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Sample records for activate microglial cells

  1. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:26221064

  2. Tau oligomers and fibrils induce activation of microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales, Inelia; Jiménez, José M; Mancilla, Marcela; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a process related to the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing sets of evidence support the major role of deregulation of the interaction patterns between glial cells and neurons in the pathway toward neuronal degeneration, a process we are calling neuroimmunomodulation in AD. On the basis of the hypothesis that pathological tau aggregates induce microglial activation with the subsequent events of the neuroinflammatory cascade, we have studied the effects of tau oligomeric species and filamentous structures over microglial cells in vitro. Tau oligomers and fibrils were induced by arachidonic acid and then their actions assayed upon addition to microglial cells. We showed activation of the microglia, with significant morphological alterations as analyzed by immunofluorescence. The augmentation of nitrites and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 was evaluated in ELISA assays. Furthermore, conditioned media of stimulated microglia cells were exposed to hippocampal neurons generating altered patterns in these cells, including shortening of neuritic processes and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  3. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  4. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Beatriz I; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Zielasek, J; Hartung, H P

    1996-01-01

    Microglial cells are brain macrophages which serve specific functions in the defense of the central nervous system (CNS) against microorganisms, the removal of tissue debris in neurodegenerative diseases or during normal development, and in autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the brain. In cultured microglial cells, several soluble inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and bacterial products like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were demonstrated to induce a wide range of microglial activities, e.g. increased phagocytosis, chemotaxis, secretion of cytokines, activation of the respiratory burst and induction of nitric oxide synthase. Since heightened microglial activation was shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of experimental inflammatory CNS disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of microglial activation may lead to new treatment strategies for neurodegenerative disorders, multiple sclerosis and bacterial or viral infections of the nervous system.

  6. In Vitro Activation of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Ramified Microglial Cells from Asymptomatically Infected Cats

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Andreas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Dörries, Rüdiger

    2001-01-01

    Intravenous infection of cats with feline immunodeficiency virus was used as a model system to study activation of virus replication in brain-resident microglial cells in vitro. Virus release by ramified microglial cells isolated from subclinically infected animals was detectable in cell-free tissue culture supernatant only by reverse transcription and nested PCR of gag-specific RNA sequences and not by virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity. In contrast, cocultivation of in vivo-infected microglial cells with mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) regularly allows detection of high virus yields in cell-free tissue culture fluid. Besides uptake and multiplication of microglia-derived virus in PBMC, release of virus from microglia is stimulated by cell contact with PBMC. The data suggest that T lymphocytes patrolling the central nervous system could reactivate the semilatent state of lentiviruses in microglial cells in the course of clinically silent central nervous system infection. PMID:11483754

  7. Microglial cell activation in demyelinating canine distemper lesions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Veronika M; Czub, Markus; Schreiner, Nicole; Moore, Peter F; Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Tipold, Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Microglia cells are the principal immune effector elements of the brain responding to any pathological event. To elucidate the possible role of microglia in initial non-inflammatory demyelination in canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, microglia from experimentally CDV infected dogs were isolated ex vivo by density gradient centrifugation and characterized immunophenotypically and functionally using flow cytometry. Results from dogs with demyelinating lesions were compared to results from recovered dogs and two healthy controls. CDV antigen could be detected in microglia of dogs with histopathologically confirmed demyelination. Microglia of these dogs showed marked upregulation of the surface molecules CD18, CD11b, CD11c, CD1c, MHC class I and MHC class II and a tendency for increased expression intensity of ICAM-1 (CD54), B7-1 (CD80), B7-2 (CD86), whereas no increased expression was found for CD44 and CD45. Functionally, microglia exhibited distinctly enhanced phagocytosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was concluded that in CDV infection, there is a clear association between microglial activation and demyelination. This strongly suggests that microglia contribute to acute myelin destruction in distemper.

  8. Patterns of Microglial Cell Activation in Alzheimer Disease and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Taipa, Ricardo; Brochado, Paulo; Robinson, Andrew; Reis, Inês; Costa, Patrício; Mann, David M; Melo Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Microglia-driven neuroinflammation can play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we sought to characterize the distribution of microglial cell activation in 2 neurodegenerative dementias with distinct protein signatures, Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) of the TDP subtype, and to determine if there was an anatomical correlation with the phenotypes most commonly associated with these conditions. The distribution and extent of microglial cell activation was assessed semiquantitatively in the hippocampal formation, cortical gray matter, and subcortical white matter of CD68-immunostained sections of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices from 15 pathologically confirmed cases of AD, 13 cases of FTLD, and 18 controls. Significantly higher levels of microglial cell activation occurred in the subiculum in AD and FTLD than in controls. Additionally, AD had higher microglial activation in the CA1 and FTLD in the hippocampal white matter than the controls. Microglial activation was greater in the dentate gyrus molecular layer in AD than in FTLD. In the cortical regions, the 2 pathological groups differed only in frontal white matter, with the FTLD group showing higher microglial scores. FTLD showed higher microglial activation in the white matter compared to the respective gray matter in the entorhinal, temporal, and frontal regions. Our work expands the knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of microglial activation in these disorders. Additionally, we found some microglial circuit-specific patterns that could help to explain some of the clinical overlap between AD and FTLD-TDP, namely in memory deficits. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Suppression of Brain Mast Cells Degranulation Inhibits Microglial Activation and Central Nervous System Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yiming; Zhou, Xiqiao; Qian, Yanning; Zhang, Shu

    2017-03-01

    Brain inflammation has a critical role in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, play an important role in brain inflammation, while brain mast cells are the "first responder" in the injury rather than microglia. Functional aspects of mast cell-microglia interactions remain poorly understood. Our results demonstrated that site-directed injection of the "mast cell degranulator" compound 48/80 (C48/80) in the hypothalamus induced mast cell degranulation, microglial activation, and inflammatory factor production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response. "Mast cell stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced microglial activation, inhibition of MAPK and AKT pathways, and repression of protein expression of histamine receptor 1 (H1R), histamine receptor 4 (H4R), protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in microglia. We also demonstrated that C48/80 had no effect on microglial activation in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice. These results implicate that activated brain mast cells trigger microglial activation and stabilization of mast cell inhibits microglial activation-induced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Interactions between mast cells and microglia could constitute a new and unique therapeutic target for CNS immune inflammation-related diseases.

  10. Role of orexin A signaling in dietary palmitic acid-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Yuan, Ce; Wisdorf, Lauren E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Nixon, Joshua P; Butterick, Tammy A

    2015-10-08

    Excess dietary saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) induce peripheral and hypothalamic inflammation. Hypothalamic inflammation, mediated in part by microglial activation, contributes to metabolic dysregulation. In rodents, high fat diet-induced microglial activation results in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), and increased central pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA, hypocretin 1) is neuroprotective in brain. In cortex, OXA can also reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration through a microglial-mediated pathway. Whether hypothalamic orexin neuroprotection mechanisms depend upon microglia is unknown. To address this issue, we evaluated effects of OXA and PA on inflammatory response in immortalized murine microglial and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time in microglial cells that exposure to PA increases gene expression of orexin-1 receptor but not orexin-2 receptor. Pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglial cells are increased following PA exposure, but are reduced by pretreatment with OXA. The anti-inflammatory marker arginase-1 is increased by OXA. Finally, we show hypothalamic neurons exposed to conditioned media from PA-challenged microglia have increased cell survival only when microglia were pretreated with OXA. These data support the concept that OXA may act as an immunomodulatory regulator of microglia, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory factors to promote a favorable neuronal microenvironment.

  11. Peripheral viral infection induced microglial sensome genes and enhanced microglial cell activity in the hippocampus of neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng; Schachtschneider, Kyle M; Schook, Lawrence B; Walker, Frederick R; Johnson, Rodney W

    2016-05-01

    Although poorly understood, early-life infection is predicted to affect brain microglial cells, making them hypersensitive to subsequent stimuli. To investigate this, we assessed gene expression in hippocampal tissue obtained from a previously published study reporting increased microglial cell activity and reduced hippocampal-dependent learning in neonatal piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a virus that induces interstitial pneumonia. Infection altered expression of 455 genes, of which 334 were up-regulated and 121 were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed that immune function genes were enriched among the up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), whereas calcium binding and synaptic vesicle genes were enriched among the down-regulated DEGs. Twenty-six genes encoding part of the microglia sensory apparatus (i.e., the sensome) were up-regulated (e.g., IL1R1, TLR2, and TLR4), whereas 15 genes associated with the synaptosome and synaptic receptors (e.g., NPTX2, GABRA2, and SLC5A7) were down-regulated. As the sensome may foretell microglia reactivity, we next inoculated piglets with culture medium or PRRSV at PD 7 and assessed hippocampal microglia morphology and function at PD 28 when signs of infection were waning. Consistent with amplification of the sensome, microglia from PRRSV piglets had enhanced responsiveness to chemoattractants, increased phagocytic activity, and secreted more TNFα in response to lipopolysaccharide and Poly I:C. Immunohistochemical staining indicated PRRSV infection increased microglia soma length and length-to-width ratio. Bipolar rod-like microglia not evident in hippocampus of control piglets, were present in infected piglets. Collectively, this study suggests early-life infection alters the microglia sensome as well as microglial cell morphology and function.

  12. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor attenuates morphine-induced inflammatory responses in activated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Fazzi, Debora; Mirandola, Prisco; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Among several pharmacological properties, analgesia is the most common feature shared by either opioid or cannabinoid systems. Cannabinoids and opioids are distinct drug classes that have been historically used separately or in combination to treat different pain states. In the present study, we characterized the signal transduction pathways mediated by cannabinoid CB2 and µ-opioid receptors in quiescent and LPS-stimulated murine microglial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We examined the effects of µ-opioid and CB2 receptor stimulation on phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt and on IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in primary mouse microglial cells. KEY RESULTS Morphine enhanced release of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and of NO via µ-opioid receptor in activated microglial cells. In contrast, CB2 receptor stimulation attenuated morphine-induced microglial proinflammatory mediator increases, interfering with morphine action by acting on the Akt-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Because glial activation opposes opioid analgesia and enhances opioid tolerance and dependence, we suggest that CB2 receptors, by inhibiting microglial activity, may be potential targets to increase clinical efficacy of opioids. PMID:22428664

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4(+) lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gekker, Genya; Hu, Shuxian; Spivak, Marla; Lokensgard, James R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2005-11-14

    An urgent need for additional agents to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection led us to assess the anti-HIV-1 activity of the natural product propolis in CD4(+) lymphocytes and microglial cell cultures. Propolis inhibited viral expression in a concentration-dependent manner (maximal suppression of 85 and 98% was observed at 66.6 microg/ml propolis in CD4(+) and microglial cell cultures, respectively). Similar anti-HIV-1 activity was observed with propolis samples from several geographic regions. The mechanism of propolis antiviral property in CD4(+) lymphocytes appeared to involve, in part, inhibition of viral entry. While propolis had an additive antiviral effect on the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine, it had no noticeable effect on the protease inhibitor indinavir. The results of this in vitro study support the need for clinical trials of propolis or one or more of its components in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  15. Dystrophic (senescent) rather than activated microglial cells are associated with tau pathology and likely precede neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Braak, Heiko; Xue, Qing-Shan; Bechmann, Ingo

    2009-10-01

    The role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurodegeneration is unknown. Although several works suggest that chronic neuroinflammation caused by activated microglia contributes to neurofibrillary degeneration, anti-inflammatory drugs do not prevent or reverse neuronal tau pathology. This raises the question if indeed microglial activation occurs in the human brain at sites of neurofibrillary degeneration. In view of the recent work demonstrating presence of dystrophic (senescent) microglia in aged human brain, the purpose of this study was to investigate microglial cells in situ and at high resolution in the immediate vicinity of tau-positive structures in order to determine conclusively whether degenerating neuronal structures are associated with activated or with dystrophic microglia. We used a newly optimized immunohistochemical method for visualizing microglial cells in human archival brain together with Braak staging of neurofibrillary pathology to ascertain the morphology of microglia in the vicinity of tau-positive structures. We now report histopathological findings from 19 humans covering the spectrum from none to severe AD pathology, including patients with Down's syndrome, showing that degenerating neuronal structures positive for tau (neuropil threads, neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques) are invariably colocalized with severely dystrophic (fragmented) rather than with activated microglial cells. Using Braak staging of Alzheimer neuropathology we demonstrate that microglial dystrophy precedes the spread of tau pathology. Deposits of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) devoid of tau-positive structures were found to be colocalized with non-activated, ramified microglia, suggesting that Abeta does not trigger microglial activation. Our findings also indicate that when microglial activation does occur in the absence of an identifiable acute central nervous system insult, it is likely to be the result of systemic infectious

  16. Signalling mechanisms mediating Zn2+-induced TRPM2 channel activation and cell death in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mortadza, Sharifah Syed; Sim, Joan A.; Stacey, Martin; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Excessive Zn2+ causes brain damage via promoting ROS generation. Here we investigated the role of ROS-sensitive TRPM2 channel in H2O2/Zn2+-induced Ca2+ signalling and cell death in microglial cells. H2O2/Zn2+ induced concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), which was inhibited by PJ34, a PARP inhibitor, and abolished by TRPM2 knockout (TRPM2-KO). Pathological concentrations of H2O2/Zn2+ induced substantial cell death that was inhibited by PJ34 and DPQ, PARP inhibitors, 2-APB, a TRPM2 channel inhibitor, and prevented by TRPM2-KO. Further analysis indicate that Zn2+ induced ROS production, PARP-1 stimulation, increase in the [Ca2+]c and cell death, all of which were suppressed by chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, DPI, a NADPH-dependent oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, GKT137831, a NOX1/4 inhibitor, and Phox-I2, a NOX2 inhibitor. Furthermore, Zn2+-induced PARP-1 stimulation, increase in the [Ca2+]c and cell death were inhibited by PF431396, a Ca2+-sensitive PYK2 inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK/ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our study shows PKC/NOX-mediated ROS generation and PARP-1 activation as an important mechanism in Zn2+-induced TRPM2 channel activation and, TRPM2-mediated increase in the [Ca2+]c to trigger the PYK2/MEK/ERK signalling pathway as a positive feedback mechanism that amplifies the TRPM2 channel activation. Activation of these TRPM2-depenent signalling mechanisms ultimately drives Zn2+-induced Ca2+ overloading and cell death. PMID:28322340

  17. Maternal immune activation evoked by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid does not evoke microglial cell activation in the embryo

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Silke; Smolders, Sophie M. T.; Swinnen, Nina; Gärtner, Annette; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Legendre, Pascal; Brône, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Morphological brain abnormalities combined with deviations in the inflammatory status of the brain can be observed in patients of both autism and schizophrenia. It was shown that acute infection can induce changes in maternal cytokine levels which in turn are suggested to affect fetal brain development and increase the risk on the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Animal models of maternal immune activation reproduce the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In this study the poly (I:C) model was used to mimic viral immune activation in pregnant mice in order to assess the activation status of fetal microglia in these developmental disorders. Because microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain they were expected to be activated due to the inflammatory stimulus. Microglial cell density and activation level in the fetal cortex and hippocampus were determined. Despite the presence of a systemic inflammation in the pregnant mice, there was no significant difference in fetal microglial cell density or immunohistochemically determined activation level between the control and inflammation group. These data indicate that activation of the fetal microglial cells is not likely to be responsible for the inflammation induced deficits in the offspring in this model. PMID:26300736

  18. BAG3 protein regulates caspase-3 activation in HIV-1-infected human primary microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alessandra; Khalili, Kamel; Deshmane, Satish L.; Radhakrishnan, Sujatha; Pascale, Maria; Turco, M. Caterina; Marzullo, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    BAG3, a member of the BAG co-chaperones family, is expressed in several cell types subjected to stressful conditions, such as exposure to high temperature, heavy metals, drugs. Furthermore, it is constitutively expressed in some tumors. Among the biological activities of the protein, there is apoptosis downmodulation; this appears to be exerted through BAG3 interaction with the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, that influences cell apoptosis at several levels. We recently reported that BAG3 protein was detectable in the cytoplasm of reactive astrocytes in HIV-1-associated encephalopathy biopsies. Here we report that downmodulation of BAG3 protein levels allows caspase-3 activation by HIV-1 infection in human primary microglial cells. This is the first reported evidence of a role for BAG3 in the balance of death versus survival during viral infection. PMID:18821563

  19. Activation of murine microglial N9 cells is attenuated through cannabinoid receptor CB2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Jia, Ji; Liu, Xiangyu; Bai, Fuhai; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize

    2015-02-27

    Inhibition of microglial activation is effective in treating various neurological disorders. Activation of microglial cannabinoid CB2 receptor induces anti-inflammatory effects, and the mechanism, however, is still elusive. Microglia could be activated into the classic activated state (M1 state) or the alternative activated state (M2 state), the former is cytotoxic, and the latter is neurotrophic. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFNγ) to activate N9 microglia and hypothesized the pretreatment with cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 attenuates microglial activation by shifting microglial M1 to M2 state. We found that pretreatment with 5 μM AM1241 at 1 h before microglia were exposed to LPS plus IFNγ decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, increased the expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) and the release of anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors in microglia. However, these effects induced by AM1241 pretreatment were significantly reversed in the presence of 10 μM cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 or 10 μM protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine. These findings indicated that AM1241 pretreatment attenuates microglial activation by shifting M1 to M2 activated state via CB2 receptor, and the AM1241-induced anti-inflammatory effects may be mediated by PKC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE2 and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells. PMID:27169820

  1. The Antioxidant Effects of Thymoquinone in Activated BV-2 Murine Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cobourne-Duval, Makini K; Taka, Equar; Mendonca, Patricia; Bauer, David; Soliman, Karam F A

    2016-12-01

    Both neuroinflammation and microglial activation are pathological markers of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. During chronic activation of the microglial cells, the induced release of excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Thymoquinone (TQ), a major bioactive compound of the natural product Nigella sativa seed, has been shown to be effective against numerous oxidative stress-induced and inflammatory disorders as well as possess neuroprotective properties. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of TQ on LPS/IFNγ or H2O2-activated BV-2 microglia by assessing the levels of specific oxidative stress markers, the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes, as well as profiling 84 key genes related to oxidative stress via real-time reverse transcription (RT(2)) PCR array. Our results showed that in the LPS/IFNγ-activated microglia TQ significantly decreased the cellular production of both superoxide and nitric oxide fourfold (p < 0.0001) and sixfold (p < 0.0001), respectfully. In the H2O2-activated microglia, TQ also significantly decreased the cellular production of superoxide threefold (p < 0.0001) and significantly decreased hydrogen peroxide levels ~20 % (p < 0.05). Moreover, ΤQ treatment significantly decreased the levels oxidative stress in the activated BV-2 as evidenced by the assessed levels of lipid hydroperoxides and glutathione. TQ significantly decreased the levels of lipid hydroperoxides twofold (p < 0.0001) and significantly increased the levels of antioxidant glutathione 2.5-fold (p < 0.0001) in the LPS/IFNγ-activated BV-2 cells. In the H2O2-activated microglia, TQ significantly decreased lipid hydroperoxides eightfold (p < 0.0001) and significantly increased glutathione 15 % (p < 0.05). Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and

  2. TREM2 regulates microglial cell activation in response to demyelination in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Claudia; Bollman, Bryan; Licastro, Danilo; Xie, Mingqiang; Mikesell, Robert; Schmidt, Robert; Yuede, Carla M.; Galimberti, Daniela; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Klein, Robyn S.; Cross, Anne H.; Otero, Karel; Piccio, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are phagocytic cells that survey the brain and perform neuroprotective functions in response to tissue damage, but their activating receptors are largely unknown. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial immunoreceptor whose loss-of-function mutations in humans cause presenile dementia, while genetic variants are associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In myeloid cells, TREM2 has been involved in the regulation of phagocytosis, cell proliferation and inflammatory responses in vitro. However, it is unknown how TREM2 contributes to microglia function in vivo. Here, we identify a critical role for TREM2 in the activation and function of microglia during cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination. TREM2-deficient (TREM2−/−) mice had defective clearance of myelin debris and more axonal pathology, resulting in impaired clinical performances compared to wild-type (WT) mice. TREM2−/− microglia proliferated less in areas of demyelination and were less activated, displaying a more resting morphology and decreased expression of the activation markers MHC II and inducible nitric oxide synthase as compared to WT. Mechanistically, gene expression and ultrastructural analysis of microglia suggested a defect in myelin degradation and phagosome processing during CPZ intoxication in TREM2−/− microglia. These findings place TREM2 as a key regulator of microglia activation in vivo in response to tissue damage. PMID:25631124

  3. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. The immunostimulatory activity of CpG oligonucleotides on microglial N9 cells is affected by a polyguanosine motif.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiren; Guo, Ketai; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2005-04-01

    Oligonucleotides (ODN) with hexameric motifs containing central unmethylated CpG dinucleotides are immunostimulatory. Also ODN with continuous guanosines (polyG motif) show a wide range of immunological activity. Depending on the position, the chemical property of the ODN backbone and the cell type, polyG motifs have either an enhancing or a suppressing effect on the immunostimulatory activity of the CpG-ODN. Microglial cells are central components of the innate immune system of the brain and are activated by CpG-ODN in vitro and in vivo. Here we present the analysis of the immunomodulatory effects of CpG-ODN carrying a polyG motif on the microglial cell line N9. Our data show that N9 cells express Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and are activated by CpG-ODN, which leads to expression of interleukin-12p40 (IL12p40), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). A 3'-end polyG motif inhibits phosphothioate (PS) CpG-ODN immunostimulatory activity but enhances the immunostimulatory activity of phosphodiester (PE) CpG-ODN. Correspondingly, a 3'-end polyG motif improves the cellular uptake of PE CpG-ODN but does not change their cellular distribution pattern. Furthermore, PE CpG-ODN with a 3'-end polyG motif interact with a much higher number of cellular proteins than PE CpG-ODN. These data indicate that the 3'-end polyG motif could enhance the immunostimulatory activity of PE CpG-ODN in microglial N9 cells through increasing interaction with cellular proteins. Therefore PE CpG-ODN containing a 3'-end polyG motif resulting in increased immunostimulatory activity might be promising alternate analogues for studies in the central nervous system.

  5. Autotaxin protects microglial cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Awada, Rana; Rondeau, Philippe; Grès, Sandra; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien; Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Christian; Bourdon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-15

    Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxygen-reactive species and can lead to cellular damage, as seen in several neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are specialized cells in the central nervous system that act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the response to pathological events. Autotaxin (ATX) plays an important role in the modulation of critical cellular functions, through its enzymatic production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In this study, we investigated the potential role of ATX in the response of microglial cells to oxidative stress. We show that treatment of a microglial BV2 cell line with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stimulates ATX expression and LPA production. Stable overexpression of ATX inhibits microglial activation (CD11b expression) and protects against H(2)O(2)-treatment-induced cellular damage. This protective effect of ATX was partially reduced in the presence of the LPA-receptor antagonist Ki16425. ATX overexpression was also associated with a reduction in intracellular ROS formation, carbonylated protein accumulation, proteasomal activity, and catalase expression. Our results suggest that up-regulation of ATX expression in microglia could be a mechanism for protection against oxidative stress, thereby reducing inflammation in the nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenylated Flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Activities in BV2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Cheol; Yoon, Chi-Su; Quang, Tran Hong; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Jong-Su; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2016-01-01

    In Korea and China, Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant used to treat lumbago, hemoptysis, and contusions. The C. tricuspidata methanol extract suppressed both production of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells. Cudraflavanone D (1), isolated from this extract, remarkably suppressed the protein expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Cudraflavanone D (1) also decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β production, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB heterodimers (p50 and p65) by interrupting the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor of IκB-α, and inhibited NF-κB binding. In addition, cudraflavanone D (1) suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK pathways. This study indicated that cudraflavanone D (1) can be a potential drug candidate for the cure of neuroinflammation. PMID:26907256

  7. Nucleotides released from Aβ1–42-treated microglial cells increase cell migration and Aβ1–42 uptake through P2Y2 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jung; Ajit, Deepa; Peterson, Troy S.; Wang, Yanfang; Camden, Jean M.; Wood, W. Gibson; Sun, Grace Y.; Erb, Laurie; Petris, Michael; Weisman, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposits in brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients generate proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that recruit microglial cells to phagocytose Aβ. Nucleotides released from apoptotic cells activate P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) in macrophages to promote clearance of dead cells. In this study, we investigated the role of P2Y2Rs in the phagocytosis and clearance of Aβ. Treatment of mouse primary microglial cells with fibrillar (fAβ1–42) and oligomeric (oAβ1–42)Aβ1–42 aggregation solutions caused a rapid release of ATP (maximum after 10 min). Furthermore, fAβ1–42 and oAβ1–42 treatment for 24 h caused an increase in P2Y2R gene expression. Treatment with fAβ1–42 and oAβ1–42 aggregation solutions increased the motility of neighboring microglial cells, a response inhibited by pre-treatment with apyrase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes nucleotides. The P2Y2R agonists ATP and UTP caused significant uptake of Aβ1–42 by microglial cells within 30 min, which reached a maximum within 1 h, but did not increase Aβ1–42 uptake by primary microglial cells isolated from P2Y2R−/− mice. Inhibitors of αv integrins, Src and Rac decreased UTP-induced Aβ1–42 uptake, suggesting that these previously identified components of the P2Y2R signaling pathway play a role in Aβ phagocytosis by microglial cells. Finally, we found that UTP treatment enhances Aβ1–42 degradation by microglial cells, but not in cells isolated from P2Y2R−/− mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that P2Y2Rs can activate microglial cells to enhance Aβ clearance and highlight the P2Y2R as a therapeutic target in AD. PMID:22353164

  8. Microglial activation and increased microglial density observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in autism.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John T; Chana, Gursharan; Pardo, Carlos A; Achim, Cristian; Semendeferi, Katerina; Buckwalter, Jody; Courchesne, Eric; Everall, Ian P

    2010-08-15

    In the neurodevelopmental disorder autism, several neuroimmune abnormalities have been reported. However, it is unknown whether microglial somal volume or density are altered in the cortex and whether any alteration is associated with age or other potential covariates. Microglia in sections from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of nonmacrencephalic male cases with autism (n = 13) and control cases (n = 9) were visualized via ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 immunohistochemistry. In addition to a neuropathological assessment, microglial cell density was stereologically estimated via optical fractionator and average somal volume was quantified via isotropic nucleator. Microglia appeared markedly activated in 5 of 13 cases with autism, including 2 of 3 under age 6, and marginally activated in an additional 4 of 13 cases. Morphological alterations included somal enlargement, process retraction and thickening, and extension of filopodia from processes. Average microglial somal volume was significantly increased in white matter (p = .013), with a trend in gray matter (p = .098). Microglial cell density was increased in gray matter (p = .002). Seizure history did not influence any activation measure. The activation profile described represents a neuropathological alteration in a sizeable fraction of cases with autism. Given its early presence, microglial activation may play a central role in the pathogenesis of autism in a substantial proportion of patients. Alternatively, activation may represent a response of the innate neuroimmune system to synaptic, neuronal, or neuronal network disturbances, or reflect genetic and/or environmental abnormalities impacting multiple cellular populations. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abscisic acid activates the murine microglial cell line N9 through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose.

    PubMed

    Bodrato, Nicoletta; Franco, Luisa; Fresia, Chiara; Guida, Lucrezia; Usai, Cesare; Salis, Annalisa; Moreschi, Iliana; Ferraris, Chiara; Verderio, Claudia; Basile, Giovanna; Bruzzone, Santina; Scarfì, Sonia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2009-05-29

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone regulating important functions in higher plants, notably responses to abiotic stress. Recently, chemical or physical stimulation of human granulocytes was shown to induce production and release of endogenous ABA, which activates specific cell functions. Here we provide evidence that ABA stimulates several functional activities of the murine microglial cell line N9 (NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, cell migration) through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose and an increase of intracellular calcium. ABA production and release occur in N9 cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate, the chemoattractant peptide f-MLP, or beta-amyloid, the primary plaque component in Alzheimer disease. Finally, ABA priming stimulates N9 cell migration toward beta-amyloid. These results indicate that ABA is a pro-inflammatory hormone inducing autocrine microglial activation, potentially representing a new target for anti-inflammatory therapies aimed at limiting microglia-induced tissue damage in the central nervous system.

  10. Radiation-Induced c-Jun Activation Depends on MEK1-ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhiyong; Sui, Guangchao; Rosa, Paulo Mottin; Zhao, Weiling

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced normal brain injury is associated with acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses, and has been a major concern in radiotherapy. Recent studies suggest that microglial activation is a potential contributor to chronic inflammatory responses following irradiation; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the response of microglia to radiation is poorly understood. c-Jun, a component of AP-1 transcription factors, potentially regulates neural cell death and neuroinflammation. We observed a rapid increase in phosphorylation of N-terminal c-Jun (on serine 63 and 73) and MAPK kinases ERK1/2, but not JNKs, in irradiated murine microglial BV2 cells. Radiation-induced c-Jun phosphorylation is dependent on the canonical MEK-ERK signaling pathway and required for both ERK1 and ERK2 function. ERK1/2 directly interact with c-Jun in vitro and in cells; meanwhile, the JNK binding domain on c-Jun is not required for its interaction with ERK kinases. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) potentially contribute to c-Jun phosphorylation through activating the ERK pathway. Radiation stimulates c-Jun transcriptional activity and upregulates c-Jun-regulated proinflammatory genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2. Pharmacologic blockade of the ERK signaling pathway interferes with c-Jun activity and inhibits radiation-stimulated expression of c-Jun target genes. Overall, our study reveals that the MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, but not the JNK pathway, contributes to the c-Jun-dependent microglial inflammatory response following irradiation. PMID:22606284

  11. Radiation-induced c-Jun activation depends on MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiyong; Sui, Guangchao; Rosa, Paulo Mottin; Zhao, Weiling

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced normal brain injury is associated with acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses, and has been a major concern in radiotherapy. Recent studies suggest that microglial activation is a potential contributor to chronic inflammatory responses following irradiation; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the response of microglia to radiation is poorly understood. c-Jun, a component of AP-1 transcription factors, potentially regulates neural cell death and neuroinflammation. We observed a rapid increase in phosphorylation of N-terminal c-Jun (on serine 63 and 73) and MAPK kinases ERK1/2, but not JNKs, in irradiated murine microglial BV2 cells. Radiation-induced c-Jun phosphorylation is dependent on the canonical MEK-ERK signaling pathway and required for both ERK1 and ERK2 function. ERK1/2 directly interact with c-Jun in vitro and in cells; meanwhile, the JNK binding domain on c-Jun is not required for its interaction with ERK kinases. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) potentially contribute to c-Jun phosphorylation through activating the ERK pathway. Radiation stimulates c-Jun transcriptional activity and upregulates c-Jun-regulated proinflammatory genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2. Pharmacologic blockade of the ERK signaling pathway interferes with c-Jun activity and inhibits radiation-stimulated expression of c-Jun target genes. Overall, our study reveals that the MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, but not the JNK pathway, contributes to the c-Jun-dependent microglial inflammatory response following irradiation.

  12. Allograft-inflammatory factor-1 in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, neuritis, and uveitis: expression by activated macrophages and microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Schluesener, H J; Seid, K; Kretzschmar, J; Meyermann, R

    1998-10-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a Ca2+ binding peptide expressed predominantly by activated monocytes. In order to investigate the role of AIF-1 in autoimmune lesions of the rat nervous system, we have used a synthetic gene to express AIF-1 in E. coli and have produced monoclonal antibodies against AIF-1. AIF-1 was localized to monocytes/macrophages with rather selective staining of a minor rat monocyte subpopulation of lymphoid tissue. We then investigated expression of AIF-1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), neuritis (EAN), and uveitis (EAU). Within the local inflammatory lesions, infiltrating macrophages are prominently stained. In the diseased brain, AIF-1-positive microglial cells are not only found in the direct vicinity of the infiltrate, but widespread activation is seen in the parenchyma. This is the first demonstration that AIF-1 is present in autoimmune lesions. Immunostaining of microglial cells is noteworthy, as these cells are strategically placed regulatory elements of CNS immunosurveillance. Thus, AIF-1 might be a valuable marker to dissect the local monocyte heterogeneity in autoimmune disease.

  13. Microglial Activation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Donat, Cornelius K.; Scott, Gregory; Gentleman, Steve M.; Sastre, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain. On the other hand, if they remain chronically activated, such cells display a classically activated phenotype, releasing pro-inflammatory molecules, resulting in further tissue damage and contributing potentially to neurodegeneration. However, new evidence suggests that this classification is over-simplistic and the balance of activation states can vary at different points. In this article, we review the role of microglia in TBI, analyzing their distribution, morphology and functional phenotype over time in animal models and in humans. Animal studies have allowed genetic and pharmacological manipulations of microglia activation, in order to define their role. In addition, we describe investigations on the in vivo imaging of microglia using translocator protein (TSPO) PET and autoradiography, showing that microglial activation can occur in regions far remote from sites of focal injuries, in humans and animal models of TBI. Finally, we outline some novel potential therapeutic approaches that prime microglia/macrophages toward the beneficial restorative microglial phenotype after TBI. PMID:28701948

  14. Interleukin 4 induces the apoptosis of mouse microglial cells by a caspase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Soria, Javier A; Arroyo, Daniela S; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Microglial cells are resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in many pathological conditions. Activation of microglial cells results in reactive microgliosis, manifested by an increase in cell number in the affected CNS regions. The control of microgliosis may be important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. The type 2 cytokine IL-4 has been reported to be protective in brain inflammation. However, its effect on microglial cell survival was not well understood. In this study, we report a dual effect of IL-4 on the survival of mouse microglial cells. In a 6h short term culture, IL-4 reduced the death of microglial cells induced by staurosporine. In contrast, in long term treatment (more than 48h), IL-4 increased the apoptotic death of both primary mouse microglial cells and a microglial cell line N9. Mechanistic studies revealed that, in microglial cells, IL-4 increased the levels of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP, which is down-stream of activated caspase 3. In addition, IL-4 down regulated the autophagy and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL in microglial cells. On the other hand, the pre-incubation of microglial cells with IL-4 for 24h, attenuated the cell death induced by the neurotoxic peptide amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42). Our observations demonstrate a novel function of IL-4 in regulating the survival of microglial cells, which may have important significance in reduction of undesired inflammatory responses in the CNS.

  15. Adaptive Müller cell responses to microglial activation mediate neuroprotection and coordinate inflammation in the retina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Microglia and Müller cells are prominent participants in retinal responses to injury and disease that shape eventual tissue adaptation or damage. This investigation examined how microglia and Müller cells interact with each other following initial microglial activation. Methods Mouse Müller cells were cultured alone, or co-cultured with activated or unactivated retinal microglia, and their morphological, molecular, and functional responses were evaluated. Müller cell-feedback signaling to microglia was studied using Müller cell-conditioned media. Corroborative in vivo analyses of retinal microglia-Müller cell interactions in the mouse retina were also performed. Results Our results demonstrate that Müller cells exposed to activated microglia, relative to those cultured alone or with unactivated microglia, exhibit marked alterations in cell morphology and gene expression that differed from those seen in chronic gliosis. These Müller cells demonstrated in vitro (1) an upregulation of growth factors such as GDNF and LIF, and provide neuroprotection to photoreceptor cells, (2) increased pro-inflammatory factor production, which in turn increased microglial activation in a positive feedback loop, and (3) upregulated chemokine and adhesion protein expression, which allowed Müller cells to attract and adhere to microglia. In vivo activation of microglia by intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also induced increased Müller cell-microglia adhesion, indicating that activated microglia may translocate intraretinally in a radial direction using Müller cell processes as an adhesive scaffold. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that activated microglia are able to influence Müller cells directly, and initiate a program of bidirectional microglia-Müller cell signaling that can mediate adaptive responses within the retina following injury. In the acute aftermath following initial microglia activation, Müller cell responses may serve to augment

  16. The microglial "activation" continuum: from innate to adaptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Town, Terrence; Nikolic, Veljko; Tan, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Microglia are innate immune cells of myeloid origin that take up residence in the central nervous system (CNS) during embryogenesis. While classically regarded as macrophage-like cells, it is becoming increasingly clear that reactive microglia play more diverse roles in the CNS. Microglial "activation" is often used to refer to a single phenotype; however, in this review we consider that a continuum of microglial activation exists, with phagocytic response (innate activation) at one end and antigen presenting cell function (adaptive activation) at the other. Where activated microglia fall in this spectrum seems to be highly dependent on the type of stimulation provided. We begin by addressing the classical roles of peripheral innate immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells, which seem to define the edges of this continuum. We then discuss various types of microglial stimulation, including Toll-like receptor engagement by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, microglial challenge with myelin epitopes or Alzheimer's β-amyloid in the presence or absence of CD40L co-stimulation, and Alzheimer disease "immunotherapy". Based on the wide spectrum of stimulus-specific microglial responses, we interpret these cells as immune cells that demonstrate remarkable plasticity following activation. This interpretation has relevance for neurodegenerative/neuroinflammatory diseases where reactive microglia play an etiological role; in particular viral/bacterial encephalitis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer disease. PMID:16259628

  17. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Mediates Neurotoxin-Induced Cell Death and Microglial Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease converting plasminogen to plasmin, is necessary for neurodegeneration. In mice lacking tPA (tPA-/1), neurons are resistant to neurotoxic death. Delivery of tPA into tpA-/- mice restores susceptibility to neuronal death, indicating that tPA is neurotoxic in the context of excitotoxic injury. Although tPA is synthesized by neurons, the increase in tPA upon injury derives primarily from activated microglia, the immune cells of the brain. Microglia in tPA-/- mice demonstrate reduced activation.

  18. Andrographolide Activates Keap1/Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathway in HT22 Cells and Suppresses Microglial Activation by Aβ42 through Nrf2-Related Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Pyo, Euisun; An, Jin-Pyo; Kim, Jinwoong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic approach of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been gradually diversified. We examined the therapeutic and preventive potential of andrographolide, which is a lactone diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata, and focused on the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated heme oxygenase (HO)-1-inducing effects and the inhibitory activity of amyloid beta (Aβ)42-induced microglial activation related to Nrf2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Andrographolide induced the expression and translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thereby activating antioxidant response element (ARE) gene transcription and HO-1 expression in murine hippocampal HT22 cells. Andrographolide eliminated intracellular Aβ42 in BV-2 cells and decreased the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin (PG)E2, and nitric oxide (NO) because of artificial phagocytic Aβ42. It decreased pNF-κB accumulation in the nucleus and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-II) in the microglial BV-2 cell line. In summary, andrographolide activates Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression and inhibits Aβ42-overexpressed microglial BV-2 cell activation. These results suggested that andrographolide might have the potential for further examination of the therapeutics of AD. PMID:28373747

  19. Morphine mediates a proinflammatory phenotype via μ-opioid receptor-PKCɛ-Akt-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Fazzi, Debora; Stefanelli, Angela; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2013-08-15

    Anti-nociceptive tolerance to opioids severely limits their clinical efficacy for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. Glia has a central role in the development of morphine tolerance. Here, we characterized the receptor-proximal signaling events that link μ-opioid receptors to activation of Akt and ERKs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglial cells with the aim to define the molecular mechanism contributing to the ability of morphine to increase inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in activated microglial cells. In particular, the role of PKCɛ isoform in μ-opioid-induced inflammatory response in microglia was investigated. The results indicate that morphine increases the LPS-induced expression and activation of PKCɛ and stimulates Akt pathway upstream of ERK1/2 and iNOS. Furthermore, we found that morphine enhanced the release of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and of NO via μ-opioid receptor-PKCɛ signaling pathway in activated microglial cells, mediating a proinflammatory phenotype in mouse microglial cells. Together, these data suggest that the modulation of μ-opioid receptor signaling on microglia through PKCɛ selective inhibition may provide a means to attenuate glial activation and, as a consequence, to treat opioid development of tolerance and dependence.

  20. Amphotericin B Increases Transglutaminase 2 Expression Associated with Upregulation of Endocytotic Activity in Mouse Microglial Cell Line BV-2.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Kenji; Takano, Katsura; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2017-02-21

    Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic, is reported to cause the microglial activation to induce nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory cytokines expression, and change neurotrophic factors expression in cultured microglia (Motoyoshi et al. in Neurochem Int 52:1290-1296, 2008). On the other hand, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in connection to phagocytes with apoptotic cells. Engulfment of neurons by activated microglia is thought to cause neurodegenerative diseases but detail is unclear, and involvement of TG2 in phagocytosis has been reported in our previous study using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 cells (Kawabe et al. in Neuroimmunomodulation 22(4):243-249, 2015). In the present study, we examined the changes of TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis in BV-2 cells stimulated by AmB. AmB stimulation increased TG2 expression and TG activity. Phagocytosis of dead cells and pinocytosis of fluorescent microbeads were also up-regulated by AmB stimulation in BV-2 cells. Blockade of TG activity by cystamine, an inhibitor of TGs, suppressed AmB-enhanced TG2 expression, TG activity, NO production, phagocytosis and pinocytosis. Excessive NO production from microglia and/or facilitation of phagocytosis might be involved in neuronal death. To control TG activity might make possible to protect neurons and care for CNS diseases.

  1. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Daniela S; Soria, Javier A; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.

  2. Murine retroviral neurovirulence correlates with an enhanced ability ofvirus to infect selectively, replicate in, and activate resident microglial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baszler, T. V.; Zachary, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the biologic basis of ts1 MoMuLV neurovirulence in vivo, newborn CFW/D mice were inoculated with neurovirulent ts1 MoMuLV and nonneurovirulent wt MoMuLV and the temporal response to virus infection in the central nervous system (CNS), spleen, and thymus was studied comparatively. Experimental procedures included single and double labeling in situ immunohistochemistry with selective morphometric analyses, and steady state immunoblotting of viral proteins. Cellular targets for virus infection were identical for both ts1 and wt MoMuLV and consisted sequentially of 1) splenic megakaryocytes, 2) splenic and thymic lymphocytes, 3) CNS capillary endothelial cells, and 4) CNS pericytes and microglia. Resident microglial cells served as the major reservor and amplifier of virus infection in the CNS of ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice; a similar but much less significant role was played by microglia in wt MoMuLV-infected mice. The genesis and progression of severe spongiform lesions in ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice were both temporally and spatially correlated with amplified virus infection of microglia, and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of both virus-infected and nonvirus-infected microglial cells. Direct virus infection of neurons was never observed. The development of clinical neurologic disease and spongiform lesions in ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice correlated with the accumulation of both viral gag and env gene products in the CNS; there was no selective accumulation of env precursor polyprotein Pr80env. When compared to wt MoMuLV-infected mice, the neurovirulence of ts1 MoMuLV-infected mice occurred by an enhanced ability to replicate in the CNS and to infect and activate more microglia, rather than by a fundamental change in cellular tropism or topography of virus infection. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 p666-a Figure 8 PMID:2000941

  3. Crocin Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Pro-inflammatory Response of Microglial Cells Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy Through the Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinguang; Huo, Fuquan; Liu, Bei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Tao; Li, Junping; Zhu, Zhongqiao; Lv, Bochang

    2017-02-25

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus that is closely associated with the degeneration and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) caused by diabetic microangiopathy and subsequent oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. Microglial cells are classed as neurogliocytes and play a significant role in neurodegenerative diseases. Over-activated microglial cells may cause neurotoxicity and induce the death and apoptosis of RGCs. Crocin is one of the two most pharmacologically bioactive constituents in saffron. In the present study, we focused on the role of microglial cells in DR, suggesting that DR may cause the over-activation of microglial cells and induce oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory factors. Microglial cells BV-2 and N9 were cultured, and high-glucose (HG) and free fatty acid (FFA) were used to simulate diabetes. The results showed that HG-FFA co-treatment caused the up-regulated expression of CD11b and Iba-1, indicating that BV-2 and N9 cells were over-activated. Moreover, oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory factors were significantly enhanced by HG-FFA treatment. We found that crocin prevented the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response induced by HG-FFA co-treatment. Moreover, using the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, we revealed that PI3K/Akt signaling plays a significant role in blocking oxidative stress, suppressing the pro-inflammatory response, and maintaining the neuroprotective effects of crocin. In total, these results provide a new insight into DR and DR-induced oxidative stress and the inflammatory response, which provide a potential therapeutic target for neuronal damage, vision loss, and other DR-induced complications.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Jaehong; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Seungeun; Park, Hana; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To examine the role of PTPs in microglial activation and neuroinflammation, we used specific pharmacological inhibitors of PTPs. Inhibition of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, LYP, and RPTPβ suppressed nitric oxide production in LPS-treated microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, and RPTPβ inhibitors downregulated microglial activation in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model. Our results indicate that multiple PTPs are involved in regulating microglial activation and neuroinflammation, with different expression patterns and specific functions. Thus, PTP inhibitors can be exploited for therapeutic modulation of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:27790059

  5. Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Derived from Pantoea agglomerans on the Phagocytic Activity of Amyloid β by Primary Murine Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaro; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Okazaki, Katsuichiro; Zhang, Ran; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Monophosphoryl lipid A, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-derived Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by enhancing phagocytosis of amyloid β (Aβ) by brain microglia. Our recent study demonstrated that oral administration of LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) activates peritoneal macrophages and enhances the phagocytic activity via TLR4 signaling pathway; however, the effect of LPSp on Aβ phagocytosis in microglia is still unknown. Primary microglial cells were isolated from adult mouse brain by enzymatic digestion, following myelin removal and magnetic separation of cluster of differentiation (CD) 11b. Phagocytic analysis of the primary microglia was measured by using HiLyte™ Fluor 488-conjugated Aβ1-42 RESULTS: Using our protocols, the average yield of isolated CD11b(+) cells was around 2.2×10(5) cells per brain. CD11b(+)CD45(+)CD39(+) cells were defined here as microglia. The phagocytic activity of Aβ1-42 by the isolated microglia was confirmed. LPSp (10 ng/ml) pre-treatment for 18 h significantly increased Aβ phagocytic activity. The enhancement of Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by LPSp treatment in the primary mouse microglia was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity.

  7. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-10-26

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD.

  8. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  9. Nitrated alpha-synuclein and microglial neuroregulatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley D.; Kadiu, Irena; Garg, Sanjay K.; Glanzer, Jason G.; Nordgen, Tara; Ciborowski, Pawel; Banerjee, Ruma; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2008-01-01

    Microglial neuroinflammatory responses affect the onset and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We posit that such neuroinflammatory responses are, in part, mediated by microglial interactions with nitrated and aggregated α-synuclein (α-syn) released from Lewy bodies as a consequence of dopaminergic neuronal degeneration. As disease progresses, secretions from α-syn activated microglia can engage neighboring glial cells in a cycle of autocrine and paracrine amplification of neurotoxic immune products. Such pathogenic processes affect the balance between a microglial neurotrophic and neurotoxic signature. We now report that microglia secrete both neurotoxic and neuroprotective factors following exposure to nitrated α-syn (N-α-syn). Proteomic [surface enhanced laser desorption-time of flight (SELDI-TOF), 1D SDS electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry] and limited metabolomic profiling demonstrated that N-α-syn activated microglia secrete inflammatory, regulatory, redox-active, enzymes, and cytoskeletal proteins. Increased extracellular glutamate and cysteine, dimininshed intracellular glutathione and secreted exosomal proteins were also demonstrated. Increased redox active proteins suggest regulatory microglial responses to N-α-syn. These were linked to discontinuous cystatin expression, cathepsin activity, and NF-κB activation. Inhibition of cathepsin B attenuated, in part, N-α-syn-microglial neurotoxicity. These data support multifaceted microglia functions in PD-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:18202920

  10. Microglial activation and progressive brain changes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, L E; Di Biase, M A; Everall, I; Chana, G; Christopoulos, A; Skafidas, E; Cropley, V L; Pantelis, C

    2016-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that typically begins in adolescence and is characterized by perceptual abnormalities, delusions, cognitive and behavioural disturbances and functional impairments. While current treatments can be effective, they are often insufficient to alleviate the full range of symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities including grey and white matter volume loss and impaired connectivity. Recent findings suggest these abnormalities follow a neuroprogressive course in the earliest stages of the illness, which may be associated with episodes of acute relapse. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying these brain changes, with evidence of increased density and activation of microglia, immune cells resident in the brain, at various stages of the illness. We review evidence for microglial dysfunction in schizophrenia from both neuroimaging and neuropathological data, with a specific focus on studies examining microglial activation in relation to the pathology of grey and white matter. The studies available indicate that the link between microglial dysfunction and brain change in schizophrenia remains an intriguing hypothesis worthy of further examination. Future studies in schizophrenia should: (i) use multimodal imaging to clarify this association by mapping brain changes longitudinally across illness stages in relation to microglial activation; (ii) clarify the nature of microglial dysfunction with markers specific to activation states and phenotypes; (iii) examine the role of microglia and neurons with reference to their overlapping roles in neuroinflammatory pathways; and (iv) examine the impact of novel immunomodulatory treatments on brain structure in schizophrenia. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Shizukaol B, an active sesquiterpene from Chloranthus henryi, attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li-Long; Xu, Peng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Hu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xin-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of shizukaol B, a lindenane-type dimeric sesquiterpene isolated from the whole plant of Chloranthus henryi, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of BV2 microglial cells in vitro. Our data showed that shizukaol B concentration-dependently suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Meanwhile, shizukaol B concentration- and time-dependently inhibited LPS-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK) activation, but had little effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 or p38 phosphorylation. Furthermore, shizukaol B significantly blocked LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, evidenced by reduced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1. Taken together, our findings suggest that shizukaol B exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-activated microglia partly by modulating JNK-AP-1 signaling pathway.

