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Sample records for actions speak louder

  1. Words speak louder: conforming to preferences more than actions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanping; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-08-01

    Whereas people generally conform to others' choices, this research documents that conformity decreases once others have acted on their chosen options. It suggests words speak louder than actions-people are more likely to conform to others' preferences than their actions. Specifically, people are less likely to follow another person's food choice if that person has already eaten his or her selected food (Study 1), and are less likely to follow others' choices of household items if these choices are framed in terms of action (others "want to have it") rather than preference (others "like it"; Study 2). People's tendency to mentally share others' actions causes the decrease in conformity. Indeed, people recall greater past consumption of items that others have had (Study 3), choose differently only when they can complement (vs. contradict) what others have (Study 4), and are more strongly affected by the choices of those close to them (vs. strangers; Study 5). Finally, even when information about others' actions and preferences are simultaneously available (e.g., in online shopping and the consumption of social media), people are more likely to follow what others prefer, rather than what others have (Study 6). PMID:26191960

  2. Belief-Desire Reasoning in the Explanation of Behavior: Do Actions Speak Louder than Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Annie E.; German, Tamsin C.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underwriting our commonsense psychology, or "theory of mind", have been extensively investigated via reasoning tasks that require participants to "predict" the action of agents based on information about beliefs and desires. However, relatively few studies have investigated the processes contributing to a central component of…

  3. Actions speak louder than words: Outsiders' perceptions of diversity mixed messages.

    PubMed

    Windscheid, Leon; Bowes-Sperry, Lynn; Kidder, Deborah L; Cheung, Ho Kwan; Morner, Michèle; Lievens, Filip

    2016-09-01

    To attract a gender diverse workforce, many employers use diversity statements to publicly signal that they value gender diversity. However, this often represents a misalignment between words and actions (i.e., a diversity mixed message) because most organizations are male dominated, especially in board positions. We conducted 3 studies to investigate the potentially indirect effect of such diversity mixed messages through perceived behavioral integrity on employer attractiveness. In Study 1, following a 2 × 2 design, participants (N = 225) were either shown a pro gender diversity statement or a neutral statement, in combination with a gender diverse board (4 men and 4 women) or a uniform all-male board (8 men). Participants' perceived behavioral integrity of the organization was assessed. In Study 2, participants (N = 251) either read positive or negative reviews of the organization's behavioral integrity. Employer attractiveness was then assessed. Study 3 (N = 427) investigated the impact of board gender composition on perceived behavioral integrity and employer attractiveness using a bootstrapping procedure. Both the causal-chain design of Study 1 and 2, as well as the significance test of the proposed indirect relationship in Study 3, revealed that a diversity mixed message negatively affected an organization's perceived behavioral integrity, and low behavioral integrity in turn negatively impacted employer attractiveness. In Study 3, there was also evidence for a tipping point (more than 1 woman on the board was needed) with regard to participants' perceptions of the organization's behavioral integrity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281185

  4. It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge. PMID:25952466

  5. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…

  6. Nurses must speak louder on climate change.

    PubMed

    2016-06-15

    Could nurses use their political influence more effectively? From social media to tweeting, why do nurses stay quiet when they could harness their political power? Writing in Primary Health Care, professor of nursing Mary Chiarella argues that nurses, considered one of the most ethical groups of voters, have influence to speak out about the dangers of global warming on people's health. Ms Chiarella encourages nurses to engage professionally to save the planet. PMID:27305265

  7. Actions speak louder than words: An elaborated theoretical model of the social functions of self-injury and other harmful behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    The question of why some people do things that are intentionally harmful to themselves continues to puzzle scientists, clinicians, and the public. Prior studies have demonstrated that one fairly extreme, direct form of self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), is maintained by both automatic (i.e., intrapersonal) as well as social (i.e., interpersonal) reinforcement. However, the majority of theoretical and empirical papers on this topic focus almost exclusively on the automatic functions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the social functions of NSSI. Evidence is presented supporting the notion that NSSI is maintained by social reinforcement in at least a substantial minority of instances. Moreover, an elaborated theoretical model of the social functions of NSSI is outlined that proposes that this behavior represents a high intensity social signal used when less intense communication strategies fail (e.g., speaking, yelling, crying). The model further proposes that NSSI can serve not only as a signal of distress that is reinforced primarily by the caregiving behavior it elicits from others, but that it also can serve as a signal of strength and fitness that is reinforced by warding off potential threats (e.g., peer victimization), and in some cases can strengthen affiliation with others. Support for this theoretical model is drawn from diverse literatures including psychology, evolutionary biology, and cultural anthropology. The paper concludes with specific recommendations for empirical tests of the proposed model of the social functions of NSSI, as well as other harmful behaviors such as alcohol and drug use. PMID:19122893

  8. Actions Speak Louder than Numbers. ICDI Annual Report 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Child Development Initiatives (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In the past years there has been a growing call for (financial) transparency of developmental aid organizations. The general public, or maybe better put: the popular media, are demanding information on cost efficiency and impact of projects. Development aid needs to prove its worth, that's what it basically boils down to. Of course there is…

  9. Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Paralanguage, Communication, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Alastair

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the components of paralanguage, that is, kinesics, proxemics, and paraverbal features. Argues that paralanguage plays a crucial role in human interaction and is highly culture-specific. Discusses its implications with respect to second language learning and ways in which it can be included in the second-language classroom. (SED)

  10. Actions speak louder than words: the embodiment of trust by healthcare professionals in gynae-oncology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Alaszewski, Andy; Swift, Trish; Nordin, Andy

    2011-02-01

    Trust is vital for quality healthcare outcomes, yet existing research neglects the 'embodiedness' of the interactions on which trust is based. This article draws on qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with cervical cancer patients. The significance of body work in winning or, on occasions, undermining trust emerged as a key theme within the responses. Interpretations of professionals' verbal and non-verbal presentations-of-self were often mutually reinforcing and intrinsically linked--forming a more general locus of meaning from which assumptions of competence and care were drawn. Yet it also became apparent that, whilst verbal communication was useful in establishing the agenda of the professional in relation to that of the patient, it was body work which was crucial in corroborating and validating beliefs pertaining to the ability and willingness of the professional to deliver this agenda in the future. The multi-temporal nature of trust makes apparent how certain seemingly distinct forms of body work--as presentation-of-self versus more hands-on modes--are inherently intertwined. Trust, and the affective relationship in which it is rooted, bridges the present with the future and thus makes apparent how seemingly 'detached' forms of body work are connected to the emotion-work of the caring role and the craftwork of body work as touch. PMID:21299570

  11. Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?: Adolescent Interpretations of Parental Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Diana S.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Raup-Krieger, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents’ decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit substance use themselves. Framed by social learning theory and social constructionism, this study analyzed in-depth interviews with 108 adolescents about personal experiences with substance use, family communication about substance use, and adolescent interpretations of parental use. Emergent themes in the data include: positive parental influence, parental contradictions, and negative outcomes of use. Prevalence of parental use—regardless of legality, rarity of explicit communication about parental use, and various interpretations of parental use are discussed. PMID:25285048

  12. Actions Speak! (Louder than Words). The Social and Environmental Impact of Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Thomas T.; Wissmann, Janet L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers in the middle grades facilitate student understanding of the social and environmental implications and limitations of technological development. The nine activities offer students opportunities to explore social issues arising from the science and technology of the production and management of…

  13. It's All in the Mime: Actions Speak Louder than Words When Teaching the Cranial Nerves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Kerry Ann; Stephens, Bruce Warren

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The…

  14. Do Actions Speak Louder than Words? A Comparative Perspective on Implicit versus Explicit Meta-Cognition and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Church, Barbara; Smith, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Research in non-human animal (hereafter, animal) cognition has found strong evidence that some animal species are capable of meta-cognitively monitoring their mental states. They know when they know and when they do not know. In contrast, animals have generally not shown robust theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. Comparative research uses methods…

  15. Do actions speak louder than words? A comparative perspective on implicit versus explicit meta-cognition and theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Church, Barbara; Smith, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Research in non-human animal (hereafter, animal) cognition has found strong evidence that some animal species are capable of meta-cognitively monitoring their mental states. They know when they know and when they do not know. In contrast, animals have generally not shown robust theory of mind (ToM) capabilities. Comparative research uses methods that are non-verbal, and thus might easily be labelled ‘implicit’ using the terminology of traditional human cognition. However, comparative psychology has developed several non-verbal methods that are designed to test for aspects of meta-cognition that – while perhaps not fully explicit – go beyond the merely implicit or associative. We believe similar methods might be useful to developmental researchers who work with young children, and may provide a sound empirical alternative to verbal reports. Comparative psychology has moved away from all-or-none categorical labels (e.g., ‘implicit’ vs. ‘explicit’) towards a theoretical framework that contains a spectrum of mental abilities ranging from implicit to explicit, and from associative to cognitive to fully conscious. We discuss how this same framework might be applied to developmental psychology when it comes to implicit versus explicit processing and ToM. PMID:22429042

  16. The Effect of Formal Policies and Informal Social Learning on Perceptions of Corporate Ethics: Actions Speak Louder than Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronzon, Shirit

    2002-01-01

    Discusses unethical business conduct and corporate crime, focusing on workers who bend rules to achieve satisfactory performance and organizational goals. Describes research that investigated how two cues in an organizational setting, one legal (codes of conduct) and one social (company responses to ethical transgressions), affect how individuals…

  17. Do as I do, not as I say: Actions speak louder than words in preschoolers learning from others.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Kathleen H; Min, Grace; Chin, Jason; Doan, Stacey

    2016-03-01

    To date, no research has examined children's imitative abilities in the context of learning self-regulatory strategies from adults-especially when there is a conflict between communicative intent and later behavior. A sample of 84 4- and 5-year-olds performed a delay-of-gratification task after observing an adult perform the same task. Across four between-participants conditions, the model either did or did not state her intention to complete the task (positive vs. negative communication), modeled self-regulatory strategies, and then either did or did not complete the task successfully (positive vs. negative outcome). Children in the positive outcome conditions were more likely to imitate the novel strategies and successfully wait in both familiar and unfamiliar self-regulation tasks irrespective of the model's communicated intent. We discuss implications for practice and interventions. PMID:26610716

  18. Conflict between Learners' Beliefs and Actions: Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Based on sociocultural and contextual perspectives, this study examines how Japanese language learners perceive a conflict between their beliefs and actions when speaking the target language in the classroom context, and how these learners change their beliefs or actions to overcome the conflict. Data were collected during a second-year level…

  19. Pictures Speak Louder than Words: Motivations for Using Instagram.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunji; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moon, Jang Ho; Sung, Yongjun

    2015-09-01

    While Instagram, the rising photo-sharing social networking service, has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners, little is known about the social and psychological factors that lead consumers to become fanatics of this app. To provide a baseline understanding of Instagram users, the current study aims to uncover the structural dimensions of consumers' motives for using Instagram and to explore the relationships between identified motivations and key attitudinal and behavioral intention variables. A comprehensive survey was developed in which a total of 212 Instagram users evaluated their motivation, primary activities, use intention, and attitude regarding Instagram. The results suggest that Instagram users have five primary social and psychological motives: social interaction, archiving, self-expression, escapism, and peeking. The implications of this study's findings are discussed. PMID:26348817

  20. Augmentative Device Helps Max Speak. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Action Information Sheet follows a family's process of selecting and using augmentative and alternative communication to help their young son, Max, speak. Max is affected by global dyspraxia, which makes learning new motor skills--especially speech--quite difficult. For the first years of his life, Max could not say words. Before he and his…

  1. An Action Research Study Designed to Implement Student Negotiation to Improve Speaking Classroom Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the second stage of an action research study designed to improve the effectiveness of speaking classes through negotiating the lesson contents with students. The data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and observations as a way of eliciting students' views. The research, conducted in an English language…

  2. Speaking across Difference in Community Dialogues on Affirmative Action Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kristen L.; Moses, Michele S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of participants' social group differences with regard to the processes and outcomes of community dialogues on affirmative action. We found that participants' professional status was most salient to both the quantity of participants' contributions as well as their persuasiveness within the dialogues, with…

  3. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  4. Testing--The Gripes Get Louder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levathes, Kiki

    1978-01-01

    Critics of standardized testing are fighting back with lawsuits and legislation. Evaluates the Educational Testing Service's business policy and how it conflicts with quality testing. Also suggests actions that can be taken by concerned parents who wish to protect their children from unfair testing practice. (Editor/RK)

  5. Visual objects speak louder than words: motor planning and weight in tool use and object transport.

    PubMed

    Osiurak, François; Bergot, Morgane; Chainay, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    For theories of embodied cognition, reading a word activates sensorimotor representations in a similar manner to seeing the physical object the word represents. Thus, reading words representing objects of different sizes interfere with motor planning, inducing changes in grip aperture. An outstanding issue is whether word reading can also evoke sensorimotor information about the weight of objects. This issue was addressed in two experiments wherein participants have first to read the name of an object (Experiment 1)/observe the object (Experiment 2) and then to transport versus use bottles of water. The objects presented as primes were either lighter or heavier than the bottles to be grasped. Results indicated that the main parameters of motor planning recorded (initiation times and finger contact points) were not affected by the presentation of words as primes (Experiment 1). By contrast, the presentation of visual objects as primes induced significant changes in these parameters (Experiment 2). Participants changed their way of grasping the bottles, particularly in the use condition. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of concepts does not automatically evoke sensorimotor representations about the weight of objects, but visual objects do. PMID:26545139

  6. Speaking of privilege: family therapy educators' journeys toward awareness and compassionate action.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Wolfe, Pilar; McDowell, Teresa

    2012-06-01

    This study explores how family therapy educators from privileged social locations understand issues of privilege and the process by which they integrate their personal and professional journeys to create and model equity in family therapy training and professional development. These educators developed awareness about issues of privilege and oppression and owned their privilege. Increased awareness involved personal struggles with guilt and managing internalized voices of prejudice that are constantly reinforced in society. These educators adopted a stance of action and accountability for equity. We hypothesize that the process leading to owning one's privilege involves the ability to be compassionate for others' suffering and one's own limitations. PMID:22690858

  7. Speaking of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.

    2013-01-01

    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  8. Measuring and evaluating a louder design of the musical instrument kantele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttinen, Henri; Erkut, Cumhur

    2006-06-01

    The kantele is a musical instrument excited by plucking. It is an ancient instrument, which is still used in traditional folk music in Finland, Northwest Russia, and the Baltic countries. This paper discusses analysis and measurement results of a modified kantele, designed to have an increased loudness. The design rules to make the modified kantele louder are also proposed. The conducted measurements confirm and support the proposed design rules. The main features of the traditional design of the kantele are described, so that the presentation of the design rules and analysis results could be understood. The design rules to make a plucked string instrument louder are (1) increase the tension of the string, (2) increase the radiation surface, and (3) isolate the top plate from the sound-box with an air gap. To some extent rules (1) and (2) are straightforward and familiar for most musical acousticians. In contrast, rule (3) is more evolved and unique, since it enables a freely vibrating top plate. To confirm the design rules, the traditional design is compared with the new one, through several methodological aspects. Results from the analysis are drawn from both analytical treatments and acoustical measurements. A listening test was also conducted and the results of this test support the assumption of an increase in loudness for the new kantele design. More specifically, on the average loud plucks of the modified design are perceived as 3 dB louder than in the traditional design. Furthermore, on certain strings the loud plucks are perceived as 6 dB louder. The proposed design ideas can also be applied to other string instruments.

  9. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  10. Teaching Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleistein, T.; Smith, M. K.; Lewis, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet the needs of students, teachers of oral English have three main tasks: find out all they can about how speaking works, look for ways to introduce their classes to the language of conversation, and provide students with opportunities to practice speaking English. This book covers these three tasks in an easy-to-follow guide that language…

  11. Autism Speaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Service What is Autism? Around the World links Autism Speaks Canada Global Autism Public Health Initiative Non-English Resources Shafallah World Autism Awareness Day Connect with Us Facebook Google + ...

  12. Retraction of a study on genetically modified corn: Expert investigations should speak louder during controversies over safety.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jufeng; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong; Tang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few years, genetically modified organisms (GMO) have gradually become more familiar after numerous reports of problems with GMO safety, such as genetically modified (GM) potatoes disrupting immunity, GM corn inducing tumors, and GM rice being fed to unwitting Chinese children. Every time, these reports cause panic among the population and lead to objections to GMO in various fora. After each incident, the scientific community has delivered its academic appraisal and refuted rumors through slow and cautious investigations and evaluations. Unfortunately, during each event media outlets quickly scare the public about food safety and ignore the ensuing comments from scientists. Although scientists have investigated each GMO crisis and reached scientific and rational conclusions, they have less ability to disseminate information than the media, so the public is not promptly informed of their rational and objective viewpoints as experts. Thus, scientists need greater ability to disseminate information from scientific investigations and evaluations in order to correct the intemperate reporting by attention-seeking media. PMID:25902952

  13. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  14. Blue Collar and Beyond: The Experiences of Non-English Speaking Background Women in the Australian Labour Force [and] Strategies for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorso, Caroline; Harrison, Graham

    The report on women with non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB) in the Australian labor force was prepared to review the experience and needs of this population in recent years and to examine the various available sources of information. The first section reviews the standard statistical sources and their research methodologies. The second and…

  15. SPEAK Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Dodd, Christopher J. [D-CT

    2009-06-10

    06/10/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6472-6475) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Facets of Speaking Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…

  17. Reflective Development and Developmental Research: Is There a Future for Action Research as a Research Strategy in German-Speaking Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Posch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    For about two decades only marginal relevance was attributed to action research as a research strategy by large sections of the German social science community. The growing international debate on key concepts such as community participation, community-based participatory research and participatory action research were largely ignored. In this…

  18. Automatic speaking valve in speech rehabilitation for laryngectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Hanna; Bäck, Leif; Juvas, Anja; Räsänen, Pirjo; Mäkitie, Antti A; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P; Vilkman, Erkki; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2005-10-01

    For speech rehabilitation after total laryngectomy, the Provox FreeHands Heat and Moisture Exchanger (FreeHands HME; Atos Medical AB, Hörby, Sweden) was compared with the Provox Heat and Moisture Exchanger (HME), and the patients' Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed. A review of the English literature was performed considering automatic speaking valves. The study design was a cohort study. Fourteen laryngectomized male patients who had used the HME successfully before receiving the FreeHands HME entered the study. An ENT specialist and a speech pathologist examined these patients. Data concerning voicing, breathing, skin adhesion, voice and speech quality, and HRQoL were collected by a structured questionnaire. Voice recordings were performed for evaluation of the quality of the voice. A computer-aided search of the MED-LINE database was conducted, supplemented by hand searches of key journals. Twelve patients had used the FreeHands HME on special social occasions and reported three main reasons why FreeHands HME was unsuitable for continuous use: heavier breathing, more difficult speaking, and worse subjective quality of voice. With HME, phonation time tended to be longer and the softest phonation softer ( P =0.034). The loudest phonation was louder with FreeHands HME ( P =0.015). Patients' HRQoL assessed by the 15D profile was similar to that of the age- and sex-matched male Finnish general population (patients 0.877, population 0.884). A review of the literature showed few works dealing with automatic speaking valves. The FreeHands HME is a useful additional device in a selected group of laryngectomized patients. Total laryngectomy did not lower patients' HRQoL notably. PMID:15739088

  19. Comparison of speech recognition with different speech coding strategies (SPEAK, CIS, and ACE) and their relationship to telemetric measures of compound action potentials in the nucleus CI 24M cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, J; Hohl, S; Stürzebecher, E; Pfennigdorff, T; Gstöettner, W

    2001-01-01

    Speech understanding and subjective preference for three different speech coding strategies (spectral peak coding [SPEAK], continuous interleaved sampling [CIS], and advanced combination encoders [ACE]) were investigated in 11 post-lingually deaf adult subjects, using the Nucleus CI 24M cochlear implant system. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups in a balanced crossover study design. The first group was initially fitted with SPEAK and the second group with CIS. The remaining strategies were tested sequentially over 8 to 10 weeks with systematic variations of number of channels and rate of stimulation. Following a further interval of 3 months, during which subjects were allowed to listen with their preferred strategy, they were tested again with all three strategies. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded using neural response telemetry. Input/output functions in relation to increasing stimulus levels and inter-stimulus intervals between masker and probe were established to assess the physiological status of the cochlear nerve. Objective results and subjective rating showed significant differences in favour of the ACE strategy. Ten of the 11 subjects preferred the ACE strategy at the end of the study. The estimate of the refractory period based on the inter-stimulus interval correlated significantly with the overall performance with all three strategies, but CAP measures could not be related to individual preference of strategy or differences in performance between strategies. Based on these results, the ACE strategy can be recommended as an initial choice specifically for the Nucleus CI 24M cochlear implant system. Nevertheless, access to the other strategies may help to increase performance in individual patients. PMID:11296939

  20. Speaking with Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gousie, Gene

    This paper offers a summary of two aspects of effective speaking in public, whether it be with co-workers, supervisors, friends, or a group of little-known or unknown others. One aspect of public speaking is the level of sincerity, and the other is the level and variety of skills used. The paper first considers sincerity and then, it discusses the…

  1. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  2. Advocacy Update: Autism Speaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursitti, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Autism Speaks, the world's largest autism non-profit organization, is addressing a struggle to obtain evidence-based treatment on autism. The mission of Autism Speaks is to change the future for all who struggle with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Part of their focus is to change state insurance laws to require private health insurance policies…

  3. When Hands Speak Louder than Words: The Role of Gesture in the Communication, Encoding, and Recall of Words in a Novel Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morett, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of clarifying how gesture facilitates L2 word learning, the current study investigates gesture's influence on three interrelated cognitive processes subserving L2 word learning: communication, encoding, and recall. Individuals unfamiliar with Hungarian learned 20 Hungarian words that were either accompanied or unaccompanied by…

  4. Making Rhetorical Choices: The Parallel between Extemporaneous and Presidential Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aden, Roger C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses the rhetorical choices of President George Bush in speeches announcing military action in Panama and Iraq. Demonstrates how understanding those choices can educate students participating in extemporaneous speaking. (SR)

  5. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... key part of communicating with people. Having a tracheostomy tube can change your ability to talk and ... you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There are even ...

