contexts as evidenced by reduced intrusions. Taken together, the results suggest that SPTs are integrated with their context because they suffered when context changed between the study and test, and they also benefited when they were performed in two environments versus the same environment.

  5. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm.

  6. Approach and withdrawal actions modulate the startle reflex independent of affective valence and muscular effort.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Ryan

    2011-07-01

    The startle reflex is modulated during processing of pleasant and unpleasant affective cues. One explanation of this finding contends that approach and withdrawal motivational processes are key to explaining the effect. Undergraduates performed arm flexion and arm extension actions shown elsewhere to reliably elicit approach and withdrawal motives, respectively. Results showed that arm extension (a withdrawal action) was associated with the largest startles, followed by a neutral control action and arm flexion (an approach action). This pattern was not attributable to the subjective pleasantness or muscular effort associated with the actions. Results support motivational priming accounts of startle reflex modulation.

  7. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  8. 26 CFR 1.6045B-1 - Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... securities. 1.6045B-1 Section 1.6045B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... to actions affecting basis of securities. (a) In general—(1) Information required. An issuer of a specified security (within the meaning of § 1.6045-1(a)(14)) that takes an organizational action...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6045B-1 - Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... securities. 1.6045B-1 Section 1.6045B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... to actions affecting basis of securities. (a) In general—(1) Information required. An issuer of a specified security (within the meaning of § 1.6045-1(a)(14)) that takes an organizational action...

  10. Developmental Coordination Disorder Affects the Processing of Action-Related Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni; Del Signore, Sara; Lakens, Daniel; Averna, Roberto; Penge, Roberta; Capozzi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Processing action-language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, which suggests that the motor system might be involved in action-language understanding. However, this claim is hotly debated. For the first time, we compared the processing of action-verbs in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disease that specifically affects the motor system, with children with a typical development (TD). We administered two versions of a go/no-go task in which verbs expressing either hand, foot or abstract actions were presented. We found that only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved, TD children showed an increase in reaction times if the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. In contrast, DCD patients did not show any difference between verb categories irrespective of the task. These findings suggest that the pathological functioning of the motor system in individuals with DCD also affects language processing. PMID:28119585

  11. The Actions of Affect in Deleuze: Others Using Language and the Language that We Make...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The actions of affect are prominent in the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and can be broken down for the purposes of education into two roles. The first alludes to the history of philosophy and the ways in which affect has been used by Spinoza (Deleuze, 1992) Nietzsche (Deleuze, 1983) or Bergson (Deleuze, 1991). In this role, Deleuze reinvigorates…

  12. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  13. Neural coding of cooperative vs. affective human interactions: 150 ms to code the action's purpose.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Paganelli, Laura; Cappa, Stefano F; Canessa, Nicola; Perani, Daniela; Zani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The timing and neural processing of the understanding of social interactions was investigated by presenting scenes in which 2 people performed cooperative or affective actions. While the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in understanding actions and intentions is widely accepted, little is known about the time course within which these aspects of visual information are automatically extracted. Event-Related Potentials were recorded in 35 university students perceiving 260 pictures of cooperative (e.g., 2 people dragging a box) or affective (e.g., 2 people smiling and holding hands) interactions. The action's goal was automatically discriminated at about 150-170 ms, as reflected by occipito/temporal N170 response. The swLORETA inverse solution revealed the strongest sources in the right posterior cingulate cortex (CC) for affective actions and in the right pSTS for cooperative actions. It was found a right hemispheric asymmetry that involved the fusiform gyrus (BA37), the posterior CC, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11) for the processing of affective interactions, particularly in the 155-175 ms time window. In a later time window (200-250 ms) the processing of cooperative interactions activated the left post-central gyrus (BA3), the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA10), as well as the right premotor cortex (BA6). Women showed a greater response discriminative of the action's goal compared to men at P300 and anterior negativity level (220-500 ms). These findings might be related to a greater responsiveness of the female vs. male MNS. In addition, the discriminative effect was bilateral in women and was smaller and left-sided in men. Evidence was provided that perceptually similar social interactions are discriminated on the basis of the agents' intentions quite early in neural processing, differentially activating regions devoted to face/body/action coding, the limbic system and the MNS.

  14. Significant changes in the 6th edition of FACT-JACIE standards affecting apheresis facilities.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    FACT-JACIE cellular therapy standards are being revised every 3years and currently in their 6th edition. Significant changes in the 6th edition of the standards that affect apheresis facilities participating in cellular therapy product collections are presented.

  15. An Exploration of Significant Leadership Development Factors in Action Learning: A Comparison of Three Action Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Chris Allen

    2013-01-01

    As the need for new leaders has increased, so has the need for new and more effective forms of leadership development (Hamel, 2007; Lojeski, 2010; Gratton, 2011). Action learning has been popularized as one of these new forms of leadership development (Peters & Smith, 1998; Byrnes, 2005; ASTD, 2008; Trehan & Pedler, 2011). However,…

  16. 75 FR 63802 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co. Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co., P.O. Box 966, Folsom, CA 95763; and P.O. Box 19395/5478, Tehran, Iran... Cooling Towers, Co. Applicable to Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co. Pursuant to Section 766.23 of...

  17. 75 FR 56504 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Rigel Optics, Inc., 477 South 28th Street..., Related Person. A. Denial of Export Privileges of Rigel Optics, Inc. On May 12, 2009, in the U.S....

  18. 75 FR 32743 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert Green; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Green Supply, Inc., 3059 Audrian Road 581,) Vandalia, Missouri 63382, Respondent; Robert Leland Green, 3059 Audrian...

  19. 77 FR 68790 - Program Comment Issued for Streamlining Section 106 Review for Actions Affecting Post-1945...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Concrete and Steel Bridges AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Program Comment issued for streamlining Section 106 review for undertakings affecting post-1945 concrete and steel... consider the effects of undertakings on common bridges and culverts constructed of concrete or steel...

  20. Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Lindblad, Gustaf; Gander, Pierre; Michael, John; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an “extended common currency” perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action. PMID:27601989

  1. An analysis of the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, R

    1975-02-01

    Triple-testcross experiments (Kearsey and Jinks 1968) were employed to investigate the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum. Their experimental design involves two inbred lines, the F1 progeny and a segregating population derived from the cross of the inbred lines. In the present experiments, four segregating populations were used. These populations included the F2 generation, a select line (SEL) and two relaxed select lines (RSI and RSII). In addition, all possible reciprocal crosses were made among the RSI, RSII, and SEL populations. It was observed that: (1) additive, dominant and epistatic gene effects all made significant contributions to the pupa weight of the progeny from all four segregating populations: (2) there was no evidence of either accumulation of epistasis as a result of selection in the SEL population or decline in epistasis as a result of removing selection pressure from the RSI and RSII populations; and (3) significant negative heterosis and maternal effects contributed to the pupa weight of the crossbred progeny of the RSI, RSII and SEL populations.

  2. General Action and Inaction Goals: Their Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Origins and Influences.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hepler, Justin; Tannenbaum, Melanie

    2011-04-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers on motivation and behavior have taken the stance that important human behaviors are determined by specific attitudes, intentions, and goals. In the present article, we review evidence suggesting that, in addition to specific motivational constructs, general goals of action and inaction are also vital determinants of many important human behaviors. This research examines the effects of these goals on motor behavior, cognitive performance, and political participation. Furthermore, we connect these general action and inaction goals with other important areas in psychology, including affect, approach/avoidance, energization, material resources, mindsets, and power. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of individual and regional/cultural differences in action and inaction. Overall, general goals for action and inaction are shown to influence a vast array of important behaviors, suggesting that in addition to considering specific attitudes, intentions, and goals, researchers may gain important insight into human behavior by considering general motivations.

  3. General Action and Inaction Goals: Their Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Origins and Influences

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hepler, Justin; Tannenbaum, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers on motivation and behavior have taken the stance that important human behaviors are determined by specific attitudes, intentions, and goals. In the present article, we review evidence suggesting that, in addition to specific motivational constructs, general goals of action and inaction are also vital determinants of many important human behaviors. This research examines the effects of these goals on motor behavior, cognitive performance, and political participation. Furthermore, we connect these general action and inaction goals with other important areas in psychology, including affect, approach/avoidance, energization, material resources, mindsets, and power. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of individual and regional/cultural differences in action and inaction. Overall, general goals for action and inaction are shown to influence a vast array of important behaviors, suggesting that in addition to considering specific attitudes, intentions, and goals, researchers may gain important insight into human behavior by considering general motivations. PMID:23766569

  4. The digitalis-like steroid hormones: new mechanisms of action and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Nesher, Maoz; Shpolansky, Uri; Rosen, Haim; Lichtstein, David

    2007-05-16

    Digitalis-like compounds (DLC) are a family of steroid hormones synthesized in and released from the adrenal gland. DLC, the structure of which resembles that of plant cardiac glycosides, bind to and inhibit the activity of the ubiquitous cell surface enzyme Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. However, there is a large body of evidence suggesting that the regulation of ion transport by Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is not the only physiological role of DLC. The binding of DLC to Na(+), K(+)-ATPase induces the activation of various signal transduction cascades that activate changes in intracellular Ca(++) homeostasis, and in specific gene expression. These, in turn, stimulate endocytosis and affect cell growth and proliferation. At the systemic level, DLC were shown to be involved in the regulation of major physiological parameters including water and salt homeostasis, cardiac contractility and rhythm, systemic blood pressure and behavior. Furthermore, the DLC system has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, cancer and depressive disorders. This review evaluates the evidence for the different aspects of DLC action and delineates open questions in the field.

  5. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  6. The Functional Significance of Affect Recognition, Neurocognition, and Clinical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The complex relationship and exact extent of the contribution of plausible indictors to social functional outcome in schizophrenia remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the functional significance of clinical symptoms, neurocognition, and affect recognition simultaneously in schizophrenia. Methods The clinical symptoms, basic neurocognition, facial emotion recognition, and social functioning of 154 subjects, including 74 with schizophrenia and 80 nonclinical comparisons, were assessed. Results We observed that various subdomains of social functioning were extensively related to general intelligence, basic neurocognition, facial emotion recognition, and clinical symptoms, with different association patterns. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that years of education, age, sustained attention, working memory, and facial emotion recognition were significantly associated with global social functioning in schizophrenia. Conclusion Our findings suggest that affect recognition combined with nonsocial neurocognition demonstrated a crucial role in predicting global social function in schizophrenia. PMID:28099444

  7. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or restrict later alternatives. Statements on technology research and development programs shall...) Research activities. (1) In accord-ance with DOT Order 5610.1B, the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology (TST) will prepare, with the concurrence of the NHTSA, proposed procedures...

  8. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or restrict later alternatives. Statements on technology research and development programs shall...) Research activities. (1) In accord-ance with DOT Order 5610.1B, the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology (TST) will prepare, with the concurrence of the NHTSA, proposed procedures...

  9. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or restrict later alternatives. Statements on technology research and development programs shall...) Research activities. (1) In accord-ance with DOT Order 5610.1B, the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology (TST) will prepare, with the concurrence of the NHTSA, proposed procedures...

  10. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or restrict later alternatives. Statements on technology research and development programs shall...) Research activities. (1) In accord-ance with DOT Order 5610.1B, the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology (TST) will prepare, with the concurrence of the NHTSA, proposed procedures...

  11. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or restrict later alternatives. Statements on technology research and development programs shall...) Research activities. (1) In accord-ance with DOT Order 5610.1B, the Assistant Secretary for Systems Development and Technology (TST) will prepare, with the concurrence of the NHTSA, proposed procedures...

  12. Significant Life Experiences on the Formation of Environmental Action among Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Danqing; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence young adults' engagement in environmental action is critical to further developing their active and important participation in environmental issues. In this paper, we designed two studies to identify life experiences of Chinese college students that foster environmental action. In Study 1, we used an…

  13. Antioxidants in food: content, measurement, significance, action, cautions, caveats, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu-Wai

    2014-01-01

    "total antioxidant content" of food will be presented. The FRAP assay and the modified version FRASC will be described, and the total antioxidant content (as the FRAP value) of a range of foods will be presented. Finally, issues of bioavailability and redox balance will be discussed in relation to the biological significance and molecular action of antioxidants in foods, some caution and caveats are presented about overcoming biological barriers to absorption of antioxidant phytochemicals, and research needs to further our understanding in the important area of food, antioxidants, and health will be highlighted.

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  17. EPA Report: For the US, Global Action Now Saves Lives and Avoids Significant Climate Change Damages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released one of the most comprehensive analyses to date on the economic, health and environmental benefits to the United States of global climate action. The peer-reviewed report, Cli

  18. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring

  19. Different degrees of plant invasion significantly affect the richness of the soil fungal community.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process.

  20. Different Degrees of Plant Invasion Significantly Affect the Richness of the Soil Fungal Community

    PubMed Central

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process. PMID:24392015

  1. Low Arousing Positive Affect Broadens Visual Attention and Alters the Thought-Action Repertoire While Broadened Visual Attention Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Daniel T.; Rüsseler, Jascha

    2016-01-01

    The Broaden-and-Build Theory states that positive emotions broaden cognition and therefore build personal resources. However, missing theoretical precision regarding the interaction of the cognitive processes involved offers a variety of possible explanations for the mechanisms of broadening and building. In Experiment 1 we tested the causality assumption which states that positive emotions first broaden visual attention which in turn leads to broadened cognition. We examined the effects of a broadened, narrowed or neutral attentional scope of 72 subjects (30 men) on their momentary thought-action repertoire. Results showed that there were no significant differences between groups regarding the breadth or the content of the thought-action repertoire. In Experiment 2 we studied the non-causality hypothesis which assumes a non-causal relationship between cognitive processes. We did so by investigating the effects of negative, neutral, and positive affect on the visual attentional scope of 85 subjects (41 men) in Experiment 2a, as well as on the thought-action repertoire of 85 participants (42 men) in Experiment 2b. Results revealed an attentional broadening effect in Experiment 2a but no differences between groups concerning the breadth of the thought-action repertoire in Experiment 2b. However, a theory driven content analysis showed that positive affect promoted social actions. Thus, our results favor the non-causality assumption. Moreover, results indicate that positive emotions do not target personal resources in general but rather resources associated with social behavior. In conclusion, we argue that the Broaden-and-Build Theory should be refined. PMID:27826276

  2. Grazing intensity significantly affects belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyao; Zhou, Xuhui; He, Yanghui; Shao, Junjiong; Hu, Zhenhong; Liu, Ruiqiang; Zhou, Huimin; Hosseinibai, Shahla

    2017-03-01

    Livestock grazing activities potentially alter ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland ecosystems. Despite the fact that numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses had been conducted, how grazing, especially its intensity, affects belowground C and N cycling in grasslands remains unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 115 published studies to examine the responses of 19 variables associated with belowground C and N cycling to livestock grazing in global grasslands. Our results showed that, on average, grazing significantly decreased belowground C and N pools in grassland ecosystems, with the largest decreases in microbial biomass C and N (21.62% and 24.40%, respectively). In contrast, belowground fluxes, including soil respiration, soil net N mineralization and soil N nitrification increased by 4.25%, 34.67% and 25.87%, respectively, in grazed grasslands compared to ungrazed ones. More importantly, grazing intensity significantly affected the magnitude (even direction) of changes in the majority of the assessed belowground C and N pools and fluxes, and C : N ratio as well as soil moisture. Specifically,light grazing contributed to soil C and N sequestration whereas moderate and heavy grazing significantly increased C and N losses. In addition, soil depth, livestock type and climatic conditions influenced the responses of selected variables to livestock grazing to some degree. Our findings highlight the importance of the effects of grazing intensity on belowground C and N cycling, which may need to be incorporated into regional and global models for predicting effects of human disturbance on global grasslands and assessing the climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  3. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PMID:26784701

  4. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect.

  5. Iron nanoparticles significantly affect the in vitro and in vivo expression of Id genes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinglu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Jinke

    2015-03-16

    In recent DNA microarray studies, we found that the transcription of the Id3 gene was significantly down-regulated in five cell lines (RAW264.7, Hepa1-6, THP-1, HepG2, and HL7702) treated with two doses (50 and 100 μg/mL) of a DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticle. Given the regulatory roles of Id genes in the cell cycle, growth, and differentiation, we wanted to do more investigations on the effect of the nanoparticle upon the Id genes. This study detected the expression of Id genes in six cell lines (the above cell lines plus HeLa) treated with the nanoparticle at the same doses using quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the expression of Id genes was significantly affected by the nanoparticle in these cell lines. Under each treatment, the Id3 gene was significantly (p < 0.01) down-regulated in all cell lines, the Id1 gene was significantly down-regulated in all cell lines except the RAW264.7 cells, and the Id2 gene was significantly down-regulated in the HepG2, HL7702, and HeLa cells. Because the Id1, Id2, and Id3 genes were significantly down-regulated in three liver-derived cell lines (Hepa1-6, HepG2, and HL7702) in both microarray and PCR detections, this study then detected the expression of Id genes in the liver tissues of mice that were intravenously injected with the nanoparticle at two doses (2 and 5 mg/kg body weight). The results revealed that the expression of Id1, Id2, and Id3 genes was also significantly down-regulated in the liver tissues under each treatment. Another Id gene, Id4, was also significantly regulated in some cells or liver tissues treated with the nanoparticle. These results reveal that the nanoparticle exerts a significant effect on the in vitro and in vivo expression of Id genes. This study thus provides new insights into the Id-related nanotoxicity of the nanoparticle and the close relationship between the regulation of Id genes and iron.

  6. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach.

    PubMed

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect.

  7. Negative support of significant others affects psychological adjustment in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Mariko; Hirai, Kei; Koyama, Atsuko; Inui, Hiroki; Yoshida, Rika; Tokoro, Akihiro

    2011-11-01

    Significant others play an important role in providing support in patients' lives, but some types of support negatively affect the patients. This study was conducted in early-stage breast cancer patients to examine the structure of support, which was provided by their significant others and assessed negatively by the patients, and to identify negative support relating to the psychological adjustment of these patients. Thus, we first conducted interviews among 28 breast cancer patients to identify these support items assessed as negative; next, we conducted a questionnaire survey using the resulting items in 109 postoperative patients who had early-stage breast cancer. We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and obtained a valid second-order factor structure, including superordinate factors (excessive engagement, avoidance of problems and underestimation) and subordinate factors (overprotection, encouragement and management). Among these factors, the avoidance of problems was the only factor to be negatively associated with psychological adjustment of the patients, suggesting that these patients receive problem-avoiding support. The results of our study suggest that such problem-avoiding support from significant others can be counter-productive and potentially worsen the psychological adjustment of breast cancer patients.

  8. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  9. Tassel removal positively affects biomass production coupled with significantly increasing stem digestibility in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China.

  10. 47 CFR 1.1307 - Actions that may have a significant environmental effect, for which Environmental Assessments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following types of facilities may significantly affect the environment and thus require the preparation of... preserve. (3) Facilities that: (i) May affect listed threatened or endangered species or designated... the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. (4) Facilities that may affect...

  11. 76 FR 2581 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... GHG PSD SIP call,\\2\\ EPA determined that the Jefferson County portion of the Kentucky SIP is... states and local permitting authorities. \\2\\ Action to Ensure Authority to Issue Permits under the... Classification System. ] B. How is the preamble organized? The information presented in this preamble...

  12. 76 FR 2591 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... with reasonable specificity in timely comments. Under section 307(b)(2) of the Act, the requirements of... County, and Indian County).'' B. How is the preamble organized? The information presented in this preamble is organized as follows: I. General Information A. Does this action apply to me? B. How is...

  13. 12 CFR 1229.9 - Discretionary actions applicable to significantly undercapitalized Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with section 1366(b)(5)(B) of the Safety and Soundness Act (12 U.S.C. 4616(b)(5)(B)), who held... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discretionary actions applicable to... under section 1377 of the Safety and Soundness Act (12 U.S.C. 4636a) and shall not be subject to...

  14. 12 CFR 1229.9 - Discretionary actions applicable to significantly undercapitalized Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with section 1366(b)(5)(B) of the Safety and Soundness Act (12 U.S.C. 4616(b)(5)(B)), who held... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discretionary actions applicable to... under section 1377 of the Safety and Soundness Act (12 U.S.C. 4636a) and shall not be subject to...

  15. 12 CFR 1229.9 - Discretionary actions applicable to significantly undercapitalized Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with section 1366(b)(5)(B) of the Safety and Soundness Act (12 U.S.C. 4616(b)(5)(B)), who held... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discretionary actions applicable to... under section 1377 of the Safety and Soundness Act (12 U.S.C. 4636a) and shall not be subject to...

  16. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  17. 47 CFR 1.1305 - Actions which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. 1.1305 Section 1... significant impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. Any Commission action deemed to have a significant effect upon the quality of the human environment requires...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1305 - Actions which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. 1.1305 Section 1... significant impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. Any Commission action deemed to have a significant effect upon the quality of the human environment requires...

  19. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...

  20. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...

  1. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...

  2. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...

  3. 10 CFR 51.35 - Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...

  4. Nitrogen Addition Significantly Affects Forest Litter Decomposition under High Levels of Ambient Nitrogen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Yin-long; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Forest litter decomposition is a major component of the global carbon (C) budget, and is greatly affected by the atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. However, the effects of N addition on forest litter decomposition, in ecosystems receiving increasingly higher levels of ambient N deposition, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a two-year field experiment in five forests along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin in China, where atmospheric N deposition was up to 82–114 kg N ha–1 in the study sites. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) control (no N added), (2) low-N (50 kg N ha–1 year–1), (3) medium-N (150 kg N ha–1 year–1), and (4) high-N (300 kg N ha–1 year–1), N additions ranging from 40% to 370% of ambient N deposition. The decomposition processes of ten types of forest litters were then studied. Nitrogen additions significantly decreased the decomposition rates of six types of forest litters. N additions decreased forest litter decomposition, and the mass of residual litter was closely correlated to residual lignin during the decomposition process over the study period. The inhibitory effect of N addition on litter decomposition can be primarily explained by the inhibition of lignin decomposition by exogenous inorganic N. The overall decomposition rate of ten investigated substrates exhibited a significant negative linear relationship with initial tissue C/N and lignin/N, and significant positive relationships with initial tissue K and N concentrations; these relationships exhibited linear and logarithmic curves, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important impact on forest litter decomposition in the study area in the presence of high levels of ambient N deposition. PMID:24551152

  5. Doing It Your Way: How Individual Movement Styles Affect Action Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Individuals show significant variations in performing a motor act. Previous studies in the action observation literature have largely ignored this ubiquitous, if often unwanted, characteristic of motor performance, assuming movement patterns to be highly similar across repetitions and individuals. In the present study, we examined the possibility that individual variations in motor style directly influence the ability to understand and predict others’ actions. To this end, we first recorded grasping movements performed with different intents and used a two-step cluster analysis to identify quantitatively ‘clusters’ of movements performed with similar movement styles (Experiment 1). Next, using videos of the same movements, we proceeded to examine the influence of these styles on the ability to judge intention from action observation (Experiments 2 and 3). We found that motor styles directly influenced observers’ ability to ‘read’ others’ intention, with some styles always being less ‘readable’ than others. These results provide experimental support for the significance of motor variability for action prediction, suggesting that the ability to predict what another person is likely to do next directly depends on her individual movement style. PMID:27780259

  6. Velocity-strengthening friction significantly affects interfacial dynamics, strength and dissipation.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2015-01-19

    Frictional interfaces abound in natural and man-made systems, yet their dynamics are not well-understood. Recent extensive experimental data have revealed that velocity-strengthening friction, where the steady-state frictional resistance increases with sliding velocity over some range, is a generic feature of such interfaces. This physical behavior has very recently been linked to slow stick-slip motion. Here we elucidate the importance of velocity-strengthening friction by theoretically studying three variants of a realistic friction model, all featuring identical logarithmic velocity-weakening friction at small sliding velocities, but differ in their higher velocity behaviors. By quantifying energy partition (e.g. radiation and dissipation), the selection of interfacial rupture fronts and rupture arrest, we show that the presence or absence of strengthening significantly affects the global interfacial resistance and the energy release during frictional instabilities. Furthermore, we show that different forms of strengthening may result in events of similar magnitude, yet with dramatically different dissipation and radiation rates. This happens because the events are mediated by rupture fronts with vastly different propagation velocities, where stronger velocity-strengthening friction promotes slower rupture. These theoretical results may have significant implications on our understanding of frictional dynamics.

  7. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2015-01-01

    in vitro TF-DNA preferences obtained from the universal protein binding microarrays (PBM) for ~90 eukaryotic TFs belonging to 22 different DNA-binding domain types. As a result of this new analysis, we conclude that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding is a widespread phenomenon that significantly affects protein-DNA binding preferences and need not require the presence of consensus (specific) TFBSs in order to achieve genome-wide TF-DNA binding specificity. PMID:26285121

  8. Observing functional actions affects semantic processing of tools: evidence of a motor-to-semantic priming.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Francesco; Ferrara, Antonia; Errico, Domenico; Panico, Francesco; Sagliano, Laura; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that activation of motor information can favor identification of related tools, thus suggesting a strict link between motor and conceptual knowledge in cognitive representation of tools. However, the involvement of motor information in further semantic processing has not been elucidated. In three experiments, we aimed to ascertain whether motor information provided by observation of actions could affect processing of conceptual knowledge about tools. In Experiment 1, healthy participants judged whether pairs of tools evoking different functional handgrips had the same function. In Experiment 2 participants judged whether tools were paired with appropriate recipients. Finally, in Experiment 3 we again required functional judgments as in Experiment 1, but also included in the set of stimuli pairs of objects having different function and similar functional handgrips. In all experiments, pictures displaying either functional grasping (aimed to use tools) or structural grasping (just aimed to move tools independently from their use) were presented before each stimulus pair. The results demonstrated that, in comparison with structural grasping, observing functional grasping facilitates judgments about tools' function when objects did not imply the same functional manipulation (Experiment 1), whereas worsened such judgments when objects shared functional grasp (Experiment 3). Instead, action observation did not affect judgments concerning tool-recipient associations (Experiment 2). Our findings support a task-dependent influence of motor information on high-order conceptual tasks and provide further insights into how motor and conceptual processing about tools can interact.