  12. Interference with Protease-activated Receptor 1 Alleviates Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglial Cells through the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuxin; Yang, Wuyang; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Wang, Baocheng; Xu, Shujun; Zhu, Weijie; Yu, Feng; Yuan, Shaoji; Lu, Peigang

    2016-01-01

    Excessive microglial cells activation in response to inflammatory stimuli leads to synaptic loss, dysfunction, and neuronal cell death. Activated microglia are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions and frequently contribute to several complications. Accumulating evidence suggests that signaling through PAR-1 is involved in inflammation, however, its function has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we have demonstrated that the suppression of PAR-1 leads to down-regulation of inflammatory factors including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, as well as the prevention of activation of NF-κB in BV2 cells. In addition, we found that a PAR-1 antagonist, SCH, prevented LPS-induced excessive microglial activation in a dose-dependent manner. As a result of SCH treatment, neuronal cell death via up-regulation of Akt-mediated pathways was reduced. Our results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of SCH are linked to its ability to block an inflammatory response. Further, we found that SCH inhibited the death of PC12 neurons from the cytotoxicity of activated BV2 cells via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These neuro-protective effects appear to be related to inhibition of PAR-1, and represents a novel neuroprotective strategy that could has potential for use in therapeutic interventions of neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:27910893

  13. Homology analysis detects topological changes of Iba1 localization accompanied by microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Toshinori; Tsuchihashi, Ryo; Morii, Eiichi; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nakane, Kazuaki; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2017-03-27

    The state of microglial activation provides important information about the central nervous system. However, a reliable index of microglial activation in histological samples has yet to be established. Here, we show that microglial activation induces topological changes of Iba1 localization that can be detected by analysis based on homology theory. Analysis of homology was applied to images of Iba1-stained tissue sections, and the 0-dimentional Betti number (b0: the number of solid components) and the 1-dimentional Betti number (b1: the number of windows surrounded by solid components) were obtained. We defined b1/b0 as the Homology Value (HV), and investigated its validity as an index of microglial activation using cerebral ischemia model mice. Microglial activation was accompanied by changes to Iba1 localization and morphology of microglial processes. In single microglial cells, the change of Iba1 localization increased b1. Conversely, thickening or retraction of microglial processes decreased b0. Consequently, microglial activation increased the HV. The HV of a tissue area increased with proximity to the ischemic core and showed a high degree of concordance with the number of microglia expressing activation makers. Furthermore, the HV of human metastatic brain tumor tissue also increased with proximity to the tumor. These results suggest that our index, based on homology theory, can be used to correctly evaluate microglial activation in various tissue images. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Rat Developing Brain In Utero Prominently Targets Immune Cells and Promotes Early Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cloarec, Robin; Bauer, Sylvian; Luche, Hervé; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Salmi, Manal; Courtens, Sandra; Massacrier, Annick; Grenot, Pierre; Teissier, Natacha; Watrin, Françoise; Schaller, Fabienne; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Gressens, Pierre; Malissen, Marie; Stamminger, Thomas; Streblow, Daniel N.; Bruneau, Nadine; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus infections are a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in human and represent a major health care and socio-economical burden. In contrast with this medical importance, the pathophysiological events remain poorly known. Murine models of brain cytomegalovirus infection, mostly neonatal, have brought recent insights into the possible pathogenesis, with convergent evidence for the alteration and possible involvement of brain immune cells. Objectives and Methods In order to confirm and expand those findings, particularly concerning the early developmental stages following infection of the fetal brain, we have created a model of in utero cytomegalovirus infection in the developing rat brain. Rat cytomegalovirus was injected intraventricularly at embryonic day 15 (E15) and the brains analyzed at various stages until the first postnatal day, using a combination of gene expression analysis, immunohistochemistry and multicolor flow cytometry experiments. Results Rat cytomegalovirus infection was increasingly seen in various brain areas including the choroid plexi and the ventricular and subventricular areas and was prominently detected in CD45low/int, CD11b+ microglial cells, in CD45high, CD11b+ cells of the myeloid lineage including macrophages, and in CD45+, CD11b– lymphocytes and non-B non-T cells. In parallel, rat cytomegalovirus infection of the developing rat brain rapidly triggered a cascade of pathophysiological events comprising: chemokines upregulation, including CCL2-4, 7 and 12; infiltration by peripheral cells including B-cells and monocytes at E17 and P1, and T-cells at P1; and microglia activation at E17 and P1. Conclusion In line with previous findings in neonatal murine models and in human specimen, our study further suggests that neuroimmune alterations might play critical roles in the early stages following cytomegalovirus infection of the brain in utero. Further studies are now needed to determine which

  15. Sigma Receptors Suppress Multiple Aspects of Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hall Aaron, A.; Yelenis, Herrera; Ajmo Craig, T.; Javier, Cuevas; Pennypacker Keith, R.

    2009-01-01

    During brain injury, microglia become activated and migrate to areas of degenerating neurons. These microglia release pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species causing additional neuronal death. Microglia express high levels of sigma receptors, however, the function of these receptors in microglia and how they may affect the activation of these cells remain poorly understood. Using primary rat microglial cultures, it was found that sigma receptor activation suppresses the ability of microglia to rearrange their actin cytoskeleton, migrate, and release cytokines in response to the activators adenosine triphosphate (ATP), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Next, the role of sigma receptors in the regulation of calcium signaling during microglial activation was explored. Calcium fluorometry experiments in vitro show that stimulation of sigma receptors suppressed both transient and sustained intracellular calcium elevations associated with the microglial response to these activators. Further experiments showed that sigma receptors suppress microglial activation by interfering with increases in intracellular calcium. In addition, sigma receptor activation also prevented membrane ruffling in a calcium-independent manner, indicating that sigma receptors regulate the function of microglia via multiple mechanisms. PMID:19031439

  16. A2a and a2b adenosine receptors affect HIF-1α signaling in activated primary microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Stefanelli, Angela; Bencivenni, Serena; Castillo, Carlos Alberto; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-05-15

    Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident immune cells, that play a crucial role in neuroinflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the main transcription factor of hypoxia-inducible genes, is also involved in the immune response, being regulated in normoxia by inflammatory mediators. Adenosine is an ubiquitous nucleoside that has an influence on many immune properties of microglia through interaction with four receptor subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adenosine may affect microglia functions by acting on HIF-1α modulation. Primary murine microglia were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without adenosine, adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists and HIF-1α accumulation and downstream genes regulation were determined. Adenosine increased LPS-induced HIF-1α accumulation leading to an increase in HIF-1α target genes involved in cell metabolism [glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1)] and pathogens killing [inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)] but did not induce HIF-1α dependent genes related to angiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] and inflammation [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. The stimulatory effect of adenosine on HIF-1α and its target genes was essentially exerted by activation of A2A through p44/42 and A2B subtypes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore the nucleoside raised VEGF and decreased TNF-α levels, by activating A2B subtypes. In conclusion adenosine increases GLUT-1 and iNOS gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent way, through A2A and A2B receptors, suggesting their role in the regulation of microglial cells function following injury. However, inhibition of TNF-α adds an important anti-inflammatory effect only for the A2B subtype. GLIA 2015.

  17. LncRNA Gm4419 contributes to OGD/R injury of cerebral microglial cells via IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuanchao; Yu, Yunhu; Fu, Xiaohong

    2017-06-10

    Ischemic stroke is one of major causes of adult morbidity. Recent studies have shown that over-activated microglial cells play a critical role in aggravating cerebral oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) damage by releasing excessive inflammatory cytokines. However, the involving mechanisms are not distinct yet. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to in participate in lots of complicated biological processes. Our understandings of the relationship between lncRNAs and OGD/R injury are largely limited. In this study, we demonstrated that a lncRNA Gm4419 functioned as a crucial mediator in the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, causing neuroinflammation damage during OGD/R. Gm4419 was abnormally up-regulated in OGD/R-treated microglial cells. We found that the high level of Gm4419 promoted the phosphorylation of IκBα by physically associating with IκBα, therefore, led to increased nucleus NF-κB levels for the transcriptional activation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, we also demonstrated that knockdown of Gm4419 functioned as NF-κB inhibitor in OGD/R microglial cells, showing that down-regulation of Gm4419 had protective role against OGD/R injury. In summary, Gm4419 is required for microglial cell OGD/R injury though the activation of NF-κB signaling. Thus, Gm4419 appears to be a promising therapeutic target for ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Th1 cells downregulate connexin 43 gap junctions in astrocytes via microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mitsuru; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Yamasaki, Ryo; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Matsushita, Takuya; Suzumura, Akio; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported early and extensive loss of astrocytic connexin 43 (Cx43) in acute demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Because it is widely accepted that autoimmune T cells initiate MS lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating T cells affect Cx43 expression in astrocytes, which contributes to MS lesion formation. Primary mixed glial cell cultures were prepared from newborn mouse brains, and microglia were isolated by anti-CD11b antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Next, we prepared astrocyte-rich cultures and astrocyte/microglia-mixed cultures. Treatment of primary mixed glial cell cultures with interferon (IFN) γ, interleukin (IL)-4, or IL-17 showed that only IFNγ or IL-17 at high concentrations reduced Cx43 protein levels. Upon treatment of astrocyte-rich cultures and astrocyte/microglia-mixed cultures with IFNγ, Cx43 mRNA/protein levels and the function of gap junctions were reduced only in astrocyte/microglia-mixed cultures. IFNγ-treated microglia-conditioned media and IL-1β, which was markedly increased in IFNγ-treated microglia-conditioned media, reduced Cx43 protein levels in astrocyte-rich cultures. Finally, we confirmed that Th1 cell-conditioned medium decreased Cx43 protein levels in mixed glial cell cultures. These findings suggest that Th1 cell-derived IFNγ activates microglia to release IL-1β that reduces Cx43 gap junctions in astrocytes. Thus, Th1-dominant inflammatory states disrupt astrocytic intercellular communication and may exacerbate MS. PMID:27929069

  19. Sesquiterpenes inhibiting the microglial activation from Laurus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongqiang; Xie, Chunfeng; Wang, Hao; Jin, Da-Qing; Li, Shen; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-05-21

    The inhibitory reagents to inhibit the activation of microglial cells may be potentially useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The leaves of the plant Laurus nobilis belonging to the family Lauraceae, namely, bay leaves, have been used as a popular spice, and their extract showed moderate inhibition on microglial activation. A further phytochemical investigation of the leaves led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and eight known (3-10) sesquiterpenes. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, and NOESY) spectroscopic data analyses and Chem3D modeling. The following biological studies disclosed that these isolated compounds showed inhibitory activities on LPS-induced microglial activation. The results of our phytochemical investigation, including two new sesquiterpenes (1 and 2) and the first report of two compounds (3 and 4) from this species, further revealed the chemical composition of bay leaves as a popular spice, and the biological studies implied that bay leaves, containing bioactive substances with the inhibition of microglial activation, were potentially beneficial to human health.

  20. Chloride influx provokes lamellipodium formation in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Zierler, Susanna; Frei, Eva; Grissmer, Stephan; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2008-01-01

    Lamellipodium extension and retraction is the driving force for cell migration. Although several studies document that activation of chloride channels are essential in cell migration, little is known about their contribution in lamellipodium formation. To address this question, we characterized chloride channels and transporters by whole cell recording and RT-PCR, respectively, as well as quantified lamellipodium formation in murine primary microglial cells as well as the microglial cell-line, BV-2, using time-lapse microscopy. The repertoire of chloride conducting pathways in BV-2 cells included, swelling-activated chloride channels as well as the KCl cotransporters, KCC1, KCC2, KCC3, and KCC4. Swelling-activated chloride channels were either activated by a hypoosmotic solution or by a high KCl saline, which promotes K(+) and Cl(-) influx instead of efflux by KCCs. Conductance through swelling-activated chloride channels was completely blocked by flufenamic acid (200 microM), SITS (1 mM) and DIOA (10 microM). By exposing primary microglial cells or BV-2 cells to a high KCl saline, we observed a local swelling, which developed into a prominent lamellipodium. Blockade of chloride influx by flufenamic acid (200 microM) or DIOA (10 microM) as well as incubation of cells in a chloride-free high K(+) saline suppressed formation of a lamellipodium. We assume that local swellings, established by an increase in chloride influx, are a general principle in formation of lamellipodia in eukaryotic cells.

  1. Alkylindole-sensitive receptors modulate microglial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Susan; Cherry, Allison E.; Xu, Cong; Stella, Nephi

    2015-01-01

    Ligands targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed by microglia have been shown to regulate distinct components of their activation process, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotypes. Cannabinoids, including the active component of the Cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the synthetic alkylindole (AI) compound, WIN55212-2 (WIN-2), activate two molecularly identified GPCRs: CB1 and CB2. Previous studies reported that WIN-2 activates an additional unknown GPCR that is not activated by plant-derived cannabinoids, and evidence indicates that microglia express these receptors. Detailed studies on the role of AI-sensitive receptors in microglial cell activation were difficult as no selective pharmacological tools were available. Here, three newly-developed AI analogues allowed us to determine if microglia express AI-sensitive receptors and if so, study how they regulate the microglial cell activation process. We found that mouse microglia in primary culture express functional AI-sensitive receptors as measured by radioligand binding and changes in intracellular cAMP levels, and that these receptors control both basal and ATP-stimulated migration. AI analogues inhibit cell proliferation stimulated by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) without affecting basal cell proliferation. Remarkably, AI analogues do not control the expression of effector proteins characteristic of M1 or M2 phenotypes; yet activating microglia with M1 and M2 cytokines reduces the microglial response to AI analogues. Our results suggest that microglia express functional AI-sensitive receptors that control select components of their activation process. Agonists of these novel targets might represent a novel class of therapeutics to influence the microglial cell activation process. PMID:25914169

  2. Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Regen, Francesca; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Costantini, Erica; Reale, Marcella

    2017-02-03

    Microglial activation is a hallmark of neuroinflammation, seen in most acute and chronic neuropsychiatric conditions. With growing knowledge about microglia functions in surveying the brain for alterations, microglial activation is increasingly discussed in the context of disease progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. While proper microglial function is essentially required for its scavenging duties, local activation of the brain's innate immune cells also brings about many less advantageous changes, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines or degradation of neuroprotective retinoids, and may thus unnecessarily put surrounding healthy neurons in danger. In view of this dilemma, it is little surprising that both, AD vaccination trials, but also immunosuppressive strategies have consistently failed in AD patients. Nevertheless, epidemiological evidence has suggested a protective effect for anti-inflammatory agents, supporting the hypothesis that key processes involved in the pathogenesis of AD may take place rather early in the time course of the disorder, likely long before memory impairment becomes clinically evident. Activation of microglia results in a severely altered microenvironment. This is not only caused by the plethora of secreted cytokines, chemokines or ROS, but may also involve increased turnover of neuroprotective endogenous substances such as retinoic acid (RA), as recently shown in vitro. We discuss findings linking microglial activation and AD and speculate that microglial malfunction, which brings about changes in local RA concentrations in vitro, may underlie AD pathogenesis and precede or facilitate the onset of AD. Thus, chronic, "innate neuroinflammation" may provide a valuable target for preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of a honey flavonoid extract on lipopolysaccharide-activated N13 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Candiracci, Manila; Piatti, Elena; Dominguez-Barragán, María; García-Antrás, Daniel; Morgado, Bruno; Ruano, Diego; Gutiérrez, Juan F; Parrado, Juan; Castaño, Angélica

    2012-12-19

    Neuroinflammation is an important contributor to pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may become a reliable protective strategy for neurodegenerative processes. Flavonoids, widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom and in foods such as honey, have been suggested as novel therapeutic agents for the reduction of the deleterious effects of neuroinflammation. The present study investigated the potential protective effect of a honey flavonoid extract (HFE) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated N13 microglia. The results show that HFE significantly inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. The expressions of iNOS and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROS) were also significantly inhibited. Accordingly, the present study demonstrates that HFE is a potent inhibitor of microglial activation and thus a potential preventive-therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation.

  4. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  5. Sinomenine inhibits microglial activation by Aβ and confers neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation is an important contributor to the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Thus, there is a keen interest in identifying compounds, especially from herbal sources, that can inhibit neuroinflammation. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major component of the amyloid plaques present in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Here, we examined whether sinomenine, present in a Chinese medicinal plant, prevents oligomeric Aβ-induced microglial activation and confers protection against neurotoxicity. Methods Oligomeric amyloid-β was prepared from Aβ(1-42). Intracellular reactive oxygen species production was determined using the dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate. Nitric oxide level was assessed using the Griess reagent. Flow cytometry was used to examine the levels of inflammatory molecules. BV2-conditioned medium was used to treat hippocampal cell line (HT22) and primary hippocampal cells in indirect toxicity experiments. Toxicity was assessed using MTT reduction and TUNEL assays. Results We found that sinomenine prevents the oligomeric Aβ-induced increase in levels of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in BV2 microglial cells. In addition, sinomenine reduces levels of Aβ-induced inflammatory molecules. Furthermore, sinomenine protects hippocampal HT22 cells as well as primary hippocampal cells from indirect toxicity mediated by Aβ-treated microglial cells, but has no effect on Aβ-induced direct toxicity to HT22 cells. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from Aβ-treated BV2 cells contains increased levels of nitric oxide and inflammatory molecules, but the levels of these molecules are reduced by sinomenine. Conclusions Sinomenine prevents oligomeric Aβ-induced microglial activation, and confers protection against indirect neurotoxicity to hippocampal cells. These results raise the possibility that sinomenine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's diseases as

  6. Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Carniglia, Lila; Ramírez, Delia; Durand, Daniela; Saba, Julieta; Turati, Juan; Caruso, Carla; Scimonelli, Teresa N; Lasaga, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity.

  7. Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity. PMID:28154473

  8. Astrocytic Orosomucoid-2 Modulates Microglial Activation and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Myungjin; Kim, Jong-Heon; Song, Gyun Jee; Seo, Minchul; Hwang, Eun Mi; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-03-15

    Orosomucoid (ORM) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the immunocalin subfamily, a group of small-molecule-binding proteins with immunomodulatory functions. Little is known about the role of ORM proteins in the CNS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the brain expression of ORM and its role in neuroinflammation. Expression of Orm2, but not Orm1 or Orm3, was highly induced in the mouse brain after systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Plasma levels of ORM2 were also significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in normal subjects. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that astrocytes are the major cellular sources of ORM2 in the inflamed mouse brain. Recombinant ORM2 protein treatment decreased microglial production of proinflammatory mediators and reduced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in vitro LPS-induced microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus, and neuroinflammation-associated cognitive deficits also decreased as a result of intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant ORM2 protein in vivo Moreover, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Orm2 knockdown enhanced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Mechanistically, ORM2 inhibited C-C chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4)-induced microglial migration and activation by blocking the interaction of CCL4 with C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Together, the results from our cultured glial cells, mouse neuroinflammation model, and patient studies suggest that ORM2 is a novel mediator of astrocyte-microglial interaction. We also report that ORM2 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating microglial activation and migration during brain inflammation. ORM2 can be exploited therapeutically for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural cell interactions are important for brain physiology and pathology. Particularly, the interaction between non

  9. Isoflurane Exposure Induces Cell Death, Microglial Activation and Modifies the Expression of Genes Supporting Neurodevelopment and Cognitive Function in the Male Newborn Piglet Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fleiss, Bobbi; Kawano, Go; Ezzati, Mojgan; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya; Bennett, Kate; Fierens, Igor; Burnett, Ryan; Chaban, Badr; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Tachsidis, Ilias; Rostami, Jamshid; Gressens, Pierre; Sanders, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to general anesthesia during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex, incompletely understood and may be sexually dimorphic, but include developmentally inappropriate apoptosis, inflammation and a disruption to cognitively salient gene expression. We investigated the effects of a 6h isoflurane exposure on cell death, microglial activation and gene expression in the male neonatal piglet brain. Piglets (n = 6) were randomised to: (i) naive controls or (ii) 6h isoflurane. Cell death (TUNEL and caspase-3) and microglial activation were recorded in 7 brain regions. Changes in gene expression (microarray and qPCR) were assessed in the cingulate cortex. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. Isoflurane anesthesia induced significant increases in cell death in the cingulate and insular cortices, caudate nucleus, thalamus, putamen, internal capsule, periventricular white matter and hippocampus. Dying cells included both neurons and oligodendrocytes. Significantly, microglial activation was observed in the insula, pyriform, hippocampus, internal capsule, caudate and thalamus. Isoflurane induced significant disruption to the expression of 79 gene transcripts, of these 26 are important for the control of transcription and 23 are important for the mediation of neural plasticity, memory formation and recall. Our observations confirm that isoflurane increases apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the neonatal piglet brain but also suggests novel additional mechanisms by which isoflurane may induce adverse neural and cognitive development by disrupting the expression of genes mediating activity dependent development of neural circuits, the predictive adaptive responses of the brain, memory formation and recall. PMID:27898690

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Daniela S.; Soria, Javier A.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M.; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C.; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.—Arroyo, D. S., Soria, J. A., Gaviglio, E. A., Garcia-Keller, C., Cancela, L. M., Rodriguez-Galan, M. C., Wang, J. M., Iribarren, P. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy. PMID:23073832

  11. Selective activation of KCa3.1 and CRAC channels by P2Y2 receptors promotes Ca(2+) signaling, store refilling and migration of rat microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roger; Schlichter, Lyanne C

    2013-01-01

    Microglial activation involves Ca(2+) signaling, and numerous receptors can evoke elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). ATP released from damaged brain cells can activate ionotropic and metabotropic purinergic receptors, and act as a chemoattractant for microglia. Metabotropic P2Y receptors evoke a Ca(2+) rise through release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and some have been implicated in microglial migration. This Ca(2+) rise is expected to activate small-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (SK) channels, if present. We previously found that SK3 (KCa2.3) and KCa3.1 (SK4/IK1) are expressed in rat microglia and contribute to LPS-mediated activation and neurotoxicity. However, neither current has been studied by elevating Ca(2+) during whole-cell recordings. We hypothesized that, rather than responding only to Ca(2+), each channel type might be coupled to different receptor-mediated pathways. Here, our objective was to determine whether the channels are differentially activated by P2Y receptors, and, if so, whether they play differing roles. We used primary rat microglia and a rat microglial cell line (MLS-9) in which riluzole robustly activates both SK3 and KCa3.1 currents. Using electrophysiological, Ca(2+) imaging and pharmacological approaches, we show selective functional coupling of KCa3.1 to UTP-mediated P2Y2 receptor activation. KCa3.1 current is activated by Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC/Orai1) channels, and both CRAC/Orai1 and KCa3.1 channels facilitate refilling of Ca(2+) stores. The Ca(2+) dependence of KCa3.1 channel activation was skewed to abnormally high concentrations, and we present evidence for a close physical association of the two channel types. Finally, migration of primary rat microglia was stimulated by UTP and inhibited by blocking either KCa3.1 or CRAC/Orai1 channels. This is the first report of selective coupling of one type of SK channel to purinergic stimulation of microglia

  12. Prenylflavones from Psoralea corylifolia inhibit nitric oxide synthase expression through the inhibition of I-kappaB-alpha degradation in activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2005-12-01

    The overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) switches the function of NO from a physiological neuromodulator to a neurotoxic effector in central nervous system (CNS) after brain injury. From the methanol extracts of Psoralea corylifolia, we purified two inhibitors of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia by activity guided purification along with two inactive compounds. The active compounds were identified as a chromenoflavanone [7,8-dihydro-8-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-2H,6H-benzo-(1,2-b:5,4-b')dipyran-6-one] (1) and 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (2). And the inactive two compounds were identified as bavachinin (3) and bavachalcone (4) by spectral analysis. The compound 2 was isolated first time from this plant. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)'s were 11.4, 10.2 microM, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at 10 muM as observed in Western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. Furthermore they inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. These results imply that compounds 1 and 2 can be lead compounds for the development of neuroprotective drug with the inhibitory activity of NO overproduction by activated microglial cells.

  13. Ginkgolide B Suppresses Methamphetamine-Induced Microglial Activation Through TLR4-NF-κB Signaling Pathway in BV2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fen; Zang, Songsong; Yu, Guoqing; Xiao, Hang; Wang, Jun; Tang, Jinrong

    2017-07-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that microglial cells have altered morphology and proliferation in different brain regions of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers and Meth-abusing animal models. However, the possible mechanisms underlying Meth-induced microglial activation remain poorly understood. Meanwhile, Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) is closely associated with inflammation. Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess whether Meth treatment affects TLR4 expression; in addition, we evaluated the effects of ginkgolide B (GB), a diterpene lactone extracted from Ginkgo biloba, on Meth-mediated inflammation. BV2 cells were treated with Meth. Interestingly, Meth treatment significantly increased TLR4 expression, activated the NF-κB signaling pathway, and promoted TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β excretion. These effects, however, were partially attenuated by GB pre-treatment. To further confirm the role of TLR4 in Meth-mediated inflammation, the siRNA technology was applied to knock down TLR4, which resulted in hampered Meth-mediated inflammatory responses, confirming the important role of TLR4 in this process. Taken together, our findings suggested that Meth exposure results in BV2 cell activation, in association with TLR4 upregulation. GB could attenuate Meth-induced inflammation, at least partially through TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway, therefore, targeting TLR4 may constitute a potential intervention strategy for Meth mediated neuroinflammation.

  14. Gypenoside Attenuates β Amyloid-Induced Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells via SOCS1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Liang, Qianlei; Ge, Guanqun

    2016-01-01

    Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ-) induced microglial activation is believed to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia can be activated into classic activated state (M1 state) or alternative activated state (M2 state), and the former is harmful; in contrast, the latter is beneficial. Gypenoside (GP) is the major bioactive constituent of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating microglial M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by suppressor of cell signaling protein 1 (SOCS1). In this study, we found that Aβ exposure increased the levels of microglial M1 markers, including iNOS expression, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 releases, and coadministration of GP reversed the increase of M1 markers and enhanced the levels of M2 markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) releases in the Aβ-treated microglial cells. SOCS1-siRNA, however, significantly abolished the GP-induced effects on the levels of microglial M1 and M2 markers. These findings indicated that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by SOCS1.

  15. Gypenoside Attenuates β Amyloid-Induced Inflammation in N9 Microglial Cells via SOCS1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Liang, Qianlei; Ge, Guanqun

    2016-01-01

    Reducing β amyloid- (Aβ-) induced microglial activation is believed to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia can be activated into classic activated state (M1 state) or alternative activated state (M2 state), and the former is harmful; in contrast, the latter is beneficial. Gypenoside (GP) is the major bioactive constituent of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb medicine. In this study, we hypothesized that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating microglial M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by suppressor of cell signaling protein 1 (SOCS1). In this study, we found that Aβ exposure increased the levels of microglial M1 markers, including iNOS expression, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 releases, and coadministration of GP reversed the increase of M1 markers and enhanced the levels of M2 markers, including arginase-1 (Arg-1) expression, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) releases in the Aβ-treated microglial cells. SOCS1-siRNA, however, significantly abolished the GP-induced effects on the levels of microglial M1 and M2 markers. These findings indicated that GP attenuates Aβ-induced microglial activation by ameliorating M1/M2 states, and the process may be mediated by SOCS1. PMID:27213058

  16. Protective effect of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride on hypoxia-induced toxicity by suppressing microglial activation in BV-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiae; Kim, Su-Min; Na, Jung-Min; Hahn, Hoh-Gyu; Cho, Sung-Woo; Yang, Seung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported the anti-inflammatory effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) on the ATP-induced activation of the NFAT and MAPK pathways through the P2X7 receptor in microglia. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of KHG26792, we studied its protective effects on hypoxia-induced toxicity in microglia. The administration of KHG26792 significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced expression and activity of caspase-3 in BV-2 microglial cells. KHG26792 also reduced hypoxia-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, which correlated with reduced nitric oxide accumulation. In addition, KHG26792 attenuated hypoxia-induced protein nitration, reactive oxygen species production, and NADPH oxidase activity. These effects were accompanied by the suppression of hypoxia-induced protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and NADPH oxidase-2. Although the clinical relevance of our findings remains to be determined, these data results suggest that KHG26792 prevents hypoxia-induced toxicity by suppressing microglial activation. PMID:27756444

  17. Protective effect of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride on hypoxia-induced toxicity by suppressing microglial activation in BV-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiae; Kim, Su-Min; Na, Jung-Min; Hahn, Hoh-Gyu; Cho, Sung-Woo; Yang, Seung-Ju

    2016-12-01

    We recently reported the anti-inflammatory effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) on the ATP-induced activation of the NFAT and MAPK pathways through the P2X7 receptor in microglia. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of KHG26792, we studied its protective effects on hypoxia-induced toxicity in microglia. The administration of KHG26792 significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced expression and activity of caspase-3 in BV-2 microglial cells. KHG26792 also reduced hypoxia-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, which correlated with reduced nitric oxide accumulation. In addition, KHG26792 attenuated hypoxiainduced protein nitration, reactive oxygen species production, and NADPH oxidase activity. These effects were accompanied by the suppression of hypoxia-induced protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and NADPH oxidase-2. Although the clinical relevance of our findings remains to be determined, these data results suggest that KHG26792 prevents hypoxia-induced toxicity by suppressing microglial activation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(12): 687-692].

  18. Cyclic ADP-ribose is a second messenger in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of murine N9 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Franco, Luisa; Bodrato, Nicoletta; Moreschi, Iliana; Usai, Cesare; Bruzzone, Santina; Scarf ì, Sonia; Zocchi, Elena; De Flora, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide, the main component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is known to activate microglial cells following its interaction with the CD14/Toll-like receptor complex (TLR-4). The activation pathway triggered by lipopolysaccharide in microglia involves enhanced basal levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and terminates with increased generation of cytokines/chemokines and nitric oxide. Here we demonstrate that in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine N9 microglial cells, cyclic ADP-ribose, a universal and potent Ca2+ mobiliser generated from NAD+ by ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ADPRC), behaves as a second messenger in the cell activation pathway. Lipopolysaccharide induced phosphorylation, mediated by multiple protein kinases, of the mammalian ADPRC CD38, which resulted in significantly enhanced ADPRC activity and in a 1.7-fold increase in the concentration of intracellular cyclic ADP-ribose. This event was paralleled by doubling of the basal [Ca2+]i levels, which was largely prevented by the cyclic ADP-ribose antagonists 8-Br-cyclic ADP-ribose and ryanodine (by 75% and 88%, respectively). Both antagonists inhibited, although incompletely, functional events downstream of the lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia-activating pathway, i.e. expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, overproduction and release of nitric oxide and of tumor necrosis factor alpha. The identification of cyclic ADP-ribose as a key signal metabolite in the complex cascade of events triggered by lipopolysaccharide and eventually leading to enhanced generation of pro-inflammatory molecules may suggest a new therapeutic target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to microglia activation.

  19. Auraptene and Other Prenyloxyphenylpropanoids Suppress Microglial Activation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Semba, Tomoki; Toyoda, Nobuki; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using an intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD-like mouse model, we investigated whether AUR, 7-IP, and GOFA suppress microglial activation and protect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the SN. We successfully showed that these prenyloxyphenylpropanoids exhibited these prospective abilities, suggesting the potential of these compounds as neuroprotective agents for patients with PD. PMID:27763495

  20. Stress Granules Modulate SYK to Cause Microglial Cell Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Geahlen, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells in the brains of Alzheimer's patients are known to be recruited to amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques where they exhibit an activated phenotype, but are defective for plaque removal by phagocytosis. In this study, we show that microglia stressed by exposure to sodium arsenite or Aβ(1–42) peptides or fibrils form extensive stress granules (SGs) to which the tyrosine kinase, SYK, is recruited. SYK enhances the formation of SGs, is active within the resulting SGs and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are toxic to neuronal cells. This sequestration of SYK inhibits the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose Escherichia coli or Aβ fibrils. We find that aged microglial cells are more susceptible to the formation of SGs; and SGs containing SYK and phosphotyrosine are prevalent in the brains of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease. Phagocytic activity can be restored to stressed microglial cells by treatment with IgG, suggesting a mechanism to explain the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous IgG. These studies describe a mechanism by which stress, including exposure to Aβ, compromises the function of microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease and suggest approaches to restore activity to dysfunctional microglial cells. PMID:26870803

  1. Stress Granules Modulate SYK to Cause Microglial Cell Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Geahlen, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Microglial cells in the brains of Alzheimer's patients are known to be recruited to amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques where they exhibit an activated phenotype, but are defective for plaque removal by phagocytosis. In this study, we show that microglia stressed by exposure to sodium arsenite or Aβ(1-42) peptides or fibrils form extensive stress granules (SGs) to which the tyrosine kinase, SYK, is recruited. SYK enhances the formation of SGs, is active within the resulting SGs and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are toxic to neuronal cells. This sequestration of SYK inhibits the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose Escherichia coli or Aβ fibrils. We find that aged microglial cells are more susceptible to the formation of SGs; and SGs containing SYK and phosphotyrosine are prevalent in the brains of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease. Phagocytic activity can be restored to stressed microglial cells by treatment with IgG, suggesting a mechanism to explain the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous IgG. These studies describe a mechanism by which stress, including exposure to Aβ, compromises the function of microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease and suggest approaches to restore activity to dysfunctional microglial cells.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27563334

  3. Blockade of Glutamine Synthetase Enhances Inflammatory Response in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Erika M.; Menga, Alessio; Lebrun, Aurore; Hooper, Douglas C.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Microglial cells are brain-resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia. Results: GS inhibition enhances release of inflammatory mediators of LPS-activated microglia in vitro, leading to perturbation of the redox balance and decreased viability of cocultured neurons. GS inhibition also decreases insulin-mediated glucose uptake in microglia. In vivo, microglia-specific GS ablation enhances expression of inflammatory markers upon LPS treatment. In the spinal cords from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), GS expression levels and glutamine/glutamate ratios are reduced. Innovation: Recently, metabolism has been highlighted as mediator of immune cell function through the discovery of mechanisms that (behind these metabolic changes) modulate the inflammatory response. The present study shows for the first time a metabolic mechanism mediating microglial response to a proinflammatory stimulus, pointing to GS activity as a master modulator of immune cell function and thus unraveling a potential therapeutic target. Conclusions: Our study highlights a new role of GS in modulating immune response in microglia, providing insights into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with inflammation and new strategies of therapeutic intervention. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 351–363. PMID:27758118

  4. (+)-Catechin Attenuates NF-κB Activation Through Regulation of Akt, MAPK, and AMPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Syed Hussein, Sharifah Salwa; Kamarudin, Muhamad Noor Alfarizal; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    (+)-Catechin is a flavanol that possesses various health and medicinal values, which include neuroprotection, anti-oxidation, antitumor and antihepatitis activities. This study investigated the modulatory effects of (+)-catechin on the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells. (+)-catechin attenuated LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inhibited microglial NO and ROS production. Additionally, (+)-catechin suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, while augmenting IL-4. (+)-catechin attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation via the inhibition of IκB-α phosphorylation. Moreover, (+)-catechin blocked the activation of Akt and its inhibition was shown to play a crucial role in LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 microglial cells. (+)-catechin also attenuated the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and p-38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 (UO126) and p38 MAPK (SB202190) subsequently down-regulated the expression of the proinflammatory mediators iNOS and COX-2. Further mechanistic study revealed that (+)-catechin acted through the amelioration of the LPS-induced suppression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Taken together, our data indicate that (+)-catechin exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 cells by suppressing the production of proinflammatory mediators and mitigation of NF-κB through Akt, ERK, p38 MAPK, and AMPK pathways.

  5. Aberrant production of tenascin-C in globoid cell leukodystrophy alters psychosine-induced microglial functions.

    PubMed

    Claycomb, Kumiko I; Winokur, Paige N; Johnson, Kasey M; Nicaise, Alexandra M; Giampetruzzi, Anthony W; Sacino, Anthony V; Snyder, Evan Y; Barbarese, Elisa; Bongarzone, Ernesto R; Crocker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe disease, is a rare and often fatal demyelinating disease caused by mutations in the galactocerebrosidase (galc) gene that result in accumulation of galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). We recently reported that the extracellular matrix (ECM) protease, matrix metalloproteinase-3, is elevated in GLD and that it regulates psychosine-induced microglial activation. Here, we examined central nervous system ECM component expression in human GLD patients and in the twitcher mouse model of GLD using immunohistochemistry. The influence of ECM proteins on primary murine microglial responses to psychosine was evaluated using ECM proteins as substrates and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA. Functional analysis of microglial cytotoxicity was performed on oligodendrocytes in coculture, and cell death was measured by lactose dehydrogenase assay. Tenascin-C (TnC) was expressed at higher levels in human GLD and in twitcher mice versus controls. Microglial responses to psychosine were enhanced by TnC, as determined by an increase in globoid-like cell formation, matrix metalloproteinase-3 mRNA expression, and higher toxicity toward oligodendrocytes in culture. These findings were consistent with a shift toward the M1 microglial phenotype in TnC-grown microglia. Thus, elevated TnC expression in GLD modified microglial responses to psychosine. These data offer a novel perspective and enhance understanding of the microglial contribution to GLD pathogenesis.

  6. Cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol differentially inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-kappaB and interferon-beta/STAT proinflammatory pathways in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kozela, Ewa; Pietr, Maciej; Juknat, Ana; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Vogel, Zvi

    2010-01-15

    Cannabinoids have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory activities in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models as well as ameliorate various inflammatory degenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not completely understood. Using the BV-2 mouse microglial cell line and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory response, we studied the signaling pathways engaged in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids as well as their influence on the expression of several genes known to be involved in inflammation. We found that the two major cannabinoids present in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), decrease the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and interferon (IFN)beta, from LPS-activated microglial cells. The cannabinoid anti-inflammatory action does not seem to involve the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors or the abn-CBD-sensitive receptors. In addition, we found that THC and CBD act through different, although partially overlapping, mechanisms. CBD, but not THC, reduces the activity of the NF-kappaB pathway, a primary pathway regulating the expression of proinflammatory genes. Moreover, CBD, but not THC, up-regulates the activation of the STAT3 transcription factor, an element of homeostatic mechanism(s) inducing anti-inflammatory events. Following CBD treatment, but less so with THC, we observed a decreased level of mRNA for the Socs3 gene, a main negative regulator of STATs and particularly of STAT3. However, both CBD and THC decreased the activation of the LPS-induced STAT1 transcription factor, a key player in IFNbeta-dependent proinflammatory processes. In summary, our observations show that CBD and THC vary in their effects on the anti-inflammatory pathways, including the NF-kappaB and IFNbeta-dependent pathways.

  7. Time-dependent retinal ganglion cell loss, microglial activation and blood-retina-barrier tightness in an acute model of ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Trost, A; Motloch, K; Bruckner, D; Schroedl, F; Bogner, B; Kaser-Eichberger, A; Runge, C; Strohmaier, C; Klein, B; Aigner, L; Reitsamer, H A

    2015-07-01

    Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well known risk factor for the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and pharmacological or surgical lowering of intraocular pressure represents a standard procedure in glaucoma treatment. However, the treatment options are limited and although lowering of intraocular pressure impedes disease progression, glaucoma cannot be cured by the currently available therapy concepts. In an acute short-term ocular hypertension model in rat, we characterize RGC loss, but also microglial cell activation and vascular alterations of the retina at certain time points. The combination of these three parameters might facilitate a better evaluation of the disease progression, and could further serve as a new model to test novel treatment strategies at certain time points. Acute ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by the injection of magnetic microbeads into the rat anterior chamber angle (n = 22) with magnetic position control, leading to constant elevation of IOP. At certain time points post injection (4d, 7d, 10d, 14d and 21d), RGC loss, microglial activation, and microvascular pericyte (PC) coverage was analyzed using immunohistochemistry with corresponding specific markers (Brn3a, Iba1, NG2). Additionally, the tightness of the retinal vasculature was determined via injections of Texas Red labeled dextran (10 kDa) and subsequently analyzed for vascular leakage. For documentation, confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used, followed by cell counts, capillary length measurements and morphological and statistical analysis. The injection of magnetic microbeads led to a progressive loss of RGCs at the five time points investigated (20.07%, 29.52%, 41.80%, 61.40% and 76.57%). Microglial cells increased in number and displayed an activated morphology

  8. Resilience dysregulation in major depressive disorder: focus on glutamatergic imbalance and microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; de Moura, Airam B; Silva, Ritele H; Resende, Wilson R; Quevedo, João

    2017-06-30

    Many studies have been shown an important role of glutamatergic system as well microglial activation in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Experimental and clinical data suggest that attenuation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function exerts antidepressant effects. Glutamatergic system is involved with memory establishment and function, and it regulates plasticity in the brain. Microglial cells play pivotal role to the brain functions; however, under chronic inflammation status microglial could be turn activated and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokines. In humans most resistant to the development of psychiatric disorders, including MDD, are observed a greater degree of resilience resulting from stress. Less resilience is associated with neuroendocrine and neuroinflammatory markers, as well as with glutamatergic system dysregulation. Thus, this review we highlighted findings from literature identifying the function of glutamatergic system, microglial activation and inflammation in resilience. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Dextromethorphan inhibition of voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Ho; Yeh, Jay Z

    2012-05-10

    Dextromethorphan, an antitussive drug, has a neuroprotective property as evidenced by its inhibition of microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. The microglial activation requires NADPH oxidase activity, which is sustained by voltage-gated proton channels in microglia as they dissipate an intracellular acid buildup. In the present study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells. Dextromethorphan reversibly inhibited proton currents with an IC(50) value of 51.7 μM at an intracellular/extracellular pH gradient of 5.5/7.3. Dextromethorphan did not change the reversal potential or the voltage dependence of the gating. Dextrorphan and 3-hydroxymorphinan, major metabolites of dextromethorphan, and dextromethorphan methiodide were ineffective in inhibiting proton currents. The results indicate that dextromethorphan inhibition of proton currents would suppress NADPH oxidase activity and, eventually, microglial activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alpha1-antichymotrypsin induces TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation in the murine N9 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Braghin, Elisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Bresolin, Nereo; Baron, Pierluigi

    2009-12-18

    Microglia are known to accumulate in senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with a set of proteins including alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT). To investigate the biological effects of the interaction between ACT and microglia, we examined cytokine production by the murine N9 microglial cell line after ACT treatment. Real-time PCR analysis and specific immunoassays demonstrate that ACT triggers mRNA expression and release of TNF-alpha by N9 microglial cells. Furthermore, we show that ACT induces a significant increase in NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ACT might contribute to the inflammatory mechanisms present in AD senile plaques.

  11. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. Involves NF-κB Suppression and Nrf2-Dependent HO-1 Induction in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV-2 cells and found that EUE inhibited LPS-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory response factors. In addition, EUE inhibited the elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that EUE suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and their downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). EUE also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibited its binding to DNA. We next demonstrated that EUE induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. We determined that the significant up-regulation of HO-1 expression by EUE was a consequence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation; furthermore, EUE increased the DNA binding of Nrf2. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the ability of EUE to inhibit NO and PGE2 production, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, our results indicate that EUE inhibits pro-inflammatory responses by modulating MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and GSK-3β, consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation. PMID:27068259

  12. GuaLou GuiZhi decoction inhibits LPS-induced microglial cell motility through the MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haixia; Li, Zuanfang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Ruhui; Peng, Jun; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    Microglial activation plays an important role in neroinflammation following ischemic stroke. Activated microglial cells can then migrate to the site of injury to proliferate and release substances which induce secondary brain damage. It has been shown that microglial migration is associated with the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The Chinese formula, GuaLou GuiZhi decoction (GLGZD), has long been administered in clinical practice for the treatment of post-stroke disabilities, such as muscular spasticity. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammtory effects of GLGZD were mediated by the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the role of GLGZD in microglial migration by performing scratch wound assays and migration assays. We wished to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms elicited by this TCM formula in microglial-induced inflammation by evaluating the release and expression of chemotactic cytokines [monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and interleukin (IL)-8] by ELISA and quantitative PCR. Our results revealed that the migration of microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of LPS (100 ng/ml); however, GLGZD (100 µg/ml) significantly inhibited cell motility and the production of chemokines through the inhibition of the activation of the p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. We demonstrate the potential of GLGZD in the modulation of microglial motility by investigating the effects of GLGZD on microglial migration induced by LPS. Taken together, our data suggest that GLGZD per se cannot trigger microglial motility, whereas GLGZD impedes LPS-induced microglial migration through the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. These results provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of GLGZD and its potential for use in

  13. Microglial changes occur without neural cell death in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, David; Chiappore, Jean-Armand; Pâques, Michel; Simonutti, Manuel; Boitard, Christian; Sahel, José A; Massin, Pascale; Picaud, Serge

    2007-03-01

    Very early neuroglial changes have been observed to precede major vascular changes in the retina of diabetic patients and animal models. We investigated the sequence of these neuroglial changes further, in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of Alloxan into C57/Bl6 mice, which subsequently received daily insulin injections. Diabetic and control animals were weighed and their blood glucose levels were determined weekly. Electroretinographic recordings and scanner laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) examinations were carried out 15 days, one month and three months after the onset of diabetes. Diabetes induction was confirmed by the presence of glucose in the urine, a tripling of blood glucose level, weight loss and an increase in glycated haemoglobin levels. Three months after diabetes onset, the electroretinogram b/a wave amplitude ratio was decreased at the highest light intensities and oscillatory potentials were delayed. The retinal fundus and vessels remained unchanged. No cell apoptosis was detected in vertical and horizontal sections of the retina by TUNEL or immunocytochemistry for the active caspase 3. No increase in GFAP-immunostaining indicative of a glial reaction was observed in Müller glial cells. By contrast, changes in the morphology of microglial cells were observed, with marked shortening of the dendrites. Thus, the microglial reaction occurs very early in progression to diabetic retinopathy, at about the same time as early electroretinographic modifications. The absence of apoptotic cells, contrasting with previous results in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, is consistent with insulin neuroprotection.

  14. Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence. PMID:18509037

  15. Automatic Counting of Microglial Cells in Healthy and Glaucomatous Mouse Retinas.

    PubMed

    de Gracia, Pablo; Gallego, Beatriz I; Rojas, Blanca; Ramírez, Ana I; de Hoz, Rosa; Salazar, Juan J; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of microglial cells has been considered a sign of glial activation and a hallmark of ongoing neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia activation is analyzed in animal models of different eye diseases. Numerous retinal samples are required for each of these studies to obtain relevant data of statistical significance. Because manual quantification of microglial cells is time consuming, the aim of this study was develop an algorithm for automatic identification of retinal microglia. Two groups of adult male Swiss mice were used: age-matched controls (naïve, n = 6) and mice subjected to unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (lasered; n = 9). In the latter group, both hypertensive eyes and contralateral untreated retinas were analyzed. Retinal whole mounts were immunostained with anti Iba-1 for detecting microglial cell populations. A new algorithm was developed in MATLAB for microglial quantification; it enabled the quantification of microglial cells in the inner and outer plexiform layers and evaluates the area of the retina occupied by Iba-1+ microglia in the nerve fiber-ganglion cell layer. The automatic method was applied to a set of 6,000 images. To validate the algorithm, mouse retinas were evaluated both manually and computationally; the program correctly assessed the number of cells (Pearson correlation R = 0.94 and R = 0.98 for the inner and outer plexiform layers respectively). Statistically significant differences in glial cell number were found between naïve, lasered eyes and contralateral eyes (P<0.05, naïve versus contralateral eyes; P<0.001, naïve versus lasered eyes and contralateral versus lasered eyes). The algorithm developed is a reliable and fast tool that can evaluate the number of microglial cells in naïve mouse retinas and in retinas exhibiting proliferation. The implementation of this new automatic method can enable faster quantification of microglial cells in retinal pathologies.

  16. Automatic Counting of Microglial Cells in Healthy and Glaucomatous Mouse Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Blanca; Ramírez, Ana I.; de Hoz, Rosa; Salazar, Juan J.; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of microglial cells has been considered a sign of glial activation and a hallmark of ongoing neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia activation is analyzed in animal models of different eye diseases. Numerous retinal samples are required for each of these studies to obtain relevant data of statistical significance. Because manual quantification of microglial cells is time consuming, the aim of this study was develop an algorithm for automatic identification of retinal microglia. Two groups of adult male Swiss mice were used: age-matched controls (naïve, n = 6) and mice subjected to unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (lasered; n = 9). In the latter group, both hypertensive eyes and contralateral untreated retinas were analyzed. Retinal whole mounts were immunostained with anti Iba-1 for detecting microglial cell populations. A new algorithm was developed in MATLAB for microglial quantification; it enabled the quantification of microglial cells in the inner and outer plexiform layers and evaluates the area of the retina occupied by Iba-1+ microglia in the nerve fiber-ganglion cell layer. The automatic method was applied to a set of 6,000 images. To validate the algorithm, mouse retinas were evaluated both manually and computationally; the program correctly assessed the number of cells (Pearson correlation R = 0.94 and R = 0.98 for the inner and outer plexiform layers respectively). Statistically significant differences in glial cell number were found between naïve, lasered eyes and contralateral eyes (P<0.05, naïve versus contralateral eyes; P<0.001, naïve versus lasered eyes and contralateral versus lasered eyes). The algorithm developed is a reliable and fast tool that can evaluate the number of microglial cells in naïve mouse retinas and in retinas exhibiting proliferation. The implementation of this new automatic method can enable faster quantification of microglial cells in retinal pathologies. PMID:26580208

  17. Doxycycline Suppresses Microglial Activation by Inhibiting the p38 MAPK and NF-kB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Socias, Benjamin; Ouidja, Mohand O; Sepulveda-Diaz, Julia E; Acuña, Leonardo; Silva, Rangel L; Michel, Patrick P; Del-Bel, Elaine; Cunha, Thiago M; Raisman-Vozari, Rita

    2016-05-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases, the inflammatory response is mediated by activated glial cells, mainly microglia, which are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators and neurotoxic factors that are suspected to cause or exacerbate these diseases. We recently demonstrated that doxycycline protects substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. This effect was associated with a reduction of microglial cell activation, which suggests that doxycycline may operate primarily as an anti-inflammatory drug. In the present study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of doxycycline using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary microglial cells in culture as a model of neuroinflammation. Doxycycline attenuated the expression of key activation markers in LPS-treated microglial cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. More specifically, doxycycline treatment lowered the expression of the microglial activation marker IBA-1 as well as the production of ROS, NO, and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). In primary microglial cells, we also found that doxycycline inhibits LPS-induced p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and NF-kB nuclear translocation. The present results indicate that the effect of doxycycline on LPS-induced microglial activation probably occurs via the modulation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kB signaling pathways. These results support the idea that doxycycline may be useful in preventing or slowing the progression of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases that exhibit altered glia function.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of xanthohumol involves heme oxygenase-1 induction via NRF2-ARE signaling in microglial BV2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ik-Soo; Lim, Juhee; Gal, Jiyeong; Kang, Jeen Chu; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2011-02-01

    Xanthohumol (2',4',4-trihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-prenylchalcone) is a major chalcone derivative isolated from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) commonly used in brewing due to its bitter flavors. Xanthohumol has anti-carcinogenic, free radical-scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities, but its precise mechanisms are not clarified yet. The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein NRF2 is a key transcription factor mediating the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses in animals. Therefore, we tested whether xanthohumol exerts anti-inflammatory activity in mouse microglial BV2 cells via NRF2 signaling. Xanthohumol significantly inhibited the excessive production of inflammatory mediators NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and the activation of NF-κB signaling in LPS-induced stimulated BV2 cells. Xanthohumol up-regulated the transcription of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and increased the level of the endogenous antioxidant GSH. In addition, xanthohumol induced nuclear translocation of NRF2 and further activation of ARE promoter-related transcription. The anti-inflammatory response of xanthohumol was attenuated by transfection with NRF2 siRNA and in the presence of the HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, but not the NQO1 inhibitor, dicoumarol. Taken together, our study suggests that xanthohumol exerts anti-inflammatory activity through NRF2-ARE signaling and up-regulation of downstream HO-1, and could be an attractive candidate for the regulation of inflammatory responses in the brain.