  6. Speaking and Speaking Education as Physical Process in Turkish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurudayioglu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…

  7. Spanish-Speaking Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Roger W.

    Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…

  8. Learning to Speak Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a bilingual educator is proving pivotal to the success of technology initiatives aimed at developing Spanish-speaking students' grasp of both the concepts and the language of mathematics. This article features Ginny Badger, a teaching assistant at Glenwood Springs High School in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, who sacrificed her…

  9. Speak Out for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthouse, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular assumptions about…

  10. Public Speaking: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taufen, Phyllis M.

    There is a simple but effective process for developing public speakers in elementary and junior high schools. After discussing the importance of effective speaking, the teacher puts a topic sentence, on favorite desserts for example, on the board or overhead projector and students think of their favorite desserts and some related words and…

  11. Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

  12. My Hesitation to Speak English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  13. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  14. Understanding Learners' Self-Assessment and Self-Feedback on Their Foreign Language Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines university learners' self-assessment and self-feedback on performance as captured in audio files from a foreign language speaking test. The learners' were guided to listen, transcribe and analyse their own speaking samples, as well as propose future actions for improvement. Content of learners' self-feedback was scrutinised…

  15. Well Spoken: Teaching Speaking to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    All teachers at all grade levels in all subjects have speaking assignments for students, but many teachers believe they don't know how to teach speaking, and many even fear public speaking themselves. In his new book, "Well Spoken", veteran teacher and education consultant Erik Palmer shares the art of teaching speaking in any classroom. Teachers…

  16. You Are What You Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motluk, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Does the language one speaks influence the way he thinks? Does it help define his world view? Anyone who has tried to master a foreign tongue has at least considered the possibility. Little linguistic peculiarities, though amusing, don't change the objective world people are describing. So how can they alter the way they think? Scientists and…

  17. Teaching Math: Speaking of Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Lola

    1995-01-01

    Provides tips and guidelines for teaching students how to speak the universal language of mathematics. Recommends the unlearning of faulty vocabulary, adopting workable strategies to teach math language, and teaching appropriate names of operations, shapes, and angles. Emphasizes need for mastering math vocabulary to be able to communicate in…

  18. Plain Facts on Plain Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Public speaking goes with being on the school board. A few pointers and practice can help you get better at communicating in public. Experts suggest the following: know what your point is and state it precisely; strive to be expressive, using your voice and gestures; and present a story that people can relate to. (MLF)

  19. Speaking up for Better Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have a lot of frustrating things to deal with in school--obdurate administrators, inane work rules, and ham-fisted policies, to name a few. Instead of speaking up for change, many teachers have just come to accept all the dysfunction and take refuge in their classrooms. But teachers have it in their power to bust out of that classroom…

  20. Just Smile and Speak Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    To take fear out of public speaking, superintendents and other school executives are advised to have something interesting to say, set aside time to practice, use eye contact to advantage, pay attention to body language, be wary of using humor or gimmicks, lean toward relatively short presentations, keep abreast of current events, realize people…

  1. Writing and Speaking to Learn Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nadine C.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an intermediate level, college geometry course that is designated as both writing and speaking intensive. Suggests methods that utilize writing and speaking activities to enhance student learning, and discusses student reactions to the course. (nine references) (JJK)

  2. Educating Nevada's Limited-English-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    This resource for program planning offers guidelines for providing Nevada's limited-English-speaking (Spanish-speaking and American Indian) students with equal access to quality education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Educating Limited-English-Speaking Students: The Record," (2) "State Board of Education Position on…

  3. ACTFL Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This digest focuses on the American Council on the Speaking of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Speaking Proficiency Guidelines. The history and development of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines (originally, the ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines) are reviewed, the generic characteristics of each level of the speaking guidelines are presented in…

  4. An Assessment of IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Shahzad; Haq, Naushaba

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on assessing the speaking test of IELTS. The assessment discussed both positive aspects and weaknesses in IELTS speaking module. The researchers had also suggested some possible measures for the improvement in IELTS speaking test and increasing its validity and reliability. The researchers had analysed and assessed IELTS…

  5. Experimental public speaking: contributions to the understanding of the serotonergic modulation of fear.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta

    2014-10-01

    Public speaking is widely used as a model of experimental fear and anxiety. This review aimed to evaluate the effects of pharmacological challenges on public speaking responses and their implications for the understanding of the neurobiology of normal and pathological anxiety, specifically panic disorder. We also describe methodological features of experimental paradigms using public speaking as an inducer of fear and stress. Public speaking is a potent stressor that can provoke significant subjective and physiological responses. However, variations in the manners in which public speaking is modelled can lead to different responses that need to be considered when interpreting the results. Results from pharmacological studies with healthy volunteers submitted to simulated public speaking tests have similarities with the pharmacological responses of panic patients observed in clinical practice and panic patients differ from controls in the response to the public speaking test. These data are compatible with the Deakin and Graeff hypothesis that serotonin inhibits fear, as accessed by public speaking tasks, and that this inhibition is likely related to the actions of serotonin in the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter. PMID:25277282

  6. Public Speaking in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, A. L.; Evans, V.; Kanra, A. M. Lami; Jones, O. S. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this day, people all over academia feel that our democracy is eroding and that there is no need for rhetoric. Yet, if some effort is not made to help young people understand democracy and the role of public speaking in this form of government, all will truly be lost. The battle is always ongoing as long as on person stands to tell the story.…

  7. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  8. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  9. An Exploration of Kenyan Public Speaking Patterns with Implications for the American Introductory Public Speaking Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann Neville

    2002-01-01

    Examines the public speaking patterns of Kenya, and compares those findings to the content of American introductory public speaking courses. Finds that most frequently mentioned areas of difference between American and Kenyan public speaking were establishment of speaker credibility, structure of the speech, selection of supporting materials,…

  10. Education as Invitation to Speak: On the Teacher Who Does Not Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy; Masschelein, Jan

    2012-01-01

    As a response to "Le Fils," a film directed by the Dardenne brothers, we explore the idea of speaking as an invitation and juxtapose it against ideas of speaking as a transactional, calculative, calibrated, activity. Speaking tends to be understood as a relatively straightforward matter: as a means of communication structured by such values as the…

  11. SpeakApps 2: Speaking Practice in a Foreign Language through ICT Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…

  12. Student Satisfaction with EFL Speaking Classes: Relating Speaking Self-Efficacy and Skills Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asakereh, Ahmad; Dehghannezhad, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student satisfaction with speaking classes, speaking skills self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking skills achievement. To this end, one hundred Iranian EFL undergraduate students filled out two questionnaires; a research-made and pilot-tested questionnaire for student satisfaction with speaking…

  13. How do we recognise who is speaking?

    PubMed

    Mathias, Samuel R; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The human brain effortlessly extracts a wealth of information from natural speech, which allows the listener to both understand the speech message and recognise who is speaking. This article reviews behavioural and neuroscientific work that has attempted to characterise how listeners achieve speaker recognition. Behavioural studies suggest that the action of a speaker's glottal folds and the overall length of their vocal tract carry important voice-quality information. Although these cues are useful for discriminating and recognising speakers under certain circumstances, listeners may use virtually any systematic feature for recognition. Neuroscientific studies have revealed that speaker recognition relies upon a predominantly right-lateralised network of brain regions. Specifically, the posterior parts of superior temporal sulcus appear to perform some of the acoustical analyses necessary for the perception of speaker and message, whilst anterior portions may play a more abstract role in perceiving speaker identity. This voice-processing network is supported by direct, early connections to non-auditory regions, such as the visual face-sensitive area in the fusiform gyrus, which may serve to optimize person recognition. PMID:24389264

  14. An Experimental Analog of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droppleman, Leo F.; McNair, Douglas M.

    1971-01-01

    Using finger sweat prints and arousal ratings two different types of stress were measured: anticipation of, and stress during, simulated public speaking. The results indicated that the stress producing properties of public speaking can be reproduced in the laboratory, thus the model has acceptable stimulus properties and can be used in…

  15. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of composition; (2) it…

  16. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  17. Reading to Speak: Integrating Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yun

    2009-01-01

    According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important skill,…

  18. Chicago's Spanish-Speaking Population: Selected Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.

    Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…

  19. Narrative Assessment for Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol Kit-Sum; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Cheung, Hin-Tat; T'sou, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined the narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking school-age children to fill a need for a normative language test for school-age children. Purpose: To provide a benchmark of the narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking children; to identify which of the microstructure components was the best predictor of age; and to…

  20. Integrating Speaking Skills into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan Monroe, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Stressing the importance of incorporating speech skills throughout the curriculum, the articles in this journal provide ideas for developing speaking skills in all subjects and at all levels. The titles of the articles and their authors include the following: (1) "Speaking Skills: A Few Tips from an Old Timer" (Geoffrey R. Butler); (2)…

  1. Sustaining Speaking across the Curriculum Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Robert O.

    In 1988 a paper described "Start-Up Strategies for Speaking and Listening across Disciplines," with special reference to eight institutions which at that time had relatively freshly-minted programs in speaking across the curriculum (Weiss). Eight strategies for starting such programs were delineated and remain viable today, but the shelf-life of…

  2. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  3. The Spanish-speaking Five-year-old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Betty L.

    1972-01-01

    Author observed four kindergarten classes where teachers were able to speak Spanish; Spanish-speaking children, by various methods, learned skills and content at the same rate as English-speaking children did. (SP)

  4. To speak and be heard.

    PubMed

    Marty, M E; Guinn, D E; Greenfield, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is excerpted from the Park Ridge Center for the Study of Health, Faith, and Ethics 28-page handbook entitled "Religion and Public Discourse: Principles and Guidelines for Religious Participants." These principles are the product of a three-year research project conducted by the Center. The project "To Speak and Be Heard" is based upon a wide range of resources from within the participants' religious traditions, including practices, rituals, and tenets of faith. While this project grew out of the specific controversies around the Cairo Conference, the principles of civil discourse spelled out in this document are general in application and may be used to facilitate constructive public dialogue. This article also discusses the nature of civil discourse in the public square, covenants of conversation, engaging the other, living with conflict during and after conversation and argument, and the hope of civil discourse. PMID:12178896

  5. Speaking "Germ-anish," Reprograming Translation, and Drugs in Action.

    PubMed

    2016-04-21

    Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature. Our April 2016 selection includes the discovery that mammalian epithelial cells make quorum sensing-like molecules, the development of an RNA-switch-based strategy to regulate protein biosynthesis, and a nanoparticle-based sensor that reports on the efficiency of cancer drugs in real time. PMID:27105276

  6. Effective Elocution. Communication IV: Teaching Speaking Skills in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpening, Dodie K.

    1985-01-01

    Activities are presented to help gifted students overcome the fear of public speaking. Activities include exercises to improve confidence and understand the principles of effective public speaking. (CL)

  7. Speaking rate adjustment across changes in talker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Sawusch, James R.

    2002-05-01

    Individuals vary their speaking rate, and listeners use the speaking rate of precursor sentences to adjust for these changes [Kidd (1989)]. Recent work has suggested that speaking rate adjustment may not always be limited to speech from a single talker (Sawusch and Newman, 2000). When a talker change occurs in the midst of a vowel, the durations of both portions of the vowel influence perception of the rate-based contrast. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of talker change on rate normalization for precursor phrases. A male talker produced the sentence, I heard him say the word-at one of three different speaking rates. A female talker then produced a nonword containing a duration-based contrast. We examined whether the male talker's speaking rate would influence perception of the female talker's speech. The results were somewhat surprising. The speaking rate of the first talker did influence perception of the contrast in the second talker. However, the effect was a U-shaped function of speaking rate, rather than the linear function typically demonstrated in the single-voice condition. Several follow-up studies replicated this basic pattern. Implications of this finding for studies of rate normalization will be discussed.

  8. The Search for Better Ways of Speaking about Culture, Identity and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to provide better metaphors for thinking and speaking about culture, identity and values. In terms of human behaviour, the words culture, identity and values are viewed as useful reifications which have allowed us to discuss human action in terms of nouns. However, the terms have been used over many years in various theoretical…

  9. Early Verb Learning in 20-Month-Old Japanese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Ariyama, Junko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Katerelos, Marina; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children's representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early verb learning. Using an infant-controlled habituation paradigm with a switch design, Japanese-speaking children aged 1 ; 8 were habituated to two different events in which an object was engaging in an action. Each…

  10. Innovative Second Language Speaking Practice with Interactive Videos in a Rich Internet Application Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Juan A.; Sanz-Santamaría, Silvia; Montero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Attaining a satisfactory level of oral communication in a second language is a laborious process. In this action research paper we describe a new method applied through the use of interactive videos and the Babelium Project Rich Internet Application (RIA), which allows students to practice speaking skills through a variety of exercises. We present…

  11. French and Spanish-Speaking Children Use Different Visual and Motor Units during Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…

  12. Body ownership causes illusory self-attribution of speaking and influences subsequent real speaking

    PubMed Central

    Banakou, Domna; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    When we carry out an act, we typically attribute the action to ourselves, the sense of agency. Explanations for agency include conscious prior intention to act, followed by observation of the sensory consequences; brain activity that involves the feed-forward prediction of the consequences combined with rapid inverse motor prediction to fine-tune the action in real time; priming where there is, e.g., a prior command to perform the act; a cause (the intention to act) preceding the effect (the results of the action); and common-sense rules of attribution of physical causality satisfied. We describe an experiment where participants falsely attributed an act to themselves under conditions that apparently cannot be explained by these theories. A life-sized virtual body (VB) seen from the first-person perspective in 3D stereo, as if substituting the real body, was used to induce the illusion of ownership over the VB. Half of the 44 experimental participants experienced VB movements that were synchronous with their own movements (sync), and the other half asynchronous (async). The VB, seen in a mirror, spoke with corresponding lip movements, and for half of the participants this was accompanied by synchronous vibrotactile stimulation on the thyroid cartilage (Von) but this was not so for the other half. Participants experiencing sync misattributed the speaking to themselves and also shifted the fundamental frequency of their later utterances toward the stimulus voice. Von also contributed to these results. We show that these findings can be explained by current theories of agency, provided that the critical role of ownership over the VB is taken into account. PMID:25422444

  13. Body ownership causes illusory self-attribution of speaking and influences subsequent real speaking.

    PubMed

    Banakou, Domna; Slater, Mel

    2014-12-01

    When we carry out an act, we typically attribute the action to ourselves, the sense of agency. Explanations for agency include conscious prior intention to act, followed by observation of the sensory consequences; brain activity that involves the feed-forward prediction of the consequences combined with rapid inverse motor prediction to fine-tune the action in real time; priming where there is, e.g., a prior command to perform the act; a cause (the intention to act) preceding the effect (the results of the action); and common-sense rules of attribution of physical causality satisfied. We describe an experiment where participants falsely attributed an act to themselves under conditions that apparently cannot be explained by these theories. A life-sized virtual body (VB) seen from the first-person perspective in 3D stereo, as if substituting the real body, was used to induce the illusion of ownership over the VB. Half of the 44 experimental participants experienced VB movements that were synchronous with their own movements (sync), and the other half asynchronous (async). The VB, seen in a mirror, spoke with corresponding lip movements, and for half of the participants this was accompanied by synchronous vibrotactile stimulation on the thyroid cartilage (Von) but this was not so for the other half. Participants experiencing sync misattributed the speaking to themselves and also shifted the fundamental frequency of their later utterances toward the stimulus voice. Von also contributed to these results. We show that these findings can be explained by current theories of agency, provided that the critical role of ownership over the VB is taken into account. PMID:25422444

  14. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  15. Skater Tara Lipinski Speaks Out About DVT

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Skater Tara Lipinski Speaks Out About DVT Past Issues / Spring ... deadly potential at any age. Photo: Tara Lipinski Tara Lipinski has spent almost every day of her ...

  16. Joe Acaba Speaks with WISH Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba speaks with high school students participating in a summer program called Women in STEM High School Aerospace Scholars, or WISH, using the station’s ham ra...

  17. Thirty Days and Thirty Ways towards Better Public Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Marquez, Michelle

    The ability to speak in various public speaking situations is imperative for success in school, business, and industry. Aspects which improve public speaking skills include preparation, organization, paying attention to the "nuts and bolts" of the speaking situation, identifying the topic, using invigorating language, watching other public…

  18. Speaking Activities for the Advanced College-Bound Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Don

    Three activities for developing speaking skills of advanced English as second language students are presented. Impromptu speaking, extemporaneous speaking, and debate activities are designed to train students to organize concepts, develop spontaneous oral skills, and enhance confidence and clarity of thought. Impromptu speaking develops…

  19. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may…

  20. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  1. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version. PMID:22755448

  2. A Comparison of Narrative Structures of English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Delma McLeod

    1989-01-01

    Examines the pragmatic uses of narrative structures in the written stories of native-English speaking and native-Spanish speaking college students. It is shown that there are subtle differences in the way that the two groups use structures, suggesting that native-English and native-Spanish narrators have differing perceptions of themselves and…

  3. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  4. Teaching English Speaking and English Speaking Tests in the Thai Context: A Reflection from Thai Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamkhien, Attapol

    2010-01-01

    To successfully assess how language learners enhance their performance and achieve language learning goals, the four macro skills of listening, speaking reading and writing are usually the most frequently assessed and focused areas. However, speaking, as a productive skill, seems intuitively the most important of all the four language skills…

  5. Error Gravity: Perceptions of Native-Speaking and Non-Native Speaking Faculty in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresovich, Brant M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of teachers of composition in English as a Second Language in Japan addressed the perceptions of native-English-speaking and non-native-English-speaking teachers of the acceptability of specific error types within sentences. The native speakers of English were one British and 16 Americans. The non-native group was comprised of 26 Japanese…

  6. Autism Speaks Toolkits: Resources for Busy Physicians.

    PubMed

    Bellando, Jayne; Fussell, Jill J; Lopez, Maya

    2016-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is likely that busy primary care providers (PCP) are providing care to individuals with ASD in their practice. Autism Speaks provides a wealth of educational, medical, and treatment/intervention information resources for PCPs and families, including at least 32 toolkits. This article serves to familiarize PCPs and families on the different toolkits that are available on the Autism Speaks website. This article is intended to increase physicians' knowledge on the issues that families with children with ASD frequently encounter, to increase their ability to share evidence-based information to guide treatment and care for affected families in their practice. PMID:26149848

  7. Speaking and Listening through Drama 7 - 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendiville, Francis; Toye, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Showing teachers how to use drama to promote speaking and listening for pupils, including those who find learning difficult, this book describes, analyses and teaches how to use role play effectively and looks at how to generate a productive dialogue between teachers and pupils that is both powerful and enabling. The authors present innovative…

  8. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  9. Speak Out for Children, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document compiles the six issues of Volumes 15 and 16 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 2000 issue contains articles on Wisconsin's shared parenting law, the U.S. Senate's consideration of a fatherhood…

  10. Listening and Speaking: A Cybernetic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1985-01-01

    Cybernetic feedback theory sees the individual as a self-organizing feedback control system that generates its own activity to control its own perceptions. Applying the principle of feedback to language use, it appears that speaking as an overt public behavior is controlled by an internally private listening capacity. With that listening capacity,…

  11. How Well Do Prospective Teachers Speak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sandra L.

    As part of a study of basic skills of secondary education students, a study was conducted at Pennsylvania State University of the speaking ability of 43 prospective secondary level teachers. A rating instrument was developed based on a list of criteria considered important to teachers by speech communication experts and teacher educators alike.…

  12. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children identified? (3)…

  13. Assessing Speaking in the Revised FCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Nick; Hargreaves, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Speaking Test, which forms part of the revised First Certificate of English (FCE) examination of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Discusses key revisions, including use of paired-testing format, and notes the role of the oral examiners. Considers why the new design provides improvements in the assessment of…

  14. Speaking Strategies: Meeting NCATE Oral Proficiency Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    The teaming of ACTFL and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education resulted in the requirement that teacher candidates speak at the Advanced Low (AL) or higher level on the Oral Proficiency scale. Providing the means to help candidates meet that minimum standard for certification is a fundamental consideration. This article…

  15. Learning to Remember by Learning to Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Lanter, Jennifer; Van Pay, Craig K.

    2014-01-01

    Does the language we speak affect the way we think, and if so, how? Previous researchers have considered this question by exploring the cognitive abilities of speakers of different languages. In the present study, we looked for evidence of linguistic relativity within a language and within participants by looking at memory recall for monolingual…

  16. Validation of a Videoconferenced Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungtae; Craig, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Videoconferencing offers new opportunities for language testers to assess speaking ability in low-stakes diagnostic tests. To be considered a trusted testing tool in language testing, a test should be examined employing appropriate validation processes [Chapelle, C.A., Jamieson, J., & Hegelheimer, V. (2003). "Validation of a web-based ESL test."…

  17. Speaking and Listening in Content Area Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.

  18. Communicative Activities for Teaching Listening and Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Lois Kleinhenn, Ed.