  9. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  10. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  11. Observational uncertainty of Arctic sea-ice concentration significantly affects seasonal climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Baehr, Johanna; Müller, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    We examine how the choice of a particular satellite-retrieved sea-ice concentration dataset used for initialising seasonal climate forecasts impacts the prediction skill of Arctic sea-ice area and Northern hemispheric 2-meter air temperatures. To do so, we performed two assimilation runs with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) from 1979 to 2012, where atmospheric and oceanic parameters as well as sea-ice concentration were assimilated using Newtonian relaxation. The two assimilation runs differ only in the sea-ice concentration dataset used for assimilating sea ice. In the first run, we use sea-ice concentrations as derived by the NASA-Team algorithm, while in the second run we use sea-ice concentrations as derived from the Bootstrap algorithm. A major difference between these two sea-ice concentration data products involves the treatment of melt ponds. While for both products melt ponds appear as open water in the raw satellite data, the Bootstrap algorithm more strongly attempts to offset this systematic bias by synthetically increasing the retrieved ice concentration during summer months. For each year of the two assimilation runs we performed a 10-member ensemble of hindcast experiments starting on 1 May and 1 November with a hindcast length of 6 months. For hindcasts started in November, initial differences in Arctic sea-ice area and surface temperature decrease rapidly throughout the freezing period. For hindcasts started in May, initial sea-ice area differences increase over time. By the end of the melting period, this causes significant differences in 2-meter air temperature of regionally more than 3°C. Hindcast skill for surface temperatures over Europe and North America is higher with Bootstrap initialization during summer and with NASA Team initialisation during winter. This implies that the choice of the sea-ice data product and, thus, the observational uncertainty also affects forecasts of teleconnections that depend on Northern

  12. Does an auditory perceptual illusion affect on-line auditory action control? The case of (de)accentuation and synchronization.

    PubMed

    Repp, Bruno H

    2006-01-01

    Many recent studies have investigated whether visual (spatial) illusions affect visual (spatio-temporal) action control, with results that are far from simple. The present study asks the analogous question with regard to auditory temporal perception and action timing. The auditory illusion chosen for this particular study is the effect of increasing or decreasing the intensity of a tone in a sequence (i.e., accentuation or deaccentuation) on its perceived relative time of occurrence. The motor task is sensorimotor synchronization (finger tapping), specifically the automatic phase correction response to an advanced or delayed tone in a sequence. The strong hypothesis was that (de)accentuation would affect perceptual judgments of the tone's relative time of occurrence, but would have no effect at all on the phase correction response. The results of two experiments, if averaged across participants, confirm these predictions and furthermore suggest that individual perceptual and sensorimotor effects of (de)accentuation are uncorrelated. It is argued that perception and motor control in this case probably rely on different kinds of temporal information: relative versus absolute time of occurrence. Two unexpected findings complicate the results, however: the perceptual illusion was asymmetric, occurring only for delayed tones; and many individual participants did show significant differences in their phase correction response to accented and deaccented tones, although the direction of that difference varied.

  13. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before.

  14. Prognostic Significance of Depression in African Americans With Heart Failure: Insights from HF-ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Robert J.; Babyak, Michael A.; Bittner, Vera; Fleg, Jerome L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Swank, Ann M.; Piña, Ileana L.; Kraus, William E.; Whellan, David J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although studies have shown that depression is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients, most studies have been in White patients. The impact of depression on outcomes in African Americans (AAs) with HF has not been studied. Methods and Results We analyzed 747 AAs and 1,420 Whites enrolled in HF-ACTION, which randomized 2,331 patients with ejection fraction ≤35% to usual care with or without exercise training. We examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) at baseline and after 3 months with all-cause mortality/hospitalization. A race by baseline BDI-II interaction was observed (P=.003) in which elevated baseline scores were associated with worse outcomes in AAs versus Whites. In AAs, the association was non-linear with a hazard ratio of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.24-1.68) when comparing the 75th and 25th percentile of BDI-II (score of 15 and 5, respectively). No race interaction was observed for mortality (P=.34). There was no differential association between BDI-II change and outcomes in AAs vs. Whites. In AAs, an increase in BDI-II score from baseline to 3 months was associated with increased mortality/hospitalization (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.12-1.57 per 10 point increase), while a decrease was not related to outcomes. Conclusions In AAs with HF, baseline symptoms of depression and worsening of symptoms over time are associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization. Routine assessment of depressive symptoms in AAs with HF may help guide management. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00047437. PMID:25901047

  15. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  16. Requirement to Publish All Significant Final Actions Under Title I of The Clean Air Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Growth status significantly affects the response of human lung cancer cells to antitumor polyamine-analogue exposure.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Diane L; Devereux, Wendy L; Hacker, Amy; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2002-08-01

    Human solid tumors frequently have a relatively small growth fraction,which interferes with the action of many chemotherapeutic agents that target actively cycling cells. Several polyamine analogues are currently being developed for clinical application against human solid tumors including N1,N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine. Therefore, an effort was made to examine the effects of growth rate on polyamine-analogue efficacy. Low growth fraction (LGF) cell cultures of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H157 were generated to partially mimic solid tumors with low mitotic indices. Log-phase cells were compared with LGF cells with respect to cell survival and biochemical effects after exposure to polyamine analogues. The results demonstrate generally that LGF NCI-H157 cells were sensitive to analogue treatment. However, the dose necessary to elicit a response in LGF cells was an order of magnitude higher than the dose needed in log-phase cells. Additionally, the biochemical effects of analogues were similar between log phase and LGF cells with regard to a down-regulation of polyamine biosynthesis as measured by ornithine decarboxylase activity and an increase in polyamine catabolism as indicated by an increase in spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. However, biochemical effects were less dramatic in the LGF cells than those observed in the log-phase cells. The overall results of these studies suggest that the growth status of solid tumors can significantly affect the response to antitumor polyamine analogues, and growth fraction must be considered in the continued development and use of the polyamine analogues.

  18. Genotoxic and cytotoxic action potential of Terminalia citrina, a medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological significance

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Saleem, Ammara; Sharif, Ali; Akhtar, Bushra; Nasim, Maaz Bin; Peerzada, Sohaib; Raza, Moosa; Ijaz, Hira; Ahmed, Shoaib; Shabbir, Maryam; Ali, Sajid; Akbar, Zeeshan; Ul Hassan, Syed Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Most herbal medicines utilized in complementary and alternative medicine lack safety evaluation setting our lives under unwarranted risks. Present study comprised of genotoxic and cytotoxic appraisal of Terminalia citrina fruits which are used as a folklore medicine for treatment of various ailments. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. citrina fruit extracts were evaluated for the presence of different phytochemicals. Genotoxic potential of both the extract of T. citrina was assessed through Ames reverse mutagenicity assay in Salmonella TA 100 and 102 strains. Cytotoxic potential of T. citrina was determined in baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21). Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA following post hoc test. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, tannins, catechins and saponins. It was revealed that both the extracts of T. citrina exhibited significant mutagenicity in tester strains. Ethanolic extract showed higher mutagenicity in TA 100 strain, whereas aqueous extract of T. citrina exhibited higher mutagenicity in TA 102 strain than TA 100. Both the extracts of T. citrina showed dose-dependent mutagenicity. Fifty percent cell viability was exhibited by 260 and 545 µg/mL of ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. This study concludes that the ethanolic and aqueous fruit extracts of T. citrina may not be safe owing to their mutagenic and cytotoxic potential and it necessitates further investigation regarding its safety evaluation. PMID:28096789

  19. Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency of the Subthalamic Nucleus Affects Phonemic and Action Fluency in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Aline Nunes; Beber, Bárbara Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to a decline in verbal fluency. The decline can be attributed to surgical effects, but the relative contributions of the stimulation parameters are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the frequency of STN-DBS on the performance of verbal fluency tasks in patients with PD. Methods. Twenty individuals with PD who received bilateral STN-DBS were evaluated. Their performances of verbal fluency tasks (semantic, phonemic, action, and unconstrained fluencies) upon receiving low-frequency (60 Hz) and high-frequency (130 Hz) STN-DBS were assessed. Results. The performances of phonemic and action fluencies were significantly different between low- and high-frequency STN-DBS. Patients showed a decrease in these verbal fluencies for high-frequency STN-DBS. Conclusion. Low-frequency STN-DBS may be less harmful to the verbal fluency of PD patients. PMID:28050309

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency of the Subthalamic Nucleus Affects Phonemic and Action Fluency in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Valéria de Carvalho; Rieder, Carlos R M; da Cruz, Aline Nunes; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to a decline in verbal fluency. The decline can be attributed to surgical effects, but the relative contributions of the stimulation parameters are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the frequency of STN-DBS on the performance of verbal fluency tasks in patients with PD. Methods. Twenty individuals with PD who received bilateral STN-DBS were evaluated. Their performances of verbal fluency tasks (semantic, phonemic, action, and unconstrained fluencies) upon receiving low-frequency (60 Hz) and high-frequency (130 Hz) STN-DBS were assessed. Results. The performances of phonemic and action fluencies were significantly different between low- and high-frequency STN-DBS. Patients showed a decrease in these verbal fluencies for high-frequency STN-DBS. Conclusion. Low-frequency STN-DBS may be less harmful to the verbal fluency of PD patients.

  1. Positive mood + action = negative mood + inaction: effects of general action and inaction concepts on decisions and performance as a function of affect.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hart, William

    2011-08-01

    General action and inaction concepts have been shown to produce broad, goal-mediated effects on cognitive and motor activity irrespective of the type of activity. The current research tested a model in which action and inaction goals interact with the valence of incidental moods to guide behavior. Over four experiments, participants' moods were manipulated to be positive (happy), neutral, or negative (angry or sad), and then general action, inaction, and neutral concepts were primed. In Experiment 1, action primes increased intellectual performance when participants experienced a positive (happy) or neutral mood, whereas inaction primes increased performance when participants experienced a negative (angry) mood. Including a control-prime condition, Experiments 2 and 3 replicated these results measuring the number of general interest articles participants were willing to read and participants' memory for pictures of celebrities. Experiment 4 replicated the results comparing happiness with sadness and suggested that the effect of the prime's adoption was automatic. Overall, the findings supported an interactive model by which action concepts and positive affect produce the same increases in active behavior as inaction concepts and negative affect.

  2. Positive Mood + Action = Negative Mood + Inaction: Effects of General Action and Inaction Concepts on Decisions and Performance as a Function of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hart, William

    2013-01-01

    General action and inaction concepts have been shown to produce broad, goal-mediated effects on cognitive and motor activity irrespective of the type of activity. The current research tested a model in which action and inaction goals interact with the valence of incidental moods to guide behavior. Over four experiments, participants’ moods were manipulated to be positive (happy), neutral, or negative (angry or sad), and then general action, inaction, and neutral concepts were primed. In Experiment 1, action primes increased intellectual performance when participants experienced a positive (happy) or neutral mood, whereas inaction primes increased performance when participants experienced a negative (angry) mood. Including a control-prime condition, Experiments 2 and 3 replicated these results measuring the number of general interest articles participants were willing to read and participants’ memory for pictures of celebrities. Experiment 4 replicated the results comparing happiness with sadness and suggested that the effect of the prime’s adoption was automatic. Overall, the findings supported an interactive model by which action concepts and positive affect produce the same increases in active behavior as inaction concepts and negative affect. PMID:21859209

  3. Social change as an important goal or likely outcome: how regulatory focus affects commitment to collective action.

    PubMed

    Zaal, Maarten P; Van Laar, Colette; Ståhl, Tomas; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle

    2012-03-01

    The results of three experiments showed that regulatory focus influences the way in which the importance and likelihood of social change affect individuals' commitment to collective action. In Studies 1 (N= 82) and 2 (N= 153), the strength of participants' chronic regulatory focus was measured. In Study 3 (N= 52), promotion or prevention focus was experimentally induced. The results showed that for individuals under promotion focus, commitment to collective action depended on the perceived likelihood that through this action important social change would be achieved. Individuals under prevention focus were willing to commit to collective action when they attached high importance to its goal, regardless of the extent to which they believed that attainment of this goal was likely. Implications of these results for work on regulatory focus and collective action are discussed.

  4. Ecological Factors Affecting Access to General Education Content and Contexts for Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppar, Andrea L.; Allcock, Heather; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we applied Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to examine factors that support or restrict access to the general curriculum for students with significant disabilities. We organize the literature in relationship to factors within the micro-, meso-, macro-, exo-, and chronosystems that influence decisions about access to the…

  5. Climate networks around the globe are significantly affected by El Niño.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, K; Gozolchiani, A; Havlin, S

    2008-06-06

    The temperatures in different zones in the world do not show significant changes due to El Niño except when measured in a restricted area in the Pacific Ocean. We find, in contrast, that the dynamics of a climate network based on the same temperature records in various geographical zones in the world is significantly influenced by El Niño. During El Niño many links of the network are broken, and the number of surviving links comprises a specific and sensitive measure for El Niño events. While during non-El Niño periods these links which represent correlations between temperatures in different sites are more stable, fast fluctuations of the correlations observed during El Niño periods cause the links to break.

  6. Power-Line Harmonic Radiation: Can It Significantly Affect the Earth's Radiation Belts?

    PubMed

    Thorne, R M; Tsurutani, B T

    1979-05-25

    It has been suggested that harmonic radiation from the earth's 50- and 60-hertz power transmission lines might significantly influence the distribution of electrons in the radiation belts. On the basis of observations presented here, it seems advisable to accept such a hypothesis with caution. New evidence suggests that power-line radiation does not play any major role in the nonadiabatic dynamics of radiation belt electrons.

  7. Power-line harmonic radiation - Can it significantly affect the earth's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that harmonic radiation from the earth's 50- and 60-hertz power transmission lines might significantly influence the distribution of electrons in the radiation belts. On the basis of observations presented here, it seems advisable to accept such a hypothesis with caution. New evidence suggests that power-line radiation does not play any major role in the nonadiabatic dynamics of radiation belt electrons.

  8. Impact orientation can significantly affect the outcome of a blunt impact to the rabbit patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Benjamin J; Weaver, Brian T; Haut, Roger C

    2002-12-01

    This laboratory has developed a subfracture, joint trauma model in rabbits. Using a dropped impact mass directed onto a slightly abducted joint, chronic softening of retropatellar cartilage and thickening of underlying subchondral bone are documented in studies to 1 year post-insult. It has been hypothesized that these tissue changes are initiated by stresses developed during impact loading. A previous analytical study by this laboratory suggests that tensile strains in retropatellar cartilage can be significantly lowered, without significantly changing the intensity of stresses in the underlying subchondral bone, by reorientation of patellar impact more centrally on the joint. In the current study comparative experiments were performed on groups of animals after either an impact directed on the slightly abducted limb or a more central impact. One-year post-trauma in animals subjected to the central-oriented impact no degradation of the shear modulus for the retropatellar cartilage was documented, but the thickness of the underlying subchondral bone was significantly increased. In contrast, alterations in cartilage and underlying bone following impact on the slightly abducted limb were consistent with previous studies. The current experimental investigation showed the sensitivity of post-trauma alterations in joint tissues to slight changes in the orientation of impact load on the joint. Interestingly, for this trauma model thickening of the underlying subchondral plate occurred without mechanical degradation of the overlying articular cartilage. This supports the current laboratory hypothesis that alterations in the subchondral bone and overlying cartilage occur independently in this animal model.

  9. Semagacestat pharmacokinetics are not significantly affected by formulation, food, or time of dosing in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian A; Zhang, Wei; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Lowe, Stephen L; Annes, William F; Sirois, Paul J; Friedrich, Stuart; de la Peña, Amparo

    2012-06-01

    Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, reduces formation of amyloid beta peptide. Two single-dose (140 mg), open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover studies evaluated the effect of formulation, food, and time of dosing on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of semagacestat in healthy participants. The first study (n = 14) compared tablet to capsules. For all formulations, the median time to maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) was generally 1.0 hour. Plasma elimination was rapid, with a half-life of approximately 2.5 hours. Tablet form II bioavailability (F) relative to capsule was approximately 100% (F = 1.03 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10]). In the second study, participants (n = 27) received semagacestat either fed or fasting in the morning or fasting in the evening. No significant change in exposure (AUC(0-∞) [area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity] ratio = 1.02, [90% CI, 0.990-1.05]) occurred with food, whereas maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) declined approximately 15%, and median t(max) was delayed to 1.5 hours. Time of dosing made no significant difference in AUC(0-∞), C(max), or t(max) (AUC(0-∞) ratio 1.01, [90% CI, 0.975-1.04]). No clinically significant safety concerns occurred in either study. Accordingly, semagacestat may be dosed without regard to formulation, food, or time of administration.

  10. Food concentration affects the life history response of Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia to chemicals with different mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Rose, R M; Warne, M St J; Lim, R P

    2002-02-01

    The effect of three chemicals with different mechanisms of action (3,4-dichloroaniline, fenoxycarb, and chlorpyrifos) on the life history response of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was examined under both limited (3 x 10(4) cells/mL) and abundant (15 x 10(4) cells/mL) food conditions. Toxicity tests were conducted at both food concentrations simultaneously for each chemical, and cladocerans were examined daily from less than 24 h old until their death. A range of life history parameters were calculated, including mean brood sizes, survival, net reproductive rate, and population growth rate. The toxicity of 3,4-dichloroaniline was not significantly affected by food concentration. However, limited food significantly decreased the toxicity of fenoxycarb, and significantly increased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos. The effect of food concentration on toxicity appears to depend on the mechanism by which the chemical exerts its toxicity and on food--chemical interactions. Possible mechanisms for the different effects of food concentration on toxicity are discussed.

  11. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Hui; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Zhang, Dapeng; Zhu, Xujun; Li, Xinghui; Fang, Wanping

    2014-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant under drought stress is essential to develop drought-tolerant tea genotypes, along with crop management practices that can mitigate drought stress. The objective of the present investigation is evaluation of effects of exogenous ABA on the leaf proteome in tea plant exposed to drought stress. Leaf protein patterns of tea plants under simulated drought stress [(polyethylene glycol (PEG)-treated] and exogenous ABA treatment were analyzed in a time-course experiment using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Among the 72 protein spots identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 16 proteins were downregulated and two were upregulated by exogenous ABA. The upregulated proteins have roles in glycolysis and photosystem II stabilization. Twenty-one protein spots were responsive to drought stress and most participate in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, control of reactive oxygen species (ROS), defense, signaling or nucleic acid metabolism. The combined treatments of exogenous ABA and drought showed upregulation of 10 protein spots at 12 h and upregulation of 11 proteins at 72 h after initiation of drought stress. The results support the importance of the role that ABA plays in the tea plant during drought stress, by improving protein transport, carbon metabolism and expression of resistance proteins.

  12. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  13. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for

  14. Injection temperature significantly affects in vitro and in vivo performance of collagen-platelet scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M P; Abreu, E L; Mastrangelo, A; Murray, M M

    2009-07-01

    Collagen-platelet composites have recently been successfully used as scaffolds to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) wound healing in large animal models. These materials are typically kept on ice until use to prevent premature gelation; however, with surgical use, placement of a cold solution then requires up to an hour while the solution comes to body temperature (at which point gelation occurs). Bringing the solution to a higher temperature before injection would likely decrease this intra-operative wait; however, the effects of this on composite performance are not known. The hypothesis tested here was that increasing the temperature of the gel at the time of injection would significantly decrease the time to gelation, but would not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the composite or its ability to support functional tissue repair. Primary outcome measures included the maximum elastic modulus (stiffness) of the composite in vitro and the in vivo yield load of an ACL transection treated with an injected collagen-platelet composite. In vitro findings were that injection temperatures over 30 degrees C resulted in a faster visco-elastic transition; however, the warmed composites had a 50% decrease in their maximum elastic modulus. In vivo studies found that warming the gels prior to injection also resulted in a decrease in the yield load of the healing ACL at 14 weeks. These studies suggest that increasing injection temperature of collagen-platelet composites results in a decrease in performance of the composite in vitro and in the strength of the healing ligament in vivo and this technique should be used only with great caution.

  15. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-04

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing.

  16. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    PubMed

    Klein, E G; Forster, J L; Erickson, D J; Lytle, L A; Schillo, B

    2009-06-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Bar and restaurant employment per capita were used to determine if partial CIA policies produced differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies. Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003-2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with partial CIA policies (p = 0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p = 0.36). There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  17. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  18. Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Do Not Significantly Affect Acute Exocrine Pancreas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akalestou, Elina; Christakis, Ioannis; Solomou, Antonia M.; Minnion, James S.; Rutter, Guy A.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reports have suggested a link between treatment with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and an increased risk of pancreatitis. Oxyntomodulin, a dual agonist of both GLP-1 and glucagon receptors, is currently being investigated as a potential anti-obesity therapy, but little is known about its pancreatic safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of oxyntomodulin and other proglucagon-derived peptides on the rat exocrine pancreas. Methods GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, glucagon and exendin-4 were infused into anaesthetised rats to measure plasma amylase concentration changes. Additionally, the effect of each peptide on both amylase release and proliferation in rat pancreatic acinar (AR42J) and primary isolated ductal cells was determined. Results Plasma amylase did not increase post peptide infusion, compared to vehicle and cholecystokinin (CCK); however, oxyntomodulin inhibited plasma amylase when co-administered with CCK. None of the peptides caused a significant increase in proliferation rate or amylase secretion from acinar and ductal cells. Conclusions The investigated peptides do not have an acute effect on the exocrine pancreas with regard to proliferation and plasma amylase, when administered individually. Oxyntomodulin appears to be a potent inhibitor of amylase release, potentially making it a safer anti-obesity agent regarding pancreatitis, compared to GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26731187

  19. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect absorption of the faecal marker dysprosium in rats.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2006-02-01

    It is believed that rare earth elements are not absorbed, and thus they are generally used in some mineral absorption studies as a faecal marker. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of inulin intake and age on dysprosium (Dy) absorption in rats. Eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomised into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75 % inulin in their diet for 4 d and then 7.5 % inulin until the end of the study. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for 30 d. The intestinal absorption of Dy was determined from a 4 d (day 21 to day 25) balance study. Mean faecal Dy recovery (%) in the eight groups (3 months control, 3 months inulin, 6 months control, 6 months inulin, 11 months control, 11 months inulin, 21 months control, 21 months inulin) was 94.0 (sd 8.6), 64.8 (sd 10.1), 95.8 (sd 9.4), 81.5 (sd 12.1), 98.4 (sd 9.8), 87.8 (sd 9.5), 97.8 (sd 6.2) and 84.9 (sd 10.9), respectively. Our results showed clearly that dietary inulin intake decreased faecal Dy recovery in all four rat groups, and faecal Dy recovery was significantly higher in the old rats (10 and 20 months) than in the young and adult rats. These results show that the faecal recovery (or intestinal absorption) of Dy may vary greatly with nutritional or physiological states such as inulin intake or age. The use of rare earth elements as a faecal marker should be thus validated under each nutritional or physiological state before being employed in mineral absorption studies.

  20. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months. Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  1. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months (6.6%). Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics (such as global radiative forcing) to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  2. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  3. 75 FR 10462 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Mohamad M. Elkateb; In the Matter of: Mohamad M. Elkateb...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Mohamad M. Elkateb; In the Matter of: Mohamad M. Elkateb, 29256 Marilyn Dr., Canyon Country, CA 91387. Respondent; Order Relating to Mohamad M. Elkateb The Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce (``BIS'') has notified Mohamad...

  4. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  5. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  6. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  7. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  8. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  9. 20 CFR 408.820 - Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status? 408.820 Section 408.820 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination §...

  10. 20 CFR 408.820 - Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status? 408.820 Section 408.820 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination §...

  11. 20 CFR 408.820 - Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status? 408.820 Section 408.820 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination §...

  12. 20 CFR 408.820 - Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status? 408.820 Section 408.820 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination §...

  13. 20 CFR 408.820 - Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status? 408.820 Section 408.820 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination §...

  14. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  15. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  16. The struggle of giving up personal goals: affective, physiological, and cognitive consequences of an action crisis.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel; Schüler, Julia

    2013-12-01

    A critical phase in goal striving occurs when setbacks accumulate and goal disengagement becomes an issue. This critical phase is conceptualized as an action crisis and assumed to be characterized by an intrapsychic conflict in which the individual becomes torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. Our theorizing converges with Klinger's conceptualization of goal disengagement as a process, rather than a discrete event. Two longitudinal field studies tested and found support for the hypothesis that an action crisis not only compromises an individual's psychological and physiological well-being, but also dampens the cognitive evaluation of the respective goal. In Study 3, marathon runners experiencing an action crisis in their goal of running marathons showed a stronger cortisol secretion and a lower performance in the race 2 weeks later. Results are interpreted in terms of action-phase-specific mindsets with a focus on self-regulatory processes in goal disengagement.