  19. Changes in the NMR Metabolic Profile of Human Microglial Cells Exposed to Lipopolysaccharide or Morphine

    PubMed Central

    El Ghazi, Issam; Sheng, Wen S.; Hu, Shuxian; Reilly, Brian G.; Lokensgard, James R.; Rock, R. Bryan; Peterson, Phillip K.; Wilcox, George L.

    2014-01-01

    Microglial cells play a major role in host defense of the central nervous system. Once activated, several functional properties are up-regulated including migration, phagocytosis, and secretion of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. Little, if anything, is known about the metabolic changes that occur during the activation process. High-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained from perchloric acid extracts of human microglial cell cultures exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or morphine were used to both identify and quantify the metabolites. We found that human microglia exposed to LPS had increased concentrations of glutamate and lactate, whereas the cells exposed to morphine had decreased concentrations in creatinine, taurine, and thymine. Glutamate and creatinine were the key metabolites differentiating between the two stimuli. These results are discussed in terms of activation and differences in the inflammatory response of human microglial cells to LPS and morphine. PMID:20333557

  20. Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11) exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects on LPS-activated microglial cells by inhibiting TLR4-mediated TAK1/IKK/NF-κB, MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Jiming; Zhao, Siqi; Zhang, Kuo; Wang, Jingmin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu

    2014-04-01

    Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), an ocotillol-type ginsenoside, has been shown to possess significant neuroprotective activity. Since microglia-mediated inflammation is critical for induction of neurodegeneration, this study was designed to investigate the effect of PF11 on activated microglia. PF11 significantly suppressed the release of ROS and proinflammatory mediators induced by LPS in a microglial cell line N9 including NO, PGE2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, PF11 inhibited interaction and expression of TLR4 and MyD88 in LPS-activated N9 cells, resulting in an inhibition of the TAK1/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway. PF11 also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs induced by LPS in N9 cells. Importantly, PF11 significantly alleviated the death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons induced by the conditioned-medium from activated microglia. At last, the effect of PF11 on neuroinflammation was confirmed in vivo: PF11 mitigated the microglial activation and proinflammatory factors expression obviously in both cortex and hippocampus in mice injected intrahippocampally with LPS. These findings indicate that PF11 exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects on LPS-activated microglial cells by inhibiting TLR4-mediated TAK1/IKK/NF-κB, MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways, suggesting its therapeutic implication for neurodegenerative disease associated with neuroinflammation.

  1. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  2. Microglial cell dysregulation in brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    von Bernhardi, Rommy; Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Laura; Eugenín, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. In aging, microglia undergoes phenotypic changes compatible with their activation. Glial activation can lead to neuroinflammation, which is increasingly accepted as part of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesize that in aging, aberrant microglia activation leads to a deleterious environment and neurodegeneration. In aged mice, microglia exhibit an increased expression of cytokines and an exacerbated inflammatory response to pathological changes. Whereas LPS increases nitric oxide (NO) secretion in microglia from young mice, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) predominates in older mice. Furthermore, there is accumulation of DNA oxidative damage in mitochondria of microglia during aging, and also an increased intracellular ROS production. Increased ROS activates the redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B, which promotes more neuroinflammation, and can be translated in functional deficits, such as cognitive impairment. Mitochondria-derived ROS and cathepsin B, are also necessary for the microglial cell production of interleukin-1β, a key inflammatory cytokine. Interestingly, whereas the regulatory cytokine TGFβ1 is also increased in the aged brain, neuroinflammation persists. Assessing this apparent contradiction, we have reported that TGFβ1 induction and activation of Smad3 signaling after inflammatory stimulation are reduced in adult mice. Other protective functions, such as phagocytosis, although observed in aged animals, become not inducible by inflammatory stimuli and TGFβ1. Here, we discuss data suggesting that mitochondrial and endolysosomal dysfunction could at least partially mediate age-associated microglial cell changes, and, together with the impairment of the TGFβ1-Smad3 pathway, could result in the reduction of protective activation and the facilitation of cytotoxic activation of microglia, resulting in the promotion of

  3. [Facial nerve injuries cause changes in central nervous system microglial cells].

    PubMed

    Cerón, Jeimmy; Troncoso, Julieta

    2016-12-01

    Our research group has described both morphological and electrophysiological changes in motor cortex pyramidal neurons associated with contralateral facial nerve injury in rats. However, little is known about those neural changes, which occur together with changes in surrounding glial cells. To characterize the effect of the unilateral facial nerve injury on microglial proliferation and activation in the primary motor cortex. We performed immunohistochemical experiments in order to detect microglial cells in brain tissue of rats with unilateral facial nerve lesion sacrificed at different times after the injury. We caused two types of lesions: reversible (by crushing, which allows functional recovery), and irreversible (by section, which produces permanent paralysis). We compared the brain tissues of control animals (without surgical intervention) and sham-operated animals with animals with lesions sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 21 or 35 days after the injury. In primary motor cortex, the microglial cells of irreversibly injured animals showed proliferation and activation between three and seven days post-lesion. The proliferation of microglial cells in reversibly injured animals was significant only three days after the lesion. Facial nerve injury causes changes in microglial cells in the primary motor cortex. These modifications could be involved in the generation of morphological and electrophysiological changes previously described in the pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex that command facial movements.

  4. Effects of Paeonol on Anti-Neuroinflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chingju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Jia-Hong; Tseng, Wen-Pei; Ko, Pei-Ying; Liu, Yu-Shu; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing studies suggest that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system mediated by microglial activation plays an important role in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Development of planning for microglial suppression is considered a key strategy in the search for neuroprotection. Paeonol is a major phenolic component of Moutan Cortex, widely used as a nutrient supplement in Chinese medicine. In this study, we investigated the effects of paeonol on microglial cells stimulated by inflammagens. Paeonol significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Treatment with paeonol also reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited an ATP-induced increased cell migratory activity. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of neuroinflammation by paeonol were found to be regulated by phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α (AMPK-α) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 α/β (GSK 3α/β). Treatment with AMPK or GSK3 inhibitors reverse the inhibitory effect of neuroinflammation by paeonol in microglial cells. Furthermore, paeonol treatment also showed significant improvement in the rotarod performance and microglial activation in the mouse model as well. The present study is the first to report a novel inhibitory role of paeonol on neuroinflammation, and presents a new candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25906473

  5. Tryptanthrin Suppresses the Activation of the LPS-Treated BV2 Microglial Cell Line via Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Won; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Sung Yun; Song, Juhyun; Lee, Ju-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play essential roles in neuronal homeostasis and neuroinflammatory pathologies. Recently, microglia have been shown to contribute decisively to neuropathologic processes after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, natural compounds have been reported to attenuate inflammation and pathologies associated with neuroinflammation. Tryptanthrin (indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione) is a phytoalkaloid with known anti-inflammatory effects in cells. In present study, the authors confirmed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) injury triggers the activation of microglia in brain tissue, and investigated whether tryptanthrin influences the function of mouse murine BV2 microglia under LPS-induced inflammatory conditions in vitro. It was found tryptanthrin protected BV2 microglia cells against LPS-induced inflammation and inhibited the induction of M1 phenotype microglia under inflammatory conditions. In addition, tryptanthrin reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BV2 microglia cells via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling and NF-κB signaling. The authors suggest that tryptanthrin might alleviate the progress of neuropathologies by controlling microglial functions under neuroinflammatory conditions. PMID:28210215

  6. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  7. Imaging robust microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide administration in humans with PET

    PubMed Central

    Sandiego, Christine M.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Pittman, Brian; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Matuskey, David; Lee, Jae-Yun; O’Connor, Kevin C.; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; Hannestad, Jonas; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The core process in neuroinflammation is activation of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain. We measured the neuroinflammatory response produced by a systemic administration of the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; also called endotoxin) in humans with the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]PBR28, which binds to translocator protein, a molecular marker that is up-regulated by microglial activation. In addition, inflammatory cytokines in serum and sickness behavior profiles were measured before and after LPS administration to relate brain microglial activation with systemic inflammation and behavior. Eight healthy male subjects each had two 120-min [11C]PBR28 PET scans in 1 d, before and after an LPS challenge. LPS (1.0 ng/kg, i.v.) was administered 180 min before the second [11C]PBR28 scan. LPS administration significantly increased [11C]PBR28 binding 30–60%, demonstrating microglial activation throughout the brain. This increase was accompanied by an increase in blood levels of inflammatory cytokines, vital sign changes, and sickness symptoms, well-established consequences of LPS administration. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in humans that a systemic LPS challenge induces robust increases in microglial activation in the brain. This imaging paradigm to measure brain microglial activation with [11C]PBR28 PET provides an approach to test new medications in humans for their putative antiinflammatory effects. PMID:26385967

  8. JMV5656, A Novel Derivative of TLQP-21, Triggers the Activation of a Calcium-Dependent Potassium Outward Current in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivolta, Ilaria; Binda, Anna; Molteni, Laura; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Possenti, Roberta; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Omeljaniuk, Robert J.; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    TLQP-21 (TLQPPASSRRRHFHHALPPAR) is a multifunctional peptide that is involved in the control of physiological functions, including feeding, reproduction, stress responsiveness, and general homeostasis. Despite the huge interest in TLQP-21 biological activity, very little is known about its intracellular mechanisms of action. In microglial cells, TLQP-21 stimulates increases of intracellular Ca2+ that may activate functions, including proliferation, migration, phagocytosis and production of inflammatory molecules. Our aim was to investigate whether JMV5656 (RRRHFHHALPPAR), a novel short analogue of TLQP-21, stimulates intracellular Ca2+ in the N9 microglia cells, and whether this Ca2+ elevation is coupled with the activation Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels. TLQP-21 and JMV5656 induced a sharp, dose-dependent increment in intracellular calcium. In 77% of cells, JMV5656 also caused an increase in the total outward currents, which was blunted by TEA (tetraethyl ammonium chloride), a non-selective blocker of voltage-dependent and Ca2+-activated potassium (K+) channels. Moreover, the effects of ion channel blockers charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, suggested that multiple calcium-activated K+ channel types drove the outward current stimulated by JMV5656. Additionally, inhibition of JMV5656-stimulated outward currents by NS6180 (4-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-2H-1,4 benzothiazin-3(4H)-one) and TRAM-34 (triarylmethane-34), indicated that KCa3.1 channels are involved in this JMV5656 mechanisms of action. In summary, we demonstrate that, in N9 microglia cells, the interaction of JMV5656 with the TLQP-21 receptors induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+, and, following extracellular Ca2+ entry, the opening of KCa3.1 channels. PMID:28280458

  9. JMV5656, A Novel Derivative of TLQP-21, Triggers the Activation of a Calcium-Dependent Potassium Outward Current in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Rivolta, Ilaria; Binda, Anna; Molteni, Laura; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Possenti, Roberta; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Omeljaniuk, Robert J; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    TLQP-21 (TLQPPASSRRRHFHHALPPAR) is a multifunctional peptide that is involved in the control of physiological functions, including feeding, reproduction, stress responsiveness, and general homeostasis. Despite the huge interest in TLQP-21 biological activity, very little is known about its intracellular mechanisms of action. In microglial cells, TLQP-21 stimulates increases of intracellular Ca(2+) that may activate functions, including proliferation, migration, phagocytosis and production of inflammatory molecules. Our aim was to investigate whether JMV5656 (RRRHFHHALPPAR), a novel short analogue of TLQP-21, stimulates intracellular Ca(2+) in the N9 microglia cells, and whether this Ca(2+) elevation is coupled with the activation Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels. TLQP-21 and JMV5656 induced a sharp, dose-dependent increment in intracellular calcium. In 77% of cells, JMV5656 also caused an increase in the total outward currents, which was blunted by TEA (tetraethyl ammonium chloride), a non-selective blocker of voltage-dependent and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (K(+)) channels. Moreover, the effects of ion channel blockers charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, suggested that multiple calcium-activated K(+) channel types drove the outward current stimulated by JMV5656. Additionally, inhibition of JMV5656-stimulated outward currents by NS6180 (4-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-2H-1,4 benzothiazin-3(4H)-one) and TRAM-34 (triarylmethane-34), indicated that KCa3.1 channels are involved in this JMV5656 mechanisms of action. In summary, we demonstrate that, in N9 microglia cells, the interaction of JMV5656 with the TLQP-21 receptors induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), and, following extracellular Ca(2+) entry, the opening of KCa3.1 channels.

  10. Uptake of dendrimer-drug by different cell types in the hippocampus after hypoxic-ischemic insult in neonatal mice: Effects of injury, microglial activation and hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Drummond, Gabrielle T; Mishra, Manoj K; Zhang, Fan; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S; Doman, Sydney; Fatemi, Ali; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Kannan, Sujatha; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2017-10-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can result in neurodevelopmental disability, including cerebral palsy. The only treatment, hypothermia, provides incomplete neuroprotection. Hydroxyl polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are being explored for targeted delivery of therapy for HIE. Understanding the biodistribution of dendrimer-conjugated drugs into microglia, neurons and astrocytes after brain injury is essential for optimizing drug delivery. We conjugated N-acetyl-L-cysteine to Cy5-labeled PAMAM dendrimer (Cy5-D-NAC) and used a mouse model of perinatal HIE to study effects of timing of administration, hypothermia, brain injury, and microglial activation on uptake. Dendrimer conjugation delivered therapy most effectively to activated microglia but also targeted some astrocytes and injured neurons. Cy5-D-NAC uptake was correlated with brain injury in all cell types and with activated morphology in microglia. Uptake was not inhibited by hypothermia, except in CD68+ microglia. Thus, dendrimer-conjugated drug delivery can target microglia, astrocytes and neurons and can be used in combination with hypothermia for treatment of HIE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity in dopamine nerve endings of the striatum is associated with microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Walker, Paul D; Benjamins, Joyce A; Geddes, Timothy J; Kuhn, Donald M

    2004-10-01

    Methamphetamine intoxication causes long-lasting damage to dopamine nerve endings in the striatum. The mechanisms underlying this neurotoxicity are not known but oxidative stress has been implicated. Microglia are the major antigen-presenting cells in brain and when activated, they secrete an array of factors that cause neuronal damage. Surprisingly, very little work has been directed at the study of microglial activation as part of the methamphetamine neurotoxic cascade. We report here that methamphetamine activates microglia in a dose-related manner and along a time course that is coincident with dopamine nerve ending damage. Prevention of methamphetamine toxicity by maintaining treated mice at low ambient temperature prevents drug-induced microglial activation. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), which damages dopamine nerve endings and cell bodies, causes extensive microglial activation in striatum as well as in the substantia nigra. In contrast, methamphetamine causes neither microglial activation in the substantia nigra nor dopamine cell body damage. Dopamine transporter antagonists (cocaine, WIN 35,428 [(-)-2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate], and nomifensine), selective D1 (SKF 82958 [(+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide]), D2 (quinpirole), or mixed D1/D2 receptor agonists (apomorphine) do not mimic the effect of methamphetamine on microglia. Hyperthermia, a prominent and dangerous clinical response to methamphetamine intoxication, was also ruled out as the cause of microglial activation. Together, these data suggest that microglial activation represents an early step in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Other neurochemical effects resulting from methamphetamine-induced overflow of DA into the synapse, but which are not neurotoxic, do not play a role in this response.

  12. Localisation of thiamine pyrophosphatase in the amoeboid microglial cells in the brain of postnatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, C; Ling, E A; Wong, W C

    1987-01-01

    The activity of TPPase in amoeboid microglial cells has been studied in postnatal rats. When examined with the light microscope such cells in 1-10 days old rats perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde were round and showed a dark brown reaction in their cytoplasm. In older rats (10-30 days), the reactive amoeboid microglial cells were oval, flattened or branched. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the reaction product was seen on the plasma membrane, in the subplasmalemmal vacuoles, in tubular invaginations of plasma membrane and in the transface of the Golgi saccules. In rats perfused with the mixed aldehyde solution, the amoeboid microglial cells did not show a positive TPPase reaction with the light microscope but at the ultrastructural level a weak reaction was seen in some cytoplasmic vacuoles and in the Golgi saccules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2820912

  13. Clodronate inhibits the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and NO by isolated microglial cells and reduces the number of proliferating glial cells in excitotoxically injured organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Faramarz; Conrad, Ariane; Kohl, Angelika; Korf, Horst-Werner; Hailer, Nils P

    2004-10-01

    Treatment of excitotoxically injured organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) with clodronate is known to result in the inhibition of microglial activation. We hypothesized that this is due to direct effects of clodronate on microglial cells, and investigated microglial proliferation in OHSC, and cytokine and NO secretion in isolated microglial cells. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) lesioning of OHSC resulted in a massive increase in the number of proliferating, bromo-desoxy-uridine (BrdU)-labeled cells that was reduced to control levels after treatment with clodronate (0.1, 1, 10 microg/ml). Triple-labeling revealed that clodronate abrogated the proliferation of both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4)-labeled microglial cells. Furthermore, isolated microglial cells were treated with clodronate after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Clodronate (0.01, 0.1, 1 microg/ml) significantly down-regulated the LPS-stimulated microglial secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, Interleukin (IL)-1beta and NO, but not of IL-6. In contrast, clodronate significantly reduced the microglial IL-6-release induced by M-CSF, indicating different intracellular pathways. The number and morphology of isolated microglial cells did not change significantly after treatment with clodronate. In summary, the number of proliferating microglial cells and astrocytes after excitotoxic injury is reduced to control levels after treatment with clodronate. Furthermore, clodronate inhibits microglial secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and NO. Clodronate could therefore prove to be a useful tool in the investigation of interactions between damaged neurons and microglial cells.

  14. Microglial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation and inhibition motif signaling in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Linnartz, Bettina; Wang, Yiner; Neumann, Harald

    2010-06-22

    Elimination of extracellular aggregates and apoptotic neural membranes without inflammation is crucial for brain tissue homeostasis. In the mammalian central nervous system, essential molecules in this process are the Fc receptors and the DAP12-associated receptors which both trigger the microglial immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif- (ITAM-) Syk-signaling cascade. Microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), signal regulatory protein-beta1, and complement receptor-3 (CD11b/CD18) signal via the adaptor protein DAP12 and activate phagocytic activity of microglia. Microglial ITAM-signaling receptors are counter-regulated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif- (ITIM-) signaling molecules such as sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectins (Siglecs). Siglecs can suppress the proinflammatory and phagocytic activity of microglia via ITIM signaling. Moreover, microglial neurotoxicity is alleviated via interaction of Siglec-11 with sialic acids on the neuronal glycocalyx. Thus, ITAM- and ITIM-signaling receptors modulate microglial phagocytosis and cytokine expression during neuroinflammatory processes. Their dysfunction could lead to impaired phagocytic clearance and neurodegeneration triggered by chronic inflammation.

  15. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host’s immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Methods Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S4–S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Results Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Conclusion Our data shows that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:25263093

  16. Nitrated Alpha Synuclein Induced Alterations in Microglial Immunity is Regulated by CD4+ T Cell Subsets1

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley D.; Stone, David K.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2009-01-01

    Microglial inflammatory neuroregulatory activities affect the tempo of nigrostriatal degeneration during Parkinson's disease (PD). Such activities are induced, in part, by misfolded, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-α-syn) within Lewy bodies released from dying or dead dopaminergic neurons. Such pathobiologic events initiate innate and adaptive immune responses affecting neurodegeneration. We posit that the neurobiological activities of activated microglia are affected by cell-protein and cell-cell contacts, in that microglial interactions with N-α-syn and CD4+ T cells substantively alter the microglial proteome. This leads to alterations in cell homeostatic functions and disease. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress N-α-syn microglial induced reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor kappa B activation by modulating redox-active enzymes, cell migration, phagocytosis, and bioenergetic protein expression and cell function. In contrast, CD4+CD25− effector T cells exacerbate microglial inflammation and induce “putative” neurotoxic responses. These data support the importance of adaptive immunity in the regulation of PD-associated microglial inflammation. PMID:19299711

  17. Palmitoylethanolamide stimulates phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 and Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 by microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Sandra; Ribes, Sandra; Schütze, Sandra; Czesnik, Dirk; Nau, Roland

    2012-03-01

    The ability of microglial cells to phagocytose bacteria after stimulation with the endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) was studied in vitro. PEA increased the phagocytosis of unencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 and encapsulated Escherichia coli K1 by murine microglial cells significantly after 30 min of microglial stimulation. This suggested that stimulation of microglial cells by PEA can increase the resistance of the brain against CNS infections.

  18. tBHQ inhibits LPS-induced microglial activation via Nrf2-mediated suppression of p38 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyungmi; Cha, Youngnam; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Jiyoung

    2009-03-13

    Role of microglial Nrf2 activation in preventing neuronal death caused by microglial hyperactivation is investigated by using BV-2 microglial cells as modulator and primary neurons as target. Pretreatment of microglial cells with tBHQ, a phenolic antioxidant activating Nrf2, attenuated the LPS-derived overproduction of pro-inflammatory neurotoxic mediators like TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, PGE(2), and NO as well as the morphological changes associated with microglial hyperactivation. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with tBHQ suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 required for overproduction of neurotoxic mediators. Results obtained using Nrf2-specific shRNA showed that expression of Nrf2 in microglia plays a critical role in tBHQ-derived suppression of LPS-induced p38 phosphorylation and microglial hyperactivation. Conditioned culture media taken from LPS-stimulated microglia cause neuronal death. However, the conditioned media taken from tBHQ-pretreated and LPS-stimulated microglia did not cause death of primary neurons. This suggested that prior activation of Nrf2 in microglia may inhibit microglial hyperactivation and prevent neuronal death.

  19. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30–60 μM ZnCl2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia–reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory. PMID:28240322

  20. Role of hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α in autophagic cell death in microglial cells induced by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xintao; Ma, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Zhiling; Zhang, Fan; Lu, Nan; Chen, Aimin

    2017-03-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytic cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and have been proposed to be a primary component of the innate immune response and maintain efficient CNS homeostasis. Microglial cells are activated during various phases of tissue repair and participate in various pathological conditions in the CNS. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), anoxemia is a key problem that results in tissue destruction. Hypoxia‑inducible factor 1‑α (HIF‑1α) may protect hypoxic cells from apoptosis or necrosis under ischemic and anoxic conditions. However, numerous studies have revealed that hypoxia upregulates HIF‑1α expression leading to the death of microglial cells. The present study investigated the alterations in HIF‑1α expression levels and the mechanism of autophagic cell death mediated by HIF‑1α in microglial cells induced by hypoxia. Hypoxia was demonstrated to induce HIF‑1α expression and autophagic cell death in microglial cells. Enhanced autophagy reduced cell death during the initial stages by restraining the functions of autophagy‑associated genes (microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3 phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate and Beclin‑1) and modulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑1β). Target value was determined by Cell Counting Kit 8 and cell death by flow cytometry. Transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ELISA were used for further analysis. However, increased expression of HIF‑1α induced cell death and autophagic cell death in microglial cells. Furthermore, the effects of the HIF‑1α inhibitor 2‑methoxyestradiol and HIF‑1α small interfering RNA on the death and autophagy of microglial cells in vitro were investigated. These investigations revealed the suppression of autophagy, the decrease of cell viability and the increase of

  1. SN79, a sigma receptor ligand, blocks methamphetamine-induced microglial activation and cytokine upregulation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew J; Turner, Ryan C; Naser, Zachary J; McCurdy, Christopher R; Huber, Jason D; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is associated with several negative side effects including neurotoxicity in specific brain regions such as the striatum. The precise molecular mechanisms by which METH usage results in neurotoxicity remain to be fully elucidated, with recent evidence implicating the importance of microglial activation and neuroinflammation in damaged brain regions. METH interacts with sigma receptors which are found in glial cells in addition to neurons. Moreover, sigma receptor antagonists have been shown to block METH-induced neurotoxicity in rodents although the cellular mechanisms underlying their neuroprotection remain unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the prototypic sigma receptor antagonist, SN79, mitigates METH-induced microglial activation and associated increases in cytokine expression in a rodent model of METH-induced neurotoxicity. METH increased striatal mRNA and protein levels of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68), indicative of microglial activation. METH also increased ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) protein expression, further confirming the activation of microglia. Along with microglial activation, METH increased striatal mRNA expression levels of IL-6 family pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukemia inhibitory factor (lif), oncostatin m (osm), and interleukin-6 (il-6). Pretreatment with SN79 reduced METH-induced increases in CD68 and IBA-1 expression, demonstrating its ability to prevent microglial activation. SN79 also attenuated METH-induced mRNA increases in IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine family members. The ability of a sigma receptor antagonist to block METH-induced microglial activation and cytokine production provides a novel mechanism through which the neurotoxic effects of METH may be mitigated.

  2. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Exposure Reduces Hypoxia and Inflammation Damage in Neuron-Like and Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ravani, Annalisa; Pasquini, Silvia; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of low-frequency, low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been investigated by using different cell lines derived from neuron-like cells and microglial cells. In particular, the primary aim was to evaluate the effect of PEMF exposure in inflammation- and hypoxia-induced injury in two different neuronal cell models, the human neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in N9 microglial cells. In neuron-like cells, live/dead and apoptosis assays were performed in hypoxia conditions from 2 to 48 h. Interestingly, PEMF exposure counteracted hypoxia damage significantly reducing cell death and apoptosis. In the same cell lines, PEMFs inhibited the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the master transcriptional regulator of cellular response to hypoxia. The effect of PEMF exposure on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both neuron-like and microglial cells was investigated considering their key role in ischemic injury. PEMFs significantly decreased hypoxia-induced ROS generation in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and N9 cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation. Moreover, PEMFs were able to reduce some of the most well-known pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 release in N9 microglial cells stimulated with different concentrations of LPS for 24 or 48 h of incubation time. These results show a protective effect of PEMFs on hypoxia damage in neuron-like cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells suggesting that PEMFs could represent a potential therapeutic approach in cerebral ischemic conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1200-1208, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lipopolysaccharides Derived from Pantoea agglomerans Can Promote the Phagocytic Activity of Amyloid β in Mouse Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaro; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Okazaki, Katsuichiro; Zhang, Ran; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibits beneficial effects on prevention of immune-related diseases by activating macrophages. We previously demonstrated that pre-treatment with LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) activated amyloid β (Aβ) phagocytosis in mouse primary microglia. In the present study, we further examined the promotory effect on phagocytosis of phagocytic particles in the C8-B4 microglia cell line. Phagocytic analysis of C8-B4 cells was evaluated using phagocytic particles (latex beads or HiLyte™ Fluor 488-conjugated Aβ1-42). The phagocytic activity of latex beads was dependent on the concentration of beads and incubation time. LPSp, at as low as 100 pg/ml, significantly increased phagocytosis against the beads. In the experiment of Aβ1-42 phagocytosis, LPSp significantly increased Aβ phagocytic activity. LPSp treatment was confirmed to enhance Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by mouse microglia. It is suggested that the use of LPSp may be a potential promising candidate for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. The complex of microglial cells and amyloid star in three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, J; Wisniewski, H M

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural, three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometric studies of classical plaques from the cortex of a patient with Alzheimer's disease showed five or six microglial cells, which form, together with the amyloid star, the central complex of the classical plaque. Microglial cells associated with the amyloid star show marked polymorphism, but all forms possess an amyloid making pole. The surface of the cell membrane at this pole is extended by apparent connection with membranes of cytoplasmic channels filled with amyloid fibers. The amyloid pole also shows other features of local activation with nuclei translocation, expansion of Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum, and multiplication of vacuoles and coated vesicles that are in close proximity to channels filled with new polymerized amyloid fibers. On the basis of ultrastructural studies, three forms of microglial cells can be distinguished: macrophage-like, cap-like, and octopus-like cells. The most effective in production of amyloid fibers seem to be cap-like microglial cells, which have the greatest interface with the amyloid star. Octopus-like cells have the least contact with the amyloid star. The size of the surface of the interface with the amyloid star appears to be an indicator of the extent of cell engagement in amyloid fiber formation.

  5. Brain angiotensin regulates iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons and microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Dominguez-Meijide, Antonio; Guerra, Maria J; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2013-12-01

    Dysfunction of iron homeostasis has been shown to be involved in ageing, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Increased levels of labile iron result in increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Angiotensin II, via type-1 receptors, exacerbates oxidative stress, the microglial inflammatory response and progression of dopaminergic degeneration. Angiotensin activates the NADPH-oxidase complex, which produces superoxide. However, it is not known whether angiotensin affects iron homeostasis. In the present study, administration of angiotensin to primary mesencephalic cultures, the dopaminergic cell line MES23.5 and to young adult rats, significantly increased levels of transferrin receptors, divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin, which suggests an increase in iron uptake and export. In primary neuron-glia cultures and young rats, angiotensin did not induce significant changes in levels of ferritin or labile iron, both of which increased in neurons in the absence of glia (neuron-enriched cultures, dopaminergic cell line) and in the N9 microglial cell line. In aged rats, which are known to display high levels of angiotensin activity, ferritin levels and iron deposits in microglial cells were enhanced. Angiotensin-induced changes were inhibited by angiotensin type-1 receptor antagonists, NADPH-oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants and NF-kB inhibitors. The results demonstrate that angiotensin, via type-1 receptors, modulates iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons and microglial cells, and that glial cells play a major role in efficient regulation of iron homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons.

  6. Microglial activation induces neuronal death in Chandipura virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Ghosh, Sourish; Pradhan, Sreeparna; Basu, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses induce neurodegeneration either directly by activating host death domains or indirectly through host immune response pathways. Chandipura Virus (CHPV) belonging to family Rhabdoviridae is ranked among the emerging pathogens of the Indian subcontinent. Previously we have reported that CHPV induces neurodegeneration albeit the root cause of this degeneration is still an open question. In this study we explored the role of microglia following CHPV infection. Phenotypic analysis of microglia through lectin and Iba-1 staining indicated cells were in an activated state post CHPV infection in cortical region of the infected mouse brain. Cytokine Bead Array (CBA) analysis revealed comparatively higher cytokine and chemokine levels in the same region. Increased level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) in CHPV infected mouse brain indicated a strong inflammatory response to CHPV infection. Hence it was hypothesized through our analyses that this inflammatory response may stimulate the neuronal death following CHPV infection. In order to validate our hypothesis supernatant from CHPV infected microglial culture was used to infect neuronal cell line and primary neurons. This study confirmed the bystander killing of neurons due to activation of microglia post CHPV infection. PMID:26931456

  7. Blueberry Supplementation Attenuates Microglial Activation in Hippocampal Intraocular Grafts to aged hosts

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Lauren M.; Freeman, Linnea; Bickford, Paula C.; Quintero, E. Matthew; Umphlet, Claudia D.; Moore, Alfred B.; Goetzl, Laura; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of central nervous tissue has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention for age-related neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. However, survival of embryonic neuronal cells is hampered by detrimental factors in the aged host brain such as circulating inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. We have previously found that supplementation with 2% blueberry in the diet increases graft growth and neuronal survival in intraocular hippocampal grafts to aged hosts. In the present study we explored possible biochemical mechanisms for this increased survival, and we here report decreased microglial activation and astrogliosis in intraocular hippocampal grafts to middle-aged hosts fed a 2% blueberry diet. Markers for astrocytes and for activated microglial cells were both decreased long-term after grafting to blueberry-treated hosts compared to age-matched rats on a control diet. Similar findings were obtained in the host brain, with a reduction in OX-6 immunoreactive microglial cells in the hippocampus of those recipients treated with blueberry. In addition, immunoreactivity for the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was found to be significantly attenuated in intraocular grafts by the 2% blueberry diet. These studies demonstrate direct effects of blueberry upon microglial activation both during isolated conditions and in the aged host brain and suggest that this nutraceutical can attenuate age-induced inflammation. PMID:20014277

  8. Allergy Enhances Neurogenesis and Modulates Microglial Activation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara; Mrowetz, Heike; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Weiss, Richard; Aigner, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Allergies and their characteristic TH2-polarized inflammatory reactions affect a substantial part of the population. Since there is increasing evidence that the immune system modulates plasticity and function of the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the effects of allergic lung inflammation on the hippocampus—a region of cellular plasticity in the adult brain. The focus of the present study was on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, and on hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of new neurons. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with a clinically relevant allergen derived from timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5). As expected, allergic sensitization induced high serum levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE) and of TH2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). Surprisingly, fewer Iba1+ microglia were found in the granular layer (GL) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and also the number of Iba1+MHCII+ cells was lower, indicating a reduced microglial surveillance and activation in the hippocampus of allergic mice. Neurogenesis was analyzed by labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and determining their fate 4 weeks later, and by quantitative analysis of young immature neurons, i.e., cells expressing doublecortin (DCX). The number of DCX+ cells was clearly increased in the allergy animals. Moreover, there were more BrdU+ cells present in the hippocampus of allergic mice, and these newly born cells had differentiated into neurons as indicated by a higher number of BrdU+NeuN+ cells. In summary, allergy led to a reduced microglia presence and activity and to an elevated level of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect was apparently specific to the hippocampus, as we did not observe these alterations in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/olfactory bulb (OB) system, also a region of high cellular plasticity and adult neurogenesis. PMID:27445696

  9. Cytopathic Changes in Rat Microglial Cells Induced by Pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni: Morphology and Cytokine Release

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Joon; Cho, Myung-Soo; Jung, Suk-Yul; Kim, Hyung-Il; Park, Sun; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Yoo, Jung-Chil; Im, Kyung-Il

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether pathogenic Acanthamoeba culbertsoni trophozoites and lysate can induce cytopathic changes in primary-culture microglial cells, morphological changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the secretion of two kinds of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), from microglial cells was observed. Trophozoites of pathogenic A. culbertsoni made contact with microglial cells and produced digipodia. TEM revealed that microglial cells cocultured with amoebic trophozoites underwent a necrotic process, accompanied by lysis of the cell membrane. TEM of microglial cells cocultured with amoebic lysate showed that the membranes of the small cytoplasmic vacuoles as well as the cell membrane were lysed. The amounts of TNF-α secreted from microglial cells cocultured with A. culbertsoni trophozoites or lysate increased at 6 h of incubation. The amounts of IL-1β secreted from microglial cells cocultured with A. culbertsoni trophozoites at 6 h of incubation was similar to those secreted from the control group, but the amounts decreased during cultivation with A. culbertsoni lysate. These results suggest that pathogenic A. culbertsoni induces the cytopathic effects in primary-culture rat microglial cells, with the effects characterized by necrosis of microglial cells and changes in levels of secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β from microglial cells. PMID:11427438

  10. Microglial activation is a pharmacologically specific marker for the neurotoxic amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Dowgiert, Jennifer; Geddes, Timothy J; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina; Liu, Xiuli; Kuhn, Donald M

    2004-09-09

    Neurotoxic amphetamines cause damage to monoamine nerve terminals of the striatum by unknown mechanisms. Microglial activation contributes to the neuronal damage that accompanies injury, disease, and inflammation, but a role for these cells in amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has received little attention. We show presently that D-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), D-amphetamine, and p-chloroamphetamine, each of which has been linked to dopamine (DA) or serotonin nerve terminal damage, result in microglial activation in the striatum. The non-neurotoxic amphetamines l-methamphetamine, fenfluramine, and DOI do not have this effect. All drugs that cause microglial activation also increase expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). At a minimum, microglial activation serves as a pharmacologically specific marker for striatal nerve terminal damage resulting only from those amphetamines that exert neurotoxicity. Because microglia are known to produce many of the reactive species (e.g., nitric oxide, superoxide, cytokines) that mediate the neurotoxicity of the amphetamine-class of drugs, their activation could represent an early and essential event in the neurotoxic cascade associated with high-dose amphetamine intoxication.

  11. MK-801 and dextromethorphan block microglial activation and protect against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2005-07-19

    Methamphetamine causes long-term toxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. Evidence is emerging that microglia can contribute to the neuronal damage associated with disease, injury, or inflammation, but their role in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has received relatively little attention. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the neurotoxic HIV Tat protein, which cause dopamine neuronal toxicity after direct infusion into brain, cause activation of cultured mouse microglial cells as evidenced by increased expression of intracellular cyclooxygenase-2 and elevated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that is known to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity, prevents microglial activation by LPS and HIV Tat. Dextromethorphan, an antitussive agent with NMDA receptor blocking properties, also prevents microglial activation. In vivo, MK-801 and dextromethorphan reduce methamphetamine-induced activation of microglia in striatum and they protect dopamine nerve endings against drug-induced nerve terminal damage. The present results indicate that the ability of MK-801 and dextromethorphan to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity is related to their common property as blockers of microglial activation.

  12. Microarray and Pathway Analysis Reveal Distinct Mechanisms Underlying Cannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of LPS-Induced Activation of BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Vogel, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids are known to exert immunosuppressive activities. However, the mechanisms which contribute to these effects are unknown. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to activate BV-2 microglial cells, we examined how Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD) the non-psychoactive component, modulate the inflammatory response. Microarray analysis of genome-wide mRNA levels was performed using Illumina platform and the resulting expression patterns analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify functional subsets of genes, and the Ingenuity System Database to denote the gene networks regulated by CBD and THC. From the 5338 transcripts that were differentially expressed across treatments, 400 transcripts were found to be upregulated by LPS, 502 by CBD+LPS and 424 by THC+LPS, while 145 were downregulated by LPS, 297 by CBD+LPS and 149 by THC+LPS, by 2-fold or more (p≤0.005). Results clearly link the effects of CBD and THC to inflammatory signaling pathways and identify new cannabinoid targets in the MAPK pathway (Dusp1, Dusp8, Dusp2), cell cycle related (Cdkn2b, Gadd45a) as well as JAK/STAT regulatory molecules (Socs3, Cish, Stat1). The impact of CBD on LPS-stimulated gene expression was greater than that of THC. We attribute this difference to the fact that CBD highly upregulated several genes encoding negative regulators of both NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activities, such as Trib3 and Dusp1 known to be modulated through Nrf2 activation. The CBD-specific expression profile reflected changes associated with oxidative stress and glutathione depletion via Trib3 and expression of ATF4 target genes. Furthermore, the CBD affected genes were shown to be controlled by nuclear factors usually involved in regulation of stress response and inflammation, mainly via Nrf2/Hmox1 axis and the Nrf2/ATF4-Trib3 pathway. These observations indicate that CBD, and less so THC, induce a cellular stress response and

  13. Antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol inhibit voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyewon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-05

    Microglial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Some antipsychotic drugs have anti-inflammatory activity and can reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species from activated microglial cells. Voltage-gated proton channels on the microglial cells participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal toxicity by supporting NADPH oxidase activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of two typical antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol, on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells using the whole-cell patch clamp method. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol potently inhibited proton currents with IC50 values of 2.2 μM and 8.4 μM, respectively. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are weak bases that can increase the intracellular pH, whereby they reduce the proton gradient and affect channel gating. Although the drugs caused a marginal positive shift of the activation voltage, they did not change the reversal potential. This suggested that proton current inhibition was not due to an alteration of the intracellular pH. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are strong blockers of dopamine receptors. While dopamine itself did not affect proton currents, it also did not alter proton current inhibition by the two antipsychotics, indicating dopamine receptors are not likely to mediate the proton current inhibition. Given that proton channels are important for the production of reactive oxygen species and possibly pro-inflammatory cytokines, the anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic activities of chlorpromazine and haloperidol may be partly derived from their ability to inhibit microglial proton currents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Transcription Factor p53 Influences Microglial Activation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Nesser, Nicole K.; Hopkins, Stephanie; Myers, Scott J.; Case, Amanda; Lee, Rona J.; Seaburg, Luke A.; Uo, Takuma; Murphy, Sean P.; Morrison, Richard S.; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, have pro-inflammatory and subsequently neurotoxic actions as well as anti-inflammatory functions that promote recovery and repair. Very little is known about the transcriptional control of these specific microglial behaviors. We have previously shown that in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the transcription factor p53 accumulates in microglia and that microglial p53 expression is required for the in vitro neurotoxicity of the HIV coat glycoprotein gp120. These findings suggested a novel function for p53 in regulating microglial activation. Here we report that in the absence of p53, microglia demonstrate a blunted response to interferon-γ, failing to increase expression of genes associated with classical macrophage activation or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory functions, phagocytosis and tissue repair in p53 knockout (p53−/−) microglia compared with those cultured from strain matched p53 expressing (p53+/+) mice. We further observed that p53−/− microglia demonstrate increased phagocytic activity in vitro and expression of markers for alternative macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In HAND brain tissue, the alternative activation marker CD163 was expressed in a separate subset of microglia than those demonstrating p53 accumulation. These data suggest that p53 influences microglial behavior, supporting the adoption of a pro-inflammatory phenotype, while p53 deficiency promotes phagocytosis and gene expression associated with alternative activation and anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:21598312

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline in mouse N9 microglial cells and the molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dan; Ma, Bin; Yang, Jing-yu; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Li-jia; Kano, Yoshihiro; Wu, Chun-fu

    2009-12-01

    Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines from activated microglia contributes to human neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous study demonstrated the potent inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in rat primary microglial cells by rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN), a pair of isomeric alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. that has been used in China for centuries as a "cognitive enhancer" as well as to treat strokes. We further investigated whether RIN and IRN effectively suppress release of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated microglial cells and the underling molecular mechanism for the inhibition of microglial activation. RIN and IRN concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta as well as NO in mouse N9 microglial cells, with IRN showing more potent inhibition of microglial activation. The western blotting analysis indicated that the potential molecular mechanism for RIN or IRN-mediated attenuation was implicated in suppressions of iNOS protein level, phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPKs, and degradation of IkappaBalpha. In addition, the differential regulation of the three signaling pathways by two isomers was shown. Our results suggest that RIN and IRN may be effective therapeutic candidates for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.

  16. Spirulina and C-phycocyanin reduce cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes expression of microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Cherng; Liu, Kris Sun; Yang, Ting-Ju; Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chan, Yin-Ching; Lee, I-Te

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of Spirulina on BV-2 microglial cell cytotoxicity and inflammatory genes expression. BV-2 microglial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml) and various concentrations of Spirulina platensis water extract or its active component (C-phycocyanin (C-PC)) for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNAs were assayed. LPS increased LDH production and up-regulated expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 by BV-2 microglial cells. However, Spirulina platensis water extract and C-PC significantly reduced LPS-induced LDH release, and expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNAs. Spirulina can reduce the cytotoxicity and inhibit expression of inflammation-related genes of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells.

  17. Morin downregulates nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activating HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Seungheon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-06-01

    Morin possesses anti-inflammatory activity against septic shock and allergic responses, and prevents acute liver damage. However, the biological mechanism of action of morin in neuroinflammation remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether morin has the ability to attenuate expression of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Morin inhibited the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2, without any cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were inhibited both at the mRNA and protein levels in response to morin. Morin also attenuated LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and its promoter activity. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulated the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2, which suggests that morin-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway responsible for the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. Additionally, morin increased induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, leading to the suppression of NO and PGE2 production. Our results indicate that morin downregulates the expression of proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS and COX-2, involved in the synthesis of NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activation of HO-1. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that morin may have potential as a therapeutic for the prevention of neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment with polyamine oxidase inhibitor reduces microglial activation and limits vascular injury in ischemic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, C.; Xu, Z.; Shosha, E.; Xing, J.; Lucas, R.; Caldwell, R.W.; Caldwell, R.B.; Narayanan, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal vascular injury is a major cause of vision impairment in ischemic retinopathies. Insults such as hyperoxia, oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to this pathology. Previously, we showed that hyperoxia-induced retinal neurodegeneration is associated with increased polyamine oxidation. Here, we are studying the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced injury and death of retinal vascular endothelial cells. Newborn C57BL6/J mice were exposed to hyperoxia (70% O2) from postnatal day (P) 7 to 12 and were treated with the polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL 72527 or vehicle starting at P6. Mice were sacrificed after different durations of hyperoxia and their retinas were analyzed to determine the effects on vascular injury, microglial cell activation, and inflammatory cytokine profiling. The results of this analysis showed that MDL 72527 treatment significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and enhanced vascular sprouting as compared with the vehicle controls. These protective effects were correlated with significant decreases in microglial activation as well as levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In order to model the effects of polyamine oxidation in causing microglial activation in vitro, studies were performed using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with conditioned-medium from rat retinal microglia stimulated with hydrogen peroxide. Conditioned-medium from activated microglial cultures induced cell stress signals and cell death in microvascular endothelial cells. These studies demonstrate the involvement of polyamine oxidases in hyperoxia-induced retinal vascular injury and retinal inflammation in ischemic retinopathy, through mechanisms involving cross-talk between endothelial cells and resident retinal microglia. PMID:27239699

  19. Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Applications of Microglial Activation after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Youl; Kim, Nuri; Yenari, Midori A.

    2014-01-01

    As the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, microglia rapidly respond to brain insults, including stroke and traumatic brain injury. Microglial activation plays a major role in neuronal cell damage and death by releasing a variety of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators. Their activation is an early response that may exacerbate brain injury and many other stressors, especially in the acute stages, but are also essential to brain recovery and repair. The full range of microglial activities is still not completely understood, but there is accumulating knowledge about their role following brain injury. We review recent progress related to the deleterious and beneficial effects of microglia in the setting of acute neurological insults, and the current literature surrounding pharmacological interventions for intervention. PMID:25475659

  20. Impact of endogenous nitric oxide on microglial cell energy metabolism and labile iron pool

    PubMed Central

    Chénais, Benoît; Morjani, Hamid; Drapier, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Microglial activation is common in several neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we used the murine BV-2 microglial cell line stimulated with γ-interferon and lipopolysaccharide to gain new insights into the effects of endogenously produced NO on mitochondrial respiratory capacity, iron regulatory protein activity, and redox-active iron level. Using polarographic measurement of respiration of both intact and digitonin-permeabilized cells, and spectrophotometric determination of individual respiratory chain complex activity, we showed that in addition to the reversible inhibition of cytochrome-c oxidase, long-term endogenous NO production reduced complex I and complex II activities in an irreversible manner. As a consequence, the cellular ATP level was decreased in NO-producing cells, whereas ATPase activity was unaffected. We show that NO up-regulates RNA-binding of iron regulatory protein 1 in microglial cells, and strongly reduces the labile iron pool. Together these results point to a contribution of NO derived from inflammatory microglia to the misregulation of energy-producing reactions and iron metabolism, often associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:12065670

  1. Mechanisms of microglial activation in models of inflammation and hypoxia: Implications for chronic intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Stephanie M. C.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark of sleep apnoea, a condition associated with diverse clinical disorders. CIH and sleep apnoea are characterized by increased reactive oxygen species formation, peripheral and CNS inflammation, neuronal death and neurocognitive deficits. Few studies have examined the role of microglia, the resident CNS immune cells, in models of CIH. Thus, little is known concerning their direct contributions to neuropathology or the cellular mechanisms regulating their activities during or following pathological CIH. In this review, we identify gaps in knowledge regarding CIH‐induced microglial activation, and propose mechanisms based on data from related models of hypoxia and/or hypoxia–reoxygenation. CIH may directly affect microglia, or may have indirect effects via the periphery or other CNS cells. Peripheral inflammation may indirectly activate microglia via entry of pro‐inflammatory molecules into the CNS, and/or activation of vagal afferents that trigger CNS inflammation. CIH‐induced release of damage‐associated molecular patterns from injured CNS cells may also activate microglia via interactions with pattern recognition receptors expressed on microglia. For example, Toll‐like receptors activate mitogen‐activated protein kinase/transcription factor pathways required for microglial inflammatory gene expression. Although epigenetic effects from CIH have not yet been studied in microglia, potential epigenetic mechanisms in microglial regulation are discussed, including microRNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation. Epigenetic effects can occur during CIH, or long after it has ended. A better understanding of CIH effects on microglial activities may be important to reverse CIH‐induced neuropathology in patients with sleep disordered breathing. PMID:26890698

  2. Delayed Treatment with Lidocaine Reduces Mouse Microglial Cell Injury and Cytokine Production After Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide and Interferon γ

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hae-Jeong; Lin, Daowei; Li, Liaoliao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for almost all acquired neurological diseases. Microglial cells play a critical role in neuroinflammation. We determined whether lidocaine, a local anesthetic with antiinflammatory property, protected microglial cells and attenuated cytokine production from activated microglial cells. Methods Mouse microglial cultures were incubated with or without 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide and 10 U/ml interferon γ (IFNγ) for 24 h in the presence or absence of lidocaine for 1 h started at 2, 3 or 4 h after the onset of lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ stimulation. Lactate dehydrogenase release and cytokine production were determined after the cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ for 24 h. Results Lidocaine dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ-induced microglial cell injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. This effect was apparent with lidocaine at 2 µg/ml (30.3 ± 5.8 and 23.1 ± 9.7%, respectively, for stimulation alone and the stimulation in the presence of lidocaine, n = 18, P = 0.025). Lidocaine applied at 2, 3 or 4 h after the onset of lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ stimulation reduced the cell injury. This lidocaine effect was not affected by the mitochondrial KATP channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate. Similar to lidocaine, QX314, a permanently charged lidocaine analog that usually does not permeate through the plasma membrane, reduced lipopolysaccharide and IFNγ-induced microglial cell injury. QX314 also attenuated the stimulation-induced interleukin-1β production. Conclusions Delayed treatment with lidocaine protects microglial cells and reduces cytokine production from these cells. These effects may involve action site(s) on the cell surface. PMID:22253275

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of N-((3,4-Dihydro-2H-benzo[h]chromene-2-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyaniline in LPS-Induced BV2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Lee, Gyeongjun; Bose, Shambhunath; Choi, Minho; Jung, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Heesoon; Cho, Jungsook

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation is known to cause inflammation resulting in neurotoxicity in several neurological diseases. N-((3,4-Dihydro-2H-benzo[h]chromene-2-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyaniline (BL-M), a chromene derivative, was originally synthesized with the perspective of inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), a key regulator of inflammation. The present study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of BL-M in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our results demonstrated that BL-M significantly inhibited the formation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, as well as lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, it suppressed the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in LPS-induced BV2 cells. Western blotting analyses revealed the inhibition of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation by BL-M in LPS-activated cells. Therefore, our study highlights marked antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BL-M, and suggests that this compound may have a beneficial impact on various neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammation.