    A collection of classroom activities for teaching listening and speaking skills in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. They are designed to be accompanied by a tape (not included here). All were developed by teachers and have been used successfully in ESL classrooms. Topics and skill areas addressed in the games and exercises include:…

  19. Speak Out for Children, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the three issues of Volume 13 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1998 issue contains articles on joint custody and the reduction of parental conflict, access grant programs, standby…

  20. Speak Out for Children, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the three issues of Volume 14 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1999 issue contains articles on National Child's Day, joint custody presumptions, changes in children's life and activities…

  1. ESL Speaks the Language of Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Immigrants and others who didn't grow up speaking English are often at a disadvantage when entering the workforce. One of the best ways for non-native English speakers to level the playing field is to enroll in targeted courses and job-training programs offered through their local community colleges. The best of these programs combines important…

  2. Public Speaking Teleprompters: The "Secret" Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellin, Keith

    An empirical study examined politicians' use of public speaking teleprompters (PSTs) when delivering major addresses to determine if audiences made aware of this practice would more seriously question speaker credibility, sincerity, and communicative ability. After completing an initial survey about political attitudes and awareness, subjects, 36…

  3. Confident Communication: Speaking Tips for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Douglas A.

    This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…

  4. Reading and the Spanish Speaking Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critchlow, Donald E., Ed.

    This booklet consists of five articles. The first, "Bilingual Education: Reading through Two Languages," by Arturo Luis Gutierrez, stresses the importance of teaching Spanish-speaking children to read first in their native tongue. The second article, "Teaching All Children to Read," by Donald E. Critchlow, discusses methodology and the problems…

  5. The German Speaking Test: Utility and Caveats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the utility of the German Speaking Test (GST) as a general test of German foreign-language proficiency, examining whether it can be used effectively in classroom and institutional foreign-language settings and how proficiency ratings based on the GST relate to examinees' real-world German communicative abilities. Caveats regarding the…

  6. Idiom Comprehension in Mandarin-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Shelley Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh Natalie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of familiarity, context, and linguistic convention on idiom comprehension in Mandarin speaking children. Two experiments (a comprehension task followed by a comprehension task coupled with a metapragmatic task) were administered to test participants in three age groups (6 and 9-year-olds, and an adult control group).…

  7. Permitanme Hablar = Allow Me to Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Nadjwa Effat Laila

    2005-01-01

    This multicultural feminist critical narrative inquiry examines how one Dominican Spanish and English speaking poor immigrant first grader, Pam, utilizes her critical literacies to intervene against inequitable teaching practices and affirm her cultures. Implications for early childhood educators to develop culturally responsive practices that…

  8. Speaking-Related Dyspnea in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…

  9. Speak Up: Help Avoid Mistakes in Your Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not understand something on the form – speak up. For your safety, the staff may ask you ... www.jointcommission.org The goal of the Speak Up ™ program is to help patients become more informed ...

  10. Korean- and English-speaking children use cross-situational information to learn novel predicate terms*

    PubMed Central

    CHILDERS, JANE B.; PAIK, JAE H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines children’s attention to cross-situational information during word learning. Korean-speaking children in Korea and English-speaking children in the US were taught four nonce words that referred to novel actions. For each word, children saw four related events: half were shown events that were very similar (Close comparisons), half were shown events that were not as similar (Far comparisons). The prediction was that children would compare events to each other and thus be influenced by the events shown. In addition, children in these language groups could be influenced differently as their verb systems differ. Although some differences were found across language, children in both languages were influenced by the type of events shown, suggesting that they are using a comparison process. Thus, this study provides evidence for comparison, a new mechanism to describe how children learn new action words, and demonstrates that this process could apply across languages. PMID:18752702

  11. Strategies for Reducing Fear in Students of Public Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert

    Based on his own experiences with public speaking courses, the instructor of a speech communication course for adults brings students to the task of speaking in front of the room gradually to reduce speech anxiety or communication apprehension. During successive class sessions, students speak sitting in their seats, standing beside their seats,…

  12. Contagion Theory and the Communication of Public Speaking State Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Ralph R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on research into the communication of speech state anxiety between adjacent speakers in the speaking order in a public speaking setting. Finds, based on classical response contagion theory, that public speaking state anxiety in an educational setting is contagious. Discusses possible consequences, and advances suggestions for future…

  13. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...

  14. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...

  15. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...

  16. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...

  17. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and...

  18. Fearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activities for the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.

    2007-01-01

    Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…

  19. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  20. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  1. "Speaking for another": the management of participant frames in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kingston, Debbie; Schultz, Misty

    2004-05-01

    A sociolinguistic analysis of an interaction between a woman with aphasia and a nonaphasic speaking partner was conducted to investigate participant framing in aphasia. Participant frames, or the stances that people take in conversation, help conversational participants structure their talk and collaboratively negotiate meaning (I. Goffman, 1974). This analysis revealed a configuration in which a person with severe aphasia enlisted her speaking partner to speak for her. That is, the interaction was framed such that the nonaphasic speaking partner served as the "spokesperson" for messages that were authored by the person with aphasia. The clinical requirements of adopting a "speaking for another" framework are discussed. PMID:15198631

  2. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen Hill

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  3. VARIATIONS IN RECRUITMENT YIELD, COSTS, SPEED AND PARTICIPANT DIVERSITY ACROSS INTERNET PLATFORMS IN A GLOBAL STUDY EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF AN HIV/AIDS AND HIV TESTING ANIMATED AND LIVE-ACTION VIDEO AMONG ENGLISH- OR SPANISH-SPEAKING INTERNET OR SOCIAL MEDIA USERS

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A.; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortés, Dharma E.; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield), time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs), and costs/ completion; and by participants’ demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78) and lowest costs / completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72) and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literay skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media plaforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/ social media or participant selection plaforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others. PMID:27330570

  4. Perceptual compensation for differences in speaking style.

    PubMed

    Vitela, A Davi; Warner, Natasha; Lotto, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that listeners will shift their categorization of a target vowel as a function of acoustic characteristics of a preceding carrier phrase (CP). These results have been interpreted as an example of perceptual normalization for variability resulting from differences in talker anatomy. The present study examined whether listeners would normalize for acoustic variability resulting from differences in speaking style within a single talker. Two vowel series were synthesized that varied between central and peripheral vowels (the vowels in "beat"-"bit" and "bod"-"bud"). Each member of the series was appended to one of four CPs that were spoken in either a "clear" or "reduced" speech style. Participants categorized vowels in these eight contexts. A reliable shift in categorization as a function of speaking style was obtained for three of four phrase sets. This demonstrates that phrase context effects can be obtained with a single talker. However, the directions of the obtained shifts are not reliably predicted on the basis of the speaking style of the talker. Instead, it appears that the effect is determined by an interaction of the average spectrum of the phrase with the target vowel. PMID:23847573

  5. Improving advance care planning for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults: study protocol for the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Barnes, Deborah E; Le, Gem M; Ramos, Roberto; Osua, Stacy J; Richardson, Sarah A; Boscardin, John; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that allows patients to identify their goals for medical care. Traditionally, ACP has focused on completing advance directives; however, we have expanded the ACP paradigm to also prepare patients to communicate their wishes and make informed decisions. To this end, we created an ACP website called PREPARE (http://www.prepareforyourcare.org) to prepare diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults for medical decision-making. Here, we describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled efficacy trial of PREPARE in a safety-net setting. The goal is to determine the efficacy of PREPARE to engage diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults in a full spectrum of ACP behaviours. Methods and analysis We include English-speaking and Spanish-speaking adults from an urban public hospital who are ≥55 years old, have ≥2 chronic medical conditions and have seen a primary care physician ≥2 times in the last year. Participants are randomised to the PREPARE intervention (review PREPARE and an easy-to-read advance directive) or the control arm (only the easy-to-read advance directive). The primary outcome is documentation of an advance directive and/or ACP discussion. Secondary outcomes include ACP behaviour change processes measured with validated surveys (eg, self-efficacy, readiness) and a broad range of ACP actions (eg, choosing a surrogate, identifying goals for care, discussing ACP with clinicians and/or surrogates). Using blinded outcome ascertainment, outcomes will be measured at 1 week and at 3, 6 and 12 months, and compared between study arms using mixed-effects logistic regression and mixed-effects linear, Poisson or negative binomial regression. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Boards and is guided by input from patient and clinical advisory boards and a data safety monitoring board. The results of this study will

  6. Increasing Confidence to Decrease Reticence: A Qualitative Action Research in Second Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an action research on increasing the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' confidence in speaking. Participants involved in this study were 16 male university students who had an upper-intermediate level of English. Extra speaking activities were incorporated into the classroom for 8 successive weeks. Insights into…

  7. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  8. How to Thank a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to expressing your appreciation to teachers, here's the drill: if the words don't come easily, don't let them get in the way. This guide is full of simple, affordable, straight-from-the-heart actions and gifts that will speak louder than words. And for those who are comfortable putting pen to paper, check out suggestions for written…

  9. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    PubMed

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25326609

  10. Improving Lecture Quality through Training in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills…

  11. Understanding English Speaking Difficulties: An Investigation of Two Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    Compared with reading, writing and listening, there has been a paucity of empirical data documenting learners' experiences of speaking English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) in different learning contexts in spite of the fact that developing the ability to speak in a second or foreign language is widely…

  12. Homework Practices of English and Non-English-Speaking Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelamour, Barbara; Jacobs, D'Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the homework practices of English-speaking and non-English-speaking parents. Using a national data set of 7,992 students across ages and ethnicities, the frequency and type of homework practices were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed significant (though small) differences between the overall homework practices between…

  13. EFL Teachers' Conceptions of Speaking Competence in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasrollahi Shahri, Mohammad Naseh

    2014-01-01

    The present article lies at the intersection of research on teacher cognition and speaking competence in a second language. It is a qualitative analysis of teacher accounts of speaking in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Iran. More specifically, the study is an exploration of three EFL teachers' conceptions of learning…

  14. Using Critical Communication Pedagogy to Teach Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Mare, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Using Critical Communication Pedagogy, this semester-long service-learning approach to public speaking requires students to apply public speaking concepts to a speech they develop and deliver to a specific community audience, to examine their own biases, and to explore and evaluate various strategies for adapting to their audience.

  15. The Development and Test of the Public Speaking Competence Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Lisa M.; Paul, Gregory D.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the demand for increased accountability within the university classroom, there have been calls for a new generation of rubrics that effectively assess students' competence in several areas, including public speaking. This article describes the development, test, and factor analyses of the Public Speaking Competence Rubric (PSCR), an…

  16. The Dyslexic Student and the Public Speaking Notecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Pamela A.

    To facilitate the extemporaneous speaking style, the preferred method of speech delivery in public speaking classes, students are advised to take a notecard with key words and phrases on it with them as they deliver the speech. In other words, the speech is to be well rehearsed but not given completely from memory or from a detailed manuscript.…

  17. Fairy Tales and Storytelling: Impromptu Speaking with a Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentiss, Suzy

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To gain practice with public speaking. Type of speech: Impromptu. Point value: 5% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: None; (f) Additional requirements: None. This assignment offers students an opportunity to speak on a familiar (and…

  18. THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH TO NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING MIGRANTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VITO, LAWRENCE

    THIS PROVISIONAL GUIDE FOR TEACHING ENGLISH TO NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING MIGRANTS PRESENTS THE USUAL ENGLISH LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING LEARNERS--CONSONANT SOUND PROBLEMS, VOWEL SOUND PROBLEMS, CONSONANT CLUSTER PROBLEMS, LANGUAGE RHYTHM PROBLEMS, AND INTONATION PROBLEMS. AIDS TO SPANISH USAGE AND PRONUNCIATION, INCLUDING VOWEL SOUNDS,…

  19. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  20. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  1. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  2. Library Service to Spanish Speaking Patrons: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Sharon Chickering

    This book is a guide for librarians and media specialists who recognize the value of bilingual-bicultural education and are looking for ideas to develop library services for their Spanish-speaking patrons. Chapter one gives a brief history of Spanish-speaking people in the United States, as well as cultural characteristics, family role,…

  3. On the Relevance of Bernstein for German-Speaking Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Brook

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses the relevance of Basil Bernstein for German-speaking Switzerland. It argues that Bernstein is potentially relevant for German-speaking Switzerland in light of contemporary studies which highlight a connection between social background and differential school achievement. After contextualising Bernstein's theoretical outlook…

  4. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  5. Gifted Spanish Speaking English Learners' Participation in Advanced Placement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Luz Adriana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to uncover the contextual factors of the schooling process that affect the enrollment of gifted Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) in Advanced Placement (AP) courses. In addition, this study investigated the perceptions of gifted Spanish speaking ELs toward AP courses and how these perceptions might affect their…

  6. Reduced Speaking Rate as an Early Predictor of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Roberts, Jenny; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated whether developmental reading disability could be predicted in children at the age of 30 months, according to 3 measures of speech production: speaking rate, articulation rate, and the proportion of speaking time allocated to pausing. Method: Speech samples of 18 children at high risk and 10 children at low risk for…

  7. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  8. Assessing Communication Competence in Speaking and Listening: A Consumer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Judith A.

    Many educational institutions are currently attempting to improve their attention to speaking and listening in curriculum and instruction, and this guide is intended to assist educators to become more knowledgeable about tools for assessing speaking and listening. Designed for those somewhat knowledgeable in the areas of assessment and language…

  9. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  10. Article Use in Spanish-Speaking Children with SLI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed article use in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment who are learning English as a Second Language. The surface hypothesis account of specific language impairment was evaluated in relation to the use of articles in these children. Language samples were obtained from 15 Spanish-speaking children with language…

  11. Basic Public Speaking Principles: An Examination of Twelve Popular Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Jon; Pearson, Judy C.

    A study investigated the principles included in basic public speaking texts and the relative importance given to each principle. Content analysis was used to examine 12 of the most popular introductory-level college public speaking textbooks. The unit of analysis was selected, categories were constructed, and the data were coded and weighted.…

  12. ICT Use in Education: Different Uptake and Practice in Hebrew-Speaking and Arabic-Speaking Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachmias, R.; Mioduser, D.; Forkosh-Baruch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Closing educational gaps between sub-populations in Israel, particularly between students in Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking schools, persists to be one of the priorities of Israel's education system. In the field of information and communication technology (ICT), this goal refers to infrastructure as well as practice, i.e. teaching and…

  13. Talk Louder So I Can See You.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2016-03-01

    How does one sense influence the processing of another? In this issue of Neuron, Ibrahim et al. (2016) demonstrate that presence of sound sharpens neural tuning in the primary visual cortex via activation of direct inputs from the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26938437

  14. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  15. Stroke Knowledge in Spanish-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Maximiliano A; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Willey, Joshua Z

    2015-01-01

    Background Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. Spanish-speaking populations (SSP) have heterogeneous cultural backgrounds, racial and ethnical origins, economic status, and access to health care systems. There are no published reviews about stroke knowledge in SSP. We reviewed the existing literature addressing stroke knowledge among SSP and propose future directions for research. Summary We identified 18 suitable studies by searching PubMed, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane and Scielo databases, and looking at reference lists of eligible articles. We also included 2 conference abstracts. Data related to stroke knowledge from studies of Spanish-speakers was analyzed. Key messages Little is known about stroke knowledge in SSP, especially in Latin America. Information is poor even among subjects at risk, stroke patients, stroke survivors, and health care providers. “Ictus”, the word used for stroke in Spanish, is largely unrecognized among subjects at risk. Furthermore, access to medical care and presence of neurologists are suboptimal in many regions. There are several potential issues to solve regarding stroke knowledge and stroke care in SSP. Programs to educate the general population and non-neurologists medical providers in stroke and telemedicine may be suitable options to improve the present situation. PMID:25871697

  16. Speaking without Broca's area after tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Monique; Gatignol, Peggy; Leroy, Marianne; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-08-01

    We present the case of a right-handed patient who received surgical treatment for a left frontal WHO grade II glioma invading the left inferior and middle frontal gyri, the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the anterior insula, in direct contact also with the anterior-superior part of the lentiform nucleus. The tumor resection was guided by direct electrical stimulation on brain areas, while the patient was awake. Adding a narrative production task to the neuropsychological assessment, we compared pre-, peri- and post-surgical language skills in order to analyze the effects of the tumor infiltration and the consequences of the left IFG resection, an area known to be involved in various language and cognitive processes. We showed that the tumor infiltration and its resection did not lead to the severe impairments predicted by the localization models assigning a significant role in language processing to the left frontal lobe, notably Broca's area. We showed that slow tumor evolution - the patient had been symptom-free for a long time - enabled compensatory mechanisms to process most language functions endangered by the tumor infiltration. However, a subtle fragility was observed in two language devices, i.e., reported speech and relative clauses, related to minor working memory deficits. This case study of a patient speaking without Broca's area illustrates the efficiency of brain plasticity, and shows the necessity to broaden pre-, peri-, post-surgery language and cognitive assessments. PMID:19274574

  17. Speaking and Hearing Clearly: Talker and Listener Factors in Speaking Style Changes

    PubMed Central

    Smiljanić, Rajka; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research concerning the nature of the distinct, listener-oriented speaking style called ‘clear speech’ and its effect on intelligibility for various listener populations. We review major findings that identify talker, listener and signal characteristics that contribute to the characteristically high intelligibility of clear speech. Understanding the interplay of these factors sheds light on the interaction between higher level cognitive and lower-level sensory and perceptual factors that affect language processing. Clear speech research is, thus, relevant for both its theoretical insights and practical applications. Throughout the review, we highlight open questions and promising future directions. PMID:20046964

  18. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  19. Are the Spanish-Speaking Just Another Immigrant Group? (Document)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Martin G.; Flood, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Stenographic record of the exchange between Congressman Daniel Flood and Martin Castillo, Chairman of the Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for the Spanish-Speaking People. The occasion was the Subcommittee Hearings on the budget request of the Cabinet Committee. (DM)

  20. The Development and Validation of the Portuguese Speaking Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of the Portuguese Speaking Test, a simulated oral proficiency interview that uses a semidirect approach to examine proficiency in personal conversation, direction-giving, description, narration, topical discourse, and real-life situations. (CB)

  1. Speak Up: Help Avoid Mistakes with Your Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... how often or what time of day) vitamins herbs, diet supplements, natural remedies alcohol, recreational drugs SpeakUP ... take together. They will also check your vitamins, herbs, diet supplements or natural remedies. • Pharmacists will check ...

  2. R U Txting? Is the Use of Text Speak Hurting Your Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Michelle; Davis, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Recent negative media attention surrounding the use of text speak (shorthand abbreviations of words such as "gr8" for "great") and the potentially detrimental effects of text speak on literacy prompted this study of texting and literacy in 80 college students. Thirty-four text speak users and 46 nontext speak users were assessed on their…

  3. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found on all measures: students reported less apprehension and more confidence and competence after the courses. No differences were found between the two courses when comparing the mean changes from pre- to postscore. Traditional public speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students. PMID:19481418

  4. Speaking out for sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Nowrojee, S

    1993-01-01

    The view was presented that the living conditions of South Asian women do not allow for information, power, or support for controlling their own sexuality and reproductive health. Western biases are frequently incorporated into women's programs. The Asian rules governing women's sexuality are governed by sexism, racism, and class consciousness. Asian reproductive policies and programs need to break the silences, destroy the stereotypes, and give women control of their own sexuality and health. Cultures in South Asia prevent open discussion of sexuality, and the female body is considered "unclean." The perception of the Asian women who emigrated to the US is replete with visions of exotic sex or tightly controlled segregation. Asian males were denied involvement with American women. American servicemen abroad have used Asian women in the sex industry; the stereotyped Asian woman is "exotically beautiful, submissive, and willing." Stereotyped American pornography depicts female images in the Kama Sutra in a distorted way. The Asian community does not provide women with the information, tools, and services needed for Asian women to protect themselves from the consequences of unwanted and unprotected sex. The Asian community uses fear and shame to control women's sexuality outside the reproductive role. It is difficult for Asian women to exercise control over their own bodies or exercise reproductive choice. Decisions are made by husbands and families and may be dependent on the sex of the children born. Sexually transmitted diseases are not adequately diagnosed or treated. Asian women need to continue to speak out and to challenge the external controls on their sexuality. The consequences of the stereotyping and controls on Asian women's expression of sexuality are negative feelings about sexuality, lack of attention to proper gynecological care, and a lower likelihood of protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12290479

  5. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  6. Women's safety alerts in maternity care: is speaking up enough?

    PubMed

    Rance, Susanna; McCourt, Christine; Rayment, Juliet; Mackintosh, Nicola; Carter, Wendy; Watson, Kylie; Sandall, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Patients' contributions to safety include speaking up about their perceptions of being at risk. Previous studies have found that dismissive responses from staff discouraged patients from speaking up. A Care Quality Commission investigation of a maternity service where serious incidents occurred found evidence that women had routinely been ignored and left alone in labour. Women using antenatal services hesitated to raise concerns that they felt staff might consider irrelevant. The Birthplace in England programme, which investigated the quality and safety of different places of birth for 'low-risk' women, included a qualitative organisational case study in four NHS Trusts. The authors collected documentary, observational and interview data from March to December 2010 including interviews with 58 postnatal women. A framework approach was combined with inductive analysis using NVivo8 software. Speaking up, defined as insistent and vehement communication when faced with failure by staff to listen and respond, was an unexpected finding mentioned in half the women's interviews. Fourteen women reported raising alerts about safety issues they felt to be urgent. The presence of a partner or relative was a facilitating factor for speaking up. Several women described distress and harm that ensued from staff failing to listen. Women are speaking up, but this is not enough: organisation-focused efforts are required to improve staff response. Further research is needed in maternity services and in acute and general healthcare on the effectiveness of safety-promoting interventions, including real-time patient feedback, patient toolkits and patient-activated rapid response calls. PMID:23417732

  7. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258

  8. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion in the French speaking community of Belgium].

