Tu, Yanping; Fishbach, Ayelet
Whereas people generally conform to others' choices, this research documents that conformity decreases once others have acted on their chosen options. It suggests words speak louder than actions-people are more likely to conform to others' preferences than their actions. Specifically, people are less likely to follow another person's food choice if that person has already eaten his or her selected food (Study 1), and are less likely to follow others' choices of household items if these choices are framed in terms of action (others "want to have it") rather than preference (others "like it"; Study 2). People's tendency to mentally share others' actions causes the decrease in conformity. Indeed, people recall greater past consumption of items that others have had (Study 3), choose differently only when they can complement (vs. contradict) what others have (Study 4), and are more strongly affected by the choices of those close to them (vs. strangers; Study 5). Finally, even when information about others' actions and preferences are simultaneously available (e.g., in online shopping and the consumption of social media), people are more likely to follow what others prefer, rather than what others have (Study 6).
Amabile, Teresa M.; Kabat, Loren G.
To examine whether a person's actions are more important in determining impressions of personality than are self-descriptions, subjects in two separate studies viewed two videotapes, one depicting a stimulus person's self-description and the other depicting that person's behavior in a conversation. Subjects rated the stimulus person on several…
Windscheid, Leon; Bowes-Sperry, Lynn; Kidder, Deborah L; Cheung, Ho Kwan; Morner, Michèle; Lievens, Filip
To attract a gender diverse workforce, many employers use diversity statements to publicly signal that they value gender diversity. However, this often represents a misalignment between words and actions (i.e., a diversity mixed message) because most organizations are male dominated, especially in board positions. We conducted 3 studies to investigate the potentially indirect effect of such diversity mixed messages through perceived behavioral integrity on employer attractiveness. In Study 1, following a 2 × 2 design, participants (N = 225) were either shown a pro gender diversity statement or a neutral statement, in combination with a gender diverse board (4 men and 4 women) or a uniform all-male board (8 men). Participants' perceived behavioral integrity of the organization was assessed. In Study 2, participants (N = 251) either read positive or negative reviews of the organization's behavioral integrity. Employer attractiveness was then assessed. Study 3 (N = 427) investigated the impact of board gender composition on perceived behavioral integrity and employer attractiveness using a bootstrapping procedure. Both the causal-chain design of Study 1 and 2, as well as the significance test of the proposed indirect relationship in Study 3, revealed that a diversity mixed message negatively affected an organization's perceived behavioral integrity, and low behavioral integrity in turn negatively impacted employer attractiveness. In Study 3, there was also evidence for a tipping point (more than 1 woman on the board was needed) with regard to participants' perceptions of the organization's behavioral integrity. (PsycINFO Database Record
Stephens, Bruce Warren
Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre‐ and post‐testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre‐ to post‐test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five‐point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non‐CN questions—particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 8: 584–592. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:25952466
Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren
Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge.
Melzer, Dawn K; Claxton, Laura J
Studies on pretense mental state understanding in young children have produced inconsistent findings. These findings could potentially emerge from the confounding influences of action manipulation or the failure to examine possible influences on individual children's performances. To address these issues, we created a task in which 68 3- and 4-year-olds viewed two actors, side by side, on a monitor. Children were told that one actor was knowledgeable about a specific animal, whereas the other actor was not. The actors performed identical movements that were either related or unrelated to the animal they were mimicking or engaged in different behaviors contradictory to their knowledge. Saliency of action was also manipulated by presenting either dynamic images or a paused frame of the actors' behavior (i.e., the static condition). Children performed similarly on the dynamic and static conditions. Children selected the knowledgeable actor more often in the unrelated and related trials but were not as successful at selecting the knowledgeable actor when the actor's knowledge contradicted the actor's behavior. Therefore, by 3 years of age, some children may understand that pretend play involves mental representations and appreciate that the mind influences a pretender's behavior. To investigate the observed individual differences, we also examined children and parents as they engaged in reading and pretense activities prior to data collection. The frequency of parents' cognitive mental state utterances strongly predicted performance on the mental state task. Individual differences in performance as a result of parental language and executive functioning abilities are discussed.
Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.
It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…
This paper provides a foundation for understanding the importance of shared system of care definitions that encourage and support family involvement at every level of the system's development and implementation. The author articulates the necessity of family involvement in system of care efforts to assure effectiveness and sustainability. In addition to presenting a general overview of family involvement in system of care initiatives, the author further states the necessity of clarifying definitions and expectations of real-life family involvement for all stakeholders.
International Child Development Initiatives (NJ1), 2012
In the past years there has been a growing call for (financial) transparency of developmental aid organizations. The general public, or maybe better put: the popular media, are demanding information on cost efficiency and impact of projects. Development aid needs to prove its worth, that's what it basically boils down to. Of course there is…
Discusses the components of paralanguage, that is, kinesics, proxemics, and paraverbal features. Argues that paralanguage plays a crucial role in human interaction and is highly culture-specific. Discusses its implications with respect to second language learning and ways in which it can be included in the second-language classroom. (SED)
Stevens, George E.
Discusses a study to determine students' perceptions of their own and their peers' attitudes and behavior. Specifically gathered empirical data that will shed light on the manifestation of unethical behavior--cheating. (JOW)
Demorest, Amy; And Others
Asks adults and 6-, 9- and, 13 year olds' questions about tape-recorded stories in order to investigate their ability to recognize sincere, deceptive, and sarcastic remarks. Results indicate that the youngest children interpret all remarks as sincere; 9 and 13 year olds can appreciate deliberate falsehood, but only adults identify sarcasm.…
Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren
Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The…
Vincent, Stacy K.; Kirby, Andrea T.
The purpose of this mixed-methods case study was to examine the dynamic of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (Gay, 2010) among nine secondary agriculture teachers in ethnically diverse schools. By reviewing the diversity of student enrollment in the agriculture programs, the participants were separated by two groups: diverse and non-diverse. A hybrid…
Ebersole, Diana S; Miller-Day, Michelle; Raup-Krieger, Janice
Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents' decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit substance use themselves. Framed by social learning theory and social constructionism, this study analyzed in-depth interviews with 108 adolescents about personal experiences with substance use, family communication about substance use, and adolescent interpretations of parental use. Emergent themes in the data include: positive parental influence, parentalcontradictions, and negative outcomes of use. Prevalence of parental use-regardless of legality, rarity of explicit communication about parental use, and various interpretations of parental use are discussed.
Ebersole, Diana S.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Raup-Krieger, Janice
Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents’ decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit substance use themselves. Framed by social learning theory and social constructionism, this study analyzed in-depth interviews with 108 adolescents about personal experiences with substance use, family communication about substance use, and adolescent interpretations of parental use. Emergent themes in the data include: positive parental influence, parental contradictions, and negative outcomes of use. Prevalence of parental use—regardless of legality, rarity of explicit communication about parental use, and various interpretations of parental use are discussed. PMID:25285048
Mueller, Tracy Gershwin; Piantoni, Shawn
Conflict between parents of children with disabilities and school district members has been an ongoing issue for decades. Special education administrators are often designated to address conflict with the intent to find an amicable resolution. Otherwise, conflict can lead to due process hearings that move valuable time and money away from general…
Brils, Jos; Quevauviller, Philippe; Slob, Adriaan; Blind, Michiel; Davy, Thierry; Carere, Mario; Amorsi, Natacha; Brack, Werner; Borchers, Ulrich; Thompson, Clive; Villessot, Daniel
The first generation of WFD River Basin Management Plans is now available. This is a formidable achievement and a great step towards addressing Europe's deteriorated river systems. However, plans are only words: only the actual implementation of the selected measures will result in achievement of good ecological and chemical status. The WFD Lille 2010 Conference pointed out that a lot of new, but so far unused scientific knowledge is available to improve the effectiveness of selected measures or to inspire the introduction of complementary measures. Furthermore, the complexity in terms of the functioning of the water system, its interaction with the socio-economic system and the uncertain consequences of climate change, urges a 'learning-by-doing' approach. This approach should be applied in well-designed, -coordinated and -monitored learning catchments.
Couchman, Justin J; Beran, Michael J; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Church, Barbara; Smith, J David
Research in non-human animal (hereafter, animal) cognition has found strong evidence that some animal species are capable of meta-cognitively monitoring their mental states. They know when they know and when they do not know. In contrast, animals have generally not shown robust theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. Comparative research uses methods that are non-verbal, and thus might easily be labelled 'implicit' using the terminology of traditional human cognition. However, comparative psychology has developed several non-verbal methods that are designed to test for aspects of meta-cognition that - while perhaps not fully explicit - go beyond the merely implicit or associative. We believe similar methods might be useful to developmental researchers who work with young children, and may provide a sound empirical alternative to verbal reports. Comparative psychology has moved away from all-or-none categorical labels (e.g., 'implicit' vs. 'explicit') towards a theoretical framework that contains a spectrum of mental abilities ranging from implicit to explicit, and from associative to cognitive to fully conscious. We discuss how this same framework might be applied to developmental psychology when it comes to implicit versus explicit processing and ToM.
Corriveau, Kathleen H; Min, Grace; Chin, Jason; Doan, Stacey
To date, no research has examined children's imitative abilities in the context of learning self-regulatory strategies from adults-especially when there is a conflict between communicative intent and later behavior. A sample of 84 4- and 5-year-olds performed a delay-of-gratification task after observing an adult perform the same task. Across four between-participants conditions, the model either did or did not state her intention to complete the task (positive vs. negative communication), modeled self-regulatory strategies, and then either did or did not complete the task successfully (positive vs. negative outcome). Children in the positive outcome conditions were more likely to imitate the novel strategies and successfully wait in both familiar and unfamiliar self-regulation tasks irrespective of the model's communicated intent. We discuss implications for practice and interventions.
Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Church, Barbara; Smith, J. David
Research in non-human animal (hereafter, animal) cognition has found strong evidence that some animal species are capable of meta-cognitively monitoring their mental states. They know when they know and when they do not know. In contrast, animals have generally not shown robust theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. Comparative research uses methods…
Based on sociocultural and contextual perspectives, this study examines how Japanese language learners perceive a conflict between their beliefs and actions when speaking the target language in the classroom context, and how these learners change their beliefs or actions to overcome the conflict. Data were collected during a second-year level…
McCabe, Deborah; Hilmo, Joellen
The Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Person Test, if given at regular intervals during periods of remediation, may show clear evidence of improvement in behavior and attitude of learning disabled students. (CL)
Lang, Kellie R; Lew, Cheryl D
In exploring the relationship between "child rights" and "pediatric bioethics" and how these disciplines might provide mutual support in advancing the health and wellness of children around the world, our article responds to the questions of whether the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) could be of any benefit in the United States, the only country that has not yet ratified this international treaty, and whether the CRC has any value for addressing clinical pediatric bioethics' questions. We describe the considerable influence that the United States had in developing significant components of the CRC, and we argue that the CRC may be useful for U.S. pediatric bioethicists as a tool to advance children's health policy. We note that ratification of the CRC does not equate with compliance or success. Lastly, we identify a distinction between the use of the term "best interests" by child rights advocates and its use by clinical pediatric bioethicists.
Horgan, John; Shortland, Neil; Abbasciano, Suzzette; Walsh, Shaun
Involvement in terrorism has traditionally been discussed in relatively simplistic ways with little effort spent on developing a deeper understanding of what involvement actually entails, and how it differs from person to person. In this paper, we present the results of a three-year project focused on 183 individuals associated with the global jihadist movement who were convicted in the United States, for terrorist offenses, between 1995 and 2012. These data were developed by a large-scale, open-source data collection activity that involved a coding dictionary of more than 120 variables. We identify and explore the diversity of behaviors that constitute involvement in terrorism. We also compare lone actors and those who acted as part of a group, finding that lone actors differed from group-based actors in key demographic attributes and were more likely to be involved in attack execution behaviors. Implications for counterterrorism are then discussed.
Globalization and privatization have begun to destabilize the patterns of university professional work and campus community. African American Women Administrators battle the unique challenges of racial and gender discrimination as well as the intersection of these issues. AAWAs face feelings of isolation and lack of trust, and struggles over power…
Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill
This paper reports the second stage of an action research study designed to improve the effectiveness of speaking classes through negotiating the lesson contents with students. The data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and observations as a way of eliciting students' views. The research, conducted in an English language teaching…
PACER Center, 2014
This Action Information Sheet follows a family's process of selecting and using augmentative and alternative communication to help their young son, Max, speak. Max is affected by global dyspraxia, which makes learning new motor skills--especially speech--quite difficult. For the first years of his life, Max could not say words. Before he and his…
Erfani, Seyyed Mahdi
While integrating visual features can be among the most important characteristics of English language textbooks, reviewing the current locally-produced English for Specific Purposes (ESP) ones reveals that they lack such a feature. Enjoying a rich theoretical background including Paivio's dual coding theory as well as Sert's educational semiotics,…
Lee, Eunji; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moon, Jang Ho; Sung, Yongjun
While Instagram, the rising photo-sharing social networking service, has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners, little is known about the social and psychological factors that lead consumers to become fanatics of this app. To provide a baseline understanding of Instagram users, the current study aims to uncover the structural dimensions of consumers' motives for using Instagram and to explore the relationships between identified motivations and key attitudinal and behavioral intention variables. A comprehensive survey was developed in which a total of 212 Instagram users evaluated their motivation, primary activities, use intention, and attitude regarding Instagram. The results suggest that Instagram users have five primary social and psychological motives: social interaction, archiving, self-expression, escapism, and peeking. The implications of this study's findings are discussed.
Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar
Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…
Critics of standardized testing are fighting back with lawsuits and legislation. Evaluates the Educational Testing Service's business policy and how it conflicts with quality testing. Also suggests actions that can be taken by concerned parents who wish to protect their children from unfair testing practice. (Editor/RK)
"Testimonio" is the intentional and rhetorical act of speaking and sharing one's story, history or narrative with a specific focus towards that which is experienced in and around issues of bias, prejudice, oppression, otherness, marginalization, resistance, and survival (Bernal, Burciaga, & Carmona, 2012; Reyes & Rodríguez,…
Osiurak, François; Bergot, Morgane; Chainay, Hanna
For theories of embodied cognition, reading a word activates sensorimotor representations in a similar manner to seeing the physical object the word represents. Thus, reading words representing objects of different sizes interfere with motor planning, inducing changes in grip aperture. An outstanding issue is whether word reading can also evoke sensorimotor information about the weight of objects. This issue was addressed in two experiments wherein participants have first to read the name of an object (Experiment 1)/observe the object (Experiment 2) and then to transport versus use bottles of water. The objects presented as primes were either lighter or heavier than the bottles to be grasped. Results indicated that the main parameters of motor planning recorded (initiation times and finger contact points) were not affected by the presentation of words as primes (Experiment 1). By contrast, the presentation of visual objects as primes induced significant changes in these parameters (Experiment 2). Participants changed their way of grasping the bottles, particularly in the use condition. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of concepts does not automatically evoke sensorimotor representations about the weight of objects, but visual objects do.
Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.
From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…
Lee, Sang Min; Thorn, Antoinette; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras; Ha, Jung Hee; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationships between three predictor variables (attitude toward school, parent-child communication, and school commitment action) and the criterion variable (parent involvement) in a representative sample and to examine if these relationships were consistent across three groups (English speaking Caucasian family, English speaking Latino family, and Spanish speaking Latino families). Using a national database (N = 9.841), multi-group SEM analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables and the criterion variable in three family groups. While all three predictor variables significantly predicted parent involvement in English speaking Caucasian and Latino families, only two variables (parent-child communication and school commitment actions), significantly predicted parent involvement in Spanish speaking Latino families. The results of this study suggest that when administrators, teachers and counselors in school strive to share specific school-related information with Latino families, Spanish speaking families are more likely to become involved with schools.
Scheidel, Thomas M.
This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…
Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.
To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…
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Xia, Jufeng; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong; Tang, Wei
Over the past few years, genetically modified organisms (GMO) have gradually become more familiar after numerous reports of problems with GMO safety, such as genetically modified (GM) potatoes disrupting immunity, GM corn inducing tumors, and GM rice being fed to unwitting Chinese children. Every time, these reports cause panic among the population and lead to objections to GMO in various fora. After each incident, the scientific community has delivered its academic appraisal and refuted rumors through slow and cautious investigations and evaluations. Unfortunately, during each event media outlets quickly scare the public about food safety and ignore the ensuing comments from scientists. Although scientists have investigated each GMO crisis and reached scientific and rational conclusions, they have less ability to disseminate information than the media, so the public is not promptly informed of their rational and objective viewpoints as experts. Thus, scientists need greater ability to disseminate information from scientific investigations and evaluations in order to correct the intemperate reporting by attention-seeking media.
Garcia‐Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K.