  4. Fibrillar amyloid plaque formation precedes microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian K E; Keppler, Kevin; Steinbach, Sonja; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Herms, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), hallmark β-amyloid deposits are characterized by the presence of activated microglia around them. Despite an extensive characterization of the relation of amyloid plaques with microglia, little is known about the initiation of this interaction. In this study, the detailed investigation of very small plaques in brain slices in AD transgenic mice of the line APP-PS1(dE9) revealed different levels of microglia recruitment. Analysing plaques with a diameter of up to 10 μm we find that only the half are associated with clear morphologically activated microglia. Utilizing in vivo imaging of new appearing amyloid plaques in double-transgenic APP-PS1(dE9)xCX3CR1+/- mice further characterized the dynamic of morphological microglia activation. We observed no correlation of morphological microglia activation and plaque volume or plaque lifetime. Taken together, our results demonstrate a very prominent variation in size as well as in lifetime of new plaques relative to the state of microglia reaction. These observations might question the existing view that amyloid deposits by themselves are sufficient to attract and activate microglia in vivo.

  5. Chitosan oligosaccharides suppress production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced N9 murine microglial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Ma, Pan; Xu, Qing-Song; Bai, Qun-Hua; Gu, Jian-Guo; Xi, Hao; Du, Yu-Guang; Yu, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been reported to exert many biological activities, such as antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the effect of COS on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS induced N9 microglial cells. Pretreatment with COS (50~200 μg/ml) could markedly inhibit NO production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in activated microglial cells. Signal transduction studies showed that COS remarkably inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. COS pretreatment could also inhibit the activation of both nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). In conclusion, our results suggest that COS could suppress the production of NO in LPS-induced N9 microglial cells, mediated by p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways.

  6. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  7. Papaverine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation by suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yalong; Mu, Yalin; Wang, Kun; Xu, Ke; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Luo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of papaverine (PAP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and its possible mechanisms. Materials and methods BV2 microglial cells were first pretreated with PAP (0, 0.4, 2, 10, and 50 μg/mL) and then received LPS stimulation. Transcription and production of proinflammatory factors (IL1β, TNFα, iNOS, and COX-2) were used to evaluate microglial activation. The transcriptional changes undergone by M1/M2a/M2b markers were used to evaluate phenotype transformation of BV2 cells. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were used to detect the location and expression of P65 and p-IKK in the presence or absence of PAP pretreatment. Results Pretreatment with PAP significantly inhibited the expression of IL1β and TNFα, and suppressed the transcription of M1/M2b markers Il1rn, Socs3, Nos2 and Ptgs2, but upregulated the transcription of M2a markers (Arg1 and Mrc1) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PAP pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of p-IKK and inhibited the nuclear translocation of P65 after LPS stimulation. Conclusion PAP not only suppressed the LPS-induced microglial activity by inhibiting transcription/production of proinflammatory factors, but also promoted the transformation of activated BV2 cells from cytotoxic phenotypes (M1/M2b) to a neuroprotective phenotype (M2a). These effects were probably mediated by NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, it would be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27013863

  8. Regulation of rotenone-induced microglial activation by 5-lipoxygenase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Lu; Yang, Yi; Xu, Dong-Min; Zhang, Si-Ran; Li, Chen-Tan; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Shu-Ying; Wei, Er-Qing; Zhang, Li-Hui

    2014-07-14

    The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) products cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators. CysLTs mediate their biological actions through activating CysLT receptors (CysLT(1)R and CysLT(2)R). We have recently reported that 5-LOX and CysLT(1)R mediated PC12 cell injury induced by high concentrations of rotenone (0.3-10 μM), which was reduced by the selective 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton and CysLT(1)R antagonist montelukast. The purpose of this study was to examine the regulatory roles of the 5-LOX/CysLT(1)R pathway in microglial activation induced by low concentration rotenone. After mouse microglial BV2 cells were stimulated with rotenone (0.3-3 nM), phagocytosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokine were assayed as indicators of microglial activation. We found that rotenone (1 and 3 nM) increased BV2 microglial phagocytosis and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Zileuton and montelukast prevented rotenone (3 nM)-induced phagocytosis and cytokine release. Furthermore, rotenone significantly up-regulated 5-LOX expression, induced 5-LOX translocation to the nuclear envelope, and increased the production of CysLTs. These responses were inhibited by zileuton. Rotenone also increased CysLT(1)R expression and induced nuclear translocation of CysLT(1)R. In primary rat microglia, rotenone (10 nM) increased release of IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas zileuton (0.1 μΜ) and montelukast (0.01 μΜ) significantly inhibited this response. These results indicated that 5-LOX and CysLT(1)R might be key regulators of microglial activation induced by low concentration of rotenone. Interference of 5-LOX/CysLT(1)R pathway may be an effective therapeutic strategy for microglial inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of aged garlic extract and FruArg on gene expression and signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hailong; Lu, Yuan; Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V.; Martin, Matthew B.; Hou, Jie; Cui, Jiankun; Peculis, Brenda A.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Fritsche, Kevin; Schmidt, Francis J.; Walter, Ronald B.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is widely used as a dietary supplement on account of its protective effects against oxidative stress and inflammation. But less is known about specific molecular targets of AGE and its bioactive components, including N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (FruArg). Our recent study showed that both AGE and FruArg significantly attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells. This study aims to unveil effects of AGE and FruArg on gene expression regulation in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells. Results showed that LPS treatment significantly altered mRNA levels from 2563 genes. AGE reversed 67% of the transcriptome alteration induced by LPS, whereas FruArg accounted for the protective effect by reversing expression levels of 55% of genes altered by LPS. Key pro-inflammatory canonical pathways induced by the LPS stimulation included toll-like receptor signaling, IL-6 signaling, and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway, along with elevated expression levels of genes, such as Il6, Cd14, Casp3, Nfkb1, Hmox1, and Tnf. These effects could be modulated by treatment with both AGE and FruArg. These findings suggests that AGE and FruArg are capable of alleviating oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory responses stimulated by LPS in BV-2 cells. PMID:27734935

  10. Expression of interleukin-1 receptors and their role in interleukin-1 actions in murine microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Parker, Lisa C; Rothwell, Nancy J; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2002-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is an important mediator of acute brain injury and inflammation, and has been implicated in chronic neurodegeneration. The main source of IL-1 in the CNS is microglial cells, which have also been suggested as targets for its action. However, no data exist demonstrating expression of IL-1 receptors [IL-1 type-I receptor (IL-1RI), IL-1 type-II receptor (IL-1RII) and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP)] on microglia. In the present study we investigated whether microglia express IL-1 receptors and whether they present target or modulatory properties for IL-1 actions. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated lower expression of IL-1RI and higher expression of IL-1RII mRNAs in mouse microglial cultures compared with mixed glial or pure astrocyte cultures. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused increased expression of IL-1RI, IL-1RII and IL-1RAcP mRNAs, induced the release of IL-1beta, IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), and activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in microglial cultures. In comparison, IL-1beta induced the release of PGE2, IL-6 and activated NF-kappaB, p38, JNK and ERK1/2 in mixed glial cultures, but failed to induce any of these responses in microglial cell cultures. IL-1beta also failed to affect LPS-primed microglial cells. Interestingly, a neutralizing antibody to IL-1RII significantly increased the concentration of IL-1beta in the medium of LPS-treated microglia and exacerbated the IL-1beta-induced IL-6 release in mixed glia, providing the first evidence that microglial IL-1RII regulates IL-1beta actions by binding excess levels of this cytokine during brain inflammation.

  11. Pomegranate polyphenols and extract inhibit nuclear factor of activated T-cell activity and microglial activation in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L; Combs, Colin K

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia. This study aimed to determine whether a dietary intervention could attenuate microgliosis. Memory was assessed in 12-mo-old male amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice via Barnes maze testing followed by division into either a control-fed group provided free access to normal chow and water or a treatment group provided free access to normal chow and drinking water supplemented with pomegranate extract (6.25 mL/L) for 3 mo followed by repeat Barnes maze testing for both groups. Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P < 0.05) and their control-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). Brains of the 3-mo study pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P < 0.05) and lower nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcriptional activity (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Brains of the 3-mo pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P < 0.05) and Aβ plaque deposition (P < 0.05) compared with 12-mo-old mice. An additional behavioral study again used 12-mo-old male APP/PS1 mice tested by T-maze followed by division into a control group provided with free access to normal chow and sugar supplemented drinking water or a treatment group provided with normal chow and pomegranate extract-supplemented drinking water (6.25 mL/L) for 1 mo followed by repeat T-maze testing in both groups. One month of pomegranate feeding increased spontaneous alternations versus control-fed mice (P < 0.05). Cell culture experiments verified that 2 polyphenol components of pomegranate extract, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated NFAT activity in a reporter cell

  12. Pomegranate Polyphenols and Extract Inhibit Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cell Activity and Microglial Activation In Vitro and in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia. This study aimed to determine whether a dietary intervention could attenuate microgliosis. Memory was assessed in 12-mo-old male amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice via Barnes maze testing followed by division into either a control-fed group provided free access to normal chow and water or a treatment group provided free access to normal chow and drinking water supplemented with pomegranate extract (6.25 mL/L) for 3 mo followed by repeat Barnes maze testing for both groups. Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P < 0.05) and their control-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). Brains of the 3-mo study pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P < 0.05) and lower nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcriptional activity (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Brains of the 3-mo pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P < 0.05) and Aβ plaque deposition (P < 0.05) compared with 12-mo-old mice. An additional behavioral study again used 12-mo-old male APP/PS1 mice tested by T-maze followed by division into a control group provided with free access to normal chow and sugar supplemented drinking water or a treatment group provided with normal chow and pomegranate extract–supplemented drinking water (6.25 mL/L) for 1 mo followed by repeat T-maze testing in both groups. One month of pomegranate feeding increased spontaneous alternations versus control-fed mice (P < 0.05). Cell culture experiments verified that 2 polyphenol components of pomegranate extract, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated NFAT activity in a reporter

  13. Quetiapine Inhibits Microglial Activation by Neutralizing Abnormal STIM1-Mediated Intercellular Calcium Homeostasis and Promotes Myelin Repair in a Cuprizone-Induced Mouse Model of Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanzhi; Liu, Shubao; Tian, Yanping; Wu, Xiyan; He, Yangtao; Li, Chengren; Namaka, Michael; Kong, Jiming; Li, Hongli; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been considered as a crucial process in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and psychiatric disorders. Several antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been shown to display inhibitory effects on microglial activation in vitro, possibly through the suppression of elevated intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. However, the exact underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of quetiapine (Que), an atypical APD, on microglial activation. We utilized a chronic cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination mouse model to determine the direct effect of Que on microglial activation. Our results showed that treatment with Que significantly reduced recruitment and activation of microglia/macrophage in the lesion of corpus callosum and promoted remyelination after CPZ withdrawal. Our in vitro studies also confirmed the direct effect of Que on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of microglial N9 cells, whereby Que significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Moreover, we demonstrated that pretreatment with Que, neutralized the up-regulation of STIM1 induced by LPS and declined both LPS and thapsigargin (Tg)-induced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Finally, we found that pretreatment with Que significantly reduced the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit from cytoplasm to nuclei in LPS-activated primary microglial cells. Overall, our data suggested that Que may inhibit microglial activation by neutralization of the LPS-induced abnormal STIM1-mediated intercellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:26732345

  14. Modulation of Microglial Activity by Rho-Kinase (ROCK) Inhibition as Therapeutic Strategy in Parkinson's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roser, Anna-Elisa; Tönges, Lars; Lingor, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS), resulting in a reduced innervation of target structures and a loss of function. A shared characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases is the infiltration of microglial cells into affected brain regions. During early disease stages microglial cells often display a rather neuroprotective phenotype, but switch to a more pro-inflammatory neurotoxic phenotype in later stages of the disease, contributing to the neurodegeneration. Activation of the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway appears to be instrumental for the modulation of the microglial phenotype: increased ROCK activity in microglia mediates mechanisms of the inflammatory response and is associated with improved motility, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of inflammatory cytokines. Recently, several studies suggested inhibition of ROCK signaling as a promising treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review article, we discuss the contribution of microglial activity and phenotype switch to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two devastating neurodegenerative diseases without disease-modifying treatment options. Furthermore, we describe how ROCK inhibition can influence the microglial phenotype in disease models and explore ROCK inhibition as a future treatment option for PD and ALS.

  15. Progesterone Antagonism of Neurite Outgrowth Depends on Microglial Activation via Pgrmc1/S2R

    PubMed Central

    Bali, N; Arimoto, J. M.; Morgan, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is regulated by the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in many normal brain functions, as well as in acute response to injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease. In a female rat model of axotomy, the E2-dependent compensatory neuronal sprouting is antagonized by P4. To resolve complex glial-neuronal cell interactions, we used the “wounding-in-a-dish” model of neurons cocultured with astrocytes or mixed glia (microglia to astrocytes, 1:3). Although both astrocytes and mixed glia supported E2-enhanced neurite outgrowth, P4 antagonized E2-induced neurite outgrowth only with mixed glia, but not astrocytes alone. We now show that P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth is mediated by microglial expression of progesterone receptor (Pgr) membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1)/S2R, a putative nonclassical Pgr mediator with multiple functions. The P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth was restored by add-back of microglia to astrocyte-neuron cocultures. Because microglia do not express the classical Pgr, we examined the role of Pgrmc1, which is expressed in microglia in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown by siRNA-Pgrmc1 in microglia before add-back to astrocyte-neuron cocultures suppressed the P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth. Conditioned media from microglia restored the P4-E2 activity, but only if microglia were activated by lipopolysaccharide or by wounding. Moreover, the microglial activation was blocked by Pgmrc1-siRNA knockdown. These findings explain why nonwounded cultures without microglial activation lack P4 antagonism of E2-induced neurite outgrowth. We suggest that microglial activation may influence brain responses to exogenous P4, which is a prospective therapy in traumatic brain injury. PMID:23653459

  16. Onset of microglial entry into developing quail retina coincides with increased expression of active caspase-3 and is mediated by extracellular ATP and UDP.

    PubMed

    Martín-Estebané, María; Navascués, Julio; Sierra-Martín, Ana; Martín-Guerrero, Sandra M; Cuadros, Miguel A; Carrasco, María-Carmen; Marín-Teva, José L

    2017-01-01

    Microglial cell precursors located in the area of the base of the pecten and the optic nerve head (BP/ONH) start to enter the retina of quail embryos at the 7th day of incubation (E7), subsequently colonizing the entire retina by central-to-peripheral tangential migration, as previously shown by our group. The present study demonstrates a precise chronological coincidence of the onset of microglial cell entry into the retina with a striking increase in death of retinal cells, as revealed by their active caspase-3 expression and TUNEL staining, in regions dorsal to the BP/ONH area, suggesting that dying retinal cells would contribute to the microglial cell inflow into the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this inflow are currently unclear. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP and UDP, have previously been shown to favor migration of microglia towards brain injuries because they are released by apoptotic cells and stimulate both chemotaxis and chemokinesis in microglial cells via signaling through purinergic receptors. Hence, we tested here the hypothesis that ATP and UDP play a role in the entry and migration of microglial precursors into the developing retina. For this purpose, we used an experimental model system based on organotypic cultures of E6.5 quail embryo retina explants, which mimics the entry and migration of microglial precursors in the in situ developing retina. Inhibition of purinergic signaling by treating retina explants with either apyrase, a nucleotide-hydrolyzing enzyme, or suramin, a broad spectrum antagonist of purinergic receptors, significantly prevents the entry of microglial cells into the retina. In addition, treatment of retina explants with either exogenous ATP or UDP results in significantly increased numbers of microglial cells entering the retina. In light of these findings, we conclude that purinergic signaling by extracellular ATP and UDP is necessary for the entry and migration of microglial cells into the

  17. The Receptor CMRF35-Like Molecule-1 (CLM-1) Enhances the Production of LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators during Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Solà, Carme; Martínez-Barriocanal, Águeda; Schwartz, Simó; Martín, Margarita; Peluffo, Hugo; Sayós, Joan

    2015-01-01

    CMRF35-like molecule-1 (CLM-1) belongs to a receptor family mainly expressed in myeloid cells that include activating and inhibitory receptors. CLM-1 contains two ITIMs and a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM), although also displays a binding site for p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K. By using murine primary microglial cultures, we show the presence of all CLM members in microglial cells and characterize the expression of CLM-1 both in basal conditions and during microglial activation. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) induce an increase in microglial CLM-1 mRNA levels in vitro, whereas the TLR2/6 heterodimer agonist peptidoglycan (PGN) produces a marked decrease. In this study we also describe a new soluble isoform of CLM-1 that is detected at mRNA and protein levels in basal conditions in primary microglial cultures. Interestingly, CLM-1 engagement enhances the transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNFα, COX-2 and NOS-2 in microglial cells challenged with LPS. These results reveal that CLM-1 can acts as a co-activating receptor and suggest that this receptor could play a key role in the regulation of microglial activation.

  18. The Receptor CMRF35-Like Molecule-1 (CLM-1) Enhances the Production of LPS-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Mediators during Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Solà, Carme; Martínez-Barriocanal, Águeda; Schwartz, Simó; Martín, Margarita; Peluffo, Hugo; Sayós, Joan

    2015-01-01

    CMRF35-like molecule-1 (CLM-1) belongs to a receptor family mainly expressed in myeloid cells that include activating and inhibitory receptors. CLM-1 contains two ITIMs and a single immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM), although also displays a binding site for p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K. By using murine primary microglial cultures, we show the presence of all CLM members in microglial cells and characterize the expression of CLM-1 both in basal conditions and during microglial activation. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) induce an increase in microglial CLM-1 mRNA levels in vitro, whereas the TLR2/6 heterodimer agonist peptidoglycan (PGN) produces a marked decrease. In this study we also describe a new soluble isoform of CLM-1 that is detected at mRNA and protein levels in basal conditions in primary microglial cultures. Interestingly, CLM-1 engagement enhances the transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNFα, COX-2 and NOS-2 in microglial cells challenged with LPS. These results reveal that CLM-1 can acts as a co-activating receptor and suggest that this receptor could play a key role in the regulation of microglial activation. PMID:25927603

  19. Fyn Kinase Regulates Microglial Neuroinflammatory Responses in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Nikhil; Saminathan, Hariharan; Jin, Huajun; Neal, Matthew; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Gordon, Richard; Kanthasamy, Kavin; Lawana, Vivek; Sarkar, Souvarish; Luo, Jie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2015-07-08

    Sustained neuroinflammation mediated by resident microglia is recognized as a key pathophysiological contributor to many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), but the key molecular signaling events regulating persistent microglial activation have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we examined the role of Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in microglial activation and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in cell culture and animal models of PD. The well-characterized inflammogens LPS and TNFα rapidly activated Fyn kinase in microglia. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that activated Fyn preferentially localized to the microglial plasma membrane periphery and the nucleus. Furthermore, activated Fyn phosphorylated PKCδ at tyrosine residue 311, contributing to an inflammogen-induced increase in its kinase activity. Notably, the Fyn-PKCδ signaling axis further activated the LPS- and TNFα-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and activation of the NFκB pathway, implying that Fyn is a major upstream regulator of proinflammatory signaling. Functional studies in microglia isolated from wild-type (Fyn(+/+)) and Fyn knock-out (Fyn(-/-)) mice revealed that Fyn is required for proinflammatory responses, including cytokine release as well as iNOS activation. Interestingly, a prolonged inflammatory insult induced Fyn transcript and protein expression, indicating that Fyn is upregulated during chronic inflammatory conditions. Importantly, in vivo studies using MPTP, LPS, or 6-OHDA models revealed a greater attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses in Fyn(-/-) and PKCδ (-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Fyn is a major upstream signaling mediator of microglial neuroinflammatory processes in PD. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disease characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. Sustained microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been recognized as a major

  20. Role of very-late antigen-4 (VLA-4) in myelin basic protein-primed T cell contact-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhajit; Jana, Malabendu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Pahan, Kalipada

    2003-06-20

    The presence of neuroantigen-primed T cells recognizing self-myelin antigens within the CNS is necessary for the development of demyelinating autoimmune disease like multiple sclerosis. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of myelin basic protein (MBP)-primed T cells in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in microglial cells. MBP-primed T cells alone induced specifically the microglial expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-1alpha tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6, proinflammatory cytokines that are primarily involved in the pathogenesis of MS. This induction was primarily dependent on the contact between MBP-primed T cells and microglia. The activation of microglial NF-kappaB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) by MBP-primed T cell contact and inhibition of contact-mediated microglial expression of proinflammatory cytokines by dominant-negative mutants of p65 and C/EBPbeta suggest that MBP-primed T cells induce microglial expression of cytokines through the activation of NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta. In addition, we show that MBP-primed T cells express very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), and functional blocking antibodies to alpha4 chain of VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited the ability of MBP-primed T cells to induce microglial proinflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, the blocking of VLA-4 impaired the ability of MBP-primed T cells to induce microglial activation of only C/EBPbeta but not that of NF-kappaB. This study illustrates a novel role of VLA-4 in regulating neuroantigen-primed T cell-induced activation of microglia through C/EBPbeta

  1. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  2. Autophagy down regulates pro-inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells and rescues both LPS and alpha-synuclein induced neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bussi, Claudio; Ramos, Javier Maria Peralta; Arroyo, Daniela S.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Gallea, Jose Ignacio; Wang, Ji Ming; Celej, Maria Soledad; Iribarren, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental cellular homeostatic mechanism, whereby cells autodigest parts of their cytoplasm for removal or turnover. Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with autophagy dysregulation, and drugs modulating autophagy have been successful in several animal models. Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) that become activated in pathological conditions and determine the fate of other neural cells. Here, we studied the effects of autophagy on the production of pro-inflammatory molecules in microglial cells and their effects on neuronal cells. We observed that both trehalose and rapamycin activate autophagy in BV2 microglial cells and down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), in response to LPS and alpha-synuclein. Autophagy also modulated the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs in BV2 cells, which was required for NO production. These actions of autophagy modified the impact of microglial activation on neuronal cells, leading to suppression of neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrate a novel role for autophagy in the regulation of microglial cell activation and pro-inflammatory molecule secretion, which may be important for the control of inflammatory responses in the CNS and neurotoxicity. PMID:28256519

  3. Autophagy down regulates pro-inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells and rescues both LPS and alpha-synuclein induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Bussi, Claudio; Ramos, Javier Maria Peralta; Arroyo, Daniela S; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Gallea, Jose Ignacio; Wang, Ji Ming; Celej, Maria Soledad; Iribarren, Pablo

    2017-03-03

    Autophagy is a fundamental cellular homeostatic mechanism, whereby cells autodigest parts of their cytoplasm for removal or turnover. Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with autophagy dysregulation, and drugs modulating autophagy have been successful in several animal models. Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) that become activated in pathological conditions and determine the fate of other neural cells. Here, we studied the effects of autophagy on the production of pro-inflammatory molecules in microglial cells and their effects on neuronal cells. We observed that both trehalose and rapamycin activate autophagy in BV2 microglial cells and down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), in response to LPS and alpha-synuclein. Autophagy also modulated the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs in BV2 cells, which was required for NO production. These actions of autophagy modified the impact of microglial activation on neuronal cells, leading to suppression of neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrate a novel role for autophagy in the regulation of microglial cell activation and pro-inflammatory molecule secretion, which may be important for the control of inflammatory responses in the CNS and neurotoxicity.

  4. Anti-neuro-inflammatory effects of Nardostachys chinensis in lipopolysaccharide-and lipoteichoic acid-stimulated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Geuntae

    2016-05-01

    Excessive microglial cell activation is related to the progression of chronic neuro-inflammatory disorders. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by the NFE2-related factor (Nrf-2) pathway is a key regulator of neuro-inflammation. Nardostachys chinensis is used as an anti-malarial, anti-nociceptive, and neurotrophic treatment in traditional Asian medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of N. chinensis (EN) on the anti-neuro-inflammatory effects mediated by HO-1 up-regulation in Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that EN suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production and induced HO-1 transcription and translation through Nrf-2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. EN markedly inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Furthermore, EN protected hippocampal HT22 cells from indirect neuronal toxicity mediated by LPS- and LTA-treated microglial cells. These results suggested that EN impairs LPS- and LTA-induced neuro-inflammatory responses in microglial cells and confers protection against indirect neuronal damage to HT22 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EN could be used as a natural anti-neuro-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An early and late peak in microglial activation in Alzheimer's disease trajectory.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen; Brooks, David J; Okello, Aren; Edison, Paul

    2017-01-24

    Amyloid-β deposition, neuroinflammation and tau tangle formation all play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that there is microglial activation early on in Alzheimer's disease trajectory, where in the initial phase, microglia may be trying to repair the damage, while later on in the disease these microglia could be ineffective and produce proinflammatory cytokines leading to progressive neuronal damage. In this longitudinal study, we have evaluated the temporal profile of microglial activation and its relationship between fibrillar amyloid load at baseline and follow-up in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and this was compared with subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Thirty subjects (eight mild cognitive impairment, eight Alzheimer's disease and 14 controls) aged between 54 and 77 years underwent (11)C-(R)PK11195, (11)C-PIB positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Patients were followed-up after 14 ± 4 months. Region of interest and Statistical Parametric Mapping analysis were used to determine longitudinal alterations. Single subject analysis was performed to evaluate the individualized pathological changes over time. Correlations between levels of microglial activation and amyloid deposition at a voxel level were assessed using Biological Parametric Mapping. We demonstrated that both baseline and follow-up microglial activation in the mild cognitive impairment cohort compared to controls were increased by 41% and 21%, respectively. There was a longitudinal reduction of 18% in microglial activation in mild cognitive impairment cohort over 14 months, which was associated with a mild elevation in fibrillar amyloid load. Cortical clusters of microglial activation and amyloid deposition spatially overlapped in the subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Baseline microglial activation was increased by 36% in Alzheimer's disease subjects compared with controls. Longitudinally, Alzheimer's disease subjects

  6. Botanical Polyphenols Mitigate Microglial Activation and Microglia-Induced Neurotoxicity: Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Dennis Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Cui, Jiankun; Lubahn, Dennis B; Gu, Zezong; Sun, Grace Y

    2016-09-01

    Microglia play a significant role in the generation and propagation of oxidative/nitrosative stress, and are the basis of neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Upon stimulation by endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), these cells release pro-inflammatory factors which can exert harmful effects on surrounding neurons, leading to secondary neuronal damage and cell death. Our previous studies demonstrated the effects of botanical polyphenols to mitigate inflammatory responses induced by LPS, and highlighted an important role for cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) upstream of the pro-inflammatory pathways (Chuang et al. in J Neuroinflammation 12(1):199, 2015. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0419-0 ). In this study, we investigate the action of botanical compounds and assess whether suppression of cPLA2 in microglia is involved in the neurotoxic effects on neurons. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to test the neurotoxicity of conditioned medium from stimulated microglial cells, and WST-1 assay was used to assess for the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells. Botanicals such as quercetin and honokiol (but not cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, 3CG) were effective in inhibiting LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and phosphorylation of cPLA2. Conditioned medium from BV-2 cells stimulated with LPS or IFNγ caused neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells. Decrease in cell viability could be ameliorated by pharmacological inhibitors for cPLA2 as well as by down-regulating cPLA2 with siRNA. Botanicals effective in inhibition of LPS-induced NO and cPLA2 phosphorylation were also effective in ameliorating microglial-induced neurotoxicity. Results demonstrated cytotoxic factors from activated microglial cells to cause damaging effects to neurons and potential use of botanical polyphenols to ameliorate the neurotoxic effects.

  7. Decreased microglial activation in MS patients treated with glatiramer acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ratchford, John N.; Endres, Christopher J.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Pomper, Martin G.; Shiee, Navid; McGready, John; Pham, Dzung L.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia are thought to be an important contributor to tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). The level of microglial activation can be measured non-invasively using [11C]-R-PK11195, a radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET). Prior studies have identified abnormalities in the level of [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake in patients with MS, but treatment effects have not been evaluated. Nine previously untreated relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain at baseline and after one year of treatment with glatiramer acetate. Parametric maps of [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake were obtained for baseline and post-treatment PET scans, and the change in [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake pre- to post-treatment was evaluated across the whole brain. Region of interest analysis was also applied to selected subregions. Whole brain [11C]-R-PK11195 binding potential per unit volume decreased 3.17% (95% CI: −0.74%, −5.53%) between baseline and one year (p = 0.018). A significant decrease was noted in cortical gray matter and cerebral white matter, and a trend towards decreased uptake was seen in the putamen and thalamus. The results are consistent with a reduction in inflammation due to treatment with glatiramer acetate, though a larger controlled study would be required to prove that association. Future research will focus on whether the level of baseline microglial activation predicts future tissue damage in MS and whether [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake in cortical gray matter correlates with cortical lesion load. PMID:22160466

  8. NF-κB Upregulates Type 5 Phosphodiesterase in N9 Microglial Cells: Inhibition by Sildenafil and Yonkenafil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siqi; Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Lixin; Peng, Shengyi; Yin, Jie; Jia, Lina; Yang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zengqiang; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-05-01

    Our previous studies showed that the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil inhibited the microglial activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, whether yonkenafil, a novel PDE5 inhibitor, also inhibits microglial activation and the underlying mechanism of inhibition remain elusive. Here we found that yonkenafil significantly suppressed the production of NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by LPS in microglial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of PDE5 inhibits NO and iNOS protein expression in LPS-stimulated N9 microglia. Moreover, we observed that the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptionally upregulated PDE5 expression, which was inhibited by sildenafil and yonkenafil in LPS-stimulated N9 microglia. Therefore, sildenafil and yonkenafil may exert their inhibitory effects on microglial activation by reducing the expression of PDE5. Furthermore, sildenafil and yonkenafil increased the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level in N9 microglia, and 8-Br-cGMP, an analogue of cGMP, downregulates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)/the NF-κB pathway, suggesting that sildenafil and yonkenafil inhibit microglial activation by decreasing PDE5 expression and increasing the cGMP level. Importantly, sildenafil and yonkenafil significantly alleviated the death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons induced by the conditioned medium from activated microglia. Together, these findings position PDE5 as a potential therapy target for the treatment of neuroinflammation accompanied by microglial activation.

  9. Rosuvastatin enhances anti-inflammatory and inhibits pro-inflammatory functions in cultured microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kata, D; Földesi, I; Feher, L Z; Hackler, L; Puskas, L G; Gulya, K

    2016-02-09

    Microglial activation results in profound morphological, functional and gene expression changes that affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of these cells. Although statins have beneficial effects on inflammation, they have not been thoroughly investigated for their ability to affect microglial functions. Therefore the effects of rosuvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in cardiovascular therapy, either alone or in combination with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were profiled in pure microglial cultures derived from the forebrains of 18-day-old rat embryos. To reveal the effects of rosuvastatin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, we performed morphometric, functional and gene expression studies relating to cell adhesion and proliferation, phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) production, and the expression of various inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above morphological parameters and cellular functions. We found that microglia could be an important therapeutic target of rosuvastatin. In unchallenged (control) microglia, rosuvastatin inhibited proliferation and cell adhesion, but promoted microspike formation and elevated the expression of certain anti-inflammatory genes (Cxcl1, Ccl5, Mbl2), while phagocytosis or pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production were unaffected. Moreover, rosuvastatin markedly inhibited microglial activation in LPS-challenged cells by affecting both their morphology and functions as it inhibited LPS-elicited phagocytosis and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α) production, concomitantly increasing the level of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Finally, rosuvastatin beneficially and differentially affected the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes in LPS-challenged cells by inhibiting numerous pro-inflammatory and stimulating several anti

  10. Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids Reduce Microglial Activation In Vitro and In Vivo: Relevance to Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Moreno, Ana María; Reigada, David; Ramírez, Belén G.; Mechoulam, R.; Innamorato, Nadia; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Microglial activation is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is noteworthy that cannabinoids are neuroprotective by preventing β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anti-inflammatory properties in different paradigms. In the present study, we compared the effects of CBD with those of other cannabinoids on microglial cell functions in vitro and on learning behavior and cytokine expression after Aβ intraventricular administration to mice. CBD, (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone [WIN 55,212-2 (WIN)], a mixed CB1/CB2 agonist, and 1,1-dimethylbutyl-1-deoxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [JWH-133 (JWH)], a CB2-selective agonist, concentration-dependently decreased ATP-induced (400 μM) increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cultured N13 microglial cells and in rat primary microglia. In contrast, 4-[4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl]-6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-methanol [HU-308 (HU)], another CB2 agonist, was without effect. Cannabinoid and adenosine A2A receptors may be involved in the CBD action. CBD- and WIN-promoted primary microglia migration was blocked by CB1 and/or CB2 antagonists. JWH and HU-induced migration was blocked by a CB2 antagonist only. All of the cannabinoids decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite generation, which was insensitive to cannabinoid antagonism. Finally, both CBD and WIN, after subchronic administration for 3 weeks, were able to prevent learning of a spatial navigation task and cytokine gene expression in β-amyloid-injected mice. In summary, CBD is able to modulate microglial cell function in vitro and induce beneficial effects in an in vivo model of AD. Given that CBD lacks psychoactivity, it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this neurological disease. PMID:21350020

  11. Astrocytes Enhance Streptococcus suis-Glial Cell Interaction in Primary Astrocyte-Microglial Cell Co-Cultures.

    PubMed

    Seele, Jana; Nau, Roland; Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Stangel, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Seitz, Maren

    2016-06-13

    Streptococcus (S.) suis infections are the most common cause of meningitis in pigs. Moreover, S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can lead to meningitis in humans, mainly in adults. We assume that glial cells may play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions during S. suis infection of the central nervous system. Glial cells are considered to possess important functions during inflammation and injury of the brain in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we established primary astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures to investigate interactions of S. suis with glial cells. For this purpose, microglial cells and astrocytes were isolated from new-born mouse brains and characterized by flow cytometry, followed by the establishment of astrocyte and microglial cell mono-cultures as well as astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures. In addition, we prepared microglial cell mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected astrocyte mono-culture supernatants and astrocyte mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected microglial cell mono-culture supernatants. After infection of the different cell cultures with S. suis, bacteria-cell association was mainly observed with microglial cells and most prominently with a non-encapsulated mutant of S. suis. A time-dependent induction of NO release was found only in the co-cultures and after co-incubation of microglial cells with uninfected supernatants of astrocyte mono-cultures mainly after infection with the capsular mutant. Only moderate cytotoxic effects were found in co-cultured glial cells after infection with S. suis. Taken together, astrocytes and astrocyte supernatants increased interaction of microglial cells with S. suis. Astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures are suitable to study S. suis infections and bacteria-cell association as well as NO release by microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of astrocytes.

  12. Morphine stimulates phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human microglial cells: involvement of a G protein-coupled opiate receptor.

    PubMed

    Peterson, P K; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Sheng, W S; Molitor, T W; Chao, C C

    1995-01-01

    Opiate-induced immunosuppression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infections caused by a variety of microorganisms, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although effects of opiates on lymphocyte function have been studied more extensively, morphine also has been shown to inhibit several functional activities of mononuclear phagocytes (e.g. chemotaxis, respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis). Opiate addiction has been identified as a risk factor for clinical tuberculosis prior to the HIV epidemic, and macrophages are a key cell in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus, the hypothesis was tested in the present study that morphine would suppress phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis by human microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the brain. Contrary to this hypothesis, treatment of human fetal microglial cell cultures with morphine (10(-8) M) was found to stimulate phagocytosis of nonopsonized M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The stimulatory effect of morphine was blocked by naloxone and the mu opiate receptor selective antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. Also, morphine-induced increase in phagocytic activity was markedly inhibited by pertussis toxin and was unaffected by cholera toxin, suggesting the mechanism of morphine's stimulatory effect on microglial cell phagocytosis involves a Gi protein-coupled mu opiate receptor. The results of this in vitro study support the concept that exogenous and endogenous opioids play an immunomodulatory role within the central nervous system through their interaction with G protein-coupled receptors on microglial cells.

  13. Wnt1, FoxO3a, and NF-kappaB oversee microglial integrity and activation during oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yan Chen; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    Elucidating the underlying mechanisms that govern microglial activation and survival is essential for the development of new treatment strategies for neurodegenerative disorders, since microglia serve not only as guardian sentries of the nervous system, but also play a significant role in determining neuronal and vascular cell fate. Here we show that endogenous and exogenous Wnt1 in inflammatory microglial cells is necessary for the prevention of apoptotic early membrane phosphatidylserine exposure and later DNA degradation, since blockade of Wnt1 signaling abrogates cell survival during oxidative stress. Wnt1 prevents apoptotic demise through the post-translational phosphorylation and maintenance of FoxO3a in the cytoplasm to inhibit an apoptotic cascade that relies upon the loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability, cytochrome c release, Bad phosphorylation, and activation of caspase 3 and caspase 1 as demonstrated by complimentary gene knockdown studies of FoxO3a. Furthermore, subcellular trafficking and gene knockdown studies of NF-kappaB p65 illustrate that microglial cell survival determined by Wnt1 during oxidative stress requires NF-kappaB p65. Our work highlights Wnt1 and the control of novel downstream transcriptional pathways as critical components for the oversight of nervous system microglial cells.

  14. Fine-tuning the central nervous system: microglial modelling of cells and synapses.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Anna L; Menezes, João R L; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-10-19

    Microglia constitute as much as 10-15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies have largely been dedicated to defining the complex immune functions of microglial cells. However, our understanding of the roles of microglia has expanded radically over the past years. It is now clear that microglia are critically involved in shaping neural circuits in both the developing and adult CNS, and in modulating synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Intriguingly, microglial cells appear to use the same sets of tools, including cytokine and chemokine release as well as phagocytosis, whether modulating neural function or mediating the brain's innate immune responses. This review will discuss recent developments that have broadened our views of neuro-glial signalling to include the contribution of microglial cells.

  15. Microglial phenotype is regulated by activity of the transcription factor, NFAT

    PubMed Central

    Nagamoto-Combs, Kumi

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor family, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), regulates immune cell phenotype. Four different calcium/calmodulin-regulated isoforms have been identified in the periphery, but isoform expression in microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, has not been fully defined. In this study microglial NFAT isoform expression and involvement in regulating inflammatory responses in murine primary microglia culture was examined. Western blot analysis demonstrated robust detection of NFATc1 and c2 isoforms in microglia. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated increased NFAT-DNA binding from nuclear extracts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. Moreover, LPS-stimulated microglia behaved similarly to T cell receptor agonist antibody-stimulated Jurkat cells demonstrating a transient increase in NFAT-driven luciferase reporter gene expression. LPS-induced NFAT-luciferase activity in microglia was attenuated by pretreatment with tat-VIVIT, a cell-permeable NFAT inhibitory peptide. Furthermore, LPS-mediated secretion of microglial cytokines, TNF-α and MCP-1, was decreased by treatment with tat-VIVIT but not with tat-VEET, a negative control peptide. These results demonstrate that NFAT plays a role in regulating proinflammatory responses in cultured murine microglia. PMID:20631193

  16. Vitamin K2 suppresses rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Xia; Li, Yi-Pei; Gao, Feng; Hu, Qing-Song; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that environmental factors such as rotenone and paraquat induce neuroinflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the repression by menaquinone-4 (MK-4), a subtype of vitamin K2, of rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro. A microglial cell line (BV2) was exposed to rotenone (1 μmol/L) with or without MK-4 treatment. The levels of TNF-α or IL-1β in 100 μL of cultured media of BV2 cells were measured using ELISA kits. BV2 cells treated with rotenone with or without MK4 were subjected to mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays. The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of BV2 cells that were exposed to rotenone with or without MK-4 treatment, and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. In rotenone-treated BV2 cells, MK-4 (0.5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the upregulation in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the cells, as well as the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cultured media. MK-4 (5-20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5-20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced p38 activation, ROS production, and caspase-1 activation in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5-20 μmol/L) also restored the mitochondrial membrane potential that had been damaged by rotenone. Exposure to CM from rotenone-treated BV2 cells markedly decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. However, this rotenone-activated microglia-mediated death of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly attenuated when the BV2 cells were co-treated with MK-4 (5-20 μmol/L). Vitamin K2 can directly suppress rotenone-induced activation of microglial BV2 cells in vitro by repressing ROS production and p38 activation.

  17. Vitamin K2 suppresses rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan-xia; Li, Yi-pei; Gao, Feng; Hu, Qing-song; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Guang-hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Increasing evidence has shown that environmental factors such as rotenone and paraquat induce neuroinflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the repression by menaquinone-4 (MK-4), a subtype of vitamin K2, of rotenone-induced microglial activation in vitro. Methods: A microglial cell line (BV2) was exposed to rotenone (1 μmol/L) with or without MK-4 treatment. The levels of TNF-α or IL-1β in 100 μL of cultured media of BV2 cells were measured using ELISA kits. BV2 cells treated with rotenone with or without MK4 were subjected to mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays. The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of BV2 cells that were exposed to rotenone with or without MK-4 treatment, and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. Results: In rotenone-treated BV2 cells, MK-4 (0.5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the upregulation in the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the cells, as well as the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in the cultured media. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) significantly inhibited rotenone-induced p38 activation, ROS production, and caspase-1 activation in BV2 cells. MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L) also restored the mitochondrial membrane potential that had been damaged by rotenone. Exposure to CM from rotenone-treated BV2 cells markedly decreased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. However, this rotenone-activated microglia-mediated death of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly attenuated when the BV2 cells were co-treated with MK-4 (5–20 μmol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin K2 can directly suppress rotenone-induced activation of microglial BV2 cells in vitro by repressing ROS production and p38 activation. PMID:27498777

  18. Eupatilin exerts neuroprotective effects in mice with transient focal cerebral ischemia by reducing microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Jeon, Se Jin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Sun Yeou; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong

    2017-01-01

    Microglial activation and its-driven neuroinflammation are characteristic pathogenetic features of neurodiseases, including focal cerebral ischemia. The Artemisia asiatica (Asteraceae) extract and its active component, eupatilin, are well-known to reduce inflammatory responses. But the therapeutic potential of eupatilin against focal cerebral ischemia is not known, along with its anti-inflammatory activities on activated microglia. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of eupatilin on focal cerebral ischemia through its anti-inflammation, particularly on activated microglia, employing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (tMCAO), combined with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia. Eupatilin exerted anti-inflammatory responses in activated BV2 microglia, in which it reduced secretion of well-known inflammatory markers, including nitrite, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2, in a concentration-dependent manner. These observed in vitro effects of eupatilin led to in vivo neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia. Oral administration of eupatilin (10 mg/kg) in a therapeutic paradigm significantly reduced brain infarction and improved neurological functions in tMCAO-challenged mice. The same benefit was also observed when eupatilin was given even within 5 hours after MCAO induction. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of a single administration of eupatilin (10 mg/kg) immediately after tMCAO challenge persisted up to 3 days after tMCAO. Eupatilin administration reduced the number of Iba1-immunopositive cells across ischemic brain and induced their morphological changes from amoeboid into ramified in the ischemic core, which was accompanied with reduced microglial proliferation in ischemic brain. Eupatilin suppressed NF-κB signaling activities in ischemic brain by reducing IKKα/β phosphorylation, IκBα phosphorylation, and IκBα degradation. Overall, these data indicate that eupatilin is a neuroprotective agent against

  19. Neuroglial ATP release through innexin channels controls microglial cell movement to a nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz, Jeffrey B.; Dahl, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, are attracted to sites of injury. The injury releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space, activating the microglia, but the full mechanism of release is not known. In glial cells, a family of physiologically regulated unpaired gap junction channels called innexons (invertebrates) or pannexons (vertebrates) located in the cell membrane is permeable to ATP. Innexons, but not pannexons, also pair to make gap junctions. Glial calcium waves, triggered by injury or mechanical stimulation, open pannexon/innexon channels and cause the release of ATP. It has been hypothesized that a glial calcium wave that triggers the release of ATP causes rapid microglial migration to distant lesions. In the present study in the leech, in which a single giant glial cell ensheathes each connective, hydrolysis of ATP with 10 U/ml apyrase or block of innexons with 10 µM carbenoxolone (CBX), which decreased injury-induced ATP release, reduced both movement of microglia and their accumulation at lesions. Directed movement and accumulation were restored in CBX by adding ATP, consistent with separate actions of ATP and nitric oxide, which is required for directed movement but does not activate glia. Injection of glia with innexin2 (Hminx2) RNAi inhibited release of carboxyfluorescein dye and microglial migration, whereas injection of innexin1 (Hminx1) RNAi did not when measured 2 days after injection, indicating that glial cells’ ATP release through innexons was required for microglial migration after nerve injury. Focal stimulation either mechanically or with ATP generated a calcium wave in the glial cell; injury caused a large, persistent intracellular calcium response. Neither the calcium wave nor the persistent response required ATP or its release. Thus, in the leech, innexin membrane channels releasing ATP from glia are required for migration and accumulation of microglia after nerve injury. PMID:20876360

  20. The PPARalpha Agonist Fenofibrate Preserves Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Inhibits Microglial Activation After Whole-Brain Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanan, Sriram; Kooshki, Mitra; Zhao Weiling; Hsu, F.-C.; Riddle, David R.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) leads to cognitive impairment months to years after radiation. Numerous studies suggest that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of WBI-induced brain injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate would prevent the detrimental effect of WBI on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods and Materials: For this study, 129S1/SvImJ wild-type and PPARalpha knockout mice that were fed either regular or 0.2% wt/wt fenofibrate-containing chow received either sham irradiation or WBI (10-Gy single dose of {sup 137}Cs gamma-rays). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine to label the surviving cells at 1 month after WBI, and the newborn neurons were counted at 2 months after WBI by use of bromodeoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei double immunofluorescence. Proliferation in the subgranular zone and microglial activation were measured at 1 week and 2 months after WBI by use of Ki-67 and CD68 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Whole-brain irradiation led to a significant decrease in the number of newborn hippocampal neurons 2 months after it was performed. Fenofibrate prevented this decrease by promoting the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus. In addition, fenofibrate treatment was associated with decreased microglial activation in the dentate gyrus after WBI. The neuroprotective effects of fenofibrate were abolished in the knockout mice, indicating a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism or mechanisms. Conclusions: These data highlight a novel role for PPARalpha ligands in improving neurogenesis after WBI and offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

  1. The forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a controls microglial inflammatory activation and eventual apoptotic injury through caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yan Chen; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Maiese, Kenneth

    2009-02-01

    Memory loss and cognitive failure are increasingly being identified as potential risks with the recognized increase in life expectancy of the general population. As a result, the development of novel therapeutic strategies for disorders such as Alzheimer's disease have garnered increased attention. The etiologies that can lead to Alzheimer's disease are extremely varied, but a number of therapeutic options are directed against amyloid-beta peptide and inflammatory cell regulation to prevent or halt progressive cognitive loss. In particular, inflammatory microglial cells may have disparate functions that in some scenarios lead to disability through the removal of functional neurovascular cells and in other circumstances foster tissue repair. Given the significance microglial cells hold for neurodegenerative disorders, we therefore examined the function that amyloid (Abeta(1-42)) has upon the microglial cell line EOC 2 and identified a novel role for the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a and caspase 3. Here we show that Abeta(1-42) leads to progressive injury and apoptotic cell loss in microglial cells that involves both early phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and late genomic DNA fragmentation over a 24 hour course. Prior to these injury programs, Abeta(1-42) results in the activation and proliferation of microglia as demonstrated by increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. Both apoptotic injury as well as the prior activation and proliferation of microglial cells relies upon the presence of FoxO3a, since specific gene silencing of FoxO3a promotes microglial cell protection and prevents the early activation and proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, Abeta(1-42) exposure maintained FoxO3a in an unphosphorylated "active" state and facilitated the cellular trafficking of FoxO3a from the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus to potentially lead to "pro-apoptotic" programs by this transcription factor. One

  2. A Common Carcinogen Benzo[a]pyrene Causes Neuronal Death in Mouse via Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nazmi, Arshed; Kumawat, Kanhaiya Lal; Basu, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Background Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked) food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Conclusions/Significance Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our study throws light on

  3. Microglial Activation and Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Examination of Recent History

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Wolfgang J.