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Y; Béduwé, C; Collignon, J L; Hubens, V; Levêque, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of mortality in Belgium and are a priority for the Five-year program of health promotion in the French speaking Community. It is declined in operational programs by priority thematics, including the heart health. With this framework, it appeared necessary to operationalize cardiovascular priorities. A process of systemic and participative planning was set up in order to seek operational strategies and actions, and to cover the whole population and actors concerned with these health problems. The various cardiovascular risk factors, which potentiate one another, are approached together and in a global way. Upstream to the risk factors, social health determinants play an important role in cardiovascular diseases and others diseases like cancers. Tracking cardiovascular risk factors among people 30 to 75 years is also proposed. It makes it possible to identify people at risk and to put forward individual and adapted measures. The plan integrates actions of health promotion (acting on the health determinants and factors which influence them) as well as actions aiming at improving tracking and the accompaniment of the patients in secondary and tertiary prevention. Actions on health determinants and the factors influencing them present moreover the advantage of being often common to many chronic diseases. PMID:20687443

  9. Drawing the Spanish-Speaking Community into the Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen, S.

    2005-12-01

    Weber State University is located in Ogden, Utah, a region of the country with a large Spanish-speaking, primarily Hispanic community (as of 2000 census, approximately 24%). Historically, we have been unable to recruit these students, and the University demographics indicate only 3% self-identified Hispanic students. As part of an effort to increase the University's impact on this group, we have begun to offer Spanish-language shows to the public in our planetarium. We report here on how well these have been received, what the impact appears to be on the community, and a little bit about the difficulties of a primarily English-speaking staff meeting with a primarily Spanish-speaking audience.

  10. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    PubMed Central

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  11. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  12. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  13. The development of education indicators for measuring quality in the English-speaking Caribbean: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Bowe, Anica G

    2015-02-01

    Education evaluation has become increasingly important in the English-speaking Caribbean. This has been in response to assessing the progress of four regional initiatives aimed at improving the equity, efficiency, and quality of education. Both special interest groups and local evaluators have been responsible for assessing the progress of education and providing an overall synthesis and summary of what is taking place in the English-speaking Caribbean. This study employed content analysis to examine the indicators used in these education evaluation studies since the declaration of the Caribbean Plan of Action 2000-2015 to determine these indicators' appropriateness to the Caribbean context in measuring education progress. Findings demonstrate that the English-speaking Caribbean has made strides in operationalizing quality input, process, and output indicators; however quality outcome indicators beyond test scores are yet to be realized in a systematic manner. This study also compared the types of collaborative partnerships in conducting evaluation studies used by special interest groups and local evaluators and pinpointed the one that appears most suitable for special interest groups in this region. PMID:25299825

  14. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  15. Teacher Truths: Speaking from the Heart of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janell D.; Cordry, Sheila; Notar, Charles E.; Friery, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    When educators are given the opportunity to speak candidly, straight from their heart and soul about their profession, what might they have to say? Twenty-three graduate students enrolled in a Leadership in Education class were given the chance to do exactly that via an on-line discussion board forum assignment. This article reports the results of…

  16. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  17. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  18. Social Competence of Mandarin-Speaking Immigrant Children in Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine social competence of Chinese immigrant children and its associations with age, length of attendance in childcare, gender, generational status and proficiencies in English and Mandarin Chinese. One hundred Mandarin-speaking children aged three to five years from 15 childcare centres in Sydney were assessed by normed…

  19. Writing and Speaking Skills Can Be Taught in Psychology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugh, Henry E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a program that gives psychology students practice in written and oral communication. It involves students in writing an abstract of a journal article and in making an oral presentation. Writing and speaking skills, along with methodology, may be the most enduring legacy of introductory psychology courses. (CS)

  20. Effect of Speaking Environment on Speech Production and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Environments affect speaking and listening performance. This contribution reviews some of the main ways in which all sounds are affected by the environment they propagate into. These influences are used to assess how environments affect speakers and listeners. The article concludes with a brief consideration of factors that designers may wish to take into account to address the effects. PMID:21258629

  1. Teaching Spanish to the Spanish Speaking: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes Fallis, Guadalupe, Ed.; Garcia-Moya, Rudolfo, Ed.

    This volume gathers a sampling of educators' ideas on the issue of the role of the non-standard dialect in the teaching of Spanish to Spanish speakers. Part one, "Rationale for the Teaching of Spanish to the Spanish Speaking," deals with philosophy and theory and contains papers by Guadalupe Valdes Fallis and Nasario Garcia. Part two, "Linguistic…

  2. Women Speak: Healing the Wounds of Homelessness through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen Anne; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The Women Speak writing project explored the use of writing as therapy for homeless women at an urban drop-in center. By sharing experiences, a sense of empowerment began. Nursing students and faculty were challenged to rethink the traditional clinical relationship that gives highest priority to the needs of students and faculty rather than the…

  3. Speaking Rates of Turkish Prelingually Hearing-Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgin, M. Cem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of training for the hearing impaired children in auditory oral approach is to develop good speaking abilities. However profoundly hearing-impaired children show a wide range of spoken language abilities, some having highly intelligible speeches while others have unintelligible ones. This is due to hearing-impaired children's speech…

  4. "Community" as a Guiding Theme for the Public Speaking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    First-year students at many universities find themselves in new communities, with little understanding of how their new university, city, academic, or career communities function. Developing a student's sense of community can have long-term benefits. Using the theme of "Community" in the basic public speaking course provides students with…

  5. Pedagogical Methods of Teaching "Women in Public Speaking."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Lucille M.

    A course on women in public speaking, developed at the University of Cincinnati, focuses on the rhetoric of selected women who have been involved in various movements and causes in the United States in the twentieth century. Women studied include educator Mary McLeod Bethune, Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin, suffragette Carrie Chapman Catt, Helen…

  6. Listening and Speaking Activities for Foreign Language Learners: Second Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, James M.

    The 30 listening and speaking activities in this collection are designed to motivate students to use foreign languages for communicating their ideas and to encourage students to be creative. The criteria for including the activities were: (1) proven effectiveness toward improving students' oral language proficiency; (2) ease of adaptability to any…

  7. Insights on Teaching Speaking in TESOL. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tim, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) field continues to experience increased valuing of experiential practitioner knowledge. A welcome result of this evolution has been the broadening of research perspectives. The 16 practitioner narratives in "Insights on Teaching Speaking in TESOL" are written by teacher-researchers who…

  8. Review of "Yearning to Break Free: Ohio Superintendents Speak out"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine; Dworkin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The report, Yearning to Break Free: Ohio Superintendents Speak Out, describes findings of a survey of 246 Ohio school superintendents about critical issues facing the state's educational system. In particular, the intent of the study was to examine how superintendents might do more with fewer resources. The authors conclude that Ohio districts…

  9. THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAMORA, JULIAN; AND OTHERS

    A PILOT STUDY TRACED THE HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES AND DISCUSSED THEIR PRESENT POSITION IN AMERICAN SOCIETY IN TERMS OF EDUCATION, HOUSING, EMPLOYMENT, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, VOTING, PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS, AND HEALTH. DISCRIMINATION AND THE DEPRIVATION OF CIVIL RIGHTS WERE EMPHASIZED. SOURCES FOR…

  10. Activities of Daily Living of Spanish-Speaking Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailinger, Rita L.

    This anthropological study reports on some of the activities of daily living (ADL's) of 19 Spanish-speaking families living in a low income suburb of Washington, D.C. ADL's are defined as those functions which are performed on a usual day. Generically they include eating, sleeping, communicating, working, and recreating. In this paper, they…

  11. Professional Rhetorics: Bridging the Gap between Writing, Speaking, & Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Justin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the syllabus for the course "Professional Rhetorics: Bridging the Gap Between Writing, Speaking, & Digital Media." The course is designed to help students develop into effective rhetors for today's professional environments, and it will do so by exploring numerous rhetorical strategies associated with oral, written, and…

  12. Speaking and Instructed Foreign Language Acquisition. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Miroslaw; Waniek-Klimczak, Ewa; Majer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Developing the ability to speak in a foreign language is an arduous task. This is because it involves the mastery of different language subsystems, simultaneous focus on comprehension and production, and the impact of a range of social factors. This challenge is further compounded in situations in which learners have limited access to the target…

  13. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and the Public Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Janet Weston; Tobler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    From the earliest roots of rhetoric, practitioners emphasized the need for analyzing one's audience before developing a speech. Textbooks for most basic public speaking courses spend at least one chapter discussing audience analysis. Authors discuss adapting messages to various demographic, cultural, and individual differences. As a result,…

  14. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  15. Using Public Speaking Tasks in English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for using public speaking tasks in English language teaching (ELT) and to highlight some of their many advantages. For the purpose of this article, the author will focus on two types of these tasks: student presentations and debates. Student presentations may consist of either individual or…

  16. Self-Persuasion: The Effects of Public Speaking on Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Keith; Carter, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the effects of the preparation and presentation of a speech on the changing attitudes of the speaker. Concludes that individual attitudes are affected by the preparation stage more than the presentation stage. Draws implications for the teaching of public speaking. (JMF)

  17. Testing Speaking Proficiency: The Oral Interview. Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    The oral interview (OI) was developed to meet the need for a testing procedure of second language speaking skills. It has been refined and expanded several times since first developed in the 1950's for use by the U.S. Government. Now known as the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Services (ACTFL/ETS) scale,…

  18. Phonological Deficits in French Speaking Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillart, Christelle; Parisse, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the phonological disorders of French-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) in production. Aims: The main goal was to confirm whether children with SLI have limitations in phonological ability as compared with normally developing children matched by mean length of utterance (MLU) and phonemic…

  19. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  20. Early lexical development in Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Maldonado, D; Thal, D; Marchman, V; Bates, E; Gutierrez-Clellen, V

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the early lexical development of a group of 328 normal Spanish-speaking children aged 0;8 to 2;7. First the development and structure of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas is described. Then five studies carried out with the instrument are presented. In the first study vocabulary development of Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers is compared to that of English-speaking infants and toddlers. The English data were gathered using a comparable parental report, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. In the second study the general characteristics of Spanish language acquisition, and the effects of various demographic factors on that process, are examined. Study 3 examines the differential effects of three methods of collecting the data (mail-in, personal interview, and clinic waiting room administration). Studies 4 and 5 document the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results show that the trajectories of development are very similar for Spanish- and English-speaking children in this age range, that children from varying social groups develop similarly, and that mail-in and personal interview administration techniques produce comparable results. Inventories administered in a medical clinic waiting room, on the other hand, produced lower estimates of toddler vocabulary than the other two models. PMID:8300774

  1. Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening: Perspectives in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I examine the citations in recent review articles in applied linguistics to point out that there appears to be a distinct lack of overlap between references to work in four inter-related areas--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. I then point to areas of research where I think it particularly important to consider these…

  2. Performing Identities in Speaking Tests: Co-Construction Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Poststructuralist perspectives on the discursive construction of identity and critical approaches to linguistics, discourse analysis, and language testing have contributed to a growing awareness of the complex social nature of performance in speaking tests. In this article, I explore how the concept of co-construction is useful to understand how…

  3. Synthesis Of Realistic Animations Of A Person Speaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Kenneth C.; Kagels, David S.; Watson, Stephen H.; Rom, Hillel S.; Lorre, Jean J.; Wright, John R.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1995-01-01

    Actors computer program implements automated process that synthesizes realistic animations of person speaking. Produces "newscaster" type video sequences. Uses images of person and, therefore, not limited to cartoons and cartoonlike movies. Potential applications also include use of process for automatically producing on-the-fly animations for human/computer interfaces and for reducing bandwidth needed to transmit video telephone signals.

  4. Speaking for Australia: Cross-Cultural Dialogue and International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassam, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In their interactions with international students, either at home or abroad, teachers often find themselves speaking on behalf of the nation. Overseas students arrive with expectations created in the international education marketplace, expectations that depend more on a nationalist than on an internationalist outlook. Students also have ideas of…

  5. Spanish-Speaking Children's Production of Number Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Abreu-Mendoza, Roberto A.; Aguado-Servín, Oscar A.

    2014-01-01

    Infants across cultures need to identify the characteristics of their native languages in order to become competent speakers. The means by which Spanish-speaking children learn to produce number-gender linguistic markers has not been sufficiently investigated. Thirty-eight three-year-olds were tested in Berko-like production tasks, in which they…

  6. Systematic Instruction in Reading for Spanish-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Elva; Shefelbine, John; Carnine, Linda; Maldonado-Colon, Elba; Gunn, Barbara

    This book addresses the area of reading and literacy instruction for Spanish-speaking students. Ten chapters focus on the following: (1) "Direct Instruction" (Elva Duran and Douglas Carnine); (2) "Developing the Foundations of Literacy: Oracy" (Elba Maldonado-Colon); (3) "Language Development and Instruction" (Linda Carnine); (4) "Academic…

  7. Dynamic Development in Speaking versus Writing in Identical Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Vahtrick, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Taking a dynamic usage-based perspective, this longitudinal case study compares the development of sentence complexity in speaking versus writing in two beginner Taiwanese learners of English (identical twins) in an extensive corpus consisting of 100 oral and 100 written texts of approximately 200 words produced by each twin over 8 months. Three…

  8. Corporate Speak and "Collateral Recruitment": Surfing the Student Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Academic practice is scrutinized and regulated with such "Corporate speak" terms as "performance indicators," "benchmarking," "service providers" and "clients." As part of a field where ideological shifts continue to apply marketized frames of reference as neoliberalism tightens its grip, new terms…

  9. Speaking, Reading and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    The determinants of English language fluency among immigrants and the effects of fluency on earnings are examined, using a unique data set and a sample of more than 800 illegal aliens apprehended in Los Angeles, California. Analysis of the data show the importance of certain variables not previously available, speaking fluency at migration and…

  10. Using Word Clouds to Teach about Speaking Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Good public speaking style requires, among other skills, "effective management of the resources of language." Good speakers choose language carefully to create credibility, emotional impact, and logical appeal. If a speaker's language is wishy-washy, dull, vague, or long-winded, the speaker appears less trustworthy. Audience distrust of a speaker…

  11. Investigating Prompt Difficulty in an Automatically Scored Speaking Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking assessments for second language learners have traditionally been expensive to administer because of the cost of rating the speech samples. To reduce the cost, many researchers are investigating the potential of using automatic speech recognition (ASR) as a means to score examinee responses to open-ended prompts. This study examined the…

  12. English- and Spanish-Speaking Women's Use of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Fernandez, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes variables related to the context and consequences of women's use of violence as well as a wide range of violent behaviors used and experienced by court-ordered English- and Spanish-speaking women. Data were derived from intake assessments of 125 court-ordered women over 24 months. Almost all of the women reported a history of…

  13. Teaching the Spanish-Speaking Child--A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Jo Ann; And Others

    This guide deals with the subject in two parts: (1) background materials, and (2) classroom activities for teaching English to Spanish speakers. The first part discusses the general characteristics of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States, with particular attention to the diversity among them, some group profiles, and dialects and…

  14. Practicing Speaking for Academic Purposes Using Aristotle's "Topics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2007-01-01

    Having been adapted by instructors in various disciplines over many years, Aristotle's "topics" have retained their original, heuristic value, inviting students to more deeply consider issues using a communicative pedagogy. In the author's teaching of Advanced Speaking for Academic Purposes, Aristotle's "topics" have been a useful mediating tool…

  15. Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…

  16. Speak Up: Prevent Errors in Your Child's Care

    MedlinePlus

    SpeakUP TM Prevent Errors in Your Child’s Care Prevent Errors in Your Child’s Care Your child’s health and safety are important ... brochure has tips and answers to questions to prevent errors in your child’s care. The Joint Commission ...

  17. Formulaic Sequences and Their Relationship with Speaking and Listening Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the use of formulaic sequences (FSs), speaking ability and speech fluency. Formulae form a considerable portion of native-speakers' speech and mastering them helps learners to appear more native-like. In this study 41 learners of English were interviewed and their speech fluency, level of…

  18. English Spelling Errors Made by Arabic-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Busaidi, Saleh; Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah H.

    2015-01-01

    Spelling is a basic literacy skill in any language as it is crucial in communication. EFL students are often unable to spell or pronounce very simple monosyllabic words even after several years of English instruction. Similarly, teachers and researchers usually focus on the larger skills such as speaking and reading and ignore the smaller…

  19. Start-Up Strategies for Speaking and Listening across Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Robert O.

    To document procedures used in the early stages of introducing programs of Speaking and Listening across Disciplines (SALAD) in higher education, this descriptive report examines the "start-up" strategies for SALAD in eight institutions: Alverno College (Wisconsin), Central College (Iowa), Clarkson University (New York), DePauw University…

  20. Speaking across the Curriculum as an Alternative Assessment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Robert O.

    Speaking across the curriculum programs are a readily accessible venue for the assessment of oral communication competence and in some instances are already being used for such purposes. While so far the implementation of simple holistic judgments for quality assurance purposes has emerged as one practical procedure, further exploration should…

  1. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  2. Native-English Speaking Instructors Teaching Writing in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodi; Fu, Danling

    2015-01-01

    This article presents two separate but related studies on native-English speaking (NES) instructors' teaching writing practice in Chinese universities. One study is a case study that explores the teaching practice of three NES instructors' writing instruction in a southern Chinese university as well as students' responses to their practice.…

  3. Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

  4. A New Approach to Public Speaking Course in ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Minghua

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a project report on the experiment of an English public speaking and debating course with advanced level English majors in College of Arts and Science, Yangtze University. The paper analyzes the validity of the course, introduces the design rationale, the design and experiment process, and students' responses. The paper suggests that…

  5. Thinking and Speaking in Two Languages. Bilingual Education & Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the history of debates about language and thought has been a history of thinking of language in the singular. The purpose of this volume is to reverse this trend and to begin unlocking the mysteries surrounding thinking and speaking in bi- and multilingual speakers. If languages influence the way we think, what happens to those who…

  6. Strategies for Reducing Public Speaking Anxiety in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, David Shinji

    1994-01-01

    Develops a typology of strategies people use to cope with public speaking anxiety. Assesses the influences of anxiety level on strategy use. Finds 65 basic tactics in 6 strategy types (Relaxation, Preparation, Positive Thinking, Audience Depreciation, Concentration, and Resignation). Finds high anxious persons more likely to report Relaxation and…

  7. Getting Our Act Together: A Justification for a Speaking Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKiernan, John

    Research indicates that about 40% of the population fear public speaking. There is a wide variety of possible causes for this unwillingness to communicate: a lack of skills, social introversion, alienation, lack of fluency in English, and communication apprehension. Despite the fact that evidence indicates everyone may have some difficulty with…

  8. Language Acquisition in the Swedish-Speaking Minority in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunell, A. Viking

    1991-01-01

    Documents the differences in language acquisition and school achievement between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking students in Finland's comprehensive school systems. Discusses the need for language maintenance and enrichment measures in both out-of-school and in-school environments. (SR)

  9. Attitudes toward Suicide among English-Speaking Urban Canadians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, George; Leenars, Antoon A.

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 196 English-speaking Canadian adults residing in 6 major cities of Canada were administered the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. Results are discussed along 10 major dimensions: stigma of suicide, normality, the right to die, acceptability, cry for help, mental illness, religion, antecedents, impulsivity, and incidence. (JPS)

  10. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmad, Diana; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on students' pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger)…

  11. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Listening and Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the fourth of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops listening and speaking, workplace literacy skills identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth direct care staff…

  12. The Construction of Orthography by Maya-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer, Alejandra

    A discussion of the language skills of Maya-speaking children in Mexico describes the relationship of Maya and Spanish languages in this population's education and reports on a study of the construction of orthography by these children. The study first examines how language is used in literacy education and the difficulties of literacy in a…

  13. Teaching Reading to Bidialectal English-Speaking Caribbean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on bidialectal teacher preparation for teaching bidialectal English-speaking Caribbean American students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teachers' perception of reading difficulties of Caribbean American children in a local district that has a large percentage of these students who…

  14. "Woman Speaks": Representations of Working Women in Postwar America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalas, Andrea; Berenstein, Rhona J.

    1996-01-01

    Looks at the ways in which the relationship between women and work was characterized during the late 1940s in "Woman Speaks," a combination newsreel/television show in Chicago. Expands upon the work of other historians and critics who have examined the representations of gender in early television marketing ploys and variety/situation comedy…

  15. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  16. Socializing English-Speaking Navajo Children to Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vining, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how young children are socialized to the process and products of storytelling as part of everyday family life is important for language and literacy instruction. A language socialization framework was used to understand storytelling practices on the Navajo Nation. This study examined how three young English-speaking Navajo children,…

  17. Changes in Thinking for Speaking: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Gale

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linguistic research on motion events has shown that Spanish speakers and English speakers have different patterns of thinking for speaking about motion, both linguistically and gesturally (for a review, see Stam, 2010b). Spanish speakers express path linguistically with verbs, and their path gestures tend to occur with path verbs, whereas…

  18. False Belief Understanding in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.; Cheung, Kar Man

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks--a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on…

  19. Student Public Speaking: Creating the Confidence, Breaking through Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schornack, Gary R.; Beck, Charles E.