Abstract Background and objectives Medical risk communication has been infrequently studied in immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency, even though they may be at greatest risk of illness. In a study, we examined to what extent Polish immigrants to the UK have difficulties in understanding treatment risk reduction expressed as ratios either in their native language or in a non‐native language (English). We further investigated whether this population can be aided by using visual displays to enhance comprehension. Design, setting, and participants A survey was conducted in the UK in spring, 2009, involving a sample of Polish immigrants (n = 96). Outcome measures Estimates of treatment risk reduction, confidence in estimates, and perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Results When assessing treatment risk reduction, participants often paid too much attention to the number of treated and non‐treated patients who died (i.e. numerators) and insufficient attention to the overall number of treated and non‐treated patients (i.e. denominators). This denominator neglect was especially noticeable when treatment risk reduction was not expressed in participants’ native language. However, provision of visual aids in addition to the numerical information about risk reduction proved to be an effective method for eliminating denominator neglect. The visual aids drew participants’ attention to the overall number of treated and non‐treated patients and helped them to make more accurate risk estimates. Conclusions When communicating risks to immigrants with limited non‐native language proficiency, we should move beyond the simple, direct translation of health messages that are already being used with the indigenous population to messages that are more appropriate. The use of materials that include visual aids is an effective method of communicating medical risk information to immigrant populations. PMID:21323820
Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji
Speaking a second language is probably the most difficult skill to test in that it involves a combination of skills that may have no correlation with each other, and which do not lend themselves to objective testing. In addition, what can be understood is a function of the listener's background and ability as well as those of the speaker. Another…
Anderson, Laurie Halse
Discusses how the author uses her nightmares to get ideas for her writing. Describes "Speak," one particular young adult novel inspired by a nightmare that she guesses was provoked by memories of her older sister coming of age. Discusses the exploration and impact of cliques or clans among adolescents. (SC)
Sen. Dodd, Christopher J. [D-CT
06/10/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6472-6475) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Alards-Tomalin, Doug; Walker, Alexander C; Nepon, Hillary; Leboe-McGowan, Launa C
In the current study, cross-task interactions between number order and sound intensity judgments were assessed using a dual-task paradigm. Participants first categorized numerical sequences composed of Arabic digits as either ordered (ascending, descending) or non-ordered. Following each number sequence, participants then had to judge the intensity level of a target sound. Experiment 1 emphasized processing the two tasks independently (serial processing), while Experiments 2 and 3 emphasized processing the two tasks simultaneously (parallel processing). Cross-task interference occurred only when the task required parallel processing and was specific to ascending numerical sequences, which led to a higher proportion of louder sound intensity judgments. In Experiment 4 we examined whether this unidirectional interaction was the result of participants misattributing enhanced processing fluency experienced on ascending sequences as indicating a louder target sound. The unidirectional finding could not be entirely attributed to misattributed processing fluency, and may also be connected to experientially derived conceptual associations between ascending number sequences and greater magnitude, consistent with conceptual mapping theory.
Altrichter, Herbert; Posch, Peter
For about two decades only marginal relevance was attributed to action research as a research strategy by large sections of the German social science community. The growing international debate on key concepts such as community participation, community-based participatory research and participatory action research were largely ignored. In this…
de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…
Alards-Tomalin, Doug; Walker, Alexander C; Shaw, Joshua D M; Leboe-McGowan, Launa C
The cross-modal impact of number magnitude (i.e. Arabic digits) on perceived sound loudness was examined. Participants compared a target sound's intensity level against a previously heard reference sound (which they judged as quieter or louder). Paired with each target sound was a task irrelevant Arabic digit that varied in magnitude, being either small (1, 2, 3) or large (7, 8, 9). The degree to which the sound and the digit were synchronized was manipulated, with the digit and sound occurring simultaneously in Experiment 1, and the digit preceding the sound in Experiment 2. Firstly, when target sounds and digits occurred simultaneously, sounds paired with large digits were categorized as loud more frequently than sounds paired with small digits. Secondly, when the events were separated, number magnitude ceased to bias sound intensity judgments. In Experiment 3, the events were still separated, however the participants held the number in short-term memory. In this instance the bias returned.
Being able to identify problems and bring them to the attention of OR team colleagues is crucial for the safety of both patients and perioperative team members; however, being able to do this means being comfortable with speaking up under circumstances that may be difficult. Disruptive or intimidating coworker behavior also makes speaking up difficult, but it is important to address in the interest of providing safe, effective care to patients. To remedy this, health care workers should create awareness of the problem and motivate others to take action; establish a culture of respect; set expectations to help eliminate disrespectful behavior; and create a learning environment that eliminates hierarchical structures, fosters professionalism, demonstrates respect, and enforces a zero tolerance policy.
Dewi, Ratna Sari; Kultsum, Ummi; Armadi, Ari
The aims of the study are to know whether communicative games have an impact on teaching speaking skill and describe how communicative games give an influence on speaking skills of students at junior high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. Classroom Action Research (CAR) was implemented based on Kurt. L model. The procedures used were planning,…
Morett, Laura M.
In the interest of clarifying how gesture facilitates L2 word learning, the current study investigates gesture's influence on three interrelated cognitive processes subserving L2 word learning: communication, encoding, and recall. Individuals unfamiliar with Hungarian learned 20 Hungarian words that were either accompanied or unaccompanied by…
While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…
Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…
Brigance, Linda Czuba
Designing and presenting a speech is a solitary task. By definition, public speaking involves one person speaking to a group, which sets it apart from other types of communication situations, such as interpersonal and small group communication. Due to the inherently individualistic nature of assignments in the basic course, students rarely profit…
This paper offers a summary of two aspects of effective speaking in public, whether it be with co-workers, supervisors, friends, or a group of little-known or unknown others. One aspect of public speaking is the level of sincerity, and the other is the level and variety of skills used. The paper first considers sincerity and then, it discusses the…
Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, Washington, DC.
Information of interest to Spanish speaking people on revenue sharing was presented in this booklet. Major topics were the utilization of General Revenue Sharing Funds, fund distribution, community action, reports on planned and actual use of funds, assurances to the Secretary of the Treasury, and civil rights provisions. Additional information on…
Examination of stereotypes about polite speech found that women are expected to speak more politely than men regardless of sex of addressee topic. Men are expected to use different forms for requests for masculine, feminine, and neutral actions and different forms of requests for male and female addressees. (CMG)
Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…
The presence of a bilingual educator is proving pivotal to the success of technology initiatives aimed at developing Spanish-speaking students' grasp of both the concepts and the language of mathematics. This article features Ginny Badger, a teaching assistant at Glenwood Springs High School in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, who sacrificed her…
Axford, Roger W.
Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…
Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)
Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…
This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…
Rhetoric is a discipline with a long and storied past with its roots in the seminal moments of democracy. In the incipient democratic societies of ancient Greece, rhetoric grew out of the new need to persuade large groups of people to come to a consensus. Public speaking, though featured prominently in many states' standards, is rarely a required…
In a time where standards and accountability override trust in teachers and principals, mandated versions of pedagogy have recently appeared in the Australian landscape. This article critiques one pedagogical reform initiative and suggests that in performative times, it may be preferable for principals and teachers to speak "over" reform…
Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…
Wilbur, Michael P.
Focuses on decision of "Journal of Counseling and Development" to discontinue "Personally Speaking" section of the journal. Author discusses his own personal/professional history and explains importance of being able to speak personally and honestly about ourselves, supporting others' ability to speak personally and honestly about themselves, and…
This study examines university learners' self-assessment and self-feedback on performance as captured in audio files from a foreign language speaking test. The learners' were guided to listen, transcribe and analyse their own speaking samples, as well as propose future actions for improvement. Content of learners' self-feedback was scrutinised…
This paper comments on two documents prepared by the Washington-based World Bank: the "World Development Report" and the three-volume study "Voices of the Poor." The author provides a brief overview of these documents then examines their potential impact on the delegates to the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Prague on September 19-28, 2000. The author further examines the implication of the new strategies embraced by the global lenders--"opportunity, empowerment, security." Apart from these strategies, the World Bank sets out other strategies like spreading the benefits of technology, as it calls for the elimination of absolute poverty by 2015. However, the most crucial tack is the one illustrated by the way the reports were made: letting the poor speak and responding to their cries.
All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…
Hurlburt, Russell T; Heavey, Christopher L; Kelsey, Jason M
Inner speaking is a common and widely discussed phenomenon of inner experience. Based on our studies of inner experience using Descriptive Experience Sampling (a qualitative method designed to produce high fidelity descriptions of randomly selected pristine inner experience), we advance an initial phenomenology of inner speaking. Inner speaking does occur in many, though certainly not all, moments of pristine inner experience. Most commonly it is experienced by the person as speaking in his or her own naturally inflected voice but with no sound being produced. In addition to prototypical instances of inner speaking, there are wide-ranging variations that fit the broad category of inner speaking and large individual differences in the frequency with which individuals experience inner speaking. Our observations are discrepant from what many have said about inner speaking, which we attribute to the characteristics of the methods different researchers have used to examine inner speaking.
How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.
Carlson, Ruth Kearney
This book contains a selection of activities, techniques, and sources to be used by those who are concerned with oral communication experiences of children and youth. Chapter topics are as follows: (1) multi-sensory awareness: speaking and acting for kindergarten through third grade; (2) kinesics and drama for primary children; (3) imaginative…
Does the language one speaks influence the way he thinks? Does it help define his world view? Anyone who has tried to master a foreign tongue has at least considered the possibility. Little linguistic peculiarities, though amusing, don't change the objective world people are describing. So how can they alter the way they think? Scientists and…
Hess, Frederick M.
Teachers have a lot of frustrating things to deal with in school--obdurate administrators, inane work rules, and ham-fisted policies, to name a few. Instead of speaking up for change, many teachers have just come to accept all the dysfunction and take refuge in their classrooms. But teachers have it in their power to bust out of that classroom…
Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta
Public speaking is widely used as a model of experimental fear and anxiety. This review aimed to evaluate the effects of pharmacological challenges on public speaking responses and their implications for the understanding of the neurobiology of normal and pathological anxiety, specifically panic disorder. We also describe methodological features of experimental paradigms using public speaking as an inducer of fear and stress. Public speaking is a potent stressor that can provoke significant subjective and physiological responses. However, variations in the manners in which public speaking is modelled can lead to different responses that need to be considered when interpreting the results. Results from pharmacological studies with healthy volunteers submitted to simulated public speaking tests have similarities with the pharmacological responses of panic patients observed in clinical practice and panic patients differ from controls in the response to the public speaking test. These data are compatible with the Deakin and Graeff hypothesis that serotonin inhibits fear, as accessed by public speaking tasks, and that this inhibition is likely related to the actions of serotonin in the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter.
Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…
Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba
The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…
Kaye, Nancy; Matson, Don
Proposes an instructional progression that goes from writing to speaking in learning English as a Second Language. Specific focus is on writing to improve speaking, games for writing to speaking, free writes from personal experiences, creating a scene, autobiographies, and argumentation. (Author/VWL)
Rachmawaty, Noor; Hermagustiana, Istanti
This paper is based on a study on speaking fluency performed by six low level students using retelling technique. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of retelling on the students' speaking fluency and to know the strategies used by those students while retelling a story. The data were the speaking transcripts which were analyzed to see…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This profile in outline form discusses the English language teaching situation in the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking areas of Belgium. The situation in the Dutch-speaking region, which includes Flanders and Brussels (the latter having both Dutch and French as official languages), is described in terms of the extent of English instruction…
gets a chance to develop her own leadership skills , and the event is much more likely to be a success. (Large headquarters companies might even prefer...from a very different unique in nature . . . and one learns to develop new skills in the art of communication with the people of the command. 33 ].q...information from our family communication network: 1. A few of our wives could not speak English . The family group supplied babysitting so these ladies
Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.
In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…
Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John
It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.
Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana
SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…
Miller, Ann Neville
Examines the public speaking patterns of Kenya, and compares those findings to the content of American introductory public speaking courses. Finds that most frequently mentioned areas of difference between American and Kenyan public speaking were establishment of speaker credibility, structure of the speech, selection of supporting materials,…
Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh
This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…
Droppleman, Leo F.; McNair, Douglas M.
Using finger sweat prints and arousal ratings two different types of stress were measured: anticipation of, and stress during, simulated public speaking. The results indicated that the stress producing properties of public speaking can be reproduced in the laboratory, thus the model has acceptable stimulus properties and can be used in…
Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.
Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…
Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo
The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…
Katchen, Johanna E.
The outline of a 2-hour-per-week public speaking course developed over the past 3 years for sophomore English language majors at National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, is described. The course is built around rhetorical modes, with informative speaking (e.g., process and comparison/contrast), the focus of the first semester and persuasive speaking…
Cheng, Yuh-show; Horwitz, Elaine K.; Schallert, Diane L.
Investigated the links between second-language classroom anxiety and second-language writing anxiety, as well a their associations with second-language speaking and writing achievement. Findings suggest that second-language classroom anxiety is a more general type of anxiety about learning a second language with a strong speaking-anxiety element,…
Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…
Schembri, John; Cortis, Kelvin; Mallia Azzopardi, Charles; Montefort, Stephen
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a relatively common and serious condition that can result in a spectrum of presentations ranging from incidental to acutely life-threatening. Described here is a case of aspiration of a tracheo-oesophageal speaking valve through a permanent tracheostomy that went unnoticed for a number of years, and an overview of the technique used for its removal. A 70-year-old ex-heavy smoker with a permanent tracheo-oesophageal fistula presented with a relatively recent history of increasing shortness of breath, sputum purulence and haemoptysis. Further investigation with a CT scan and bronchoscopy revealed the presence of a foreign body within his right lower lobe bronchus which was later removed by advancing a flexible bronchoscope over a rigid one. PMID:23861275
Marty, M E; Guinn, D E; Greenfield, L
This article is excerpted from the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics 28-page handbook entitled "Religion and Public Discourse: Principles and Guidelines for Religious Participants." These principles are the product of a three-year research project conducted by the Center. The project "To Speak and Be Heard" is based upon a wide range of resources from within the participants' religious traditions, including practices, rituals, and tenets of faith. While this project grew out of the specific controversies around the Cairo Conference, the principles of civil discourse spelled out in this document are general in application and may be used to facilitate constructive public dialogue. This article also discusses the nature of civil discourse in the public square, covenants of conversation, engaging the other, living with conflict during and after conversation and argument, and the hope of civil discourse.
C++ supports several styles ("multiple paradigms") of programming. This allows great flexibility, notational convenience, maintainability, and close-to-optimal performance. Programmers who don't know the basic native C++ styles and techniques "speak" C++ with a thick accent, limiting themselves to relatively restrictive pidgin dialects. Here, I present language features such as classes, class hierarchies, abstract classes, and templates, together with the fundamental programming styles they support. In particular, I show how to provide generic algorithms, function objects, access objects, and delayed evaluation as needed to build and use flexible and efficient libraries. The aim is to give an idea of what's possible to provide, and some understanding of the fundamental techniques of modern C++ libraries.
Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Iglesias, Aquiles
Forty-six Spanish-speaking children ages four, six, or eight years viewed a short silent film and told what happened in the film. The stories of older children included more narrative actions, more mental state/goal causes, more three-clause causal sequences, and a lower proportion of unrelated statements than those of younger children.…
Pereira, Juan A.; Sanz-Santamaría, Silvia; Montero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Julián
Attaining a satisfactory level of oral communication in a second language is a laborious process. In this action research paper we describe a new method applied through the use of interactive videos and the Babelium Project Rich Internet Application (RIA), which allows students to practice speaking skills through a variety of exercises. We present…
This article aims to provide better metaphors for thinking and speaking about culture, identity and values. In terms of human behaviour, the words culture, identity and values are viewed as useful reifications which have allowed us to discuss human action in terms of nouns. However, the terms have been used over many years in various theoretical…
Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane
This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…
Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Ariyama, Junko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Katerelos, Marina; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
The present study investigated whether children's representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early verb learning. Using an infant-controlled habituation paradigm with a switch design, Japanese-speaking children aged 1 ; 8 were habituated to two different events in which an object was engaging in an action. Each…
Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba speaks with high school students participating in a summer program called Women in STEM High School Aerospace Scholars, or WISH, using the stationâs ham ra...
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Marquez, Michelle
The ability to speak in various public speaking situations is imperative for success in school, business, and industry. Aspects which improve public speaking skills include preparation, organization, paying attention to the "nuts and bolts" of the speaking situation, identifying the topic, using invigorating language, watching other…
Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may unfairly…
Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald
Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.
Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro
The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…
To successfully assess how language learners enhance their performance and achieve language learning goals, the four macro skills of listening, speaking reading and writing are usually the most frequently assessed and focused areas. However, speaking, as a productive skill, seems intuitively the most important of all the four language skills…
Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing
This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.
This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
Kresovich, Brant M.
A survey of teachers of composition in English as a Second Language in Japan addressed the perceptions of native-English-speaking and non-native-English-speaking teachers of the acceptability of specific error types within sentences. The native speakers of English were one British and 16 Americans. The non-native group was comprised of 26 Japanese…
Bellando, Jayne; Fussell, Jill J; Lopez, Maya
Given the increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is likely that busy primary care providers (PCP) are providing care to individuals with ASD in their practice. Autism Speaks provides a wealth of educational, medical, and treatment/intervention information resources for PCPs and families, including at least 32 toolkits. This article serves to familiarize PCPs and families on the different toolkits that are available on the Autism Speaks website. This article is intended to increase physicians' knowledge on the issues that families with children with ASD frequently encounter, to increase their ability to share evidence-based information to guide treatment and care for affected families in their practice.
Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the globe, and this has also impacted people of the Arabic-speaking countries, especially those in higher-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. There is a significant increase in the incidence of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% in adult females and 1%–30% in adult males. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and multiple pregnancies may be important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity engulfing the Arabic-speaking countries. PMID:22175002
Childers, Jane B; Paik, Jae H
This paper examines children's attention to cross-situational information during word learning. Korean-speaking children in Korea and English-speaking children in the US were taught four nonce words that referred to novel actions. For each word, children saw four related events: half were shown events that were very similar (Close comparisons), half were shown events that were not as similar (Far comparisons). The prediction was that children would compare events to each other and thus be influenced by the events shown. In addition, children in these language groups could be influenced differently as their verb systems differ. Although some differences were found across language, children in both languages were influenced by the type of events shown, suggesting that they are using a comparison process. Thus, this study provides evidence for comparison, a new mechanism to describe how children learn new action words, and demonstrates that this process could apply across languages.
Public speaking is one of life's greatest fears for many people. However, with practice, repetition, and planning, you can safely leave your comfort zone and make a presentation that will engage the members of the audience, attract their attention, and cause them to take action on your material. This third article in the series will discuss what to do after the last slide is shown.
Daly, John A; And Others
Reports three studies examining the relationship between people's public speaking anxiety and their construals of the public speaking experience. Finds that anxiety is related to both beliefs and concerns that play a major role in the preparation of speeches. (SR)
MacDonald, J. Renee; MacIntyre, Peter D.
Finds that students with the highest level of public speaking anxiety showed the largest improvement in perceived competence and perception of audience pleasantness. Discusses the speaker's perception of the audience as a key factor in public speaking anxiety. (SR)
Speaking Out for Yourself—A Self-Help Guide Acknowledgements This publication was funded by the U.S. Department ... In Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Further Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 SMA-3719 Speaking Out for Yourself—A Self-Help Guide Page ...
Jiao, Yishan; Berisha, Visar; Tu, Ming; Liss, Julie
Speaking rate estimation directly from the speech waveform is a long-standing problem in speech signal processing. In this paper, we pose the speaking rate estimation problem as that of estimating a temporal density function whose integral over a given interval yields the speaking rate within that interval. In contrast to many existing methods, we avoid the more difficult task of detecting individual phonemes within the speech signal and we avoid heuristics such as thresholding the temporal envelope to estimate the number of vowels. Rather, the proposed method aims to learn an optimal weighting function that can be directly applied to time-frequency features in a speech signal to yield a temporal density function. We propose two convex cost functions for learning the weighting functions and an adaptation strategy to customize the approach to a particular speaker using minimal training. The algorithms are evaluated on the TIMIT corpus, on a dysarthric speech corpus, and on the ICSI Switchboard spontaneous speech corpus. Results show that the proposed methods outperform three competing methods on both healthy and dysarthric speech. In addition, for spontaneous speech rate estimation, the result show a high correlation between the estimated speaking rate and ground truth values. PMID:26167516
Levy, David L., Ed.
This document comprises the three issues of Volume 14 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1999 issue contains articles on National Child's Day, joint custody presumptions, changes in children's life and…
Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles
Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…
Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.
Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…
Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena
This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…
In March and April 1974 guest lecturers from other universities were prevented from speaking at the University of Chicago and at Yale University because of disruptive demonstrations of protest. This article contains reports of committees from each university, requested by their respective presidents, regarding the issues involved in such…
... sluggish or confused. Ask how to reduce these side effects or if you can take another medicine. The goal of the Speak Up ™ program is to help patients and their advocates become more informed and involved in their health care.
Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.
This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…
All teachers at all grade levels and in all subject areas assign speaking activities--for example, read-alouds, book reports, class discussions, lab results, research presentations, and dialogues in a foreign language. Effective communication is an essential skill in modern society, and the Common Core State Standards place particular emphasis on…
Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick
The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…
Kim, Jungtae; Craig, Daniel A.
Videoconferencing offers new opportunities for language testers to assess speaking ability in low-stakes diagnostic tests. To be considered a trusted testing tool in language testing, a test should be examined employing appropriate validation processes [Chapelle, C.A., Jamieson, J., & Hegelheimer, V. (2003). "Validation of a web-based ESL…
Ettlinger, Marc; Lanter, Jennifer; Van Pay, Craig K.
Does the language we speak affect the way we think, and if so, how? Previous researchers have considered this question by exploring the cognitive abilities of speakers of different languages. In the present study, we looked for evidence of linguistic relativity within a language and within participants by looking at memory recall for monolingual…
Community College Journal, 2013
Immigrants and others who didn't grow up speaking English are often at a disadvantage when entering the workforce. One of the best ways for non-native English speakers to level the playing field is to enroll in targeted courses and job-training programs offered through their local community colleges. The best of these programs combines important…
Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch
The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children…
This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…
Norton, Nadjwa Effat Laila
This multicultural feminist critical narrative inquiry examines how one Dominican Spanish and English speaking poor immigrant first grader, Pam, utilizes her critical literacies to intervene against inequitable teaching practices and affirm her cultures. Implications for early childhood educators to develop culturally responsive practices that…
Parker, Douglas A.
This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…
In this investigation, 72 second-, fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade speakers of black English were studied in an attempt to determine whether a relationship exists between the speaking of black English and the reading of standard English. Two variables of oral language were examined: the degree of divergence from standard English and the ability…
Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie
This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…
Dalton, Diana G.
This essay develops the position that the basic public speaking course is in need of reevaluation. Topics discussed include the importance of adopting a critical pedagogical stance, Paolo Freire's (1983) banking versus problem-posing concepts of education, the problems arising from the prevalent use of teaching assistants as public speaking…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.
Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.
This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…
Levy, David L., Ed.
This document comprises the three issues of Volume 13 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1998 issue contains articles on joint custody and the reduction of parental conflict, access grant programs,…
Prendiville, Francis; Toye, Nigel
Showing teachers how to use drama to promote speaking and listening for pupils, including those who find learning difficult, this book describes, analyses and teaches how to use role play effectively and looks at how to generate a productive dialogue between teachers and pupils that is both powerful and enabling. The authors present innovative…
An empirical study examined politicians' use of public speaking teleprompters (PSTs) when delivering major addresses to determine if audiences made aware of this practice would more seriously question speaker credibility, sincerity, and communicative ability. After completing an initial survey about political attitudes and awareness, subjects, 36…
VARIATIONS IN RECRUITMENT YIELD, COSTS, SPEED AND PARTICIPANT DIVERSITY ACROSS INTERNET PLATFORMS IN A GLOBAL STUDY EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF AN HIV/AIDS AND HIV TESTING ANIMATED AND LIVE-ACTION VIDEO AMONG ENGLISH- OR SPANISH-SPEAKING INTERNET OR SOCIAL MEDIA USERS
Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A.; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortés, Dharma E.; Merchant, Roland C.
For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield), time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs), and costs/ completion; and by participants’ demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78) and lowest costs / completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72) and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literay skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media plaforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/ social media or participant selection plaforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others. PMID:27330570
VARIATIONS IN RECRUITMENT YIELD, COSTS, SPEED AND PARTICIPANT DIVERSITY ACROSS INTERNET PLATFORMS IN A GLOBAL STUDY EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF AN HIV/AIDS AND HIV TESTING ANIMATED AND LIVE-ACTION VIDEO AMONG ENGLISH- OR SPANISH-SPEAKING INTERNET OR SOCIAL MEDIA USERS.
Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortés, Dharma E; Merchant, Roland C
For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield), time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs), and costs/ completion; and by participants' demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78) and lowest costs / completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72) and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literay skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media plaforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/ social media or participant selection plaforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others.
Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.
Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…
... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...
Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.
Shows that recollections of state speaking anxiety decreased over time, and that the rate of attenuation was associated with the speaker's level of trait speaking anxiety. Finds also that recollections of state speaking anxiety (implicit memory) were attenuated over time, and that the magnitude of this decline was predicted by the speaker's level…
Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani
This study reports on an action research on increasing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' confidence in speaking. Participants involved in this study were 16 male university students who had an upper-intermediate level of English. Extra speaking activities were incorporated into the classroom for 8 successive weeks. Insights into…
Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Chi, Lin-Yang; Weismer, Gary; Wang, Yu-Tsai
The effects of the use of cochlear implant (CI) on speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics and the relationships between speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics for children are clinically important. The purposes of this study were to report on the comparisons for speaking rate and vowel space area, and their relationship with speech intelligibility, between 24 Mandarin-speaking children with CI and 24 age-sex-education level matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants were audio recorded as they read a designed Mandarin intelligibility test, repeated prolongation of each of the three point vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ five times, and repeated each of three sentences carrying one point vowel five times. Compared to the NH group, the CI group exhibited: (1) mild-to-moderate speech intelligibility impairment; (2) significantly reduced speaking rate mainly due to significantly longer inter-word pauses and larger pause proportion; and (3) significantly less vowel reduction in the horizontal dimension in sustained vowel phonation. The limitations of speech intelligibility development in children after cochlear implantation were related to atypical patterns and to a smaller degree in vowel reduction and slower speaking rate resulting from less efficient articulatory movement transition.
When it comes to expressing your appreciation to teachers, here's the drill: if the words don't come easily, don't let them get in the way. This guide is full of simple, affordable, straight-from-the-heart actions and gifts that will speak louder than words. And for those who are comfortable putting pen to paper, check out suggestions for written…
This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…
Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…
Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kingston, Debbie; Schultz, Misty
A sociolinguistic analysis of an interaction between a woman with aphasia and a nonaphasic speaking partner was conducted to investigate participant framing in aphasia. Participant frames, or the stances that people take in conversation, help conversational participants structure their talk and collaboratively negotiate meaning (I. Goffman, 1974). This analysis revealed a configuration in which a person with severe aphasia enlisted her speaking partner to speak for her. That is, the interaction was framed such that the nonaphasic speaking partner served as the "spokesperson" for messages that were authored by the person with aphasia. The clinical requirements of adopting a "speaking for another" framework are discussed.
Johnson, Karen Hill
Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…
People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.
Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary
A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.
Popich, E; Alant, E
This study examined the verbal interactions which occurred between a teacher and two groups of children (children who were non-speaking as well as children who were speaking). Descriptive data, generated by analysing ten lessons, suggested that the teacher's interaction with the children who were non-speaking differed, in terms of quantity and quality. She directed approximately 10% less interaction at each of the three non-speaking children, when compared with the number of interactions that she directed at each of the five speaking children. However, she did not spend an equal amount of time interacting with each of the non-speaking children. Her interaction with the non-speaking children was dominated by questions, attention directing and requesting. Verbalization types, such as answering and imitating did not occur at all in the teacher's interaction with the non-speaking children. This implies that the non-speaking children's learning experiences in the classroom differed from the speaking children's learning experiences. Possible reasons for these discrepancies were proposed, namely that the teacher's attitudes, skill and knowledge played a role, but the non-speaking children's lack of access to communication was also considered to be a factor in determining the amount and type of interaction.
Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.
Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769
Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang
Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.
Sudore, Rebecca L; Barnes, Deborah E; Le, Gem M; Ramos, Roberto; Osua, Stacy J; Richardson, Sarah A; Boscardin, John; Schillinger, Dean
Introduction Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that allows patients to identify their goals for medical care. Traditionally, ACP has focused on completing advance directives; however, we have expanded the ACP paradigm to also prepare patients to communicate their wishes and make informed decisions. To this end, we created an ACP website called PREPARE (http://www.prepareforyourcare.org) to prepare diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults for medical decision-making. Here, we describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled efficacy trial of PREPARE in a safety-net setting. The goal is to determine the efficacy of PREPARE to engage diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults in a full spectrum of ACP behaviours. Methods and analysis We include English-speaking and Spanish-speaking adults from an urban public hospital who are ≥55 years old, have ≥2 chronic medical conditions and have seen a primary care physician ≥2 times in the last year. Participants are randomised to the PREPARE intervention (review PREPARE and an easy-to-read advance directive) or the control arm (only the easy-to-read advance directive). The primary outcome is documentation of an advance directive and/or ACP discussion. Secondary outcomes include ACP behaviour change processes measured with validated surveys (eg, self-efficacy, readiness) and a broad range of ACP actions (eg, choosing a surrogate, identifying goals for care, discussing ACP with clinicians and/or surrogates). Using blinded outcome ascertainment, outcomes will be measured at 1 week and at 3, 6 and 12 months, and compared between study arms using mixed-effects logistic regression and mixed-effects linear, Poisson or negative binomial regression. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Boards and is guided by input from patient and clinical advisory boards and a data safety monitoring board. The results of this study will
Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M
This study examined a specific type of racial microaggression known as an exceptionalizing stereotype, in which an action is framed as interpersonally complimentary but perpetuates negative stereotypical views of a racial/ethnic group. Asian American participants (N = 68) were assigned to 1 of 3 brief semistructured interview conditions that highlight an exceptionalizing stereotype of Asian Americans to varying degrees. In the low racially loaded condition, participants were told, "You speak English well" by a White confederate. In the high racially loaded condition, they were told, "You speak English well for an Asian." In the control condition, the confederate said, "Nice talking to you." Only participants in the high racially loaded condition rated their partner, the interaction, and future interactions less favorably than participants in the control condition. They also evaluated their partner and interaction less positively than participants in the low racial loading condition. The results suggest exceptionalizing stereotypes can be interpersonally damaging for Asian Americans.
Baum, Neil; Boughton, Leonarda
Every public speaker has encountered, or most likely will encounter, a difficult member of the audience who disrupts their presentation. This is a source of anxiety and discomfort, not only for the presenter, but for the audience as well. Learning how to manage the disruptive audience member is an art form, just like being a good public speaker. A professional speaker knows how to handle this disruption without making the audience uncomfortable and without embarrassing the disruptor. This article discusses ways to manage the disruptive audience member and will help those of you who do public speaking to tactfully and professionally disengage someone who is ruining your program.
Cipolla, William F.
The paper reviews the selection and use of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model at Western Maryland College. The purpose was to produce a student who could read, understand, speak, and write French easily enough to make a foreign language major attractive and less formidable. The program proposed a three-semester sequence of intensive French…
Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy
This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…
Elaborates results of using electronic extemporaneous speaking in debate tournaments. Provides analysis around four points: preparation, event operation, participant reaction, and postevent analysis by forensic staff. (PA)
McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.
More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.
Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia
Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.
Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia
Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717
Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin
Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.
Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate.
Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham
Listening and speaking, the most used language skills in the classroom, are critical for functioning in an English language context, and are logical starting points for language instruction for low-literacy learners. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. A…
Reviews four books on speech research: (1) "The Speech Chain: The Physics and Biology of Spoken Language" (Peter B. Denes and Elliot N. Pinson); (2) "Speaking: From Intention to Articulation" (Willem J. M. Levelt); (3) "Talking to Learn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition" (Richard R. Day); and (4) "Speaking" (Martin Bygate). (eight…
Discusses diversity which has arisen in testing of productive skills at GCE O level. Criteria to apply in assessment of foreign language acquisition, and writing and speaking tests in particular, are discussed, as well as the weighting of writing and speaking at O level. (RM)
GREENWOOD, LOUISE; AND OTHERS
A PROGRAM TO PREPARE NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILDREN FOR ENTRY INTO THE FIRST GRADE IS PRESENTED. ONE OF THE FIRST TASKS OF THE TEACHER IS TO ANALYZE THE CHILD TO DISCOVER AREAS OF WEAKNESS IN EXPERIENCES, SO THAT SHE WILL BE ABLE TO SUPPLY SOME OF THE MISSING LEARNING EXPERIENCES. THE WORDS THAT ARE TAUGHT TO THE NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILD ARE…
Rouen university hospital cares for increasing numbers of non-French-speaking patients: tourists, patients from the Mediterranean basin, Eastern Europe, etc. To optimise this care, a communication tool was developed in 2012 to be used with English-speaking patients.
Moller, Sharon Chickering
This book is a guide for librarians and media specialists who recognize the value of bilingual-bicultural education and are looking for ideas to develop library services for their Spanish-speaking patrons. Chapter one gives a brief history of Spanish-speaking people in the United States, as well as cultural characteristics, family role,…
Hackett, Kimberly; Wilson, Theresa
A study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for improving adolescent writing and speaking using mathematical language. The targeted population consists of high school students in a growing, middle- and upper-middle-class, suburban community located west of Chicago, Illinois. The problems of writing and speaking using mathematical…
This report describes a semester of teaching a group of non-native English-speaking students, aged 17 to 40 years and how the instructor identified three elements that appeared to be necessary for a task-based, advanced English speaking class. The three elements were: (1) ongoing needs assessment; (2) collaboration between instructor and students…
Last, Ellen; DeMuth, Robert J.
This guide contains classroom activities designed to encourage effective listening and speaking instruction at all developmental levels. Called the Comprehensive Listening and Speaking Sequence (CLASS), the activities are developed in three parts. The pre-kindergarten through grade three sequence provides learning activities that may be used by…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.
This handbook is designed to assist California's public school teachers of limited-English-speaking native Cantonese-speaking students in understanding this minority group. The first two chapters address general background factors concerning this language group: immigration history, educational background, and historical and sociocultural factors…
Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei
The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…
This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…
De La Mare, Danielle M.
Using Critical Communication Pedagogy, this semester-long service-learning approach to public speaking requires students to apply public speaking concepts to a speech they develop and deliver to a specific community audience, to examine their own biases, and to explore and evaluate various strategies for adapting to their audience.