    2010-01-01

    The neurofibrillary degeneration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be the result of a chronic and damaging neuroinflammatory response mediated by neurotoxic substances produced by activated microglial cells. This neuroinflammation hypothesis of AD pathogenesis has led to numerous clinical trials with anti-inflammatory drugs, none of which have shown clear benefits for slowing or preventing disease onset and progression. In this paper, I make the point that AD is not an inflammatory condition, and reconstruct the sequence of events during the 1980s and 1990s that I believe led to the development of this faulty theory. PMID:20577641

  4. Lithium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 expression by activating the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiang; Dai, Xiaonan; Lu, Shunmei; Gui, Bo; Jin, Wenjie; Zhang, Susu; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning

    2014-08-14

    Lithium, an effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorders, has been recently suggested to have a role in neuroprotection during neurodegenerative diseases. The pathogenesis of neurological disorders often involves the activation of microglia and associated inflammatory processes. Thus, in this study, we aimed to understand the role of lithium in microglial activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s). Primary microglial cells were pretreated with lithium and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were assessed regarding the responses of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the associated signaling pathways were evaluated. Lithium significantly inhibited LPS-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Further analysis showed that lithium could activate PI3K/Akt signaling. Analyses of the associated signaling pathways demonstrated that the lithium pretreatment led to the suppression of LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway. This study demonstrates that lithium can inhibit LPS-induced TLR4 expression and microglial activation through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway. These results suggest that lithium plays an important role in microglial activation and neuroinflammation-related diseases, which may lead to a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related disorders.

  5. Celecoxib Inhibits Prion Protein 90-231-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Valentina; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Gatta, Elena; Tonelli, Michele; Florio, Tullio

    2016-01-01

    Activation of microglia is a central event in the atypical inflammatory response occurring during prion encephalopathies. We report that the prion protein fragment encompassing amino acids 90-231 (PrP90-231), a model of the neurotoxic activity of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)), causes activation of both primary microglia cultures and N9 microglial cells in vitro. This effect was characterized by cell proliferation arrest and induction of a secretory phenotype, releasing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Conditioned medium from PrP90-231-treated microglia induced in vitro cytotoxicity of A1 mesencephalic neurons, supporting the notion that soluble mediators released by activated microglia contributes to the neurodegeneration during prion diseases. The neuroinflammatory role of COX activity, and its potential targeting for anti-prion therapies, was tested measuring the effects of ketoprofen and celecoxib (preferential inhibitors of COX1 and COX2, respectively) on PrP90-231-induced microglial activation. Celecoxib, but not ketoprofen significantly reverted the growth arrest as well as NO and PGE2 secretion induced by PrP90-231, indicating that PrP90-231 pro-inflammatory response in microglia is mainly dependent on COX2 activation. Taken together, these data outline the importance of microglia in the neurotoxicity occurring during prion diseases and highlight the potentiality of COX2-selective inhibitors to revert microglia as adjunctive pharmacological approach to contrast the neuroinflammation-dependent neurotoxicity.

  6. Arylbenzofuran isolated from Dalbergia odorifera suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse BV2 microglial cell activation, which protects mouse hippocampal HT22 cells death from neuroinflammation-mediated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2014-04-05

    Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism against infection, injury, and trauma in the central nervous system (CNS). The heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is an important source of traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. (2R, 3R)-Obtusafuran (1) and isoparvifuran (2) are arylbenzofuran compounds isolated from D. odorifera. This study determined the efficacy of (1) and (2) in modulating the regulation of anti-inflammatory activity through the upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in BV2 microglia. Compound (1) inhibited the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse BV2 microglia. (2R, 3R)-Obtusafuran (1) also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, and these anti-neuroinflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-α (IκB-α), and nuclear factor kappa B nuclear (NF-κB) translocation and DNA binding activity. In addition, (1) upregulated HO-1 expression via nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mouse BV2 microglia. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we verified that the inhibitory effects of (1) on the proinflammatory mediators and proteins were associated with the induction of HO-1 expression. Activated microglia-mediated cell death of mouse hippocampal HT22 cells was significantly repressed by (1). Our data suggest that (2R, 3R)-obtusafuran (1) has therapeutic potential against neurodegenerative diseases caused by neuroinflammation.

  7. Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72 h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1+ microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU+/DCX+ cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1+ cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory. PMID:25830666

  8. Microglial cell migration stimulated by ATP and C5a involve distinct molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron M.; Stella, Nephi

    2009-01-01

    Microglial cells, the macrophages of the brain, play an essential role in the propagation of neuroinflammation. Increased microglial cell migration in response to specific chemoattractants has been documented, but less is known about the differences between these stimuli and the signal transduction pathways that mediate their effects. Current methods to measure cell migration are often labor-intensive and rely on the manual counting of cell number, so more efficient and objective methods are needed. Here we present an improved and higher-throughput Boyden Chamber technique that measures microglial cell migration by using DRAQ5, a nuclear dye that emits in the near-infrared. Out of a panel of chemoattractants tested, we found that ATP and C5a potently stimulate the migration of mouse primary microglial cells. The stimulatory effects of ATP and C5a displayed significant additivity, suggesting that each chemoattractant stimulated migration through independent molecular mechanisms. Accordingly, we found key differences in these responses: ATP stimulated a combination of both chemokinesis and chemotaxis, and this response was mediated by the ROCK signaling pathway; whereas C5a stimulated only chemotaxis and this response was mediated by the Rac1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that functional PI3-kinase is only required for random basal microglial cell migration. Thus, our results show that distinct non-overlapping signal transduction pathways control different modes of microglial cell migration and suggest that the targeting of these distinct molecular mechanisms should modulate different aspects of neuroinflammation propagation. PMID:19053059

  9. Microglial cells from psychologically stressed mice as an accelerator of cerebral cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Masae; Jones, Vickie C; Kobayashi, Makiko; Suzuki, Fujio

    2006-12-01

    Severe stress decreases the resistance of hosts exposed to microbial infections. As compared with two groups of control mice (normal mice, food-and-water-deprived mice [FWD mice]), restraint-stressed mice (RST mice) were shown to be greatly susceptible to intracerebral growth of Cryptococcus neoformans. The susceptibility of FWD mice to cerebral cryptococcosis increased to the level shown in RST mice, when these groups of mice were inoculated with microglial cells from the brains of RST mice. However, the susceptibility of FWD mice to cerebral cryptococcosis was not influenced by the adoptive transfer of microglial cells from normal mice or FWD mice. Microglial cells from RST mice produced CC-chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), but not microglial cells from FWD mice. The resistance of RST mice to cerebral cryptococcosis was improved to the extent shown in FWD mice, when they were treated with anti-CCL-2 antibody. However, the susceptibility of normal mice and FWD mice to cerebral cryptococcosis increased to that shown in RST mice, when they were treated with rCCL-2. Microglial cells from RST mice were discriminated from the same cell preparations derived from FWD mice by their abilities to produce CCL-2, to phagocytize C. neoformans cells and to express Toll-like receptor 2. These results indicate that the resistance of RST mice to cerebral cryptococcosis is diminished by CCL-2 produced by microglial cells that are influenced by restraint stress.

  10. Anti-neuroinflammatory activity of nobiletin on suppression of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanji; Wu, Jinji; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Deok-Bae; Maeng, Young-Hee; Hong, Jeong Yun; Kim, Se-Jae; Lee, Sun-Ryung; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kim, Sang Jeong; Eun, Su-Yong

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) from the peel of citrus fruits, enhances the damaged cognitive function in disease animal models. However, the neuroprotective mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. Since nobiletin has shown anti-inflammatory effects in several tissues, we investigated whether nobiletin suppresses excessive microglial activation implicated in neurotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia cell culture models. Release of nitric oxide (NO), the major inflammatory mediator in microglia, was markedly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner following nobiletin treatment (1-50 µM) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia cells. The inhibitory effect of nobiletin was similar to that of minocycline, a well-known microglial inactivator. Nobiletin significantly inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). LPS-induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were also significantly inhibited by nobiletin treatment. In addition, nobiletin markedly inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by suppressing nuclear NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm and subsequent expression of NF-κB in the nucleus. Taken together, these results may contribute to further exploration of the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of nobiletin in relation to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 Directs Microglial Activation-Mediated Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Leading to Intrinsic Apoptosis in Zn-Induced Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Mittra, Namrata; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is decisive in zinc (Zn)-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, the contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is not yet known. The present study aimed to explore the role of COX-2 in Zn-induced Parkinsonism and its association with the microglial activation. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Zn as zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) along with respective controls for 2-12 weeks. In a few sets, animals were also treated with/without celecoxcib (CXB, 20 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Indexes of the nigrostriatal neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were measured in the animals/nigrostriatal tissue. Zn induced time-dependent increase in the expression of COX-2 while COX-1 expression was unaltered. Zn reduced the neurobehavioral activities, striatal dopamine content, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and number of dopaminergic neurons. While oxidative stress; microglial activation; expression of microglial cell surface marker-CD11b; cytochrome c release; caspase-9/3 activation; level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax) translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria were induced in the Zn-treated group, expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was found to be reduced. CXB significantly attenuated Zn-induced increase in COX-2 expression and restored TH-expression, dopamine content, level of inflammatory cytokines and neurobehavioral indexes towards normalcy. Moreover, CXB also attenuated Zn-induced increase in microglial activation, oxidative stress and apoptotic markers towards normal levels. Results of the study thus demonstrate that COX-2 induces microglial activation that provokes the release of inflammatory mediators, which in turn augments oxidative stress and intrinsic apoptosis leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Zn-induced Parkinsonism.

  12. N9 microglial cells polarized by LPS and IL4 show differential responses to secondary environmental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Cui; Zheng, Min-Hua; Du, Yan-Ling; Wang, Li; Kuang, Fang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Bing-Fang; Han, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Microglia participates in the regulation of many inflammation-related pathological processes in the central nervous system, but how microglial activation is regulated has not been fully understood. Here, by using a microglial cell line, we show that microglia, like other macrophages, are activated by inflammatory stimuli in a polarized manner. The LPS-polarized M1 microglia appeared to be unable to respond to a secondary IL4 stimulation, while IL4-polarized M2 microglia could respond to secondary LPS stimulation. We also show that Notch signaling is involved in microglial polarization. When Notch signaling was blocked, the M1 polarization was suppressed, while the M2 polarization was promoted. Withdraw of the Notch signal inhibitor did not permit M2 N9 cells to re-polarize to M1 upon LPS stimulation, suggesting that the effects of Notch blockade on microglial polarization could be "memorized" by cells. These results suggest complicated mechanisms including epigenetic programs in the regulation of macrophage polarization.

  13. Effects of Cerebrolysin on in vitro primary microglial and astrocyte rat cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, V R; Windisch, M; García, M; Cacabelos, R

    1999-06-01

    In recent years the potential use of neurotrophic factors in the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases has received much attention. To determine whether Cerebrolysin, a porcine brain-derived peptide preparation, was able to modulate in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and to test the direct effect of Cerebrolysin on astrocyte morphology, survival and proliferation, rat glial and astrocyte cell culture experiments were carried out. The morphology of microglia, ameboid/activated and flat/resting, was examined under contrast microscopy and cell counts obtained. In addition, the release of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was measured from cell culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked-immunoassay (ELISA). The results obtained in this study clearly suggest a protective effect of Cerebrolysin as revealed by downregulation of microglial activation after LPS treatment as well as by the control of IL-1 beta expression. No significant differences were observed on astrocyte morphology, survival or the production and/or release of BDNF. In conclusion, these in vitro studies indicate that Cerebrolysin might exert a neuroimmunotrophic function which can in turn reduce the extent of inflammation and accelerate neuronal death under pathological conditions such as human neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide on energy metabolism in murine microglial N9 and cholinergic SN56 neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Łata, Joanna; Gul-Hinc, Sylwia; Bielarczyk, Hanna; Ronowska, Anna; Zyśk, Marlena; Grużewska, Katarzyna; Pawełczyk, Tadeusz; Szutowicz, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    There are significant differences between acetyl-CoA and ATP levels, enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism, and toll-like receptor 4 contents in non-activated microglial N9 and non-differentiated cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Exposition of N9 cells to lipopolysaccharide caused concentration-dependent several-fold increases of nitrogen oxide synthesis, accompanied by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, aconitase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities, and by nearly proportional depletion of acetyl-CoA, but by relatively smaller losses in ATP content and cell viability (about 5%). On the contrary, SN56 cells appeared to be insensitive to direct exposition to high concentration of lipopolysaccharide. However, exogenous nitric oxide resulted in marked inhibition pyruvate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities, depletion of acetyl-CoA, along with respective loss of SN56 cells viability. These data indicate that these two common neurodegenerative signals may differentially affect energy-acetyl-CoA metabolism in microglial and cholinergic neuronal cell compartments in the brain. Moreover, microglial cells appeared to be more resistant than neuronal cells to acetyl-CoA and ATP depletion evoked by these neurodegenerative conditions. Together, these data indicate that differential susceptibility of microglia and cholinergic neuronal cells to neurotoxic signals may result from differences in densities of toll-like receptors and degree of disequilibrium between acetyl-CoA provision in mitochondria and its utilization for energy production and acetylation reactions in each particular group of cells. There are significant differences between acetyl-CoA and ATP levels and enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in non-activated microglial N9 and non-differentiated cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Pathological stimulation of microglial toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggered excessive synthesis of microglia-derived nitric oxide (NO)/NOO radicals that

  15. Administration of DHA Reduces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Inflammation and Alters Microglial or Macrophage Activation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Lloyd D.; Yin, Yan; Attarwala, Insiya Y.; Begum, Gulnaz; Deng, Julia; Yan, Hong Q.; Dixon, C. Edward

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) on reducing neuroinflammation. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague Dawley rats. Either DHA (16 mg/kg in dimethyl sulfoxide) or vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (1 ml/kg) was administered intraperitonially at 5 min after TBI, followed by a daily dose for 3 to 21 days. TBI triggered activation of microglia or macrophages, detected by an increase of Iba1 positively stained microglia or macrophages in peri-lesion cortical tissues at 3, 7, and 21 days post-TBI. The inflammatory response was further characterized by expression of the proinflammatory marker CD16/32 and the anti-inflammatory marker CD206 in Iba1+ microglia or macrophages. DHA-treated brains showed significantly fewer CD16/32+ microglia or macrophages, but an increased CD206+ phagocytic microglial or macrophage population. Additionally, DHA treatment revealed a shift in microglial or macrophage morphology from the activated, amoeboid-like state into the more permissive, surveillant state. Furthermore, activated Iba1+ microglial or macrophages were associated with neurons expressing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker CHOP at 3 days post-TBI, and the administration of DHA post-TBI concurrently reduced ER stress and the associated activation of Iba1+ microglial or macrophages. There was a decrease in nuclear translocation of activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein at 3 days in DHA-treated tissue and reduced neuronal degeneration in DHA-treated brains at 3, 7, and 21 days after TBI. In summary, our study demonstrated that TBI mediated inflammatory responses are associated with increased neuronal ER stress and subsequent activation of microglia or macrophages. DHA administration reduced neuronal ER stress and subsequent association with microglial or macrophage polarization after TBI, demonstrating its therapeutic potential to

  16. Administration of DHA Reduces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Inflammation and Alters Microglial or Macrophage Activation in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lloyd D; Yin, Yan; Attarwala, Insiya Y; Begum, Gulnaz; Deng, Julia; Yan, Hong Q; Dixon, C Edward; Sun, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) on reducing neuroinflammation. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague Dawley rats. Either DHA (16 mg/kg in dimethyl sulfoxide) or vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (1 ml/kg) was administered intraperitonially at 5 min after TBI, followed by a daily dose for 3 to 21 days. TBI triggered activation of microglia or macrophages, detected by an increase of Iba1 positively stained microglia or macrophages in peri-lesion cortical tissues at 3, 7, and 21 days post-TBI. The inflammatory response was further characterized by expression of the proinflammatory marker CD16/32 and the anti-inflammatory marker CD206 in Iba1(+) microglia or macrophages. DHA-treated brains showed significantly fewer CD16/32(+) microglia or macrophages, but an increased CD206(+) phagocytic microglial or macrophage population. Additionally, DHA treatment revealed a shift in microglial or macrophage morphology from the activated, amoeboid-like state into the more permissive, surveillant state. Furthermore, activated Iba1(+) microglial or macrophages were associated with neurons expressing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker CHOP at 3 days post-TBI, and the administration of DHA post-TBI concurrently reduced ER stress and the associated activation of Iba1(+) microglial or macrophages. There was a decrease in nuclear translocation of activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein at 3 days in DHA-treated tissue and reduced neuronal degeneration in DHA-treated brains at 3, 7, and 21 days after TBI. In summary, our study demonstrated that TBI mediated inflammatory responses are associated with increased neuronal ER stress and subsequent activation of microglia or macrophages. DHA administration reduced neuronal ER stress and subsequent association with microglial or macrophage polarization after TBI, demonstrating its therapeutic

  17. Thrombin-induced regulation of CD95(Fas) expression in the N9 microglial cell line: evidence for involvement of proteinase-activated receptor(1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jonathan R; Zhang, Matthew; Kutlubaev, Mansur; Lee, Richard; Bishop, Caroline; Andersen, Henrik; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Möller, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the CNS. Brain injury triggers phenotypic changes in microglia including regulation of surface antigens. The serine proteinase alpha-thrombin can induce profound changes in neural cell physiology via cleavage of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). We recently demonstrated that pharmaceutical-grade recombinant human alpha-thrombin (rh-thr) induces a restricted set of proteolysis-dependent changes in microglia. CD95(Fas) is a cell-death receptor that is up-regulated in microglia by inflammatory stimuli. Here we characterized the effect of rh-thr on CD95(Fas) expression in the N9 microglial cell line. Dose-response and time course studies demonstrated maximal effects at 100 U/ml and 24 h, respectively. Regulation of expression was seen at both the surface protein and steady-state mRNA levels. The rh-thr-induced effects were mimicked by PAR(1) agonist peptides and blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors selective for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). Rh-thr also induced a rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Thrombin-induced regulation of CD95(Fas) could modulate the neuroinflammatory response in a variety of neurological disorders.

  18. Delta-Opioid Receptor Analgesia Is Independent of Microglial Activation in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The analgesic effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) ligands in neuropathic pain is not diminished in contrast to other opioid receptor ligands, which lose their effectiveness as analgesics. In this study, we examine whether this effect is related to nerve injury-induced microglial activation. We therefore investigated the influence of minocycline-induced inhibition of microglial activation on the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists: morphine, DAMGO, U50,488H, DPDPE, Deltorphin II and SNC80 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in rats. Pre-emptive and repeated administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) over 7 days significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia as measured on day 7 after CCI. The antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered morphine (10–20 µg), DAMGO (1–2 µg) and U50,488H (25–50 µg) were significantly potentiated in rats after minocycline, but no such changes were observed after DPDPE (10–20 µg), deltorphin II (1.5–15 µg) and SNC80 (10–20 µg) administration. Additionally, nerve injury-induced down-regulation of all types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not influenced by minocycline, which indicates that the effects of opioid ligands are dependent on other changes, presumably neuroimmune interactions. Our study of rat primary microglial cell culture using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR), further we provide the first evidence for the lack of DOR on microglial cells. In summary, DOR analgesia is different from analgesia induced by MOR and KOR receptors because it does not dependent on injury-induced microglial activation. DOR agonists appear to be the best candidates for new drugs to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:25105291

  19. Delta-opioid receptor analgesia is independent of microglial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Mika, Joanna; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The analgesic effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) ligands in neuropathic pain is not diminished in contrast to other opioid receptor ligands, which lose their effectiveness as analgesics. In this study, we examine whether this effect is related to nerve injury-induced microglial activation. We therefore investigated the influence of minocycline-induced inhibition of microglial activation on the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists: morphine, DAMGO, U50,488H, DPDPE, Deltorphin II and SNC80 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in rats. Pre-emptive and repeated administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) over 7 days significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia as measured on day 7 after CCI. The antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered morphine (10-20 µg), DAMGO (1-2 µg) and U50,488H (25-50 µg) were significantly potentiated in rats after minocycline, but no such changes were observed after DPDPE (10-20 µg), deltorphin II (1.5-15 µg) and SNC80 (10-20 µg) administration. Additionally, nerve injury-induced down-regulation of all types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not influenced by minocycline, which indicates that the effects of opioid ligands are dependent on other changes, presumably neuroimmune interactions. Our study of rat primary microglial cell culture using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR), further we provide the first evidence for the lack of DOR on microglial cells. In summary, DOR analgesia is different from analgesia induced by MOR and KOR receptors because it does not dependent on injury-induced microglial activation. DOR agonists appear to be the best candidates for new drugs to treat neuropathic pain.

  20. Inhibitory effects of antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-05

    Microglial NADPH oxidase is a major source of toxic reactive oxygen species produced during chronic neuroinflammation. Voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) functions to maintain the intense activity of NADPH oxidase, and channel inhibition alleviates the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke and multiple sclerosis associated with oxidative neuroinflammation. Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors have beneficial effects against microglia-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. We examined the effects of the H1 antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reduced the proton currents with almost the same potency, yielding IC50 values of 42 and 43μM, respectively. Histamine did not affect proton currents, excluding the involvement of histamine receptors in their action. Neither drug shifted the voltage-dependence of activation or the reversal potential of the proton currents, even though diphenhydramine slowed the activation and deactivation kinetics. The inhibitory effects of the two antihistamines on proton currents could be utilized to develop therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases associated with HV1 proton channel abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Manganese modulation of MAPK pathways: effects on upstream mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and mitogen activated kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Patrick L.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies demonstrate that manganese (Mn) exposure potentiates inflammatory mediator output from activated glia; this increased output is associated with enhanced mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK: p38, ERK, and JNK) activity. We hypothesized that Mn activates MAPK by activating the kinases upstream of MAPK, i.e., MKK-3/6, MKK-1/2, and MKK-4 (responsible for activation of p38, ERK, and JNK, respectively), and/or by inhibiting a major phosphatase responsible for MAPK inactivation, MKP-1. Exposure of N9 microglia to Mn (250μM), LPS (100 ng/ml), or Mn+LPS increased MKK-3/6 and MKK-4 activity at 1 h; the effect of Mn+LPS on MKK-4 activation was greater than the rest. At 4 h, Mn, LPS, and Mn+LPS increased MKK-3/6 and MKK-1/2 phosphorylation, whereas MKK-4 was activated only by Mn and Mn+LPS. Besides activating MKK-4 via Ser257/Thr261 phosphorylation, Mn (4 h) prevented MKK-4’s phosphorylation on Ser80, which negatively regulates MKK-4 activity. Exposure to Mn or Mn+LPS (1 h) decreased both mRNA and protein expression of MKP-1, the negative MAPK regulator. In addition, we observed that at 4 h, but not at 1 h, a time point coinciding with increased MAPK activity, Mn+LPS markedly increased TNF-α , IL-6, and Cox-2 mRNA, suggesting a delayed effect. The fact that all three major groups of MKKs, MKK-1/2, MKK-3/6, and MKK-4 are activated by Mn suggests that Mn-induced activation of MAPK occurs via traditional mechanisms, which perhaps involve the MAPKs farthest upstream, MKKKs (MAP3Ks). In addition, for all MKKs, Mn-induced activation was persistent at least for 4 h, indicating a long-term effect. PMID:20589745

  2. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  3. Regulatory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on neuroinflammation in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Caren Yu-Ju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Lai, Sheng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Shu; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lu, Jheng-Kun; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2015-03-11

    Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current study intended to probe the effects of CAPE on microglia activation by using in vitro and in vivo models. Western blot and Griess reaction assay revealed CAPE significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Administration of CAPE resulted in increased expressions of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1and erythropoietin (EPO) in microglia. The phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α was further found to regulate the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid. In vivo results from immunohistochemistry along with rotarod test also revealed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of CAPE in microglia activation. The current study has evidenced several possible molecular determinants, AMPKα, EPO, and HO-1, in mediating anti-neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells.

  4. Regulatory Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Neuroinflammation in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Caren Yu-Ju; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Lai, Sheng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Shu; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lu, Jheng-Kun; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current study intended to probe the effects of CAPE on microglia activation by using in vitro and in vivo models. Western blot and Griess reaction assay revealed CAPE significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Administration of CAPE resulted in increased expressions of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1and erythropoietin (EPO) in microglia. The phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α was further found to regulate the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid. In vivo results from immunohistochemistry along with rotarod test also revealed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of CAPE in microglia activation. The current study has evidenced several possible molecular determinants, AMPKα, EPO, and HO-1, in mediating anti-neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells. PMID:25768341

  5. Annexin-1 Mediates Microglial Activation and Migration via the CK2 Pathway during Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxi; Gao, Yan; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Baoming; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yin; Luo, Zhenzhao; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Annexin-1 (ANXA1) has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs) expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1). These effects were reversed by the FPRs antagonist Boc1. The cell membrane currents amplitude of BV-2 microglia (the microglial like cell-line) was increased when treated with Ac2-26, the N-terminal peptide of ANXA1. Ac2-26 treatment enhanced BV-2 microglial migration whereas Boc1 treatment inhibited the migration. In BV-2 microglia, both the expression of the CK2 target phosphorylated α-E-catenin and the binding of casein kinase II (CK2) with α-E-catenin were elevated by Ac2-26, these effects were counteracted by the CK2 inhibitor TBB and small interfering (si) RNA directed against transcripts of CK2 and FPRs. Moreover, both TBB and siRNA-mediated inhibition of CK2 blocked Ac2-26-mediated BV-2 microglia migration. Our findings indicate that ANXA1 promotes microglial activation and migration during OGD/R via FPRs, and CK2 target α-E-catenin phosphorylation is involved in this process. PMID:27782092

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of catechols in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells: inhibition of microglial neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long Tai; Ryu, Geun-Mu; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2008-06-24

    Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by producing various proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and subsequent neuroprotective effects of catechol and its derivatives including 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 4-tert-butylcatechol were investigated in microglia and neuroblastoma cells in culture. The four catechol compounds showed anti-inflammatory effects with different potency. The catechols significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in BV-2 microglia cells. The catechols also inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-alpha at mRNA or protein levels in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. In addition, the catechols inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, IkappaB degradation, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in BV-2 cells. Moreover, the catechols attenuated the cytotoxicity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia toward co-cultured rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. The catechols, however, did not protect B35 cells against H(2)O(2) toxicity, indicating that the compounds exerted the neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the inflammatory activation of microglia in the co-culture. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of the catechols in cultured microglia and neuroblastoma cells suggest a therapeutic potential of these compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with an excessive microglial activation.

  7. Exposure of cultured astroglial and microglial brain cells to 900 MHz microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Thorlin, Thorleif; Rouquette, Jean-Michel; Hamnerius, Yngve; Hansson, Elisabeth; Persson, Mikael; Björklund, Ulrika; Rosengren, Lars; Rönnbäck, Lars; Persson, Mikael

    2006-08-01

    The rapid rise in the use of mobile communications has raised concerns about health issues related to low-level microwave radiation. The head and brain are usually the most exposed targets in mobile phone users. In the brain, two types of glial cells, the astroglial and the microglial cells, are interesting in the context of biological effects from microwave exposure. These cells are widely distributed in the brain and are directly involved in the response to brain damage as well as in the development of brain cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 900 MHz radiation could affect these two different glial cell types in culture by studying markers for damage-related processes in the cells. Primary cultures enriched in astroglial cells were exposed to 900 MHz microwave radiation in a temperature-controlled exposure system at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 3 W/kg GSM modulated wave (mw) for 4, 8 and 24 h or 27 W/kg continuous wave (cw) for 24 h, and the release into the extracellular medium of the two pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (Il6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) was analyzed. In addition, levels of the astroglial cell-specific reactive marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), whose expression dynamics is different from that of cytokines, were measured in astroglial cultures and in astroglial cell-conditioned cell culture medium at SARs of 27 and 54 W/kg (cw) for 4 or 24 h. No significant differences could be detected for any of the parameters studied at any time and for any of the radiation characteristics. Total protein levels remained constant during the experiments. Microglial cell cultures were exposed to 900 MHz radiation at an SAR of 3 W/kg (mw) for 8 h, and I16, Tnfa, total protein and the microglial reactivity marker ED-1 (a macrophage activation antigen) were measured. No significant differences were found. The morphology of the cultured astroglial cells and microglia was studied and appeared to be

  8. Distinct signaling pathways for induction of type II NOS by IFNgamma and LPS in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Siming; Yu, Sue; Binek, Joshua; Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; Zhang, Xiaolin; Lo, Shih-Ching; Hannink, Mark; Wu, Jinmei; Fritsche, Kevin; Donato, Rosario; Sun, Grace Y

    2005-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) release upon microglial cell activation has been implicated in the tissue injury and cell death in many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have indicated the ability of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to independently induce type II nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in BV-2 microglial cells. However, a detailed comparison between the signaling pathways activating iNOS by these two agents has not been accomplished. Analysis of PKC isoforms revealed mainly the presence of PKCdelta, iota and lambda in BV-2 cells. Although both IFNgamma and LPS could specifically enhance the tyrosine phosphorylation of PKCdelta, treatment with IFNgamma induced a steady increase of phospho-PKCdelta for up to 1h, whereas treatment with LPS elevated phospho-PKCdelta levels only transiently, with peak activity at 5 min. Rottlerin, a specific inhibitor for PKCdelta, dose-dependently inhibited IFNgamma- and LPS-induced NO production. Despite the common involvement of PKCdelta, IFNgamma- but not LPS-induced NO production involved extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) cascade and IFNgamma-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was mediated through PKC. On the other hand, LPS- but not IFNgamma-induced NO production was through stimulation of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear translocation to interact with DNA. These results demonstrated distinct signaling pathways for induction of iNOS by IFNgamma and LPS in BV-2 microglial cells.

  9. Genistein attenuates retinal inflammation associated with diabetes by targeting of microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M.; Peña, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with microglial activation and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory potential that so far untested in animal models of diabetes. The aims of this study are to evaluate the efficacy of genistein for alleviation of diabetes-induced retinal inflammation and also to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved therein by analyzing the effect of genistein on concomitant microglia activation in the diabetic retina and in isolated cells. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats were used. After diabetes was established for two weeks a single intravitreal injection of genistein or vehicle was performed. Forty-eight hours later, rats were killed, their retinal and vitreal samples were processed for Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT–PCR) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses, respectively. For the in vitro study, isolated microglial cells from retinas of newborn rats were used. Results mRNA as well as protein levels for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a robust marker of inflammation, were increased in the retina early in the course of diabetes. Moreover, diabetes resulted in elevation of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1) mRNA, known to be upregulated in activated microglia. These effects of diabetes in retina were all reduced by intervention treatment with genistein. Using an in vitro bioassay, we demonstrated the release of TNF-α from microglia activated by glycated albumin, a risk factor for diabetic disorders. This inflammatory signal involves the activation of tyrosine kinase and its subsequent events, ERK and P38 MAPKs. Genistein represses the release of TNF-α and significantly inhibits ERK and P38 phosphorylation in activated microglial cells by acting as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Conclusions These findings show genistein to be effective in dampening diabetes

  10. NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced microglial activation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Activation of microglia causes the production of proinflammatory factors and upregulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) that form reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to neurodegeneration. Previously, we reported that 10 daily doses of ethanol treatment induced innate immune genes in brain. In the present study, we investigate the effects of chronic ethanol on activation of NOX and release of ROS, and their contribution to ethanol neurotoxicity. Methods Male C57BL/6 and NF-κB enhanced GFP mice were treated intragastrically with water or ethanol (5 g/kg, i.g., 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 10 days. The effects of chronic ethanol on cell death markers (activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade B), microglial morphology, NOX, ROS and NF-κB were examined using real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and hydroethidine histochemistry. Also, Fluoro-Jade B staining and NOX gp91phox immunohistochemistry were performed in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of human postmortem alcoholic brain and human moderate drinking control brain. Results Ethanol treatment of C57BL/6 mice showed increased markers of neuronal death: activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade B positive staining with Neu-N (a neuronal marker) labeling in cortex and dentate gyrus. The OFC of human post-mortem alcoholic brain also showed significantly more Fluoro-Jade B positive cells colocalized with Neu-N, a neuronal marker, compared to the OFC of human moderate drinking control brain, suggesting increased neuronal death in the OFC of human alcoholic brain. Iba1 and GFAP immunohistochemistry showed activated morphology of microglia and astrocytes in ethanol-treated mouse brain. Ethanol treatment increased NF-κB transcription and increased NOX gp91phox at 24 hr after the last ethanol treatment that remained elevated at 1 week. The OFC of human postmortem alcoholic brain also had significant increases in the number of gp91phox + immunoreactive (IR) cells that are colocalized with neuronal, microglial and astrocyte markers

  11. Dual RNA Sequencing Reveals the Expression of Unique Transcriptomic Signatures in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Park, Kyoung Sun; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells become rapidly activated through interactions with pathogens, and the persistent activation of these cells is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have investigated the transcriptomic signatures in microglia or macrophages using microarray technologies. However, this method has numerous restrictions, such as spatial biases, uneven probe properties, low sensitivity, and dependency on the probes spotted. To overcome this limitation and identify novel transcribed genes in response to LPS, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to determine the novel transcriptomic signatures in BV-2 microglial cells. Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that approximately 263 and 319 genes (≥ 1.5 log2-fold), such as cytokines and chemokines, were strongly induced after 2 and 4 h, respectively, and the induction of several genes with unknown immunological functions was also observed. Importantly, we observed that previously unidentified transcription factors (TFs) (irf1, irf7, and irf9), histone demethylases (kdm4a) and DNA methyltransferases (dnmt3l) were significantly and selectively expressed in BV-2 microglial cells. The gene expression levels, transcription start sites (TSS), isoforms, and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation upon infection with LPS. In addition, gene ontology, molecular networks and pathway analyses identified the top significantly regulated functional classification, canonical pathways and network functions at each activation status. Moreover, we further analyzed differentially expressed genes to identify transcription factor (TF) motifs (−950 to +50 bp of the 5’ upstream promoters) and epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expressions of key inflammatory genes as well as pro-inflammatory mediators in the supernatants were significantly induced in LPS treated primary microglial cells. This

  12. High-content analysis of factors affecting gold nanoparticle uptake by neuronal and microglial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Stojiljković, A; Kuehni-Boghenbor, K; Gaschen, V; Schüpbach, G; Mevissen, M; Kinnear, C; Möller, A-M; Stoffel, M H

    2016-09-22

    Owing to their ubiquitous distribution, expected beneficial effects and suspected adverse effects, nanoparticles are viewed as a double-edged sword, necessitating a better understanding of their interactions with tissues and organisms. Thus, the goals of the present study were to develop and present a method to generate quantitative data on nanoparticle entry into cells in culture and to exemplarily demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by analyzing the impact of size, charge and various proteinaceous coatings on particle internalization. N9 microglial cells and both undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to customized gold nanoparticles. After silver enhancement, the particles were visualized by epipolarization microscopy and analysed by high-content analysis. The value of this approach was substantiated by assessing the impact of various parameters on nanoparticle uptake. Uptake was higher in microglial cells than in neuronal cells. Only microglial cells showed a distinct size preference, preferring particles with a diameter of 80 nm. Positive surface charge had the greatest impact on particle uptake. Coating with bovine serum albumin, fetuin or protein G significantly increased particle internalization in microglial cells but not in neuronal cells. Coating with wheat germ agglutinin increased particle uptake in both N9 and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but not in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, internalization was shown to be an active process and indicators of caspase-dependent apoptosis revealed that gold nanoparticles did not have any cytotoxic effects. The present study thus demonstrates the suitability of gold nanoparticles and high-content analysis for assessing numerous variables in a stringently quantitative and statistically significant manner. Furthermore, the results presented herein showcase the feasibility of specifically targeting nanoparticles to distinct cell types.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of arbutin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jong; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2012-08-01

    Arbutin, which is found in the genus Arctostaphylos, is an anti-oxidant and a depigmenting agent. The present study was designed to validate the anti-inflammatory effect of arbutin. The anti-inflammatory properties of arbutin were studied using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells model. As inflammatory parameters, the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated. We also examined the expression of ninjurin1 (Ninj1) and the adhesion activity of BV2 cells. Finally, we analyzed the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Arbutin suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and expression of iNOS and COX-2 in a dose-dependent manner without causing cellular toxicity. Arbutin also significantly reduced generation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and TNF-α, and other inflammation-related genes such as MCP-1 and IL-6. Additionally, arbutin suppressed the adhesion activity of BV2 cells and the expression of an important adhesion molecule, Ninj1, in LPS-stimulated murine BV2 cells. Furthermore, arbutin inhibited nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Taken together, our results suggest that arbutin might be useful for treating the inflammatory and deleterious effects of BV2 microglial cells activation in response to LPS stimulation.

  14. Quercetin and sesamin protect dopaminergic cells from MPP+-induced neuroinflammation in a microglial (N9)-neuronal (PC12) coculture system.

    PubMed

    Bournival, Julie; Plouffe, Marilyn; Renaud, Justine; Provencher, Cindy; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases are associated with microglia activation with resultant elevation of various inflammatory mediators and neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 natural molecules, quercetin and sesamin, on neuroinflammation induced by the Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in a glial-neuronal system. We first established that quercetin and sesamin defend microglial cells against MPP(+)-induced increases in the mRNA or protein levels of 3 pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), as revealed by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, respectively. Quercetin and sesamin also decrease MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress in microglial cells by reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as mitochondrial superoxide radicals. We then measured neuronal cell death and apoptosis after MPP(+) activation of microglia, in a microglial (N9)-neuronal (PC12) coculture system. Our results revealed that quercetin and sesamin rescued neuronal PC12 cells from apoptotic death induced by MPP(+) activation of microglial cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the phytoestrogen quercetin and the lignan sesamin diminish MPP(+)-evoked microglial activation and suggest that both these molecules may be regarded as potent, natural, anti-inflammatory compounds.

  15. Clk1 deficiency promotes neuroinflammation and subsequent dopaminergic cell death through regulation of microglial metabolic reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ruinan; Zhang, Fali; Chen, Gang; Han, Chaojun; Liu, Jay; Ren, Zhaoxiang; Zhu, Yi; Waddington, John L; Zheng, Long Tai; Zhen, Xuechu

    2017-02-01

    Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis. The increase in neuronal cell death was observed following treatment with conditioned media from Clk1 deficient microglia. Increased DA neuron loss and microgliosis were observed in Clk1(+/-) mice after treatment with MPTP, a rodent model of Parkinson's disease (PD). This increase in DA neuron loss was due to an exacerbated microglial inflammatory response, rather than direct susceptibility of Clk1(+/-) DA cells to MPP(+), the active species of MPTP. Exaggerated expressions of proinflammatory genes and loss of DA neurons were also observed in Clk1(+/-) mice after stereotaxic injection of LPS. Our results suggest that Clk1 regulates microglial metabolic reprogramming that is, in turn, involved in the neuroinflammatory processes and PD.

  16. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases.

  17. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  18. CD14 and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are required for fibrillar Aβ-stimulated microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.; Savage, Julie C.; Hise, Amy G.; Landreth, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are the brain's tissue macrophages and are found in an activated state surrounding β-amyloid plaques in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Microglia interact with fibrillar β-amyloid (fAβ) through an ensemble of surface receptors composed of the α6β1 integrin, CD36, CD47, and the class A scavenger receptor. These receptors act in concert to initiate intracellular signaling cascades and phenotypic activation of these cells. However, it is unclear how engagement of this receptor complex is linked to the induction of an activated microglial phenotype. We report that the response of microglial cells to fibrillar forms of Aβ requires the participation of Toll like receptors (TLRs) and the co-receptor CD14. The response of microglia to fAβ is reliant upon CD14, which act together with TLR4 and TLR2 to bind fAβ and to activate intracellular signaling. We find that cells lacking these receptors could not initiate a Src-Vav-Rac signaling cascade leading to reactive oxygen species production and phagocytosis. The fAβ-mediated activation of p38 MAPK also required CD14, TLR4, and TLR2. Inhibition of p38 abrogated fAβ-induced reactive oxygen species production and attenuated the induction of phagocytosis. Microglia lacking CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 showed no induction of phosphorylated IκBα following fAβ. These data indicate these innate immune receptors function as members of the microglial fAβ receptor complex and identify the signaling mechanisms whereby they contribute to microglial activation. PMID:19776284

  19. Modulation of Microglial Cell Fcγ Receptor Expression Following Viral Brain Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Priyanka; Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S.; Prasad, Sujata; Lokensgard, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) for IgG couple innate and adaptive immunity through activation of effector cells by antigen-antibody complexes. We investigated relative levels of activating and inhibitory FcγRs on brain-resident microglia following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Flow cytometric analysis of microglial cells obtained from infected brain tissue demonstrated that activating FcγRs were expressed maximally at 5 d post-infection (dpi), while the inhibitory receptor (FcγRIIB) remained highly elevated during both acute and chronic phases of infection. The highly induced expression of activating FcγRIV during the acute phase of infection was also noteworthy. Furthermore, in vitro analysis using cultured primary microglia demonstrated the role of interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin (IL)-4 in polarizing these cells towards a M1 or M2 phenotype, respectively. Microglial cell-polarization correlated with maximal expression of either FcγRIV or FcγRIIB following stimulation with IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Finally, we observed a significant delay in polarization of microglia towards an M2 phenotype in the absence of FcγRs in MCMV-infected Fcer1g and FcgR2b knockout mice. These studies demonstrate that neuro-inflammation following viral infection increases expression of activating FcγRs on M1-polarized microglia. In contrast, expression of the inhibitory FcγRIIB receptor promotes M2-polarization in order to shut-down deleterious immune responses and limit bystander brain damage. PMID:28165503

  20. Essential roles of mitochondrial depolarization in neuron loss through microglial activation and attraction toward neurons.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Kyung; Shin, Hyun-Ah; Han, Ji-Hye; Park, Dae-Wook; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2013-04-10

    As life spans increased, neurodegenerative disorders that affect aging populations have also increased. Progressive neuronal loss in specific brain regions is the most common cause of neurodegenerative disease; however, key determinants mediating neuron loss are not fully understood. Using a model of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, we found only 25% cell loss in SH-SY5Y (SH) neuronal mono-cultures, but interestingly, 85% neuronal loss occurred when neurons were co-cultured with BV2 microglia. SH neurons overexpressing uncoupling protein 2 exhibited an increase in neuron-microglia interactions, which represent an early step in microglial phagocytosis of neurons. This result indicates that ΔΨm loss in SH neurons is an important contributor to recruitment of BV2 microglia. Notably, we show that ΔΨm loss in BV2 microglia plays a crucial role in microglial activation and phagocytosis of damaged SH neurons. Thus, our study demonstrates that ΔΨm loss in both neurons and microglia is a critical determinant of neuron loss. These findings also offer new insights into neuroimmunological and bioenergetical aspects of neurodegenerative disease.

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  2. CD200 attenuates methamphetamine-induced microglial activation and dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xia; Qiao, Dongfang; Wang, Aifeng; Tan, Xiaohui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Chao; Wang, Huijun

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the neuroprotective effect of cluster of differentiation molecule 200 (CD200) against methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. In the in vitro experiment, neuron-microglia cultures were treated with METH (20 μmol/L), METH (20 μmol/L)+CD200-Fc (10 μg/mL) or CD200-Fc (10 μg/mL). Those untreated served as control. Microglia activation expressed as the ratio of MHC-II/CD11b was assessed by flow cytometry. The cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α) secreted by activated microglia were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the in vivo experiment, 40 SD rats were divided into control, METH, METH+CD200-Fc and CD200-Fc groups at random. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH (15 mg/kg 8 times at 12 h interval) in METH group, with METH (administered as the same dose and time as the METH group) and CD200-Fc (1 mg/kg at day 0, 2, 4 after METH injection) in METH+CD200-Fc group, with CD200-Fc (1 mg/kg injected as the same time as the METH+CD200-Fc group) or with physiological saline solution in the control group. The level of striatal dopamine (DA) in rats was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The microglial cells were immunohistochemically detected for the expression of Iba-1, a marker for microglial activation. The results showed that METH could increase the microglia activation in the neuron-microglia cultures and elevate the secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, which could be attenuated by CD200-Fc. Moreover, CD200-Fc could partially reverse the striatal DA depletion induced by METH and reduce the number of activated microglia, i.e. Iba-1-positive cells. It was concluded that CD200 may have neuroprotective effects against METH-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial activation and reversing DA depletion in striatum.

  3. Regional differences of microglial accumulation within 72 hours of hypoxia-ischemia and the effect of acetylcholine receptor agonist on brain damage and microglial activation in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Yang, Li; Harishkumar, Madhyastha; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2014-05-08

    We examined regional specificity of microglial activation in the developing rat brain for 72 hours after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the effect of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonist on microglial activation. Seven-day-old Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one receiving a single dose of AChR agonist just before hypoxia (carbachol; 0.1mg/kg) to investigate the reducing effect on brain damage with decreasing activation of microglia and the other group receiving saline as a control. Rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia. Brains were analyzed immunohistochemically at 24, 48, and 72 hours after HI. TNFα production was measured at respective times after HI. Activation of microglia on the hippocampus of the control group was strong for the first 48 hours and then weakened. In contrast, activation of microglia on white matter and the cortex was weak at 24 hours and then became stronger. A single dose of carbachol significantly reduced brain damage with a marked reduction of microglial activation on the hippocampus, whereas it was less effective regarding microglial activation on white matter and the cortex. TNFα production was low in both groups. Regional specificity was observed for both microglial activation and susceptibility to carbachol for the first 72 hours after HI. Our data suggested that timely intervention along with region-specific microglial activation, apart from TNFα production, may be critical for the prevention of further brain damage after HI in the newborn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microglial cells (BV-2) internalize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: toxicity and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Rihane, Naima; Nury, Thomas; M'rad, Imen; El Mir, Lassaad; Sakly, Mohsen; Amara, Salem; Lizard, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    Because of their whitening and photocatalytic effects, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are widely used in daily life. These NPs can be found in paints, plastics, papers, sunscreens, foods, medicines (pills), toothpastes, and cosmetics. However, the biological effect of TiO2-NPs on the human body, especially on the central nervous system, is still unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the brain is one of the target organs in acute or chronic TiO2-NPs toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of TiO2-NPs at different concentrations (0.1 to 200 μg/mL) on murine microglial cells (BV-2) to assess their activity on cell growth and viability, as well as their neurotoxicity. Different parameters were measured: cell viability, cell proliferation and DNA content (SubG1 peak), mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (especially superoxide anions), and ultrastructural changes. Results showed that TiO2-NPs induced some cytotoxic effects with a slight inhibition of cell growth. Thus, at high concentrations, TiO2-NPs were not only able to inhibit cell adhesion but also enhanced cytoplasmic membrane permeability to propidium iodide associated with a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and an overproduction of superoxide anions. No induction of apoptosis based on the presence of a SubG1 peak was detected. The microscopic observations also indicated that small groups of nanosized particles and micron-sized aggregates were engulfed by the BV-2 cells and sequestered as intracytoplasmic aggregates after 24-h exposure to TiO2-NPs. Altogether, our data show that the accumulation TiO2-NPs in microglial BV-2 cells favors mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress.

  5. Attenuated microglial activation mediates tolerance to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2005-02-01

    Methamphetamine causes persistent damage to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. Repeated, intermittent treatment of mice with low doses of methamphetamine leads to the development of tolerance to its neurotoxic effects. The mechanisms underlying tolerance are not understood but clearly involve more than alterations in drug bioavailability or reductions in the hyperthermia caused by methamphetamine. Microglia have been implicated recently as mediators of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if a tolerance regimen of methamphetamine would attenuate the microglial response to a neurotoxic challenge. Mice treated with a low-dose methamphetamine tolerance regimen showed minor reductions in striatal dopamine content and low levels of microglial activation. When the tolerance regimen preceded a neurotoxic challenge of methamphetamine, the depletion of dopamine normally seen was significantly attenuated. The microglial activation that occurs after a toxic methamphetamine challenge was blunted likewise. Despite the induction of tolerance against drug-induced toxicity and microglial activation, a neurotoxic challenge with methamphetamine still caused hyperthermia. These results suggest that tolerance to methamphetamine neurotoxicity is associated with attenuated microglial activation and they further dissociate its neurotoxicity from drug-induced hyperthermia.

  6. Licochalcone A Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons by Inhibiting Microglial Activation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Parkinson's Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingxu; Liu, Juxiong; Ju, Chen; Yang, Dongxue; Chen, Guangxin; Xu, Shiyao; Zeng, Yalong; Yan, Xuan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dianfeng; Fu, Shoupeng

    2017-09-22

    The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A), a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 in BV-2 cells. In addition, through cultured primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cell experiments, we illustrate that Lico.A attenuates the decrease in [³H] dopamine (DA) uptake and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in LPS-induced PD models in vitro. Furthermore, LPS intoxication in rats results in microglial activation, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and significant behavioral deficits in vivo. Lico.A treatment prevents microglial activation and reduction of dopaminergic neuron and ameliorates PD-like behavioral impairments. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that the neuroprotective effects of Lico.A are associated with microglia and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models.

  7. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) attenuates microglial cytotoxicity through the activation of Src pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-02-01

    It has been known for a long time that microglial activation plays an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Once activated, they have macrophage-like capabilities, which can be detrimental by producing proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors including cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide that directly or indirectly cause neurodegeneration. Therefore, the regulation of microglial-induced neuroinflammation is considered a useful strategy in searching for neuroprotective treatments. In this study, our results showed that low power laser irradiation (LPLI) (20 J/cm2) could suppress microglial-induced neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia. We found that LPLI-mediated neuroprotection was achieved by activating tyrosine kinases Src, which led to MyD88 tyrosine phosphorylation, thus impairing MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signaling cascade. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Microglial numbers attain adult levels after undergoing a rapid decrease in cell number in the third postnatal week.