  17. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life

    PubMed Central

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans. PMID:26087323

  18. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life.

    PubMed

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans.

  19. Some Recurrent Disagreements about Social Change Which Affect Action Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Heather N.; Hofstetter, Merlin I.

    This paper describes the beliefs and values of a pluralistic approach to social change and of four competing approaches: social Darwinism, functionalism, militancy, and conflict theory. Stressing the alienation and dogmatism of the competing approaches, the authors relate each approach to its operation in community action projects. Social…

  20. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  1. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  2. When what's inside counts: Sequence of demonstrated actions affects preschooler's categorization by nonobvious properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue-the sequence of demonstrated actions and events-in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property was revealed before (shake-first) or after (shake-last) categorization. Four experiments (N = 150) showed that both 4-year-olds (M(age) = 4.5 years) and 3-year-olds (M(age) = 3.5 years) shifted toward categorizing by nonobvious property after the shake-first sequence compared with the shake-last sequence (Experiment 1 and 4); 4-year-olds also generalized their categorization strategy to new objects (Experiment 2) and objects that were both labeled and categorized (Experiment 3). Results are discussed with regard to preschooler's ability to integrate social and pedagogical cues in category learning.

  3. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  4. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program... review for consistency with the management program of all development plans, projects, or land and...

  5. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program... review for consistency with the management program of all development plans, projects, or land and...

  6. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  7. A novel anionic conductance affects action potential duration in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C I; Uchida, W; Kozlowski, R Z

    2000-01-01

    Effects of extracellular anions were studied in electrophysiological experiments on freshly isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Under current-clamp, action potential duration (APD) was prolonged by reducing the extracellular Cl(-) concentration and shortened by replacement of extracellular Cl(-) with I(-). Under voltage-clamp, membrane potential steps or ramps evoked an anionic background current (I(AB)) carried by either Cl(-), Br(-), I(-) or NO(3)(-). Activation of I(AB) was Ca(2+)- and cyclic AMP-independent, and was unaffected by cell shrinkage. I(AB) was insensitive to stilbene and fenamate anion transport blockers at concentrations that inhibit Ca(2+)-, cyclic AMP- and swelling-activated Cl(-) currents in ventricular cells of other mammals. These results suggest that I(AB) may be carried by a novel class of Cl(-) channel. Correlation of anion substitution experiments on membrane current and action potentials revealed that I(AB) could play a major role in controlling rat ventricular APD. These findings have important implications for those studying cardiac Cl(-) channels as potential targets for novel antiarrythmic agents.

  8. Do expertise and the degree of perception-action coupling affect natural anticipatory performance?

    PubMed

    Farrow, Damian; Abernethy, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments using a temporal occlusion paradigm (the first with expert and novice participants and the second with participants of intermediate skill) were conducted to examine the capability of tennis players to predict the direction of an opponent's service in situ. In both experiments two different response conditions, reflecting differing degrees of perception-action coupling, were employed. In a coupled condition players were required to make a movement-based response identical to that which they would use to hit a return of service in a game situation, whereas in an uncoupled condition a verbal prediction of service direction was required. Experiment 1 provided clear evidence of superior prediction accuracy under the coupled response condition when ball flight was available, plus some limited evidence to suggest that superior prediction accuracy under uncoupled response conditions might hold true if only advance (pre-contact) information was available. Experiment 2 showed the former finding to be a robust one, but was unable to reveal any support for the latter. Experiment 1 also revealed that expert superiority is more apparent for predictions made under natural (coupled) than uncoupled response-mode conditions. Collectively, these findings suggest that different perceptual processes may be in operation in anticipatory tasks which depend on skill level, the type of information presented, and degree of perception-action coupling inherent in the task requirements.

  9. Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  10. Group membership affects spontaneous mental representation: failure to represent the out-group in a joint action task.

    PubMed

    McClung, Jennifer Susan; Jentzsch, Ines; Reicher, Stephen David

    2013-01-01

    Predicting others' actions is crucial to successful social interaction. Previous research on joint action, based on a reaction-time paradigm called the Joint Simon Task, suggests that successful joint action stems from the simultaneous representation of the self with the other. Performance on this task provides a read-out of the degree of intrusion from a partner that participants experience from acting jointly compared to acting alone, which in turn is a measure of the degree to which participants mentally represent their co-actors during the task. To investigate the role of perceived group membership in this type of joint action and its influence on the representation of others, we first subjected participants to a minimal group paradigm while manipulating differences in social competition. We then asked participants to do the Joint Simon Task in pairs with an in-group or out-group member. Only participants who acted with an "in-group" partner on the joint task showed altered reaction times compared to when acting alone, presumably a change caused by the simultaneous and automatic representation of their in-group partner. In contrast, participants who acted with an out-group partner were unaffected in their reactions when doing the joint task, showing no evidence of representation of their out-group partner. This effect was present in both the high-competition and low-competition conditions, indicating that the differential effects of group membership on representation during joint action were driven by perceived group membership and independent of the effects of social competition. We concluded that participants failed to represent out-group members as socially relevant agents not based on any personality or situational characteristics, but in reaction only to their status as "other". In this way group membership appears to affect cognition on a very immediate and subconscious level.

  11. Conopressin affects excitability, firing, and action potential shape through stimulation of transient and persistent inward currents in mulluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    van Soest, P F; Kits, K S

    1998-04-01

    shown that both currents contribute to the action potential. The calcium current, which is activated mainly during the repolarizing phase of the action potential, is augmented by conopressin. Thus conopressin may directly modulate the shape of the action potential. In summary, conopressin may act simultaneously on multiple inward currents in anterior lobe neurons of Lymnaea to affect firing activity, excitability, and action potential shape.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water: Multifactorial determination of significant factors.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; de Oliveira Livera, Diogo; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Vijayaraghavan, Sucharita; Wong, Timothy; Gu, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated as a byproduct of bitumen extraction in Canada's oil sands. Due to the water's toxicity, associated with dissolved acid extractable organics (AEO), especially naphthenic acids (NAs), along with base-neutral organics, OSPW may require treatment to enable safe discharge to the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW remediation, however, predicting treatment efficacy can be challenging due to the unique water chemistry of OSPW from different tailings ponds. The objective of this work was to study various factors affecting the kinetics of photocatalytic AEO degradation in OSPW. The rate of photocatalytic treatment varied significantly in two different OSPW sources, which could not be accounted for by differences in AEO composition, as studied by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The effects of inorganic water constituents were investigated using factorial and response surface experiments, which revealed that hydroxyl (HO) radical scavenging by iron (Fe(3+)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) inhibited the NA degradation rate. The effects of NA concentration and temperature on the treatment kinetics were also evaluated in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Arrhenius models; pH and temperature were identified as weak factors, while dissolved oxygen (DO) was critical to the photo-oxidation reaction. Accounting for all of these variables, a general empirical kinetic expression is proposed, enabling prediction of photocatalytic treatment performance in diverse sources of OSPW.

  13. When up is down in 0g: how gravity sensing affects the timing of interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Senot, Patrice; Zago, Myrka; Le Séac'h, Anne; Zaoui, Mohammed; Berthoz, Alain; Lacquaniti, Francesco; McIntyre, Joseph

    2012-02-08

    Humans are known to regulate the timing of interceptive actions by modeling, in a simplified way, Newtonian mechanics. Specifically, when intercepting an approaching ball, humans trigger their movements a bit earlier when the target arrives from above than from below. This bias occurs regardless of the ball's true kinetics, and thus appears to reflect an a priori expectation that a downward moving object will accelerate. We postulate that gravito-inertial information is used to tune visuomotor responses to match the target's most likely acceleration. Here we used the peculiar conditions of parabolic flight--where gravity's effects change every 20 s--to test this hypothesis. We found a striking reversal in the timing of interceptive responses performed in weightlessness compared with trials performed on ground, indicating a role of gravity sensing in the tuning of this response. Parallels between these observations and the properties of otolith receptors suggest that vestibular signals themselves might plausibly provide the critical input. Thus, in addition to its acknowledged importance for postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial navigation, we propose that detecting the direction of gravity's pull plays a role in coordinating quick reactions intended to intercept a fast-moving visual target.

  14. Structural issues affecting creation of a community action and advocacy board

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M. R.; Abbott, M.; Hilario, H.; Radda, K.; Medina, Z.; Prince, M.; Li, J.; Kaplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The most effective woman-initiated method to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infections is the female condom (FC). Yet, FCs are often difficult to find and denigrated or ignored by community health and service providers. Evidence increasingly supports the need to develop and test theoretically driven, multilevel interventions using a community-empowerment framework to promote FCs in a sustained way. We conducted a study in a midsized northeastern US city (2009–2013) designed to create, mobilize and build capacity of a community group to develop and implement multilevel interventions to increase availability, accessibility and support for FCs in their city. The Community Action and Advocacy Board (CAAB) designed and piloted interventions concurrently targeting community, organizational and individual levels. Ethnographic observation of the CAAB training and intervention planning and pilot implementation sessions documented the process, preliminary successes, challenges and limitations of this model. The CAAB demonstrated ability to conceptualize, plan and initiate multilevel community change. However, challenges in group decision-making and limitations in members’ availability or personal capacity constrained CAAB processes and intervention implementation. Lessons from this experience could inform similar efforts to mobilize, engage and build capacity of community coalitions to increase access to and support for FCs and other novel effective prevention options for at-risk women. PMID:23660461

  15. Sensitivity analysis of potential events affecting the double-shell tank system and fallback actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-27

    Sensitivity analyses were performed for fall-back positions (i.e., management actions) to accommodate potential off-normal and programmatic change events overlaid on the waste volume projections and their uncertainties. These sensitivity analyses allowed determining and ranking tank system high-risk parameters and fall- back positions that will accommodate the respective impacts. This quantification of tank system impacts shows periods where tank capacity is sensitive to certain variables that must be carefully managed and/or evaluated. Identifying these sensitive variables and quantifying their impact will allow decision makers to prepare fall-back positions and focus available resources on the highest impact parameters where technical data are needed to reduce waste projection uncertainties. For noncomplexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the years of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval (after approximately 2009) due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate and 200-East SST solids transfer volume. For complexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the period after approximately 2005 due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate. 200-East SST solids transfer volume. complexed waste reduction factor using evaporation, and 200-west saltwell liquid porosity.

  16. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  17. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  18. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Neurotransmitter Release Can Be Stabilized by a Mechanism That Prevents Voltage Changes Near the End of Action Potentials from Affecting Calcium Currents.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Stephen G; Scarnati, Matthew S; Paradiso, Kenneth G

    2016-11-09

    At chemical synapses, presynaptic action potentials (APs) activate voltage-gated calcium channels, allowing calcium to enter and trigger neurotransmitter release. The duration, peak amplitude, and shape of the AP falling phase alter calcium entry, which can affect neurotransmitter release significantly. In many neurons, APs do not immediately return to the resting potential, but instead exhibit a period of depolarization or hyperpolarization referred to as an afterpotential. We hypothesized that presynaptic afterpotentials should alter neurotransmitter release by affecting the electrical driving force for calcium entry and calcium channel gating. In support of this, presynaptic calcium entry is affected by afterpotentials after standard instant voltage jumps. Here, we used the mouse calyx of Held synapse, which allows simultaneous presynaptic and postsynaptic patch-clamp recording, to show that the postsynaptic response is affected significantly by presynaptic afterpotentials after voltage jumps. We therefore tested the effects of presynaptic afterpotentials using simultaneous presynaptic and postsynaptic recordings and AP waveforms or real APs. Surprisingly, presynaptic afterpotentials after AP stimuli did not alter calcium channel responses or neurotransmitter release appreciably. We show that the AP repolarization time course causes afterpotential-induced changes in calcium driving force and changes in calcium channel gating to effectively cancel each other out. This mechanism, in which electrical driving force is balanced by channel gating, prevents changes in calcium influx from occurring at the end of the AP and therefore acts to stabilize synaptic transmission. In addition, this mechanism can act to stabilize neurotransmitter release when the presynaptic resting potential changes.

  20. Gene actions of QTLs affecting several agronomic traits resolved in a recombinant inbred rice population and two testcross populations.

    PubMed

    Mei, H W; Luo, L J; Ying, C S; Wang, Y P; Yu, X Q; Guo, L B; Paterson, A H; Li, Z K

    2003-06-01

    To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, QTL mapping was performed to dissect the main effect (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of "Lemont/Teqing", and two testcross (TC) F(1) populations derived from these RILs. The correlation analyses reveal a general pattern, i.e. trait heritability in the RILs was negatively correlated to trait heterosis in the TC hybrids. A large number of M-QTLs and E-QTLs affecting seven traits, including heading date (HD), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), panicle length (PL), spikelet number per panicle (SN) and spikelet fertility (SF), were identified and could be classified into two predominant groups, additive QTLs detected primarily in the RILs, and overdominant QTLs identified exclusively in the TC populations. There is little overlap between QTLs identified in the RILs and in the TC populations. This result implied that additive gene action is largely independent from non-additive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits of rice. The detected E-QTLs collectively explained a much greater portion of the total phenotypic variation than the M-QTLs, supporting prior findings that epistasis has played an important role in the genetic control of quantitative traits in rice. The implications of these results to the development of inbred and hybrid cultivars were discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type.

  2. Some factors affecting the action of restriction endonucleases on human metaphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, R; Ferrucci, L; Vanni, R; Sumner, A T

    1985-11-01

    We have investigated whether restriction endonucleases produce bands on human chromosomes by extracting DNA, using staining methods which are stoichiometric for DNA. Restriction enzymes that produce C-band patterns appear to remove DNA extensively from chromosome arms. In general, however, those restriction enzymes that produce G-bands do not extract DNA from chromosomes, and their effects are believed to be due to conformational change in the chromosomal DNA; in these cases, the chromosomal regions affected appear to be determined by the chromosome structure and not by the specificity of the enzyme. DNA loss from chromosomes due to digestion by restriction enzymes may in some cases be uniform, although a G-banding pattern is visible after Giemsa staining.

  3. Multisensory integration of drumming actions: musical expertise affects perceived audiovisual asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Karin; Dahl, Sofia; Rocchesso, Davide; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Avanzini, Federico; Puce, Aina; Pollick, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effect of musical expertise on sensitivity to asynchrony for drumming point-light displays, which varied in their physical characteristics (Experiment 1) or in their degree of audiovisual congruency (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 21 repetitions of three tempos x three accents x nine audiovisual delays were presented to four jazz drummers and four novices. In Experiment 2, ten repetitions of two audiovisual incongruency conditions x nine audiovisual delays were presented to 13 drummers and 13 novices. Participants gave forced-choice judgments of audiovisual synchrony. The results of Experiment 1 show an enhancement in experts' ability to detect asynchrony, especially for slower drumming tempos. In Experiment 2 an increase in sensitivity to asynchrony was found for incongruent stimuli; this increase, however, is attributable only to the novice group. Altogether the results indicated that through musical practice we learn to ignore variations in stimulus characteristics that otherwise would affect our multisensory integration processes.

  4. A Failure to Grasp the Affective Meaning of Actions in Autism Spectrum Disorder Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grezes, J.; Wicker, B.; Berthoz, S.; de Gelder, B.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to grasp emotional messages in everyday gestures and respond to them is at the core of successful social communication. The hypothesis that abnormalities in socio-emotional behavior in people with autism are linked to a failure to grasp emotional significance conveyed by gestures was explored. We measured brain activity using fMRI…

  5. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  6. ENPP1 Affects Insulin Action and Secretion: Evidences from In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Rosa; Caporarello, Nunzia; Marucci, Antonella; Dimatteo, Claudia; Iadicicco, Claudia; Del Guerra, Silvia; Prudente, Sabrina; Sudano, Dora; Miele, Claudia; Parrino, Cristina; Piro, Salvatore; Beguinot, Francesco; Marchetti, Piero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to deeper investigate the mechanisms through which ENPP1, a negative modulator of insulin receptor (IR) activation, plays a role on insulin signaling, insulin secretion and eventually glucose metabolism. ENPP1 cDNA (carrying either K121 or Q121 variant) was transfected in HepG2 liver-, L6 skeletal muscle- and INS1E beta-cells. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation (HepG2, L6, INS1E), Akt-Ser473, ERK1/2-Thr202/Tyr204 and GSK3-beta Ser9 phosphorylation (HepG2, L6), PEPCK mRNA levels (HepG2) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (L6) was studied. GLUT 4 mRNA (L6), insulin secretion and caspase-3 activation (INS1E) were also investigated. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation was decreased in HepG2-K, L6-K, INS1E-K (20%, 52% and 11% reduction vs. untransfected cells) and twice as much in HepG2-Q, L6-Q, INS1E-Q (44%, 92% and 30%). Similar data were obtained with Akt-Ser473, ERK1/2-Thr202/Tyr204 and GSK3-beta Ser9 in HepG2 and L6. Insulin-induced reduction of PEPCK mRNA was progressively lower in untransfected, HepG2-K and HepG2-Q cells (65%, 54%, 23%). Insulin-induced glucose uptake in untransfected L6 (60% increase over basal), was totally abolished in L6-K and L6-Q cells. GLUT 4 mRNA was slightly reduced in L6-K and twice as much in L6-Q (13% and 25% reduction vs. untransfected cells). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was 60% reduced in INS1E-K and almost abolished in INS1E-Q. Serum deficiency activated caspase-3 by two, three and four folds in untransfected INS1E, INS1E-K and INS1E-Q. Glyburide-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 50% in isolated human islets from homozygous QQ donors as compared to those from KK and KQ individuals. Our data clearly indicate that ENPP1, especially when the Q121 variant is operating, affects insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle- and liver-cells and both function and survival of insulin secreting beta-cells, thus representing a strong pathogenic factor predisposing to insulin resistance

  7. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  8. The association with Turner syndrome significantly affects the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children, irrespective of karyotype.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Tommaso; Messina, Maria Francesca; Mazzanti, Laura; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Mussa, Alessandro; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Scarano, Emanuela; De Luca, Filippo; Wasniewska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Only few studies have investigated to now whether the association with Turner syndrome (TS) may affect the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children. Aim of this study was to ascertain whether the presentation and long-term course of HT in TS children may be characterized by a peculiar and atypical pattern. The clinical and biochemical findings at HT diagnosis in 90 TS children (group A) were compared with those recorded in 449 girls with HT but without TS (group B); in group A patients, thyroid function tests were re-evaluated after a median time interval of 4.9 years. At HT diagnosis median TSH levels and the rate of cases presenting with a thyroid dysfunction picture were significantly lower in group A, irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. In group A only 34.8 % of the girls who had initially presented with euthyroidism remained euthyroid even at re-evaluation, whilst 67.7 % of those who had presented with subclinical hypothyroidism became overtly hypothyroid over time; also such evolutive pattern was irrespective of karyotype abnormalities. (1) In TS girls, HT presents with a milder hormonal pattern, which often deteriorates over time; (2) these biochemical features are not necessarily linked with a specific karyotype.

  9. A critical functional missense mutation (H173R) in the bovine PROP1 gene significantly affects growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chuanying; Wu, Chongyang; Jia, Wenchao; Xu, Yao; Lei, Chuzhao; Hu, Shenrong; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    The PROP1 protein, encoded by the prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) gene, exhibits both DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities. Its expression leads to the ontogenesis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and pituitary hormone. The missense mutation H173R in PROP1 may result in deficiencies of GH, PRL, TSH, and Pit-1, thereby affecting growth traits. The objective of this study was to characterize the H173R mutation within the PROP1 gene and examine its associations with growth traits in cattle. Accordingly, the H173R mutation was genotyped in 1207 cows belonging to five Chinese native breeds. Three genotypes were identified among the specimens, with genotype AA being the major one. Consequently, the "G" allele was the minor allele. Association testing revealed that the H173R mutation was significantly associated with body weight, average daily weight gain and physical parameters in the analyzed breeds. Interestingly, the cows with genotype AG and/or AA had superior growth traits compared with those expressing the GG genotype, in all tested breeds. These findings revealed that the "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits, which was consistent with the increasing binding ability and enhanced activation capacity associated with the bovine isoform PROP1-173H, representing the "A" allele. Therefore, the H173R mutation can be considered as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits, thereby contributing to research on breeding and genetics in the beef industry.

  10. Reactive species modify NaV1.8 channels and affect action potentials in murine dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Martin; Leipolcf, Enrico; Schirmeyer, Jana; Schönherr, Roland; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2016-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are important relay stations between the periphery and the central nervous system and are essential for somatosensory signaling. Reactive species are produced in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions and are known to alter electric signaling. Here we studied the influence of reactive species on the electrical properties of DRG neurons from mice with the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Even mild stress induced by either low concentrations of chloramine-T (10 µM) or low-intensity blue-light irradiation profoundly diminished action potential frequency but prolonged single action potentials in wild-type neurons. The impact on evoked action potentials was much smaller in neurons deficient of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.8 (NaV1.8−/−), the channel most important for the action potential upstroke in DRG neurons. Low concentrations of chloramine-T caused a significant reduction of NaV1.8 peak current and at higher concentrations progressively slowed down inactivation. Blue light had a smaller effect on amplitude but slowed down NaV1.8 channel inactivation. The observed effects were less apparent for TTX-sensitive NaV channels. NaV1.8 is an important reactive-species-sensitive component in the electrical signaling of DRG neurons, potentially giving rise to loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenomena depending on the type of reactive species and their effective concentration and time of exposure. PMID:26383867

  11. Symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and Medicago truncatula is not significantly affected by silver and silver sulfide nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jonathan D; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Mike J; McNear, David; Bertsch, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Silver (Ag) engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being released into waste streams and are being discharged, largely as Ag2S aged-ENMs (a-ENMs), into agroecosystems receiving biosolids amendments. Recent research has demonstrated that biosolids containing an environmentally relevant mixture of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag ENMs and their transformation products, including Ag2S a-ENMs, disrupted the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes. However, this study was unable to unequivocally determine which ENM or combination of ENMs and a-ENMs was responsible for the observed inhibition. Here, we examined further the effects of polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) coated pristine Ag ENMs (PVP-Ag), Ag2S a-ENMs, and soluble Ag (as AgSO4) at 1, 10, and 100 mg Ag kg(-1) on the symbiosis between the legume Medicago truncatula and the nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Sinorhizobium melliloti in biosolids-amended soil. Nodulation frequency, nodule function, glutathione reductase production, and biomass were not significantly affected by any of the Ag treatments, even at 100 mg kg(-1), a concentration analogous to a worst-case scenario resulting from long-term, repeated biosolids amendments. Our results provide additional evidence that the disruption of the symbiosis between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes in response to a mixture of ENMs in biosolids-amended soil reported previously may not be attributable to Ag ENMs or their transformation end-products. We anticipate these findings will provide clarity to regulators and industry regarding potential unintended consequences to terrestrial ecosystems resulting from of the use of Ag ENMs in consumer products.

  12. 47 CFR 1.1307 - Actions that may have a significant environmental effect, for which Environmental Assessments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., sites, buildings, structures or objects, significant in American history, architecture, archeology... significant change in surface features (e.g., wetland fill, deforestation or water diversion). (In the case of...) Ship earth stations only. Private Land Mobile Radio Services Paging Operations (subpart P of part...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1305 - Actions which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. 1.1305 Section 1... which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact... the human environment requires the preparation of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1305 - Actions which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. 1.1305 Section 1... which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact... the human environment requires the preparation of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1305 - Actions which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. 1.1305 Section 1... which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact... the human environment requires the preparation of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)...

  16. Fruit load and elevation affect ethylene biosynthesis and action in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during development, maturation and ripening.

    PubMed

    Dal Cin, Valeriano; Danesin, Marcello; Botton, Alessandro; Boschetti, Andrea; Dorigoni, Alberto; Ramina, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    The influence of internal and external factors such as tree fruit load and elevation on ethylene biosynthesis and action was assessed during apple fruit development and ripening. Ethylene biosynthesis, as well as transcript accumulation of the hormone biosynthetic enzymes (MdACS1 and MdACO1), receptors (MdETR1 and MdERS1) and an element of the transduction pathway (MdCTR1), were evaluated in apples borne by trees with high (HL) and low (LL) fruit load. Orchards were located in two localities differing in elevation and season day degree sum. These parameters significantly affected the date of bloom and commercial harvest, and the length of the fruit developmental cycle. Trees from the low elevation (LE) bloomed and the fruit ripened earlier than those from the high elevation (HE), displaying also a shortened fruit developmental cycle. Dynamics of ethylene evolution was apparently not affected by elevation. The onset of ethylene evolution started 130 days after bloom (DAB) at both elevations. During early ripening, fruits from LL trees produced significantly more ethylene than those from HL trees. Expression analysis of MdACS1, MdACO1 and MdERS1 indicated that the transcript accumulation well correlated with ethylene evolution. MdCTR1 was expressed at constant level throughout fruit growth and development up to 130 DAB, thereafter, the transcript accumulation decreased up to commercial harvest, concurrently with the onset of ethylene evolution.