Ramezani, Raana; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezzati; Kiasi, Mohammad Aghajanzadeh
The current study sought to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and speaking ability among EFL students at Payame Noor University (PNU) of Rasht. This research concerned determining the fact that whether language students who are as critical thinker, perform better in their speaking ability or not. In order to answer the…
Frazier, Stefan; Phillabaum, Scott
This paper reports the results of a survey of California TESOL educators about issues related to nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs). A good deal of research suggests that NNESTs are as effective, if not more so, than native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and that their treatment in today's work world should be reconsidered; in…
Torres, Luz Adriana
This qualitative study sought to uncover the contextual factors of the schooling process that affect the enrollment of gifted Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) in Advanced Placement (AP) courses. In addition, this study investigated the perceptions of gifted Spanish speaking ELs toward AP courses and how these perceptions might affect their…
Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate
Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect. PMID:28228738
Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate
Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.
Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.
This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…
Smith, Allan B.; Roberts, Jenny; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane
Purpose: This study evaluated whether developmental reading disability could be predicted in children at the age of 30 months, according to 3 measures of speech production: speaking rate, articulation rate, and the proportion of speaking time allocated to pausing. Method: Speech samples of 18 children at high risk and 10 children at low risk for…
Objective: To gain practice with public speaking. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 5% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: None; (f) Additional requirements: None. This assignment offers students an opportunity to speak on a familiar (and…
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…
Palmerton, Patricia R.
"Speaking Across the Curriculum" (SAC) has become a catch-all label for a variety of programs aimed at teaching oral communication skills to a large body of students in settings other than the typical public speaking class. Such programs offer both threats and opportunities to the speech field. In many programs, faculty in other…
This paper discusses teaching "Black Elk Speaks" in the college classroom and examines how symbolic language is generated in our own experience. An activity is described in which students' dreams were performed in order that the students might better see how the dream functions in "Black Elk Speaks." The activity resulted in a discussion of the…
A major issue that continues to challenge language teachers is how to ensure that learners develop accuracy and complexity in their speaking, as well as fluency. Teachers know that too much corrective feedback (CF) can make learners reluctant to speak, while not enough may allow their errors to become entrenched. Furthermore, there is controversy…
De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…
THIS PROVISIONAL GUIDE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH TO NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING MIGRANTS PRESENTS THE USUAL ENGLISH LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING LEARNERS--CONSONANT SOUND PROBLEMS, VOWEL SOUND PROBLEMS, CONSONANT CLUSTER PROBLEMS, LANGUAGE RHYTHM PROBLEMS, AND INTONATION PROBLEMS. AIDS TO SPANISH USAGE AND PRONUNCIATION, INCLUDING VOWEL SOUNDS,…
Schreiber, Lisa M.; Paul, Gregory D.; Shibley, Lisa R.
In response to the demand for increased accountability within the university classroom, there have been calls for a new generation of rubrics that effectively assess students' competence in several areas, including public speaking. This article describes the development, test, and factor analyses of the Public Speaking Competence Rubric (PSCR), an…
Reda, Mary M.
Why are students silent? Using written reflections and interviews, Mary M. Reda examines students' perceptions of speaking and being silent in a first-year composition classroom, and explores how their teachers, classroom relationships, and their own sense of identity shape their decisions to speak or be silent. By challenging many firmly held…
Validates an instrument for measuring non-natives' English-speaking proficiency, using Filipinos in the U.S. Navy. Shows significant correlations between test scores, the age at which English was first spoken, and military rank, suggesting an interaction between English-speaking proficiency and occupational advancement. (RL)
The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…
Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.
Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills training…
... local chapters that focuses on training people in speaking and leadership skills. If you can't overcome your fear with practice alone, consider seeking professional help. Cognitive behavioral therapy ... of public speaking. As another option, your doctor may prescribe a ...
Compared with reading, writing and listening, there has been a paucity of empirical data documenting learners' experiences of speaking English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) in different learning contexts in spite of the fact that developing the ability to speak in a second or foreign language is widely…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasrollahi Shahri, Mohammad Naseh
The present article lies at the intersection of research on teacher cognition and speaking competence in a second language. It is a qualitative analysis of teacher accounts of speaking in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Iran. More specifically, the study is an exploration of three EFL teachers' conceptions of learning and…
MCNEIL, JOHN D.
A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN IS REPORTED. A STUDY, SPONSORED BY THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (SWRL), DEVELOPED LEARNING SEQUENCES FOR A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST REGION. EACH OF 21 10-MINUTE…
Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos
This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…
THE BACKGROUND AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST ARE DISCUSSED. THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE ARE A HETEROGENEOUS GROUP COMPOSED OF SPANISH-AMERICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, AND MEXICANS INTERMIXED WITH INDIANS. THE SOUTHWEST WAS SETTLED BY THEM DURING THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES. HERE THEY WERE ISOLATED UNTIL THE 19TH…
Laborda, Mario A; Schofield, Casey A; Johnson, Emily M; Schubert, Jessica R; George-Denn, Daniel; Coles, Meredith E; Miller, Ralph R
Prior studies indicate extinguished fear often partially returns when participants are later tested outside the extinction context. Cues carried from the extinction context to the test context sometimes reduce return of fear, but it is unclear whether such extinction cues (ECs) reduce return of fear of public speaking. Here we assessed return of fear of public speaking, and whether either of two types of ECs can attenuate it. Participants gave speeches of increasing difficulty during an exposure practice session and were tested 2 days later in a different context. Testing occurred in the presence of physical ECs, after mentally rehearsing the exposure session, or without either reminder. Practice reduced fear of public speaking, but fear partially returned at test. Neither physical nor mental ECs reduced partial return of fear of public speaking. The return of extinguished fear of public speaking, although small, was reliable, but not appreciably sensitive to presence of ECs.
Desjardins, L; Rousseau, C; Duplain, J M; Valet, J P; Auger, P
Eighty-five cases of beta-thalassemia minor were found between January 1975 and November 1977 in 18 families of French-speaking Quebeckers without Mediterranean ancestry. Most of the families had settled in Quebec more than 200 years ago, largely in Portneuf county. This is the first report of such a number of cases of beta-thalassemia in this population. Thus, beta-thalassemia minor is a relatively common condition in Quebec and must be considered in cases of microcytic anemia without evidence of iron deficiency. The hematologic findings were similar to those reported in the past in other populations. Two cases of delta beta-thalassemia minor (in sisters) are also reported; this is the first report of such cases in French Canadians.
Bedore, L M
Accurate assessment of the morpho-syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children depends on the clinician's understanding of the morpho-syntactic system and on the development of tasks that obligate the use of structures of interest. In this article, the nature and acquisition of the Spanish morpho-syntactic system is outlined. The aspects of the system that are likely to be difficult for children with language impairments and those that are critical to communicative competence are emphasized, as the clinician must take these into account when planning assessment tasks. The analysis of spontaneous language samples and the use of structured probes are discussed as alternatives for assessment. The naturalness and linguistic demands of assessment tasks are also considered because they are critical to understanding children's performance on morpho-syntactic tasks.
van der Schuit, Margje; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Stoep, Judith; Verhoeven, Ludo
The current study demonstrates the effectiveness of an intervention that addresses both home care and day care for children with intellectual disabilities while also taking the large individual differences between the children into account. The KLINc Studio intervention was designed to improve the language development, communication skills, and emergent literacy of 10 children with complex communication needs. The focus of the anchor-based intervention program was on the stimulation of vocabulary learning via the incorporation of AAC into the learning environment in the most natural manner possible. While all of the children showed significant progress across the intervention period of 2 years, the group of speaking children showed greater development in the domains of receptive language and productive syntax than the group of non-speaking children. For heterogeneous groups of children with disabilities, the use of a combined intervention such as that described here appears to be promising.
El-Sakka, Samah Mohammed Fahim
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching some self-regulated strategies to Egyptian university students on improving their speaking proficiency and reducing their speaking anxiety. The design of the study was a one group pre-posttest quasi experimental design. Forty 3rd- year EFL university students were selected to form the…
Nachmias, R.; Mioduser, D.; Forkosh-Baruch, A.
Closing educational gaps between sub-populations in Israel, particularly between students in Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking schools, persists to be one of the priorities of Israel's education system. In the field of information and communication technology (ICT), this goal refers to infrastructure as well as practice, i.e. teaching and…
Goldstein, Brian A.; Fabiano, Leah; Washington, Patricia Swasey
Purpose: There is a paucity of information detailing the phonological skills of Spanish-English bilingual children and comparing that information to information concerning the phonological skills of predominantly English-speaking (PE) and predominantly Spanish-speaking (PS) children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship…
Hart, Elinor, Ed.
The symposium was held to publicize the positive efforts which were being undertaken to solve the problems of Spanish-speaking children and to provide a catalyst for the further action that was needed. The problems were explored from various points of view with two questions in mind: "What was being done?" and "What more could be…
Watson, Christine E; Chatterjee, Anjan
Our current understanding of the neural basis of semantic memory is informed primarily by studies of concrete objects. However, conceptual knowledge encompasses many other, albeit less concrete, domains. This article reviews evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies that speaks to the neural basis of action concepts and the words that refer to them. These data highlight 2 important principles governing the neural instantiation of semantic knowledge. First, the organization of conceptual representations in the brain parallels perception and action. Action concepts are at least partially represented within modality-specific areas responsible for the perception and execution of dynamic actions. Second, unimodal sensory and motor cortices act as "points of entry" for more abstract action knowledge. Increasingly abstract conceptual knowledge derived from these modalities is represented in brain areas located anterior and centripetal to modality-specific regions. Extending research on the neural basis of semantics to include dynamic and relational aspects of the world gives us a more complete appreciation of the range of cognitive and communication impairments that may be experienced by patients with neurologic disease.
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas
This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.
These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…
Wepner, Shelley B.; Hopkins, Dee
"Collaborative Leadership in Action" is about creating school-university-community partnerships and the leaders who build and sustain them. It defines and describes different types of collaborative partnerships and discusses how to develop, maintain, and evaluate relationships that enrich the PreK-16 learning environment. Speaking from the…
Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.
Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113
Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M
Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.
Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie
This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group). Laval (Journal of Pragmatics 35(2):723-739, 2003) showed that familiarity had an effect on idiom comprehension for French 9-year-olds. However, our finding showed that familiarity was important for 6-year-old Chinese children when a context was not given. Abkarian et al. (Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35:580-587, 1992) claimed that context has little or no effect on comprehension for children under 6. Our results show that context has an effect on 6-year-old children's understanding of idioms in a different way. Overall, our major research findings are: (1) Familiarity first appeared in responses at age 6. (2) Context played an important role in idiom comprehension and had different effects on different age groups. (3) Linguistic convention starts from age 6 on, and a significant effect took place at the age of 9. (4) Metapragmatic knowledge showed at the age of 6 and could surface even younger. As context and linguistic convention have a substantial effect on the comprehension of idioms, it is necessary to take them into account to explain language functioning and communicative situations.
Ettlinger, Marc; Lanter, Jennifer; Van Pay, Craig K
Does the language we speak affect the way we think, and if so, how? Previous researchers have considered this question by exploring the cognitive abilities of speakers of different languages. In the present study, we looked for evidence of linguistic relativity within a language and within participants by looking at memory recall for monolingual children ages 3-5 years old. At this age, children use grammatical markers with variable fluency depending on ease of articulation: Children produce the correct plural more often for vowel-final words (e.g., shoes) than plosive-final words (e.g., socks) and for plosive-final words more often than sibilant-final words (e.g., dresses). We examined whether these phonological principles governing plural production also influence children's recall of the plurality of seen objects. Fifty children were shown pictures of familiar objects presented as either singular or multiple instances. After a break, they were required to indicate whether they saw the singular- or multiple-instance version of each picture. Results show that children's memory for object plurality does depend on the phonology of the word. Subsequent tests of each child's production ability showed a correlation between a child's memory and his or her ability to articulate novel plurals with the same phonological properties. That is, what children can say impacts what they can remember.
Hawkes, Maximiliano A; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Willey, Joshua Z
Background Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. Spanish-speaking populations (SSP) have heterogeneous cultural backgrounds, racial and ethnical origins, economic status, and access to health care systems. There are no published reviews about stroke knowledge in SSP. We reviewed the existing literature addressing stroke knowledge among SSP and propose future directions for research. Summary We identified 18 suitable studies by searching PubMed, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane and Scielo databases, and looking at reference lists of eligible articles. We also included 2 conference abstracts. Data related to stroke knowledge from studies of Spanish-speakers was analyzed. Key messages Little is known about stroke knowledge in SSP, especially in Latin America. Information is poor even among subjects at risk, stroke patients, stroke survivors, and health care providers. “Ictus”, the word used for stroke in Spanish, is largely unrecognized among subjects at risk. Furthermore, access to medical care and presence of neurologists are suboptimal in many regions. There are several potential issues to solve regarding stroke knowledge and stroke care in SSP. Programs to educate the general population and non-neurologists medical providers in stroke and telemedicine may be suitable options to improve the present situation. PMID:25871697
... The “Speak Up” program is sponsored by The Joint Commission. They agree that patients should be involved in ... has been carefully checked out. For example, The Joint Commission visits home care organizations to see if they ...
... term relief for a throat cancer patient in France The 56-year-old man can now speak ... D., vice president, scientific affairs, Protip Medical, Strasbourg, France; Mark Courey, M.D., division chief, head and ...
... how often or what time of day) vitamins herbs, diet supplements, natural remedies alcohol, recreational drugs SpeakUP ... take together. They will also check your vitamins, herbs, diet supplements or natural remedies. • Pharmacists will check ...
Suggests that, to provide effective guidance in developing competent speakers of English, it is necessary to examine the factors affecting adult learners' oral communication, components underlying speaking proficiency, and specific skills or strategies used in communication. (Author/VWL)
Castillo, Martin G.; Flood, Daniel
Stenographic record of the exchange between Congressman Daniel Flood and Martin Castillo, Chairman of the Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for the Spanish-Speaking People. The occasion was the Subcommittee Hearings on the budget request of the Cabinet Committee. (DM)
... and the health care professional calls it a “chemistry panel,” speak up. Ask your doctor for a ... information or brochures— are from your doctor and pharmacy. • Read all medical forms. Make sure you understand ...
... Past Issues Hearing Disorders Speak Up! But don't strain your voice Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... volume," she explains. Although her throat nodules didn't change, Jones reports not having had a sore ...
North, Max M; Schoeneman, Curt M; Mathis, James R
The major goal of this research case study was to investigate the effectiveness of Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) in the treatment of the fear of public speaking. A twenty-eight-year-old Caucasian male was selected from questionnaires distributed to a class of undergraduate students enrolled at Kennesaw State University. Two assessment measures were used in this study. The first measure used was the Attitude Towards Public Speaking (ATPS) Questionnaire. The second measure used was the eleven-point Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) scale. These measurements assessed the anxiety, avoidance, attitudes and disturbance associated with the subject's fear of public speaking before and after each VRT treatment session. This case study of public speaking fear indicates that VRT may be used as an effective treatment method for reducing self-reported anxiety.
De Bot, Kees
A description is given of a model of the bilingual speaker. The model is based on Levelt's (1989) "speaking model," which sketches a framework in which a number of highly autonomous information processing components are postulated. (56 references) (JL)
Awan, Shaheen N.; Mueller, Peter B.
This study, with white, African American, and Hispanic American kindergartners (n=105) found significant differences between groups on mean speaking fundamental frequency and speaking range. Hispanic children showed increased mean speaking fundamental frequencies in comparison to African American children and reduced speaking ranges compared to…
Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T
In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found on all measures: students reported less apprehension and more confidence and competence after the courses. No differences were found between the two courses when comparing the mean changes from pre- to postscore. Traditional public speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students.
Hennis, Anselm; Fraser, Henry S
Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.
The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.
Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne
This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.
Rance, Susanna; McCourt, Christine; Rayment, Juliet; Mackintosh, Nicola; Carter, Wendy; Watson, Kylie; Sandall, Jane
Patients' contributions to safety include speaking up about their perceptions of being at risk. Previous studies have found that dismissive responses from staff discouraged patients from speaking up. A Care Quality Commission investigation of a maternity service where serious incidents occurred found evidence that women had routinely been ignored and left alone in labour. Women using antenatal services hesitated to raise concerns that they felt staff might consider irrelevant. The Birthplace in England programme, which investigated the quality and safety of different places of birth for 'low-risk' women, included a qualitative organisational case study in four NHS Trusts. The authors collected documentary, observational and interview data from March to December 2010 including interviews with 58 postnatal women. A framework approach was combined with inductive analysis using NVivo8 software. Speaking up, defined as insistent and vehement communication when faced with failure by staff to listen and respond, was an unexpected finding mentioned in half the women's interviews. Fourteen women reported raising alerts about safety issues they felt to be urgent. The presence of a partner or relative was a facilitating factor for speaking up. Several women described distress and harm that ensued from staff failing to listen. Women are speaking up, but this is not enough: organisation-focused efforts are required to improve staff response. Further research is needed in maternity services and in acute and general healthcare on the effectiveness of safety-promoting interventions, including real-time patient feedback, patient toolkits and patient-activated rapid response calls.
Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne
This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258
Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M
The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.
MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA
Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615
Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina
Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits.
In 1989, there were 10 English-speaking African countries, plus Mozambique, with on-going population education programs within the school system. 7 other countries had programs in the planning stages. School programs were preceded after out-of-school and informal programs of the 1970s. Countries have designed population education in their own terms. The generalized goals of population education for the region were to expand awareness of population-related issues and problems; to develop skills, values, and attitudes which will enable people to make rational and timely decisions; and to behave in meaningful and socially desirable ways and improve the quality of human life. Population education has been accepted in most education curriculum in African countries, but fertility regulation in an action program is limited to a few countries. Although attention has been directed to mortality, teen pregnancy, drug use, and AIDS, there has been little discussion of the status of women, child labor, and female circumcision. Family-life education and population have been linked because of the acceptability of the term and the reality that the family is the basic unit of society. Anglophone African strategies have encompassed a central location for the population program within government, a pilot phase, an integration into other subjects, a life-long approach, and community participation; each of the aforementioned topics is discussed. Constraints in program design and implementation were identified as the lack of political support; the absence of a firm and consistent policy; the perceived conflict between population education and cultural values; the limited, sporadic financial support; the shortage of resources; poor attention to the importance of horizontal and vertical information transmission; and lack of coordination between agencies with population education programs. Future needs are for program expansion and a focus on groups at-risk, prominent policy support at the
Fletcher, Patricia; Ganzfried, Ellayne S
Speaking Out!, a unique co-sponsored national conference, was one of National Aphasia Association's (NAA) best-known efforts. Recognizing the need to serve a wider aphasia community, NAA partnered with the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) Stroke Research and Training Center grant funded by the National Institute on Disability Research and Rehabilitation (NIDRR) to conduct regional conferences modeled on the Speaking Out! proven framework. In June 2010, the first regional Speaking Out! conference was held in Washington, DC. Conference models will be outlined with history and goals; outcomes/lessons learned will be discussed. State-of-the-art features will be summarized with implications for people with aphasia moving forward with their lives.
Weber State University is located in Ogden, Utah, a region of the country with a large Spanish-speaking, primarily Hispanic community (as of 2000 census, approximately 24%). Historically, we have been unable to recruit these students, and the University demographics indicate only 3% self-identified Hispanic students. As part of an effort to increase the University's impact on this group, we have begun to offer Spanish-language shows to the public in our planetarium. We report here on how well these have been received, what the impact appears to be on the community, and a little bit about the difficulties of a primarily English-speaking staff meeting with a primarily Spanish-speaking audience.
Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968
Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859
I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.
Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond
This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in meaningful reductions in target behaviors for all participants. Booster awareness training sessions were necessary for all participants to achieve further reductions in target behaviors. Generality probes conducted in front of a small audience indicated that treatment effects generally maintained. Social validity scores indicated that the treatment was acceptable, and participants indicated not only decreased use of verbal fillers, but also improved overall public speaking ability posttreatment.
Troyka, Lynn Quitman; Nudelman, Jerrold
Six simulation games for English instruction in the classroom are offered in this book, the aim of which is to encourage communication. In simulation games, rules are structured to correspond to those that are an integral part of a real situation, with supporting documentation replicating actual materials pertinent to the situation. The contents…
ACTION, Washington, DC.
A survey questionnaire was mailed to all active Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) in the summer of 1975. Based on an internal analysis of the 3,479 respondents (a 66% return), the following findings represent the manner in which PCVs perceive their volunteer experience. Perceived volunteer accomplishments and morale are very high. Volunteers believe…
Klassert, Annegret; Gagarina, Natalia; Kauschke, Christina
The present study investigates the influence of word category on naming performance in two populations: bilingual and monolingual children. The question is whether and, if so, to what extent monolingual and bilingual children differ with respect to noun and verb naming and whether a noun bias exists in the lexical abilities of bilingual children.…
In the struggle to end sexual violence behind bars, personal stories of abuse serve as an important advocacy tool for organizations such as Stop Prisoner Rape (SPR). The first-person accounts of men and women who have endured this abuse help to personalize, and thereby, humanize the issue. Statistics about the frequency of prisoner rape are powerful, but they can also be numbing, conveying the sense that nothing can be done to stop the problem. Personal accounts in contrast, have an emotional impact that encourages action. Speaking out about abuse also helps survivors, freeing them from a sense of shame, guilt, and humiliation and providing an avenue of political engagement that can be tremendously empowering. This article presents the first-persona accounts of four individuals whose lives were powerfully affected by rape behind bars.
Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann
Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…
Bowe, Anica G
Education evaluation has become increasingly important in the English-speaking Caribbean. This has been in response to assessing the progress of four regional initiatives aimed at improving the equity, efficiency, and quality of education. Both special interest groups and local evaluators have been responsible for assessing the progress of education and providing an overall synthesis and summary of what is taking place in the English-speaking Caribbean. This study employed content analysis to examine the indicators used in these education evaluation studies since the declaration of the Caribbean Plan of Action 2000-2015 to determine these indicators' appropriateness to the Caribbean context in measuring education progress. Findings demonstrate that the English-speaking Caribbean has made strides in operationalizing quality input, process, and output indicators; however quality outcome indicators beyond test scores are yet to be realized in a systematic manner. This study also compared the types of collaborative partnerships in conducting evaluation studies used by special interest groups and local evaluators and pinpointed the one that appears most suitable for special interest groups in this region.
Kochunov, P; Fox, P; Lancaster, J; Tan, L H; Amunts, K; Zilles, K; Mazziotta, J; Gao, J H
Deformation field morphometry was applied to magnetic resonance images to detect differences in brain shape between English-speaking Caucasians and Chinese-speaking Asians. Anatomical differences between these two groups were limited to gyri in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, which are known (through functional imaging studies) to differentiate Chinese speakers from English speakers. We interpret these anatomical differences as evidence of neural plasticity shaped by the process of language acquisition during childhood. While anatomical plasticity due to manual skill acquisition (e.g. in musicians) has been established, to our knowledge this is the first report of a brain anatomical difference attributable to a learned cognitive strategy.
Popov, Nadia; Heruti, Irit; Levy, Sigal; Lulav-Grinwald, Doron; Bar-Sela, Gil
Illness perception influences health and illness behaviors. This study was designed to estimate illness perception differences between Russian-speaking and Hebrew-speaking Israeli oncology patients. Changes in illness perception associated with time spent in Israel among Russian-speaking patients were also evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated differences in illness perception of patients exposed to Chernobyl's consequences. A total of 144 oncology patients (77 Hebrew-speaking, 67 Russian-speaking) completed personal data questionnaires and The illness perception questionnaire revised, translated into Russian for this study. Significantly more Russian-speaking oncology patients perceived their illness as chronic and having negative consequences on life (p < .01). Russian-speaking oncology patients tend to have a more negative perception of cancer compared to Hebrew-speaking patients. Time spent in Israel may create more positive perceptions of cancer among these patients. No illness perception differences were found concerning Chernobyl consequences.
Describes a small but successful intercollegiate competitive public speaking program. Success was related to formation of good student-teacher relationships, a productive organizational psycho-environment, and careful teaching of public speaking fundamentals. (Author/RC)
Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya
The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…
Academic practice is scrutinized and regulated with such "Corporate speak" terms as "performance indicators," "benchmarking," "service providers" and "clients." As part of a field where ideological shifts continue to apply marketized frames of reference as neoliberalism tightens its grip, new terms…
Stewart, Tim, Ed.
The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) field continues to experience increased valuing of experiential practitioner knowledge. A welcome result of this evolution has been the broadening of research perspectives. The 16 practitioner narratives in "Insights on Teaching Speaking in TESOL" are written by…
Schornack, Gary R.; Beck, Charles E.
As employers increase the use of teams and telecommuting in the workplace, the need for improved communication also accelerates both in written and oral modes. For oral communication or public speaking, a review of recent literature indicates this renewed emphasis, with numerous articles highlighting the need coming from disciplines ranging from…
Second language anxiety has a debilitating effect on the oral performance of speakers of English as a second language. This article describes a research project concerning the conceptualization of second language speaking anxiety, the relationship between anxiety and second language performance, and the major reported causes of second language…
An increasing number of Thai students are enrolling in international programs recently with the expectation of real-life intercultural learning experiences. Most teachers in intercultural classrooms in Thailand are native English-speaking teachers who come from different cultures and have different perspectives. These teachers' roles, teaching…
Iwashita, Noriko; Brown, Annie; McNamara, Tim; O'Hagan, Sally
The study reported in this paper is an investigation of the nature of speaking proficiency in English as a second language in the context of a larger project to develop a rating scale for a new international test of English for Academic Purposes, TOEFL iBT (Brown et al. 2005). We report on a large-scale study of the relationship between detailed…
Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others
The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…
... her private capacity, a speed reading technique for which popular demand is growing. She is invited to speak about the technique by a representative of an organization that will be substantially affected by a regulation on land management which the employee is in the process of drafting for the...
Cohen, Steven D.; Wei, Thomas E.
Oral communication courses traditionally help students identify the proper arrangement of words to convey particular images. Although instructors emphasize the importance of speaking powerfully, they often struggle to find effective ways to teach their students "how" to deliver a message that resonates with the audience. Given the clear importance…
Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya
Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…
This dissertation is an inquiry into the experiences and beliefs of six Russian-speaking immigrant teachers, including myself, about the role of a teacher. We were all brought up and educated in the former republics of the Soviet Union and arrived in the United States at different times after its collapse in 1991. Our experiences of living in…
Issues related to school instruction in students' heritage or ancestral language are discussed, particularly in regard to dialect-speaking children or children with some degree of competence in the language. The first chapter considers similarities and differences between second language instruction and heritage language education. The findings on…
Good public speaking style requires, among other skills, "effective management of the resources of language." Good speakers choose language carefully to create credibility, emotional impact, and logical appeal. If a speaker's language is wishy-washy, dull, vague, or long-winded, the speaker appears less trustworthy. Audience distrust of a speaker…
Arber, Ruth Eileen
New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…
Dicks, Barbara A., Ed.
This collection of papers addresses the HIV/AIDS situation among English-speaking children in the Caribbean. Papers include: "Preface" (C. James Hospedales); "Introduction"; (Barbara A. Dicks); "HIV/AIDS: Challenging a Monster" (Brendan Bain); "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents" (Noreen Jack);…
Tompkins, Paula S.
The communication discipline is ambivalent about public speaking. Even accomplished speakers experience ambivalence in the rush of adrenaline before presenting a speech--knowing its importance yet wondering if they have prepared a speech which is fitting for this audience and occasion. The communication discipline studies communication in a broad…
Valdes Fallis, Guadalupe, Ed.; Garcia-Moya, Rudolfo, Ed.
This volume gathers a sampling of educators' ideas on the issue of the role of the non-standard dialect in the teaching of Spanish to Spanish speakers. Part one, "Rationale for the Teaching of Spanish to the Spanish Speaking," deals with philosophy and theory and contains papers by Guadalupe Valdes Fallis and Nasario Garcia. Part two,…
Levy, David L., Ed.
"Speak Out for Children" is the quarterly newsletter of the Children's Rights Council (CRC), which is concerned with the healthy development of children of divorced and separated parents. The newsletter consists of feature articles and regular sections and columns. Feature articles for volume 11, issue number 1, are: "U.S. Commission Supports More…
Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…
Cox, Troy L.
Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the…
Jackson-Maldonado, D; Thal, D; Marchman, V; Bates, E; Gutierrez-Clellen, V
This paper describes the early lexical development of a group of 328 normal Spanish-speaking children aged 0;8 to 2;7. First the development and structure of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas is described. Then five studies carried out with the instrument are presented. In the first study vocabulary development of Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers is compared to that of English-speaking infants and toddlers. The English data were gathered using a comparable parental report, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. In the second study the general characteristics of Spanish language acquisition, and the effects of various demographic factors on that process, are examined. Study 3 examines the differential effects of three methods of collecting the data (mail-in, personal interview, and clinic waiting room administration). Studies 4 and 5 document the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results show that the trajectories of development are very similar for Spanish- and English-speaking children in this age range, that children from varying social groups develop similarly, and that mail-in and personal interview administration techniques produce comparable results. Inventories administered in a medical clinic waiting room, on the other hand, produced lower estimates of toddler vocabulary than the other two models.
Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A.; Aguado-Servín, Oscar A.
Infants across cultures need to identify the characteristics of their native languages in order to become competent speakers. The means by which Spanish-speaking children learn to produce number-gender linguistic markers has not been sufficiently investigated. Thirty-eight three-year-olds were tested in Berko-like production tasks, in which they…
In this paper I examine the citations in recent review articles in applied linguistics to point out that there appears to be a distinct lack of overlap between references to work in four inter-related areas--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. I then point to areas of research where I think it particularly important to consider these…
David Rodriguez, Ingrid
There is little research on bidialectal teacher preparation for teaching bidialectal English-speaking Caribbean American students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teachers' perception of reading difficulties of Caribbean American children in a local district that has a large percentage of these students who demonstrate…
Ailinger, Rita L.
This anthropological study reports on some of the activities of daily living (ADL's) of 19 Spanish-speaking families living in a low income suburb of Washington, D.C. ADL's are defined as those functions which are performed on a usual day. Generically they include eating, sleeping, communicating, working, and recreating. In this paper, they…
Greenberg, Cindy A.
This paper presents steps for incorporating research into a community college public speaking class curriculum. It outlines, from an historical perspective, the different techniques and tools of research, including face-to-face contact, the printing press, modern machinery, and computers. It suggests discussing research surveys and taking students…
Edington, Everett D.; Angel, Frank
The problems of recruiting Mexican American students into colleges and universities are pointed out in these two papers. Edington's paper (title given) discusses teacher education, curriculum development, counseling programs, college entrance requirements, and the need for change and study in these areas with regard to Spanish-speaking students.…
Marzuki; Prayogo, Johannes Ananto; Wahyudi, Arwijati
This present research was aimed to improve the EFL learners' speaking ability and their classroom activities through the implementation of Interactive Storytelling Strategy. Therefore, this study was directed to explore the beneficial of Interactive Storytelling that closely related to the EFL learners' everyday activities at their home and…
"Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…
Cardona de Divale, Maria Victoria
A search was conducted on the Internet for software available for bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The only programs found under this heading were 18 programs for learning Spanish. Five of the least expensive were selected for review using a standardized scale for evaluating children's software. Four of the programs were found to be…
The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent specific reading disabilities and poor phonologic processing in children who read Hebrew, a primarily consonant orthography, are related to central auditory temporal processing deficits (TPDs). Twenty-four Hebrew-speaking children (ages 10-13) with and without reading disabilities were asked…
Koyama, Atsuko; Niki, Minoru; Matsuoka, Hiromichi; Sakamoto, Ryo; Sakai, Kiyohiro; Jinnai, Rikako; Yasuda, Kanae
The psychological problems of non-Japanese people are becoming more outstanding, in accordance with the increase of foreign nationals in Japan. Five illustrative cases of English-speaking patients were analyzed, from the viewpoint of psychosomatic medicine. The most common psychiatric disorders were adjustment disorders, because of the cultural differences and language barriers.
Having been adapted by instructors in various disciplines over many years, Aristotle's "topics" have retained their original, heuristic value, inviting students to more deeply consider issues using a communicative pedagogy. In the author's teaching of Advanced Speaking for Academic Purposes, Aristotle's "topics" have been a useful mediating tool…
A discussion of the language skills of Maya-speaking children in Mexico describes the relationship of Maya and Spanish languages in this population's education and reports on a study of the construction of orthography by these children. The study first examines how language is used in literacy education and the difficulties of literacy in a…
Douglas, Denise; And Others
This resource guide provides help for the counselor attempting to give career advice to Spanish-speaking and Chicano students in high schools and community colleges. The guide is presented in nine sections. The first section provides an overview and general information about Hispanics, along with a review of the literature and an annotated…
This study explores the extent to which topic and background knowledge of topic affect spoken performance in a high-stakes speaking test. It is argued that evidence of a substantial influence may introduce construct-irrelevant variance and undermine test fairness. Data were collected from 81 non-native speakers of English who performed on 10…
Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Vahtrick, Louisa
Taking a dynamic usage-based perspective, this longitudinal case study compares the development of sentence complexity in speaking versus writing in two beginner Taiwanese learners of English (identical twins) in an extensive corpus consisting of 100 oral and 100 written texts of approximately 200 words produced by each twin over 8 months. Three…
Stones, Thomas P.
This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…
This study aims to examine social competence of Chinese immigrant children and its associations with age, length of attendance in childcare, gender, generational status and proficiencies in English and Mandarin Chinese. One hundred Mandarin-speaking children aged three to five years from 15 childcare centres in Sydney were assessed by normed…
Young, Dolly Jesusita
A survey identified sources of anxiety among 135 beginning college Spanish students and 109 high school students. Results suggest that speaking in the foreign language is not the exclusive source of anxiety. The teacher's relaxed and positive error-correction attitude can reduce anxiety among students greatly. (36 references) (Author/MSE)
Horn, Catherine; Dworkin, Gary
The report, Yearning to Break Free: Ohio Superintendents Speak Out, describes findings of a survey of 246 Ohio school superintendents about critical issues facing the state's educational system. In particular, the intent of the study was to examine how superintendents might do more with fewer resources. The authors conclude that Ohio districts…
Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…
Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students' critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) when incorporated into English teacher…
In their interactions with international students, either at home or abroad, teachers often find themselves speaking on behalf of the nation. Overseas students arrive with expectations created in the international education marketplace, expectations that depend more on a nationalist than on an internationalist outlook. Students also have ideas of…
Scott, Kenneth C.; Kagels, David S.; Watson, Stephen H.; Rom, Hillel S.; Lorre, Jean J.; Wright, John R.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.