    PubMed

    Nikodemova, Maria; Kimyon, Rebecca S; De, Ishani; Small, Alissa L; Collier, Lara S; Watters, Jyoti J

    2015-01-15

    During postnatal development, microglia, CNS resident innate immune cells, are essential for synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and remodeling. During this period microglia undergo morphological and phenotypic transformations; however, little is known about how microglial number and density is regulated during postnatal CNS development. We found that after an initial increase during the first 14 postnatal days, microglial numbers in mouse brain began declining in the third postnatal week and were reduced by 50% by 6weeks of age; these "adult" levels were maintained until at least 9months of age. Microglial CD11b levels increased, whereas CD45 and ER-MP58 declined between P10 and adulthood, consistent with a maturing microglial phenotype. Our data indicate that both increased microglial apoptosis and a decreased proliferative capacity contribute to the developmental reduction in microglial numbers. We found no correlation between developmental reductions in microglial numbers and brain mRNA levels of Cd200, Cx3Cl1, M-Csf or Il-34. We tested the ability of M-Csf-overexpression, a key growth factor promoting microglial proliferation and survival, to prevent microglial loss in the third postnatal week. Mice overexpressing M-Csf in astrocytes had higher numbers of microglia at all ages tested. However, the developmental decline in microglial numbers still occurred, suggesting that chronically elevated M-CSF is unable to overcome the developmental decrease in microglial numbers. Whereas the identity of the factor(s) regulating microglial number and density during development remains to be determined, it is likely that microglia respond to a "maturation" signal since the reduction in microglial numbers coincides with CNS maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory effects of SSRIs on IFN-γ induced microglial activation through the regulation of intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Hideki; Kato, Takahiro A; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Monji, Akira; Seki, Yoshihiro; Ohkuri, Takatoshi; Gotoh, Leo; Yonaha, Megumi; Ueda, Tadashi; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2010-10-01

    Microglia, which are a major glial component of the central nervous system (CNS), have recently been suggested to mediate neuroinflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Microglia are also known to play a critical role as resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells in the CNS. Immunological dysfunction has recently been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. However, to date there have only been a few studies on the relationship between microglia and depression. We therefore investigated if antidepressants can inhibit microglial activation in vitro. Our results showed that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine and sertraline significantly inhibited the generation of NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from interferon (IFN)-γ-activated 6-3 microglia. We further investigated the intracellular signaling mechanism underlying NO and TNF-α release from IFN-γ-activated 6-3 microglia. Our results suggest that paroxetine and sertraline may inhibit microglial activation through inhibition of IFN-γ-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). Our results suggest that the inhibitory effect of paroxetine and sertraline on microglial activation may not be a prerequisite for antidepressant function, but an additional beneficial effect.

  10. Inhibition of microglial activation by elderberry extracts and its phenolic components

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406

  11. Equol, a Dietary Daidzein Gut Metabolite Attenuates Microglial Activation and Potentiates Neuroprotection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Lalita; Ji, Eunhee; Shin, Dongyun; Jin, Jongsik; Yeo, Joo Hong; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency has been well characterized in inflammatory disorders including neuroinflammation. Daidzein, a dietary alternative phytoestrogen found in soy (Glycine max) as primary isoflavones, possess anti-inflammatory activity, but the effect of its active metabolite Equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman) has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of Equol in vitro. To evaluate the potential effects of Equol, three major types of central nervous system (CNS) cells, including microglia (BV-2), astrocytes (C6), and neurons (N2a), were used. Effects of Equol on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling proteins, and apoptosis-related proteins were measured by western blot analysis. Equol inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation, MAPK activation, NF-kB-mediated transcription of inflammatory mediators, production of nitric oxide (NO), release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine microglia cells. Additionally, Equol protects neurons from neuroinflammatory injury mediated by LPS-activated microglia through downregulation of neuronal apoptosis, increased neurite outgrowth in N2a cell and neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) production through astrocytes further supporting its neuroprotective potential. These findings provide novel insight into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Equol on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in cases of neurodegeneration. PMID:28264445

  12. Interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1-receptor antagonist but not transforming growth factor-beta induce ramification and reduce adhesion molecule expression of rat microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Wirjatijasa, Florentina; Dehghani, Faramarz; Blaheta, Roman A; Korf, Horst-Werner; Hailer, Nils P

    2002-06-01

    The activity of microglial cells is strictly controlled in order to maintain central nervous system (CNS) immune privilege. We hypothesized that several immunomodulatory factors present in the CNS parenchyma, i.e., the Th2-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist (IL-1-ra), or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta can modulate microglial morphology and functions. Microglial cells were incubated with IL-4, IL-10, IL-1-ra, TGF-beta, or with astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) and were analyzed for morphological changes, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and secretion of IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Whereas untreated controls showed an amoeboid morphology both Th2-derived cytokines, IL-1-ra, and ACM induced a morphological transformation to the ramified phenotype. In contrast, TGF-beta-treated microglial cells showed an amoeboid morphology. Even combined with the neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta ACM induced microglial ramification. Furthermore, ACM did not contain relevant amounts of IL-4 and IL-10, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flow cytometry showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ICAM-1-expression on microglial cells was strongly suppressed by ACM, significantly modulated by IL-4, IL-10, or IL-1-ra, but not influenced by TGF-beta. The LPS-induced secretion of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was only reduced after application of ACM, whereas IL-4 or IL-10 did not inhibit IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha secretion. TGF-beta enhanced IL-1beta- but not TNF-alpha secretion. In summary, we demonstrate that IL-4, IL-10, and IL-1-ra induce microglial ramification and reduce ICAM-1-expression, whereas the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is not prevented. TGF-beta has no modulating effects. Importantly, unidentified astrocytic factors that are not identical with IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-beta possess strong immunomodulatory properties.

  13. Modulation of Microglial Activity by Rho-Kinase (ROCK) Inhibition as Therapeutic Strategy in Parkinson’s Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Roser, Anna-Elisa; Tönges, Lars; Lingor, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS), resulting in a reduced innervation of target structures and a loss of function. A shared characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases is the infiltration of microglial cells into affected brain regions. During early disease stages microglial cells often display a rather neuroprotective phenotype, but switch to a more pro-inflammatory neurotoxic phenotype in later stages of the disease, contributing to the neurodegeneration. Activation of the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway appears to be instrumental for the modulation of the microglial phenotype: increased ROCK activity in microglia mediates mechanisms of the inflammatory response and is associated with improved motility, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of inflammatory cytokines. Recently, several studies suggested inhibition of ROCK signaling as a promising treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review article, we discuss the contribution of microglial activity and phenotype switch to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two devastating neurodegenerative diseases without disease-modifying treatment options. Furthermore, we describe how ROCK inhibition can influence the microglial phenotype in disease models and explore ROCK inhibition as a future treatment option for PD and ALS. PMID:28420986

  14. Fine-tuning the central nervous system: microglial modelling of cells and synapses

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Anna L.; Menezes, João R. L.; Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Microglia constitute as much as 10–15% of all cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are the only glial cells that do not arise from the neuroectoderm. As the principal CNS immune cells, microglial cells represent the first line of defence in response to exogenous threats. Past studies have largely been dedicated to defining the complex immune functions of microglial cells. However, our understanding of the roles of microglia has expanded radically over the past years. It is now clear that microglia are critically involved in shaping neural circuits in both the developing and adult CNS, and in modulating synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Intriguingly, microglial cells appear to use the same sets of tools, including cytokine and chemokine release as well as phagocytosis, whether modulating neural function or mediating the brain's innate immune responses. This review will discuss recent developments that have broadened our views of neuro-glial signalling to include the contribution of microglial cells. PMID:25225087

  15. Response of microglial cells after a cryolesion in the peripheral proliferative retina of tench.

    PubMed

    Jimeno, D; Velasco, A; Lillo, C; Lara, J M; Aijón, J

    1999-01-16

    We studied the glial response after inducing a lesion in the zone of the peripheral retina of tench, where there is proliferative neuroepithelium. In the retina and optic nerve, the microglial response was analysed with tomato lectin and the macroglial response with antibodies against GFAP and S-100. In lesioned retinas, there was a temporal-spatial distribution pattern of microglia. One day after lesion, primitive ramified cells appeared in the nerve fibre layer. These cells appeared progressively from the vitreal to the scleral layers until day 7 when cells appeared in all layers, with the exception of the outer plexiform layer. From this point, labelling decreased. In the optic nerve, 3 days after lesion, an increase in the number of microglial cells was observed, first in the nerve folds and from day 15 in specific areas of the optic nerve. In the central retina, in the optic nerve head and within the optic nerve itself, the appearance of microglial cells, after the lesion, near the blood vessels, could indicate a vascular origin of microglia, as has been proposed by many authors. However, we cannot discount the idea that some of the reactive microglial cells arise by proliferation of the microglia existing in the normal state. Using GFAP and S-100 antibodies, no important changes in the retina were observed, however in the optic nerve there was response to the lesion. Thus, the macroglial cells appeared to be involved in reorganisation of the optic nerve axons after lesion. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Interleukin-1β pre-treated bone marrow stromal cells alleviate neuropathic pain through CCL7-mediated inhibition of microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Deng, Guoying; Wang, Haowei; Yang, Mei; Yang, Rui; Li, Xiangnan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    Although neuropathic pain is one of the most intractable diseases, recent studies indicate that systemic or local injection of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines release and alleviates neuropathic pain. However, it is still not clear whether pre-treated BMSCs have a strong anti-inflammatory and/or analgesia effect. Using the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain, IL-1β pre-treated BMSCs (IL-1β-BMSCs) were injected into rats followed by SNL in order to determine possible effects. Results indicated that IL-1β-BMSCs were more efficacious in both amelioration of neuropathic pain and inhibition of microglia activation. Specifically, microglia inhibition was found to be mediated by chemokine C-C motif ligand 7 (CCL7) but not CCL2. Results also showed that IL-1β-BMSCs had a stronger inhibitory effect on astrocyte activation as well as CCL7 release, which was found to be mediated by IL-10 not transforming growth factor-β1. In addition, we also found directional migration of IL-1β-BMSCs was mediated by inceased C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 13 expression following SNL. In conclusion, our results indicated IL-1β-BMSCs could inhibit microglia activation and neuropathic pain by decreasing CCL7 level in spinal cord. PMID:28195183

  17. Calorie restriction increases lipopolysaccharide-induced neuropeptide Y immunolabeling and reduces microglial cell area in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Radler, M E; Wright, B J; Walker, F R; Hale, M W; Kent, S

    2015-01-29

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity and elicits many health promoting benefits including delaying immunosenescence and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases. Although the mechanisms underlying the health-enhancing effects of CR are not known, a likely contributing factor is alterations in immune system functioning. CR suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, blocks LPS-induced fever, and shifts hypothalamic signaling pathways to an anti-inflammatory bias. Furthermore, we have recently shown that CR attenuates LPS-stimulated microglial activation in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region containing neurons that synthesize neuropeptide Y (NPY), an orexigenic neuropeptide that is upregulated by a CR diet and has anti-inflammatory properties. To determine if increased NPY expression in the ARC following CR was associated with changes in microglial activation, a set of brain sections from mice that were exposed to 50% CR or ad libitum feeding for 28 days before being injected with LPS were immunostained for NPY. The density of NPY-immunolabeling was assessed across the rostrocaudal extent of the ARC and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). An adjacent set of sections were immunostained for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba1) and immunostained microglia in the ARC were digitally reconstructed to investigate the effects of CR on microglial morphology. We demonstrated that exposure to CR increased NPY expression in the ARC, but not the PVN. Digital reconstruction of microglia revealed that LPS increased Iba1 intensity in ad libitum fed mice but had no effect on Iba1 intensity in CR mice. CR also decreased the size of ARC microglial cells following LPS. Correlational analyses revealed strong associations between NPY and body temperature, and body temperature and microglia area. Together these results suggest that CR-induced changes in NPY are not directly involved in the

  18. The attenuating effects of 1,2,3,4,6 penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose on inflammatory cytokines release from activated BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Bauer, David; Cobourne-Duval, Makini; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of neurodegeneration and dementia in the elderly. Dysregulated, chronic activation of microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, induces the release of excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines which has been implicated in the early stages of AD pathology. Therefore, suppressing the expression of these inflammatory mediators may decrease or delay the progression of AD. Many natural compounds derived from plants have shown anti-inflammatory activity. The naturally occurring 1,2,3,4,6 Penta-O-Galloyl-β-d-Glucose (PGG), is a polyphenolic compound highly enriched in Rhus chinensis Millplant. It is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that act through the inhibition of many cytokines in different experimental models. In the present study, we investigated the role of PGG as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS/IFNγ activated BV-2 microglia cells. Mouse cytokine antibody arrays were used to assess the effect of PGG on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and ELISA experiments were performed to validate the results from the arrays. The results obtained from the cytokine arrays, and ELISA assays showed that PGG decreased the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-5 (MCP-5) 8-fold, and pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Pro MMP-9) 10-fold. Both of these cytokines are upregulated during the inflammatory process and have been shown to be involved in brain injury, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of PGG on activated microglia involving the attenuation of MCP-5 and Pro MMP-9 cytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation.

  20. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exercise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation. PMID:28119873

  1. Microglial Cells Are Involved in the Susceptibility of NADPH Oxidase Knockout Mice to 6-Hydroxy-Dopamine-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S.; Santos, Graziella D. R.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Lima, Larissa S.; Scavone, Cristoforo; Munhoz, Carolina D.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the impact of Nox-2 in modulating inflammatory-mediated microglial responses in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) model. Nox1 and Nox2 gene expression were found to increase in striatum, whereas a marked increase of Nox2 expression was observed in substantia nigra (SN) of wild-type (wt) mice after PD induction. Gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice exhibited a significant reduction in the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, when compared to wt mice. Immunolabeling assays indicated that striatal 6-OHDA injections reduced the number of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the SN of wt mice. In gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice the DA degeneration was negligible, suggesting an involvement of Nox in 6-OHDA-mediated SN degeneration. Gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA-lesioned mice treated with minocycline, a tetracycline derivative that exerts multiple anti-inflammatory effects, including microglial inhibition, exhibited increased apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and degeneration of DA neurons after 6-OHDA injections. The same treatment also increased TNF-α release and potentiated NF-κB activation in the SN of gp91phox-/--lesioned mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of microglial cells increases the susceptibility of gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice to develop PD. Blockade of microglia leads to NF-κB activation and TNF-α release into the SN of gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice, a likely mechanism whereby gp91phox-/- 6-OHDA lesioned mice may be more susceptible to develop PD after microglial cell inhibition. Nox2 adds an essential level of regulation to signaling pathways underlying the inflammatory response after PD induction. PMID:24086556

  2. Microglial cells are involved in the susceptibility of NADPH oxidase knockout mice to 6-hydroxy-dopamine-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Marina S; Santos, Graziella D R; Café-Mendes, Cecília C; Lima, Larissa S; Scavone, Cristoforo; Munhoz, Carolina D; Britto, Luiz R G

    2013-01-01

    We explored the impact of Nox-2 in modulating inflammatory-mediated microglial responses in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) model. Nox1 and Nox2 gene expression were found to increase in striatum, whereas a marked increase of Nox2 expression was observed in substantia nigra (SN) of wild-type (wt) mice after PD induction. Gp91(phox-/-) 6-OHDA-lesioned mice exhibited a significant reduction in the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, when compared to wt mice. Immunolabeling assays indicated that striatal 6-OHDA injections reduced the number of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the SN of wt mice. In gp91(phox-/-) 6-OHDA-lesioned mice the DA degeneration was negligible, suggesting an involvement of Nox in 6-OHDA-mediated SN degeneration. Gp91(phox-/-) 6-OHDA-lesioned mice treated with minocycline, a tetracycline derivative that exerts multiple anti-inflammatory effects, including microglial inhibition, exhibited increased apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and degeneration of DA neurons after 6-OHDA injections. The same treatment also increased TNF-α release and potentiated NF-κB activation in the SN of gp91(phox-/-)-lesioned mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of microglial cells increases the susceptibility of gp91(phox-/-) 6-OHDA lesioned mice to develop PD. Blockade of microglia leads to NF-κB activation and TNF-α release into the SN of gp91(phox-/-) 6-OHDA lesioned mice, a likely mechanism whereby gp91(phox-/-) 6-OHDA lesioned mice may be more susceptible to develop PD after microglial cell inhibition. Nox2 adds an essential level of regulation to signaling pathways underlying the inflammatory response after PD induction.

  3. The age-related attenuation in long-term potentiation is associated with microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Rebecca; Nally, Rachel; Nolan, Yvonne; McCartney, Yvonne; Linden, James; Lynch, Marina A

    2006-11-01

    It is well established that inflammatory changes contribute to brain ageing, and an increased concentration of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), has been reported in the aged brain associated with a deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampus. The precise age at which changes are initiated is unclear. In this study, we investigate parallel changes in markers of inflammation and LTP in 3-, 9- and 15-month-old rats. We report evidence of increased hippocampal concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-18 and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), which are accompanied by deficits in LTP in the older rats. We also show an increase in expression of markers of microglial activation, CD86, CD40 and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM). Associated with these changes, we observed a significant impairment of hippocampal LTP in the same rats. The importance of microglial activation in the attenuation of long-term potentiation (LTP) was demonstrated using an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline; partial restoration of LTP in 15-month-old rats was observed following administration of minocycline. We propose that signs of neuroinflammation are observed in middle age and that these changes, which are characterized by microglial activation, may be triggered by IL-18.

  4. NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2
    1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

  5. NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2
    1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

  6. Phenotypic dynamics of microglial and monocyte-derived cells in glioblastoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Clément; Tchoghandjian, Aurélie; Luche, Hervé; Grenot, Pierre; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Rougon, Geneviève; Malissen, Marie; Debarbieux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cells, an integral component of tumor evolution, are present in Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). To address the cellular basis and dynamics of the inflammatory microenvironment in GBM, we established an orthotopic syngenic model by grafting GL261-DsRed cells in immunocompetent transgenic LysM-EGFP//CD11c-EYFP reporter mice. We combined dynamic spectral two-photon imaging with multiparametric cytometry and multicolor immunostaining to characterize spatio-temporal distribution, morphology and activity of microglia and blood-derived infiltrating myeloid cells in live mice. Early stages of tumor development were dominated by microglial EYFP+ cells invading the tumor, followed by massive recruitment of circulating LysM-EGFP+ cells. Fluorescent invading cells were conventional XCR1+ and monocyte-derived dendritic cells distributed in subpopulations of different maturation stages, located in different areas relative to the tumor core. The lethal stage of the disease was characterized by the progressive accumulation of EGFP+/EYFP+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells. This local phenotypic regulation of monocyte subtypes marked a transition in the immune response. PMID:27193333

  7. CAPILLARY BLOOD FLOW AROUND MICROGLIAL SOMATA DETERMINES DYNAMICS OF MICROGLIAL PROCESSES IN ISCHEMIC CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Tadashi; Croom, Deborah; Hida, Hideki; Kirov, Sergei A.

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain. Under normal conditions resting ramified microglia constantly extend and retract fine processes while performing immunological surveillance. In ischemia, microglia become activated as demonstrated by morphological changes during deramification leading to transformation from ramified to amoeboid form. In vivo two-photon microscopy of EGFP-expressing microglia in mouse neocortex was used to examine microglial dynamics during the early periods of focal and global ischemia. A penumbra-like “area-at-risk” surrounded by a square-shaped area of severely hypoperfused tissue was created by laser-induced photothrombosis. The dynamics of microglial processes in the area-at-risk were strongly correlated with capillary blood flow (BF) measured within 10 μm of microglial somata. Changes in BF around distal microglial processes (>30 μm from somata) had no effect on microglial dynamics. A severe reduction of capillary BF near somata by 84±6% resulted in initiation of microglial deramification, suggesting activation. A moderate decrease in BF near somata by 22±5% or increase by 87±10%, reflecting a redistribution of capillary BF, had no effect on microglial morphology. Complete BF loss during cardiac arrest (CA) or transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) entirely stalled all microglial processes without structural changes. Reperfusion after BCCAO induced recovery of microglial dynamics to pre-occlusion values. These findings suggest that during ischemia, the severe drop in BF around microglial somata coincides with morphological activation. However, this activation requires some residual BF because complete perfusion loss (as during BCCAO and CA) did not support microglial deramification. PMID:21800362

  8. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and microglial activation are not mediated by fractalkine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2008-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) damages dopamine (DA) nerve endings by a process that has been linked to microglial activation but the signaling pathways that mediate this response have not yet been delineated. Cardona et al. [Nat. Neurosci. 9 (2006), 917] recently identified the microglial-specific fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) as an important mediator of MPTP-induced neurodegeneration of DA neurons. Because the CNS damage caused by METH and MPTP is highly selective for the DA neuronal system in mouse models of neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that the CX3CR1 plays a role in METH-induced neurotoxicity and microglial activation. Mice in which the CX3CR1 gene has been deleted and replaced with a cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) were treated with METH and examined for striatal neurotoxicity. METH depleted DA, caused microglial activation, and increased body temperature in CX3CR1 knockout mice to the same extent and over the same time course seen in wild-type controls. The effects of METH in CX3CR1 knockout mice were not gender-dependent and did not extend beyond the striatum. Striatal microglia expressing eGFP constitutively show morphological changes after METH that are characteristic of activation. This response was restricted to the striatum and contrasted sharply with unresponsive eGFP-microglia in surrounding brain areas that are not damaged by METH. We conclude from these studies that CX3CR1 signaling does not modulate METH neurotoxicity or microglial activation. Furthermore, it appears that striatal-resident microglia respond to METH with an activation cascade and then return to a surveying state without undergoing apoptosis or migration.

  9. Diversity and plasticity of microglial cells in psychiatric and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Recent advanced immunological analyses have revealed that the diversity and plasticity of macrophages lead to the identification of functional polarization states (classically activated M1 type and alternatively activated M2 type) which are dependent on the extracellular environment. M1 and M2 polarization states of macrophages play an important role in controlling the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory conditions. Microglial cells are resident mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), express several macrophage-associated markers, and appear to display functional polarization states similar to macrophages. Like M1 macrophages, M1 polarized microglia can produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators such as interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, CC-chemokine ligand 2, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species, suggesting that these molecules contribute to dysfunction of neural network in the CNS. On the other hand, M2 polarized microglia can produce anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 and express several receptors that are implicated in inhibiting inflammation and restoring homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the diversity, plasticity, and immunoregulatory functions of M1 and M2 microglia in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Based on these aspects, we propose a contribution of imbalance between M1 and M2 polarization of microglia in bipolar disorder, obesity, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Rett syndrome. Consequently, molecules that normalize the imbalance between M1 and M2 microglial polarization states may provide a beneficial therapeutic target for the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prolyl endopeptidase is revealed following SILAC analysis to be a novel mediator of human microglial and THP-1 cell neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Klegeris, Andis; Li, Jane; Bammler, Theo K; Jin, Jinghua; Zhu, David; Kashima, Daniel T; Pan, Sheng; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Maguire, John; McGeer, Patrick L; Zhang, Jing

    2008-04-15

    Reactive microglial cells may exacerbate the pathology in some neurodegenerative disorders. Supernatants of stimulated human microglial cells, or their surrogate THP-1 cells, are lethal to cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. To explore this neurotoxicity, we examined the spectrum of proteins generated by THP-1 cells using the technique of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Unstimulated cells were grown in medium with light L-[(12)C(6)] arginine while cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were grown in medium with heavy L-[(13)C(6)] arginine. Proteins isolated from the media were digested with trypsin, and relative concentrations of generated peptides determined by mass spectrometry. More than 1,500 proteins or putative proteins were identified. Of these, 174 were increased and 189 decreased by more than twofold in the stimulated cell supernatant. We selected one upregulated protein, prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), for further investigation of its potential contribution to neurotoxicity. We first confirmed its upregulation by comparing its enzymatic activity in stimulated and unstimulated cell supernatants. We then evaluated two specific PEP inhibitors, Boc-Asn-Phe-Pro-aldehyde and Z-Pro-Pro-aldehyde-dimethyl acetal, for their potential to reduce toxicity of stimulated THP-1 cell and human microglia supernatants towards SH-SY5Y cells. We found both to be partially protective in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of PEP may be a therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

  11. Polymer brain-nanotherapeutics for multipronged inhibition of microglial α-synuclein aggregation, activation, and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Neal K; Chmielowski, Rebecca; Abdelhamid, Dalia S; Faig, Jonathan J; Francis, Nicola; Baum, Jean; Pang, Zhiping P; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2016-12-01

    Neuroinflammation, a common neuropathologic feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease (PD), is frequently exacerbated by microglial activation. The extracellular protein α-synuclein (ASYN), whose aggregation is characteristic of PD, remains a key therapeutic target, but the control of synuclein trafficking and aggregation within microglia has been challenging. First, we established that microglial internalization of monomeric ASYN was mediated by scavenger receptors (SR), CD36 and SRA1, and was rapidly accompanied by the formation of ASYN oligomers. Next, we designed a nanotechnology approach to regulate SR-mediated intracellular ASYN trafficking within microglia. We synthesized mucic acid-derivatized sugar-based amphiphilic molecules (AM) with optimal stereochemistry, rigidity, and charge for enhanced dual binding affinity to SRs and fabricated serum-stable nanoparticles via flash nanoprecipitation comprising hydrophobe cores and amphiphile shells. Treatment of microglia with AM nanoparticles decreased monomeric ASYN internalization and intracellular ASYN oligomer formation. We then engineered composite deactivating NPs with dual character, namely shell-based SR-binding amphiphiles, and core-based antioxidant poly (ferrulic acid), to investigate concerted inhibition of oxidative activation. In ASYN-challenged microglia treated with NPs, we observed decreased ASYN-mediated acute microglial activation and diminished microglial neurotoxicity caused by exposure to aggregated ASYN. When the composite NPs were administered in vivo within the substantia nigra of fibrillar ASYN-challenged wild type mice, there was marked attenuation of activated microglia. Overall, SR-targeting AM nanotechnology represents a novel paradigm in alleviating microglial activation in the context of synucleinopathies like PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Isoflurane preconditioning provides neuroprotection against stroke by regulating the expression of the TLR4 signalling pathway to alleviate microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meiyan; Deng, Bin; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Gao, Changjun; Yang, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Daihua; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Lixian; Chen, Lei; Sun, Xude

    2015-01-01

    Excessive microglial activation often contributes to inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity in the ischemic penumbra during the acute stage of ischemic stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to induce microglial activation via the NF-κB pathway. Isoflurane preconditioning (IP) can provide neuroprotection and inhibit microglial activation. In this study, we investigated the roles of the TLR4 signalling pathway in IP to exert neuroprotection following ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that 2% IP alleviated neurological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, attenuated apoptosis and weakened microglial activation in the ischemic penumbra. Furthermore, IP down-regulated the expression of HSP 60, TLR4 and MyD88 and up-regulated inhibitor of IκB-α expression compared with I/R group in vivo. In vitro, 2% IP and a specific inhibitor of TLR4, CLI-095, down-regulated the expression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-1β, TNF-α and Bax, and up-regulated IκB-α and Bcl-2 expression compared with OGD group. Moreover, IP and CLI-095 attenuated microglial activation-induced neuronal apoptosis, and overexpression of the TLR4 gene reversed the neuroprotective effects of IP. In conclusion, IP provided neuroprotection by regulating TLR4 expression directly, alleviating microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Thus, inhibiting the activation of microglial activation via TLR4 may be a new avenue for stroke treatment. PMID:26086415

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α contributes to Toll-like receptor 2-mediated immune responses in microglial cells stimulated with lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Thi Ngoc; Seo, Eunjeong; Choi, Juyong; Le, Oanh Thi Tu; Kim, Ji Yun; Jou, Ilo; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells. Treatment of BV2 microglial cells with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a TLR2 agonist, increased PIP5Kα expression in BV2 and primary microglial cells, but not in primary cultures from TLR2-deficient mice. PIP5Kα knockdown of BV2 cells with shRNA significantly suppressed LTA-induced activation of TLR2 downstream signaling, including the production of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-κB, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase. Such suppression was reversed by complementation of PIP5Kα. PIP5Kα knockdown lowered PIP2 levels and impaired LTA-induced plasma membrane targeting of TIRAP, a PIP2-dependent adaptor required for TLR2 activation. Besides, PIP5Kα knockdown inhibited phagocytic uptake of E. coli particles and autophagy-related vesicle formation triggered by LTA. Taken together, these results support that PIP5Kα can positively mediate TLR2-associated immune responses through PIP2 production in microglial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation and culture of amoeboid microglial cells from the corpus callosum and cavum septum pellucidum in postnatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A; Tseng, C Y; Voon, F C; Wong, W C

    1983-01-01

    In phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy, diverse structural forms of cells tenaciously adherent to glass coverslips were observed in the culture of the corpus callosum and cavum septum pellucidum from postnatal rats. In day 1 culture, many of the cultured cells were round, with well spread peripheral cytoplasm which appeared homogeneous. Cell organelles aggregated mainly around the reniform or round nucleus. Some cells showed spinous projections. In day 3-5 culture, the cells became irregular, sending out long branching pseudopodial processes; often they displayed a vacuolated cytoplasm. The cultured cells were highly phagocytic, as shown by their uptake of colloidal carbon particles and latex beads, in light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Cytochemical studies have shown that the cells were peroxidase-negative but were strongly positive for non-specific esterase, similar to the amoeboid microglial cells in the postnatal corpus callosum. On the basis of their structural features, both in phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy, experimental as well as cytochemical properties, it is concluded that the cells in the present culture are in fact amoeboid microglial cells which are active macrophages in the developing corpus callosum. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs. 4-5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-15 (cont.) Figs. 12-15 Fig. 16 PMID:6355037

  15. Thymoquinone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Weina; Zhang, Wenjie; Fang, Liqun

    2015-05-01

    Thymoquinone, the major active compound isolated from the medicinal Nigella sativa, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of thymoquinone on LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The effects of thymoquinone on inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, NO and PGE2 production were detected by ELISA. The effects of thymoquinone on PI3K, Akt phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation were detected by western blot analysis. Our results showed that thymoquinone dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, NO and PGE2 production. Thymoquinone also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Furthermore, thymoquinone was found to inhibit LPS-induced PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, which were upstream molecules of NF-κB. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that thymoquinone might inhibit LPS-induced PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, which leading to the inhibition of NF-κB activation and inflammatory mediator production in BV2 microglia cells.

  16. Identification of a novel dehydroergosterol enhancing microglial anti-inflammatory activity in a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE) as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body by consumption of

  17. Identification of a Novel Dehydroergosterol Enhancing Microglial Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Dairy Product Fermented with Penicillium candidum

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE) as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body by consumption of

  18. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors in Müller glia is protective to retinal neurons and suppresses microglial reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gallina, Donika; Zelinka, Christopher Paul; Cebulla, Colleen; Fischer, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive microglia and macrophages are prevalent in damaged retinas. Glucocorticoid signaling is known to suppress inflammation and the reactivity of microglia and macrophages. In the vertebrate retina, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) is known to be activated and localized to the nuclei of Müller glia (Gallina et al., 2014). Accordingly, we investigated how signaling through GCR influences the survival of neurons using the chick retina in vivo as a model system. We applied intraocular injections of GCR agonist or antagonist, assessed microglial reactivity, and the survival of retinal neurons following different damage paradigms. Microglial reactivity was increased in retinas from eyes that were injected with vehicle, and this reactivity was decreased by GCR-agonist dexamethasone (Dex) and increased by GCR-antagonist RU486. We found that activation of GCR suppresses the reactivity of microglia and inhibited the loss of retinal neurons resulting from excitotoxicity. We provide evidence that the protection-promoting effects of Dex were maintained when the microglia were selectively ablated. Similarly, intraocular injections of Dex protected ganglion cells from colchicine-treatment and protected photoreceptors from damage caused by retinal detachment. We conclude that activation of GCR promotes the survival of ganglion cells in colchicine-damaged retinas, promotes the survival of amacrine and bipolar cells in excitotoxin-damaged retinas, and promotes the survival of photoreceptors in detached retinas. We propose that suppression of microglial reactivity is secondary to activation of GCR in Müller glia, and this mode of signaling is an effective means to lessen the damage and vision loss resulting from different types of retinal damage. PMID:26272753

  19. Complex Roles of Microglial Cells in Ischemic Stroke Pathobiology: New Insights and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Guruswamy, Revathy; ElAli, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke constitutes the major cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. The interest in microglia arose from the evidence outlining the role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke pathobiology. Microglia constitute the powerhouse of innate immunity in the brain. Microglial cells are highly ramified, and use these ramifications as sentinels to detect changes in brain homeostasis. Once a danger signal is recognized, cells become activated and mount specialized responses that range from eliminating cell debris to secreting inflammatory signals and trophic factors. Originally, it was suggested that microglia play essentially a detrimental role in ischemic stroke. However, recent reports are providing evidence that the role of these cells is more complex than what was originally thought. Although these cells play detrimental role in the acute phase, they are required for tissue regeneration in the post-acute phases. This complex role of microglia in ischemic stroke pathobiology constitutes a major challenge for the development of efficient immunomodulatory therapies. This review aims at providing an overview regarding the role of resident microglia and peripherally recruited macrophages in ischemic pathobiology. Furthermore, the review will highlight future directions towards the development of novel fine-tuning immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions. PMID:28245599

  20. Complex Roles of Microglial Cells in Ischemic Stroke Pathobiology: New Insights and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Guruswamy, Revathy; ElAli, Ayman

    2017-02-25

    Ischemic stroke constitutes the major cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. The interest in microglia arose from the evidence outlining the role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke pathobiology. Microglia constitute the powerhouse of innate immunity in the brain. Microglial cells are highly ramified, and use these ramifications as sentinels to detect changes in brain homeostasis. Once a danger signal is recognized, cells become activated and mount specialized responses that range from eliminating cell debris to secreting inflammatory signals and trophic factors. Originally, it was suggested that microglia play essentially a detrimental role in ischemic stroke. However, recent reports are providing evidence that the role of these cells is more complex than what was originally thought. Although these cells play detrimental role in the acute phase, they are required for tissue regeneration in the post-acute phases. This complex role of microglia in ischemic stroke pathobiology constitutes a major challenge for the development of efficient immunomodulatory therapies. This review aims at providing an overview regarding the role of resident microglia and peripherally recruited macrophages in ischemic pathobiology. Furthermore, the review will highlight future directions towards the development of novel fine-tuning immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions.

  1. HIV-1 Tat Primes and Activates Microglial NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Chivero, Ernest T; Guo, Ming-Lei; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Liao, Ke; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2017-03-29

    implicated in promoting the chronic inflammation found in these individuals. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins such as HIV-1 Transactivator of Transcription (Tat) protein can activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. Herein, we demonstrate a novel role of Tat in priming and activating NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in microglial cells and in HIV-Tg rats administered lipopolysaccharide. Targeting NLRP3 inflammasome pathway mediators could thus be developed as therapeutic interventions to alleviate or prevent neuroinflammation and subsequent cognitive impairment in HIV-positive patients.

  2. CD74 indicates microglial activation in experimental diabetic retinopathy and exogenous methylglyoxal mimics the response in normoglycemic retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Jihong; Schlotterer, Andreas; Wu, Liang; Fleming, Thomas; Busch, Stephanie; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes induces vasoregression, neurodegeneration and glial activation in the retina. Formation of advanced glycation endoproducts (AGEs) is increased in diabetes and contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. CD74 is increased in activated microglia in a rat model developing both neurodegeneration and vasoregression. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether glucose and major AGE precursor methylglyoxal induce increased CD74 expression in the retina. Expression of CD74 in retinal microglia was analyzed in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by wholemount immunofluorescence. Nondiabetic mice were intravitreally injected with methylglyoxal. Expression of CD74 was studied by retinal wholemount immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR, 48 h after the injection. CD74-positive cells were increased in diabetic 4-month retinas. These cells represented a subpopulation of CD11b-labeled activated microglia and were mainly located in the superficial vascular layer (13.7-fold increase compared to nondiabetic group). Methylglyoxal induced an 9.4-fold increase of CD74-positive cells in the superficial vascular layer and elevated gene expression of CD74 in the mouse retina 2.8-fold. In summary, we identified CD74 as a microglial activation marker in the diabetic retina. Exogenous methylglyoxal mimics the response in normoglycemic retina. This suggests that methylglyoxal is important in mediating microglial activation in the diabetic retina.

  3. Intracellular delivery of dendrimer triamcinolone acetonide conjugates into microglial and human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Siva P.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Oh, Yumin; Lutty, Gerard A.; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2016-01-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a potent, intermediate-acting, steroid that has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activity. Intravitreal administration of TA has been used for diabetic macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the hydrophobicity, lack of solubility, and the side effects limit its effectiveness in the treatment of retinal diseases. In this study, we explore a PAMAM dendrimer-TA conjugate (D-TA) as a potential strategy to improve intracellular delivery and efficacy of TA to target cells. The conjugates were prepared with a high drug payload (~21%) and were readily soluble in saline. Compared to free TA, D-TA demonstrated a significantly improved toxicity profile in two important target [microglial and human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)] cells. The D-TA was ~100-fold more effective than free TA in its anti-inflammatory activity (measured in microglia), and in suppressing VEGF production (in hypoxic RPE cells). Dendrimer-based delivery may improve the efficacy of TA towards both its key targets of inflammation and VEGF production, with significant clinical implications. PMID:25701805

  4. Mitochondrial lysates induce inflammation and Alzheimer's disease-relevant changes in microglial and neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Carl, Steven M; Weber, Sam G; Ramanujan, Suruchi A; Festoff, Barry W; Linseman, Daniel A; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While AD genetic studies implicate inflammation-relevant genes and fibrillar amyloid-β protein promotes inflammation, our understanding of AD neuroinflammation nevertheless remains incomplete. In this study we hypothesized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules arising from mitochondria, intracellular organelles that resemble bacteria, could contribute to AD neuroinflammation. To preliminarily test this possibility, we exposed neuronal and microglial cell lines to enriched mitochondrial lysates. BV2 microglial cells treated with mitochondrial lysates showed decreased TREM2 mRNA, increased TNFα mRNA, increased MMP-8 mRNA, increased IL-8 mRNA, redistribution of NFκB to the nucleus, and increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells treated with mitochondrial lysates showed increased TNFα mRNA, increased NFκB protein, decreased IκBα protein, increased AβPP mRNA, and increased AβPP protein. Enriched mitochondrial lysates from SH-SY5Y cells lacking detectable mitochondrial DNA (ρ0 cells) failed to induce any of these changes, while mtDNA obtained directly from mitochondria (but not PCR-amplified mtDNA) increased BV2 cell TNFα mRNA. These results indicate at least one mitochondrial-derived DAMP molecule, mtDNA, can induce inflammatory changes in microglial and neuronal cell lines. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that a mitochondrial-derived DAMP molecule or molecules could contribute to AD neuroinflammation.

  5. Microglial activation in multiple system atrophy: a potential role for NF-kappaB/rel proteins.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, S C; Seufferlein, T; Liptay, S; Schmid, R M; Kasischke, K; Foster, O J; Daniel, S; Schwarz, J

    1998-09-14

    Microglial activation is a prominent feature of affected brain areas in multiple system atrophy. Microglia express proinflammatory peptides, which may be a result of activation of nuclear factor-KB. We investigated the nuclear presence of RelA, the 65 kDa subunit of the NF-KB/RelA family in striatum and brain stem of patients with multiple system atrophy. Affected brain areas of patients with multiple system atrophy showed a marked immunoreactivity for nuclear Rel A p65, which was almost exclusively localized in activated microglia. Interestingly nuclear translocation of Rel A was not detected in striatal tissue of controls and Parkinson disease patients. Thus, NF-kappaB/Rel A complexes may play a role in mediating microglial activation in multiple system atrophy.

  6. Anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in microglial cells involve toll-like receptor-related pathways.

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Glombik, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Budziszewska, Boguslawa; Kubera, Marta; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Lason, Wladyslaw; Mika, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of microglia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of depression. Activated microglia produce a wide range of factors whose prolonged or excessive release may lead to brain disorders. Thus, the inhibition of microglial cells may be beneficial in the treatment of depressive diseases. Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant drug with proven clinical efficacy, but its mechanism of action remains still not fully understood. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether tianeptine modifies microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and which intracellular pathways are involved in the activity of this antidepressant. Our study shows that tianeptine attenuated the LPS-evoked inflammatory activation of microglia by decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Analyses of signaling pathways demonstrate that tianeptine led to the suppression of LPS-induced TLR4 expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, our study reveals the inhibitory impact of tianeptine on caspase-3-induced PKCδ degradation and consequently on the activation of NF-κB factor in microglial cells. Taken together, present results show anti-inflammatory properties of tianeptine in microglial cultures stimulated by LPS. This study provides evidence that the inhibition of microglial activation may underlie the therapeutic activity of tianeptine. Our findings show the anti-inflammatory effect of tianeptine (TIA) in lipopolisaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. The beneficial tianeptine action is mediated through the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression as well as the TLR4-related pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), caspase-3-dependent protein kinase δ (PKC

  7. Coordinated role of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Na+/H+ exchanger in sustaining microglial activation during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad M; Sonsalla, Patricia K; Richardson, Jason R

    2013-12-01

    Persistent neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an integral role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. We investigated the role of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHE) in the activation of immortalized microglial cells (BV-2) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. LPS (10 and 100 ng/ml) caused a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of intracellular sodium [(Na(+))i] in BV-2 cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the VGSC antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM) abolished short-term Na(+) influx, but was unable to prevent the accumulation of (Na(+))i observed at 6 and 24h after LPS exposure. The NHE inhibitor cariporide (1 μM) significantly reduced accumulation of (Na(+))i 6 and 24h after LPS exposure. Furthermore, LPS increased the mRNA expression and protein level of NHE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced after co-treatment with TTX and/or cariporide. LPS increased production of TNF-α, ROS, and H2O2 and expression of gp91(phox), an active subunit of NADPH oxidase, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced by TTX or TTX+cariporide. Collectively, these data demonstrate a closely-linked temporal relationship between VGSC and NHE-1 in regulating function in activated microglia, which may provide avenues for therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neuroinflammation.

  8. Effects of triptolide on hippocampal microglial cells and astrocytes in the APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-ming; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Liang; Chen, Yong-heng; Gao, Qian; Bao, Mei-hua; Xiang, Ju; Lei, De-liang

    2016-01-01

    The principal pathology of Alzheimer's disease includes neuronal extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta peptides and formation of senile plaques, which in turn induce neuroinflammation in the brain. Triptolide, a natural extract from the vine-like herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive efficacy. Therefore, we determined if triptolide can inhibit activation and proliferation of microglial cells and astrocytes in the APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. We used 1 or 5 μg/kg/d triptolide to treat APP/PS1 double transgenic mice (aged 4–4.5 months) for 45 days. Unbiased stereology analysis found that triptolide dose-dependently reduced the total number of microglial cells, and transformed microglial cells into the resting state. Further, triptolide (5 μg/kg/d) also reduced the total number of hippocampal astrocytes. Our in vivo test results indicate that triptolide suppresses activation and proliferation of microglial cells and astrocytes in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27857756

  9. The classification of microglial activation phenotypes on neurodegeneration and regeneration in Alzheimer’s disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Megan M.; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline of cognitive function and memory formation. There is no therapeutic that can halt or reverse its progression. Contemporary research suggests that age-dependent neuroinflammatory changes may play a significant role in the decreased neurogenesis and cognitive impairments in AD. The innate immune response is characterized by pro-inflammatory (M1) activation of macrophages and subsequent production of specific cytokines, chemokines, and reactive intermediates, followed by resolution and alternative activation for anti-inflammatory signaling (M2a) and wound healing (M2c). We propose that microglial activation phenotypes are analogous to those of macrophages and that their activation plays a significant role in regulating neurogenesis in the brain. Microglia undergo a switch from an M2- to an M1-skewed activation phenotype during aging. This review will assess the neuroimmunological studies that led to characterization of the different microglial activation states using AD mouse models. It will also discuss the roles of microglial activation on neurogenesis in AD and propose anti-inflammatory molecules as exciting therapeutic targets for research. Molecules like interleukin-4 and CD200 have proven to be important anti-inflammatory molecules in the regulation of neuroinflammation in the brain, and they will be discussed in detail for their therapeutic potential. PMID:22710659

  10. The classification of microglial activation phenotypes on neurodegeneration and regeneration in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Varnum, Megan M; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2012-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline of cognitive function. There is no therapy that can halt or reverse its progression. Contemporary research suggests that age-dependent neuroinflammatory changes may play a significant role in the decreased neurogenesis and cognitive impairments in AD. The innate immune response is characterized by pro-inflammatory (M1) activation of macrophages and subsequent production of specific cytokines, chemokines, and reactive intermediates, followed by resolution and alternative activation for anti-inflammatory signaling (M2a) and wound healing (M2c). We propose that microglial activation phenotypes are analogous to those of macrophages and that their activation plays a significant role in regulating neurogenesis in the brain. Microglia undergo a switch from an M2- to an M1-skewed activation phenotype during aging. This review will assess the neuroimmunological studies that led to characterization of the different microglial activation states in AD mouse models. It will also discuss the roles of microglial activation on neurogenesis in AD and propose anti-inflammatory molecules as exciting therapeutic targets for research. Molecules such as interleukin-4 and CD200 have proven to be important anti-inflammatory mediators in the regulation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which will be discussed in detail for their therapeutic potential.

  11. Fosb gene products contribute to excitotoxic microglial activation by regulating the expression of complement C5a receptors in microglia

    PubMed Central

    Nomaru, Hiroko; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Katogi, Atsuhisa; Ohnishi, Yoshinori N; Kajitani, Kosuke; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Nestler, Eric J.; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    The Fosb gene encodes subunits of the activator protein-1 transcription factor complex. Two mature mRNAs, Fosb and ΔFosb, encoding full-length FOSB and ΔFOSB proteins respectively, are formed by alternative splicing of Fosb mRNA. Fosb products are expressed in several brain regions. Moreover, Fosb-null mice exhibit depressive-like behaviors and adult-onset spontaneous epilepsy, demonstrating important roles in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Study of Fosb products has focused almost exclusively on neurons; their function in glial cells remains to be explored. In this study, we found that microglia express equivalent levels of Fosb and ΔFosb mRNAs to hippocampal neurons and, using microarray analysis, we identified six microglial genes whose expression is dependent on Fosb products. Of these genes, we focused on C5ar1 and C5ar2, which encode receptors for complement C5a. In isolated Fosb-null microglia, chemotactic responsiveness toward the truncated form of C5a was significantly lower than that in wild-type cells. Fosb-null mice were significantly resistant to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type mice. C5ar1 mRNA levels and C5aR1 immunoreactivity were increased in wild-type hippocampus 24 hours after kainate administration; however, such induction was significantly reduced in Fosb-null hippocampus. Furthermore, microglial activation after kainate administration was significantly diminished in Fosb-null hippocampus, as shown by significant reductions in CD68 immunoreactivity, morphological change and reduced levels of Il6 and Tnf mRNAs, although no change in the number of Iba-1-positive cells was observed. These findings demonstrate that, under excitotoxicity, Fosb products contribute to a neuroinflammatory response in the hippocampus through regulation of microglial C5ar1 and C5ar2 expression. PMID:24771617

  12. Modest amyloid deposition is associated with iron dysregulation, microglial activation, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Joseph J; Finnegan, Mary E; Grehan, Belinda; Dobson, Jon; Collingwood, Joanna F; Lynch, Marina A

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established literature indicating a relationship between iron in brain tissue and Alzheimer's disease (AD). More recently, it has become clear that AD is associated with neuroinflammatory and oxidative changes which probably result from microglial activation. In this study, we investigated the correlative changes in microglial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation in a mouse model of AD which exhibits early-stage amyloid deposition. Microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of intact brain tissue sections prepared from AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice revealed the presence of magnetite, a mixed-valence iron oxide, and local elevations in iron levels in tissue associated with amyloid-β-containing plaques. The evidence indicates that the expression of markers of microglial activation, CD11b and CD68, and astrocytic activation, GFAP, were increased, and were histochemically determined to be adjacent to amyloid-β-containing plaques. These findings support the contention that, in addition to glial activation and oxidative stress, iron dysregulation is an early event in AD pathology.

  13. Mucopolysaccharide diseases: a complex interplay between neuroinflammation, microglial activation and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Archer, Louise D; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Bigger, Brian W; Fildes, James E

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharide (MPS) diseases are lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by deficiencies in enzymes required for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism. Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), MPS IIIA, MPS IIIB and MPS VII are deficient in the enzymes α-L-Iduronidase, Heparan-N-Sulphatase, N-Acetylglucosaminidase and Beta-Glucuronidase, respectively. Enzyme deficiency leads to the progressive multi-systemic build-up of heparan sulphate (HS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) within cellular lysosomes, followed by cell, tissue and organ damage and in particular neurodegeneration. Clinical manifestations of MPS are well established; however as lysosomes represent vital components of immune cells, it follows that lysosomal accumulation of GAGs could affect diverse immune functions and therefore influence disease pathogenesis. Theoretically, MPS neurodegeneration and GAGs could be substantiating a threat of danger and damage to alert the immune system for cellular clearance, which due to the progressive nature of MPS storage would propagate disease pathogenesis. Innate immunity appears to have a key role in MPS; however the extent of adaptive immune involvement remains to be elucidated. The current literature suggests a complex interplay between neuroinflammation, microglial activation and adaptive immunity in MPS disease.

  14. Photoreceptor proteins initiate microglial activation via Toll-like receptor 4 in retinal degeneration mediated by all-trans-retinal.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Hideo; Chen, Yu; Kevany, Brian M; Pearlman, Eric; Miyagi, Masaru; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Maeda, Akiko

    2013-05-24

    Although several genetic and biochemical factors are associated with the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, it has yet to be determined how these different impairments can cause similar degenerative phenotypes. Here, we report microglial/macrophage activation in both a Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration mouse model caused by delayed clearance of all-trans-retinal from the retina, and in a retinitis pigmentosa mouse model with impaired retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis. Mouse microglia displayed RPE cytotoxicity and increased production of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, Ccl2, Il1b, and Tnf, after coincubation with ligands that activate innate immunity. Notably, phagocytosis of photoreceptor proteins increased the activation of microglia/macrophages and RPE cells isolated from model mice as well as wild-type mice. The mRNA levels of Tlr2 and Tlr4, which can recognize proteins as their ligands, were elevated in mice with retinal degeneration. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Tlr4-deficient mice did not increase Ccl2 after coincubation with photoreceptor proteins. Tlr4(-/-)Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice displayed milder retinal degenerative phenotypes than Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Additionally, inactivation of microglia/macrophages by pharmacological approaches attenuated mouse retinal degeneration. This study demonstrates an important contribution of TLR4-mediated microglial activation by endogenous photoreceptor proteins in retinal inflammation that aggravates retinal cell death. This pathway is likely to represent an underlying common pathology in degenerative retinal disorders.