  17. How Verb Tense Affects the Construal of Action: The Simple Past Tense Leads People into an Abstract Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Aguilar, Pilar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of verb tense on how abstractly people construe action representations. Experiment 1 revealed that written descriptions of several daily events using the simple past tense (vs. simple present tense) resulted in actions and the action's target being seen as less likely and less familiar, respectively. In…

  18. Prepotency in action: does children's knowledge of an artifact affect their ability to inhibit acting on it?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew; Carroll, Daniel J; Riggs, Kevin J

    2014-02-01

    Prepotent actions are actions that are strongly triggered by the environment and so tend to be carried out unless intentionally avoided. Understanding what makes an action prepotent is central to an understanding of inhibitory control. The current study investigated actions made on artifacts because in artifact-dense cultures much everyday behavior is focused on them. A total of 80 3-year-olds were tested on a Go/No-go task that required children to make an action on go trials and to withhold it on no-go trials. These actions were made on artifacts with which the actions were either associated (e.g., drawing with a crayon) or unassociated (e.g., drawing with a hammer). Failure to avoid the go action on no-go trials was taken as evidence that the action was prepotent. Results suggested that an action did not need to be associated with an artifact in order for it to be prepotent (so drawing with a hammer could be prepotent). However, associated actions were sometimes produced even when children had been instructed to make an unassociated action. Children sometimes drew with a crayon when told to hammer with it, but they never hammered when told to draw.

  19. Specific dynamic action affects the hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow-water spider crab Maja brachydactyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, Sven; Robinson, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    The bathymetric distribution of marine benthic invertebrates is likely governed by a combination of ecological and physiological factors. The present study investigates oxygen consumption and heartbeat rate in response to attempted feeding at 1, 100 and 150 atm in the shallow-water spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, from temperate European waters. No significant difference was evident between the resting heartbeat rate of specimens at 1 or 100 atm, which were 56 and 65 bpm, respectively (Mann-Whitney, U = 5382.0; n = 95, 98; p = 0.079). However, at 150 atm the resting heartbeat rate was significantly higher than that observed for 100 atm at 108 bpm (Mann-Whitney, U = 149.0; n = 45, 98; p < 0.001). At 150 atm, feeding was never observed and coupled with the elevated resting heartbeat rate; it is suggested by 150 atm continued survival is unfeasible. At 1 and 100 atm, feeding instigated a distinct increase in heartbeat rate, which remained elevated for over 30 h. This increase peaked within 1 h at 1 atm. At 100 atm, this required 4 h and postprandial oxygen consumption was significantly higher than at 1 atm (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 85.036; df = 2; p < 0.001). Elevated hydrostatic pressure is hypothesized to extend the duration and the total metabolic energy devoted to specific dynamic action. The metabolic requirements of feeding under hyperbaric conditions may even reach such a critical demand that feeding is entirely inhibited.

  20. The inter-sample structural variability of regular tissue-engineered scaffolds significantly affects the micromechanical local cell environment

    PubMed Central

    Campos Marin, A.; Lacroix, D.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid prototyping techniques have been widely used in tissue engineering to fabricate scaffolds with controlled architecture. Despite the ability of these techniques to fabricate regular structures, the consistency with which these regular structures are produced throughout the scaffold and from one scaffold to another needs to be quantified. Small variations at the pore level can affect the local mechanical stimuli sensed by the cells thereby affecting the final tissue properties. Most studies assume rapid prototyping scaffolds as regular structures without quantifying the local mechanical stimuli at the cell level. In this study, a computational method using a micro-computed tomography-based scaffold geometry was developed to characterize the mechanical stimuli within a real scaffold at the pore level. Five samples from a commercial polycaprolactone scaffold were analysed and computational fluid dynamics analyses were created to compare local velocity and shear stress values at the same scaffold location. The five samples did not replicate the computer-aided design (CAD) scaffold and velocity and shear stress values were up to five times higher than the ones calculated in the CAD scaffold. In addition high variability among samples was found: at the same location velocity and shear stress values could be up to two times higher from sample to sample. This study shows that regular scaffolds need to be thoroughly analysed in order to quantify real cell mechanical stimuli so inspection methods should be included as part of the fabrication process. PMID:25844157

  1. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  2. Silver nanoparticles temporarily retard NO2 - production without significantly affecting N2 O release by Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Michels, Camila; Yang, Yu; Moreira Soares, Hugo; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-10-01

    Nitrifying bacteria are highly susceptible to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the effect of sublethal exposure to AgNPs after their release of nitrogenous compounds of environmental concern (e.g., the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide [N2 O] and the common water pollutant nitrite [NO2 -]) has not been systematically investigated. The present study reports the effect of AgNPs (and potentially released silver ions [Ag(+) ]) on NO2 - and N2 O production by Nitrosomonas europaea, and on the transcription of the associated genes. The release of NO2 - was more negatively affected than the production of N2 O. For example, exposure to AgNPs at 0.075 mg/L temporarily enhanced N2 O production (by 12%) without affecting nitrite release, whereas higher AgNP concentrations (>0.25 mg/L) inhibited NO2 - release (by >12%) but not N2 O production. Transcriptomic analyses corroborated these trends; AgNPs at 0.075 mg/L increased the expression of the nitric oxide reductase gene (norQ) associated with N2 O production (by 5.3-fold to 12.8-fold), whereas both 0.075 mg/L of Ag(+) and 0.75 mg/L of AgNPs down-regulated the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA2; by 0.08-fold to 0.15-fold and 0.32-fold to 0.64-fold, respectively), the nitrite reductase gene (nirK; by 0.01-fold to 0.02-fold and 0.22-fold to 0.44-fold, respectively), and norQ (by 0.11-fold to 0.15-fold and 0.32-fold to 0.57-fold, respectively). These results suggest that AgNP release to sewage treatment plants and land application of AgNP-containing biosolids should be minimized because of their potential temporary stimulation of N2 O release and interference with nitrification. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2231-2235. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E. )

    1990-06-26

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels.

  4. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  5. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25766381

  6. 14 CFR 39.17 - What must I do if a change in a product affects my ability to accomplish the actions required in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What must I do if a change in a product affects my ability to accomplish the actions required in an airworthiness directive? 39.17 Section 39.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  7. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly affects d' in verbal recognition memory at short and long delays.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Terry E; Iudicello, Jennifer; Russo, Christine; Elvevåg, Brita; Straub, Richard; Egan, Michael F; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-01-01

    A functional polymorphism at the val66met locus in the BDNF gene has significant effects on the pro-form of the protein in intracellular trafficking and activity-dependent, but not constitutive, secretion. These differences are thought to underlie several findings in humans related to this polymorphism, including markers of neuronal viability, BOLD activation in medial temporal lobe regions, and some aspects of behavior. However, many important questions remain about the impact of BDNF on various mnemonic subprocesses at the behavioral level. In this study, we examined the impact of the val/met polymorphism in a verbal recognition memory paradigm involving manipulation of depth of encoding and differential delays for recall and analyses of hits for previously presented target words and correct rejections of foils. Twenty-four human val homozygous individuals and 24 met carrier individuals comprised the sample. All were healthy controls. IQ between the groups was equivalent. In the encoding phase of the study, words were presented and encoded either by a decision as to whether they were living or nonliving ("deep") or if they contained the letter "A" (shallow). After this phase, recognition was tested immediately, half an hour, and 24h later. BDNF genotype had significant effects on hits and discriminability (d'), accounting for at least 10% of the variance, but not on correct rejections or beta. BDNF did not interact with level of encoding, nor did it interact with delay. In sum, BDNF genotypes impacted "hits" in a recognition memory paradigm, findings consistent with the general notion that BDNF plays a prominent role in memory subprocesses thought to engage the medial temporal lobe.

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Significantly Affects Pathogenicity and Host Response in the Mouse Model of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Byram, Rebecca; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Hellekson, Christopher; Stone, Brandee L.; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian; Johnson, Barbara J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, expresses RevA and numerous outer surface lipoproteins during mammalian infection. As an adhesin that promotes bacterial interaction with fibronectin, RevA is poised to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host. To further define the role(s) of RevA during mammalian infection, we created a mutant that is unable to produce RevA. The mutant was still infectious to mice, although it was significantly less well able to infect cardiac tissues. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type revA gene restored heart infectivity to wild-type levels. Additionally, revA mutants led to increased evidence of arthritis, with increased fibrotic collagen deposition in tibiotarsal joints. The mutants also induced increased levels of the chemokine CCL2, a monocyte chemoattractant, in serum, and this increase was abolished in the complemented strain. Therefore, while revA is not absolutely essential for infection, deletion of revA had distinct effects on dissemination, arthritis severity, and host response. PMID:26150536

  9. Extrinsic factors significantly affect patterns of disease in free-ranging and captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) populations.

    PubMed

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A; Worley, Michael; Jago, Mark; Bagot-Smith, Arthur; Marker, Laurie

    2005-07-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been considered a paradigm for disease vulnerability due to loss of genetic diversity. This species monomorphism has been suspected to be the basis for their general poor health and dwindling populations in captivity. North American and South African captive populations have high prevalences of hepatic veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, gastritis, and systemic amyloidosis, diseases that are rare in other species. Unusually severe inflammatory reactions to common infectious agents have also been documented in captive cheetahs. The current study compared disease prevalences in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs with those in two captive populations of similar ages. The occurrence of diseases in the free-ranging population was determined from 49 necropsies and 27 gastric biopsies obtained between 1986 and 2003 and compared with prevalences in 147 North American and 80 South African captive cheetahs. Except for two cheetahs, the free-ranging population was in robust health with only mild lesions present, in contrast with significantly higher prevalences in the captive populations. Despite widespread heavy Helicobacter colonization in wild cheetahs, only 3% of the free-ranging population had moderate to severe gastritis, in contrast with 64% of captive cheetahs. No severe inflammatory reactions to viral infections were detected in the free-ranging animals. Because free-ranging Namibian cheetahs are as genetically impoverished as captive cheetahs, these findings caution against attributing loss of fitness solely to genetic factors and attest to the fundamental importance of extrinsic factors in wildlife health.

  10. [Autism and nursing. Facilitated communication: significance of and use to the nursing of persons with autism with severe disabilities of action and communication].

    PubMed

    Beste, Liliane

    2007-02-01

    The following article searches for evidence based nursing measures in case of severe disabilities of action and communication, if criteria of autism can be applied. The effects of the impairments on daily life are described in typical situations. The caregivers of the persons affected must perform a constant and very demanding care, if they want to cope with daily life and strive for a meaningful social existence. The given situation prompted the question how professional caregivers take care of individuals with autism, who are both apraxic and aphasic. The central characteristics of autism are described on the basis of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), and specific therapeutic interventions are named. But neither autism therapies nor a literature search concerning nursing concepts for apraxic and aphasic persons could answer the above question. Hence, the author investigates the nursing relevance of the pedagogical concept of Facilitated Communication (FC). That widespread but scientifically, controversially discussed method is applied to persons with autism who are apraxic and unable to speak and communicate with gestures or facial expressions. Practical examples of daily life give a first impression of the use of Facilitated Communication. Subsequently the historical development, the target group and central elements of Facilitated Communication, as communication assessment and well-directed physical, verbal and emotional support, are described. The depiction of the concept FC ends with the discussion regarding the validity of the method. If validity of Facilitated Communication is discussed the term apraxia is frequently mentioned. In order to better understand the nature of apraxic disorders and to validate Facilitated Communication more appropriately, this method is brought into relationship with knowledge of medicine and physiotherapy. Basic Stimulation and the concept of Affolter resemble Facilitated Communication. They focus similar

  11. Differences in Water Vapor Radiative Transfer among 1D Models Can Significantly Affect the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Leconte, Jérémy; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Wang, Yuwei; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Forget, François; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4_Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μm) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μm. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10-20 W m-2 differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m-2, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m-2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  12. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather. Part 11: Meteorological Aspects of the Battle of Waterloo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.

    1993-03-01

    historians on the significant effects of the weather. Some historians believe that, had Napoleon been able to begin the attack earlier on the 18th, the battle would have ended in a French victory.

  13. Effect of procainamide on transmembrane action potentials in guinea-pig papillary muscles as affected by external potassium concentration.

    PubMed

    Sada, H; Kojima, M; Ban, T

    1979-11-01

    Effects of procainamide (PA), 0.18, 0.37 and 0.74 mmol/l, on the transmembrane potential were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with modified Tyrode's solution (external K concentration, [K]0 = 5.4 mmol/l) at the basic driving rate of 1 Hz. PA, at 0.37 mmol/l, significantly reduced the maximum rate of rise of action potential (Vmax) with no change in the resting potential. When 2.7 mmol/l [K]0 of the superfusate was exchanged for 15 mmol/l [K]0 solution a decrease in Vmax induced by 0.37 mmol/l PA became more prominent with decrease in resting potential. The reduction of Vmax at steady state was less at lower driving rates (0.25 and 0.5 Hz) and more at higher driving rates (2-5 Hz) than at 1 Hz in 2.7, 5.4 and 10.0 mmol/l [K]0 solution. Such changes were enhanced concentration-dependently by PA at 5.4 mmol/l [K]0. Also, the changes became more significant with an increase in [K]0 from 2.7 mmol/l to 5.4 mmol/l and then to 10.0 mmol/l. The recovery process of Vmax proceeded with two components. The time course of the slow component seen in the Vmax of the first response after interruption of basic driving stimulation at 1 Hz, followed an approximate monoexponential function. The time constants were 6.3, 4.4 and 5.8 s in the presence of 0.18, 0.37 and 0.74 mmol/l PA at 5.4 mmol/l [K]0 and 3.4 and 3.7 s both in the presence of 0.37 mmol/l PA at 2.7 and 10.0 mmol/l [K]0. Vmax values after 30 or 60 s interruption of stimulation were 80-92% of the predrug Vmax value at 1 Hz. The time constants of the first component, estimated by the peeling-off methods at the driving rate of 0.1 Hz, were 11, 31 and 5-22 ms in the presence of 0.37 mmol/l at 5.4, 10.0 and 2.7 mmol/l [K]0 and did not differ significantly from the time constants in control preparations. The results were found to be consistent, to a certain extent, with the model proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977).

  14. Ethanol, not detectably metabolized in brain, significantly reduces brain metabolism, probably via action at specific GABA(A) receptors and has measureable metabolic effects at very low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rae, Caroline D; Davidson, Joanne E; Maher, Anthony D; Rowlands, Benjamin D; Kashem, Mohammed A; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Cook, James M; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol is a known neuromodulatory agent with reported actions at a range of neurotransmitter receptors. Here, we measured the effect of alcohol on metabolism of [3-¹³C]pyruvate in the adult Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice and compared the outcomes to those from a library of ligands active in the GABAergic system as well as studying the metabolic fate of [1,2-¹³C]ethanol. Analyses of metabolic profile clusters suggest that the significant reductions in metabolism induced by ethanol (10, 30 and 60 mM) are via action at neurotransmitter receptors, particularly α4β3δ receptors, whereas very low concentrations of ethanol may produce metabolic responses owing to release of GABA via GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) and the subsequent interaction of this GABA with local α5- or α1-containing GABA(A)R. There was no measureable metabolism of [1,2-¹³C]ethanol with no significant incorporation of ¹³C from [1,2-¹³C]ethanol into any measured metabolite above natural abundance, although there were measurable effects on total metabolite sizes similar to those seen with unlabelled ethanol.

  15. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  16. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    PubMed

    Millar, John S

    2013-05-14

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program.

  17. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples.

  18. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  19. Chronic endurance exercise affects paracrine action of CD31+ and CD34+ cells on endothelial tube formation

    PubMed Central

    Landers-Ramos, Rian Q.; Sapp, Ryan M.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Murphy, Anna E.; Cancre, Lucile; Chin, Eva R.; Spangenburg, Espen E.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine if chronic endurance-exercise habits affected redox status and paracrine function of CD34+ and CD34−/CD31+ circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). Subjects were healthy, nonsmoking men and women aged 18–35 yr and categorized by chronic physical activity habits. Blood was drawn from each subject for isolation and culture of CD34+ and CD34−/CD31+ CACs. No differences in redox status were found in any group across either cell type. Conditioned media (CM) was generated from the cultured CACs and used in an in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell-based tube assay. CM from CD34+ cells from inactive individuals resulted in tube structures that were 29% shorter in length (P < 0.05) and 45% less complex (P < 0.05) than the endurance-trained group. CD34−/CD31+ CM from inactive subjects resulted in tube structures that were 26% shorter in length (P < 0.05) and 42% less complex (P < 0.05) than endurance-trained individuals. Proteomics analyses identified S100A8 and S100A9 in the CM. S100A9 levels were 103% higher (P < 0.05) and S100A8 was 97% higher in the CD34−/CD31+ CM of inactive subjects compared with their endurance-trained counterparts with no significant differences in either protein in the CM of CD34+ CACs as a function of training status. Recombinant S100A8/A9 treatment at concentrations detected in inactive subjects' CD34−/CD31+ CAC CM also reduced tube formation (P < 0.05). These findings are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a differential paracrine role in CD34+ and CD34−/CD31+ CACs on tube formation as a function of chronic physical activity habits and identifies a differential secretion of S100A9 by CD34−/CD31+ CACs due to habitual exercise. PMID:26055789

  20. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone 1, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-02-01

    Zone 1 is a 1400-acre area outside the fence of the main plant at The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone, ETTP (Zone 1 Interim ROD) (DOE 2002) identifies the remedial actions for contaminated soil, buried waste, and subsurface infrastructure necessary to protect human health and to limit further contamination of groundwater. Since the Zone 1 Interim Record of Decision (ROD) was signed, new information has been obtained that requires the remedy to be modified as follows: (1) Change the end use in Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA) from unrestricted industrial to recreational; (2) Remove Exposure Units (EU5) ZI-50, 51, and 52 from the scope of the Zone I Interim ROD; (3) Change the end use of the duct bank corridor from unrestricted industrial to restricted industrial; and (4) Remove restriction for the disturbance of soils below 10 feet in Exposure Unit (EU) Z1-04. In accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.435, these scope modifications are a 'significant' change to the Zone 1 Interim ROD. In accordance with CERCLA Sect. 117 (c) and 40 CFR 300.435 (c)(2)(i), such a significant change is documented with an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD). The purpose of this ESD is to make the changes listed above. This ESD is part of the Administrative Record file, and it, and other information supporting the selected remedy, can be found at the DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The ORR is located in Roane and Anderson counties, within and adjacent to the corporate city limits of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ETTP is located in Roane County near the northwest corner of the ORR. ETTP began operation during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. The original mission of ETTP was to produce enriched uranium for use in atomic weapons. The plant produced enriched uranium from 1945 until 1985

  1. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  2. Significant Low Prevalence of Antibodies Reacting with Simian Virus 40 Mimotopes in Serum Samples from Patients Affected by Inflammatory Neurologic Diseases, Including Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Masini, Irene; Rotondo, John Charles; Gentile, Mauro; Fainardi, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Granieri, Enrico; Caniati, Maria Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Guerra, Giovanni; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Many investigations were carried out on the association between viruses and multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, early studies reported the detections of neurotropic virus footprints in the CNS of patients with MS. In this study, sera from patients affected by MS, other inflammatory (OIND) and non-inflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND) were analyzed for antibodies against the polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with two synthetic peptides, which mimic SV40 antigens, was employed to detect specific antibodies in sera from patients affected by MS, OIND, NIND and healthy subjects (HS). Immunologic data indicate that in sera from MS patients antibodies against SV40 mimotopes are detectable with a low prevalence, 6%, whereas in HS of the same mean age, 40 yrs, the prevalence was 22%. The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.001). Significant is also the difference between MS vs. NIND patients (6% vs. 17%; P = 0.0254), whereas no significant difference was detected between MS vs OIND (6% vs 10%; P>0.05). The prevalence of SV40 antibodies in MS patients is 70% lower than that revealed in HS. PMID:25365364

  3. Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.

    PubMed

    Averitt Taylor, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy.

  4. Tales of the Tail and Sperm Head Aches Changing concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head, neck and tail

    PubMed Central

    Chemes, Héctor E; Alvarez Sedo, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an update on the variable prognostic significance of different sperm pathologies in patients with severe male factor infertility due to morphology and motility disorders. Severe asthenozoospermia is one of the leading causes of male infertility as spermatozoa cannot reach the oocyte and/or penetrate normally. Identifying structural causes of sperm immotility was of great concern before the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), because immotility was the limiting factor in the treatment of these patients. In these cases, in vitro methods are used to identify live spermatozoa or stimulate sperm motility to avoid selection of non-viable cells. With these advances, fertilization and pregnancy results have improved dramatically. The identification of genetic phenotypes in asthenozoospermia is important to adequately inform patients of treatment outcomes and risks. The one sperm characteristic that seriously affects fertility prognosis is teratozoospermia, primarily sperm head and neck anomalies. Defects of chromatin condensation and acrosomal hypoplasia are the two most common abnormalities in severe teratozoospermia. The introduction of microscopic methods to select spermatozoa and the development of new ones to evaluate sperm quality before ICSI will assure that ultrastructural identification of sperm pathologies will not only be of academic interest, but will also be an essential tool to inform treatment choice. Herein, we review the differential roles played by sperm components in normal fertilization and early embryo development and explore how assisted reproductive technologies have modified our concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head, neck, mid-piece and tail. PMID:22198630

  5. BMI, RQ, Diabetes, and Sex Affect the Relationships Between Amino Acids and Clamp Measures of Insulin Action in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Ingram, Katherine H.; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:24130332

  6. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  7. Development of linear and threshold no significant risk levels for inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide using systematic review and mode of action considerations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Wikoff, Daniele S; Welsh, Brian; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been characterized as a poorly soluble particulate (PSP) with low toxicity. It is well accepted that low toxicity PSPs such as TiO2 induce lung tumors in rats when deposition overwhelms particle clearance mechanisms. Despite the sensitivity of rats to PSPs and questionable relevance of PSP-induced tumors to humans, TiO2 is listed as a possible human carcinogen by some agencies and regulators. Thus, environmental toxicity criteria for TiO2 are needed for stakeholders to evaluate potential risks from environmental exposure and regulatory compliance. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to characterize the available data and identify candidate datasets upon which toxicity values could be derived. Key to this assessment, a survey of mechanistic data relevant for lung cancer was used to support quantitative inhalation risk assessment approaches. A total of 473 human studies were identified, 7 of which were epidemiological studies that met inclusion criteria to quantitatively characterize carcinogenic endpoints in humans. None of these studies supported derivation of toxicity criteria; therefore, animal data were used to derived safety values for TiO2 using different dose-metrics (regional deposited dose ratios, TiO2 particle surface area lung burden, and volumetric overload of alveolar macrophages), benchmark dose modeling, and different low-dose extrapolation approaches. Based on empirical evidence and mechanistic support for nonlinear mode of action involving particle overload, chronic inflammation and cell proliferation, a no significant risk level (NSRL) of 300 μg/day was derived. By comparison, low-dose linear extrapolation from tumor incidence in the rat lung resulted in an NSRL value of 44 μg/day. These toxicity values should be useful for stakeholders interested in assessing risks from environmental exposure to respirable TiO2.

  8. Clinical Significance of Repetitive Compound Muscle Action Potentials in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis: A Predictor for Cholinergic Side Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Eun; Kim, Yool-hee; Kim, Seung Min

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are widely used to treat myasthenia gravis (MG). Although AChEIs are usually tolerated well, some MG patients suffer from side effects. Furthermore, a small proportion of MG patients show cholinergic hypersensitivity and cannot tolerate AChEIs. Because repetitive compound muscle action potentials (R-CMAPs) are an electrophysiologic feature of cholinergic neuromuscular hyperactivity, we investigated the clinical characteristics of MG patients with R-CMAPs to identify their clinical usefulness in therapeutic decision-making. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and electrodiagnostic findings of MG patients who underwent electrodiagnostic studies and diagnostic neostigmine testing (NT). Results Among 71 MG patients, 9 could not tolerate oral pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and 17 experienced side effects of PB. R-CMAPs developed in 24 patients after NT. The highest daily dose of PB was lower in the patients with R-CMAPs (240 mg/day vs. 480 mg/day, p<0.001). The frequencies of PB intolerance and side effects were higher in the patients with R-CMAPs than in those without R-CMAPs [37.5% vs. 0% (p<0.001) and 45.8% vs. 12.8% (p=0.002), respectively]. The MG Foundation of America postintervention status did not differ significantly between MG patients with and without R-CMAPs, and the response to immunotherapy was also good in both groups. Conclusions Side effects of and intolerance to AChEIs are more common in MG patients with R-CMAPs than in those without R-CMAPs. AChEIs should be used carefully in MG patients with R-CMAPs. The presence of R-CMAPs after NT may be a good indicator of the risks of PB side effects and intolerance. PMID:27819419

  9. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  10. The observation of manual grasp actions affects the control of speech: a combined behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting with large and small objects and (3) differently sized objects presented alone. Voice formant 1 was higher when observing power as compared to precision grasp, whereas it remained unaffected by observation of the different types of foot interaction and objects alone. In TMS experiment 2, we stimulated hand motor cortex, while participants observed the two types of grasp. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) of hand muscles active during the two types of grasp were greater when observing power than precision grasp. In experiments 3-5, TMS was applied to tongue motor cortex of participants silently pronouncing the syllable /da/ and simultaneously observing power and precision grasps, pantomimes of the two types of grasps, and differently sized objects presented alone. Tongue MEPs were greater when observing power than precision grasp either executed or pantomimed. Finally, in TMS experiment 6, the observation of foot interaction with large and small objects did not modulate tongue MEPs. We hypothesized that grasp observation activated motor commands to the mouth as well as to the hand that were congruent with the hand kinematics implemented in the observed type of grasp. The commands to the mouth selectively affected postures of phonation organs and consequently basic features of phonological units.