Actors computer program implements automated process that synthesizes realistic animations of person speaking. Produces "newscaster" type video sequences. Uses images of person and, therefore, not limited to cartoons and cartoonlike movies. Potential applications also include use of process for automatically producing on-the-fly animations for human/computer interfaces and for reducing bandwidth needed to transmit video telephone signals.
Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodi; Fu, Danling
This article presents two separate but related studies on native-English speaking (NES) instructors' teaching writing practice in Chinese universities. One study is a case study that explores the teaching practice of three NES instructors' writing instruction in a southern Chinese university as well as students' responses to their practice.…
Vining, Christine B.
Understanding how young children are socialized to the process and products of storytelling as part of everyday family life is important for language and literacy instruction. A language socialization framework was used to understand storytelling practices on the Navajo Nation. This study examined how three young English-speaking Navajo children,…
Wilson, Jane; Fang, Chloe; Rollins, Jenice; Valadez, Destinee
This project sought to gain a closer look at the contrast of oral language opportunities experienced by English learners and native speakers of English in order to draw implications for practicing teachers. Specifically, the authors explored how often and when English learners and native speakers of English engage in academic speaking in K-8…
Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.
Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…
The normal sequence of development of Spanish phonology and Spanish grammatical patterns in the speech of native Spanish-speaking children, two to five years old, was studied to determine the syntactic structures and range of language variability at each chronological age level. Middle-class children, living in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of…
... for the purpose of addressing senior corporate managers on the importance of recreational activities... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Outside Activities § 2635.807 Teaching, speaking and... employee's official duties if: (A) The activity is undertaken as part of the employee's official duties;...
... for the purpose of addressing senior corporate managers on the importance of recreational activities... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Outside Activities § 2635.807 Teaching, speaking and... employee's official duties if: (A) The activity is undertaken as part of the employee's official duties;...
... for the purpose of addressing senior corporate managers on the importance of recreational activities... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Outside Activities § 2635.807 Teaching, speaking and... employee's official duties if: (A) The activity is undertaken as part of the employee's official duties;...
Wolf, Karen Anne; And Others
The Women Speak writing project explored the use of writing as therapy for homeless women at an urban drop-in center. By sharing experiences, a sense of empowerment began. Nursing students and faculty were challenged to rethink the traditional clinical relationship that gives highest priority to the needs of students and faculty rather than the…
German, Kathleen M.
In an ongoing experiment in the basic public speaking course at Miami University (Ohio), an attempt has been made to devise a testing approach that preserves the viability of the evaluation process and, at the same time, is efficient to administer and acceptable to students as a measure of what they have learned while performing. The alteration of…
Al-Busaidi, Saleh; Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah H.
Spelling is a basic literacy skill in any language as it is crucial in communication. EFL students are often unable to spell or pronounce very simple monosyllabic words even after several years of English instruction. Similarly, teachers and researchers usually focus on the larger skills such as speaking and reading and ignore the smaller…
Spieler, Claire; Miltenberger, Raymond
This study evaluated the effectiveness of awareness training for the reduction of three nervous habits that manifest during public speaking: filled pauses, tongue clicks, and inappropriate use of the word "like." Four university students delivered short speeches during baseline and assessment sessions. Awareness training resulted in…
Pawlak, Miroslaw; Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa; Majer, Jan
Developing the ability to speak in a foreign language is an arduous task. This is because it involves the mastery of different language subsystems, simultaneous focus on comprehension and production, and the impact of a range of social factors. This challenge is further compounded in situations in which learners have limited access to the target…
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so…
The similarity between the antecedents of listening and the consequences of speaking have long led theorists to believe in their intimate and even natural relationship. A tendency to conflate the two processes is found in articles on speech communication, automatic speech recognition, foreign language learning, and child language. Once this…
Cross-linguistic research on motion events has shown that Spanish speakers and English speakers have different patterns of thinking for speaking about motion, both linguistically and gesturally (for a review, see Stam, 2010b). Spanish speakers express path linguistically with verbs, and their path gestures tend to occur with path verbs, whereas…
Crandall, Jo Ann; And Others
This guide deals with the subject in two parts: (1) background materials, and (2) classroom activities for teaching English to Spanish speakers. The first part discusses the general characteristics of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States, with particular attention to the diversity among them, some group profiles, and dialects and…
Belk, Jo Ann; Thomas, George; Ruciman, Carol; McNaughton, Kathryn; Iversen, Sandra
As the interdependence of nations becomes increasingly evident and necessary, so too must our understanding about education become shared property. This monograph examines the early childhood education and care systems in four English-speaking nations with strong elements of common heritage. Systems in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada,…
Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.
Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…
Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G
This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of awareness training and competing response training. During postintervention assessments, all 6 participants exhibited an immediate decrease in filled pauses.
Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.
With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…
This paper is a project report on the experiment of an English public speaking and debating course with advanced level English majors in College of Arts and Science, Yangtze University. The paper analyzes the validity of the course, introduces the design rationale, the design and experiment process, and students' responses. The paper suggests that…
The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for using public speaking tasks in English language teaching (ELT) and to highlight some of their many advantages. For the purpose of this article, the author will focus on two types of these tasks: student presentations and debates. Student presentations may consist of either individual or…
Colvin, Janet Weston; Tobler, Nancy
From the earliest roots of rhetoric, practitioners emphasized the need for analyzing one's audience before developing a speech. Textbooks for most basic public speaking courses spend at least one chapter discussing audience analysis. Authors discuss adapting messages to various demographic, cultural, and individual differences. As a result,…
Poststructuralist perspectives on the discursive construction of identity and critical approaches to linguistics, discourse analysis, and language testing have contributed to a growing awareness of the complex social nature of performance in speaking tests. In this article, I explore how the concept of co-construction is useful to understand how…
Litualy, Samuel Jusuf
This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…
First-year students at many universities find themselves in new communities, with little understanding of how their new university, city, academic, or career communities function. Developing a student's sense of community can have long-term benefits. Using the theme of "Community" in the basic public speaking course provides students with…
Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania
The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…
Despite the importance of public speaking skills for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) students' academic and professional success, few EAP textbooks incorporate authentic, professional speech models. Thus, many EAP instructors have turned to TED talks for dynamic speech models. Yet a single TED talk may be too long for viewing in class and may…
Ahmed, Nehad Faisal
The issue of language learning anxiety has been widely researched and investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) settings. However, there have been very few studies conducted on this issue in Kurdistan, specifically about speaking anxiety in English classes. This study, therefore, aims to investigate Kurdish students' perceptions about…
Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny
Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…
This study aimed to investigate native English-speaking teachers' beliefs about Korean EFL learners, following a qualitative case study approach. Participants consisted of 3 Americans and 15 Canadians, aged 29-41, who were a part of a university teaching staff in Korea. The data collection employed questionnaires and interviews. The results…
Pavlenko, Aneta, Ed.
Until recently, the history of debates about language and thought has been a history of thinking of language in the singular. The purpose of this volume is to reverse this trend and to begin unlocking the mysteries surrounding thinking and speaking in bi- and multilingual speakers. If languages influence the way we think, what happens to those who…
Kondo, David Shinji
Develops a typology of strategies people use to cope with public speaking anxiety. Assesses the influences of anxiety level on strategy use. Finds 65 basic tactics in 6 strategy types (Relaxation, Preparation, Positive Thinking, Audience Depreciation, Concentration, and Resignation). Finds high anxious persons more likely to report Relaxation and…
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
Developed as a high school quinmester unit on persuasive speaking, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a course which analyzes speeches from "Vital Speeches of the Day," political speeches, TV commercials, and other types of speeches. Practical use of persuasive methods for school, community, county, state, and…
Lowe, Pardee, Jr.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.
The oral interview (OI) was developed to meet the need for a testing procedure of second language speaking skills. It has been refined and expanded several times since first developed in the 1950's for use by the U.S. Government. Now known as the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Services (ACTFL/ETS) scale,…
Tower, Leslie E.; Fernandez, Maria Elena
This study analyzes variables related to the context and consequences of women's use of violence as well as a wide range of violent behaviors used and experienced by court-ordered English- and Spanish-speaking women. Data were derived from intake assessments of 125 court-ordered women over 24 months. Almost all of the women reported a history of…
Chan, Stella W.
The San Francisco Public Library has developed some special services for Chinese-speaking patrons. A collection of Chinese materials at the Chinatown branch now contains 9,000 fiction and non-fiction books, 9 newspapers, 19 periodicals, and over 300 phonograph records. Bilingual citizenship books are provided, as are reference books on China and…
Grant, Sycarah D.; Oka, Evelyn R.; Baker, Jean A.
Professional organizations and federal legislation stipulate that assessments of all students must be fair and unbiased. Although these entities provide guidance, there continues to be a gap between guidelines and practice. This article examines the nature of culturally competent practice with Ebonics-speaking youth. Many school psychologists face…
Sultana, Asifa; Stokes, Stephanie; Klee, Thomas; Fletcher, Paul
This study examines the morphosyntactic development, specifically verb morphology, of typically-developing Bangla-speaking children between the ages of two and four. Three verb forms were studied: the Present Simple, the Present Progressive and the Past Progressive. The study was motivated by the observations that reliable language-specific…
Clark, John L. D., Ed.
The following papers are presented in the conference proceedings: (1) "Development and Current Use of the FSI Oral Interview Test," by H. Sollenberger; (2) "Interview Testing in Non-European Languages," by W. Lovelace; (3) "Measuring Second Language Speaking Ability in New Brunswick's Senior High Schools," by M.…
Pederson, Lucille M.
A course on women in public speaking, developed at the University of Cincinnati, focuses on the rhetoric of selected women who have been involved in various movements and causes in the United States in the twentieth century. Women studied include educator Mary McLeod Bethune, Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin, suffragette Carrie Chapman Catt, Helen…
Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.; Cheung, Kar Man
The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks--a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on…
Encouraging Teenagers to Improve Speaking Skills through Games in a Colombian Public School (Motivación de adolescentes para mejorar su expresión oral mediante el juego en un colegio público colombiano)
León, William Urrutia; Cely, Esperanza Vega
Our project was implemented with tenth grade students of a public school located in the Usme Zone in Bogotá. We decided to develop this action research project because we were concerned about our students' difficulties when attempting to speak English. They felt inhibited with activities that involved oral interaction mainly because they were…
Castro, J. M.
Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single event. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be.If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentation interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. "The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking." Scott Berkun, 2010
Castro, J. M.
Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely rewarding and gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, get to reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single session. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be. If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentations interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. 'The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking.' Scott Berkun, Confessions of a Public Speaker, 2010
Namdar, Sara; Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh
Speaking proceeds under the constraint of time. While speaking, speakers are under constant pressure to follow the message being received and to formulate rapid responses to their partners. In the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Speaking Test, the communicative nature of the interview creates an ideal situation for applicants…
... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking or... that the outside teaching, speaking or writing is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by statute... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prior approval for outside...
... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking or... that the outside teaching, speaking or writing is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by statute... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prior approval for outside...
... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking or... that the outside teaching, speaking or writing is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by statute... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prior approval for outside...
... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking or... that the outside teaching, speaking or writing is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by statute... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approval for outside...
Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura
As educators, the authors know the importance of teaching reading and writing, but they often overlook speaking and listening skills. They believe that if they have class discussions on a regular basis, students are "naturally" learning to speak and to listen. However, that is not the case. On the contrary, speaking and listening skills are ones…
... approval for outside teaching, speaking and writing. (a) Before engaging in outside teaching, speaking or... that the outside teaching, speaking or writing is not expected to involve conduct prohibited by statute... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior approval for outside...
Phillabaum, Scott; Frazier, Stefan
Recent research on how TESOL professionals educate nonnative English-speaking students in MA programs indicates a general conviction that native-speaking and nonnative-speaking MA students should be treated equally during their studies in MA programs. Absent from this discussion and much of the literature on this topic, however, are the voices of…
Knight, Misty L.; Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Stewart, Frances
Research indicates that the fear of public speaking is an extraordinarily common phobia and that a significant portion of the population experiences some form of anxiety over public speaking. Although there is a great deal of research available on the etiology of public speaking anxiety, there is far less research available on interventional…
Anderson-Hsieh, Janet; Koehler, Kenneth
A study investigated the effect of foreign accent and speaking rate on native English speaker comprehension. Three native Chinese speakers and one native speaker of American English read passages at different speaking rates. Comprehension scores showed that an increase in speaking rate and heavily accented English decreased listener comprehension.…
Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas
This study aimed to explore pre-service English teachers' perceptions of teaching speaking in Turkey, the importance they give to this language skill, and their self-evaluation of their speaking competence. With case design and maximum variation sampling approach, seven pre-service English teachers' beliefs about speaking skills were gathered in…
Safari, Mahshad; Koosha, Mansour
Regarding the fundamental role of speaking in language skills, this study intended to investigate the effects of speaking portfolio as an alternative form of assessment for assessing Iranian EFL learners' speaking ability at the intermediate and advanced proficiency levels and also its impact on their attitudes. Accordingly, from the population of…
Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne
Purpose: To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Method: Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Results: Task 1 (baseline) involved transcribing…
Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu
This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…
Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen
Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…
Ariza, Eileen N.
Describes steps taken to lower the defense mechanism that acted as a barrier to second language learning for a 5-year-old English-speaking Puerto Rican child. Utilized three key principles: (1) getting to know the student as an individual; (2) changing oneself to adapt to the student; and (3) giving the student a chance to experience comfort and…
English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills ...native speaker of English (or English dialect). 2. Controllers need to develop greater patience with non-native English - speaking pilots. Once interna...when a non-native English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills
Bradlow, Ann R; Kim, Midam; Blasingame, Michael
Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses). Replicating prior work, L2 speaking rates were significantly slower than L1 speaking rates both across-groups (monolinguals' L1 English vs bilinguals' L2 English), and across L1 and L2 within bilinguals. Critically, within the bilingual group, L1 speaking rate significantly predicted L2 speaking rate, suggesting that a significant portion of inter-talker variation in L2 speech is derived from inter-talker variation in L1 speech, and that individual variability in L2 spoken language production may be best understood within the context of individual variability in L1 spoken language production.
WASHINGTON - On Friday, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will visit Notre Dame to speak about the need for action on behalf of those who bear the brunt of the effects of climate change and the steps the U.S. is taking to meet that challenge. McCarthy
Lowell, Soren Y; Hylkema, Jennifer A
The effect of speaking context on four cepstral- and spectral-based acoustic measures was investigated in 20 participants with normal voice. Speakers produced three different continuous speaking tasks that varied in duration and phonemic content. Cepstral and spectral measures that can be validly derived from continuous speech were computed across the three speaking contexts. Cepstral peak prominence (CPP), low/high spectral ratio, and the standard deviation (SD) of the low/high spectral ratio did not significantly differ across speaking contexts, and correlations for the first two measures were strong among the three speaking tasks. The SD of the CPP showed significant task differences, and relationships between the speaking contexts were generally moderate. These findings suggest that in speakers with normal voice, the differing phonemic content across several frequently used speaking stimuli minimally impacted group means for three clinically relevant cepstral- and spectral-based acoustic measures.
Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Aaltonen, Olli
This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech in 16 native Finnish and 14 native English subjects reading a text in Finnish and in English. The speech samples were analyzed for the mean and range of F0. Speaking a foreign language caused a change in F0 for the Finnish subjects, while the result was not as unambiguous for the English subjects. The change in F0 may be a result of adaptation to a certain pitch level in the foreign environment. Experience in using the foreign language did not show significant correlation to the change in F0, which suggests either individual differences in sensitivity to adaptation or difficulty in quantifying the amount of experience.
MacEntee, Michael I; Wong, Sabrina T; Smith, André; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, S Ross; Graf, Peter; Soheilipour, Shimae
This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada.
Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102
Sevilla, Claudia; Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Alas, Alexandriah; Dunivan, Gena; Khan, Aqsa; Maliski, Sally; Rogers, Rebecca; Anger, Jennifer T.