    As employers increase the use of teams and telecommuting in the workplace, the need for improved communication also accelerates both in written and oral modes. For oral communication or public speaking, a review of recent literature indicates this renewed emphasis, with numerous articles highlighting the need coming from disciplines ranging from…

  20. Reading in French-Speaking Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; Cole, Pascale; Leuwers, Christel; Casalis, Severine; Zorman, Michel; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reading and reading-related skills of 15 French-speaking adults with dyslexia, whose performance was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CA) and reading-level controls (RL). Experiment 1 assessed the efficiency of their phonological reading-related skills (phonemic awareness, phonological short-term…

  1. SPEAK MANDARIN, A BEGINNING TEXT IN SPOKEN CHINESE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FENN, HENRY C.; TEWKSBURY, M. GARDNER

    THIS TEXT IS A THOROUGH REVISION AND EXPANSION OF M. GARDNER TEWKSBURY'S "SPEAK CHINESE" OF 1948. THE 24 LESSONS OF THE EARLIER TEXT HAVE BEEN REGROUPED INTO 20 AND THE VOCABULARY NOW INCLUDES 850 ITEMS. WHEN USED WITH THE EXERCISES IN THE ACCOMPANYING "STUDENT'S WORKBOOK" THE TEXT IS SUITABLE FOR INTENSIVE COURSES AS WELL AS MORE CONVENTIONAL…

  2. Speaking of Race and Ethnic Identities: Exploring Multicultural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arber, Ruth Eileen

    2005-01-01

    New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…

  3. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  4. Narrative Development in Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…

  5. HIV/AIDS and Children in the English Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Barbara A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the HIV/AIDS situation among English-speaking children in the Caribbean. Papers include: "Preface" (C. James Hospedales); "Introduction"; (Barbara A. Dicks); "HIV/AIDS: Challenging a Monster" (Brendan Bain); "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents" (Noreen Jack); "Social and Demographic Factors Affecting…

  6. Temporal Processing Deficits in Hebrew Speaking Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent specific reading disabilities and poor phonologic processing in children who read Hebrew, a primarily consonant orthography, are related to central auditory temporal processing deficits (TPDs). Twenty-four Hebrew-speaking children (ages 10-13) with and without reading disabilities were asked…

  7. Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowkett, Steve

    2011-01-01

    "Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…

  8. Compensation Strategies: Tracking Movement in EFL Learners' Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…

  9. Speaking of Science: Stepping out of the Stereotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single event. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be.If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentation interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. "The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking." Scott Berkun, 2010

  10. Speaking of Science: stepping out of the stereotype (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely rewarding and gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, get to reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single session. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be. If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentations interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. 'The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking.' Scott Berkun, Confessions of a Public Speaker, 2010

  11. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  12. The Effect of Instructing Impression Management Behaviors on Maximizing Applicants' Performance in the IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namdar, Sara; Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Speaking proceeds under the constraint of time. While speaking, speakers are under constant pressure to follow the message being received and to formulate rapid responses to their partners. In the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Speaking Test, the communicative nature of the interview creates an ideal situation for applicants…

  13. Instructional Efficacy of Portfolio for Assessing Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safari, Mahshad; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the fundamental role of speaking in language skills, this study intended to investigate the effects of speaking portfolio as an alternative form of assessment for assessing Iranian EFL learners' speaking ability at the intermediate and advanced proficiency levels and also its impact on their attitudes. Accordingly, from the population of…

  14. Using Seminars to Teach the Common Core's Speaking and Listening Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura

    2011-01-01

    As educators, the authors know the importance of teaching reading and writing, but they often overlook speaking and listening skills. They believe that if they have class discussions on a regular basis, students are "naturally" learning to speak and to listen. However, that is not the case. On the contrary, speaking and listening skills are ones…

  15. Pre-Service English Teachers' Beliefs on Speaking Skill Based on Motivational Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore pre-service English teachers' perceptions of teaching speaking in Turkey, the importance they give to this language skill, and their self-evaluation of their speaking competence. With case design and maximum variation sampling approach, seven pre-service English teachers' beliefs about speaking skills were gathered in…

  16. Jamieson Meets Lucas: Eloquence and Pedagogical Model(s) in "The Art of Public Speaking."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frobish, Todd S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Kathleen Hall Jamieson's theory of "eloquence in the electronic age." Explores "The Art of Public Speaking," finding that it takes little account of the latest developments in rhetorical theory and changes in expectations of public speaking and eloquence. Suggests how public speaking texts might uphold the classical virtues of eloquence…

  17. The effects of tones on speaking frequency and intensity ranges in Mandarin and Min dialects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng H.

    2005-05-01

    The differences of speaking frequency and intensity in different tonal dialects has not been widely investigated. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the speaking frequency and speaking intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min and (2) to compare the speaking frequency and intensity ranges of Mandarin and Min to those of American English. The subjects were 80 normal Taiwanese adults divided into two dialect groups, Mandarin and Min. The speaking F0, the highest speaking F0, the lowest speaking F0, the maximum range of speaking F0, and the intensity counterpart were obtained from reading in their native dialects. Statistical analysis revealed that Min speakers had a significantly greater maximum range of speaking intensity and a smaller lowest speaking intensity than Mandarin speakers, which indicated tonal effects by speakers of the Min dialect. Moreover, Mandarin and Min speakers had a greater maximum range of speaking F0 and maximum range of speaking intensity than American English speakers. The data may provide an assessment tool for Mandarin speakers and Min speakers. .

  18. Reducing Student Apprehension of Public Speaking: Evaluating Effectiveness of Group Tutoring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Misty L.; Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Stewart, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that the fear of public speaking is an extraordinarily common phobia and that a significant portion of the population experiences some form of anxiety over public speaking. Although there is a great deal of research available on the etiology of public speaking anxiety, there is far less research available on interventional…

  19. Development of Teleological Explanations in Peruvian Quechua-Speaking and U.S. English-Speaking Preschoolers and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…

  20. Diagnosing the English Speaking Ability of College Students in China -- Validation of the Diagnostic College English Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of the Diagnostic College English Speaking Test (DCEST) in the context of EFL teaching and learning in China. The experiment was conducted in three stages over the course of eight weeks at a national key university in China. By means of test administration and questionnaire survey, the researcher gathered…

  1. To Speak Like a TED Speaker--A Case Study of TED Motivated English Public Speaking Study in EFL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…

  2. Taking Action: Writing, Reading, Speaking, and Listening through Simulation-Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyka, Lynn Quitman; Nudelman, Jerrold

    Six simulation games for English instruction in the classroom are offered in this book, the aim of which is to encourage communication. In simulation games, rules are structured to correspond to those that are an integral part of a real situation, with supporting documentation replicating actual materials pertinent to the situation. The contents…

  3. The Volunteers Speak: A World-Wide Survey of Peace Corps Volunteers. ACTION Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    A survey questionnaire was mailed to all active Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) in the summer of 1975. Based on an internal analysis of the 3,479 respondents (a 66% return), the following findings represent the manner in which PCVs perceive their volunteer experience. Perceived volunteer accomplishments and morale are very high. Volunteers believe…

  4. Object and Action Naming in Russian- and German-Speaking Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassert, Annegret; Gagarina, Natalia; Kauschke, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of word category on naming performance in two populations: bilingual and monolingual children. The question is whether and, if so, to what extent monolingual and bilingual children differ with respect to noun and verb naming and whether a noun bias exists in the lexical abilities of bilingual children.…

  5. Encouraging Teenagers to Improve Speaking Skills through Games in a Colombian Public School (Motivación de adolescentes para mejorar su expresión oral mediante el juego en un colegio público colombiano)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León, William Urrutia; Cely, Esperanza Vega

    2010-01-01

    Our project was implemented with tenth grade students of a public school located in the Usme Zone in Bogotá. We decided to develop this action research project because we were concerned about our students' difficulties when attempting to speak English. They felt inhibited with activities that involved oral interaction mainly because they were…

  6. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  7. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  8. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  9. Examining the Practice of a Reading-to-Speak Test Task: Anxiety and Experience of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

    2010-01-01

    In the literature, little research has hitherto been conducted to examine the implementation of integrated speaking test tasks. This study, in response, set out to compare the anxiety induced by a reading-to-speak task and the anxiety produced by a speaking-only task and to explore students' experiences of taking the reading-to-speak task.…

  10. Embedding 'speaking up' into systems for safe healthcare product development and marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian; Hugman, Bruce; Tobin, Mary; Whalen, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    Robust, active cooperation, and effective, open communication between all stakeholders is essential for ensuring regulatory compliance and healthcare product safety; avoiding the necessity for whistle-blowing; and, most essentially, meeting the transparency requirements of public trust.The focus here is on what can be done within a healthcare product organization (HPO) to achieve actionable, sustainable policies and practices such as leadership, management, and supervision role-modelling of best practice; ongoing process review and improvements in every department; protection of those who report concerns through robust policies endorsed at Board level throughout an organization to eliminate the fear of retaliation; training in open, non-defensive team-working principles; and mediation structure and process for resolution of differences of opinion or interpretation of contradictory and volatile data.Based on analyses of other safety systems, workplace silence and interpersonal breakdowns are warning signs of defective systems underlying poor compliance and compromising safety. Remedying the situation requires attention to the root causes underlying such symptoms of dysfunction, especially the human factor, i.e. those factors that influence human performance. It is essential that leadership and management listen to employees' concerns about systems and processes, assess them impartially and reward contributions that improve safety.Fundamentally, the safety, transparency, and trustworthiness of HPOs, both commercial and regulatory, can be judged by the extent of the freedom of their staff to 'speak up' when the time is right. This, in turn, consolidates the trust of external stakeholders in the safety of a system and its products. The promotion of 'speaking up' in an organization provides an important safeguard against the risk of poor compliance and the undermining of societal confidence in the safety of healthcare products. PMID:22339507

  11. Chapter 42: neurology and the neurological sciences in the German-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Isler, Hansruedi

    2010-01-01

    Early neurology in German-speaking countries evolved aside from mainstream medicine. Animists like Stahl in the 18th century saw the soul as the cause of health and disease, and the later Vitalists insisted on life-force as the specific property of living beings, contrary to skeptics like Albrecht von Haller, whose neurophysiology they left behind. Following Willis, they studied brain tracts and speculated about reflex action. They experimented with electrotherapy, and later devised early theories of electric nerve action. The controversial medical theories of animal magnetism and phrenology also advanced brain research and clinical neurology together with their sectarian programs, which seem absurd today. The impact on natural science and medicine of the last great Vitalist, Johannes Müller, and his mechanistic students such as Remak, Schwann, Schleiden, Helmholtz, Ludwig, Brücke, Virchow, Koelliker, and Wundt was unparalleled. They provided the anatomical and physiological infrastructure for the growth of neurology. From 1845 far into the 20th century, psychiatry and neurology evolved together. Neuropsychiatrists cared for their mental patients during the day, and studied their brain tissue slides at night, as in the case of Alzheimer and Nissl. Major advances in brain research were achieved by the hypnotists Forel and Vogt, and modern psychiatry was launched by the typical neuropsychiatrists Kraepelin, Moebius, Bleuler, and Adolf Meyer. PMID:19892145

  12. Understanding Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Identity Construction and Transformation in the English-Speaking Community: A Closer Look at Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Shu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Building on Kachru's (2005) diagram of World Englishes and Norton's (2000) theoretical conception of identity, the researcher acknowledges that each Non-Native English Speaking Teacher (NNEST) comes to the English-speaking community with a different variety of Englishes. Each believes in various cultural values and norms, and his or her identity…

  13. Creating Our Future: Students Speak up about their Vision for 21st Century Learning. Speak Up 2009 National Findings: K-12 Students & Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project Tomorrow, 2010

    2010-01-01

    For the past 7 years, the Speak Up National Research Project has provided the nation with a unique window into classrooms and homes all across America and given us a realistic view on how technology is currently being used (or not) to drive student achievement, teacher effectiveness and overall educational productivity. Most notably, the Speak Up…

  14. The Efficacy of Child-Centered Play Therapy with Hispanic Spanish-Speaking Children when Conducted by a Monolingual English-Speaking Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Lola V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy as an intervention when the client and the counselor do not speak the same language. The participants of the study were 34 Spanish-speaking children of Hispanic descent ranging in age from 4 to 8 who were referred to counseling for exhibiting…

  15. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  16. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  17. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  18. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. PMID:23331100

  19. Training public-speaking behavior: an experimental analysis and social validation.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, S B; Miller, L K

    1975-01-01

    The effect of an instructional package on public-speaking behaviors was analyzed in two experiments. The instructional package was designed to teach public-speaking trainees to look at the audience, make gestures, and perform a number of speaking behaviors. The results of Experiment I, with a university student serving as the trainee, showed that the percentage of each category of public-speaking target behavior increased only after the instructional package was introduced for that category. The results of Experiment 2, with three low-income paraprofessional staff members of a neighborhood service center serving as trainees, showed that the percentage of target behaviors increased after the instructional package was introduced for the respective trainee. Audience ratings of public-speaking performance were correlated with direct observations of target responses. All trainees showed marked improvements in audience ratings from pretraining to posttraining. This study demonstrated an effective procedure for training public-speaking behaviors. PMID:16795490

  20. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. PMID:23331100

  1. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of advance care planning in elderly Italian and Greek speaking patients as compared to English-speaking patients: an Australian cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Detering, Karen; Sutton, Elizabeth; Fraser, Scott; Wallis, Kasey; Silvester, William; Mawren, Daveena; Whiteside, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of facilitated advance care planning (ACP) discussions in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking inpatients compared to English-speaking inpatients. Design, setting and participants This cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, and recruited hospital inpatients with medical decision-making capacity, aged 65 years or above, who spoke Greek (25 patients), Italian (24 patients) or English (63 patients). Intervention Facilitated ACP was offered, aiming to assists patients to consider and discuss their goals, values, beliefs and future treatment wishes with their family and doctor; to help them consider how they would like healthcare decisions made in the future if they become unable to do this for themselves; and to complete advance care directives. Main outcome measures The completion of ACP discussions, their duration, advance care directive completion and utilisation of interpreters. Results Of 112 patients, 109 (97%) had at least one discussion, 63 (54%) completed advance care directives, either nominating a substitute decision-maker, documenting their wishes or both, and 76 (68%) included family in discussions. The median duration of discussions for all patients was slightly more than 1 h, over two visits. There were no differences between the Greek-speaking and the Italian-speaking patients, or between the Non-English speaking and the English-speaking patients in any of these measures. Only 14 non-English speaking patients, (30%) utilised interpreters, but when utilised, patients were much more likely (p<0.005) to complete advance care directives. Conclusions Facilitated ACP in elderly Italian and Greek-speaking patients is feasible, acceptable and is similar to that for English-speaking patients. PMID:26319775

  3. Barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use among Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, Colette; Marriott, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the decision-making processes and associated barriers and enablers that determine access and use of healthcare services in Arabic-speaking and English-speaking Caucasian patients with diabetes in Australia. Study setting and design Face-to-face semistructured individual interviews and group interviews were conducted at various healthcare settings—diabetes outpatient clinics in 2 tertiary referral hospitals, 6 primary care practices and 10 community centres in Melbourne, Australia. Participants A total of 100 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited into 2 groups: 60 Arabic-speaking and 40 English-speaking Caucasian. Data collection Interviews were audio-taped, translated into English when necessary, transcribed and coded thematically. Sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using a self-completed questionnaire and medical records. Principal findings Only Arabic-speaking migrants intentionally delayed access to healthcare services when obvious signs of diabetes were experienced, missing opportunities to detect diabetes at an early stage. Four major barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use were identified: influence of significant other(s), unique sociocultural and religious beliefs, experiences with healthcare providers and lack of knowledge about healthcare services. Compared with Arabic-speaking migrants, English-speaking participants had no reluctance to access and use medical services when signs of ill-health appeared; their treatment-seeking behaviours were straightforward. Conclusions Arabic-speaking migrants appear to intentionally delay access to medical services even when symptomatic. Four barriers to health services access have been identified. Tailored interventions must be developed for Arabic-speaking migrants to improve access to available health services, facilitate timely diagnosis of diabetes and ultimately to improve glycaemic control. PMID:26576809

  4. Activists and Writers: Student Expression in a Social Action Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Shira Eve

    2010-01-01

    This article centers the stories of two eighth grade students in the context of a social action literacy project. Their teacher designed curriculum that scaffolded opportunities for them to address English language arts standards while speaking out for social change. The students' responses to the project reveal their civic literacy practices, as…

  5. Object Similarity Bootstraps Young Children to Action-Based Verb Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haryu, Etsuko; Imai, Mutsumi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Young children often fail to generalize a novel verb based on sameness of action since they have difficulty focusing on the relational similarity across events while at the same time ignoring the objects that are involved. Study 1, with Japanese-speaking 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 28 in each group), found that similarity of objects involved in action…

  6. Skill Learning as a Concept in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: An Action Theoretic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, M.; Stewart, J.

    1984-01-01

    An action theoretic account of skill learning and skill use is offered as a useful heuristic for life-span developmental psychology. The version presented is one that is particularly prominent in industrial psychology in the German-speaking countries. (Author/RH)

  7. Needs and experiences of non-English-speaking hospice patients and families in an English-speaking country.

    PubMed

    McGrath, P; Vun, M; McLeod, L

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that, in practice, hospice care is predominantly accessed by white, middle-class patients, who live in stable home environments with available caregivers and other supports. The present challenge for researchers, administrators, and clinicians is to identify populations of terminally ill patients most in need of hospice care and to direct services to these patients. As a contribution to the development of this area, this paper presents the findings from a recent Australian hospice study that examines the needs and experiences of families from non-English-speaking backgrounds. The findings indicate that it is as important to focus on similarities as it is to highlight differences. PMID:11565183

  8. [Lead poisoning caused by prolonged use of kohl, an underestimated cause in French-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    De Caluwé, J-P

    2009-09-01

    Use of kohl (called surma in India and Pakistan) as an eye cosmetic is very common, especially among women, children, and babies, not only in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt), but also in the Near East and the Middle East, as well in India and Pakistan. This practice has now become widespread in European countries and North America. The cultural custom is very old and has been in use in Egypt since the Ancient Empire. In a great number of kohls available on the free market, lead sulfide is the main component and the very high lead concentration is a risk, particularly for women and children. We report the observation of a case of lead poisoning in a young Moroccan woman caused by prolonged use of a kohl and provide a review of the published literature. This case study should draw the attention of ophthalmologists in French-speaking areas to a public health problem, largely ignored, although real, considering the high lead concentrations found in the majority of kohls. Actions such as prohibition (importation and sale of eye cosmetics made of lead sulfide) have proved to be inadequate. Appropriate educational campaigns directed toward populations using eye cosmetics will be more effective over the long term. PMID:19660830

  9. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  10. Risk of schizophrenia and minority status: a comparison of the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972–1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24–0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41–1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males. PMID:25263996

  11. Risk of schizophrenia and minority status: a comparison of the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suvisaari, Jaana; Opler, Mark; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Sallmén, Markku

    2014-11-01

    Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972-1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41-1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males. PMID:25263996

  12. Development of the SWRL English Language and Concepts Program for Spanish-Speaking Children (LCS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, Los Alamitos, CA.

    The English Language and Concepts Program for Spanish-Speaking Children (LCS) is designed to enable Spanish-speaking youngsters to succeed in the regular school classroom. This report presents detailed summaries of major studies in the LCS tryout and evaluation sequence. (1) LCS prototype tryout, 1969: Tryout is described, materials and procedures…

  13. Validating TOEFL[R] iBT Speaking and Setting Score Requirements for ITA Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    Although the primary use of the speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT Speaking) is to inform admissions decisions at English medium universities, it may also be useful as an initial screening measure for international teaching assistants (ITAs). This study provides criterion-related…

  14. Test-Takers' Strategic Behaviors in Independent and Integrated Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…

  15. Note on the Scoring of Foreign Language Speaking and Writing Fluency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…

  16. An Exploratory Study of a Measure of Vocational Identity for Spanish-Speaking Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosado, Luis Antonio, II

    2012-01-01

    Two overlapping issues have given rise to this study: the need for assessment instruments to use with Spanish-speaking Latinos and the need for normative data on current and future Spanish-language instruments. Numerous career assessment instruments exist for the English-speaking population. These instruments may be administered on computer-based…

  17. Library Service for the Spanish-Speaking User: Source Guide for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Daniel

    Compiled for library staff who serve Spanish-speaking persons, this resource guide lists bibliographies and materials published from 1950-1975 reflecting the character, history, and psychology of Spanish-speaking groups. It also provides information on services, institutions, and resources in the New York metropolitan area. The major sections of…

  18. Butterflies in Formation: Predicting How Speech Order in College Public Speaking Affects Student Communication Apprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond, Erica R.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed pedagogical practices in the public speaking classroom in an attempt to help control communication apprehension (CA) levels and improve retention rates among college students in the basic public speaking course. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of Berger and Calabrese's uncertainty reduction theory and Weiner's attribution…

  19. Building Interpersonal Relationships as a Key to Effective Speaking Center Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kiya; Schwartzman, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Although much interest has been generated regarding the functions speaking centers serve and the effects consultations can have, minimal research has addressed the dynamics of consultations themselves. This study documents what speaking center clients and consultants identify as barriers in consultations and how they address them. Analysis of…

  20. Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

  1. Turkish and Kurdish Speaking Teachers in the Danish Folkeskole: The Ambiguous Concept of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhawer, Bolette

    1999-01-01

    Studied the functions of Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking teachers in the Danish "folkeskole" and their positions relative to other teachers in the system. Despite their Danish teaching qualifications, most still attend to the integration of Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking minority students and occupy a subordinate position to majority teachers. (SLD)

  2. Developing a Practical Rating Rubric of Speaking Test for University Students of English in Parepare, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…

  3. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  4. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  5. Examining the Effectiveness of Extensive Speaking Practice via Voice Blogs in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Educational blogs have drawn the growing interest of researchers and language teachers due to the user-friendly interfaces as well as the powerful archiving features. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of extensive speaking practice on speaking performance in voice blogs, and (2) to examine learners'…

  6. Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…

  7. The Spanish Speaking People of the United States: A New Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos, Ed.

    There are an estimated 10 million Spanish-speaking Americans who constitute the second largest minority group in the nation. Included in this group are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. Life styles of the Spanish-speaking Americans, who were here before the Pilgrims, did not change significantly with the arrival of the Northern…

  8. Interactional Competence across Proficiency Levels: How Do Learners Manage Interaction in Paired Speaking Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaczi, Evelina D.