  11. Liver X receptor agonist treatment significantly affects phenotype and transcriptome of APOE3 and APOE4 Abca1 haplo-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Nicholas F.; Mounier, Anais; Wolfe, Cody M.; Nam, Kyong Nyon; Reeves, Valerie L.; Kamboh, Hafsa; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2017-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) controls cholesterol and phospholipid efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein E (APOE) and is transcriptionally controlled by Liver X receptors (LXRs) and Retinoic X Receptors (RXRs). In APP transgenic mice, lack of Abca1 increased Aβ deposition and cognitive deficits. Abca1 haplo-deficiency in mice expressing human APOE isoforms, increased level of Aβ oligomers and worsened memory deficits, preferentially in APOE4 mice. In contrast upregulation of Abca1 by LXR/RXR agonists significantly ameliorated pathological phenotype of those mice. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 (T0) on the phenotype and brain transcriptome of APP/E3 and APP/E4 Abca1 haplo-deficient (APP/E3/Abca1+/- and APP/E4/Abca1+/-) mice. Our data demonstrate that activated LXRs/RXR ameliorated APOE4-driven pathological phenotype and significantly affected brain transcriptome. We show that in mice expressing either APOE isoform, T0 treatment increased mRNA level of genes known to affect brain APOE lipidation such as Abca1 and Abcg1. In both APP/E3/Abca1+/- and APP/E4/Abca1+/- mice, the application of LXR agonist significantly increased ABCA1 protein level accompanied by an increased APOE lipidation, and was associated with restoration of APOE4 cognitive deficits, reduced levels of Aβ oligomers, but unchanged amyloid load. Finally, using Gene set enrichment analysis we show a significant APOE isoform specific response to LXR agonist treatment: Gene Ontology categories “Microtubule Based Process” and “Synapse Organization” were differentially affected in T0-treated APP/E4/Abca1+/- mice. Altogether, the results are suggesting that treatment of APP/E4/Abca1+/- mice with LXR agonist T0 ameliorates APOE4-induced AD-like pathology and therefore targeting the LXR-ABCA1-APOE regulatory axis could be effective as a potential therapeutic approach in AD patients, carriers of APOEε4. PMID:28241068

  12. Finding of no significant impact for the interim action for cleanup of Pit 9 at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0854, for an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The proposed action would be conducted at Pit 9, Operable Unit 7--10, located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The proposed action consists of construction of retrieval and processing buildings, excavation and retrieval of wastes from Pit 9, selective physical separation and chemical extraction, and stabilization of wastes either through thermal processing or by forming a stabilized concentrate. The proposed action would involve limited waste treatment process testing and full-scale waste treatment processing for cleaning up pre-1970 Transuranic (TRU) wastes in Pit 9. The purpose of this interim action is to expedite the overall cleanup at the RWMC and to reduce the risks associated with potential migration of Pit 9 wastes to the Snake River Plain Aquifer.

  13. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  14. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes.

  15. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes. PMID:27014291

  16. Emotion affects action: Midcingulate cortex as a pivotal node of interaction between negative emotion and motor signals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; de Oliveira, Letícia; Erthal, Fátima Smith; Joffily, Mateus; Mocaiber, Izabela F; Volchan, Eliane; Pessoa, Luiz

    2010-03-01

    Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic nonemotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study (Pereira et al., 2006), participants performed a simple target detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target detection trials during the unpleasant context, and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced signals and motor signals in the brain and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing.

  17. Emotion affects action: Midcingulate cortex as a pivotal node of interaction between negative emotion and motor signals

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.G.; Oliveira, L; Erthal, FS; Joffily, M; Mocaiber, I.F.; Volchan, E.; Pessoa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic non-emotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study, subjects performed a simple target-detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target-detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target-detection trials during the unpleasant context and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced and motor signals in the brain, and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing. PMID:20233958

  18. Synergistic action of histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and receptor CLAVATA1 negatively affects ethylene responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poulios, Stylianos; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-01

    GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSIBLE 5 (GCN5) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and the catalytic subunit of several multicomponent HAT complexes that acetylate lysine residues of histone H3. Mutants in AtGCN5 display pleiotropic developmental defects including aberrant meristem function. Shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintenance is regulated by CLAVATA1 (CLV1), a receptor kinase that controls the size of the shoot and floral meristems. Upon activation through CLV3 binding, CLV1 signals to the transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), restricting WUS expression and thus the meristem size. We hypothesized that GCN5 and CLV1 act together to affect SAM function. Using genetic and molecular approaches, we generated and characterized clv gcn5 mutants. Surprisingly, the clv1-1 gcn5-1 double mutant exhibited constitutive ethylene responses, suggesting that GCN5 and CLV signaling act synergistically to inhibit ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. This genetic and molecular interaction was mediated by ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/ EIN3-LIKE1 (EIN3/EIL1) transcription factors. Our data suggest that signals from the CLV transduction pathway reach the GCN5-containing complexes in the nucleus and alter the histone acetylation status of ethylene-responsive genes, thus translating the CLV information to transcriptional activity and uncovering a link between histone acetylation and SAM maintenance in the complex mode of ethylene signaling.

  19. VIRTIS/VEX O2(a1Δg) nightglow profiles affected by gravity waves action: modeling and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Francesca; Miglirioni, Alessandra; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2013-04-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) are mesoscale atmospheric oscillations related to the buoyancy restoring force, which play a key role in the circulation of planetary atmospheres. Their propagation, inducing fluctuation in both temperature and density fields, can also affect the intensity of the airglow emissions. In this work we report on the modelling of O2(a1Δg) nightglow limb profiles perturbed by the GWs propagation in the Venus atmosphere. O2(a1Δg) excited molecules arise by the three-body reaction between two atoms of oxygen and carbon dioxide, then they decay at the fundamental state by emitting most of the photons at 1.27 µm or through collisions with CO2 molecules (quenching). The 1.27 µm emission behavior is analyzed through the data acquired by the VIRTIS (Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on boards the ESA mission Venus Express (VEX). The high variability observed in the shape of the O2(a1Δg) nightglow limb profiles between 80 and 120 km, often characterized by the presence of a double peak, implies GWs occurrence at the considered altitudes. In order to model and derive the GWs properties, we apply to Venus a well-known theory used to study terrestrial airglow fluctuations induced by the GWs propagation. The initial O2(a1Δg) molecules density profile have been assumed to be Gaussian shaped. Unperturbed temperatures and density profiles have been taken from SPICAV data, while the initial atomic oxygen density profile has been derived with the same approach of Gerard et al. [2009]. This study confirms the high variability induced by the waves propagation in the O2 profiles, as observed in the VIRTIS data.

  20. Lactate adversely affects the in vitro formation of endothelial cell tubular structures through the action of TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Stephan A. . E-mail: leoni.kunz-schughart@oncoray.de; Gaumann, Andreas; Wondrak, Marit; Eckermann, Christoph; Schulte, Stephanie; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Wheatley, Denys N.; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2007-07-15

    When lactate accumulation in a tumor microenvironment reaches an average concentration of 10-20 mM, it tends to reflect a high degree of malignancy. However, the hypothesis that tumor-derived lactate has a number of partially adverse biological effects on malignant and tumor-associated host cells requires further evidence. The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of lactate on the process of angiogenesis, in particular on the formation of tubular structures. The endothelial cell (EC) network in desmoplastic breast tumors is primarily located in areas of reactive fibroblastic stroma. We employed a fibroblast-endothelial cell co-culture model as in vitro angiogenesis system normally producing florid in vitro tubule formation to analyze this situation. In contrast to previous studies, we found that lactate significantly reduces EC network formation in a dose-dependent manner as quantified by semi-automated morphometric analyses following immunohistochemical staining. The decrease in CD31-positive tubular structures and the number of intersections was independent of VEGF supplementation and became more pronounced in the presence of protons. The number of cells, primarily of the fibroblast population, was reduced but cell loss could not be attributed to a decrease in proliferative activity or pronounced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with 10 mM lactate was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression and release of TGF-{beta}1, which also shows anti-angiogenic activity in the model. Both TGF-{beta}1 and lactate induced myofibroblastic differentiation adjacent to the EC tubular structures. The lactate response on the EC network was diminished by TGF-{beta}1 neutralization, indicating a causal relationship between lactate and TGF-{beta}1 in the finely tuned processes of vessel formation and maturation which may also occur in vivo within tumor tissue.

  1. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Figueira, Glyn Mara; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis), as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research.

  2. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel

    PubMed Central

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P.

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories “response to

  3. Anguillicola crassus Infection Significantly Affects the Silvering Related Modifications in Steady State mRNA Levels in Gas Gland Tissue of the European Eel.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Schneebauer, Gabriel; Dirks, Ron P

    2016-01-01

    Using Illumina sequencing, transcriptional changes occurring during silvering in swimbladder tissue of the European eel have been analyzed by comparison of yellow and silver eel tissue samples. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms revealed significant expression changes in a number of genes related to the extracellular matrix, important for the control of gas permeability of the swimbladder, and to reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense, important to cope with ROS generated under hyperbaric oxygen partial pressures. Focusing on swimbladder tissue metabolism, levels of several mRNA species encoding glucose transport proteins were several-fold higher in silver eels, while enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were not affected. The significantly higher steady state level of a transcript encoding for membrane bound carbonic anhydrase, however, suggested that CO2 production in the pentose phosphate shunt and diffusion of CO2 was of particular importance in silver eel swimbladder. In addition, the mRNA level of a large number of genes related to immune response and to sexual maturation was significantly modified in the silver eel swimbladder. The modification of several processes related to protein metabolism and transport, cell cycle, and apoptosis suggested that these changes in swimbladder metabolism and permeability were achieved by increasing cell turn-over. The impact of an infection of the swimbladder with the nematode Anguillicola crassus has been assessed by comparing these expression changes with expression changes observed between uninfected yellow eel swimbladder tissue and infected silver eel swimbladder tissue. In contrast to uninfected silver eel swimbladder tissue, in infected tissue the mRNA level of several glycolytic enzymes was significantly elevated, and with respect to extracellular matrix, several mucin genes were many-fold higher in their mRNA level. Modification of many immune related genes and of the functional categories "response to

  4. Curcumin Intake Affects miRNA Signature in Murine Melanoma with mmu-miR-205-5p Most Significantly Altered

    PubMed Central

    Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Laschke, Matthias W.; Leidinger, Petra; Menger, Michael D.; Meese, Eckart; Mahlknecht, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with estimated 48,000 deaths per year worldwide. The polyphenol curcumin derived from the plant Curcuma longa is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerogenic properties. Accordingly, dietary intake of this compound may be suitable for melanoma prevention. However, how this compound affects basic cellular mechanisms in developing melanoma still remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the impact of oral curcumin administration on the miRNA signature of engrafting melanoma. For this purpose, the effects of a 4% curcumin diet were tested on melanoma, which were established by injection of murine B78H1 cells in the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Curcumin diet or standard chow (control) was administered two weeks prior to injection of tumor cells until termination of the experiment. High throughput chip-based array analysis was deployed to detect alterations in the miRNA signature of the tumors. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced the growth of the flank tumors. Furthermore the miRNA expression signature in tumors was substantially altered by curcumin intake with mmu-miR-205-5p over 100 times higher expressed when compared to controls. The expression levels of identified key miRNAs in the tumor samples were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A comparable expression pattern of these miRNAs was also detected in other curcumin-treated melanoma cell lines under in vitro conditions. Putative targets of curcumin-induced up-regulated miRNAs were enriched in ‘o-glycan biosynthesis’, ‘endoplasmatic reticulum protein processing’ and different cancer-related pathways. Western Blot analyses revealed that of these targets anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were significantly down-regulated in curcumin-treated tumors. These findings demonstrate a profound alteration of the mi

  5. A Mixture Reflecting Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Profiles Detected in Human Follicular Fluid Significantly Affects Steroidogenesis and Induces Oxidative Stress in a Female Human Granulosa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Pavine L C; Wade, Mike; Goodyer, Cindy; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Brominated flame retardants are incorporated into consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female fertility. Our goal was to elucidate the effects of a mixture of PBDEs, similar to the profile found in human follicular fluid, on an immortalized human granulosa cell line, the KGN cell line. We showed that cell viability was altered and oxidative stress was induced as reflected by increased reactive oxygen species formation at 100 μM of the PBDE mixture. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PBDE treatments of 1, 5, and 20 μM altered the expression of several genes involved in the reactive oxygen species signaling pathway. Significant dose-dependent reductions in progesterone and estradiol levels in the culture medium were measured after PBDE treatment; in parallel, the expression of genes involved in estradiol metabolism, namely CYP1A1, was up-regulated by 5 and 20 μM of the PBDE mixture. Treatment with 20 μM PBDE also increased the expression and secretion of the proinflammatory factor, IL-6, into the KGN cell culture medium. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs can alter human granulosa cell functions by inducing oxidative stress and disrupting steroidogenesis. These results indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to ovarian functions and thus may adversely affect female reproductive health after chronic exposure.

  6. How Cancers Escape Immune Destruction and Mechanisms of Action for the New Significantly Active Immune Therapies: Helping Nonimmunologists Decipher Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Messerschmidt, Jonathan L.; Prendergast, George C.

    2016-01-01

    With the Food and Drug Administration and other worldwide regulatory authorities’ approval of ipilimumab (Yervoy), sipuleucel-T (Provenge), nivolumab (Opdivo), and pembrolizumab (Keytruda), oncologic therapy has now moved into noncancer cell targets within the immune system. For many nonimmunologists, understanding how these vastly different therapies work to improve survival, like no other therapies have in the past, is a challenge. The present report reviews the normal function of the immune system, how cancers escape the normal immune system, and how these new therapies improve immune system reactions against cancers. Implications for Practice: Oncologists have tremendous experience with therapies that target the cancer cells. New biologic agents have been rapidly introduced recently that target not cancer cells, but the patient’s immune cells. The mechanisms of action of these immune-based biologic agents are within the host immune system. To understand these new biologic therapies, basic knowledge of normal and abnormal immune function is essential. The present report explains the up-to-date basic immune normal and abnormal function and prepares the oncologist to understand how the new drugs work, why they work, and why there are associated adverse events. PMID:26834161

  7. Finite elements/Taguchi method based procedure for the identification of the geometrical parameters significantly affecting the biomechanical behavior of a lumbar disc.

    PubMed

    Cappetti, N; Naddeo, A; Naddeo, F; Solitro, G F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to show a quick and simple procedure able to identify the geometrical parameters of the intervertebral disc that strongly affect the behavior of the FEM model. First, we allocated a selection criterion for the minimum number of geometrical parameters that describe, with a good degree of approximation, a healthy human vertebra. Next, we carried out a sensitivity analysis using the 'Taguchi orthogonal array' to arrive at a quick identification of the parameters that strongly affect the behavior of the Fem model.

  8. Low concentrations of the organophosphate VX affect spontaneous and evoked transmitter release from hippocampal neurons: toxicological relevance of cholinesterase-independent actions.

    PubMed

    Rocha, E S; Santos, M D; Chebabo, S R; Aracava, Y; Albuquerque, E X

    1999-08-15

    In the present study, the patch-clamp technique was applied to cultured hippocampal neurons to evaluate the effects of the nerve agent VX on evoked and spontaneous postsynaptic currents mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. At 0.01 nM, VX reduced the amplitude of evoked GABAergic currents, and only at concentrations >1 nM did it decrease the amplitude of evoked glutamatergic currents. The effect of VX on GABAergic currents, which was partially reversible upon washing of the neurons with VX-free external solution, could be prevented by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In contrast, the effect of VX on glutamatergic currents, which was not reversible upon washing, appears to be related to the VX-induced reduction of the amplitude and frequency of repetitively firing by action potentials. In the presence of the Na(+)-channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), VX (>/=10 nM) increased the frequency of GABA- and glutamate-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (MPSCs). This effect of VX was unrelated to cholinesterase inhibition and was Ca(2+) dependent. The lack of effect of VX on MPSC kinetics indicates that VX-induced alterations of evoked and spontaneous currents are exclusively due to alterations of the transmitter release processes. The ability of VX to affect transmitter release in the brain may underlie some of its neurotoxic effects and may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic countermeasures to treat and/or prevent VX-induced neurotoxicity.

  9. A Comparative Study of Finland and Chile: The Culture-Dependent Significance of the Individual and Interindividual Levels of the Mathematics-Related Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuohilampi, Laura; Laine, Anu; Hannula, Markku S.; Varas, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics-related affect is established regarding both individual and interindividual levels. However, the interaction between the levels has not been elaborated. Furthermore, it is known that people may draw either from intrinsic or extrinsic experiences to construct their identities depending on their cultural environment. Thus, affective…

  10. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 200 - The Action Requiring an Environmental Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and, therefore, require an... disturbed property where there is the potential for an increase in traffic and people....

  11. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 200 - The Action Requiring an Environmental Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and, therefore, require an... disturbed property where there is the potential for an increase in traffic and people....

  12. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 200 - The Action Requiring an Environmental Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and, therefore, require an... disturbed property where there is the potential for an increase in traffic and people....

  13. Significance of Theileria orientalis types in individual affected beef herds in New South Wales based on clinical, smear and PCR findings.

    PubMed

    Eamens, Graeme J; Bailey, Graham; Jenkins, Cheryl; Gonsalves, Jocelyn R

    2013-09-01

    Cattle within seven NSW herds with a history or risk of clinical Theileria orientalis disease associated with introductions of cattle were examined clinically and by haematological and PCR testing at sequential bleeds or at single sampling of different risk subgroups. The T. orientalis Ikeda type was detected in all herds and Chitose type was detected in six. Pale and jaundiced mucosal surfaces were associated with clinically affected groups of cattle, and herds containing cattle with ≥ 1% theilerias in erythrocytes were associated with high prevalence of Ikeda type, with or without Chitose type. In clinically normal cattle within these Ikeda-affected herds, over half of the smear negative animals were detected as infected with Ikeda type, while 90% of smear positive cases were positive for Ikeda type. Infection with Ikeda and Chitose organisms was detected in calves as young as 1-2 weeks, rapidly increased in prevalence within one month and was maintained until 4.5 months of age. In these calves Ikeda prevalence increased at a faster rate than the other MPSP types, particularly Buffeli which is generally considered to be avirulent, and suggests either an increased growth rate or rate of transmission of the Ikeda type or failure of the host immune system to clear this type. Particularly high T. orientalis prevalence rates were detected (in blood samples from a single time point) in adults that had been in direct contact with weaner cattle introduced from coastal areas; however, the lack of direct contact with affected cattle did not prevent infection with Ikeda type in some cases. Spread within previously naïve herds was variable, and results also depended on the sampling time point. In contrast, groups in which infection was already established gave repeatedly similar results at multiple samplings taken at one month intervals. Our results confirm that a large reservoir of infected but clinically normal animals exists within T. orientalis-affected cattle herds

  14. The stability and the hydrological behavior of biological soil crusts is significantly affected by the complex nature of their polysaccharidic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological crusts (BSCs) are complex microbial associations constituted by cells and microbial filaments embedded in a polysaccharidic matrix (EPS) that binds them together and with soil particles. EPSs of BSCs play a key role in structuring the soil and in affecting the hydrological processes taking place at the topsoil in desert environments. Recently, the amphiphilic nature of the EPSs, due to the contemporaneous presence in the macromolecules of hydrophilic and hydrophobic constituents, was put in relation with their capability to contribute to the structuring of the soil particles in BSCs and to hydrological behavior of the crusts. Indeed, in the EPSs the hydrophobicity due to the non-polar constituents (i.e. deoxysugars, ester-linked fatty acids, non polar aminoacids) was associated with the adhesion of the microbial cells to solid surfaces and to the clogging of micropores in the crusts. On the other hand, the hydrophilic constituents of the EPSs (i.e. acidic sugars, ketal-linked pyruvic acid, sulphate groups etc) were suggested to determine the final water content and distribution in the soil. The presence of BSCs facilitates the uptake of moisture from the atmosphere and at the same time contributes to enriching the soils with organic matter. In this lecture, the role of the EPSs in affecting the hydrological behavior of BSCs will be discussed by comparing the results obtained with natural and artificially induced BSCs also in relation with the texture of the soils. Furthermore, the contribution to the structuring of the soils of the polysaccharidic matrix of the crusts will be discussed moving from the different characteristics of two operationally-defined EPS fractions, the colloidal (C-EPS) and the EDTA extractable (tightly bound, TB-EPS) fractions. In BSCs, C-EPSs are loosely bound to cells and sediments while TB-EPSs are tightly bound to the crustal biotic and abiotic constituents of the crusts. The results obtained in a recent study suggest that the

  15. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  16. Decreased expression of Fli-1 in bone marrow-derived haematopoietic cells significantly affects disease development in Murphy Roths Large/lymphoproliferation (MRL/lpr) mice

    PubMed Central

    Molano, I; Mathenia, J; Ruiz, P; Gilkeson, G S; Zhang, X K

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor Fli-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of both murine and human lupus. Decreased expression of Fli-1 in heterozygous (Fli-1+/−) Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lpr mice resulted in significantly lower kidney pathological scores and markedly increased survival. In this study, bone marrow (BM) transplantation was used to investigate the role of decreased expression of Fli-1 in haematopoietic versus non-haematopoietic cell lineages in autoimmune disease development. Wild-type (WT) MRL/lpr that received BM from Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice had statistically significantly lower autoantibodies, less proteinuria, reduced renal disease and prolonged survival compared to WT MRL/lpr mice that received BM from WT MRL/lpr mice. Although not statistically significant, Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice that received BM from WT MRL/lpr mice also had lower autoantibodies and improved survival compared to WT MRL/lpr mice that received BM from WT MRL/lpr mice. Our data indicate that expression of Fli-1 in haematopoietic cell lineages has a significant effect on disease development in MRL/lpr mice. PMID:20015093

  17. Decreased expression of Fli-1 in bone marrow-derived haematopoietic cells significantly affects disease development in Murphy Roths Large/lymphoproliferation (MRL/lpr) mice.

    PubMed

    Molano, I; Mathenia, J; Ruiz, P; Gilkeson, G S; Zhang, X K

    2010-05-01

    The transcription factor Fli-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of both murine and human lupus. Decreased expression of Fli-1 in heterozygous (Fli-1(+/-)) Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lpr mice resulted in significantly lower kidney pathological scores and markedly increased survival. In this study, bone marrow (BM) transplantation was used to investigate the role of decreased expression of Fli-1 in haematopoietic versus non-haematopoietic cell lineages in autoimmune disease development. Wild-type (WT) MRL/lpr that received BM from Fli-1(+/-) MRL/lpr mice had statistically significantly lower autoantibodies, less proteinuria, reduced renal disease and prolonged survival compared to WT MRL/lpr mice that received BM from WT MRL/lpr mice. Although not statistically significant, Fli-1(+/-) MRL/lpr mice that received BM from WT MRL/lpr mice also had lower autoantibodies and improved survival compared to WT MRL/lpr mice that received BM from WT MRL/lpr mice. Our data indicate that expression of Fli-1 in haematopoietic cell lineages has a significant effect on disease development in MRL/lpr mice.

  18. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: 7, "Protestant Wind"-"Popish Wind": The Revolusion of 1688 in England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgrén, S.; Neumann, J.

    1985-06-01

    James II, King of England from 1685 to 1688, increasingly antagonized his people by his forced attempts to restore the Catholic faith to a position of eminence in England; many of his actions were contrary to acts passed by earlier Parliaments (he ruled without Parliament most of his reign). Leading dignitaries of the Church of England, of the Protestant nobility, and some of the high officers of the Army and Navy came to the conclusion that the only remedy to the country's ills was to call in William, the Prince of Orange and Chief Magistrate ("Stadholder") of the Netherlands, whose spouse Mary, James' daughter, was, until July 1688, the heir-presumptive to the English crown; the prince himself had a position in the list of succession, bring a nephew of James.Over and above the prince's personal ambitions, it was his conviction and that of several other leading personalities in the Dutch Republic that it was in the vital interest of the Netherlands to influence England's policies, and, in particular, to prevent a line-up of England with the France of Louis XIV, who had hostile designs on the Republic. As long as the danger of a French assault on the Netherlands was imminent, the States-General of the Republic would not authorize the "descent" on England, but when late in September 1688 Louis decided to attack the German States on the Middle-Rhine first, the "descent" gained approval.The peak of the crisis about James' policies in England was reached in summer-early fall of 1688. In the meantime, William assembled a large fleet and force in the Netherlands to "descend" on England, but his sailing was hindered by winds that in September and October blew with nearly total persistence from the westerly quarter. People in England and in the Netherlands were daily watching for weeks the direction of wind. They called the easterly winds "Protestant winds" and the westerly winds "Popish winds." In addition to making possible the invasion, the "Protestant winds" made it

  19. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J.; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  20. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty.

  1. Disruption of interleukin-27 signaling results in impaired gamma interferon production but does not significantly affect immunopathology in murine schistosome infection.