Introduction Little is known about women’s experience with conservative management of pelvic organ prolapse. We sought to understand the experiences of Spanish-speaking women who choose a pessary. Methods Spanish-speaking women from a urogynecologic pessary clinic were recruited for this study. Interviews were conducted and the women were asked about their pessary experience including questions involving symptom relief, pessary management, and quality of life. All interview transcripts were analyzed using the qualitative methods of Grounded Theory. Results Sixteen Spanish-speaking women who had been using a pessary for at least one month were enrolled in this study. Grounded theory methodology yielded several preliminary themes, in which one major concept emerged as a pessary adjustment process. In this process patients had to first decide to use a pessary, either because of physician’s recommendations or out of personal choice. Second, the patients entered an adjustment period in which they learned to adapt to the pessary, both physically and mentally. Lastly, if the patients properly adjusted to wearing a pessary they experienced relief of bothersome symptoms. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that Spanish-speaking women go through a process in order to adjust to a pessary. Furthermore, the physician has a major role in not only determining a woman’s decision to use a pessary, but also whether she can adjust to wearing the pessary. This process is most successful when patients receive comprehensive management from a healthcare team of physicians and nurses who can provide individualized and continuous pessary care. PMID:23208002
Early neurology in German-speaking countries evolved aside from mainstream medicine. Animists like Stahl in the 18th century saw the soul as the cause of health and disease, and the later Vitalists insisted on life-force as the specific property of living beings, contrary to skeptics like Albrecht von Haller, whose neurophysiology they left behind. Following Willis, they studied brain tracts and speculated about reflex action. They experimented with electrotherapy, and later devised early theories of electric nerve action. The controversial medical theories of animal magnetism and phrenology also advanced brain research and clinical neurology together with their sectarian programs, which seem absurd today. The impact on natural science and medicine of the last great Vitalist, Johannes Müller, and his mechanistic students such as Remak, Schwann, Schleiden, Helmholtz, Ludwig, Brücke, Virchow, Koelliker, and Wundt was unparalleled. They provided the anatomical and physiological infrastructure for the growth of neurology. From 1845 far into the 20th century, psychiatry and neurology evolved together. Neuropsychiatrists cared for their mental patients during the day, and studied their brain tissue slides at night, as in the case of Alzheimer and Nissl. Major advances in brain research were achieved by the hypnotists Forel and Vogt, and modern psychiatry was launched by the typical neuropsychiatrists Kraepelin, Moebius, Bleuler, and Adolf Meyer.
Burger, Joanna . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Greenberg, Michael
We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non
Edwards, Brian; Hugman, Bruce; Tobin, Mary; Whalen, Matthew
Robust, active cooperation, and effective, open communication between all stakeholders is essential for ensuring regulatory compliance and healthcare product safety; avoiding the necessity for whistle-blowing; and, most essentially, meeting the transparency requirements of public trust.The focus here is on what can be done within a healthcare product organization (HPO) to achieve actionable, sustainable policies and practices such as leadership, management, and supervision role-modelling of best practice; ongoing process review and improvements in every department; protection of those who report concerns through robust policies endorsed at Board level throughout an organization to eliminate the fear of retaliation; training in open, non-defensive team-working principles; and mediation structure and process for resolution of differences of opinion or interpretation of contradictory and volatile data.Based on analyses of other safety systems, workplace silence and interpersonal breakdowns are warning signs of defective systems underlying poor compliance and compromising safety. Remedying the situation requires attention to the root causes underlying such symptoms of dysfunction, especially the human factor, i.e. those factors that influence human performance. It is essential that leadership and management listen to employees' concerns about systems and processes, assess them impartially and reward contributions that improve safety.Fundamentally, the safety, transparency, and trustworthiness of HPOs, both commercial and regulatory, can be judged by the extent of the freedom of their staff to 'speak up' when the time is right. This, in turn, consolidates the trust of external stakeholders in the safety of a system and its products. The promotion of 'speaking up' in an organization provides an important safeguard against the risk of poor compliance and the undermining of societal confidence in the safety of healthcare products.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Education students' levels of speaking anxiety are predicted by the variables of gender, department, grade, such sub-dimensions of "Speaking Self-Efficacy Scale for Pre-Service Teachers" as "public speaking," "effective speaking,"…
Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan
In the literature, little research has hitherto been conducted to examine the implementation of integrated speaking test tasks. This study, in response, set out to compare the anxiety induced by a reading-to-speak task and the anxiety produced by a speaking-only task and to explore students' experiences of taking the reading-to-speak task.…
Building on Kachru's (2005) diagram of World Englishes and Norton's (2000) theoretical conception of identity, the researcher acknowledges that each Non-Native English Speaking Teacher (NNEST) comes to the English-speaking community with a different variety of Englishes. Each believes in various cultural values and norms, and his or her identity…
Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Schweizer, C. Amanda; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Loredo, José S.
Study Objectives: The current study investigated the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among English speaking non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and English and Spanish speaking Hispanics of Mexican descent (HMD). Design: The PSQI was administered during a telephone interview. In order to test the factor structure of the PSQI structure across ethnic/language groups, multiple group confirmatory analysis with covariates (MIMIC) was employed. The 1- and 3-factor versions of the PSQI previously reported in the literature were examined. Setting: San Diego County. Participants: Community-dwelling English speaking, NHW (n = 1,698) and English (n = 654) and Spanish (n = 792) speaking HMD. Measurement and Results: A single-factor scoring model fit across language/ethnic groups; however, a 3-factor model provided a better than the 1-factor model in all language/ethnic groups. The subscale sleep medications loaded poorly and was removed from all models. Conclusion: Across groups, a 3-factor model of the PSQI more reliably assessed sleep quality than a single-factor global score. Results indicate that the 3-factor structure of the PSQI was uniform across English speaking NHW and English and Spanish speaking HMD. Citation: Tomfohr LM; Schweizer CA; Dimsdale JE; Loredo JS. Psychometric characteristics of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in English speaking non-Hispanic whites and English and Spanish speaking Hispanics of Mexican descent. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):61-66. PMID:23319906
Clovis, Donna L.
A veteran English-as-a-Second-Language teacher recently discovered the effectiveness of using videos and TV together with a diverse student population that speaks 22 languages. Video segments linked to tasks, close-captioned instructional TV programs, and interactive TV and video helped students with language acquisition skills. The idea was to…
The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.
Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R
Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control.
Stranix, John T; Danziger, Keri M; Dumbrava, Veturia L; Mars, Ginger; Hirsch, David L; Levine, Jamie P
Increased upper airway resistance from postoperative changes after major head and neck surgery may cause elevated transtracheal pressures and result in tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance. This may be particularly true among patients with baseline pulmonary disease. We describe a patient recovering from oral cancer resection and flap reconstruction who demonstrated prolonged ventilator dependence and tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance with abnormal tracheal manometry. We attempted to improve speaking valve tolerance through the adaptation of a valve modification intended to reduce transtracheal pressures. Drilling holes into the 1-way speaking valve allowed for excess air egress and resulted in normalization of transtracheal pressures with improved speaking valve tolerance. This 1-way speaking valve modification may serve as a simple method to allow for earlier restoration of voicing and potentially reduce the number of ventilator- dependent days in this patient population.
Danziger, Keri M.; Dumbrava, Veturia L.; Mars, Ginger; Hirsch, David L.; Levine, Jamie P.
Summary: Increased upper airway resistance from postoperative changes after major head and neck surgery may cause elevated transtracheal pressures and result in tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance. This may be particularly true among patients with baseline pulmonary disease. We describe a patient recovering from oral cancer resection and flap reconstruction who demonstrated prolonged ventilator dependence and tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance with abnormal tracheal manometry. We attempted to improve speaking valve tolerance through the adaptation of a valve modification intended to reduce transtracheal pressures. Drilling holes into the 1-way speaking valve allowed for excess air egress and resulted in normalization of transtracheal pressures with improved speaking valve tolerance. This 1-way speaking valve modification may serve as a simple method to allow for earlier restoration of voicing and potentially reduce the number of ventilator- dependent days in this patient population. PMID:28293493
Sayre, Michelle M; McNeese-Smith, Donna; Leach, Linda Searle; Phillips, Linda R
"Speaking up" is a critical component in improving patient safety. Studies indicate, though, that most registered nurses prefer using behaviors of avoidance or accommodation in conflict situations. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine whether an educational intervention using scenarios, personal reflection, and peer support in small groups could improve speaking-up behaviors in registered nurses. Results showed a significant difference in speaking-up behaviors and scores in the intervention group (P < .001).
Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, Colette; Marriott, J
Objective The objective of this study was to explore the decision-making processes and associated barriers and enablers that determine access and use of healthcare services in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking Caucasian patients with diabetes in Australia. Study setting and design Face-to-face semistructured individual interviews and group interviews were conducted at various healthcare settings—diabetes outpatient clinics in 2 tertiary referral hospitals, 6 primary care practices and 10 community centres in Melbourne, Australia. Participants A total of 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited into 2 groups: 60 Arabic-speaking and 40 English-speaking Caucasian. Data collection Interviews were audio-taped, translated into English when necessary, transcribed and coded thematically. Sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using a self-completed questionnaire and medical records. Principal findings Only Arabic-speaking migrants intentionally delayed access to healthcare services when obvious signs of diabetes were experienced, missing opportunities to detect diabetes at an early stage. Four major barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use were identified: influence of significant other(s), unique sociocultural and religious beliefs, experiences with healthcare providers and lack of knowledge about healthcare services. Compared with Arabic-speaking migrants, English-speaking participants had no reluctance to access and use medical services when signs of ill-health appeared; their treatment-seeking behaviours were straightforward. Conclusions Arabic-speaking migrants appear to intentionally delay access to medical services even when symptomatic. Four barriers to health services access have been identified. Tailored interventions must be developed for Arabic-speaking migrants to improve access to available health services, facilitate timely diagnosis of diabetes and ultimately to improve glycaemic control. PMID:26576809
Long, B.; Bader, D.
successful and effective at the goal of helping visitors understand the very real threat of sea level rise and inspiring them to take action." (REA, May 2011). REA also found that 31% of the Spanish-speaking visitors thought the Spanish captioning was important. Census data indicates that the local Hispanic population has grown 27.8% over the past decade, so translation will continue to be an important way to reach a diverse spectrum of peoples. The Six Americas survey of the Aquarium did not sample enough Spanish speaking visitors to produce meaningful results, and the Aquarium is working to resolve that issue. The Aquarium is developing another program for the SOS, marine ecosystems, connecting climate literacy messages to the live animal collection. REA will complete its evaluation of both programs in 2012, and the Aquarium will again conduct the Six Americas survey. Conveying climate literacy in an impactful way requires innovation and constant updates. The Aquarium uses informal education methodology combined with scientific discipline to bring actionable solutions to over 1.4 million visitors each year.
Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen
Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)
Ballard, Elaine; Farao, Sharon
To date there has been little research on the typical developmental patterns for children speaking Samoan. The research outlined in this paper serves to fill this gap by reporting on the phonological development of Samoan speaking children growing up in the English dominant language environment of Auckland New Zealand. In this study 20 children aged between 4;0 and 4;11 were assessed using a picture naming task that probed their knowledge of the Samoan phonemic inventory. The findings presented here give an indication of what children in their fifth year have as speech sounds in their phonetic inventory and the types of errors that they may still produce. These results demonstrate the similarities and differences that Samoan phonological development shares with other languages. In particular the differences that seem "atypical" when compared with studies on English are discussed. It is tentatively concluded that these differences may well be typical for Samoan speech acquisition given language specific factors and the bilingual context in which these children are growing up.
Pertaub, D P; Slater, M; Barker, C
Can virtual reality exposure therapy be used to treat people with social phobia? To answer this question it is vital to known if people will respond to virtual humans (avatars) in a virtual social setting in the same way they would to real humans. If someone is extremely anxious with real people, will they also be anxious when faced with simulated people, despite knowing that the avatars are computer generated? In  we described a small pilot study that placed 10 people before a virtual audience. The purpose was to assess the extent to which social anxiety, specifically fear of public speaking, was induced by the virtual audience and the extent of influence of degree of immersion (head mounted display or desktop monitor. The current paper describes a follow up study conducted with 40 subjects and the results clearly show that not only is social anxiety induced by the audience, but the degree of anxiety experienced is directly related to the type of virtual audience feedback the speaker receives. In particular, a hostile negative audience scenario was found to generate strong affect in speakers, regardless of whether or not they normally suffered from fear of public speaking.
Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import. PMID:22232583
Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import.
Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.
Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…
Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku
Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972–1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24–0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41–1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males. PMID:25263996
Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku
Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972-1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41-1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males.
Daar, David A; Alvarez-Estrada, Miguel; Alpert, Abigail E
The United States Latino population is growing at a rapid pace and is set to reach nearly 30% by 2050. The demand for culturally and linguistically competent health care is increasing in lockstep with this growth; however, the supply of doctors with skills and experience suited for this care is lagging. In particular, there is a major shortage of Latino Spanish-speaking physicians, and the gap between demand and supply is widening. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased the capacity of the US healthcare system to care for the growing Latino Spanish-speaking population, through health insurance exchanges, increased funding for safety net institutions, and efforts to improve efficiency and coordination of care, particularly with Accountable Care Organizations and the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. With these policies in mind, the authors discuss how the value of Latino Spanish-speaking physicians to the healthcare system has increased under the environment of the ACA. In addition, the authors highlight key efforts to increase the supply of this physician population, including the implementation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Act, premedical pipeline programs, and academic medicine and medical school education initiatives to increase Latino representation among physicians.
Al Masaeed, Khaled
This study investigated the contexts for "optimal" use of first language (L1) in second language (L2) one-on-one speaking practice sessions in a study abroad program where English was the L1 and Arabic was the L2 of students, and the opposite applied to their speaking partners. Drawing on insights from sociocultural theory to investigate…
Ward, Kiya; Schwartzman, Roy
Although much interest has been generated regarding the functions speaking centers serve and the effects consultations can have, minimal research has addressed the dynamics of consultations themselves. This study documents what speaking center clients and consultants identify as barriers in consultations and how they address them. Analysis of…
Osmond, Erica R.
This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…
Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang
Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…
McCann, Bryan John
This paper discusses the potential for advocacy in collegiate extemporaneous speaking. It argues that given the inherently civic nature of the event, extemporaneous speaking ought to address higher causes that transcend competitive restraints. Unfortunately, the potential of the event is generally hindered by stylistic trends and other competitive…
Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie
In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…
Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.
Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…
Pruitt, Sonja; Oetting, Janna
Purpose: This study examined past tense marking by African American English (AAE)-speaking children from low- and middle-income backgrounds to determine if poverty affects children's marking of past tense in ways that mirror the clinical condition of specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants were 15 AAE-speaking 6-year-olds from…
This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using collaborative learning to enhance students' speaking achievement. The study using a pre-test and post-test design was conducted with 35 undergraduate students enrolled in a fundamental English course at Bangkok University to examine their speaking achievement on an English oral test…
Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Dale, Philip S.
Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 3 parent report measures of language development in Spanish-speaking toddlers. Method: Forty-five Spanish-speaking parents and their 2-year-old children participated. Twenty-three children had expressive language delays (ELDs) as…
Bayer, Trudy; Curto, Karen; Kriley, Charity
This article reports the results of a study with 70 senior undergraduate biological science majors enrolled in a required course on "Writing and Speaking in the Biological Sciences". Students enrolled in this course were expected to develop oral scientific presentations of their research projects that exemplified the norms of speaking in…
Nomura, Takako; Caidi, Nadia
Introduction: In this study, we examine the case of Japanese-speaking families in Canada and their experiences with teaching a heritage language at home, along with the uses and perceived usefulness of public library resources, collections, and services in the process. Methods: We interviewed fourteen mothers who speak Japanese to their children.…
Schaefer, Blanca; Fricke, Silke; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Fox-Boyer, Annette V.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill
The development of phonological awareness (PA), the ability to reflect on the sound structure of words independent of their meaning, has been extensively explored in English-speaking children. However, this is not the case for other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive PA test battery for German-speaking preschool…
Tosado, Luis Antonio, II
Two overlapping issues have given rise to this study: the need for assessment instruments to use with Spanish-speaking Latinos and the need for normative data on current and future Spanish-language instruments. Numerous career assessment instruments exist for the English-speaking population. These instruments may be administered on computer-based…
Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.
Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…
THIS 28-UNIT ORAL PROGRAM WAS PREPARED AS A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING FOUR-, FIVE- AND SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN WHO ARE LEARNING ENGLISH FOR THE FIRST TIME. IT IS ORGANIZED TO GIVE THE CHILDREN SOME UNDERSTANDING AND COMMAND OF SPOKEN ENGLISH BEFORE BEING INTRODUCED TO READING IN ENGLISH. A BASIC SPEAKING VOCABULARY OF FIVE TO SIX…
Reynolds, Jack; And Others
These ten case studies of the Program for Persons of Limited English-Speaking Ability (PLESA) report different approaches to providing training and employment assistance to unemployed persons of limited English-speaking ability. (A summary report of forty-seven projects is available separately. See Note.) The first four describe projects conducted…
This article reports the findings of a study investigating factors contributing to the speaking-in-class anxiety of a group of 313 Chinese ESL first-year university students in Hong Kong. Results using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) of Horwitz et al. reveal five factors leading to the group's speaking-in-class anxiety. The…
Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon
This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…
Ates, Burcu; Eslami, Zohreh R.