    2014-01-01

    Paired speaking tasks are now commonly used in both pedagogic and assessment contexts, as they elicit a wide range of interactional skills. The current study aims to offer an investigation of the interaction co-constructed by learners at different proficiency levels who are engaged in a paired speaking test, and to provide insights into the…

  9. Mental Health Planning Conference for the Spanish Speaking (Bethesda, Maryland, January 11-12, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Susan G., Ed.

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Mental Health Planning Conference for the Spanish Speaking was held on January 11-12, 1972, in Bethesda, Maryland. Thirty Spanish speaking professionals and nonprofessionals from 12 states and the District of Columbia met with NIMH and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The…

  10. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES FOR NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING BEGINNERS, THE FIRST WEEK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 1, Edinburg, TX.

    THIS PLAN, COVERING THE FIRST FIVE DAYS OF A BILINGUAL FIRST GRADE CLASS, WAS DESIGNED TO AID BEGINNING TEACHERS OF NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILDREN MEET SOME OF THE SITUATIONS THEY WILL ENCOUNTER. (SPECIAL EMPHASIS IS ON SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN.) THE DAILY SCHEDULE IS PRESENTED AS A GUIDE TO BE ADJUSTED ACCORDING TO NEED. IN ADDITION TO THE…

  11. Effects of Video Streaming Technology on Public Speaking Students' Communication Apprehension and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno

    2007-01-01

    This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…

  12. The Toastmasters Approach: An Innovative Way to Teach Public Speaking to EFL Learners in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu-Chih, Sun

    2008-01-01

    Toastmasters is a widely recognized international club that aims to develop and enhance the art of public speaking by offering participants educational programmes and chances to speak before groups. This article reports on the integration of the Toastmasters approach to an EFL oral-communication class in Taiwan. As both the author of this study…

  13. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  14. An Extended Optional Infinitive Stage in German-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Noll, Karen Ruff; Grimm, Hannelore

    1997-01-01

    Predictions were formulated for extended Optional Infinitives (OIs) stage in German-speaking children with specific language impairment and evaluated in clinical sample of 8 SLI German-speaking children, ages 4; 0 to 4; 8; and control group of 8 younger utterance-equivalent children, ages 2; 1 to 2; 7. Samples reveal that affected group more…

  15. Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Subliminal Messages on Public Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    A study investigated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques (such as tape recorded programs) for improving public speaking ability. It was hypothesized that students who used subliminal tapes to improve public speaking ability would perform no differently from classmates who listened to identical-sounding placebo tape programs containing no…

  17. Dependability of Scores for a New ESL Speaking Assessment Consisting of Integrated and Independent Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2006-01-01

    A multitask speaking measure consisting of both integrated and independent tasks is expected to be an important component of a new version of the TOEFL test. This study considered two critical issues concerning score dependability of the new speaking measure: How much would the score dependability be impacted by (1) combining scores on different…

  18. An Analysis of Non-Native English-Speaking Graduate Teaching Assistants' Online Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Burcu; Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2012-01-01

    There has been increasing acknowledgment of the need to pursue studies related to nonnative English-speaking (NNES) professionals. In the last 10 years, a number of studies have discussed the experiences of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in different educational settings and situations. However, the experiences of the NNES graduate…

  19. A Process Approach to Public Speaking: The Use of Exercises and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Cynthia L.

    The use of exercises and games in teaching the process of public speaking provides a novel and effective approach for teacher and student. This paper justifies a process orientation to public-speaking instruction and offers practical exercises, games, and activities for teaching the major rhetorical aspects involved in the process of public…

  20. Heritage Language Acquisition and Maintenance: Home Literacy Practices of Japanese-Speaking Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Takako; Caidi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examine the case of Japanese-speaking families in Canada and their experiences with teaching a heritage language at home, along with the uses and perceived usefulness of public library resources, collections, and services in the process. Methods: We interviewed fourteen mothers who speak Japanese to their children.…

  1. The Shape-Bias in Spanish-Speaking Children and Its Relationship to Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Erin R.; Cantrell, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated that English-speaking children extend nouns on the basis of shape. Here we asked whether the development of this bias is influenced by the structure of a child's primary language. We tested English- and Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 1 ; 10 and 3 ; 4 in a novel noun generalization task. Results…

  2. TELEVISION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE CONTINUING EDUCATION OF SPANISH-SPEAKING FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLARD, W.J., JR.; SCHENKKAN, R.F.

    THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO INVESTIGATE MEDIA BEHAVIOR OF A SPANISH-SPEAKING POPULATION SAMPLE, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO TELEVISION AND RADIO, AND IN THIS CONNECTION TO STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING AUDIENCES AT LOWER ECONOMIC LEVELS. THIS WAS DONE TO APPRAISE THE POSSIBLE USE OF RADIO AND TELEVISION FOR REACHING…

  3. A Comparison of Two Phonological Assessment Tools for Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hase, Maria; Ingram, David; Bunta, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two phonological assessment tools for use with young Spanish-speaking children in the American Southwest, FON and STAR. Each was administered to 27 1-, 2- and 3-year-old monolingual Spanish-speaking children in the greater Phoenix area. Analyses compared the children's rate of response, complexity of the children's productions,…

  4. The Supervision Experiences of Non-Hispanic Bilingual Therapists Who Worked with Spanish-Speaking Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzate, Nancy Ascencio

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative approach to explore the supervision experiences of nine participants (seven females and two males) or non-Hispanic bilingual therapists who worked with Spanish-speaking clients and were under the supervision of a monolingual English-speaking supervisor. Their interviews data were audio recorded, transcribed and…

  5. Characteristics of the Sound Systems of Monolingual Vietnamese-Speaking Children with Phonological Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Giang; Barlow, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    There has been little or no research on Vietnamese phonological development, let alone on phonological disorders of Vietnamese-speaking children. The goal of this study is to evaluate the sound systems of monolingual Vietnamese-speaking children with phonological impairment. Independent and relational analyses of four children (ages 4;4 to 5;5)…

  6. A Racing Heart, Rattling Knees, and Ruminative Thoughts: Defining, Explaining, and Treating Public Speaking Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodie, Graham D.

    2010-01-01

    Considered by many to be the foundation upon which our discipline was built, the study of public speaking has evolved from its humble beginnings into a vast literature of experimental and expositional studies. The focus of research on public speaking has primarily been to discover the antecedents, causes, and consequences of anxiety associated…

  7. The Social Life and Sound Patterns of Nanti Ways of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Christine Marie

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the phenomenon of "ways of speaking" in the Nanti speech community of Montetoni, in southeastern Peruvian Amazonia, between 1999 and 2009. In the context of this study, a way of speaking is a socially meaningful, conventionalized sound pattern, manifest at the level of the utterance, that expresses the speaker's…

  8. Interlanguage Syntax of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English: The Noun Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

    This study examined the interlanguage syntax of Arabic speaking learners of English in the area of the noun phrase, focusing on the closed system elements that can occur before or after the noun head, the noun head and pronouns in line with Quirk and Greenbaum's (1977) treatment of the noun phrase. Participants were 25 Arabic speaking English…

  9. Characteristics of Speaking Rate in the Dysarthria Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Greg S.; Weismer, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The ability to alter speaking rate was studied in nine adult subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nine control subjects. Results suggest that the relationship between speaking rate, articulation rate, pause duration, and pause frequency remained largely intact for the dysarthric speakers. Data showed greater dependence on pausing by the…

  10. Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

  11. Morphological Awareness and Reading Difficulties in Adolescent Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners and Their Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of…

  12. From CIRCUS to EL CIRCO: Issues in Instrument Development for Young Spanish-speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Roy

    The CIRCO project is a large scale effort to design a series of diagnostic instruments, based on the CIRCUS tests, for Spanish-speaking children in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade classrooms in the United States. The goal is to develop measures with the following characteristics: (1) is suitable for use with Spanish-speaking children from…

  13. INTRODUCING ENGLISH, AN ORAL PRE-READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING PRIMARY PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANCASTER, LOUISE

    THIS 28-UNIT ORAL PROGRAM WAS PREPARED AS A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF SPANISH-SPEAKING FOUR-, FIVE- AND SIX-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN WHO ARE LEARNING ENGLISH FOR THE FIRST TIME. IT IS ORGANIZED TO GIVE THE CHILDREN SOME UNDERSTANDING AND COMMAND OF SPOKEN ENGLISH BEFORE BEING INTRODUCED TO READING IN ENGLISH. A BASIC SPEAKING VOCABULARY OF FIVE TO SIX…

  14. Helping Adult ESOL Students Increase Speaking and Listening Skills by Serving as Volunteers in Authentic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Edith Lynn

    This practicum paper documents a program that was developed and implemented to help adult, advanced English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students increase their speaking and listening skills and build self confidence with native English speakers. The objective was to increase group average exit test scores in speaking and listening by at least two…

  15. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…

  16. Dysarthria Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Speaking Rate and Emphatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Y.T.; Kent, R.D.; Duffy, J.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Prosodic abnormality is common in the dysarthria associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and adjustments of speaking rate and emphatic stress are often used as steps in treating the speech disorder in patients with TBI-induced dysarthria. However, studies to date do not present a clear and detailed picture of how speaking rate and emphatic…

  17. Effects of Storytelling to Facilitate EFL Speaking Using Web-Based Multimedia System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hsu, Guo-Liang; Lin, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study applied storytelling in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in order to promote speaking skills. Students were asked to practice speaking EFL through producing individual and interactive stories with a Web-based multimedia system. We aimed to investigate an effectiveness of applying individual and interactive storytelling…

  18. An Exploration of Speaking-in-Class Anxiety with Chinese ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Barley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating factors contributing to the speaking-in-class anxiety of a group of 313 Chinese ESL first-year university students in Hong Kong. Results using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) of Horwitz et al. reveal five factors leading to the group's speaking-in-class anxiety. The…

  19. Psychological Factor Affecting English Speaking Performance for the English Learners in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidara, Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    In every learning situation or environment, human psychology plays a significant role. English speaking is a language skill that is highly affected by human psychology. This research aimed at describing the psychological factor that affects negatively the English speaking performance for the English learners in Indonesia. A descriptive qualitative…

  20. A Brief, Self-Directed Written Cognitive Exercise to Reduce Public Speaking Anxiety in College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibartolo, Patricia Marten; Molina, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Fear of public speaking is the most common social fear experienced by the general population and can have far-reaching academic effects, including lower course grades and even an increased likelihood to drop out of college. The typical curricular approach to remediating public speaking fears in college students is to provide training in basic…

  1. Welcoming a Student Who Does Not Speak English: Pre-Kindergarten through 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jennifer M.; Staley, Lynn

    Noting that most mainstream primary teachers have received little or no training focusing on working with the growing number of students who speak English as a second language, this booklet equips primary teachers with basic information regarding the instruction of children who speak English as a second language (ESL). The booklet identifies ten…

  2. Classification Accuracy of Brief Parent Report Measures of Language Development in Spanish-Speaking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Dale, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 3 parent report measures of language development in Spanish-speaking toddlers. Method: Forty-five Spanish-speaking parents and their 2-year-old children participated. Twenty-three children had expressive language delays (ELDs) as…

  3. Helping Students Overcome Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety in the English Classroom: Theoretical Issues and Practical Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiplakides, Iakovos; Keramida, Areti

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that foreign language speaking anxiety is a common phenomenon in the teaching of English as a foreign language in Greece, teachers do not always identify anxious students, and often attribute their unwillingness to participate in speaking tasks to factors such as lack of motivation, or low performance. This article aims to…

  4. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  5. Benefits of Music Training in Mandarin-Speaking Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…

  6. The Needs of the Spanish Speaking Mujer [Woman] in Woman-Manpower Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto-Gomez, Anna

    Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…

  7. Promoting Psychiatry as a Career Option for Ghanaian Medical Students through a Public-Speaking Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; McLoughlin, Declan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Authors assessed the impact of a public-speaking competition on the level of interest in psychiatry of Ghanaian medical students. Method: An inter-medical school public-speaking competition was organized to promote psychiatry as a fulfilling career option for Ghanaian medical students. Feedback questionnaires were completed by the…

  8. The Effect of Metadiscourse Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahour, Touran; Maleki, Saeideh Entezari

    2014-01-01

    This study attempted to unveil the effect of metadiscourse instruction on the improvement of the speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. After the administration of a language proficiency test, 34 homogeneous participants were assigned into the experimental and control groups. Then, the two groups were compared on their speaking ability. After…

  9. An Exploration of Oral Language Development in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Renee A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, multi-case study was to explore the oral language of Spanish-speaking preschool students and their responses to questions, comments and requests made by an English-speaking teacher. Research questions focused on students' responses to questions; comments and requests by the teacher; and whether the response was…

  10. Indigenous Language Speaking Students Learning Mathematics in English: Expectations of and for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris

    2015-01-01

    Effective mathematics teaching for Indigenous language speaking students needs to be based on fair expectations of both students and teachers. Concepts of "age-appropriate learning" and "school readiness" structure assessment expectations that entire cohorts of Indigenous language speaking students are unable to meet. This…

  11. Teaching Creole-Speaking Children: Issues, Concerns and Resolutions for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesworth, Gillian; Billington, Rosey

    2013-01-01

    There are now significant numbers of children who speak a language other than English when they enter the formal school system in Australia. Many of these children come from a language background that is entirely different from the school language. Many Indigenous children, however, come from creole-speaking backgrounds where their home language…

  12. Literacy Development of Linguistically Diverse First Graders in a Mainstream English Classroom: Connecting Speaking and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Children who speak different home languages and dialects in a monolingual classroom often carry the challenge of having to develop literacy in a different language. This article presents a qualitative study of five first graders who speak different home languages in an inner city mainstream English classroom. Through interviews, classroom writing,…

  13. CONFERENCE ON THE EDUCATION OF SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN AND YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EIDE, CARLA; NANCE, AFTON D.

    REPORTS INCLUDE--PROVIDING A KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM THAT IS FLEXIBLE AND MEETS A WIDE RANGE OF INTERESTS AND NEEDS, GUIDING SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN AND YOUTH THROUGH ACHIEVING BETTER UNDERSTANDING, USING STANDARDIZED TESTS OF INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING PUPILS TO OBTAIN THE MOST VALID RESULTS, HELPING CHILDREN TO READ BY…

  14. What Is the Color of Apprehension? An Activity for a Speaking Apprehension Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Pamela A.

    Instructors of speaking apprehension courses can get a better picture of how speaking apprehension "feels" by having their students create a visual representation of their fear. One instructor supplied her students with newspapers, magazines, comic books, construction paper, crayons, glue sticks, and small scissors and had them create speaking…

  15. Auditory Discrimination Performance of Pupils from English- and Spanish-Speaking Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Politzer, Robert L.; McMahon, Sheila

    Major hypotheses tested in this experiment were that (a) auditory discrimination ability is influenced by the native language background of the listener and (b) auditory discrimination ability increases with maturation. The subjects were 142 English-speaking and 84 Spanish-speaking children distributed throughout the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th grades.…

  16. The Influence of Speaking a Dialect of Appalachian English on the College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett

    2013-01-01

    Many students will arrive at college speaking a dialect that is considered non-standardized or stigmatized due to the socially stratified nature of language. In the United States, where there are commonly held ideologies about the type of language that is considered "correct" or "proper," students who speak non-standardized…

  17. Two French-Speaking Cases of Foreign Accent Syndrome: An Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Macoir, Joel; Martel-Sauvageau, Vincent; Boudreault, Carol-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is an acquired neurologic disorder in which an individual suddenly and unintentionally speaks with an accent which is perceived as being different from his/her usual accent. This study presents an acoustic-phonetic description of two Quebec French-speaking cases. The first speaker presents a perceived accent shift to…

  18. Duty to speak up in the health care setting a professionalism and ethics analysis.

    PubMed

    Topazian, Rachel J; Hook, C Christopher; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-11-01

    Staff and students working in health care settings are sometimes reluctant to speak up when they perceive patients to be at risk for harm. In this article, we describe four incidents that occurred at our institution (Mayo Clinic). In two of them, health care professionals failed to speak up, which resulted in harm; in the other two, they did speak up, which prevented harm and improved patient care. We analyzed each scenario using the Physician's Charter on Medical Professionalism and prima facie ethics principles to determine whether principles were violated or upheld. We conclude that anyone who works in a health care setting has a duty to speak up when a patient faces harm. We also provide guidance for health care institutions on promoting a culture in which speaking up is encouraged and integrated into routine practice. PMID:24428018

  19. Syntax in Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Garayzábal, Elena; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) were assessed in different areas (phrase structure, recursion, and bound anaphora). Children were compared to typically-developing peers matched either in chronological age (CA-TD) or in verbal age (VA-TD). In all tasks children with WS performed significantly worse than CA-TD children, but similarly to VA-TD children. However, significant differences were observed in specific domains, particularly regarding sentences with cross-serial dependencies. At the same time, children with WS were less sensitive to syntactic constraints and exhibited a poorer knowledge of some functional words (specifically, of nonreflexive pronouns). A processing bottleneck or a computational constraint may account for this outcome. PMID:26967348

  20. Speaking their language: communicating research through new media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goruk, B.; Byrne, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The research community primarily communicates internally through papers, books and other forms of print publication. Researchers typically depend upon the media to pick up on research important to policymakers, planners, managers and society at large. However in recent decades, there has been a major failure in this communication process as the media has become much less objective and far more opinionated; often contributing more confusion than clarity. We argue that the research community should be much more active in communicating work to sectors of society most in need of the knowledge. Members of society do not read research publications - we essentially speak different languages. Researchers have to reach out to society in a communication form that works for the listeners. We put forward a range of examples using new media to communicate climate change research results to society.

  1. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Browne, Una

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects. PMID:22577843

  2. The acquisition of phonology by Cantonese-speaking children.

    PubMed

    So, L K; Dodd, B J

    1995-10-01

    Little is known about the acquisition of phonology by children learning Cantonese as their first language. This paper describes the phoneme repertoires and phonological error patterns used by 268 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;0 to 6;0, as well as a longitudinal study of tone acquisition by four children aged 1;2 to 2;0. Children had mastered the contrastive use of tones and vowels by two years. While the order of acquisition of consonants was similar to that reported for English, the rate of acquisition was more rapid. The developmental error patterns used by more than 10% of children are also reported as common in other languages. However, specific rules associated with Cantonese phonology were also identified. Few phonological errors were made after age four. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ambient language influences the implementation of universal tendencies in phonological acquisition. PMID:8789511

  3. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. PMID:25795524

  4. Y chromosome haplotype diversity in Mongolic-speaking populations and gene conversion at the duplicated STR DYS385a,b in haplogroup C3-M407.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Woźniak, Marcin; Rogalla, Urszula; Dambueva, Irina; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Y chromosome microsatellite (Y-STR) diversity has been studied in different Mongolic-speaking populations from South Siberia, Mongolia, North-East China and East Europe. The results obtained indicate that the Mongolic-speaking populations clustered into two groups, with one group including populations from eastern part of South Siberia and Central Asia (the Buryats, Barghuts and Khamnigans) and the other group including populations from western part of Central Asia and East Europe (the Mongols and Kalmyks). High frequency of haplogroup C3-M407 (>50%) is present in the Buryats, Barghuts and Khamnigans, whereas in the Mongols and Kalmyks its frequency is much lower. In addition, two allelic combinations in DYS385a,b loci of C3-M407 haplotypes have been observed: the combination 11,18 (as well as 11,17 and 11,19) is frequent in different Mongolic-speaking populations, but the 11,11 branch is present mainly in the Kalmyks and Mongols. Results of locus-specific sequencing suggest that the action of gene conversion is a more likely explanation for origin of homoallelic 11,11 combination. Moreover, analysis of median networks of Y-STR haplotypes demonstrates that at least two gene conversion events can be revealed-one of them has probably occurred among the Mongols, and the other event occurred in the Barghuts. These two events give an average gene conversion rate range of 0.24-7.1 × 10(-3) per generation. PMID:26911356

  5. 5 CFR 5501.107 - Teaching, speaking and writing by special Government employees in the Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., speaking or writing that is related to their official duties, within the meaning of 5 CFR 2635.807(a)(2)(i... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Teaching, speaking and writing by special... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5501.107 Teaching, speaking and writing by special...