    PubMed

    Shainheit, Mara G; Saraceno, Rosita; Bazzone, Lindsey E; Rutitzky, Laura I; Stadecker, Miguel J

    2007-06-01

    In schistosomiasis mansoni, parasite eggs cause hepatointestinal granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis mediated by CD4 T cells specific for egg antigens. The severity of disease varies extensively in humans and among mouse strains. Marked disease exacerbation induced in typically low-pathology C57BL/6 mice by immunization with schistosome egg antigens (SEA) in complete Freund's adjuvant (SEA/CFA) correlates with elevated production of the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), which are regulated by IL-12 and IL-23, respectively. Here we examined the effect on the schistosome infection of a third member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines, IL-27, using SEA/CFA-immunized and unimmunized mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor chain WSX-1 (WSX-1(-/-)). SEA-stimulated bulk mesenteric lymph node cells or CD4 T cells from 7-week-infected WSX-1(-/-) mice produced significantly less IFN-gamma than did those from C57BL/6 mice, even though there was no difference between these mice in exacerbated hepatic egg-induced granulomatous inflammation or in the levels of IL-17 induced by immunization with SEA/CFA. A fraction of the cells in the granulomas stained positive for IL-27, but there were no significant differences between WSX-1(-/-) and BL/6 mice, nor were there differences in the number of CD4 T cells and eosinophils. A 24-week chronic infection resulted in markedly reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma, in WSX-1(-/-) mice, but again the magnitude of immunopathology was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings indicate that despite the impaired IFN-gamma production, IL-27 signaling has no significant effect on either the magnitude of egg-induced immunopathology or on its closest in vitro correlate, IL-17.

  2. Great Historical Events that were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 9, the Year Leading to the Revolution of 1789 in France (II).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Dettwiller, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an extension of an earlier paper (Neumann 1977) on historical events affected by the weather. More data are published herein on rainfall, pressure and temperature for spring-early summer 1788, when a severe drought struck France during anticyclonic conditions, leading to a crop failure. It is estimated that the grain harvest was 35%-40% below the mean for 1774-88. (The wine-grape harvest was even more catastrophic.) The shortfall led to increasingly high bread prices. The prices reached the highest level on 14 July 1789 (Bastille Day). Since workers spent about 55% of their income on bread and flour prior to 1788, bread riots had already broken out in August 1788. The number and violence of the riots tended to increase with time, causing a destabilization of public order.A meteorological factor of secondary importance was the harsh winter of 1788-89, which brought additional suffering to the lower classes. The price of heating materials rose, and water mills could not be operated because of the ice.Until April 1789 the numerous riots did not have, in most cases, anti-regime overtones. After May, however, the disturbances assumed political overtones, especially in Paris. This was due to agitation by the bourgeoisie who desired the abolition of the many privileges of the nobility and Church, and the lifting of restrictions on some economic activities. The bread riots, caused by the high bread prices (and, ultimately, by the drought), were used by the middle class for overthrowing the existing regime.In France of the 1700s, the number of poor depended on the price of bread which, first and foremost, was determined by the harvest.

  3. Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 expression and genetic polymorphism significantly affect intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle of Erhualian and Sutai pigs.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Yang, X J; Xia, D; Chen, J; Wegner, J; Jiang, Z; Zhao, R Q

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to elucidate the role of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) in i.m. fat (IMF) deposition in pigs. In Exp. 1, LM samples were removed from 4 male and 4 female Erhualian piglets at 3, 20, and 45 d of age, and SREBF1 mRNA expression level and IMF content were measured. Intramuscular fat content and expression of SREBF1 mRNA was greater (P < 0.05) in females than males at all 3 stages of age, providing initial evidence that the level of SREBF1 mRNA expression is related to IMF deposition in muscle of suckling pigs. Additionally, in Exp. 2 there was a positive correlation between the SREBF1 mRNA level and IMF content (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) in 100 Sutai finishing pigs, a synthetic line produced by crossing Erhualian and Duroc pigs. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the reverse transcription PCR products of the SREBF1 gene revealed 3 genotypes in Sutai pigs with frequencies of 50% for AA, 36% for AB, and 14% for BB, respectively. Both SREBF1 mRNA level and IMF content in muscle were greater (P < 0.05) in AB and BB animals than in AA animals, whereas no difference in backfat thickness was observed among the 3 genotypes. Sequencing analysis identified 2 SNP at T1006C and C1033T within the open reading frame of the SREBF1 gene (NM_214157). Although both are silent mutations, they affected the secondary structure of SREBF1 mRNA. These results suggest that SREBF1 might play an important role in regulation of muscle fat deposition during postnatal growth of pigs. The SNP identified in the SREBF1 gene suggest that it could be used as a genetic marker to improve IMF content in pigs.

  4. Blood born miRNAs signatures that can serve as disease specific biomarkers are not significantly affected by overall fitness and exercise.

    PubMed

    Backes, Christina; Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Hart, Martin; Meyer, Tim; Meese, Eckart; Hecksteden, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Blood born micro(mi)RNA expression pattern have been reported for various human diseases with signatures specific for diseases. To evaluate these biomarkers, it is mandatory to know possible changes of miRNA signatures in healthy individuals under different physiological conditions. We analyzed the miRNA expression in peripheral blood of elite endurance athletes and moderatly active controls. Blood drawing was done before and after exhaustive exercise in each group. After Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment we did not find any miRNA with significant p-values when comparing miRNA expression between the different groups. We found, however, 24 different miRNAs with an expression fold change of minimum 1.5 in at least one of the comparisons (athletes before vs after exercise, athletes before exercise vs controls and athletes after exercise vs controls). The observed changes are not significant in contrast to the expression changes of the blood born miRNA expression reported for many human diseases. These data support the idea of disease associated miRNA patterns useful as biomarkers that are not readily altered by physiological conditions.

  5. SU-E-J-28: Gantry Speed Significantly Affects Image Quality and Imaging Dose for 4D Cone-Beam Computed Tomography On the Varian Edge Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, A; Song, K; Gardner, S; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 4D-CBCT facilitates assessment of tumor motion at treatment position. We investigated the effect of gantry speed on 4D-CBCT image quality and dose using the Varian Edge On-Board Imager (OBI). Methods: A thoracic protocol was designed using a 125 kVp spectrum. Image quality parameters were obtained via 4D acquisition using a Catphan phantom with a gating system. A sinusoidal waveform was executed with a five second period and superior-inferior motion. 4D-CBCT scans were sorted into 4 and 10 phases. Image quality metrics included spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), uniformity index (UI), Hounsfield unit (HU) sensitivity, and RMS error (RMSE) of motion amplitude. Dosimetry was accomplished using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films within a CIRS Thorax phantom. This was placed on the gating phantom using the same motion waveform. Results: High contrast resolution decreased linearly from 5.93 to 4.18 lp/cm, 6.54 to 4.18 lp/cm, and 5.19 to 3.91 lp/cm for averaged, 4 phase, and 10 phase 4DCBCT volumes respectively as gantry speed increased from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec. CNRs decreased linearly from 4.80 to 1.82 as the gantry speed increased from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec, respectively. No significant variations in UIs, HU sensitivities, or RMSEs were observed with variable gantry speed. Ion chamber measurements compared to film yielded small percent differences in plastic water regions (0.1–9.6%), larger percent differences in lung equivalent regions (7.5–34.8%), and significantly larger percent differences in bone equivalent regions (119.1–137.3%). Ion chamber measurements decreased from 17.29 to 2.89 cGy with increasing gantry speed from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec. Conclusion: Maintaining technique factors while changing gantry speed changes the number of projections used for reconstruction. Increasing the number of projections by decreasing gantry speed decreases noise, however, dose is increased. The future of 4DCBCT’s clinical utility relies on further

  6. Ablation of the ability to control the right-to-left cardiac shunt does not affect oxygen uptake, specific dynamic action or growth in the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

    PubMed

    Leite, Cleo A C; Taylor, Edwin W; Wang, Tobias; Abe, Augusto S; de Andrade, Denis O V

    2013-05-15

    The morphologically undivided ventricle of the heart in non-crocodilian reptiles permits the mixing of oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs and oxygen-poor blood from the systemic circulation. A possible functional significance for this intra-cardiac shunt has been debated for almost a century. Unilateral left vagotomy rendered the single effective pulmonary artery of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus, unable to adjust the magnitude of blood flow to the lung. The higher constant perfusion of the lung circulation and the incapability of adjusting the right-left shunt in left-denervated snakes persisted over time, providing a unique model for investigation of the long-term consequences of cardiac shunting in a squamate. Oxygen uptake recorded at rest and during spontaneous and forced activity was not affected by removing control of the cardiac shunt. Furthermore, metabolic rate and energetic balance during the post-prandial metabolic increment, plus the food conversion efficiency and growth rate, were all similarly unaffected. These results show that control of cardiac shunting is not associated with a clear functional advantage in adjusting metabolic rate, effectiveness of digestion or growth rates.

  7. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  8. Palmitic acid increases pro-oxidant adaptor protein p66Shc expression and affects vascularization factors in angiogenic mononuclear cells: Action of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julie; Yildirim, Cansu; Leyen, Thomas A; Chen, Weena J Y; van Genugten, Renate E; van Golen, Larissa W; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan-Jesus; Musters, Rene; Baggen, Josefien; Fontijn, Ruud; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke; Serné, Erik; Koolwijk, Pieter; Diamant, Michaela; Horrevoets, Anton J G

    2015-12-01

    A defect in neo-vascularization process involving circulating angiogenic mononuclear cells (CACs) dysfunction is associated with diabetes. We showed that oxidative stress was elevated in CACs cultured from blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes. We then assessed the action of palmitic acid (PA), a deregulated and increased NEFA in metabolic disorders, focusing on its oxidant potential. We observed that the phyto-polyphenol resveratrol normalized oxidative stress both in CACs isolated from MetS patients or treated with PA. Resveratrol further decreased the deleterious action of PA on gene expression of vascularization factors (TNFα, VEGF-A, SDF1α, PECAM-1, VEGFR2, Tie2 and CXCR4) and improved CAC motility. Particularly, resveratrol abolished the PA-induced over-expression of the pro-oxidant protein p66Shc. Neither KLF2 nor SIRT1, previously shown in resveratrol and p66Shc action, was directly involved. Silencing p66Shc normalized PA action on VEGF-A and TNFα specifically, without abolishing the PA-induced oxidative stress, which suggests a deleterious role of p66Shc independently of any major modulation of the cellular oxidative status in a high NEFA levels context. Besides showing that resveratrol reverses PA-induced harmful effects on human CAC function, certainly through profound cellular modifications, we establish p66Shc as a major therapeutic target in metabolic disorders, independent from glycemic control.

  9. Chronic exposure to WIN55,212-2 affects more potently spatial learning and memory in adolescents than in adult rats via a negative action on dorsal hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abboussi, Oualid; Tazi, Abdelouahhab; Paizanis, Eleni; El Ganouni, Soumaya

    2014-05-01

    Several epidemiological studies show an increase in cannabis use among adolescents, especially in Morocco for being one of the major producers in the world. The neurobiological consequences of chronic cannabis use are still poorly understood. In addition, brain plasticity linked to ontogeny portrays adolescence as a period of vulnerability to the deleterious effects of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral neurogenic effects of chronic exposure to the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 during adolescence, by evaluating the emotional and cognitive performances, and the consequences on neurogenesis along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus in adult rats. WIN55,212 was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 20 days to adolescent (27-30 PND) and adult Wistar rats (54-57 PND) at the dose of 1mg/kg. Following a 20 day washout period, emotional and cognitive functions were assessed by the Morris water maze test and the two-way active avoidance test. Twelve hours after, brains were removed and hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed using the doublecortin (DCX) as a marker for cell proliferation. Our results showed that chronic WIN55,212-2 treatment significantly increased thigmotaxis early in the training process whatever the age of treatment, induced spatial learning and memory deficits in adolescent but not adult rats in the Morris water maze test, while it had no significant effect in the active avoidance test during multitrial training in the shuttle box. In addition, the cognitive deficits assessed in adolescent rats were positively correlated to a decrease in the number of newly generated neurons in dorsal hippocampus. These data suggest that long term exposure to cannabinoids may affect more potently spatial learning and memory in adolescent compared to adult rats via a negative action on hippocampal plasticity.

  10. A Call for Policy Action in Sub-Saharan Africa to Rethink Diagnostics for Pregnancy Affected by Sickle Cell Disease: Differential Views of Medical Doctors, Parents and Adult Patients Predict Value Conflicts in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only “…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy.” The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy. PMID:24754796

  11. 77 FR 14225 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule Step 3, GHG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    .... Executive Order 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution or Use I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental... specific actions being proposed today are briefly described in the following paragraphs. 2. Summary...

  12. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  13. How the mode of action affects evidence of planning and movement kinematics in aging: End-state comfort in older adults.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Gonzalez, Dave A; Roy, Eric A; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Motor deficits are commonly observed with age; however, it has been argued that older adults are more adept when acting in natural tasks and do not differ from young adults in these contexts. This study assessed end-state comfort and movement kinematics in a familiar task to examine this further. Left- and right-handed older adults picked up a glass (upright or overturned) as if to pour water in four modes of action (pantomime, pantomime with image/cup as a guide, actual grasping). With increasing age, a longer deceleration phase (in pantomime without a stimulus) and less end-state comfort (in pantomime without a stimulus and image as a guide) was displayed as the amount of contextual information available to guide movement decreased. Changes in movement strategies likely reflect an increased reliance on feedback control and demonstration of a more cautious movement. A secondary aim of this study was to assess hand preference and performance, considering conflicting reports of manual asymmetries with age. Performance differences in the Grooved Pegboard place task indicate left handers may display a shift towards right handedness in some, but not all cases. Summarizing, this study supports age-related differences in planning and control processes in a familiar task, and changes in manual asymmetries with age in left handers.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  15. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-05-03

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  16. Plan for early action: Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report contains recommendations on the implementation of an action plan to reduce or recapture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in British Columbia. The report includes the consensus recommendations of the BC Greenhouse Gas Forum, as well as those items on which Forum participants have agreed to disagree, plus the reasons for those differences. The recommendations include: Umbrella actions which may affect several or all sectors of the economy, or support the success of other actions; actions to reduce vehicle kilometers travelled; actions to increase vehicle efficiency or increase the use of alternative fuels or technologies; actions to decrease GHG emissions from energy production; actions to increase end-use energy efficiency; and actions to reduce non-energy-related emissions. Appendices include work sheets on each action, with a description of the action and information on the action`s rationale, experience elsewhere, related policy initiatives, and key issues regarding feasibility and implementation.

  17. Do postures of distal effectors affect the control of actions of other distal effectors? Evidence for a system of interactions between hand and mouth.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3) and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4). The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures.

  18. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  19. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  20. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  1. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  2. The Use of Fish Oil with Warfarin Does Not Significantly Affect either the International Normalised Ratio or Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Rebecca; Bernaitis, Nijole; Davey, Andrew K.; Badrick, Tony; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Warfarin is a leading anticoagulant in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Drug interactions influence the safety of warfarin use and while extensive literature exists regarding the effect on warfarin control and bleeding incidence with many medicines, there is little evidence on the influence of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fish and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control and bleeding incidence in AF and DVT patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology clinic. AF and DVT patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy (>30 days) at the clinic and taking fish and krill oil supplements were eligible for study inclusion. Results: Of the 2081 patients assessed, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria with 145 patients in the fish and krill oil group (supplement group) and 428 patients in the control group. Overall, it was found that fish and krill oils did not significantly alter warfarin time in therapeutic range (TTR) or bleeding incidence, even when compared by gender. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation with fish and krill oil does not significantly affect long-term warfarin control and bleeding and thromboembolic events when consumed concurrently in patients managed at an anticoagulation clinic. PMID:27657121

  3. Embodied Communication: Speakers' Gestures Affect Listeners' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular…

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  5. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  6. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  7. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  8. Reproductive Physiology in Young Men Is Cumulatively Affected by FSH-Action Modulating Genetic Variants: FSHR -29G/A and c.2039 A/G, FSHB -211G/T

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Žilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevičius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n = 982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2±2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P = 0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (−7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect −1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (−16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (−2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n = 641, Estonians; aged 31.5±6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs

  9. AGN-2979, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase activation, does not affect serotonin synthesis in Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a rat model of depression, but produces a significant effect in Flinders Resistant Line rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is involved in several brain functions, including both normal, physiological functions, and pathophysiological functions. Alterations in any of the normal parameters of serotonergic neurotransmission can produce several different psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In many instances, brain neurochemical variables are not able to be studied properly in humans, thus making the use of good animal models extremely valuable. One of these animal models is the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) of rats, which has face, predictive and constructive validities in relation to human depression. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activation inhibitor, AGN-2979, on the FSL rats (rats with depression-like behaviour), and compare it to the effect on the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) of rats used as the control rats. The effect was evaluated by measuring changes in regional serotonin synthesis in the vehicle treated rats (FSL-VEH and FRL-VEH) relative to those measured in the AGN-2979 treated rats (FSL-AGN and FRL-AGN). Regional serotonin synthesis was measured autoradiographically in more than thirty brain regions. The measurements were performed using α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan as the tracer. The results indicate that AGN-2979 did not produce a significant reduction of TPH activity in the AGN-2979 group relative to the vehicle group (a reduction would have been observed if there had been an activation of TPH by the experimental set up) in the FSL rats. On the other hand, there was a highly significant reduction of synthesis in the FRL rats treated by AGN-2979, relative to the vehicle group. Together, the results demonstrate that in the FSL rats, AGN-2979 does not affect serotonin synthesis. This suggests that there was no activation of TPH in the FSL rats during the experimental procedure, but such activation did occur in the FRL rats. Because of this finding, it could be

  10. Marine pharmacology in 2007-8: Marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous system, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2011-03-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature in 2007-8 is covered in this review, which follows a similar format to the previous 1998-2006 reviews of this series. The preclinical pharmacology of structurally characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 74 marine natural products. Additionally, 59 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems as well as to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 65 marine metabolites were shown to bind to a variety of receptors and miscellaneous molecular targets, and thus upon further completion of mechanism of action studies, will contribute to several pharmacological classes. Marine pharmacology research during 2007-8 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 26 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 197 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical marine pharmaceuticals pipeline. Sustained preclinical research with marine natural products demonstrating novel pharmacological activities, will probably result in the expansion of the current marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which currently consists of 13 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

  11. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  12. Marine pharmacology in 2009-2011: marine compounds with antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous systems, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-07-16

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998-2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009-2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

  13. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  14. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  15. Is action video gaming related to sustained attention of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Daniela Carmen, Trisolini; Marco Alessandro, Petilli; Roberta, Daini

    2017-03-24

    Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have shown that playing action video games can have positive effects on tasks that involve attention and visual-spatial cognition (e.g. visual search, enumeration tasks, tracking multiple objects). Although playing action video games can improve several cognitive functions, the intensive interaction with the exciting, challenging, intrinsically-stimulating and perceptually-appealing game environments may adversely affect other functions, including the ability to maintain attention when the level of stimulation is not as intense. This study investigated whether a relationship existed between action video gaming and sustained attention performance in a sample of 45 Italian teenagers. After completing a questionnaire about their video-games habits, participants were divided into Action Video Game Player and Non Action Video Game Player groups and underwent cognitive tests. The results confirm previous findings of studies of Action Video Game Players, as they had significantly enhanced performance for instantly enumerating a set of items. Nevertheless, we found that the drop in performance over time, typical of a sustained attention task, was significantly greater in the Action Video Game Player compared with the Non Action Video Game Player group. This result is consistent with our hypothesis and demonstrates a negative effect of playing action video games.

  16. Learning from their own actions: the unique effect of producing actions on infants' action understanding.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants' action production affects their action understanding, but little is known about the aspects of motor experience that render these effects. In Study 1, the relative contributions of self-produced (n = 30) and observational (n = 30) action experience on 3-month-old infants' action understanding was assessed using a visual habituation paradigm. In Study 2, generalization of training to a new context was examined (n = 30). Results revealed a unique effect of active over observational experience. Furthermore, findings suggest that benefits of trained actions do not generalize broadly, at least following brief training.

  17. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  18. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  19. FORUM: Affective Learning. Students' Affective Learning as Affective Experience: Significance, Reconceptualization, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  20. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  1. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  2. Treatment of thoraco-lumbar curves in adolescent females affected by idiopathic scoliosis with a progressive action short brace (PASB): assessment of results according to the SRS committee on bracing and nonoperative management standardization criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aulisa, Angelo G; Guzzanti, Vincenzo; Galli, Marco; Perisano, Carlo; Falciglia, Francesco; Aulisa, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of conservative treatment of scoliosis is controversial. Some studies suggest that brace is effective in stopping curve progression, whilst others did not report such an effect. The purpose of the present study was to effectiveness of Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB) in the correction of thoraco-lumbar curves, in agreement with the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management Standardisation Criteria. Methods Fifty adolescent females (mean age 11.8 ± 0.5 years) with thoraco-lumbar curve and a pre-treatment Risser score ranging from 0 to 2 have been enrolled. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 55.4 ± 44.5 months). Antero-posterior radiographs were used to estimate the curve magnitude (CM) and the torsion of the apical vertebra (TA) at 5 time points: beginning of treatment (t1), one year after the beginning of treatment (t2), intermediate time between t1 and t4 (t3), end of weaning (t4), 2-year minimum follow-up from t4 (t5). Three situations were distinguished: curve correction, curve stabilisation and curve progression. The Kruskal Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation tests have been used as statistical tests. Results CM mean value was 29,30 ± 5,16 SD at t1 and 14,67 ± 7,65 SD at t5. TA was 12.70 ± 6,14 SD at t1 and 8,95 ± 5,82 at t5. The variation between measures of Cobb and Perdriolle degrees at t1,2,3,4,5 and between CM t5-t1 and TA t5-t1 were significantly different. Curve correction was accomplished in 94% of patients, whereas a curve stabilisation was obtained in 6% of patients. Conclusion The PASB, due to its peculiar biomechanical action on vertebral modelling, is highly effective in correcting thoraco-lumbar curves. PMID:19765288

  3. 7 CFR 799.10 - Criteria and identification of FSA actions as to degree of involvement under the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 799.10 Criteria and identification of FSA actions as to degree of involvement under the NEPA process... an environmental evaluation not to significantly affect the quality of the human environment. (c) FSA... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria and identification of FSA actions as...

  4. Colour-induced relationship between affect and reaching kinematics during a goal-directed aiming task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Camille K; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Carnahan, Heather

    2011-08-01

    A link between affect and action has been supported by the discovery that threat information is prioritized through an action-centred pathway--the dorsal visual stream. Magnocellular afferents, which originate from the retina and project to dorsal stream structures, are suppressed by exposure to diffuse red light, which diminishes humans' perception of threat-based images. In order to explore the role of colour in the relationship between affect and action, participants donned different pairs of coloured glasses (red, yellow, green, blue and clear) and completed Positive and Negative Affect Scale questionnaires as well as a series of target-directed aiming movements. Analyses of affect scores revealed a significant main effect for affect valence and a significant interaction between colour and valence: perceived positive affect was significantly smaller for the red condition. Kinematic analyses of variable error in the primary movement direction and Pearson correlation analyses between the displacements travelled prior to and following peak velocity indicated reduced accuracy and application of online control processes while wearing red glasses. Variable error of aiming was also positively and significantly correlated with negative affect scores under the red condition. These results suggest that only red light modulates the affect-action link by suppressing magnocellular activity, which disrupts visual processing for movement control. Furthermore, previous research examining the effect of the colour red on psychomotor tasks and perceptual acceleration of threat-based imagery suggest that stimulus-driven motor performance tasks requiring online control may be particularly susceptible to this effect.

  5. Marine pharmacology in 2005–6: Marine Compounds with Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The review presents the 2005–2006 peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature, and follows a similar format to the authors’ 1998–2004 reviews. The preclinical pharmacology of chemically characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is systematically presented. RESULTS Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 78 marine chemicals. Additionally 47 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 58 marine compounds were shown to bind to a variety of molecular targets, and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. CONCLUSIONS Marine pharmacology research during 2005–2006 was truly global in nature, involving investigators from 32 countries, and the United States, and contributed 183 marine chemical leads to the research pipeline aimed at the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE Continued preclinical and clinical research with marine natural products demonstrating a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity and will probably result in novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:19303911

  6. Legal Report: Review of Significant Immigration Cases Decided by the Federal Courts in 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgro, Francesco

    1984-01-01

    Reviews significant decisions of the lower federal courts in 1984 affecting the field of immigration, nationality law, and the rights of aliens. Decisions reviewed cover these topics: asylum and withholding of deportation; waivers of inadmissibility; suspension of deportation; adjustment of status; students; visas; deferred action; aliens' rights;…

  7. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  8. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions.

  9. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  10. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  11. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control.

  12. Protecting the Rights of Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS in Africa: Updating Strategies and Reinforcing Existing Networks. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This monograph summarizes the issues discussed at an international workshop convened to identify strategies, lines of action, and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The monograph provides background information on the HIV/AIDS pandemic; describes current initiatives and results…

  13. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

    1992-02-01

    In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to

  14. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  15. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  16. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... impact on the environment, an EA is not required, and the Trust will prepare or direct the preparation of... new building, if that activity has a significant effect on the human environment; (3) Proposals that... or actions may significantly affect the environment and therefore require an EIS are described in...