There has been increasing acknowledgment of the need to pursue studies related to nonnative English-speaking (NNES) professionals. In the last 10 years, a number of studies have discussed the experiences of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in different educational settings and situations. However, the experiences of the NNES graduate…
Wigglesworth, Gillian; Billington, Rosey
There are now significant numbers of children who speak a language other than English when they enter the formal school system in Australia. Many of these children come from a language background that is entirely different from the school language. Many Indigenous children, however, come from creole-speaking backgrounds where their home language…
Ahour, Touran; Maleki, Saeideh Entezari
This study attempted to unveil the effect of metadiscourse instruction on the improvement of the speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. After the administration of a language proficiency test, 34 homogeneous participants were assigned into the experimental and control groups. Then, the two groups were compared on their speaking ability. After…
This manual, appropriate for grades 3-12, is designed to help teachers and other educators who lack experience in public speaking to integrate speech into their students' curriculum. The manual offers teachers the opportunity to learn a simple program for teaching speech in the classroom. It teaches basic public speaking skills, highlighting the…
Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah
This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…
Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno
This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia
A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…
Non-English speaking students of average intelligence experience extreme frustration when learning to read. The frustration is partly a result of simultaneous requirements to speak, read, listen, and write in the new language. It also is possible that the teaching methods and strategies employed by the teachers could be harmful to non-English…
Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill
In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…
Although the primary use of the speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT Speaking) is to inform admissions decisions at English medium universities, it may also be useful as an initial screening measure for international teaching assistants (ITAs). This study provides criterion-related…
Dibartolo, Patricia Marten; Molina, Kristine
Fear of public speaking is the most common social fear experienced by the general population and can have far-reaching academic effects, including lower course grades and even an increased likelihood to drop out of college. The typical curricular approach to remediating public speaking fears in college students is to provide training in basic…
Conde, Carlos, Ed.
There are an estimated 10 million Spanish-speaking Americans who constitute the second largest minority group in the nation. Included in this group are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. Life styles of the Spanish-speaking Americans, who were here before the Pilgrims, did not change significantly with the arrival of the Northern…
Turner, Greg S.; Weismer, Gary
The ability to alter speaking rate was studied in nine adult subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nine control subjects. Results suggest that the relationship between speaking rate, articulation rate, pause duration, and pause frequency remained largely intact for the dysarthric speakers. Data showed greater dependence on pausing by the…
Salehi, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Marziyeh; Sattar, Susan; Shojaee, Mohammad
The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre-intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners' success in their speaking classes. To determine the…
Kieffer, Michael J.
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of…
Tsiplakides, Iakovos; Keramida, Areti
Despite the fact that foreign language speaking anxiety is a common phenomenon in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greece, teachers do not always identify anxious students, and often attribute their unwillingness to participate in speaking tasks to factors such as lack of motivation, or low performance. This article aims to…
Dunstan, Stephany Brett
Many students will arrive at college speaking a dialect that is considered non-standardized or stigmatized due to the socially stratified nature of language. In the United States, where there are commonly held ideologies about the type of language that is considered "correct" or "proper," students who speak non-standardized…
Effective mathematics teaching for Indigenous language speaking students needs to be based on fair expectations of both students and teachers. Concepts of "age-appropriate learning" and "school readiness" structure assessment expectations that entire cohorts of Indigenous language speaking students are unable to meet. This…
Hase, Maria; Ingram, David; Bunta, Ferenc
This study compared two phonological assessment tools for use with young Spanish-speaking children in the American Southwest, FON and STAR. Each was administered to 27 1-, 2- and 3-year-old monolingual Spanish-speaking children in the greater Phoenix area. Analyses compared the children's rate of response, complexity of the children's productions,…
Carroll, John B.
The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…
Children who speak different home languages and dialects in a monolingual classroom often carry the challenge of having to develop literacy in a different language. This article presents a qualitative study of five first graders who speak different home languages in an inner city mainstream English classroom. Through interviews, classroom writing,…
Whitlatch, Jennifer M.; Staley, Lynn
Noting that most mainstream primary teachers have received little or no training focusing on working with the growing number of students who speak English as a second language, this booklet equips primary teachers with basic information regarding the instruction of children who speak English as a second language (ESL). The booklet identifies ten…
Dannels, Deanna P.
Embraces a communication in the disciplines (CID) theoretical framework and explores meanings associated with speaking competently as an engineer. Indicates five important features of speaking in engineering: simplicity, persuasiveness, result-oriented, numerically rich and visually sophisticated - all of which invoke the skill of translation.…
In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…
Neu, Renee A.
The purpose of this qualitative, multi-case study was to explore the oral language of Spanish-speaking preschool students and their responses to questions, comments and requests made by an English-speaking teacher. Research questions focused on students' responses to questions; comments and requests by the teacher; and whether the response was…
In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…
Schnell, James A.
A study investigated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques (such as tape recorded programs) for improving public speaking ability. It was hypothesized that students who used subliminal tapes to improve public speaking ability would perform no differently from classmates who listened to identical-sounding placebo tape programs containing no…
Hayward, Pamela A.
Instructors of speaking apprehension courses can get a better picture of how speaking apprehension "feels" by having their students create a visual representation of their fear. One instructor supplied her students with newspapers, magazines, comic books, construction paper, crayons, glue sticks, and small scissors and had them create…
Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.
This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…
Shreeve, L. Sid, Ed.; Fairbanks, Merwin G., Ed.
Experts and concerned citizens from New York to California met in an effort to understand and confront the challenges facing Spanish-speaking people in their struggle for education and for finding their proper place in American society. The problems and character of the Spanish-speaking Americans, as reported in this symposium, do not fit common…
EIDE, CARLA; NANCE, AFTON D.
REPORTS INCLUDE--PROVIDING A KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM THAT IS FLEXIBLE AND MEETS A WIDE RANGE OF INTERESTS AND NEEDS, GUIDING SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN AND YOUTH THROUGH ACHIEVING BETTER UNDERSTANDING, USING STANDARDIZED TESTS OF INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING PUPILS TO OBTAIN THE MOST VALID RESULTS, HELPING CHILDREN TO READ BY…
Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.
A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…
This guide provides clear, graphic step-by-step instructions to introducing Braille 'n Speak technology to students with visual impairments. Braille 'n Speak is a notebook computer for individuals with visual impairments. Individuals input text using Braille keys and get speech feedback. The guide is intended to help classroom teachers with…
Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang
The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…
Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck
The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…
Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan
Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…
Bodie, Graham D.
Considered by many to be the foundation upon which our discipline was built, the study of public speaking has evolved from its humble beginnings into a vast literature of experimental and expositional studies. The focus of research on public speaking has primarily been to discover the antecedents, causes, and consequences of anxiety associated…
Toastmasters is a widely recognized international club that aims to develop and enhance the art of public speaking by offering participants educational programmes and chances to speak before groups. This article reports on the integration of the Toastmasters approach to an EFL oral-communication class in Taiwan. As both the author of this study…
Berryman, Cynthia L.
The use of exercises and games in teaching the process of public speaking provides a novel and effective approach for teacher and student. This paper justifies a process orientation to public-speaking instruction and offers practical exercises, games, and activities for teaching the major rhetorical aspects involved in the process of public…
Beatty, Michael J.; Valencic, Kristin Marie
Compares demand for speech preparation skills and trait public speaking apprehension as predictors of state anxiety experienced immediately before a graded classroom performance. Finds that public speaking apprehension significantly predicted anticipatory anxiety, while no significant effect was observed for planning skills. Examines findings…
Rickards-Schlichting, Krisitine A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.
The study investigated the effectiveness of self-modeling as an intervention for public speaking anxiety. The participants were six high school students with elevated levels of self-reported public speaking anxiety. Students presented public speeches to randomly selected peer audiences. Direct observations measured the behavioral manifestations of…
Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.
Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…
Beier, Christine Marie
This dissertation explores the phenomenon of "ways of speaking" in the Nanti speech community of Montetoni, in southeastern Peruvian Amazonia, between 1999 and 2009. In the context of this study, a way of speaking is a socially meaningful, conventionalized sound pattern, manifest at the level of the utterance, that expresses the…
This research aimed to find out how group investigation improves the student's speaking skill of the second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, how group investigation improves the student's participation in speaking of second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, and what the obstacles are in the implementation of Group Investigation. The classroom…
Educational blogs have drawn the growing interest of researchers and language teachers due to the user-friendly interfaces as well as the powerful archiving features. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of extensive speaking practice on speaking performance in voice blogs, and (2) to examine learners'…
This is a study of the assessment of the speaking skills of adult learners of English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). It is prompted by a concern that participants can have differing expectations of what nature of speech event a speaking test actually is. This concern was identified during the administration and analysis of assessments…
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hsu, Guo-Liang; Lin, Yi-Chun
This study applied storytelling in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in order to promote speaking skills. Students were asked to practice speaking EFL through producing individual and interactive stories with a Web-based multimedia system. We aimed to investigate an effectiveness of applying individual and interactive storytelling…
The globalisation of English and a growing demand for good English-speaking skills in the job market in particular have been placing a greater emphasis on the teaching of English speaking skills in Bangladesh. The private universities emphasise developing English skills. It seems that students of public and private universities have the same level…
Chen, Lei; Feng, Gary; Leong, Chee Wee; Joe, Jilliam; Kitchen, Christopher; Lee, Chong Min
Traditional assessments of public speaking skills rely on human scoring. We report an initial study on the development of an automated scoring model for public speaking performances using multimodal technologies. Task design, rubric development, and human rating were conducted according to standards in educational assessment. An initial corpus of…
Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Macoir, Joel; Martel-Sauvageau, Vincent; Boudreault, Carol-Ann
Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is an acquired neurologic disorder in which an individual suddenly and unintentionally speaks with an accent which is perceived as being different from his/her usual accent. This study presents an acoustic-phonetic description of two Quebec French-speaking cases. The first speaker presents a perceived accent shift to…
Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…
Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Curriculum Research and Development Center.
In 1979, Rhode Island legislators mandated an assessment of the number of non English speaking children in the State. The resulting study was comprised of two main phases. The first, a census of non English speaking students, included (1) a teacher survey, in which every teacher listed his/her students and indicated an observed primary language…
Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.
Mental state language was examined in Mandarin- speaking and Cantonese-speaking toddlers. Results suggested that theory-of-mind development was similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. Much earlier emergence of desire terms and infrequent use of thinking terms suggests cultural…
Klotzbach, H; Krettek, R; Bratzke, H; Püschel, K; Zehner, R; Amendt, J
Megnin's book "La fauna des cadaveres" published in 1894 in France is generally accepted as a mile-stone in forensic entomology. It is hardly known that at the same time this topic was likewise explored in the German-speaking countries. Even PMI estimation based on developmental data of blowflies was performed. After a more descriptive period in the first half of the 20th century the complexity and variability of insects' biological behavior were detected and formally investigated. Improved technical facilities, enhanced comprehension of scientific studies and multidisciplinary cooperation, enabled rapid progress in forensic entomology during the last decades. With the European Association for Forensic Entomology founded in 2002 the frame work for a high standard of competency at an international level was constituted.
Goruk, B.; Byrne, J. M.
The research community primarily communicates internally through papers, books and other forms of print publication. Researchers typically depend upon the media to pick up on research important to policymakers, planners, managers and society at large. However in recent decades, there has been a major failure in this communication process as the media has become much less objective and far more opinionated; often contributing more confusion than clarity. We argue that the research community should be much more active in communicating work to sectors of society most in need of the knowledge. Members of society do not read research publications - we essentially speak different languages. Researchers have to reach out to society in a communication form that works for the listeners. We put forward a range of examples using new media to communicate climate change research results to society.
Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher
Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation.
Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R; Velleman, Shelley L
Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some phonological processes were observed only in the Down syndrome group. Kannada is a non-Indo European language spoken in the southern Indian state of Karnataka that has not had much research attention, especially with respect to persons with communication disorders. This paper highlights the phonological processes observed in school-aged persons with Down syndrome, some of which are similar to those observed in English and Dutch (cluster reduction, stopping, gliding, consonant harmony) and others that differ owing to differences in Kannada's phonology (e.g. retroflex fronting, degemination). The study gives a cross-linguistic perspective to the study of phonological processes in Down syndrome.
Levy, Yonata; Hermon, Shula
In recent years research has focused on the exact nature of the linguistic skills that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit. This work has resulted in controversial positions, with an increasing number of studies casting doubt on previous claims of superior linguistic competence for individuals with WS. This study investigated morphosyntactic knowledge in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with WS. The participants 'performance was compared to 2 groups of typically developing mental age-matched controls. Participants and controls were tested on experimental tasks designed to investigate knowledge of morphology. The findings suggest that individuals with WS have good control over the basic consonantal root structure of Hebrew words. However, rather poor performance was evident on other morphological paradigms. We conclude that there is little evidence from Hebrew to support a selective preservation of grammatical competence in individuals with WS.
Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Garayzábal, Elena; Cuetos, Fernando
The syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) were assessed in different areas (phrase structure, recursion, and bound anaphora). Children were compared to typically-developing peers matched either in chronological age (CA-TD) or in verbal age (VA-TD). In all tasks children with WS performed significantly worse than CA-TD children, but similarly to VA-TD children. However, significant differences were observed in specific domains, particularly regarding sentences with cross-serial dependencies. At the same time, children with WS were less sensitive to syntactic constraints and exhibited a poorer knowledge of some functional words (specifically, of nonreflexive pronouns). A processing bottleneck or a computational constraint may account for this outcome.
de-Paris, Fernanda; Sant'Anna, Marcia K; Vianna, Monica R M; Barichello, Tatiana; Busnello, Joao V; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, Joao; Izquierdo, Ivan
The effects of gabapentin, 400 mg and 800 mg, on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking (SPS) were investigated. Thirty-two normal male volunteers (aged 17-30 years) had their anxiety and mood evaluated by self-scales [Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Profile of Mood State (POMS)] during the SPS procedure. Physiological measures (heart rate and blood pressure) were taken. Treatment with gabapentin at 800 mg attenuated the anxiety of subjects that had a decrease on the VAMS item calm-excite. In addition, volunteers that received gabapentin at 400 mg and 800 mg showed a decrease in the hostility score in POMS. Our results suggest, in agreement with other studies, an anxiolytic potential to gabapentin.
Andersson, Hákan; Herberts, Kjell
It has often beeen stated that the Swedish-speaking population in Finland, compared to other linguistic minorities, has achieved a privileged position. Historically the Finnish nation-state was born and grew by the efforts of both language groups, and the constitution was influenced by this unity. The geopolitical situation has gained from the fact that the resources of the whole population have been taken into account in the development of the Finnish nation and state, located in a Northern Europe, where, for centuries, different political, cultural and religions forces have met. The fact that the Orthodox Church together with the predominant Lutheran Church became the state church is another example of the efforts of the young Finnish state to both integrate and mobilize the personal resources. Regarding the future it will be wise to support specific traditions, competencies and creative forces from the whole population. The education, rooted in a language and a specific culture can, in such a perspective, probably not be overevaluated. From the Swedish point of view it is therefore of the greatest importance to maintain fundamental guarantees for a Swedish-speaking education. Only far-going guarantees liberate creative resources for the future challenges nationally and above all internationally. Otherwise too much energy and interest will be needed to guard the specific and in itself justified interests. Today, when the economic prerequisites in a welfare state are not taken for granted it is by all means a wise policy to defend the approved strategy to at the same time integrate and mobilize the total resources from different groups in the society.
Swennen, Gwen R J; Grimaldi, Hannes; Upheber, Juliane; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Dempf, Rupert
The purpose of this study was to evaluate nasalance measures in German-speaking patients with different types of repaired cleft lip and palate and to find out if significant nasalance gender differences exist in the different cleft groups. A total of 125 German-speaking cleft patients (74 male and 51 female) were included in this study: 18 patients with isolated unilateral cleft lip (UCL; mean age: 13.00 +/- 2.03 years), 66 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP; mean age: 14.80 +/- 3.45 years), 25 patients with isolated cleft palate (CP; mean age: 14.60 +/- 3.48 years), and 16 patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP; mean age: 14.30 +/- 3.61 years). Nasalance data were collected and computed using the NasalView hardware/software system (Fa. Tiger Electronics, Seattle, WA). Speech stimuli according to a modified Heidelberg Rhinophonia Assessment Form (sustained vowels "a," "e," "i," "o," and "u"; oral and nasal sentences; and three oral-nasal reading passages) were used to obtain nasalance scores. Nasalance distance and ratio were also calculated for the oral and nasal sentences and for one of the oral-nasal reading passages. Unpaired t tests showed no significant gender nasalance differences in each cleft group. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in mean nasalance distance and ratio. For the nasal sentence, a significant difference (P = 0.032) in mean nasalance scores was found between the UCL and UCLP groups.
"On Air": Participation in an Online Radio Show to Foster Speaking Confidence. A Cooperative Learning-Based Strategies Study ("Al aire": participación en un programa de radio en línea para fomentar la confianza al hablar. Un estudio basado en estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo)
Lemos Tello, Nubia Consuelo
The daily observation of class sessions has enabled me to recognize that students possess a feeling of self-distrust in oral activities. For this reason, I designed a study carried out with a group of twelve eighth graders. This article illustrates an action research project conducted to enhance students' confidence when speaking on an online…
This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.
ACTION MEMORANDUM— Request for a Time-Critical Removal Action andExemption from the $2 Million and 12-Month Statutory Limits at the AmericanLead Site, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana (Site ID #B56J)
von Hofsten, Claes
It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…
Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara
Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…
Mumford, Alan, Ed.
This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…
National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.
Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…
de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly
Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…
Walker, Martha Lentz
Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Teaching, speaking and writing by special... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5501.107 Teaching, speaking and writing by special Government... may accept compensation for teaching, speaking or writing in circumstances described in paragraph...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Teaching, speaking and writing by special... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5501.107 Teaching, speaking and writing by special Government... may accept compensation for teaching, speaking or writing in circumstances described in paragraph...