  15. Brain Transforming Growth Factor-β Resists Hypertension Via Regulating Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Shen, Xiao Z; Li, Liang; Zhao, Tuantuan V; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Johnson, Alan K; Lyden, Patrick; Fang, Jianmin; Shi, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. Recent work unveiled that hypertension is associated with chronic neuroinflammation; microglia are the major players in neuroinflammation, and the activated microglia elevate sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. This study is to understand how brain homeostasis is kept from hypertensive disturbance and microglial activation at the onset of hypertension. Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous delivery of angiotensin II, and blood pressure was monitored in conscious animals. Microglial activity was analyzed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Antibody, pharmacological chemical, and recombinant cytokine were administered to the brain through intracerebroventricular infusion. Microglial depletion was performed by intracerebroventricular delivering diphtheria toxin to CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor mice. Gene expression profile in sympathetic controlling nucleus was analyzed by customized qRT-PCR array. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is constitutively expressed in the brains of normotensive mice. Removal of TGF-β or blocking its signaling before hypertension induction accelerated hypertension progression, whereas supplementation of TGF-β1 substantially suppressed neuroinflammation, kidney norepinephrine level, and blood pressure. By means of microglial depletion and adoptive transfer, we showed that the effects of TGF-β on hypertension are mediated through microglia. In contrast to the activated microglia in established hypertension, the resting microglia are immunosuppressive and important in maintaining neural homeostasis at the onset of hypertension. Further, we profiled the signature molecules of neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity associated with hypertension and TGF-β by qRT-PCR array. Our results identify that TGF-β-modulated microglia are critical to keeping brain homeostasis responding to hypertensive disturbance. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. A label-free impedance-based whole cell assay revealed a new G protein-coupled receptor ligand for mouse microglial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasufumi; Okino, Nozomu; Furuya, Shigeki; Ito, Makoto

    2016-09-16

    We report the usefulness of an impedance-based label-free whole cell assay to identify new ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in microglial cell migration. Authentic GPCR ligands were subjected to the impedance-based cell assay in order to examine the responses of ligands for MG5 mouse microglial cells. Complement component 5 (C5a), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) were found to elicit different cellular impedance patterns, i.e. C5a, ADP, and UTP caused a transient increase in cellular impedance, while LPA and LysoPS decreased it. The responses for C5a and ADP were abolished by pertussis toxin (PTX), but not rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, indicating that C5a and ADP elicited responses through the Gαi pathway. On the other hand, the response for UTP, LPA or LysoPS was not cancelled by PTX or Y-27632. In a modified Boyden chamber assay, C5a and ADP, but not UTP, LPA, or LysoPS, induced the migration of MG5 cells. These results suggest that PTX-sensitive increase in cellular impedance with the assay is characteristic for ligands of GPCRs involved in microglial cell migration. We found using this assay that 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is a new chemoattractant inducing microglial cell migration through the activation of Gαi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microglial activation by Citrobacter koseri is mediated by TLR4- and MyD88-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuliang; Kielian, Tammy

    2009-11-01

    Citrobacter koseri is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause a highly aggressive form of neonatal meningitis, which often progresses to establish multifocal brain abscesses. Despite its tropism for the brain parenchyma, microglial responses to C. koseri have not yet been examined. Microglia use TLRs to recognize invading pathogens and elicit proinflammatory mediator expression important for infection containment. In this study, we investigated the importance of the LPS receptor TLR4 and MyD88, an adaptor molecule involved in the activation of the majority of TLRs in addition to the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors, for their roles in regulating microglial activation in response to C. koseri. Proinflammatory mediator release was significantly reduced in TLR4 mutant and MyD88 knockout microglia compared with wild-type cells following exposure to either live or heat-killed C. koseri, indicating a critical role for both TLR4- and MyD88-dependent pathways in microglial responses to this pathogen. However, residual proinflammatory mediator expression was still observed in TLR4 mutant and MyD88 KO microglia following C. koseri exposure, indicating a contribution of TLR4- and MyD88-independent pathway(s) for maximal pathogen recognition. Interestingly, C. koseri was capable of surviving intracellularly in both primary microglia and macrophages, suggesting that these cells may serve as a reservoir for the pathogen during CNS infections. These results demonstrate that microglia respond to C. koseri with the robust expression of proinflammatory molecules, which is dictated, in part, by TLR4- and MyD88-dependent signals.

  18. Microglial activatory (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif)- and inhibitory (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif)-signaling receptors for recognition of the neuronal glycocalyx.

    PubMed

    Linnartz, Bettina; Neumann, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Microglia sense intact or lesioned cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and respond accordingly. To fulfill this task, microglia express a whole set of recognition receptors. Fc receptors and DAP12 (TYROBP)-associated receptors such as microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) and the complement receptor-3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) trigger the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-signaling cascade, resulting in microglial activation, migration, and phagocytosis. Those receptors are counter-regulated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-signaling receptors, such as sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin superfamily lectins (Siglecs). Siglecs recognize the sialic acid cap of healthy neurons thus leading to an ITIM signaling that turns down microglial immune responses and phagocytosis. In contrast, desialylated neuronal processes are phagocytosed by microglial CR3 signaling via an adaptor protein containing an ITAM. Thus, the aberrant terminal glycosylation of neuronal surface glycoproteins and glycolipids could serve as a flag for microglia, which display a multitude of diverse carbohydrate-binding receptors that monitor the neuronal physical condition and respond via their ITIM- or ITAM-signaling cascade accordingly.

  19. An increase in voltage-gated sodium channel current elicits microglial activation followed inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gil Y; Lee, Jee Y; Rhim, Hyewhon; Oh, Tae H; Yune, Tae Y

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation induced by microglial activation plays a pivotal role in progressive degeneration after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are also implicated in microglial activation following injury. However, direct evidence that VGSCs are involved in microglial activation after injury has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we show that the increase in VGSC inward current elicited microglial activation followed inflammatory responses, leading to cell death after injury in vitro and in vivo. Isoforms of sodium channel, Nav 1.1, Nav 1.2, and Nav 1.6 were expressed in primary microglia, and the inward current of VGSC was increased by LPS treatment, which was blocked by a sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX). TTX inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation, expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and NO production. LPS-induced p38MAPK activation followed pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) production was inhibited by TTX, whereas LPS-induced JNK activation was not. TTX also inhibited caspase-3 activation and cell death of primary cortical neurons in neuron/microglia co-cultures by inhibiting LPS-induced microglia activation. Furthermore, TTX attenuated caspase-3 activation and oligodendrocyte cell death at 5 d after SCI by inhibiting microglia activation and p38MAPK activation followed proNGF production, which is known to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death. Our study thus suggests that the increase in inward current of VGSC appears to be an early event required for microglia activation after injury.

  20. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina

    PubMed Central

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and “hot spot” extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26469804

  1. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-02

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD.

  2. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and "hot spot" extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes.

  3. Cytopathic changes and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Naegleria fowleri trophozoites in rat microglial cells and protective effects of an anti-Nfa1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y-H; Jeong, S-R; Kim, J-H; Song, K-J; Kim, K; Park, S; Sohn, S; Shin, H-J

    2005-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in experimental animals and humans. The nfa1 gene (360 bp) was previously cloned from a cDNA library of pathogenic N. fowleri by immunoscreening, and produced a 13.1-kDa recombinant protein that showed pseudopodia-specific localization by immunocytochemistry. On the basis of an idea that the pseudopodia-specific Nfa1 protein seems to be involved in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri, the cytopathic activity of N. fowleri trophozoites co-cultured with rat microglial cells was observed, and the effects of an anti-Nfa1 antibody in a co-culture system were elucidated. Using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it was seen that N. fowleri trophozoites in contact with microglial cells produced vigorous pseudopodia and a food-cup structure. Microglial cells were destroyed by N. fowleri trophozoites as seen from necrotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. In a(51)Cr release assay, N. fowleri showed 17.8%, 24.9%, 54.6% and 98% cytotoxicity against microglial cells at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-incubation, respectively. However, when anti-Nfa1 antibody was added in a coculture system, N. fowleri cytotoxicity was reduced to 15.5%, 20.3%, 46.7% and 66.9%, respectively. Moreover, microglial cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites secreted the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. In the presence of anti-Nfa1 antibody, the secretion of TNF-alpha was slightly, but not significantly, decreased.

  4. CD200R/Foxp3-mediated signalling regulates microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Min-Hee; Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Baek, Hyunjung; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sena; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Hang-Rae; Lee, Sung Joong; Park, Jin Bong; Kim, Yonghyun; Kwon, O-Yu; Lee, Young Ho; Oh, Sang-Ha; Kim, Dong Woon

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of microglial functions have either beneficial or detrimental roles in specific physiological or pathological environments. However, the details of what transcriptional mechanisms induce microglia to take beneficial phenotypes remain unknown. Here, we report that Foxp3 is essential for beneficial outcome of the microglial response and depends upon signalling by the immunoglobulin CD200 through its receptor (CD200R). Foxp3 expression was up-regulated in microglia activated by excitotoxicity-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation. Suppression of CD200R prevented anti-inflammatory phenotype of microglia, but over-expression of Foxp3 enhanced it. Phosphorylation of STAT6, a downstream effector of CD200R, modulated transcription of Foxp3. Finally, CD200R/Foxp3-mediated signalling enhanced hippocampal neuronal viability and conferred a degree of neuroprotection, presumably by counteracting inducible nitric oxide synthase. We conclude that enhancement of Foxp3 through CD200R could be neuroprotective by targeting the microglia. PMID:27731341

  5. Resveratrol suppresses calcium-mediated microglial activation and rescues hippocampal neurons of adult rats following acute bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ji-Nan; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Wu, Un-In; Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Chen, Mei-Jung; Youn, Su-Chung; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a serious disease with severe neurological sequelae. The intense calcium-mediated microglial activation and subsequently pro-inflammatory cytokine release plays an important role in eliciting ABM-related oxidative damage. Considering resveratrol possesses significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, the present study aims to determine whether resveratrol would exert beneficial effects on hippocampal neurons following ABM. ABM was induced by inoculating Klebsiella pneumoniae into adult rats intraventricularly. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin-B4 (GSA-IB4) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) measurement were used to examine the calcium expression, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine level, and extent of oxidative stress, respectively. In ABM rats, strong calcium signaling associated with enhanced microglial activation was observed in hippocampus. Increased microglial expression was coincided with intense production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage. However, in rats receiving resveratrol after ABM, the calcium intensity, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine and MDA levels were all significantly decreased. Quantitative data showed that much more hippocampal neurons were survived in resveratrol-treated rats following ABM. As resveratrol successfully rescues hippocampal neurons from ABM by suppressing the calcium-mediated microglial activation, therapeutic use of resveratrol may act as a promising strategy to counteract the ABM-induced neurological damage.

  6. CD200-CD200R dysfunction exacerbates microglial activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that microglial activation may participate in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). CD200-CD200R signalling has been shown to be critical for restraining microglial activation. We have previously shown that expression of CD200R in monocyte-derived macrophages, induced by various stimuli, is impaired in PD patients, implying an intrinsic abnormality of CD200-CD200R signalling in PD brain. Thus, further in vivo evidence is needed to elucidate the role of malfunction of CD200-CD200R signalling in the pathogenesis of PD. Methods 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were used as an animal model of PD. CD200R-blocking antibody (BAb) was injected into striatum to block the engagement of CD200 and CD200R. The animals were divided into three groups, which were treated with 6-OHDA/Veh (PBS), 6-OHDA/CAb (isotype control antibody) or 6-OHDA/BAb, respectively. Rotational tests and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate motor deficits and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in animals from each group. HPLC analysis was used to measure monoamine levels in striatum. Morphological analysis and quantification of CD11b- (or MHC II-) immunoreactive cells were performed to investigate microglial activation and possible neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra (SN). Finally, ELISA was employed to assay protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Results Compared with 6-OHDA/CAb or 6-OHDA/Veh groups, rats treated with 6-OHDA/BAb showed a significant increase in counts of contralateral rotation and a significant decrease in TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in SN. A marked decrease in monoamine levels was also detected in 6-OHDA/BAb-treated rats, in comparison to 6-OHDA/Veh-treated ones. Furthermore, remarkably increased activation of microglia as well as up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines was found concomitant with dopaminergic neurodegeneration in 6-OHDA/BAb-treated rats. Conclusions This study shows that

  7. New Lignans from Antidesma hainanensis Inhibit NO Production in BV2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Phan Van; Cuong, Le Canh Viet; Tai, Bui Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn Chul

    2016-12-01

    Two new lignans (7S,7'R,8S,8'R)-3,3'-dimethoxy-7,7'-epoxylignan-4,4',9-triol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 9-O-formylaviculin (2) together with other thirteen known secondary metabolites were isolated from the leaves of Antidesma hainanensis. Their chemical structures were determined using NMR, electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods, and as well as by comparison with those reported in the literature. Neuro-inflammatory activity of isolated compounds was evaluated by their inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) production in activated BV2 microglial cells. At concentration of 40 µM, compounds 1-3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 14, and 15 exhibited inhibitory effects over 50%, suggesting that they could be potential candidate drugs for the cure of neuro-inflammation. In addition, compounds 1, 8, 14, and 15 significantly inhibited 16.23, 27.76, 21.23, and 29.44% NO production at diluted concentration as low as 2.5 µM.

  8. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft. PMID:27615195

  9. Hyperoside inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells via p38 and NFκB pathways.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Lan-Bing; Li, Ting; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Ren, Xiao-Li; Hu, Bei-Lei; Huang, Chen-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Zhang, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside) is an active compound isolated from herbs. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism involved in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potentiality of hyperoside in inhibiting microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with hyperoside and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that hyperoside significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Similar results were observed in primary microglial cells isolated from neonatal mice. Analyses in MAPK and NFκB signaling combined with specific inhibitors suggested that hyperoside attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory responses via p38 and NFκB pathways. Furthermore, hyperoside suppressed reactive microglia-mediated neurotoxicity as evidenced by conditioned media culture, but had no direct impact on MPP(+)-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our data suggest that hyperoside may serve as a protective agent by alleviating microglia activation in disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TUDCA: An Agonist of the Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR1/TGR5 With Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yanguas-Casás, Natalia; Barreda-Manso, M Asunción; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    Bile acids are steroid acids found in the bile of mammals. The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is neuroprotective in different animal models of stroke and neurological diseases. We have previously shown that TUDCA has anti-inflammatory effects on glial cell cultures and in a mouse model of acute neuroinflammation. We show now that microglial cells (central nervous system resident macrophages) express the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1/Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (GPBAR1/TGR5) in vivo and in vitro. TUDCA binding to GPBAR1/TGR5 caused an increase in intracellular cAMP levels in microglia that induced anti-inflammatory markers, while reducing pro-inflammatory ones. This anti-inflammatory effect of TUDCA was inhibited by small interference RNA for GPBAR1/TGR5 receptor, as well as by treatment with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. In the mouse model of acute neuroinflammation, treating the animals with TUDCA was clearly anti-inflammatory. TUDCA biased the microglial phenotype in vivo and in vitro toward the anti-inflammatory. The bile acid receptor GPBAR1/TGR5 could be a new therapeutic target for pathologies coursing with neuroinflammation and microglia activation, such as traumatic brain injuries, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. TUDCA and other GPBAR1/TGR5 agonists need to be further investigated, to determine their potential in attenuating the neuropathologies associated with microglia activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2231-2245, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estradiol attenuates spinal cord injury-induced pain by suppressing microglial activation in thalamic VPL nuclei of rats.

    PubMed

    Saghaei, Elham; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Naseri, Kobra; Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Afhami, Mina; Haeri, Ali; Rahimi, Farzaneh; Jorjani, Masoumeh

    2013-04-01

    In our previous study we showed that central pain syndrome (CPS) induced by electrolytic injury caused in the unilateral spinothalamic tract (STT) is a concomitant of glial alteration at the site of injury. Here, we investigated the activity of glial cells in thalamic ventral posterolateral nuclei (VPL) and their contribution to CPS. We also examined whether post-injury administration of a pharmacological dose of estradiol can attenuate CPS and associated molecular changes. Based on the results,in the ipsilateral VPL the microglial phenotype switched o hyperactive mode and Iba1 expression was increased significantly on days 21 and 28 post-injury. The same feature was observed in contralateral VPL on day 28 (P<.05). These changes were strongly correlated with the onset of CPS (r(2)=0.670). STT injury did not induce significant astroglial response in both ipsilateral and contralateral VPL. Estradiol attenuated bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity 14 days after STT lesion (P<.05). Estradiol also suppressed microglial activation in the VPL. Taken together, these findings indicate that selective STT lesion induces bilateral microglia activation in VPL which might contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Furthermore, a pharmacological dose of estradiol reduces central pain possibly via suppression of glial activity in VPL region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal influence of microglial activation and amyloid on neuronal function in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen; Okello, Aren A; Brooks, David J; Edison, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Amyloid deposition, tangle formation, neuroinflammation and neuronal dysfunction are pathological processes involved in Alzheimer's disease. However, the relative role of these processes in driving disease progression is still unclear. The aim of this positron emission tomography study was to: (i) investigate longitudinal changes of microglial activation, amyloid and glucose metabolism; and (ii) assess the temporospatial relationship between these three processes in Alzheimer's disease. A group of eight patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (66 ± 4.8 years) and 14 healthy controls (65 ± 5.5 years) underwent T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging, along with (11)C-(R)-PK11195, (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans for microglial activation, amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism. All patients were followed-up with repeated magnetic resonance imaging and three positron emission tomography scans after 16 months. Parametric maps were interrogated using region of interest analysis, Statistical Parametric Mapping, and between-group correlation analysis at voxel-level using Biological Parametric Mapping. At baseline, patients with Alzheimer's disease showed significantly increased microglial activation compared to the control subjects. During follow-up, for the first time, we found that while there is a progressive reduction of glucose metabolism, there was a longitudinal increase of microglial activation in the majority of the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Voxel-wise correlation analysis revealed that microglial activation in patients with Alzheimer's disease was positively correlated with amyloid deposition and inversely correlated with regional cerebral metabolic rate at voxel level over time. Even though one of the limitations of this study is the lack of longitudinal follow-up of healthy control subjects, this study demonstrates that there is persistent neuroinflammation throughout the Alzheimer

  13. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Gen-Lin; Luo, Zhen; Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1–42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  15. Abscisic acid does not evoke calcium influx in murine primary microglia and immortalised murine microglial BV-2 and N9 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Susan X; Benson, Chantel L; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne R; Hou, Sheng T

    2010-10-22

    Brain microglia are resident macrophage-like cells representing the first and main form of active immune response during brain injury. Microglia-mediated inflammatory events in the brain are known to be associated with chronic degenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's, or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, identification of mechanisms activating microglia is not only important in the understanding of microglia-mediated brain pathologies, but may also lead to the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone regulating important physiological functions in higher plants, has been proposed to activate murine microglial cell line N9 through increased intracellular calcium. In the present study, we determined the response to ABA and its analogues from murine primary microglia and immortalized murine microglial cell line BV-2 and N9 cells. A Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester (Fura-2AM)-based ratiometric calcium imaging and measurement technique was used to determine the intracellular calcium changes in these cells when treated with (-)-ABA, (+)-ABA, (-)-trans-ABA and (+)-trans-ABA. Both primary microglia and microglial cell lines (BV-2 and N9 cells) showed significant increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in response to treatment with ATP and ionomycine. However, ABAs failed to evoke dose- and time-dependent [Ca(2+)]i changes in mouse primary microglia, BV-2 and N9 cells. Together, these surprising findings demonstrate that, contrary to that reported in N9 cells [3], ABAs do not evoke intracellular calcium changes in primary microglia and microglial cell lines. The broad conclusion that ABA evokes [Ca(2+)]i in microglia requires more evidence and further careful examination.

  16. Maternal immune activation results in complex microglial transcriptome signature in the adult offspring that is reversed by minocycline treatment.

    PubMed

    Mattei, D; Ivanov, A; Ferrai, C; Jordan, P; Guneykaya, D; Buonfiglioli, A; Schaafsma, W; Przanowski, P; Deuther-Conrad, W; Brust, P; Hesse, S; Patt, M; Sabri, O; Ross, T L; Eggen, B J L; Boddeke, E W G M; Kaminska, B; Beule, D; Pombo, A; Kettenmann, H; Wolf, S A

    2017-05-09

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of developing psychiatric pathologies in later life. This link may be bridged by a defective microglial phenotype in the offspring induced by MIA, as microglia have key roles in the development and maintenance of neuronal signaling in the central nervous system. The beneficial effects of the immunomodulatory treatment with minocycline on schizophrenic patients are consistent with this hypothesis. Using the MIA mouse model, we found an altered microglial transcriptome and phagocytic function in the adult offspring accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. The changes in microglial phagocytosis on a functional and transcriptional level were similar to those observed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease hinting to a related microglial phenotype in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Minocycline treatment of adult MIA offspring reverted completely the transcriptional, functional and behavioral deficits, highlighting the potential benefits of therapeutic targeting of microglia in psychiatric disorders.

  17. Maternal immune activation results in complex microglial transcriptome signature in the adult offspring that is reversed by minocycline treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, D; Ivanov, A; Ferrai, C; Jordan, P; Guneykaya, D; Buonfiglioli, A; Schaafsma, W; Przanowski, P; Deuther-Conrad, W; Brust, P; Hesse, S; Patt, M; Sabri, O; Ross, T L; Eggen, B J L; Boddeke, E W G M; Kaminska, B; Beule, D; Pombo, A; Kettenmann, H; Wolf, S A

    2017-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of developing psychiatric pathologies in later life. This link may be bridged by a defective microglial phenotype in the offspring induced by MIA, as microglia have key roles in the development and maintenance of neuronal signaling in the central nervous system. The beneficial effects of the immunomodulatory treatment with minocycline on schizophrenic patients are consistent with this hypothesis. Using the MIA mouse model, we found an altered microglial transcriptome and phagocytic function in the adult offspring accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. The changes in microglial phagocytosis on a functional and transcriptional level were similar to those observed in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease hinting to a related microglial phenotype in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Minocycline treatment of adult MIA offspring reverted completely the transcriptional, functional and behavioral deficits, highlighting the potential benefits of therapeutic targeting of microglia in psychiatric disorders. PMID:28485733

  18. Risperidone significantly inhibits interferon-gamma-induced microglial activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro; Monji, Akira; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2007-05-01

    Microglia has recently been regarded to be a mediator of neuroinflammation via the release of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia has thus been reported to play an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia remain unclear while some recent neuroimaging studies suggest even schizophrenia may be a kind of neurodegenerative disease. Risperidone has been reported to decrease the reduction of MRI volume during the clinical course of schizophrenia. Many recent studies have demonstrated that immunological mechanisms via such as interferon (IFN)-gamma and cytokines might be relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we thus investigated the effects of risperidone on the generation of nitric oxide, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and inflammatory cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by IFN-gamma-activated microglia by using Griess assay, Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. In comparison with haloperidol, risperidone significantly inhibited the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines by activated microglia. The iNOS levels of risperidone-treated cells were much lower than those of the haloperidol-treated cells. Antipsychotics, especially risperidone may have an anti-inflammatory effect via the inhibition of microglial activation, which is not only directly toxic to neurons but also has an inhibitory effect on neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis, both of which have been reported to play a crucial role in the pathology of schizophrenia.

  19. Effect of anesthetics on microglial activation and nanoparticle uptake: Implications for drug delivery in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Gokul; Kambhampati, Siva P; Kudchadkar, Sapna R

    2017-03-21

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often with devastating consequences for patients and their families. Affordable and timely therapies can have a substantial impact on outcomes in severe TBI. Despite the common use of sedatives and anesthetics in the acute phase of TBI management, their effect on glial cells is not well understood. We investigated the effect of a commonly used sedative, pentobarbital, on glial cells and their uptake of nanoparticles. First, we studied how pentobarbital affects BV2 mouse microglial cells in culture. The cell morphology was imaged by confocal microscopy and analyzed. Our results suggest that microglia change to a more swollen, 'activated' shape with pentobarbital (cell area increased by approximately 20%, p<0.001). Such glial activation may have negative implications for the ability of the injured brain to clear edema. Second, we investigated how pentobarbital treatment affected nanoparticle uptake. BV-2 mouse microglial cells in the presence and absence of pentobarbital were treated with fluorescently-labeled, hydroxyl-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer nanoparticles (Dendrimer-Cy5). We demonstrated that the presence of pentobarbital increased the dendrimer nanoparticle uptake significantly (~2-fold both 2 and 6h following treatment). This semi-quantitative fluorescence assessment was broadly consistent among confocal image analysis, flow cytometry, and fluorescence quantification of cell-extracted dendrimer-Cy5. Although anesthetics appear to activate microglia, the increased uptake of dendrimer nanoparticles in their presence can be exploited to deliver drug-loaded nanoparticles directly to microglia after TBI. These drugs could restore glial and glymphatic function, enabling efficient drainage of waste and fluid from the brain and effectively improving recovery after TBI. A key future direction is to validate these findings in TBI models.

  20. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) decreases LPS-induced microglial activation through regulation of Ca(2+)/calcineurin-Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyung; Choi, Hoonsung; Kim, Bokyung; Chae, Unbin; Lee, Dong Gil; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-10-01

    Microglial activation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. ROS activates microglia by regulating transcription factors to express pro-inflammatory genes and is associated with disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis through thiol redox modulation. Recently, we reported that Prx5 can regulate activation of microglia cells by governing ROS. In addition, LPS leads to excessive mitochondrial fission, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics involved in a pro-inflammatory response is important for the maintenance of microglial activation. However, the precise relationship among these signals and the role of Prx5 in mitochondrial dynamics and microglial activation is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent de-phosphorylation of Drp1 induces mitochondrial fission and regulates mitochondrial ROS production, which influences the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced microglia cells. Moreover, it is likely that cytosolic and Nox-derived ROS were upstream of mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial ROS generation in activated microglia cells. Prx5 regulates LPS-induced mitochondrial fission through modulation of Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent Drp1 de-phosphorylation by eliminating Nox-derived and cytosolic ROS. Therefore, we suggest that mitochondrial dynamics may be essential for understanding pro-inflammatory responses and that Prx5 may be used as a new therapeutic target to prevent neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Inhibition of microglial activation contributes to propofol-induced protection against post-cardiac arrest brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Rui; Feng, Da-Yun; Liang, Li-Rong; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    It has been suggested that propofol can modulate microglial activity and hence may have potential roles against neuroinflammation following brain ischemic insult. However, whether and how propofol can inhibit post-cardiac arrest brain injury via inhibition of microglia activation remains unclear. A rat model of asphyxia cardiac arrest (CA) was created followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CA induced marked microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region, revealed by increased OX42 and P2 class of purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R) expression, as well as p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Morris water maze showed that learning and memory deficits following CA could be inhibited or alleviated by pre-treatment with the microglial inhibitor minocycline or propofol. Microglial activation was significantly suppressed likely via the P2X7R/p-p38 pathway by propofol. Moreover, hippocampal neuronal injuries after CA were remarkably attenuated by propofol. In vitro experiment showed that propofol pre-treatment inhibited ATP-induced microglial activation and release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. In addition, propofol protected neurons from injury when co-culturing with ATP-treated microglia. Our data suggest that propofol pre-treatment inhibits CA-induced microglial activation and neuronal injury in the hippocampus and ultimately improves cognitive function. We proposed a possible mechanism of propofol-mediated brain protection after cardiac arrest (CA). CA induces P2X7R upregulation and p38 phosphorylation in microglia, which induces release of TNF-α and IL-1β and consequent neuronal injury. Propofol could inhibit microglial activation and alleviate neuronal damage. Our results suggest propofol-induced anti-inflammatory treatment as a plausible strategy for therapeutic intervention in post-CA brain injury.

  2. The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol affects cholesterol metabolism-related genes in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Rimmerman, Neta; Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Levy, Rivka; Bradshaw, Heather B; Vogel, Zvi

    2011-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that is clinically used in a 1:1 mixture with the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for the treatment of neuropathic pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Our group previously reported that CBD exerts anti-inflammatory effects on microglial cells. In addition, we found that CBD treatment increases the accumulation of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA), thus enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. Here we proceeded to investigate the effects of CBD on the modulation of lipid-related genes in microglial cells. Cell viability was tested using FACS analysis, AEA levels were measured using LC/MS/MS, gene array analysis was validated with real-time qPCR, and cytokine release was measured using ELISA. We report that CBD significantly upregulated the mRNAs of the enzymes sterol-O-acyl transferase (Soat2), which synthesizes cholesteryl esters, and of sterol 27-hydroxylase (Cyp27a1). In addition, CBD increased the mRNA of the lipid droplet-associated protein, perilipin2 (Plin2). Moreover, we found that pretreatment of the cells with the cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD), reversed the CBD-induced increase in Soat2 mRNA but not in Plin2 mRNA. Incubation with AEA increased the level of Plin2, but not of Soat2 mRNA. Furthermore, MBCD treatment did not affect the reduction by CBD of the LPS-induced release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. CBD treatment modulates cholesterol homeostasis in microglial cells, and pretreatment with MBCD reverses this effect without interfering with CBD's anti-inflammatory effects. The effects of the CBD-induced increase in AEA accumulation on lipid-gene expression are discussed.

  3. Hormones and diet, but not body weight, control hypothalamic microglial activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P; Seeley, Randy J; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hormones and Diet, but Not Body Weight, Control Hypothalamic Microglial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C.; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity. PMID:24166765

  5. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2(+/+) ) mice with NOX subunit gp91(phox) -deficient (NOX2(-/-) ) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (P < 0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2(+/+) mice, whereas NOX2(-/-) mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2(+/+) mice, but not in NOX2(-/-) mice at 1 hr. Treatment of NOX2(+/+) mice with LPS resulted in a 12-fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5-6.5-fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared with the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined using diphenyliodonium histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hr and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2(+/+) mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX, and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age.

  6. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2+/+) mice with NOX subunit gp91phox-deficient (NOX2−/−) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (p<0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2+/+ mice, whereas, NOX2−/− mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2+/+ mice, but not in NOX2−/− mice at 1 hour. Treatment of NOX2+/+ mice with LPS resulted in a 12 fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5–6.5 fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared to the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by hydroethidine histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hour and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2+/+ mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age. PMID:23536230

  7. Effects of aspirin on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan Xin; Du, Fang; Jiang, Li Rong; Gong, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Luo, Qian Qian; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2015-12-01

    In the light of recent studies, we hypothesized that aspirin might have the functions to regulate the expression of iron transport proteins and then affect cellular iron levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of aspirin on expression of iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), iron release protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and iron storage protein ferritin using Western blot analysis and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αlpha, interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and hepcidin using quantitative real-time PCR in BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that aspirin significantly down-regulated TfR1, while also up-regulated Fpn1 and ferritin expressions in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. We also showed that TfR1 and Fpn1 expressions were significantly higher, while ferritin contents, IL-6, TNF-alpha and hepcidin mRNA levels were lower in cells treated with aspirin plus LPS than those in cells treated with LPS only. We concluded that aspirin has a negative effect on cell iron contents under 'normal' conditions and could partly reverse LPS-induced-disruption in cell iron balance under in vitro inflammatory conditions. Our findings also suggested that hepcidin might play a dominant role in the control of TfR1 expression by aspirin in the cells treated with LPS.

  8. The antidepressant-like effects of pioglitazone in a chronic mild stress mouse model are associated with PPARγ-mediated alteration of microglial activation phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2016-10-04

    Discoveries that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is involved in the pathological process of depression provided a new strategy for novel antidepressant therapy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor regulating inflammation and microglial polarization and, therefore, a potential target for resolving depressive disorders. Our hypothesis was that antidepressant effects could be achieved through anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities by PPARγ-dependent microglia-modulating agents. Chronic mild stress (CMS) treatment was performed on C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. After 3 weeks with the CMS procedure, depressive-like behaviors were evaluated by sucrose preference (SP), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), and locomotor activity. Pioglitazone was administered intragastrically once per day for 3 weeks at different doses. Neuroinflammatory cytokines were determined by real time-PCR (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and western blot. The activated microglial state was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. N9 microglial cells were subjected to lipopolysaccharide, pioglitazone, and GW9662 to discuss the phenotype of activated microglia by RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot. It was demonstrated that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg) ameliorated depression-like behaviors in CMS-treated mice, as indicated by body weight (BW), the SP test, the FST, and the TST. The amelioration of the depression was blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. The expression of M1 markers (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and CCL2) increased, and the gene expression of M2 markers (Ym1, Arg1, IL-4, IL-10, and TGFβ) decreased in the hippocampus of the stress-treated mice. Pioglitazone significantly inhibited the increased numbers and morphological alterations of microglia in the hippocampus, reduced the elevated expression of microglial M1 markers, and increased the downgraded expression of microglial M2 markers

  9. Ultrafine carbon particles promote rotenone-induced dopamine neuronal loss through activating microglial NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinxi; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Huifeng; Wang, Yixin; Wei, Ling; Liu, Yutong; Liao, Jieying; Gao, Hui-Ming; Zhou, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) and pesticide rotenone were considered as potential environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether and how UFPs alone and in combination with rotenone affect the pathogenesis of PD remains largely unknown. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, a surrogate of UFPs) and rotenone were used individually or in combination to determine their roles in chronic dopaminergic (DA) loss in neuron-glia, and neuron-enriched, mix-glia cultures. Immunochemistry using antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase was performed to detect DA neuronal loss. Measurement of extracellular superoxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed to examine activation of NADPH oxidase. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase and MAC-1 receptor in microglia were employed to examine their role in DA neuronal loss triggered by ufCB and rotenone. In rodent midbrain neuron-glia cultures, ufCB and rotenone alone caused neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. In particularly, ufCB at doses of 50 and 100μg/cm(2) induced significant loss of DA neurons. More importantly, nontoxic doses of ufCB (10μg/cm(2)) and rotenone (2nM) induced synergistic toxicity to DA neurons. Microglial activation was essential in this process. Furthermore, superoxide production from microglial NADPH oxidase was critical in ufCB/rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Studies in mix-glia cultures showed that ufCB treatment activated microglial NADPH oxidase to induce superoxide production. Firstly, ufCB enhanced the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (gp91(phox), p47(phox) and p40(phox)); secondly, ufCB was recognized by microglial surface MAC-1 receptor and consequently promoted rotenone-induced p47(phox) and p67(phox) translocation assembling active NADPH oxidase. ufCB and rotenone worked in synergy to activate NADPH oxidase in microglia, leading to oxidative damage to DA neurons. Our findings delineated the potential role of

  10. Cudrania cochinchinensis attenuates amyloid β protein-mediated microglial activation and promotes glia-related clearance of amyloid β protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglial inflammation may significantly contribute to the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. To examine the potential of Cudrania cochinchinensis to ameliorate amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced microglia activation, BV-2 microglial cell line, and the ramified microglia in the primary glial mixed cultured were employed. Results Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), fibrillary Aβ (fAβ), or oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) were used to activate microglia. LPS and IFN-γ, but not Aβs, activated BV-2 cells to produce nitric oxide through an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression without significant effects on cell viability of microglia. fAβ, but not oAβ, enhanced the IFN-γ-stimulated nitric oxide production and iNOS expression. The ethanol/water extracts of Cudrania cochinchinensis (CC-EW) and the purified isolated components (i.e. CCA to CCF) effectively reduced the nitric oxide production and iNOS expression stimulated by IFN-γ combined with fAβ. On the other hand, oAβ effectively activated the ramified microglia in mixed glial culture by observing the morphological alteration of the microglia from ramified to amoeboid. CC-EW and CCB effectively prohibit the Aβ-mediated morphological change of microglia. Furthermore, CC-EW and CCB effectively decreased Aβ deposition and remained Aβ in the conditioned medium suggesting the effect of CC-EW and CCB on promoting Aβ clearance. Results are expressed as mean ± S.D. and were analyzed by ANOVA with post-hoc multiple comparisons with a Bonferroni test. Conclusions The components of Cudrania cochinchinensis including CC-EW and CCB are potential for novel therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23915297

  11. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) trafficking in microglial cells: continuous shuttling to and from the plasma membrane regulated by cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Prada, I; Ongania, G Naum; Buonsanti, C; Panina-Bordignon, P; Meldolesi, J

    2006-07-21

    Cell biology of triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2, a receptor expressed in brain cells (microglia and possibly neurons and oligodendrocytes) which is responsible for a neurological and psychiatric genetic disease, polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy otherwise called the Nasu-Hakola disease, is still largely unknown. Using immortalized mouse N9 microglial cells we demonstrate that triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 is mostly distributed intracellularly in two pools: a deposit in the Golgi complex and a population of exocytic vesicles, distinct from endosomes and lysosomes, which is continuously translocated to, and recycled from the cell surface. Results with ionomycin and gamma-interferon, showing rapid and slow increases, respectively, of triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 surface density, documented that the exocytosis of the receptor-rich vesicles is regulated. Pulse labeling in the cold of surface triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 with its antibody (or Fab fragment) followed by chase at 37 degrees C showed internalization, with recovery of the antibody in endosomes and lysosomes. However, part of the receptor/antibody complex, internalized for up to 30 min chase, was recycled to the cell surface within 2 min of ionomycin stimulation, together with a fraction of the total biotinylated surface protein chased in parallel. The internalized receptor appears therefore to get access to exocytic organelles distinct from lysosomes which may resemble the exocytic vesicles of resting cells. These results document that, in microglial cells, the surface density of the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 and thus, presumably, the response to its activation, is continuously adapted and can be greatly increased, even at rapid rate, as a function of cell activation.

  12. Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces apoptosis in N9 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huai-cai; Li, Miao; Wan, Yan-Jian; Schluesener, Hermann J; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-03-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. To study the apoptosis effects of PFOS on microglia, murine N9 cell line was used as a model in current research. The results showed that PFOS could reduce the cell viability significantly, and the cellular apoptosis induced by PFOS was closely accompanied with dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential, upregulation messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of p53, Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl-2 mRNA. These results suggested that PFOS could disturb homeostasis of N9 cells, impact mitochondria, and affect gene expression of apoptotic regulators, all of which resulted in a start-up of apoptosis.

  13. Up-regulation of brain cytokines and chemokines mediates neurotoxicity in early acute liver failure by a mechanism independent of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Bruno E; Miranda, Aline S; Campos, Alline C; Gomides, Lindisley F; Kangussu, Lucas M; Guatimosim, Cristina; Camargos, Elizabeth R S; Menezes, Gustavo B; Rachid, Milene A; Teixeira, Antônio L

    2014-08-26

    The neurological involvement in acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by arousal impairment with progression to coma. There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammatory mechanisms play a role in this process, including production of inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. However, it is still uncertain whether brain-derived cytokines and glial cells are crucial to the pathophysiology of ALF at the early stage, before coma development. Here, we investigated the influence of cytokines and microglia in ALF-induced encephalopathy in mice as soon as neurological symptoms were identifiable. Behavior was assessed at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-injection of thioacetamide, a hepatotoxic drug, through locomotor activity by an open field test. Brain concentration of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and chemokines (CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5) were assessed by ELISA. Microglial activation in brain sections was investigated through immunohistochemistry, and cellular ultrastructural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We found that ALF-induced animals presented a significant decrease in locomotor activity at 24 h, which was accompanied by an increase in IL-1β, CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 in the brain. TNF-α level was significantly increased only at 36 h. Despite marked morphological changes in astrocytes and brain endothelial cells, no microglial activation was observed. These findings suggest an involvement of brain-derived chemokines and IL-1β in early pathophysiology of ALF by a mechanism independent of microglial activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gabapentin reduces CX3CL1 signaling and blocks spinal microglial activation in monoarthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spinal glia, particularly microglia and astrocytes, are of the utmost importance in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. A recent study from our laboratory revealed that gabapentin, a recommended first-line treatment for multiple neuropathic conditions, could also efficiently antagonize thermal hyperalgesia evoked by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced monoarthritis (MA). In the present study, we investigated whether the spinal glia are involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of gabapentin and how this event occurs. Results Unilateral intra-articular injection of CFA produced a robust activation of microglia and astrocytes. These cells exhibited large cell bodies, thick processes and increases in the ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1, a microglial marker) or the glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocytic marker). These cells also displayed immunoreactive signals, and an upregulation of the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) α2/δ-1 subunit, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression levels in the spinal cord. These changes were associated with the development of thermal hyperalgesia. Immunofluorescence staining showed that VGCC α2/δ-1 subunit, a proposed gabapentin target of action, was widely distributed in primary afferent fibers terminals and dorsal horn neurons. CX3CL1, a potential trigger to activate microglia, colocalized with VGCC α2/δ-1 subunits in the spinal dorsal horn. However, its receptor CX3CR1 was mainly expressed in the spinal microglia. Multiple intraperitoneal (i.p.) gabapentin injections (100 mg/kg, once daily for 4 days with the first injection 60 min before intra-articular CFA) suppressed the activation of spinal microglia, downregulated spinal VGCC α2/δ-1 subunits decreased CX3CL1 levels and blocked the development of thermal hyperalgesia in MA rats. Conclusions Here we provide the first evidence that gabapentin diminishes CX3CL1 signaling and spinal microglia activation induced by joint

  15. MicroRNA 146a (miR-146a) Is Over-Expressed during Prion Disease and Modulates the Innate Immune Response and the Microglial Activation State

    PubMed Central

    Huzarewich, Rhiannon L. C. H.; Manguiat, Kathy; Medina, Sarah; Robertson, Catherine; Booth, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in inflammatory and immune processes in prion neuropathogenesis. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules which are emerging as key regulators of numerous cellular processes. We established miR-146a over-expression in prion-infected mouse brain tissues concurrent with the onset of prion deposition and appearance of activated microglia. Expression profiling of a variety of central nervous system derived cell-lines revealed that miR-146a is preferentially expressed in cells of microglial lineage. Prominent up-regulation of miR-146a was evident in the microglial cell lines BV-2 following TLR2 or TLR4 activation and also EOC 13.31 via TLR2 that reached a maximum 24–48 hours post-stimulation, concomitant with the return to basal levels of transcription of induced cytokines. Gain- and loss-of-function studies with miR-146a revealed a substantial deregulation of inflammatory response pathways in response to TLR2 stimulation. Significant transcriptional alterations in response to miR-146a perturbation included downstream mediators of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Microarray analysis also predicts a role for miR-146a regulation of morphological changes in microglial activation states as well as phagocytic mediators of the oxidative burst such as CYBA and NOS3. Based on our results, we propose a role for miR-146a as a potent modulator of microglial function by regulating the activation state during prion induced neurodegeneration. PMID:22363497

  16. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Ameliorate Brain Inflammation Associated with Microglial Activation: Possible Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Torika, Nofar; Asraf, Keren; Roasso, Ella; Danon, Abraham; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

    2016-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used for the management of hypertension. All components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have also been identified in the brain. In addition to cytokines, neuromodulators such as ANG II can induce neuroinflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where neuroinflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of ANG II and ACE have been detected. However, the specific effect of ACEIs on neuroinflammation and AD remains obscure. The present study suggests that captopril and perindopril, centrally active ACEIs, may serve as modulators for microglial activation associated with AD. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of both ACEIs on nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) release and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia. Exposure of BV2 microglia to ACEIs significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NO and TNF-α release. In vivo, short term intranasal administration of perindopril or captopril to 5 Familial AD (5XFAD) mice significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a microglial marker) or only CD11b expression respectively, in the cortex of 5XFAD. Long-term intranasal administration of captopril to mice reduced amyloid burden with no effect on CD11b expression. We provide evidence that intranasal delivery of ACEI may serve as an efficient alternative for their systemic administration, as it results in the attenuation of microglial accumulation and even the reduction of Amyloid β (Aβ) plaques.

  17. Compartmentalization of endocannabinoids into lipid rafts in a microglial cell line devoid of caveorrlin-1

    PubMed Central

    Rimmerman, Neta; Bradshaw, Heather B; Kozela, Ewa; Levy, Rivka; Juknat, Ana; Vogel, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE N-acyl ethanolamines (NAEs) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are endogenous cannabinoids and along with related lipids are synthesized on demand from membrane phospholipids. Here, we have studied the compartmentalization of NAEs and 2-AG into lipid raft fractions isolated from the caveolin-1-lacking microglial cell line BV-2, following vehicle or cannabidiol (CBD) treatment. Results were compared with those from the caveolin-1-positive F-11 cell line. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH BV-2 cells were incubated with CBD or vehicle. Cells were fractionated using a detergent-free continuous OptiPrep density gradient. Lipids in fractions were quantified using HPLC/MS/MS. Proteins were measured using Western blot. KEY RESULTS BV-2 cells were devoid of caveolin-1. Lipid rafts were isolated from BV-2 cells as confirmed by co-localization with flotillin-1 and sphingomyelin. Small amounts of cannabinoid CB1 receptors were found in lipid raft fractions. After incubation with CBD, levels and distribution in lipid rafts of 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA), and N-oleoyl ethanolamine (OEA) were not changed. Conversely, the levels of the saturated N-stearoyl ethanolamine (SEA) and N-palmitoyl ethanolamine (PEA) were elevated in lipid raft fractions. In whole cells with growth medium, CBD treatment increased AEA and OEA time-dependently, while levels of 2-AG, PEA and SEA did not change. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Whereas levels of 2-AG were not affected by CBD treatment, the distribution and levels of NAEs showed significant changes. Among the NAEs, the degree of acyl chain saturation predicted the compartmentalization after CBD treatment suggesting a shift in cell signalling activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10

  18. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2016-09-22

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries-which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats-would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0-1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1-4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals.