  6. Development of a Practical Speaking Test with a Positive Impact on Learning Using a Story Retelling Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a test development project for classroom speaking assessment. With the aim of enhancing and specifically easing the process of test preparation and administration and generating positive washback effects on learning, we developed a semi-direct speaking test called the Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST). Although a story…

  7. Good Teachers Know Where to Scratch when Learners Feel Itchy: Korean Learners' Views of Native-Speaking Teachers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Song-Ae

    2005-01-01

    Cross-border education has been growing dramatically in both English-speaking countries and non-native English-speaking countries. While more and more students, particularly from Asian countries such as Korea, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan choose to study in English-speaking countries, many native English speakers go to Asian countries to…

  8. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  9. Development of myoelectric control type speaking valve with low flow resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooe, Katsutoshi; Sakurai, Kohei; Mimaki, Shinya

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to develop welfare devices for patients with phonation disorder. One of these devices is the electrical controltype speaking valve system. The conventional speaking valves have one-way valve architecture, they open when the user breathes in, and they close when user breathes out and produce voices. This type is very simple and tough, but some users feel closeness in case of exhalation without phonation. This problem is caused by its mechanism what can not be controlled by user's will. Therefore, we proposed an electrical control-type speaking valve system to resolve this problem. This valve is controlled by neck myoelectric signal of sternohyoid muscle. From our previous report, it was clarified that this valve had better performance about easy-to-breath. Furthermore, we proposed the compact myoelectric control-type speaking valve system. The new-type speaking valve was enough small to attach the human body, and its opening area is larger than that of conventional one. Additionally, we described the improvement of flow channel shape by using of FEM analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was clarified that the shape-improved speaking valve gets the low flow resistance channel in case of inspiration. In this report, we tried to make the flow resistance lower by the shape of current plates, in case of both inspiration and exhalation. From the result of FEM analysis, our speaking valve could get better flow channel than older one.

  10. "On Air": Participation in an Online Radio Show to Foster Speaking Confidence. A Cooperative Learning-Based Strategies Study ("Al aire": participación en un programa de radio en línea para fomentar la confianza al hablar. Un estudio basado en estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemos Tello, Nubia Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    The daily observation of class sessions has enabled me to recognize that students possess a feeling of self-distrust in oral activities. For this reason, I designed a study carried out with a group of twelve eighth graders. This article illustrates an action research project conducted to enhance students' confidence when speaking on an online…

  11. Superimposition of speaking voice characteristics and phonetograms in untrained and trained vocal groups.

    PubMed

    Awan, S N

    1993-03-01

    This study details a comparison of the speaking F0 and intensity values of young male and female adults with and without vocal training, as well as the superimposition of the speaking F0 and intensity data upon phonetograms. Results indicated that (a) trained vocalists have similar mean speaking F0's than do untrained vocalists, but exhibit significantly greater speaking F0 ranges than do untrained vocalists; (b) trained vocalists are significantly greater mean intensity levels in speech, as well as significantly greater speaking intensity ranges than do untrained vocalists; (c) the mean speaking F0 for both trained and untrained vocalists was found in the vicinity of the 5-7% frequency level of the entire phonational F0 range (in Hz), equivalent to 12-16% of the phonational F0 range in semitones; (d) the overall speech area (mean speaking F0 and minimum and maximum speaking F0 peaks) was found in the lower 23-31% of the entire phonational F0 range (in semitones), with the untrained subjects utilizing the lower 25% of the phonational range (in semitones) and the trained subjects extending this area to the lower 28-31%; and (e) significant correlations were observed between the total intensity range and intensity range used in speech in trained female vocalists and between total F0 range and speaking F0 range in the combined trained male and female group. These results have important implications for the use of the phonetogram, as well as the clinical applicability of vocal training exercises in various speech and voice therapy cases. PMID:8353617

  12. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  13. Environmental Adult Education in the English-Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes a public education program about solid waste management in Trinidad and Tobago, community action for environmental policy formation in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and other environmental education programs. (SK)

  14. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  15. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  16. Climate Literacy: Springboard to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B.; Bader, D.

    2011-12-01

    successful and effective at the goal of helping visitors understand the very real threat of sea level rise and inspiring them to take action." (REA, May 2011). REA also found that 31% of the Spanish-speaking visitors thought the Spanish captioning was important. Census data indicates that the local Hispanic population has grown 27.8% over the past decade, so translation will continue to be an important way to reach a diverse spectrum of peoples. The Six Americas survey of the Aquarium did not sample enough Spanish speaking visitors to produce meaningful results, and the Aquarium is working to resolve that issue. The Aquarium is developing another program for the SOS, marine ecosystems, connecting climate literacy messages to the live animal collection. REA will complete its evaluation of both programs in 2012, and the Aquarium will again conduct the Six Americas survey. Conveying climate literacy in an impactful way requires innovation and constant updates. The Aquarium uses informal education methodology combined with scientific discipline to bring actionable solutions to over 1.4 million visitors each year.

  17. Glide psychophysics and related Mpeak and Speak speech performance.

    PubMed

    Lai, W K; Dillier, N

    1995-09-01

    Speech test results have indicated that improvements in speech comprehension can be achieved by means of coding strategies with high pulse rates. A possible effect of using high rates to encode speech information is that temporal information such as formant transitions could be better represented in the resulting electrode activity. A psychophysical study involving 4 cochlear implant users was carried out to observe the effect of various carrier pulse rates on the absolute identification of stimuli with a transient electrode trajectory. Also, the duration of the trajectory was varied. The results from this study indicated, first, that the trajectory identification became progressively more difficult as the duration of the trajectory was shortened. The identification score generally deteriorated much faster at a lower rate (100 pulses per second [pps]) than at higher rates (300 and 500 pps) with decreasing transient duration. The higher two pulse rates, 300 pps and 500 pps, yielded results similar to one another for longer (500 and 300 milliseconds) transient durations, but the identification of shorter (100 and 50 milliseconds) transient durations was better at 500 pps than at 300 pps. The implication is that higher carrier pulse rates are likely to be able to transmit short transient information better than lower ones. A comparison with speech test results using the Speak (spectral peak) speech-coding strategy shows that the place of articulation feature is significantly improved when compared to the slower-rate Mpeak (Multipeak) pitch-synchronous strategy. PMID:7668710

  18. Family Life Education in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Epps, R P; Corona, E; Kodagoda, N; Simonen, M

    1986-01-01

    Unique experience has accumulated in the English-speaking Caribbean in the field of family life education for youth. Although birth rates are relatively low, the increase in adolescent pregnancy and births is becoming more visible. Mother-centered homes are frequent, and support from the father is often lacking. A series of family life education (FLE) programs funded by the United National Fund for Population Activities is aimed at providing help to the various groups in the Caribbean in an acceptable and non-threatening manner. These out-of-school FLE techniques include several approaches: integration of the proposed program into an already established place (a factory, youth center, or community center); education in human growth, food and nutrition, environmental health, mental health, safety and first-aid, dental health and human relations, including human sexuality, rights and responsibilities, and decision making; and the use of specially trained personnel who understand the conditions of the particular community. In some countries adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a problem. In others it may not be so considered. It is vital for the staff and community leaders to review proposals for the FLE program and bring into the centers all subjects that are free of controversy. Family planning, contraceptive delivery and even human sexuality may be acceptable subjects in some quarters, and not in others. Efforts must be continued to find innovative approaches to assure that the benefits of these learning activities continue to be provided, and expanded in response to growing acceptance. PMID:3745503

  19. Effects of a senior practicum course on nursing students' confidence in speaking up for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Kent, Lauren; Anderson, Gabrielle; Ciocca, Rebecca; Shanks, Linda; Enlow, Michele

    2015-03-01

    As patient advocates, nurses are responsible for speaking up against unsafe practices. Nursing students must develop the confidence to speak up for patient safety so that they can hold themselves, as well as their peers and coworkers, accountable for patients' well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a senior practicum course on confidence for speaking up for patient safety in nursing students. Confidence in speaking up for patient safety was measured with the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey. The study showed a significant increase in nursing students' confidence after the senior practicum course, but there was no significant change in students' confidence in questioning someone of authority. PMID:25692337

  20. Nutrition Education and the Spanish-Speaking American: An Annotated Bibliography (1961-72)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Christine S.

    1973-01-01

    An annotated listing of nutrition education materials and background information for or about Spanish-speaking ethnic groups. Includes printed materials, games, and audiovisual materials on foods, nutrition, consumer problems, and health. (BL)

  1. The use of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology can be generalised to children with autism from other languages, the present study examined whether or not high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism also exhibit deficits in using grammatical morphemes that mark aspect. The results show that Mandarin-speaking children with autism produced grammatical morphemes significantly less often than age-matched and IQ-matched TD peers as well as MLU-matched TD peers. The implications of these findings for understanding the grammatical abilities of children with autism were discussed. PMID:25381192

  2. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time

  3. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the “vertical scores” were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P<0.001) in all age groups. For several ages, the scores obtained in this study were significantly different from the reported scores of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (P<0.005). Compared with English-speaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical

  4. Periodic and aperiodic synchronization in skilled action.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import. PMID:22232583

  5. Periodic and Aperiodic Synchronization in Skilled Action

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import. PMID:22232583

  6. Attentional Control Buffers the Effect of Public Speaking Anxiety on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.; Vasey, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance anxiety. PMID:22924093

  7. Attentional Control Buffers the Effect of Public Speaking Anxiety on Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance anxiety. PMID:22924093

  8. [Prevalence and determinants of anemia in young children in French-speaking Africa. Role of iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Diouf, S; Folquet, M; Mbofung, K; Ndiaye, O; Brou, K; Dupont, C; N'dri, D; Vuillerod, M; Azaïs-Braesco, V; Tetanye, E

    2015-11-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are major public health issues worldwide and particularly in Africa. Reliable information about their prevalence and associated factors is required to allow for effective actions. In this study, we used data from recent (2006-2012) large population health surveys, carried out in 11 French-speaking African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal). Hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed and demographic and health-related parameters were obtained from nation-representative samples of children aged 6-59 months. Anemia (Hb<11g/dL) was found in 72.4% of the children (60.2-87.8%), with no gender difference but a slightly lower incidence in older children (62% at age 4-5 years versus 85% at age 9 months), especially for the more severe forms (2.1% versus 8.7%, respectively). Anemia was only slightly but significantly affected by location (75.5% in rural areas versus 67.3% in towns), income (79.8% in lower quintile of income versus 62.3% in higher quintile), or maternal education (74.1% in children from non-educated mothers versus 62.4% in children whose mothers had secondary education). Nearly 50% of women of child-bearing age had anemia. In the countries that report this information, less than 50% (17-65%) of children consumed iron-rich foods regularly and only 12% (7.4-20.5%) received iron supplementation. Infection and parasitism are known to affect some markers of iron status, because of the inflammatory reaction, thereby making the diagnosis of iron deficiency difficult. In the study countries, acute respiratory diseases and diarrhea affected 6.2 and 15.6% of children aged between 6 and 59 months, respectively; their distribution according to age and location is very different from the one of anemia, which is also the case for the distribution of malaria. It is thus likely that a large part of the anemia observed in young children is due to iron

  9. The Collaborative Construction of Non-Serious Episodes of Interaction by Non-Speaking Children with Cerebral Palsy and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Michael; Wilkinson, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Inequality in communicative resources available to non-speaking children with cerebral palsy in comparison with their "naturally" speaking co-participants has material consequences for the ways in which face-to-face interaction is organized. Analyses of interaction involving non-speaking children with physical disability and speaking adults has…

  10. Decomposing the gap in satisfaction with provider communication between English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients.

    PubMed

    Villani, Jennifer; Mortensen, Karoline

    2014-04-01

    Disparities in patient-provider communication exist among racial/ethnic groups. Hispanics report the lowest satisfaction with provider communication compared to whites and blacks; these differences may be due to level of acculturation or patient-provider concordance according to their ability to speak English. Using data from the 2007-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, this study identifies and quantifies the components that constitute the gap in satisfaction with provider communication between English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. English-speaking Hispanics are 7.3 percentage points more likely to be satisfied with the amount of time their providers spent with them compared to Spanish-speaking Hispanics. Differences in acculturation between the two groups account for 77% of this gap. Satisfaction with provider listening is 6.8 percentage points higher for English-speaking Hispanics. Hispanics who speak English are more satisfied with provider communication. The gap in satisfaction is largely attributable to differences in health insurance, acculturation, and education. PMID:23073732

  11. The effect of speaking rate on supersegmentals: An acoustic and perceptual analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Hsin-Huei; Watson, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Rate manipulation has been used to study change in prosodic contrasts such as emphatic stress. Timing contrasts in stressed words are reduced or eliminated when speaking rate is increased. However, reports of intonation and rate change are mixed. Some studies have reported an increase of F0 movement [M. Steppling and A. Montgomery, J. Phonetics 64, 451-461 (2002)], and other reports have found that F0 movement is decreased at faster speaking rates [C. Fougeron and S. Jun, Percept. Psychophys. 26, 45-69 (1998)]. This study examined the effect of speaking rate on F0 and duration in sentences produced with emphatic stress in different sentential position and in declarative and interrogative forms. Essentially, durational contrasts were reduced at faster speaking rates and were more pronounced at slower speaking rates. Intonation, on the other hand, was more pronounced for the fast rate and somewhat reduced for the slow rate. A perceptual component will also be reported that examines a listener's ability to recognize stressed words and mode of sentence production (declarative and interrogative) at different speaking rates.

  12. Effective oral presentations: speaking before groups as part of your job.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2009-01-01

    Fear of public speaking is a widespread phenomenon that afflicts a large percentage of the population. Some working people will go to great lengths to avoid having to speak before a group; however, inability or unwillingness to speak in public can contribute to limiting an individual's promotional possibilities and thus capping a career at a level beneath the individual's technical abilities. This can be especially true in an arena such as health care in which oral communication in group settings figures so strongly in work relations. Yet anyone can overcome speaking fear through thorough preparation and practice. It is necessary to research one's topic thoroughly, outline the points the intended talk will cover, study the composition of one's audience, and plan on targeting some specific level of understanding and remaining ever conscious of the few areas in which problems can occur. With conscientious preparation and plenty of practice, anyone can learn to speak before any group of people, although it may mean facing one's fear head-on a number of times before gaining a level of confidence sufficient to control the fear of speaking. PMID:19668069

  13. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  14. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  15. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. PMID:19827023

  16. A Right to Speak and a Right to Be Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickremesooriya, Shalini Felicity

    2015-01-01

    The study reported in this article is based on the premise that listening to the voices of students with Speech, Language and Communication Needs (SLCN) and reflecting and acting on student views is essential within inclusive education. Six primary grade students and six teachers participated in this action research project. Data was gathered…

  17. Our Moving Bodies Tell Stories, Which Speak of Our Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortora, Suzi

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses how nonverbal actions in young children are powerful communicators of experience, both past and present, and proposes new ways to observe, analyze, and reflect about these silent signals. The article describes the author's Ways of Seeing program, which uses principles of dance movement psychotherapy, the discipline of…

  18. Unleashing the Future: Educators "Speak Up" about the Use of Emerging Technologies for Learning. Speak Up 2009 National Findings: Teachers, Aspiring Teachers & Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project Tomorrow, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Technology has enabled students to have greater access to vast array of resources, classes and experts; empowering students to become "Free Agent Learners" who are creating meaningful personalized learning experiences 24/7 outside of the traditional classroom and school structure. In the report "Creating our Future: Students Speak Up about their…

  19. The Judging/Evaluative Criteria of After Dinner Speaking. Preventing the 1.3-5 Split in After Dinner Speaking: An Overview of Judging Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Todd

    The desire for consistent judging criteria is essential to the learning process of forensics students. When evaluating the After Dinner Speaking (ADS) judges need to focus on a variety of criteria. Some of these criteria transcend event descriptions while others are indigenous primarily to ADS. The topic chosen for the event should demonstrate…

  20. Factors that Enhance English-Speaking Speech-Language Pathologists' Transcription of Cantonese-Speaking Children's Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Method: Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Results: Task 1 (baseline) involved…

  1. Spanish-Speaking Mexican-American Families' Involvement in School-Based Activities and Their Children's Literacy: The Implications of Having Teachers Who Speak Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sandra; Dearing, Eric; Weiss, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n = 72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in…

  2. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  3. Do I Know What I'm Doing? Cognitive Dissonance and Action Identification Theory.

    PubMed

    Fointiat, Valérie; Pelt, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Our main purpose was to explore hypotheses derived from the Identification of Action Theory in a particular situation that is, a dissonant situation. Thus, we varied the identification (low versus high-level) of a problematic behavior (to stop speaking for 24 hours) in the forced compliance paradigm. Two modes of dissonance reduction were presented: cognitive rationalization (classical attitude-change) and behavioral rationalization (target behavior: to stop speaking for 48 hours). As predicted, the results showed that high-level identity of action leads to cognitive rationalization whereas low-level identity leads to behavioural rationalization. Thus, participants identifying the problematic behavior at a low-level were more inclined to accept the target behavior, compared with participants identifying their problematic behavior at a higher-level. These results are of particular interest for understanding the extent to which the understanding of the discrepant act interferes with the cognitive processes of dissonance reduction. PMID:26610698

  4. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  5. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  6. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  7. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  8. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  9. Effects of singing training on the speaking voice of voice majors.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana P; Brown, W S; Rothman, Howard B; Sapienza, Christine

    2004-03-01

    This longitudinal study gathered data with regard to the question: Does singing training have an effect on the speaking voice? Fourteen voice majors (12 females and two males; age range 17 to 20 years) were recorded once a semester for four consecutive semesters, while sustaining vowels and reading the "Rainbow Passage." Acoustic measures included speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and sound pressure level (SLP). Perturbation measures included jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included sentence, consonant, and diphthong durations. Results revealed that, as the number of semesters increased, the SFF increased while jitter and shimmer slightly decreased. Repeated measure analysis, however, indicated that none of the acoustic, temporal, or perturbation differences were statistically significant. These results confirm earlier cross-sectional studies that compared singers with nonsingers, in that singing training mostly affects the singing voice and rarely the speaking voice. PMID:15070227

  10. Speaking under pressure: Low linguistic complexity is linked to high physiological and emotional stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Laura R.; McCoy, Shannon; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Cosley, Brandon; Vartan, Arbi; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2014-01-01

    What can a speech reveal about someone's state? We tested the idea that greater stress reactivity would relate to lower linguistic cognitive complexity while speaking. In Study 1, we tested whether heart rate and emotional stress reactivity to a stressful discussion would relate to lower linguistic complexity. In Studies 2 and 3 we tested whether a greater cortisol response to a standardized stressful task including a speech (Trier Social Stress Test) would be linked to speaking with less linguistic complexity during the task. We found evidence that measures of stress responsivity (emotional and physiological) and chronic stress are tied to variability in the cognitive complexity of speech. Taken together, these results provide evidence that our individual experiences of stress or ‘stress signatures’—how our body and mind react to stress both in the moment and over the longer term—are linked to how complexly we speak under stress. PMID:24354732

  11. The Contribution of the Parietal Lobes to Speaking and Writing

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Richard J. S.