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  18. Action Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Keane, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing school resources and managing a shrinking budget--these are two important items affected when a building's roofing system does not perform properly. Rather than acting in haste, school and university administrators should do what every teacher tells a student prior to answering any question: think through the research and studies to…

  19. The influence of glycyrrhiza and antibiotics on the purgative action of sennoside a from Daiokanzoto in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Emi; Takayama, Kento; Sato, Eiji; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT), a Kampo medicine that includes the combination of two crude drugs (rhubarb and glycyrrhiza), is clinically effective for constipation. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of glycyrrhiza, three glycyrrhiza constituents (glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside), and eight antibiotics on the purgative action of DKT, rhubarb, or sennoside A, a constituent of rhubarb, in mice. The purgative actions of rhubarb and sennoside A were significantly intensified when glycyrrhiza was co-administered orally to mice. Liquiritin and liquiritin apioside but not glycyrrhizin showed significant amplification of the purgative action in a dose-dependent manner. The purgative actions of DKT and sennoside A were significantly reduced by the pre-administration of ampicillin, cefcapene pivoxil, faropenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin, but were not affected by the pre-administration of clarithromycin or levofloxacin. On the other hand, the purgative action of sennoside A was significantly reduced by the pre-administration of minocycline, whereas that of DKT was not affected. The effect of minocycline on the purgative action of sennoside A was lost when glycyrrhiza was co-administered. These results suggest that liquiritin and liquiritin apioside contribute as active substances for the purgative action of DKT, and some antibiotics reduce the purgative action of DKT and sennoside A. Furthermore, glycyrrhiza has the ability to recover the purgative action of sennoside A suppressed by minocycline via an unknown mechanism.

  20. Defective Pricing: An Analysis of Factors Affecting the Significance Issue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    equate to effectiveness. In the area of defective pricing, for example, sustention rates are just such a measure. The sustention rate refers to that...Report. For the six-month period ending 30 September 1987, the DOD/IG commended ASD for achieving a 79 percent sustention rate on defective pricing...quality on the part of the audit. Thus, if the sustention rate were lower than anticipated, the conclusion would be that the contracting officers had not

  1. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  2. [Antimicrobial mechanisms of action].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A large number of families and groups of antimicrobial agents are of clinical interest. The mechanisms by which compounds with antibacterial activity inhibit growth or cause bacterial death are varied and depend on the affected targets. The bacterial cell wall-a unique structure in most bacteria that is absent in eukaryotic cells-can be affected in several ways: at different stages of synthesis (fosfomycin, cycloserine) or transport (bacitracin, mureidomycins) of its metabolic precursors, or by a direct action on its structural organization (beta-lactams, glycopeptides). The main drugs affecting the cytoplasmic membrane are polymyxins and daptomycin. Protein synthesis can be blocked by a large variety of compounds that affect any of the phases of this process, including activation (mupirocin), initiation (oxazolidinones, aminoglycosides), binding of the tRNA amino acid complex to ribosomes (tetracyclines, glycylcyclines) and elongation (amphenicols, lincosamides, macrolides, ketolides, streptogramins, fusidic acid). The metabolism of nucleic acids can be altered at the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase or in the process of DNA coiling (quinolones); some compounds affect DNA directly (nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans). Trimethoprim and sulfamides (often used in combination) are examples of antimicrobial agents that block bacterial metabolic pathways. Some compounds are unable to inhibit or kill bacteria in themselves, but can block bacterial mechanisms of resistance, enhancing the activity of other antimicrobials administered in combination. Among this group of agents, only certain beta-lactamase inhibitors are currently in clinical use.

  3. Affective Incoherence: When Affective Concepts and Embodied Reactions Clash

    PubMed Central

    Centerbar, David B.; Clore, Gerald L.; Schnall, Simone; Garvin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In five studies, we examined the effects on cognitive performance of coherence and incoherence between conceptual and experiential sources of affective information. The studies crossed the priming of happy and sad concepts with affective experiences. In different experiments, these included: approach or avoidance actions, happy or sad feelings, and happy or sad expressive behaviors. In all studies, coherence between affective concepts and affective experiences led to better recall of a story than affective incoherence. We suggested that the experience of such experiential affective cues serves as evidence of the appropriateness of affective concepts that come to mind. The results suggest that affective coherence has epistemic benefits, and that incoherence is costly, for cognitive performance. PMID:18361672

  4. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  5. State Governance Action Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of the State Governance Action Report that has been produced since 2000 by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' (AGB's) Ingram Center for Public Trusteeship and Governance. Focusing primarily on state and higher education policies directly affecting governance, trusteeship, and institutionally…

  6. State Governance Action Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the State Governance Action Report for 2007. Compiled in this report are state policy developments, including legislation, commissions, and studies, affecting the structure, responsibilities, and operations of public higher education governing boards and institutionally related foundations. Governance and governance-related…

  7. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  8. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  9. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact statement... ecologically critical area; (5) Any action affecting the quality of the physical environment that would be scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  10. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact statement... ecologically critical area; (5) Any action affecting the quality of the physical environment that would be scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  11. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact statement... ecologically critical area; (5) Any action affecting the quality of the physical environment that would be scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  12. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area; (2) Any action that would adversely affect a federally listed threatened or endangered species or... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact statement... scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  13. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required.

  14. A third-person perspective on co-speech action gestures in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Stacey; Holler, Judith; Crawford, Trevor J.; Herrera, Elena; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    A combination of impaired motor and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD) can impact on language and communication, with patients exhibiting a particular difficulty processing action verbs. Co-speech gestures embody a link between action and language and contribute significantly to communication in healthy people. Here, we investigated how co-speech gestures depicting actions are affected in PD, in particular with respect to the visual perspective—or the viewpoint – they depict. Gestures are closely related to mental imagery and motor simulations, but people with PD may be impaired in the way they simulate actions from a first-person perspective and may compensate for this by relying more on third-person visual features. We analysed the action-depicting gestures produced by mild-moderate PD patients and age-matched controls on an action description task and examined the relationship between gesture viewpoint, action naming, and performance on an action observation task (weight judgement). Healthy controls produced the majority of their action gestures from a first-person perspective, whereas PD patients produced a greater proportion of gestures produced from a third-person perspective. We propose that this reflects a compensatory reliance on third-person visual features in the simulation of actions in PD. Performance was also impaired in action naming and weight judgement, although this was unrelated to gesture viewpoint. Our findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of how action-language impairments in PD impact on action communication, on the cognitive underpinnings of this impairment, as well as elucidating the role of action simulation in gesture production. PMID:26995225

  15. A third-person perspective on co-speech action gestures in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Stacey; Holler, Judith; Crawford, Trevor J; Herrera, Elena; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    A combination of impaired motor and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD) can impact on language and communication, with patients exhibiting a particular difficulty processing action verbs. Co-speech gestures embody a link between action and language and contribute significantly to communication in healthy people. Here, we investigated how co-speech gestures depicting actions are affected in PD, in particular with respect to the visual perspective-or the viewpoint - they depict. Gestures are closely related to mental imagery and motor simulations, but people with PD may be impaired in the way they simulate actions from a first-person perspective and may compensate for this by relying more on third-person visual features. We analysed the action-depicting gestures produced by mild-moderate PD patients and age-matched controls on an action description task and examined the relationship between gesture viewpoint, action naming, and performance on an action observation task (weight judgement). Healthy controls produced the majority of their action gestures from a first-person perspective, whereas PD patients produced a greater proportion of gestures produced from a third-person perspective. We propose that this reflects a compensatory reliance on third-person visual features in the simulation of actions in PD. Performance was also impaired in action naming and weight judgement, although this was unrelated to gesture viewpoint. Our findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of how action-language impairments in PD impact on action communication, on the cognitive underpinnings of this impairment, as well as elucidating the role of action simulation in gesture production.

  16. Adipokines and insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Alexander J; Funnell, Alister PW; Pearson, Richard CM; Crossley, Merlin; Bell-Anderson, Kim S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern and a strong risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. The last two decades have seen a reconsideration of the role of white adipose tissue (WAT) in whole body metabolism and insulin action. Adipose tissue-derived cytokines and hormones, or adipokines, are likely mediators of metabolic function and dysfunction. While several adipokines have been associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes, a select group has been linked with insulin sensitivity, namely leptin, adiponectin, and more recently, adipolin. What is known about these insulin-sensitizing molecules and their effects in healthy and insulin resistant states is the subject of this review. There remains a significant amount of research to do to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action of these adipokines for development of therapeutics in metabolic disease. PMID:24719781

  17. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area; (2) Any action that would adversely affect a federally listed threatened or endangered species or... scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  18. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  19. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON..., could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Statements shall be prepared on...

  20. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON..., could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Statements shall be prepared on...

  1. 10 CFR 51.20 - Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... at the end of the institutional control period. (13) Issuance of a construction authorization and... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. (2) The proposed action involves a matter which.... (5)-(6) (7) Issuance of a license to possess and use special nuclear material for processing and...

  2. 18 CFR 706.201 - Proscribed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall avoid any action which might result in, or create the appearance of: (a) Using public office for... official channels; or (f) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the integrity of...

  3. 18 CFR 706.201 - Proscribed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall avoid any action which might result in, or create the appearance of: (a) Using public office for... official channels; or (f) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the integrity of...

  4. 18 CFR 706.201 - Proscribed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall avoid any action which might result in, or create the appearance of: (a) Using public office for... official channels; or (f) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the integrity of...

  5. 18 CFR 706.201 - Proscribed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall avoid any action which might result in, or create the appearance of: (a) Using public office for... official channels; or (f) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the integrity of...

  6. 18 CFR 706.201 - Proscribed actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall avoid any action which might result in, or create the appearance of: (a) Using public office for... official channels; or (f) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the integrity of...

  7. The Bakke Case and Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert

    1978-01-01

    The decision in the Bakke case will not only affect affirmative action programs in education but in employment, housing, and other fields. Charges of "reverse racism" are being used to reverse the limited gains made in two decades. Affirmative action is necessary because institutional racism exists in our society. (SW)

  8. Action Research and the Micropolitics in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilertsen, Tor-Vidar; Gustafson, Niklas; Salo, Petri

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the assumption that action research always affects the micropolitical balance characteristic of a certain school setting. The authors claim that micropolitics, that is the patterns of formal power and informal influence, has largely been neglected in the literature on action research in schools. This means that action…

  9. Action principle for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2015-04-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al. [Ann. Phys. 169, 29 (1986)], which uses a noncanonical bracket to effect constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed. Two significant byproducts of this formalism are the introduction of a new divergence-free 4-vector variable for the magnetic field, and a new Lie-dragged form for the theory.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021

  11. Stimulation over primary motor cortex during action observation impairs effector recognition.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Barnes, Brittany; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2016-04-01

    Recent work suggests that motor cortical processing during action observation plays a role in later recognition of the object involved in the action. Here, we investigated whether recognition of the effector making an action is also impaired when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - thought to interfere with normal cortical activity - is applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) during action observation. In two experiments, single-pulse TMS was delivered over the hand area of M1 while participants watched short clips of hand actions. Participants were then asked whether an image (experiment 1) or a video (experiment 2) of a hand presented later in the trial was the same or different to the hand in the preceding video. In Experiment 1, we found that participants' ability to recognise static images of hands was significantly impaired when TMS was delivered over M1 during action observation, compared to when no TMS was delivered, or when stimulation was applied over the vertex. Conversely, stimulation over M1 did not affect recognition of dot configurations, or recognition of hands that were previously presented as static images (rather than action movie clips) with no object. In Experiment 2, we found that effector recognition was impaired when stimulation was applied part way through (300ms) and at the end (500ms) of the action observation period, indicating that 200ms of action-viewing following stimulation was not long enough to form a new representation that could be used for later recognition. The findings of both experiments suggest that interfering with cortical motor activity during action observation impairs subsequent recognition of the effector involved in the action, which complements previous findings of motor system involvement in object memory. This work provides some of the first evidence that motor processing during action observation is involved in forming representations of the effector that are useful beyond the action observation period.

  12. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  13. Comparative toxicity of 20 herbicides to 5 periphytic algae and the relationship with mode of action.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Taya, Kiyoshi; Yoda, Ikuko

    2016-02-01

    The authors used 5 species of periphytic algae to conduct toxicity assays of 20 herbicides. The 5 tested species represent riverine primary producers most likely to be affected by herbicides. A fluorescence microplate toxicity assay was used as an efficient and economical high-throughput assay. Toxicity characteristics were analyzed, focusing on their relationship to herbicide mode of action. The relative differences between 50% and 10% effect concentrations depended on herbicide mode of action, rather than tested species. Moreover, a clear relationship between sensitive species and herbicide mode of action was also observed. Green alga was most sensitive to herbicides of 2 mode of action groups: inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase and very long-chain fatty acid synthesis. Diatoms were most sensitive to herbicides of 1 mode of action group: 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate-dioxygenase inhibitors. Cyanobacterium was most sensitive to herbicides of 1 mode of action group: inhibitors of acetolactate synthase. The species sensitivity distribution based on obtained data was also analyzed. The slopes of the species sensitivity distribution significantly differed among modes of action, suggesting that difference in species sensitivity is specific to the mode of action. In particular, differences in species sensitivity were markedly large for inhibitors of acetolactate synthase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, and very long-chain fatty acid synthesis. The results clearly showed that a single algal species cannot represent the sensitivity of an algal assemblage. Therefore, multispecies algal toxicity data are essential for substances with specific modes of action.

  14. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.

  15. ERP and behavioral evidence of increased sensory attenuation for fear-related action outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin

    2015-10-01

    Voluntary action selection entails the representation of the expected consequences of the action. Previous evidence suggests that accurate action-effect prediction modulates both ERP and behavioral markers of sensory processing-a phenomenon know as sensory attenuation. This may play an important role in monitoring the success or failure of our actions, or attributing agency. Nonetheless, the vast majority of studies in this domain focus on simplistic visual and auditory stimuli. Given that we rarely perform voluntary actions with the aim of generating such stimuli in social contexts, this provides little indication of the extent to which sensory attenuation operates in everyday behavior. The present study investigated ERP and behavioral measures of sensory attenuation for fearful and neutral facial expressions. Participants were trained to associate one voluntary action with the presentation of a fearful face, and another action with a neutral face. We measured both ERP responses and behavioral ratings following presentation of faces whose emotional content was either consistent or inconsistent with the action prediction. We observed significant modulation for fearful outcomes only, suggesting that sensory attenuation is heightened to stimuli of high social relevance. The N170 response was significantly attenuated for congruent fearful faces, but not for congruent neutral faces (in comparison to incongruent faces). Similarly, behavioral ratings were modulated only for fearful faces but not neutral faces. This provides new insight into how social and affective outcomes modulate sensory attenuation and may have implications for implicit sense of agency for socially relevant stimuli.

  16. Action at a distance: amino acid substitutions that affect binding of the phosphorylated CheY response regulator and catalysis of dephosphorylation can be far from the CheZ phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ashalla M; Mole, Beth M; Silversmith, Ruth E; Bourret, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    Two-component regulatory systems, in which phosphorylation controls the activity of a response regulator protein, provide signal transduction in bacteria. For example, the phosphorylated CheY response regulator (CheYp) controls swimming behavior. In Escherichia coli, the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ stimulates the dephosphorylation of CheYp. CheYp apparently binds first to the C terminus of CheZ and then binds to the active site where dephosphorylation occurs. The phosphatase activity of the CheZ(2) dimer exhibits a positively cooperative dependence on CheYp concentration, apparently because the binding of the first CheYp to CheZ(2) is inhibited compared to the binding of the second CheYp. Thus, CheZ phosphatase activity is reduced at low CheYp concentrations. The CheZ21IT gain-of-function substitution, located far from either the CheZ active site or C-terminal CheY binding site, enhances CheYp binding and abolishes cooperativity. To further explore mechanisms regulating CheZ activity, we isolated 10 intragenic suppressor mutations of cheZ21IT that restored chemotaxis. The suppressor substitutions were located along the central portion of CheZ and were not allele specific. Five suppressor mutants tested biochemically diminished the binding of CheYp and/or the catalysis of dephosphorylation, even when the suppressor substitutions were distant from the active site. One suppressor mutant also restored cooperativity to CheZ21IT. Consideration of results from this and previous studies suggests that the binding of CheYp to the CheZ active site (not to the C terminus) is rate limiting and leads to cooperative phosphatase activity. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions distant from the active site can affect CheZ catalytic activity and CheYp binding, perhaps via the propagation of structural or dynamic perturbations through a helical bundle.

  17. Action potential initiation and propagation in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Stuart, G; Schiller, J; Sakmann, B

    1997-12-15

    somatic action potentials by dendritic current injections used to simulate the membrane voltage change that occurs during an EPSP. Initiation of these dendritic potentials was not affected by cadmium (200 microM), but was blocked by TTX (1 microM). 8. Dendritic regenerative potentials in some experiments were initiated in isolated from somatic action potentials. The voltage change at the soma in response to these dendritic regenerative events was small and subthreshold, showing that dendritic regenerative events are strongly attenuated as they spread to the soma. 9. Simultaneous whole-cell recordings from the axon initial segment and the soma indicated that synaptic stimulation always initiated action potentials first in the axon. The further the axonal recording was made from the soma the greater the time delay between axonal and somatic action potentials, indicating a site of action potential initiation in the axon at least 30 microns distal to the soma. 10. Simultaneous whole-cell recordings from the apical dendrite, soma and axon initial segment showed that action potentials were always initiated in the axon prior to the soma, and with the same latency difference, independent of whether dendritic regenerative potentials were initiated or not. 11. It is concluded that both the apical dendrites and the axon of neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons in P26-30 animals are capable of initiating regenerative potentials. Regenerative potentials initiated in dendrites, however, are significantly attenuated as they spread to the soma and axon. As a consequence, action potentials are always initiated in the axon before the soma, even when synaptic activation is intense enough to initiate dendritic regenerative potentials. Once initiated, the axonal action potentials are conducted orthogradely into the axonal arbor and retrogradely into the dendritic tree.

  18. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas. (4) The degree to which the effects on the quality of the human environment are likely to be highly controversial. (5) The degree to which the possible effects on the human environment are highly... significant impact on the environment. Significance cannot be avoided by terming an action temporary or...

  19. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for evaluating regional economic impacts under NEPA. This system is mandated, as Army policy, for use... proposed action may or will result in significant impacts to the environment, an EIS is prepared to provide more comprehensive analyses and conclusions about the impacts. Significant impacts of...

  20. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Significance. 651.39 Section 651.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 Significance. (a) If...

  1. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Significance. 651.39 Section 651.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 Significance. (a) If...

  2. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significance. 651.39 Section 651.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 Significance. (a) If...

  3. The interaction of attention and action: from seeing action to acting on perception.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Glyn W; Yoon, Eun Young; Kumar, Sanjay; Lestou, Vaia; Kitadono, Keiko; Roberts, Katherine L; Riddoch, M Jane

    2010-05-01

    We discuss evidence indicating that human visual attention is strongly modulated by the potential of objects for action. The possibility of action between multiple objects enables the objects to be attended as a single group, and the fit between individual objects in a group and the action that can be performed influences responses to group members. In addition, having a goal state to perform a particular action affects the stimuli that are selected along with the features and area of space that is attended. These effects of action may reflect statistical learning between environmental cues that are linked by action and/or the coupling between perception and action systems in the brain. The data support the argument that visual selection is a flexible process that emerges as a need to prioritize objects for action.

  4. Gender Affects Body Language Reading

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Arseny A.; Krüger, Samuel; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Body motion is a rich source of information for social cognition. However, gender effects in body language reading are largely unknown. Here we investigated whether, and, if so, how recognition of emotional expressions revealed by body motion is gender dependent. To this end, females and males were presented with point-light displays portraying knocking at a door performed with different emotional expressions. The findings show that gender affects accuracy rather than speed of body language reading. This effect, however, is modulated by emotional content of actions: males surpass in recognition accuracy of happy actions, whereas females tend to excel in recognition of hostile angry knocking. Advantage of women in recognition accuracy of neutral actions suggests that females are better tuned to the lack of emotional content in body actions. The study provides novel insights into understanding of gender effects in body language reading, and helps to shed light on gender vulnerability to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental impairments in visual social cognition. PMID:21713180

  5. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  7. Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Laverick, Rosanna; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Wing, Alan M.; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. Fourteen neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N = 6) whose accuracy was 2SDs below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note that the impaired patients had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1) motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2) semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3) impaired action decision making is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4) lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:25954177

  9. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  10. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  11. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  12. Marine Pharmacology in 2000: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune, and Nervous Systems and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2000 research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals involved investigators from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Phillipines, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current review, a sequel to the authors’ 1998 and 1999 reviews, classifies 68 peer-reviewed articles on the basis of the reported preclinical pharmacologic properties of marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi, and bacteria. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antituberculosis, or antiviral activity was reported for 35 marine chemicals. An additional 20 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system, and to possess anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressant properties. Finally, 23 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus could potentially contribute to several pharmacologic classes. Thus, as in 1998 and 1999, during 2000 pharmacologic research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads to the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents in the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:14583811

  13. Marine pharmacology in 2003-4: Marine Compounds with Anthelminthic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    The current marine pharmacology review that covers the peer-reviewed literature during 2003 and 2004 is a sequel to the authors' 1998-2002 reviews, and highlights the preclinical pharmacology of 166 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 67 marine chemicals. Additionally 45 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as possessing anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 54 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2003-2004, research on the pharmacology of marine natural products which involved investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States, contributed numerous chemical leads for the continued global search for novel therapeutic agents with broad spectrum activity. PMID:17392033

  14. Marine pharmacology in 2001–2002: Marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    During 2001–2002, research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals continued to be global in nature involving investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current article, a sequel to the authors’ 1998, 1999 and 2000 marine pharmacology reviews, classifies 106 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, on the basis of peer-reviewed preclinical pharmacology. Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 56 marine chemicals. An additional 19 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Finally, 31 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2001–2002 pharmacological research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads for the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories. PMID:15919242

  15. Drugs affecting the eye.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  16. Distinguishing suspicious actions in long-distance surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebe, Guy; Chen, Eli; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-10-01

    Human action classification distinguishes different human behaviors at a video signal. Suspicious behavior can be defined by the user, and in long distance imaging it may include bending the body during walking or crawling, in contrast to regular walking for instance. When imaging is performed through relatively long distance, some difficulties occur which affect the performances regular action recognition tasks. The degradation sources that include turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere cause blur and spatiotemporal-varying distortions (image dancing). These effects become more significant as the imaging distance increases and as the sizes of the objects of interest in the image are smaller. The process of action recognition is usually a part of surveillance system that naturally includes a detection of the moving objects as a first step, followed by tracking them in the video sequence. In this study, we first detect and track moving objects in long-distance horizontal imaging, and then we examine dynamic spatio-temporal (motion and shape) characteristics of correctly detected moving objects. According to such characteristics. We construct features that characterize different actions for such imaging conditions, and distinguish suspicious from non-suspicious actions, based on these characteristics.

  17. Clinically significant drug interactions with newer antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Spina, Edoardo; Trifirò, Gianluca; Caraci, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    After the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other newer antidepressants with different mechanisms of action have been introduced in clinical practice. Because antidepressants are commonly prescribed in combination with other medications used to treat co-morbid psychiatric or somatic disorders, they are likely to be involved in clinically significant drug interactions. This review examines the drug interaction profiles of the following newer antidepressants: escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, reboxetine, bupropion, agomelatine and vilazodone. In general, by virtue of a more selective mechanism of action and receptor profile, newer antidepressants carry a relatively low risk for pharmacodynamic drug interactions, at least as compared with first-generation antidepressants, i.e. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). On the other hand, they are susceptible to pharmacokinetic drug interactions. All new antidepressants are extensively metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, and therefore may be the target of metabolically based drug interactions. Concomitant administration of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isoenzymes involved in the biotransformation of specific antidepressants may cause changes in their plasma concentrations. However, due to their relatively wide margin of safety, the consequences of such kinetic modifications are usually not clinically relevant. Conversely, some newer antidepressants may cause pharmacokinetic interactions through their ability to inhibit specific CYPs. With regard to this, duloxetine and bupropion are moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6. Therefore, potentially harmful drug interactions may occur when they are coadministered with substrates of these isoforms, especially compounds with a narrow therapeutic index. The other new antidepressants are only weak inhibitors or are not inhibitors of CYP isoforms at

  18. Efficient computation of optimal actions.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-07-14

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress--as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant.

  19. Efficient computation of optimal actions

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress—as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant. PMID:19574462

  20. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  1. Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

  2. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  3. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

  4. Representation of action in Parkinson's disease: imagining, observing, and naming actions.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Ellen

    2013-09-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit slowed movements and difficulty in initiating movements. This review addresses the issue of whether or not cognitive representations of actions in PD are affected, alongside these motor problems. In healthy people, the motor system can be involved in tasks such as observing a graspable object or another person's action, or imagining and naming actions, in the absence of overt movement. As described in this review, the fact that the slowed real movements exhibited by PD patients are coupled with slower motor imagery and verb processing provides additional evidence for the involvement of the motor system in these processes. On the other hand, PD patients can still engage in motor imagery and action observation to some extent, which is encouraging for the use of these processes in rehabilitation. Findings across the different domains of action-representation reveal several important factors. First, the nature of action is critical: patients' performance in observation and naming tasks is influenced by whether or not the action is in their repertoire and by the extent of motion required to execute the action. Second, people with PD may use alternative or compensatory mechanisms to represent actions, such as relying more on a third-person perspective or a visual strategy. Third, people with PD show a lack of specificity, responding as strongly to stimuli related and unrelated to actions. Investigating action-representation in PD has implications for our understanding of both the symptoms of PD and the cognitive representation of actions in the healthy system.

  5. Creating Space: Engaging Deliberation about Climate Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phear, Nicolette

    In the United States public discourse, climate change is often framed as a polarized and intractable issue. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore deliberation about climate action, and to evaluate whether effective responses to climate change can be facilitated through new structures and processes that enable and encourage dialogue on the subject of how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Working with sustainability leaders at the University of Montana and in the community of Missoula, Montana, the author convened three public deliberations, in which a variety of solutions to climate change were discussed. Three questions guided this study: 1) what motivated individuals to engage in deliberation about climate action; 2) how did individual engagement vary and affect the quality of the deliberation; and 3) how effective were the deliberations in building a sense of individual agency and generating collaborative action strategies to address climate change. Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of survey responses combined with qualitative data, this action research study offers a holistic exploration of the three deliberative events convened. The deliberative processes generated collaborative action strategies and increased participants' sense of agency to take action on climate change; the findings also revealed differences in the ways individuals engaged and affected the quality of the overall group deliberation. This dissertation contributes to the literature on collaborative responses and collective action on climate change, broadens understanding of deliberative processes, and provides new insight into opportunities for leading deliberation about climate action.

  6. [Molecular mechanisms of pidolate magnesium action and its neurotropic affects].

    PubMed

    Gromova, O A; Torshin, I Yu; Kalacheva, A G; Fedotova, L E; V, K

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Комплексное изучение фармакологических свойств пироглутамата магния с использованием современных методик хемоинформационного и биоинформационного анализа. Материал и методы: Фармакологические свойства пироглутамата магния изучали с использованием хемоинформационного и биоинформационного анализа. Результаты. Установлено, что нейротропные эффекты пироглутамата в составе соли магния могут осуществляться за счет влияния на синтез пироглутаматсодержащих нейропептидов (орексин, тиролиберин, нейротензин и др.) и также за счет сходства пироглутамат-аниона с некоторыми нейроактивными веществами (L-теанин, 2-пирролидинон, пирацетам). Заключение. Результаты исследования указывают на нейропротекторные, антигипертензивные, седативные и антидепрессивные свойства пироглутамата магния, которые осуществляются анионом пироглутамата в синергизме с катионом магния.

  7. 12 CFR 1261.9 - Actions affecting director elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... annual assessment of the skills and experience possessed by the members of its board of directors as a... individuals with particular skills and experience. If the board of directors determines that the Bank could... auditing and accounting, derivatives, financial management, organizational management, project...

  8. 75 FR 16735 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Bob Rahimzadeh

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... approximately 174 rolls of hog hair filter media, part number HH60130 and valued at approximately $11,687.76... financed approximately 174 rolls of hog hair filter media, part number HH60130 and valued at approximately... Regulations by facilitating or coordinating the export of approximately 185 rolls of hog hair filter...

  9. 75 FR 32742 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Joseph Piquet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... involved in this conspiracy were high power amplifiers designed for use by the U.S. military in early warning radar and missile target acquisition systems, and low noise amplifiers that have both...

  10. 75 FR 8917 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Afshin Rezaei

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...'') pleaded guilty to violating the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706 (2000... (``EAA''), which is currently codified at 50 U.S.C. app. Sec. Sec. 2401-2420 (2000). Since August 21... effect under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706 (2000)). I...

  11. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  12. Recommendations for National Action Affecting Higher Education. A Joint Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    At their annual meetings in November 1969, the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities adopted a "Statement of Policy Positions." Their recommendations call for: immediate funding of, first, existing federal programs providing institutional aid, then…

  13. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... service to individual metering, explaining the national policy objectives of energy conservation, the... that will be advantageous to residents who conserve energy. (d) A transition period of at least six... utility consumption on methods for reducing their usage. This advice and assistance may include...

  14. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... service to individual metering, explaining the national policy objectives of energy conservation, the... that will be advantageous to residents who conserve energy. (d) A transition period of at least six... utility consumption on methods for reducing their usage. This advice and assistance may include...

  15. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... service to individual metering, explaining the national policy objectives of energy conservation, the... that will be advantageous to residents who conserve energy. (d) A transition period of at least six... utility consumption on methods for reducing their usage. This advice and assistance may include...

  16. 76 FR 39844 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; ERIC COHEN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... controlled for reasons of Regional Stability, from the United States to Komeco Co., Ltd., in South Korea... intended for export to South Korea. Cohen facilitated Ever Dixie's sale of the items, valued at... from the United States to South Korea, without the export license required by Section 742.6 of...

  17. 76 FR 13127 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Amy Farrow

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). Charges 1-116 15 CFR 764.2(a): Exporting Stun Guns... exported 254 stun guns, items subject to the Regulations, classified under Export Control Classification..., directly or indirectly, in any way in any transaction involving any commodity, software or...

  18. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that will be advantageous to residents who conserve energy. (d) A transition period of at least six... service to individual metering, explaining the national policy objectives of energy conservation, the... established. (e) During and after the transition period, PHAs shall advise and assist residents with...

  19. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed “social physiology.” Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals. PMID:24782780

  20. 75 FR 842 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin Lin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce (``BIS'') has initiated an administrative...: 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy To Export Electronic Components to the Republic of China Without...

  1. How Military Actions Affected Citizen Security During Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    incurred costs, including human rights abuses and large numbers of internally displaced persons. Considerable disagreement exists over the final... abuses and large numbers of internally displaced persons. Considerable disagreement exists over the final value of the military’s involvement, as it...insurgency and increased state presence across Colombia’s territory. The costs of the military’s involvement include human rights abuses against civilians

  2. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  3. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... significant environmental issues. (3) Actions excluded from the EIS requirements. Those actions taken to... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of... quality of the human environment, the RFO will: (i) Modify the action to eliminate or mitigate...

  4. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... significant environmental issues. (3) Actions excluded from the EIS requirements. Those actions taken to... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of... quality of the human environment, the RFO will: (i) Modify the action to eliminate or mitigate...

  5. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... significant environmental issues. (3) Actions excluded from the EIS requirements. Those actions taken to... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies...

  6. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  7. American Lead Action Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACTION MEMORANDUM— Request for a Time-Critical Removal Action andExemption from the $2 Million and 12-Month Statutory Limits at the AmericanLead Site, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana (Site ID #B56J)

  8. Solving the puzzle of collective action through inter-individual differences.

    PubMed

    von Rueden, Chris; Gavrilets, Sergey; Glowacki, Luke

    2015-12-05

    Models of collective action infrequently account for differences across individuals beyond a limited set of strategies, ignoring variation in endowment (e.g. physical condition, wealth, knowledge, personality, support), individual costs of effort, or expected gains from cooperation. However, behavioural research indicates these inter-individual differences can have significant effects on the dynamics of collective action. The papers contributed to this theme issue evaluate how individual differences affect the propensity to cooperate, and how they can catalyse others' likelihood of cooperation (e.g. via leadership). Many of the papers emphasize the relationship between individual decisions and socio-ecological context, particularly the effect of group size. All together, the papers in this theme issue provide a more complete picture of collective action, by embracing the reality of inter-individual variation and its multiple roles in the success or failure of collective action.

  9. Solving the puzzle of collective action through inter-individual differences

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Chris; Gavrilets, Sergey; Glowacki, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Models of collective action infrequently account for differences across individuals beyond a limited set of strategies, ignoring variation in endowment (e.g. physical condition, wealth, knowledge, personality, support), individual costs of effort, or expected gains from cooperation. However, behavioural research indicates these inter-individual differences can have significant effects on the dynamics of collective action. The papers contributed to this theme issue evaluate how individual differences affect the propensity to cooperate, and how they can catalyse others’ likelihood of cooperation (e.g. via leadership). Many of the papers emphasize the relationship between individual decisions and socio-ecological context, particularly the effect of group size. All together, the papers in this theme issue provide a more complete picture of collective action, by embracing the reality of inter-individual variation and its multiple roles in the success or failure of collective action. PMID:26503677

  10. Taking action against violence.

    PubMed

    Kunz, K

    1996-05-01

    Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.

  11. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  12. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  13. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…

  14. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  15. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  16. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  17. Numbers in Action

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL. PMID:27524965

  18. Numbers in Action.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL.

  19. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... species or its habitat that has been determined to be critical under the Endangered Species Act of 1973... (human, national), the affected region, the affected interests, and the locality. Significance varies... areas. (4) The degree to which the effects on the quality of the human environment are likely to...

  20. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  1. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  2. The scaup conservation action plan: working toward coherence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    The last in a series of three workshops to develop a decision framework for the scaup conservation action plan was conducted in September 2009. Fifteen waterfowl biologists and managers met in Memphis, Tennessee at the Ducks Unlimited Headquarters to review and refine the decision statement, objectives, and prototype model for the continental scaup population, with a special focus on vital rate parameters that are affected during migration and winter. In a significant step toward coherence, the participants also developed models for incorporating human dimensions – hunters – into the decision framework, and to link the population of diving duck hunters with the continental scaup population.

  3. Composite Defect Significance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    A12i 299 COMPOSITE DEFECT SIGNIFICANCE(U) MATERIALS SCIENCES 1/1 \\ CORP SPRING HOUSE PA S N CHATTERJEE ET AL. 13 JUL 82 MSC/TFR/1288/il87 NADC-80848...Directorate 30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 40 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 50 Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft ...instructions concerning commercial products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they convey or imply the license or right to use

  4. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  5. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tapp, A.

    1988-05-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed.

  6. Matching boxes: familiar size influences action programming.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert D; Lashley, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    The perception/action model is the dominant account of the primary division of labour in the human visual pathway. Integral to this model is the idea that goal-directed actions are guided spatially by bottom-up vision, independent of perceptual recognition and top-down object knowledge. We question this idea by showing that the expected size of familiar objects (matchboxes) affects the amplitude of reaches made to grasp them, and the pre-shaping of the hand, even when binocular cues are available. This suggests that perceptual recognition routinely influences action programming.

  7. Renewing the Fight against Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Some affirmative action and diversity program critics are cheering President Barack Obama's election because they believe his success dramatically undermines the argument that discrimination remains a significant barrier for minorities in American life. Ward Connerly Jr., arguably the most visible anti-affirmative action activist in the United…

  8. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  10. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse.

  12. Antiviral Actions of Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs. Furthermore, advances made while elucidating the IFN system have contributed significantly to our understanding in multiple areas of virology and molecular cell biology, ranging from pathways of signal transduction to the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control to the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. IFNs are approved therapeutics and have moved from the basic research laboratory to the clinic. Among the IFN-induced proteins important in the antiviral actions of IFNs are the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L, and the Mx protein GTPases. Double-stranded RNA plays a central role in modulating protein phosphorylation and RNA degradation catalyzed by the IFN-inducible PKR kinase and the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L, respectively, and also in RNA editing by the IFN-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1). IFN also induces a form of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS2) and the major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins, all of which play important roles in immune response to infections. Several additional genes whose expression profiles are altered in response to IFN treatment and virus infection have been identified by microarray analyses. The availability of cDNA and genomic clones for many of the components of the IFN system, including IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ, their receptors, Jak and Stat and IRF signal transduction components, and proteins such as PKR, 2′,5′-OAS, Mx, and ADAR, whose expression is regulated by IFNs, has permitted the generation of mutant proteins, cells that overexpress different forms of the proteins, and animals in which their expression has been disrupted by targeted gene disruption. The use of these IFN system

  13. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  14. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Maria

    2013-12-01

    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate.

  15. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  16. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving.

  17. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  18. The significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Ogata, M; Miura, M

    1997-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system, we compared the findings of experimental motion sickness between different kinds of subjects, some of which were already reported. Subjects were healthy adults, healthy children between the ages of 4 and 15 years, and patients with congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss. They were asked to walk while wearing horizontally and vertically reversing goggles. Equilibrium ataxia as well as motion sickness were evoked by horizontal reversal, but not by vertical reversal in healthy subjects. Kindergarten children exhibited severe ataxia, but little nausea. The frequency of severe ataxia decreased during growth, inversely as the frequency of nausea syndrome increased. Although a patient with acquired loss became severely ataxic, a patient with congenital loss did not show any ataxia at all. The present study suggests that vestibular cues are indispensable to the ego-spatial relationship in the brain, and once the ego-spatial relationship becomes inadequate, discomfort acts as a safety device to brake uncontrollable actions. Then, perception of the outer world may automatically adjust voluntary actions by affecting motor commands. The importance of visual cues for representing an alternative framework may differ between congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss.

  19. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  20. National Biofuels Action Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Leading the Federal Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative October 2008 National Biofuels Action Plan Biomass Research and...REPORT DATE OCT 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Biofuels Action Plan 5a. CONTRACT...goal of the National Biofuels Action Plan is to maximize the environmental and economic benefi ts of biofuels use by advancing sustainable practices

  1. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  2. Action principles in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  3. Deriving motor primitives through action segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hemeren, Paul E; Thill, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  5. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  6. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  7. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  8. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  9. Affirmative Action Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Community Coll. District, CA.

    Guidelines relating to the affirmative action program of the Ventura County Community College District are provided in this manual. Affirmative action is defined as, "A set of specific and result-oriented procedures to which a contractor commits himself/herself to apply every good faith effort. The objective of those procedures, plus such efforts,…

  10. 25 Action Learning Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    This booklet on action-learning reflects an interest in preparing youth for the world of real experiences. Arranged in two major parts, the first offers information on the background and development of action-learning. Included in this section are the conclusions of the Panel on Youth of the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National…

  11. ACTION. 1977 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1977. The first section concentrates on reviews conducted, including a major review of ACTION's domestic volunteer programs and the management systems supporting them and an assessment of its programs using the Zero-Base Budget approach called for by…

  12. Action Learning and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  13. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  14. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  15. Botulinum toxin: mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Dirk; Adib Saberi, Fereshte

    2005-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) has been perceived as a lethal threat for many centuries. In the early 1980s, this perception completely changed when BT's therapeutic potential suddenly became apparent. We wish to give an overview over BT's mechanisms of action relevant for understanding its therapeutic use. BT's molecular mode of action includes extracellular binding to glycoprotein structures on cholinergic nerve terminals and intracellular blockade of the acetylcholine secretion. BT affects the spinal stretch reflex by blockade of intrafusal muscle fibres with consecutive reduction of Ia/II afferent signals and muscle tone without affecting muscle strength (reflex inhibition). This mechanism allows for antidystonic effects not only caused by target muscle paresis. BT also blocks efferent autonomic fibres to smooth muscles and to exocrine glands. Direct central nervous system effects are not observed, since BT does not cross the blood-brain barrier and since it is inactivated during its retrograde axonal transport. Indirect central nervous system effects include reflex inhibition, normalisation of reciprocal inhibition, intracortical inhibition and somatosensory evoked potentials. Reduction of formalin-induced pain suggests direct analgesic BT effects possibly mediated by blockade of substance P, glutamate and calcitonin gene-related peptide.

  16. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasons why the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding...

  17. 50 CFR 660.409 - Inseason actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the management objectives for the affected species and the additional open period is no less than 24... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Inseason actions. (a) Fixed inseason management provisions. NMFS is authorized to take the...

  18. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Event Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking presents a serious health risk not only to young people themselves but to entire communities. This program guide is designed to help communities establish their own underage drinking prevention programs. Community norms, actions, and attitudes toward alcohol affect young people, as do the ways in which alcohol is promoted.…

  19. 46 CFR 535.801 - Independent action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent action. 535.801 Section 535.801 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Mandatory and...

  20. Action-monitoring impairment in anosognosia for hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Saj, Arnaud; Vocat, Roland; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-12-01

    Every movement begins with action programming, and ends with a produced effect. Anosognosia for hemiplegia (AH), involving unawareness of motor deficits after brain damage, is a striking but also poorly understood symptom in clinical neurology. It has been suggested that it may result from a combination of cognitive and sensorimotor dysfunctions, including impairments in monitoring motor action and detecting the mismatch between intention and outcome. Here we investigated the relationship between motor action awareness and monitoring of self-produced movements by using a motor imaginary task, which was performed with either the intact or the affected limb. We tested 10 right brain-damaged patients, including 5 with AH, in comparison with 5 healthy controls. In a first phase, participants were asked to either realize or imagine a movement with their right or left arm. In a subsequent recognition phase, the participants had to recall whether the movement was a realized or imagined and which arm was used. AH patients performed significantly worse relative to no-AH patients and healthy controls for the left movements. Specifically, we found that AH patients believed they had realized movements with their (paralyzed) left arm even when they failed in the left execution condition. However, they also made more errors for movements actually realized with the right hand. These findings confirm that impaired action monitoring may contribute to AHP. Furthermore, our results support the notion of an action control system integrating "feedforward" signals through a comparison process between the intention and execution of movement, but also indicate that monitoring deficits in AHP are not strictly unilateral. Combined together, dysfunction of motor comparator processes and more general monitoring deficits may add up to lead to unawareness of paralysis.

  1. Topological lattice actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Gerber, U.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2010-12-01

    We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge Q. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility {χ_t} = {{{left< {{Q^2}} rightrangle }} left/ {V} right.} is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some classically important features of an action are irrelevant for reaching the correct quantum continuum limit.

  2. Spacelike brane actions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  3. Conscious Control over Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges-challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown.

  4. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  5. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  6. Wheel-running exercise alters rat diaphragm action potentials and their regulation by K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Van Lunteren, Erik; Moyer, Michelle

    2003-08-01

    Endurance exercise modifies regulatory systems that control skeletal muscle Na+ and K+ fluxes, in particular Na+-K+-ATPase-mediated transport of these ions. Na+ and K+ ion channels also play important roles in the regulation of ionic movements, specifically mediating Na+ influx and K+ efflux that occur during contractions resulting from action potential depolarization and repolarization. Whether exercise alters skeletal muscle electrophysiological properties controlled by these ion channels is unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise modifies diaphragm action potential properties. Exercised rats spent 8 wk with free access to running wheels, and they were compared with sedentary rats living in conventional rodent housing. Diaphragm muscle was subsequently removed under anesthesia and studied in vitro. Resting membrane potential was not affected by endurance exercise. Muscle from exercised rats had a slower rate of action potential repolarization than that of sedentary animals (P = 0.0098), whereas rate of depolarization was similar in the two groups. The K+ channel blocker 3,4-diaminopyridine slowed action potential repolarization and increased action potential area of both exercised and sedentary muscle. However, these effects were significantly smaller in diaphragm from exercised than sedentary rats. These data indicate that voluntary running slows diaphragm action potential repolarization, most likely by modulating K+ channel number or function.

  7. Effects of calcium antagonists on central actions of ethanol: comparative studies with nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, E; Kubik-Bogucka, E

    1993-11-01

    The effects of nifedipine (17.5 and 50 mg/kg), verapamil (5 and 15 mg/kg) and cinnarizine (75 and 200 mg/kg) on acute toxicity and central actions of ethanol (i.e. ethanol-induced sleep and hypothermia, disturbances of rota-rod performance and spontaneous activity) were investigated in mice. Additionally, effects of these drugs on the development of tolerance to hypothermic and sleep-inducing action of ethanol were studied in rats. Calcium antagonists were given acutely 30 min before ethanol administration, or chronically once daily (lower dose) for 10 days, and on the 11th day the animals received an ethanol injection. Single doses of nifedipine increased the acute toxicity of ethanol and potentiated its central effects. After long-term administration of nifedipine no significant alterations in the central actions of ethanol were observed. Verapamil and cinnarizine antagonized the ethanol-induced sleep and impairment of locomotor activity. Nifedipine did not affect the development of tolerance to hypnotic and hypothermic action of ethanol. Verapamil prevents the development of tolerance to hypnotic action of ethanol, whereas cinnarizine prevents the development of tolerance to the hypnotic and hypothermic action of ethanol.

  8. 40 CFR 35.6655 - Notification of significant developments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6655 Notification of significant developments. Events may occur between the scheduled performance reporting dates...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6655 - Notification of significant developments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6655 Notification of significant developments. Events may occur between the scheduled performance reporting dates...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6655 - Notification of significant developments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6655 Notification of significant developments. Events may occur between the scheduled performance reporting dates...

  11. Stabilizing bottomless action theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, J.; Halpern, M. B.

    1984-08-01

    We show how to construct the euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. Our method preserves the classical limit, the large- N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories.

  12. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  13. Oak Canyon Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the 27 residential properties that compose the Oak Canyon Site located in the Village of Paguate, Pueblo of Laguna, near Cibola County, New Mexico.

  14. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  15. Antisymmetric string actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d < D-dimensional extended objects in D-dimensional flat space. On leave of absence from Departamento de Física, Universidad Simon Bolívar, Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  16. Convulsant actions of calycanthine.

    PubMed

    Chebib, Mary; Duke, Rujee K; Duke, Colin C; Connor, Mark; Mewett, Kenneth N; Johnston, Graham A R

    2003-07-01

    The principal alkaloid of the family Calycanthaceae, calycanthine has long been recognized as a central convulsant. The alkaloid inhibited the potassium-stimulated release of [(3)H]GABA from slices of rat hippocampus with an ED(50) of approximately 21 microM. This effect appeared to be moderately selective since calycanthine at 100 microM had only a weak effect on the potassium-stimulated release of [(3)H]acetylcholine (15%) and no significant effects on the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate from hippocampal and cerebellar slices or the release of [(3)H]glycine from spinal cord slices. Calycanthine blocked the L-type calcium currents with an IC(50) of approximately 42 microM and also weakly inhibited the N-type calcium currents (IC(50) > 100 microM) from neuroblastoma X glioma cells, suggesting voltage-dependent calcium channel blockade as a possible mechanism for its inhibition of GABA and ACh release. Calycanthine was also found to directly inhibit GABA-mediated currents (K(B) approximately 135 microM) from human alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes but had no effect at 100 microM on human rho(1) GABA(c) receptors. The results indicated that calycanthine may mediate its convulsant action predominantly by inhibiting the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA as a result of interactions with L-type Ca(2+) channels and by inhibiting GABA-mediated chloride currents at GABA(A) receptors.

  17. Neural Basis of Action Understanding: Evidence from Sign Language Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Raphel, Kristin; Tomkovicz, Vivian; O'Grady, Lucinda; Damasio, Hanna; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background The neural basis of action understanding is a hotly debated issue. The mirror neuron account holds that motor simulation in fronto-parietal circuits is critical to action understanding including speech comprehension, while others emphasize the ventral stream in the temporal lobe. Evidence from speech strongly supports the ventral stream account, but on the other hand, evidence from manual gesture comprehension (e.g., in limb apraxia) has led to contradictory findings. Aims Here we present a lesion analysis of sign language comprehension. Sign language is an excellent model for studying mirror system function in that it bridges the gap between the visual-manual system in which mirror neurons are best characterized and language systems which have represented a theoretical target of mirror neuron research. Methods & Procedures Twenty-one life long deaf signers with focal cortical lesions performed two tasks: one involving the comprehension of individual signs and the other involving comprehension of signed sentences (commands). Participants' lesions, as indicated on MRI or CT scans, were mapped onto a template brain to explore the relationship between lesion location and sign comprehension measures. Outcomes & Results Single sign comprehension was not significantly affected by left hemisphere damage. Sentence sign comprehension impairments were associated with left temporal-parietal damage. We found that damage to mirror system related regions in the left frontal lobe were not associated with deficits on either of these comprehension tasks. Conclusions We conclude that the mirror system is not critically involved in action understanding. PMID:24031116

  18. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  19. Affirmative Action: Equal Opportunity for Women in Library Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFichy, Wendy

    1973-01-01

    Women can achieve equal opportunity in library management through Affirmative Action Committees. Several steps are suggested: the determination of present status; assessment of library policies affecting hiring, parental leave and promotion; some strategies to attain managerial positions. (21 references) (Author)

  20. Exploring the relationship between negative urgency and dysregulated eating: etiologic associations and the role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Sisk, Cheryl L; Neale, Michael; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

    2013-05-01

    Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to engage in rash action in response to negative affect) has emerged as a critical personality trait contributing to individual differences in binge eating. However, studies investigating the extent to which genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the effects of negative urgency on binge eating are lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether negative urgency-binge eating associations are simply a result of the well-established role of negative affect in the development/maintenance of binge eating. The current study addresses these gaps by examining phenotypic and etiologic associations between negative urgency, negative affect, and dysregulated eating (i.e., binge eating, emotional eating) in a sample of 222 same-sex female twin pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Negative urgency was significantly associated with both dysregulated eating symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of negative affect. Genetic factors accounted for the majority (62-77%) of this phenotypic association, although a significant proportion of this genetic covariation was due to genetic influences in common with negative affect. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for a relatively smaller (23-38%) proportion of the association, but these nonshared environmental effects were independent of negative affect. Findings suggest that the presence of emotion-based rash action, combined with high levels of negative affect, may significantly increase genetic risk for dysregulated eating.