    2010-01-01

    The left parietal lobe has been proposed as a major language area. However, parietal cortical function is more usually considered in terms of the control of actions, contributing both to attention and cross-modal integration of external and reafferent sensory cues. We used positron emission tomography to study normal subjects while they overtly generated narratives, both spoken and written. The purpose was to identify the parietal contribution to the modality-specific sensorimotor control of communication, separate from amodal linguistic and memory processes involved in generating a narrative. The majority of left and right parietal activity was associated with the execution of writing under visual and somatosensory control irrespective of whether the output was a narrative or repetitive reproduction of a single grapheme. In contrast, action-related parietal activity during speech production was confined to primary somatosensory cortex. The only parietal area with a pattern of activity compatible with an amodal central role in communication was the ventral part of the left angular gyrus (AG). The results of this study indicate that the cognitive processing of language within the parietal lobe is confined to the AG and that the major contribution of parietal cortex to communication is in the sensorimotor control of writing. PMID:19531538

  12. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  13. Speaking rate consistency in native and non-native speakers of English.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Morrill, Tuuli H

    2015-09-01

    Non-native speech differs from native speech in multiple ways. Previous research has described segmental and suprasegmental differences between native and non-native speech in terms of group averages. For example, average speaking rate for non-natives is slower than for natives. However, it is unknown whether non-native speech is also more variable than native speech. This study introduces a method of comparing rate change across utterances, demonstrating that non-native speaking rate is more variable than native speech. These results suggest that future work examining non-native speech perception and production should investigate both mean differences and variability in the signal. PMID:26428817

  14. Joining a discourse community: How graduate students learn to speak like astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baleisis, Audra

    Almost half of all graduate students leave their doctoral programs without finishing. Who leaves, taking which skills and strengths with them, is still poorly understood, however, because it is hard to measure exactly what graduate students learn in their doctoral programs. Since the expertise required of a PhD holder is highly dependent on discipline, the development of a better understanding of graduate education and attrition requires studying the process at the departmental level. This is a qualitative study of the cultural values and norms of academic astronomy, as transmitted through the socialization of graduate students in to giving talks, asking questions, and participating in departmental speaking events. This study also looks at the conflicts that arise when implicit cultural norms, which are practiced but remain unacknowledged, are inconsistent with the official, explicit values and norms for speaking in astronomy. Doctoral students and faculty members in a single astronomy department, at a large western university, filled out a short survey about the stakes involved in astronomy speaking events. A subset of these individuals was interviewed in- depth about the goals of, and their experiences with, five departmental speaking events: Coffee Hour, Journal Club, research talks, Thesis defense talks, and Colloquia. These interviewees were: (1) graduate students who had given a verbal presentation at one of these events, and (2) graduate students and faculty members who were in the audience at a graduate student's presentation. The desired outcomes which were expressed for these speaking events included: (1) lively, informal discussion among all participants, (2) increasing graduate student verbal participation in these events as they "learn to speak like astronomers," and (3) the utility of these events in helping graduate students learn and practice their speaking and reasoning skills related to astronomy research. In practice these goals were not achieved

  15. The Impact of Socioeconomic versus Linguistic Factors on Achievement Gaps between Hebrew-Speaking and Arabic-Speaking Students in Israel in Reading Literacy and in Mathematics and Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzovsky, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The study intends to choose between two alternative explanations for the low attainment of Arabic-speaking students in reading literacy who participated in the PIRLS (2006), i.e., one that relates to lower socioeconomic conditions in the Arabic-speaking sector, and another that relates to the diglossic situation in Arabic. After controlling for…

  16. Standard Setting for Next Generation TOEFL Academic Speaking Test (TAST): Reflections on the ETS Panel of International Teaching Assistant Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papajohn, Dean

    2006-01-01

    While many institutions have utilized TOEFL scores for international admissions for many years, a speaking section has never before been a required part of TOEFL until the development of the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL. So institutions will need to determine how to set standards for the speaking section of TOEFL, also known as TOEFL Academic…

  17. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  18. Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Within and Cross-Language Effects on Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Kiefer, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated within and cross-language effects of morphological awareness on word reading among Spanish-speaking children who were English Language Learners. Participants were 97 Spanish-speaking children in grade 4 and grade 7. Morphological awareness in Spanish and in English was evaluated with two measures of derivational morphology.…

  19. The Impact of Multiple Intelligences-Based Instruction on Developing Speaking Skills of the Pre-Service Teachers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates the impact of multiple intelligences-based Instruction on developing speaking skills of the pre-service teachers of English. Therefore, the problem of the current study can be stated in the lack of speaking skills of the pre-service teachers of English in Hurgada faculty of Education, South Valley University. To…

  20. The Development and Validation of the "Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS)" for Non-Native English Speaking Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Rui M.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…

  1. If First-Year Students Are Afraid of Public Speaking Assessments What Can Teachers Do to Alleviate Such Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gregory; Crimmins, Gail; Oprescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    Public speaking and oral assessments are common in higher education, and they can be a major cause of anxiety and stress for students. This study was designed to measure the student experience of public speaking assessment tasks in a mandatory first-year course at a regional Australian university. The research conducted was an instrumental case…

  2. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  3. English Vocabulary Trajectories of Students Whose Parents Speak a Language Other than English: Steep Trajectories and Sharp Summer Setback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua Fahey

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I used individual growth modeling methods to examine the English word-learning trajectories of adolescent students (N = 278) whose parents speak English at home (n = 210) and those whose parents speak a language other than English (n = 68). Sixth- (n = 130) and seventh-grade (n = 148) students attending an urban middle school took…

  4. Applicability of Learning Potential Measurement with Spanish-Speaking Youth as an Alternative to IQ. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimon, Alexander T.; And Others

    The learning potential (LP) procedure represents an alternative method of measuring ability of Spanish-speaking students who tend to score low on traditional IQ tests. This study sought to determine the relative predictive power of LP and IQ measures on achievement of 188 first through sixth grade Spanish-speaking students. Subjects participated…

  5. Spanish-Speaking People in the United States: Proceedings of the 1968 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, June, Ed.

    These proceedings are comprised of the following papers on Spanish-speaking people in the United States: "Sampling and generalization in anthropological research on Spanish-speaking groups" (T. Weaver); "Social class, assimilation and acculturation" (J. Moore); "The study of migrants as members of social systems" (L. Shannon); "Quantitative…

  6. Designing a Competence-Based Syllabus for Turkish Speaking Learners of English in Terms of Accessibility to Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on designing an English grammar syllabus for Turkish speaking English learners, which is based on the assumption that learning English grammar will be simpler and easier for Turkish speaking learners if it is introduced in a way by which they can achieve accessibility to Universal Grammar. In this study, I analyze almost all…

  7. Modeling the Relationships among Topical Knowledge, Anxiety, and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2010-01-01

    Thus far, few research studies have examined the practice of integrated speaking test tasks in the field of second/foreign language oral assessment. This dissertation utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) and qualitative techniques to explore the relationships among topical knowledge, anxiety, and integrated speaking test performance and to…

  8. Morphological Awareness in Vocabulary Acquisition among Chinese-Speaking Children: Testing Partial Mediation via Lexical Inference Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haomin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Chinese-specific morphological awareness on vocabulary acquisition among young Chinese-speaking students. The participants were 288 Chinese-speaking second graders from three different cities in China. Multiple regression analysis and mediation analysis were used to uncover the mediated and…

  9. The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Assessment--The Test of Ability to Explain for Zulu-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solarsh, Barbara; Alant, Erna

    2006-01-01

    A culturally appropriate test, The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children (TATE-ZC), was developed to measure verbal problem solving skills of rural, Zulu-speaking, primary school children. Principles of "non-biased" assessment, as well as emic (culture specific) and etic (universal) aspects of intelligence formed the theoretical…

  10. I Help, Therefore, I Learn: Service Learning on Web 2.0 in an EFL Speaking Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The present study integrates service learning into English as a Foreign Language (EFL) speaking class using Web 2.0 tools--YouTube and Facebook--as platforms. Fourteen undergraduate students participated in the study. The purpose of the service-learning project was to link service learning with oral communication training in an EFL speaking class…

  11. Teaching Experiences of Native and Nonnative English-Speaking Graduate Teaching Assistants and Their Perceptions of Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, B.; Eslami, Z. R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a qualitative multiple case study exploring the perceptions of nonnative English-speaking (NNES) and native English-speaking (NES) graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) toward undergraduate preservice teachers at a university located in the Southwestern United States. Three NNES GTAs and one NES GTA participated in the study.…

  12. Verbal and Nonverbal Identification of Pitch Changes in a Familiar Song by English- and Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Patricia J.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1991-01-01

    Assesses children's ability to indicate verbally and nonverbally their awareness of two-octave pitch shifts in a familiar song. Compares abilities of English- and Spanish-speaking children by age and by native language. Discovers older children indicate changes more proficiently whereas Spanish-speaking children respond less often. Finds many…

  13. An Investigation of the Amount of Emphasis Placed on Content and Delivery by Instructors of Public Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddens, Paul J., III

    A study examined how much emphasis instructors of public speaking place on content and delivery when teaching and delivering oral and written critiques. The study sought to determine whether when teaching a hybrid introduction to communication course, or public speaking course, instructors are challenged with teaching their students about issues…

  14. Communication between Early Educators and Parents Who Speak English as a Second Language: A Semantic and Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ro, Yeonsun Ellie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we discuss communication between early educators speaking their native language and parents who speak English as a second language. Parents who may have a limited proficiency in the second language face challenges to understanding semantic and pragmatic aspects of English. Actual early childhood conference talk in which parents…

  15. The Development and Evaluation of the SWRL English Language and Concepts Program for Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Huberto

    Primary goals of the SWRL English Language and Concepts Program for Spanish-Speaking Children (LCS) are to teach Spanish-speaking children to communicate effectively in oral English language skills. An increasing amount of attention is given to the development of skills that prepare the children for future reading and writing in mathematics,…

  16. No Habla Ingles: Exploring a Bilingual Child's Literacy Learning Opportunities in a Predominantly English-Speaking Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Cindy; McVee, Mary Birgit; Shojgreen-Downer, Angela M.; Duenas, Leila Flores

    1998-01-01

    A monolingual English-speaking teacher and bilingual researchers analyzed the discursive practices in a third-grade classroom that affected the literacy learning opportunities available to a monolingual Spanish-speaking migrant student. Literacy learning opportunities were shaped and influenced by the specific contexts in which the student acted…

  17. Symmetries and Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Basque Inflectional Morphology by Spanish-Speaking Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jon; Landa, Alazne

    1998-01-01

    Basque auxiliary verbs encode tense, agreement relations with ergative, absolutive, and dative arguments, which constitute an inflectional verbal amalgam whose acquisition is not problematic for Spanish-speaking children but is for Spanish-speaking adults. This asymmetry is due to different processes by which the inflectional amalgam is acquired.…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Emergent Literacy Skills and Invented Spelling in Prekindergarten Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Meghan; Bingham, Gary; Patton-Terry, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among English and Spanish emergent literacy skills of prekindergarten (pre-K) Spanish-speaking dual language learners in relation to their English invented spelling. Study participants included 141 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children enrolled in state-funded pre-K programs in a large…

  19. Teaching Minority Students within Minority Schools: Teachers' Conceptions of Multicultural Education in Swedish-Speaking Schools in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Holm, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased cultural diversity due to immigration and is facing challenges in developing multicultural education (ME) in schools. There is a Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, and immigrant students entering Swedish-speaking schools hence become a minority within a minority. In this study, using open-ended interviews, we…

  20. Success in Writing and Attributions of 16-Year-Old French-Speaking Students in Minority and Majority Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchamma, Yamina; Lapointe, Claire

    2008-01-01

    This article examines causal attributions of writing performance made by 16-year-old French-speaking Canadian students (N = 3,874). The students are from the French-speaking majority province (Quebec) and minority provinces in Canada (Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia). The data came from the School Achievement Indicators Program…

  1. Spoken Language Comprehension of Phrases, Simple and Compound-Active Sentences in Non-Speaking Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geytenbeek, Joke J. M.; Heim, Margriet J. M.; Knol, Dirk L.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) (i.e. "non-speaking children with severely limited mobility") are restricted in many domains that are important to the acquisition of language. Aims To investigate comprehension of spoken language on sentence type level in non-speaking children with severe CP. Methods & Procedures…

  2. Scaffolding Learning: Developing Materials to Support the Learning of Science and Language by Non-Native English-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the UK, like many other English first-language-speaking countries, has encountered a steady and continuous increase in the numbers of non-native English-speaking learners entering state primary and secondary schools. A significant proportion of these learners has specific language and subject learning needs, many of which can only…

  3. One-Parent-One-Language (OPOL) Families: Is the Majority Language-Speaking Parent Instrumental in the Minority Language Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venables, Elizabeth; Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the strategies majority language-speaking parents use to support the development of the minority language in families who follow the pattern of exposure known as one-parent-one-language (OPOL). In this particular pattern of raising a child bilingually, each parent speaks only their own native language to their…

  4. The Teaching of Listening as an Integral Part of an Oral Activity: An Examination of Public-Speaking Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, W. Clifton; Cox, E. Sam

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of 10 current public-speaking textbooks to determine the nature and extent to which they teach listening in an integrated approach with public speaking as an oral activity. Lewis and Nichols (1965) predicted that listening would increasingly be taught especially in an integrated approach with…

  5. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate. PMID:27089804

  6. Equal Opportunities for Spanish-Speaking People. Hearings Before the Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on the Role of the Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish-Speaking People in Providing Equal Opportunities for Spanish-Speaking People (July 11 and 19, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    The statutory purpose of the Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for the Spanish Speaking People, established in December 1969, is twofold: (1) to assure that Federal programs are reaching all Spanish-speaking and Spanish-surnamed Americans, and (2) to seek out new programs which may be necessary to handle problems unique to such persons. On July…

  7. Assessing the Readability of College Textbooks in Public Speaking: Attending to Entry Level Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, David E.

    2011-01-01

    More research is needed that examines textbooks intended for the entry level college classroom. This study offers valuable information to academics that adopt a public speaking textbook for instruction as well as objective feedback to the collective authors. Readability levels of 22 nationally published textbooks, based on McGlaughlin's (1969)…

  8. Factors Negatively Affect Speaking Skills at Saudi Colleges for Girls in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors negatively affect English language speaking skills in Saudi colleges for girls in the South in terms of: a) Instructors. b) Students. c) Curriculum and textbook. d) English Language teaching methods and exercises. e) Teaching and learning environment. To collect data for the study, a questionnaire papers were…

  9. Weight-Based Classification of Raters and Rater Cognition in an EFL Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify raters according to their weighting patterns and explore systematic differences between rater types in the rating process. In the context of an EFL speaking test, 126 raters were classified into three types--form-oriented, balanced, and content-oriented--through cluster analyses of their weighting patterns…

  10. Repeated Reading of Syllables among Finnish-Speaking Children with Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material…

  11. Towards a Further Characterization of Phonological and Literacy Problems in Dutch-Speaking Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Cleuren, Leen; Vandewalle, Ellen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of phonology and literacy in Dutch-speaking children at family risk of dyslexia and in matched controls. Measures were administered in kindergarten (before the start of formal reading instruction), in first and in third grade. Children, diagnosed with dyslexia in third grade, showed impaired…

  12. Australians from a Non-English Speaking Background with Intellectual Disability: The Importance of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolan, Claire E.; Gomez, Miriam Taylor; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review available data on Australians from a non-English speaking background (NESB) with intellectual disability (ID). They find that intellectual disability in the Australian NESB community has received limited attention in terms of both qualitative and quantitative research. The existing literature is over 10 years old and is relevant…

  13. A Descriptive Overview on Expressional Mistakes Made by Turkic Students in Speaking Turkish: Kazakh Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Oguzhan; Yakar, Yasin Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    In the study conducted using qualitative research methods, one of the purposeful samplings, typical case sampling was used. The date were collected from two sources. The students were asked to prepare any topic they wanted and then delivered it. The students were observed for one month in order to detect their mistakes as they speak, through…

  14. Language and EFL Teacher Preparation in Non-English-Speaking Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Arna S.

    Linguistic and paralinguistic problems faced by non-native-English speakers training to be teachers of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) in non-English-speaking environments are discussed. Relevant theories of second language learning and acquisition are reviewed, and the affective factors and sociocultural variables that appear to…

  15. Developing Reading and Writing Skills of Learners' from Arabic-Speaking Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The number of native Arabic-speaking students coming to America to study English in university programs has grown over the past few years, and continues to be substantial. It has also been noticed by the English Language Institute (ELI) at Sam Houston State University (SHSU) that these students often struggle more with reading activities in class,…

  16. Guidelines for Leveraging University Didactics Centers to Support OER Uptake in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebner, M.; Schön, S.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Although less well established than in other parts of the world, higher education institutions in German-speaking countries have seen a marked increase in the number of open educational resource (OER) initiatives and in government-supported OER funding in recent years. OER implementation, however, brings with it a unique set of challenges in…

  17. Measuring Grammatical Development in Bilingual Mandarin-English Speaking Children with a Sentence Repetition Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woon, Chai Ping; Yap, Ngee Thai; Lim, Hui Woan; Wong, Bee Eng

    2014-01-01

    Sentence repetition (SR) tasks have been used to measure children's expressive language skills in normal and abnormal language development, and to examine the development of the speaking skills in second language acquisition, as well as to survey the proficiency of bilingual language development. Recently, SR tasks have been recognized as a…

  18. Cultural and Economic Mediation Among Spanish Speaking Migrant Farm Workers in Dade County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferster, Lucian Edward

    Based on the study "Migrant Children in Florida", this paper discusses the Spanish speaking farm workers who migrate to Dade County yearly to harvest the tomato and fresh vegetable crops. During the fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970, questionnaires were given to a random sample of 9,065 adult migrant workers in Florida counties with significant…

  19. Talking Shop: The Communicative Teaching of English in Non-English-Speaking Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Excerpts from a discussion session involving six panelists and 150 teachers of English in non-English-speaking countries range from the revolution in the communicative approach to the extent to which the mother tongue is taken into account, translation, grammatical correctness, teaching large classes, and textbook development. (MSE)

  20. "La CLAve" to Increase Psychosis Literacy of Spanish-Speaking Community Residents and Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Steven R.; Lara, Ma. Del Carmen; Kopelowicz, Alex; Solano, Susana; Foncerrada, Hector; Aguilera, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed and tested a 35-min psychoeducational program with the goal of increasing Spanish-speaking persons' literacy of psychosis. The program uses popular cultural icons derived from music, art, and videos, as well as a mnemonic device--La CLAve (The Clue)--to increase (a) knowledge of psychosis, (b) efficacy beliefs that one can…

  1. Speak Truth and Shame the Devil: An Ethnodrama in Response to Racism in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward Randolph, Adah; Weems, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnodrama examines how two African American women experience racism in the academe. Both scholars examine the social/political context of racism in higher education and its manifestation in institutional practices. Both authors seek to "speak truth and shame the devil" by examining institutional responses to the racism they encounter in…

  2. Parental Numeric Language Input to Mandarin Chinese and English Speaking Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Alicia; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Adelchanow, Lauren; Rottman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the number-specific parental language input to Mandarin- and English-speaking preschool-aged children. Mandarin and English transcripts from the CHILDES database were examined for amount of numeric speech, specific types of numeric speech and syntactic frames in which numeric speech appeared. The results showed that…

  3. Speak Up -- Diabetes: Five Ways to Be Active in Your Care at the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    SpeakUP TM Diabetes: Five ways to be active in your care at the hospital is supported by American Association of Diabetes Educators www. ... jdrf.org The Joint Commission www.jointcommission.org 5 Diabetes: Five ways to be active in your ...

  4. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  5. Language Learner Strategy by Chinese-Speaking EFL Readers When Comprehending Familiar and Unfamiliar Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the language learner and test-taking strategies used by Chinese-speaking graduate students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in an English multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. Thirty-six participants at a large mid-western university performed three tasks: A content knowledge vocabulary…

  6. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking…

  7. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  8. Investigating Differences between American and Indian Raters in Assessing TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Jing; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the role raters' language background plays in raters' assessment of test takers' speaking ability. Specifically, this article examines differences between American and Indian raters in their scores and scoring processes when rating Indian test takers' responses to the Test of English as a Foreign…

  9. Equal Protection for Non-English Speaking School Children: Lau V. Nichols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Stephen D.; Widess, Ellen G.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the judicial and educational issues surrounding the Lau V. Nichols case in which suit was brought on behalf of 1800 Chinese-American students attending San Francisco public schools on the basis that they are being denied equal educational opportunity because they do not speak English. This case commentary argues for the plaintiffs…

  10. Floating on a Sea of Talk: Reading Comprehension through Speaking and Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    Talk is the foundation for thought and understanding and the key to literacy learning. Research demonstrates that powerful metacognitive strategies can be taught to help students self-monitor their comprehension when reading print and digital texts. This article provides a repertoire of speaking and listening strategies to develop the…

  11. Built-In Assessment Instruments in an Instructional Program Designed for Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Huberto

    Instructional materials and procedures to be used by Spanish-speaking children learning English call for assessment strategies not normally employed. Assessment scores aid in the selection of students, in student placement, in identifying children in need of remediation, and in assessing student performance at the end of the program. Assessment…

  12. Structure and Organization of the SWRL Drama and Public Speaking Program for 1972-73 Tryout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; And Others

    The structure and organization of the first four levels of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Drama and Public Speaking Program to be tried out in 1972-1973 are described in this paper. The program structure is defined in terms of skill, content, and assessment areas. Specific subareas of content are listed and are to be used to guide lesson…

  13. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

  14. Spanish Maintenance among English-Speaking Latino Youth: The Role of Individual and Social Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of individual, family, social and demographic characteristics on the maintenance of Spanish among English-speaking Latino youth. This research finds effects of generation, gender, race, parent's English proficiency, single-parent status, parental income, and neighborhood concentration of co-ethnics as well as…

  15. "But My Students All Speak English": Ethical Research Issues of Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltse, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…

  16. W.A.S.H. (We All Speak Here!) and a Learning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Michael J.

    This paper describes W.A.S.H. (We All Speak Here), an experiential learning strategy that provides learners (individuals or groups) with a means for exploring, discussing, and discovering their thoughts and feelings on any idea, issue, or concept. This strategy is part of a larger model in which students develop a deeper understanding of learning…

  17. Effects of speaking rate on the acceptability of change in segmental duration within a phrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Makiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Tsuzaki, Minoru; Sagisaka, Yoshinori

    2001-05-01

    To contribute to the naturalness criteria of speech synthesis, acceptability of changes in segment duration has been investigated. Previous studies showed context dependency of the acceptability evaluation such as intraphrase positional effect, where listeners were more sensitive to the phrase-initial segment duration than the phrase-final one. Such contextual effects were independent of the original durations of the segments tested [Kato et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 540-549 (1998)]. However, past studies used only normal-speed speech and temporal variation was limited. The current study, therefore, examined the contextual effect with a wide variety of speaking rates. The materials were three-mora phrases with either rising or falling accent that were spoken at three rates (fast, normal, and slow) with or without a carrier sentence. The duration of each vowel was either lengthened or shortened (10-50 ms) and listeners evaluated the acceptability of these changes. The results showed a clear speaking-rate effect in parallel with the intraphrase positional effect: the acceptability declined more rapidly as the speaking rate became faster. These results, along with those of Kato et al., suggest that acceptability is evaluated based on the speaking rate rather than on the original duration itself. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.] a)Currently at GITI, Waseda University.

  18. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  19. The Challenges and Opportunities for Chinese Overseas Postgraduates in English Speaking Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of Chinese students pursue their higher education degree in an overseas university. This research paper sets out to raise a discussion about some of the major challenges that such Chinese postgraduates might experience when studying at universities in English speaking countries drawing from ethnographic and sociological…

  20. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…