  19. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Fisher, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries—which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats—would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0–1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1–4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals. PMID:27669317

  20. Photoreceptor Proteins Initiate Microglial Activation via Toll-like Receptor 4 in Retinal Degeneration Mediated by All-trans-retinal*

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Hideo; Chen, Yu; Kevany, Brian M.; Pearlman, Eric; Miyagi, Masaru; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Maeda, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Although several genetic and biochemical factors are associated with the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, it has yet to be determined how these different impairments can cause similar degenerative phenotypes. Here, we report microglial/macrophage activation in both a Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration mouse model caused by delayed clearance of all-trans-retinal from the retina, and in a retinitis pigmentosa mouse model with impaired retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis. Mouse microglia displayed RPE cytotoxicity and increased production of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, Ccl2, Il1b, and Tnf, after coincubation with ligands that activate innate immunity. Notably, phagocytosis of photoreceptor proteins increased the activation of microglia/macrophages and RPE cells isolated from model mice as well as wild-type mice. The mRNA levels of Tlr2 and Tlr4, which can recognize proteins as their ligands, were elevated in mice with retinal degeneration. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Tlr4-deficient mice did not increase Ccl2 after coincubation with photoreceptor proteins. Tlr4−/−Abca4−/−Rdh8−/− mice displayed milder retinal degenerative phenotypes than Abca4−/−Rdh8−/− mice. Additionally, inactivation of microglia/macrophages by pharmacological approaches attenuated mouse retinal degeneration. This study demonstrates an important contribution of TLR4-mediated microglial activation by endogenous photoreceptor proteins in retinal inflammation that aggravates retinal cell death. This pathway is likely to represent an underlying common pathology in degenerative retinal disorders. PMID:23572532

  1. Microglial activation induced by factor(s) contained in sera from Alzheimer-related ApoE genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, V R; García, M; Cacabelos, R

    1998-11-15

    Several factors that increase the likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) have already been identified. A correct evaluation of these may contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of the disease. The risk of developing AD definitely increases with (a) age, (b) head injuries, (c) family history of AD or Down syndrome, (d) sex (higher prevalence of AD in women), (e) vascular disease, (f) exposure to environmental toxins, (g) infectious processes, or (h) changes in immune function, and recent advances in molecular genetics have suggested that genetic predisposition (i) can be considered one of the most important risk factors in the development of AD. A significant increase in the number of amyloid plaques in AD patients with an apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE) allele has been observed and the results of several genetic studies indicate that the etiology of this neurodegenerative disease is associated with the presence of the allele E4 of ApoE. A potential source of damage in the AD brain is an altered response triggered by microglial activation, which is associated with amyloid plaques. It has become evident that a dysregulation of cytokine release appears within lesions of many types of brain disorders including infection, trauma, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many studies have shown that microglia secrete both cytokines and cytotoxins and since reactive microglia appears in nearly every type of brain damage, it is likely that their secreted products ultimately help to determine the rate of damaged brain tissue. In this study, in vitro cell cultures were established to investigate the effect of different concentrations of human sera (2.5% and 10%) with specific ApoE genotypes from Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's subjects on ameboid and flat microglial cells obtained from neonatal rat hippocampi. Results show that a modulation in the proliferation and activation of microglial cells was obtained and that AD sera, mainly in the ApoE 3/4 and 4

  2. Rapamycin protects neurons from brain contusion-induced inflammatory reaction via modulation of microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QI; XIE, DUJIANG; PAN, SHIYONG; XU, WEIJUN

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory reaction is important in secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rapamycin has been demonstrated as a neuroprotective agent in a mouse model of TBI, however, there is a lack of data regarding the effects of rapamycin on the inflammatory reaction following TBI. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the effects of treatment with rapamycin on inflammatory reactions and examine the possible involvement of microglial activation following TBI. Male imprinting control region mice were randomly divided into four groups: Sham group (n=23), TBI group (n=23), TBI + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group (n=31) and TBI + rapamycin group (n=31). Rapamycin was dissolved in DMSO (50 mg/ml) and injected 30 min after TBI (2 mg/Kg; intraperitoneally). A weight-drop model of TBI was induced, and the brain tissues were harvested 24 h after TBI. The findings indicated that the administration of rapamycin following TBI was associated with decreased levels of activated microglia and neuron degeneration at the peri-injury site, reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased neurobehavioral function, possibly mediated by inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. The results of the present study offer novel insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of rapamycin, possibly involving the modulation of microglial activation. PMID:26458361

  3. Microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediates IL-1β-related inflammation in prefrontal cortex of depressive rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Chen, Xu-Yang; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Depression is an inflammatory disorder. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) may play a pivotal role in the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation of depression. Here, we investigated IL-1β alteration in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-exposed rats, a well-documented model of depression, and further explored the molecular mechanism by which CUMS procedure induced IL-1β-related CNS inflammation. We showed that 12-week CUMS procedure remarkably increased PFC IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in depressive-like behavior of rats, without significant alteration of serum and CSF IL-1β levels. We found that CUMS procedure significantly caused PFC nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway activation in rats. The intriguing finding in this study was the induced activation of nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome with the increased IL-1β maturation in PFC of CUMS rats, suggesting a new grade of regulatory mechanism for IL-1β-related CNS inflammation. Moreover, microglial activation and astrocytic function impairment were observed in PFC of CUMS rats. The increased co-location of NLRP3 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) protein expression supported that microglia in glial cells was the primary contributor for CUMS-induced PFC NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats. These alterations in CUMS rats were restored by chronic treatment of the antidepressant fluoxetine, indicating that fluoxetine-mediated rat PFC IL-1β reduction involves both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. These findings provide in vivo evidence that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a mediator of IL-1β-related CNS inflammation during chronic stress, and suggest a new therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Regulation of Macrophage, Dendritic Cell, and Microglial Phenotype and Function by the SOCS Proteins

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Sarah M.; Heller, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells of dynamic phenotype that rapidly respond to external stimuli in the microenvironment by altering their phenotype to respond to and to direct the immune response. The ability to dynamically change phenotype must be carefully regulated to prevent uncontrolled inflammatory responses and subsequently to promote resolution of inflammation. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a key role in regulating macrophage phenotype. In this review, we summarize research to date from mouse and human studies on the role of the SOCS proteins in determining the phenotype and function of macrophages. We will also touch on the influence of the SOCS on dendritic cell (DC) and microglial phenotype and function. The molecular mechanisms of SOCS function in macrophages and DCs are discussed, along with how dysregulation of SOCS expression or function can lead to alterations in macrophage/DC/microglial phenotype and function and to disease. Regulation of SOCS expression by microRNA is discussed. Novel therapies and unanswered questions with regard to SOCS regulation of monocyte–macrophage phenotype and function are highlighted. PMID:26579124

  5. Methylene blue exerts a neuroprotective effect against traumatic brain injury by promoting autophagy and inhibiting microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, MINGFEI; LIANG, FENG; XU, HANGDI; YAN, WEI; ZHANG, JIANMIN

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to permanent neurological impairment, and methylene blue (MB) exerts central nervous system neuroprotective effects. However, only one previous study has investigated the effectiveness of MB in a controlled cortical impact injury model of TBI. In addition, the specific mechanisms underlying the effect of MB against TBI remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of MB on TBI and the possible mechanisms involved. In a mouse model of TBI, the animals were randomly divided into sham, vehicle (normal saline) or MB groups. The treatment time-points were 24 and 72 h (acute phase of TBI), and 14 days (chronic phase of TBI) post-TBI. The brain water content (BWC), and levels of neuronal death, and autophagy were determined during the acute phase, and neurological deficit, injury volume and microglial activation were assessed at all time-points. The injured hemisphere BWC was significantly increased 24 h post-TBI, and this was attenuated following treatment with MB. There was a significantly higher number of surviving neurons in the MB group, compared with the Vehicle group at 24 and 72 h post-TBI. In the acute phase, the MB-treated animals exhibited significantly upregulated expression of Beclin 1 and increased LC3-II to LC3-I ratios, compared with the vehicle group, indicating an increased rate of autophagy. Neurological functional deficits, measured using the modified neurological severity score, were significantly lower in the acute phase in the MB-treated animals and cerebral lesion volumes in the MB-treated animals were significantly lower, compared with the other groups at all time-points. Microglia were activated 24 h after TBI, peaked at 72 h and persisted until 14 days after TBI. Although the number of Iba-1-positive cells in the vehicle and MB groups 24 h post-TBI were not significantly different, marked microglial inhibition was observed in the MB group 72 h and 14 days after

  6. Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1−/−), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  7. The role of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in pro-inflammatory responses of EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory responses in more detail than the previous study. Methods N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6) of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK). The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-α and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-α and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure. Conclusions EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our findings confirm that

  8. Cocaine promotes oxidative stress and microglial-macrophage activation in rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    López-Pedrajas, Rosa; Ramírez-Lamelas, Dolores T.; Muriach, Borja; Sánchez-Villarejo, María V.; Almansa, Inmaculada; Vidal-Gil, Lorena; Romero, Francisco J.; Barcia, Jorge M.; Muriach, María

    2015-01-01

    Different mechanisms have been suggested for cocaine neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress alterations. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), considered a sensor of oxidative stress and inflammation, is involved in drug toxicity and addiction. NF-κB is a key mediator for immune responses that induces microglial/macrophage activation under inflammatory processes and neuronal injury/degeneration. Although cerebellum is commonly associated to motor control, muscular tone, and balance. Its relation with addiction is getting relevance, being associated to compulsive and perseverative behaviors. Some reports indicate that cerebellar microglial activation induced by cannabis or ethanol, promote cerebellar alterations and these alterations could be associated to addictive-related behaviors. After considering the effects of some drugs on cerebellum, the aim of the present work analyzes pro-inflammatory changes after cocaine exposure. Rats received daily 15 mg/kg cocaine i.p., for 18 days. Reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and glutamate were determined in cerebellar homogenates. NF-κB activity, CD68, and GFAP expression were determined. Cerebellar GPx activity and GSH/GSSG ratio are significantly decreased after cocaine exposure. A significant increase of glutamate concentration is also observed. Interestingly, increased NF-κB activity is also accompanied by an increased expression of the lysosomal mononuclear phagocytic marker ED1 without GFAP alterations. Current trends in addiction biology are focusing on the role of cerebellum on addictive behaviors. Cocaine-induced cerebellar changes described herein fit with previosus data showing cerebellar alterations on addict subjects and support the proposed role of cerebelum in addiction. PMID:26283916

  9. HTLV type 1 Tax transduction in microglial cells and astrocytes by lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, S; Séguin, R; Liu, Y; Domville, S; Planelles, V; Massa, P; Barker, E; Antel, J; Feuer, G

    2000-11-01

    Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can result in the development of HAM/TSP, a nonfatal, chronic inflammatory disease involving neuronal degeneration and demyelination of the central nervous system. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 observed in the cerebrospinal fluid of HAM-TSP patients suggest that cytokine dysregulation within the CNS is involved in neuropathogenesis. HTLV-1 infection and enhanced expression of TNF-alpha by microglial cells, astrocytes, and macrophages has been hypothesized to lead to the destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Although the association of HTLV-2 infection and development of neurological disease is more tenuous, HTLV-2 has also been found to be associated with peripheral neuropathies. To investigate the roles of HTLV Tax(1) and Tax(2) in the induction of cytokine disregulation in these cell types, we are currently developing gene delivery vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) capable of stably coexpressing the HTLV-1 or -2 tax and eGFP reporter genes in primary human cells. Transduction frequencies of up to 50%, as assessed by eGFP expression, can be achieved in human monocyte-derived macrophages and in explanted cultures of human microglia. Preliminary data suggest that Tax(1) expression is sufficient to up-regulate the proinflammatory cytokine profile in explanted human microglial cells. Future experiments will compare and evaluate the effect of tax(1) and tax(2) gene expression on the cellular proinflammatory cytokine expression profile, as well as demonstrate the effects of transducing human fetal astrocytes and PBMC-derived macrophages.

  10. The protective effect of fermented Curcuma longa L. on memory dysfunction in oxidative stress-induced C6 gliomal cells, proinflammatory-activated BV2 microglial cells, and scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice.

    PubMed

    Eun, Cheong-Su; Lim, Jong-Soon; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Sam-Pin; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2017-07-17

    Curcuma longa L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of fermented C. longa (FCL) has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the effectiveness of FCL for the regulation of memory dysfunction was investigated in two brain cell lines (rat glioma C6 and murine microglia BV2) and scopolamine-treated mice. C. longa powder was fermented by 5% Lactobacillus plantarum K154 containing 2% (w/v) yeast extract at 30 °C for 72 h followed by sterilization at 121 °C for 15 min. The protective effects of fermented C. longa (FCL) on oxidative stress induced cell death were analyzed by MTT assay in C6 cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of FCL were investigated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The step-through passive avoidance test, Morris water maze test, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were employed to determine the effects of FCL on scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. The contents of curcuminoids were analyzed through LC/MS. Pretreatment with FCL effectively prevented the cell death induced by oxidative stress in C6 cells. Moreover, FCL inhibited the production NO and PGE2 via the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in BV2 cells. FCL significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and prevented scopolamine-induced AChE activity in the hippocampus. Additionally, FCL reversed the reduction of CREB and BDNF expression. The curcuminoids content in FCL was 1.44%. FCL pretreatment could alleviate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in C6 and BV2 cells, respectively. Thus, FCL might be a

  11. Lonicera japonica THUNB. Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Signaling in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hong, Sa-Ik; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2015-07-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lonicera japonica THUNB. (LJ) and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that LJ significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, LJ inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both the protein and mRNA levels. In LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, LJ inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzymatic activities, and/or mRNA expression, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LJ significantly suppressed activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, LJ significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. Collectively, our findings indicated that the antineuroinflammatory properties of LJ in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells is due to downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines downstream of inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sargassum serratifolium in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Ji; Joung, Eun-Ji; Kwon, Mi-Sung; Lee, Bonggi; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2016-11-01

    Sargassum serratifolium was found to contain high concentrations of meroterpenoids, having strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of an ethanolic extract of S. serratifolium (ESS) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and to identify the anti-inflammatory components in ESS. The level of proinflammatory cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of inflammation-related proteins and mRNA was evaluated by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities of isolated components from ESS were analyzed in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. ESS inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 and the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. ESS also decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (κB) transcriptional activity and translocation into the nucleus were remarkably suppressed by ESS through the prevention of inhibitor κB-α degradation. The main anti-inflammatory components in ESS were identified as sargahydroquinoic acid, sargachromenol, and sargaquinoic acid based on the inhibition of NO production using LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, treatment with ESS significantly reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β stimulated with LPS in mouse hippocampus. Our results indicate that ESS can be used as a functional food or therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.

  13. Microglial Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Drives Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Neuronal Cell Cycle Events

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Kiran; Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Varvel, Nicholas H.; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Weick, Jason P.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Herrup, Karl; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2013-01-01

    Massive neuronal loss is a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that neuroinflammation, cell autonomous to microglia, is capable of inducing neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs), which are toxic for terminally differentiated neurons. First, oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide (ApO)-mediated microglial activation induced neuronal CCEs via the tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and the c-Jun Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Second, adoptive transfer of CD11b+ microglia from AD transgenic mice (R1.40) induced neuronal cyclin D1 expression via TNFα signaling pathway. Third, genetic deficiency of TNFα in R1.40 mice (R1 .40-Tnfα−/−) iled to induce neuronal CCEs. Finally, the mitotically active neurons spatially co-exist with F4/80+ activated microglia in the human AD brain and that a portion of these neurons are apoptotic. Together our data suggest a cell-autonomous role of microglia, and identify TNFα as the responsible cytokine, in promoting neuronal CCEs in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24141019

  14. Genetic deletion of P-glycoprotein alters stress responsivity and increases depression-like behavior, social withdrawal and microglial activation in the hippocampus of female mice.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Natalia I; Smith, Kristie L; Zhou, Cilla; Waters, Peter M; Cavalcante, Ligia Menezes; Abelev, Sarah V; Kuligowski, Michael; Clarke, David J; Todd, Stephanie M; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2017-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC transporter expressed at the blood brain barrier and regulates the brain uptake of various xenobiotics and endogenous mediators including glucocorticoid hormones which are critically important to the stress response. Moreover, P-gp is expressed on microglia, the brain's immune cells, which are activated by stressors and have an emerging role in psychiatric disorders. We therefore hypothesised that germline P-gp deletion in mice might alter the behavioral and microglial response to stressors. Female P-gp knockout mice displayed an unusual, frantic anxiety response to intraperitoneal injection stress in the light-dark test. They also tended to display reduced conditioned fear responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice in a paradigm where a single electric foot-shock stressor was paired to a context. Foot-shock stress reduced social interaction and decreased microglia cell density in the amygdala which was not varied by P-gp genotype. Independently of stressor exposure, female P-gp deficient mice displayed increased depression-like behavior, idiosyncratic darting behavior, age-related social withdrawal and hyperactivity, facilitated sensorimotor gating and altered startle reactivity. In addition, P-gp deletion increased microglia cell density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, and the microglial cells exhibited a reactive, hypo-ramified morphology. Further, female P-gp KO mice displayed increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, this research shows that germline P-gp deletion affected various behaviors of relevance to psychiatric conditions, and that altered microglial cell activity and enhanced GR expression in the hippocampus may play a role in mediating these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of PKA and HO-1 signaling in anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin in BV-2 microglial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2013-04-01

    Surfactin, one of the most powerful biosurfactants, is a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of surfactin in lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Surfactin significantly inhibited excessive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that surfactin inhibited LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) activation. However, surfactin increases the phosphorylation of the STAT-3, a component of the homeostatic mechanism causing anti-inflammatory events. We also demonstrated that surfactin induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor-regulated factor-2 (Nrf-2) activation, and that the anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin are abrogated by small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 or Nrf-2. Interestingly, we found that surfactin increased the level of cAMP and induced phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in microglial cells. Furthermore, treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, blocked HO-1 induction by surfactin and abolished surfactin's suppressive effects on ROS and NO production. These results indicate that HO-1 and its upstream effector, PKA, play a pivotal role in the anti-neuroinflammatory response of surfactin in LTA-stimulated microglia. Therefore, surfactin might have therapeutic potential for neuroprotective agents to treat inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: ► Surfactin inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in LTA-activated BV-2 cells. ► Surfactin suppresses NF-κB and STAT-1, but potentiates

  16. Transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins regulate microglial activation and dopaminergic neuronal death in a Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Meeyoung; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Son, Ora; Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kim, Joon; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain substantia nigra. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against oxidation by destroying biologically active phospholipids with potential protective effects against oxidative stress-induced inflammatory disorders. In a previous study, we constructed protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion PEP-1-PON1 protein to transduce PON1 into cells and tissue. In this study, we examined the role of transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein in repressing oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response in microglial BV2 cells after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we identified the functions of transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins which include, mitigating mitochondrial damage, decreasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and protecting against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein reduced MMP-9 expression and protected against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model. Taken together, these results suggest a promising therapeutic application of PEP-1-PON1 proteins against PD and other inflammation and oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic deletion of galectin-3 enhances neuroinflammation, affects microglial activation and contributes to sub-chronic injury in experimental neonatal focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Chip, Sophorn; Fernández-López, David; Li, Fan; Faustino, Joel; Derugin, Nikita; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2017-02-01

    The pathophysiology of neonatal stroke and adult stroke are distinct in many aspects, including the inflammatory response. We previously showed endogenously protective functions of microglial cells in acute neonatal stroke. We asked if galectin-3 (Gal3), a pleotropic molecule that mediates interactions between microglia/macrophages and the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a role in early injury after transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) in postnatal day 9-10 mice. Compared to wild type (WT) pups, in Gal3 knockout pups injury was worse and cytokine/chemokine production altered, including further increase of MIP1α and MIP1β levels and reduced IL6 levels 72h after tMCAO. Lack of Gal3 did not affect morphological transformation or proliferation of microglia but markedly attenuated accumulation of CD11b(+)/CD45(med-high) cells after injury, as determined by multi-color flow cytometry. tMCAO increased expression of αV and β3 integrin subunits in CD11b(+)/CD45(low) microglial cells and cells of non-monocyte lineage (CD11b(-)/CD45(-)), but not in CD11b(+)/CD45(med-high) cells within injured regions of WT mice or Gal3-/- mice. αV upregulated in areas occupied and not occupied by CD68(+) cells, most prominently in the ECM, lining blood vessels, with expanded αV coverage in Gal3-/- mice. Cumulatively, these data show that lack of Gal3 worsens subchronic injury after neonatal focal stroke, likely by altering the neuroinflammatory milieu, including an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules, effects on microglial activation, and deregulation of the composition of the ECM.

  18. Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Naegleria fowleri Induce Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kang, Jung-Mi; Kim, Tae Im; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-03-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that is found in diverse environmental habitats, can cause a type of fulminating hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), in humans. The pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, but it is likely to be primarily caused by disruption of the host's nervous system via a direct phagocytic mechanism by the amoeba. Naegleria fowleri trophozoites are known to secrete diverse proteins that may indirectly contribute to the pathogenic function of the amoeba, but this factor is not clearly understood. In this study, we analyzed the inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells induced by excretory and secretory proteins of N. fowleri (NfESP). Treatment of BV-2 cells with NfESP induced the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α. NfESP-induced IL-1α and TNF-α expression in BV-2 cells were regulated by p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. NfESP-induced IL-1α and TNF-α production in BV-2 cells were effectively downregulated by inhibition of NF-kB and AP-1. These results collectively suggest that NfESP stimulates BV-2 cells to release IL-1α and TNF-α via NF-kB- and AP-1-dependent MAPK signaling pathways. The released cytokines may contribute to inflammatory responses in microglia and other cell types in the brain during N. fowleri infection.

  19. Attenuation of microglial activation with minocycline is not associated with changes in neurogenesis after focal traumatic brain injury in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ng, Si Yun; Semple, Bridgette D; Morganti-Kossmann, M Cristina; Bye, Nicole

    2012-05-01

    Neurogenesis is stimulated following injury to the adult brain and could potentially contribute to tissue repair. However, evidence suggests that microglia activated in response to injury are detrimental to the survival of new neurons, thus limiting the neurogenic response. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline on neurogenesis and functional recovery after a closed head injury model of focal traumatic brain injury (TBI). Beginning 30 min after trauma, minocycline was administered for up to 2 weeks and bromodeoxyuridine was given on days 1-4 to label proliferating cells. Neurological outcome and motor function were evaluated over 6 weeks using the Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and ledged beam task. Microglial activation was assessed in the pericontusional cortex and hippocampus at 1 week post-trauma, using immunohistochemistry to detect F4/80. Following immunolabeling of bromodeoxyuridine, double-cortin, and NeuN, cells undergoing distinct stages of neurogenesis, including proliferation, neuronal differentiation, neuroblast migration, and long-term survival, were quantified at 1 and 6 weeks in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, as well as in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the pericontusional cortex. Our results show that minocycline successfully reduced microglial activation and promoted early neurological recovery that was sustained over 6 weeks. We also show for the first time in the closed head injury model, that early stages of neurogenesis were stimulated in the hippocampus and subventricular zone; however, no increase in new mature neurons occurred. Contrary to our hypothesis, despite the attenuation of activated microglia, minocycline did not support neurogenesis in the hippocampus, lateral ventricles, or pericontusional cortex, with none of the neurogenic stages being affected by treatment. These data provide evidence that a general suppression of microglial activation is

  20. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Methods: Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results: Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Conclusion: Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26459398

  2. Ulva conglobata, a marine algae, has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in murine hippocampal and microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Da-Qing; Lim, Chol Seung; Sung, Jin-Young; Choi, Han Gil; Ha, Ilho; Han, Jung-Soo

    2006-07-10

    It has been reported that inflammatory processes are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the treatment of AD using anti-inflammatory agents slows the progress of AD. Marine algae have been utilized in food products as well as in medicine products for a variety of purposes. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of methanol extracts of Ulva conglobata (U. conglobata), a marine algae, on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line and the anti-inflammatory effects on interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced microglial activation in BV2 cells. U. conglobata methanol extracts significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity induced by glutamate in HT22 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production induced by IFN-gamma in BV2 cells. U. conglobata methanol extract treatments were also examined and it was found that they almost completely suppressed the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These results suggest that U. conglobata possesses therapeutic potential for combating neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation.

  3. The Distinct Role of ADAM17 in APP Proteolysis and Microglial Activation Related to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Qian, Meng; Shen, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the symptom of cognitive impairment. The deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is believed to be the primary cause to neuronal dystrophy and eventually dementia. Aβ is the proteolytic product from its precursor amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ- secretase. An optional cleavage by α-secretase happens inside the Aβ domain. ADAM17 is supposed to be the regulated α-secretase of APP. Enhanced activity of ADAM17 leads to the increasing secretion of neuroprotective soluble APP α fragment and reduction of Aβ generation, which may be benefit to the disease. ADAM17 is then considered the potential therapeutic target for AD. Microglia activation and neuroinflammation is another important event in AD pathogenesis. Interestingly, ADAM17 also participates in the cleavage of many other membrane-bound proteins, especially some inflammatory factors related to microglia activation. The facilitating role of ADAM17 in inflammation and further neuronal damage has also been illustrated. In results, the activation of ADAM17 as the solution to AD may be a tricky task. The comprehensive consideration and evaluation has to be carried out carefully before the final treatment. In the present review, the distinct role of ADAM17 in AD-related APP shedding and neuroinflammatory microglial activation will be carefully discussed.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium alginate/gelatine porous scaffolds merged with fucoidan in murine microglial BV2 cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Ko, Seok-Chun; Oh, Gun-Woo; Heo, Seong-Yeong; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Sung-Wook; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2016-12-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia can induce several neurological diseases. Thus, the underlying basic requirement for neural tissue engineering is to develop materials that exhibit little or no neuro-inflammatory effects. In this study, we have developed a method to create porous scaffolds by adding fucoidan (Fu) into porous sodium alginate (Sa)/gelatine (G) (SaGFu). For mechanical characterization, in vitro degradation, stress/strain, swelling, and pore size were measured. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was evaluated by assessing the adhesion and proliferation of BV2 microglial cells on the SaGFu porous scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively. Moreover, we studied the neuro-inflammatory effects of SaGFu on BV2 microglial cells. The effect of gelatine and fucoidan content on the various properties of the scaffold was investigated and the results showed that mechanical properties increased porosity and swelling ratio with an increase in the gelatine and fucoidan, while the in vitro biodegradability decreased. The average SaGFu diameter attained by fabrication of SaGFu ranged from 60 to 120μm with high porosity (74.44%-88.30%). Cell culture using gelatine 2.0% (SaG2Fu) and 4.0% (SaG4Fu), showed good cell proliferation; more than 60-80% that with Sa alone. Following stimulation with 0.5μg/mL LPS, microglia cultured in porous SaGFu decreased their expression of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). SaG2Fu and SaG4Fu also inhibited the activation and translocation of p65 NF-κB protein levels, resulting in reduction of NO, ROS, and PGE2 production. These results provide insights into the diverse biological effects and opens new avenues for the applications of SaGFu in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Ying; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Zhong-Min; Ma, Juan; Ya, Ke; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-12-16

    Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and P65 (nuclear factor-κB), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO.

  6. TIR-Domain-Containing Adapter-Inducing Interferon-β (TRIF) Is Essential for MPTP-Induced Dopaminergic Neuroprotection via Microglial Cell M1/M2 Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Minghui; Lin, Sen; Li, Shurong; Du, Yuchen; Zhao, Haixia; Hong, Huarong; Yang, Ming; Yang, Xi; Wu, Yongmei; Ren, Liyi; Peng, Jiali; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Hongli; Su, Bingyin

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic changes of two phenotypes of microglia, M1 and M2, are critically associated with the neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease. However, the regulation of the M1/M2 paradigm is still unclear. In the MPTP induced neurodegeneration model, we examined the concentration of dopamine (DA) related metabolites and the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells in WT and Trif −/− mice. In in vitro experiments, MN9D cells were co-cultured with BV2 cells to mimic the animal experiments. Inhibition of TRIF aggravated TH+ cell loss, and DA-related metabolites decreased. TRIF inhibition was able to interrupt the microglial M1/M2 dynamic transformation. More BV2 cells were activated and migrated across the membrane of transwell plates by siTRIF treatment. Also, TRIF interruption inhibits the transformation of BV2 cells from the M1 to M2 phenotype which played a beneficial role in neuronal degenerative processes, and increased MN9D apoptosis. Moreover, MPP+ treatment decreases the (DAT) dopamine transporter and TH synthesis by MN9D. Taken together, the current results suggest that TRIF plays a key switch function in contributing to the microglial M1/M2 phenotype dynamic transformation. The interruption of TRIF may decrease the survival of MN9D cells as well as DAT and TH protein production. The current study sheds some light on the PD mechanism research by innate inflammation regulation. PMID:28275337

  7. Aspirin down Regulates Hepcidin by Inhibiting NF-κB and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan-Ying; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Zhong-Min; Ma, Juan; Ya, Ke; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin down regulates transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and up regulates ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin expression in BV-2 microglial cells treated without lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as down regulates hepcidin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in cells treated with LPS. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of aspirin on expression of hepcidin and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and P65 (nuclear factor-κB), and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells treated with and without LPS. We demonstrated that aspirin inhibited hepcidin mRNA as well as NO production in cells treated with LPS, but not in cells without LPS, suppresses IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) phosphorylation and has no effect on IRP1 in cells treated with or without LPS. These findings provide evidence that aspirin down regulates hepcidin by inhibiting IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and P65 (nuclear factor-κB) pathways in the cells under inflammatory conditions, and imply that an aspirin-induced reduction in TfR1 and an increase in ferritin are not associated with IRP1 and NO. PMID:27999284

  8. Minocycline Attenuates High Mobility Group Box 1 Translocation, Microglial Activation, and Thalamic Neurodegeneration after Traumatic Brain Injury in Postnatal Day 17 Rats.

    PubMed

    Simon, Dennis W; Aneja, Rajesh K; Alexander, Henry; Bell, Michael J; Bayır, Hülya; Kochanek, Patrick M; Clark, Robert S B

    2017-08-22

    In response to cell injury, the danger signal high mobility group box-1 (HMGB) is released, activating macrophages by binding pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline in attenuating HMGB1 translocation, microglial activation, and neuronal injury in a rat model of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Post-natal day 17 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent moderate-severe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Animals were randomized to treatment with minocycline (90 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle (saline) at 10 min and 20 h after injury. Shams received anesthesia and craniotomy. We analyzed HMGB1 translocation (protein fractionation and Western blotting), microglial activation (Iba-1 immunohistochemistry), neuronal death (Fluoro-Jade-B [FJB] immunofluorescence), and neuronal cell counts (unbiased stereology). Behavioral assessments included motor and Morris-water maze testing. Nuclear to cytosolic translocation of HMGB1 in the injured brain was attenuated in minocycline versus vehicle-treated rats at 24 h (p < 0.001). Treatment with minocycline reduced microglial activation in the ipsilateral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle, all regions); attenuated neurodegeneration (FJB-positive neurons) at seven days (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle); and increased thalamic neuronal survival at 14 days (naïve 22773 ± 1012 cells/mm(3), CCI + vehicle 11753 ± 464, CCI + minocycline 17047 ± 524; p < 0.001). Minocycline-treated rats demonstrated delayed motor recovery early after injury but had no injury effect on Morris-water maze whereas vehicle-treated rats performed worse than sham on the final two days of testing (both p < 0.05 vs. vehicle). Minocycline globally attenuated HMGB1 translocation and microglial activation in injured brain in a pediatric TBI model and afforded selective thalamic neuroprotection. The HMGB1 translocation and thalamic injury may represent novel

  9. Anthocyanin-rich açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Fisher, Derek R; Larson, Jessica; Bielinski, Donna F; Rimando, Agnes M; Carey, Amanda N; Schauss, Alexander G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Age-related diseases of the brain compromise memory, learning, and movement and are directly linked with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berries can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of their high polyphenolic content, fruit pulp fractions of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were explored for their protective effect on BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Freeze-dried açai pulp was fractionated using solvents with different polarities and analyzed using HPLC for major anthocyanins and other phenolics. Fractions extracted using methanol (MEOH) and ethanol (ETOH) were particularly rich in anthocyanins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin, whereas the fraction extracted using acetone (ACE) was rich in other phenolics such as catechin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol, and synergic and vanillic acids. Studies were conducted to investigate the mitigating effects of açai pulp extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) induced oxidative stress and inflammation; treatment of BV-2 cells with acai fractions resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decreases in nitrite production, accompanied by a reduction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The inhibition pattern was emulated with the ferulic acid content among the fractions. The protection of microglial cells by açai pulp extracts, particularly that of MEOH, ETOH, and ACE fractions, was also accompanied by a significant concentration-dependent reduction in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The current study offers valuable insights into the protective effects of açai pulp fractions on brain cells, which could have implications for improved cognitive and motor functions.

  10. Amyloid-β Protein Oligomer at Low Nanomolar Concentrations Activates Microglia and Induces Microglial Neurotoxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Maezawa, Izumi; Zimin, Pavel I.; Wulff, Heike; Jin, Lee-Way

    2011-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and associated neuronal dysfunction mediated by activated microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia are activated by aggregated forms of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), usually demonstrated in vitro by stimulating microglia with micromolar concentrations of fibrillar Aβ, a major component of amyloid plaques in AD brains. Here we report that amyloid-β oligomer (AβO), at 5–50 nm, induces a unique pattern of microglia activation that requires the activity of the scavenger receptor A and the Ca2+-activated potassium channel KCa3.1. AβO treatment induced an activated morphological and biochemical profile of microglia, including activation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor κB. Interestingly, although increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, AβO did not increase several proinflammatory mediators commonly induced by lipopolyliposacharides or fibrillar Aβ, suggesting that AβO stimulates both common and divergent pathways of microglia activation. AβO at low nanomolar concentrations, although not neurotoxic, induced indirect, microglia-mediated damage to neurons in dissociated cultures and in organotypic hippocampal slices. The indirect neurotoxicity was prevented by (i) doxycycline, an inhibitor of microglia activation; (ii) TRAM-34, a selective KCa3.1 blocker; and (iii) two inhibitors of inducible NO synthase, indicating that KCa3.1 activity and excessive NO release are required for AβO-induced microglial neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that AβO, generally considered a neurotoxin, may more potently cause neuronal damage indirectly by activating microglia in AD. PMID:20971854

  11. Light-induced degeneration and microglial response in the retina of an epibenthonic pigmented teleost: age-dependent photoreceptor susceptibility to cell death.

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2012-11-01

    Constant intense light causes apoptosis of photoreceptors in the retina of albino fish. However, very few studies have been performed on pigmented species. Tench (Tinca tinca) is a teleost inhabiting dimly lit environments that has a predominance of rods within the photoreceptor layer. To test the hypothesis that constant high intensity light can result in retinal damage in such pigmented epibenthonic teleost species, photodegeneration of the retina was investigated in the larvae and in juveniles of tench to assess whether any damage may also be dependent on fish age. We exposed both groups of animals to 5 days of constant darkness, followed by 4 days of constant 20,000 lx light, and then by 6 days of recovery in a 14 h light:10 h dark cycle. The results showed that the retina of the larvae group exhibited abundant photoreceptor cell apoptosis during the time of exposition to intense light, whereas that of juveniles was indifferent to it. Damaged retinas showed a strong TUNEL signal in photoreceptor nuclei, and occasionally a weak cytoplasmic TUNEL signal in Müller glia. Specific labelling of microglial cells with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin (GSL) histochemistry revealed that photoreceptor cell death alerts microglia in the degenerating retina, leading to local proliferation, migration towards the injured outer nuclear layer (ONL), and enhanced phagocytosis of photoreceptor debris. During the first days of intense light treatment, Müller cells phagocytosed dead photoreceptor cells but, once microglial cells became activated, there was a progressive increase in the phagocytic capacity of the microglia.

  12. Fasudil inhibits LPS-induced migration of retinal microglial cells via regulating p38-MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Xu, Yue; Zhu, Liqiong; Rao, Pinhong; Wen, Jiamin; Sang, Yunyun; Shang, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect and possible molecular mechanisms of fasudil on retinal microglial (RMG) cell migration. Methods Primary cultured RMG cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fasudil, and/or SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). RMG cell motility was determined with the scratch wound assay and the Transwell migration assay. The phosphorylation of p38 and levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 were measured with western blot. Results In the scratch-induced migration assay, as well as in the Transwell migration assay, the results indicated that LPS stimulated the migratory potential of RMG cells and fasudil significantly reduced LPS-stimulated RMG cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner. However, fasudil had no effect on RMG cell migration in the absence of LPS stimulation. Moreover, fasudil reduced the level of phosphor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) in a concentration-dependent manner, without effects on the levels of phospho-p44/42 (p-ERK1/2) and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Cotreatment with SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) and fasudil resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and p-p38-MAPK, as well as a reduction in the LPS-stimulated migration capabilities of the RMG cells, suggesting fasudil suppresses the LPS-stimulated migration of RMG cells via directly downregulating the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusions Our studies indicated that fasudil inhibited LPS-stimulated RMG cell migration via suppression of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27441000

  13. Microglial activation in regions related to cognitive function predicts disease onset in Huntington's disease: a multimodal imaging study.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Pavese, Nicola; Tai, Yen F; Kiferle, Lorenzo; Mason, Sarah L; Brooks, David J; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Barker, Roger A; Piccini, Paola

    2011-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder associated with motor, cognitive and psychiatric deficits. This study, using a multimodal imaging approach, aims to assess in vivo the functional and structural integrity of regions and regional networks linked with motor, cognitive and psychiatric function. Predicting disease onset in at risk individuals is problematic and thus we sought to investigate this by computing the 5-year probability of HD onset (p5 HD) and relating it to imaging parameters. Using MRI, (11)C-PK11195 and (11)C-raclopride PET, we have investigated volumes, levels of microglial activation and D2/D3 receptor binding in CAG repeat-matched groups of premanifest and symptomatic HD gene carriers. Findings were correlated with disease-burden and UHDRS scores. Atrophy was detected in sensorimotor striatum (SMST), substantia nigra, orbitofrontal and anterior prefrontal cortex in the premanifest HD. D2/D3 receptor binding was reduced and microglial activation increased in SMST and associative striatum (AST), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the hypothalamus. In symptomatic HD cases this extended to involve atrophy in globus pallidus, limbic striatum, the red nuclei, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula. D2/D3 receptor binding was additionally reduced in substantia nigra, globus pallidus, limbic striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and insula, and microglial activation increased in globus pallidus, limbic striatum and anterior prefrontal cortex. In premanifest HD, increased levels of microglial activation in the AST and in the regional network associated with cognitive function correlated with p5 HD onset. These data suggest that pathologically activated microglia in AST and other areas related to cognitive function, maybe better predictors of clinical onset and stresses the importance of early cognitive assessment in HD.

  14. NG2 expression in microglial cells affects the expression of neurotrophic and proinflammatory factors by regulating FAK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lie; Su, Qing; Jie, Xiang; Liu, Antang; Wang, Hui; He, Beiping; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is significantly upregulated in a subset of glial cells in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) following CNS injury. NG2 is reported to promote the resulting inflammatory reaction, however, the mechanism by which NG2 mediates these effects is yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the changes in NG2 expressing microglial cells in the FMN in response to facial nerve axotomy (FNA) in mice. Our findings indicated that NG2 expression was progressively induced and upregulated specifically in the ipsilateral facial nucleus following FNA. To further investigate the effects of NG2 expression, in vivo studies in NG2-knockout mice and in vitro studies in rat microglial cells transfected with NG2 shRNAs were performed. Abolition of NG2 expression both in vitro and in vivo resulted in increased expression of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and glial derived neurotrophic factor), decreased expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and decreased apoptosis in the ipsilateral facial nucleus in response to FNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of FAK in these NG2-induced effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that NG2 expression mediates inflammatory reactions and neurodegeneration in microglial cells in response to CNS injury, potentially by regulating FAK phosphorylation. PMID:27306838

  15. Microglial activation enhances associative taste memory through purinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Saucisse, Nicolas; Parkes, Shauna L; Lacabanne, Chloe; Aubert, Agnes; Casenave, Fabrice; Coutureau, Etienne; Sans, Nathalie; Layé, Sophie; Ferreira, Guillaume; Nadjar, Agnes

    2015-02-18

    The cerebral innate immune system is able to modulate brain functioning and cognitive processes. During activation of the cerebral innate immune system, inflammatory factors produced by microglia, such as cytokines and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), have been directly linked to modulation of glutamatergic system on one hand and learning and memory functions on the other hand. However, the cellular mechanisms by which microglial activation modulates cognitive processes are still unclear. Here, we used taste memory tasks, highly dependent on glutamatergic transmission in the insular cortex, to investigate the behavioral and cellular impacts of an inflammation restricted to this cortical area in rats. We first show that intrainsular infusion of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces a local inflammation and increases glutamatergic AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor expression at the synaptic level. This cortical inflammation also enhances associative, but not incidental, taste memory through increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor trafficking. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP, but not proinflammatory cytokines, is responsible for inflammation-induced enhancement of both associative taste memory and AMPA receptor expression in insular cortex. In conclusion, we propose that inflammation restricted to the insular cortex enhances associative taste memory through a purinergic-dependent increase of glutamatergic AMPA receptor expression at the synapse. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353022-12$15.00/0.

  16. Deep brain stimulation during early adolescence prevents microglial alterations in a model of maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine

    2016-12-07

    In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease.

  17. Transcriptomic regulations in oligodendroglial and microglial cells related to brain damage following fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Pham, Hoa; Van de Looij, Yohan; Bernal, Miguel; Mairesse, Jerome; Zana-Taieb, Elodie; Colella, Marina; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Pansiot, Julien; Dumont, Florent; Sizonenko, Stéphane; Gressens, Pierre; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Tanter, Mickael; Demene, Charlie; Vaiman, Daniel; Baud, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major complication of human pregnancy, frequently resulting from placental vascular diseases and prenatal malnutrition, and is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes throughout life. However, the mechanisms linking poor fetal growth and neurocognitive impairment are unclear. Here, we aimed to correlate changes in gene expression induced by FGR in rats and abnormal cerebral white matter maturation, brain microstructure, and cortical connectivity in vivo. We investigated a model of FGR induced by low-protein-diet malnutrition between embryonic day 0 and birth using an interdisciplinary approach combining advanced brain imaging, in vivo connectivity, microarray analysis of sorted oligodendroglial and microglial cells and histology. We show that myelination and brain function are both significantly altered in our model of FGR. These alterations, detected first in the white matter on magnetic resonance imaging significantly reduced cortical connectivity as assessed by ultrafast ultrasound imaging. Fetal growth retardation was found associated with white matter dysmaturation as shown by the immunohistochemical profiles and microarrays analyses. Strikingly, transcriptomic and gene network analyses reveal not only a myelination deficit in growth-restricted pups, but also the extensive deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation and the cell cycle in both oligodendrocytes and microglia. Our findings shed new light on the cellular and gene regulatory mechanisms mediating brain structural and functional defects in malnutrition-induced FGR, and suggest, for the first time, a neuroinflammatory basis for the poor neurocognitive outcome observed in growth-restricted human infants. GLIA 2016;64:2306-2320.

  18. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech. PMID:22356764

  19. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Garçon-Bocquet, Annelise; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Nagnan-le Meillour, Patricia; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2012-02-22

    In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  20. Imaging Microglial Activation in Untreated First-Episode Psychosis: A PET Study With [(18)F]FEPPA.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, Sina; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Rao, Naren; Selvanathan, Thiviya; Kenk, Miran; Bazinet, Richard P; Suridjan, Ivonne; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Remington, Gary; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-02-01

    Neuroinflammation and abnormal immune responses are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) have been limited by high nonspecific binding of the first-generation radioligand, low-resolution scanners, small sample sizes, and psychotic patients being on antipsychotics or not being in the first episode of their illness. The present study uses the novel second-generation TSPO PET radioligand [(18)F]FEPPA to evaluate whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of untreated patients with first-episode psychosis. Nineteen untreated patients with first-episode psychosis (14 of them antipsychotic naive) and 20 healthy volunteers underwent a high-resolution [(18)F]FEPPA PET scan and MRI. Dynamic PET data were analyzed using the validated two-tissue compartment model with arterial plasma input function with total volume of distribution (VT) as outcome measure. All analyses were corrected for TSPO rs6971 polymorphism (which is implicated in differential binding affinity). No significant differences were observed between patients and healthy volunteers in microglial activation, as indexed by [(18)F]FEPPA VT, in either the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus. There were no significant correlations between [(18)F]FEPPA VT and duration of illness, clinical presentation, or neuropsychological measures after adjusting for multiple testing. The lack of significant differences in [(18)F]FEPPA VT between groups suggests that microglial activation is not present in first-episode psychosis.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide treatment arrests the cell cycle of BV-2 microglial cells in G₁ phase and protects them from UV light-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yoko S; Ota, Akira; Nakashima, Akira; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Kodani, Yu; Mori, Keiji; Nagatsu, Toshiharu

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that an optimal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly extends the lifespan of murine primary-cultured microglia by suppressing cell death pathways. In this study, we investigated the effects of LPS pretreatment on UV light-induced apoptosis of cells from the microglial cell line BV-2. More than half of BV-2 cells were apoptotic, and procaspase-3 was cleaved into its active form at 3 h of UV irradiation. In contrast, in BV-2 cells treated with LPS for 24 h, UV irradiation caused neither apoptosis nor procaspase-3 cleavage. LPS treatment arrested the cell cycle in G1 phase and upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1) and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (GADD) 45α in BV-2 cells. When p21(Waf1/Cip1) and GADD45α were knocked down by small interfering RNA, procaspase-3 was cleaved into its active form to induce apoptosis. Our findings suggest that LPS inhibits UV-induced apoptosis in BV-2 cells through arrest of the cell cycle in G1 phase by upregulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and GADD45α. Excessive activation of microglia may play a critical role in the exacerbation of neurodegeneration, therefore, normalizing the precise regulation of apoptosis may be a new strategy to prevent the deterioration caused by neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. CX3CR1 Deficiency Alters Microglial Activation and Reduces Beta-Amyloid Deposition in Two Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungho; Varvel, Nicholas H.; Konerth, Megan E.; Xu, Guixiang; Cardona, Astrid E.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the primary immune effector cells in the brain, continually monitor the tissue parenchyma for pathological alterations and become activated in Alzheimer’s disease. Loss of signaling between neurons and microglia via deletion of the microglial receptor, CX3CR1, worsens phenotypes in various models of neurodegenerative diseases. In contrast, CX3CR1 deficiency ameliorates pathology in murine stroke models. To examine the role of CX3CR1 in Alzheimer’s disease–related β-amyloid pathology, we generated APPPS1 and R1.40 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease deficient for CX3CR1. Surprisingly, CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in a gene dose-dependent reduction in β-amyloid deposition in both the APPPS1 and R1.40 mouse models of AD. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced staining for CD68, a marker of microglial activation. Furthermore, quantitative immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced numbers of microglia surrounding β-amyloid deposits in the CX3CR1-deficient APPPS1 animals. The reduced β-amyloid pathology correlated with reduced levels of TNFα and CCL2 mRNAs, but elevated IL1β mRNA levels, suggesting an altered neuroinflammatory milieu. Finally, to account for these seemingly disparate results, both in vitro and in vivo studies provided evidence that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling alters the phagocytic capacity of microglia, including the uptake of Aβ fibrils. Taken together, these results demonstrate that loss of neuron-microglial fractalkine signaling leads to reduced β-amyloid deposition in mouse models of AD that is potentially mediated by altered activation and phagocytic capability of CX3CR1-deficient microglia. PMID:20864679

  3. The Relationship Between Serial [18F]PBR06 PET Imaging of Microglial Activation and Motor Function Following Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lartey, Frederick M.; Ahn, G-One; Ali, Rehan; Rosenblum, Sahar; Miao, Zheng; Arksey, Natasha; Shen, Bin; Colomer, Marta Vilalta; Rafat, Marjan; Liu, Hongguang; Alejandre-Alcazar, Miguel A.; Chen, John W.; Palmer, Theo; Chin, Frederick T.; Guzman, Raphael; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using [18F]PBR06 positron emission tomography (PET) to characterize the time course of stroke-associated neuroinflammation (SAN) in mice, to evaluate whether brain microglia influences motor function after stroke, and to demonstrate the use of [18F]PBR06 PET as a therapeutic assessment tool. Procedures Stroke was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Balb/c mice (control, stroke, and stroke with poststroke minocycline treatment). [18 F]PBR06 PET/CT imaging, rotarod tests, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed 3, 11, and 22 days poststroke induction (PSI). Results The stroke group exhibited significantly increased microglial activation, and impaired motor function. Peak microglial activation was 11 days PSI. There was a strong association between microglial activation, motor function, and microglial protein expression on IHC. Minocycline significantly reduced microglial activation and improved motor function by day 22 PSI. Conclusion [18 F]PBR06 PET imaging noninvasively characterizes the time course of SAN, and shows increased microglial activation is associated with decreased motor function. PMID:24865401

  4. Minocycline Effects on IL-6 Concentration in Macrophage and Microglial Cells in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moini-Zanjani, Taraneh; Ostad, Seyed-Nasser; Labibi, Farzaneh; Ameli, Haleh; Mosaffa, Nariman; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that neuropathic pain pathogenesis is not confined to changes in the activity of neuronal systems but involves interactions between neurons, inflammatory immune and immune-like glial cells. Substances released from immune cells during inflammation play an important role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. It has been found that minocycline suppresses the development of neuropathic pain. Here, we evaluated the analgesic effect of minocycline in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rat and assessed IL-6 concentration from cultured macrophage and microglia cells. Methods: Male Wistar rat (n=6, 150-200 g) were divided into three different groups: 1) CCI+vehicle, 2) sham+vehicle, and 3) CCI+drug. Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was injected one hour before surgery and continued daily to day 14 post ligation. Von Frey filaments and acetone, as pain behavioral tests, were used for mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia, respectively. Experiments were performed on day 0 (before surgery) and days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post -injury. At day 14, rats were killed and monocyte-derived macrophage from right ventricle and microglia from lumbar part of the spinal cord were isolated and cultured in RPMI and Leibovitz’s media, respectively. IL-6 concentration was evaluated in cell culture supernatant after 24 h. Results: Minocycline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) attenuated pain behavior, and a decrease in IL-6 concentration was observed in immune cells compared to CCI vehicle-treated animals. Conclusion: Minocycline reduced pain behavior and decreased IL-6 concentration in macrophage and microglial cells. PMID:27221523

  5. Size-Dependent Deposition, Translocation, and Microglial Activation of Inhaled Silver Nanoparticles in the Rodent Nose and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Patchin, Esther Shin; Anderson, Donald S.; Silva, Rona M.; Uyeminami, Dale L.; Scott, Grace M.; Guo, Ting; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are present in personal, commercial, and industrial products, which are often aerosolized. Current understanding of the deposition, translocation, and health-related impacts of AgNP inhalation is limited. Objectives: We determined a) the deposition and retention of inhaled Ag in the nasal cavity from nose-only exposure; b) the timing for Ag translocation to and retention/clearance in the olfactory bulb (OB); and c) whether the presence of Ag in the OB affects microglial activity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed nose-only to citrate-buffered 20- or 110-nm AgNP (C20 or C110, respectively) or citrate buffer alone for 6 hr. The nasal cavity and OB were examined for the presence of Ag and for biological responses up to 56 days post-exposure (8 weeks). Results: The highest nasal Ag deposition was observed on Day 0 for both AgNP sizes. Inhalation of aerosolized C20 resulted in rapid translocation of Ag to the OB and in microglial activation at Days 0, 1, and 7. In contrast, inhalation of C110 resulted in a gradual but progressive transport of Ag to and retention in the OB, with a trend for microglial activation to variably be above control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that after rats experienced a 6-hr inhalation exposure to 20- and 110-nm AgNP at a single point in time, Ag deposition in the nose, the rate of translocation to the brain, and subsequent microglial activation in the OB differed depending on AgNP size and time since exposure. Citation: Patchin ES, Anderson DS, Silva RM, Uyeminami DL, Scott GM, Guo T, Van Winkle LS, Pinkerton KE. 2016. Size-dependent deposition, translocation, and microglial activation of inhaled silver nanoparticles in the rodent nose and brain. Environ Health Perspect 124:1870–1875; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP234 PMID:27152509

  6. The amelioration of phagocytic ability in microglial cells by curcumin through the inhibition of EMF-induced pro-inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insufficient clearance by microglial cells, prevalent in several neurological conditions and diseases, is intricately intertwined with MFG-E8 expression and inflammatory responses. Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure can elicit the pro-inflammatory activation and may also trigger an alteration of the clearance function in microglial cells. Curcumin has important roles in the anti-inflammatory and phagocytic process. Here, we evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed microglial cells (N9 cells) and documented relative pathways. Methods N9 cells were pretreated with or without recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8), curcumin and an antibody of toll-like receptor 4 (anti-TLR4), and subsequently treated with EMF or a sham exposure. Their phagocytic ability was evaluated using phosphatidylserine-containing fluorescent bioparticles. The pro-inflammatory activation of microglia was assessed via CD11b immunoreactivity and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or the Griess test. We evaluated the ability of curcumin to ameliorate the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells, including checking the expression of MFG-E8, αvβ3 integrin, TLR4, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) using Western blotting. Results EMF exposure dramatically enhanced the expression of CD11b and depressed the phagocytic ability of N9 cells. rmMFG-E8 could clearly ameliorate the phagocytic ability of N9 cells after EMF exposure. We also found that EMF exposure significantly increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and the production of NO; however, these increases were efficiently chilled by the addition of curcumin to the culture medium. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic ability of EMF-exposed N9 cells

  7. Aging, microglial cell priming, and the discordant central inflammatory response to signals from the peripheral immune system

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, Ryan N.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that activation of the peripheral immune system elicits a discordant central (i.e., in the brain) inflammatory response in aged but otherwise healthy subjects compared with younger cohorts. A fundamental difference in the reactive state of microglial cells in the aged brain has been suggested as the basis for this discordant inflammatory response. Thus, the aging process appears to serve as a “priming” stimulus for microglia, and upon secondary stimulation with a triggering stimulus (i.e., peripheral signals communicating infection), these primed microglia release excessive quantities of proinflammatory cytokines. Subsequently, this exaggerated cytokine release elicits exaggerated behavioral changes including anorexia, hypersomnia, lethargy, decreased social interaction, and deficits in cognitive and motor function (collectively known as the sickness behavior syndrome). Whereas this reorganization of host priorities is normally adaptive in young subjects, there is a propensity for this response to be maladaptive in aged subjects, resulting in greater severity and duration of the sickness behavior syndrome. Consequently, acute bouts of cognitive impairment in elderly subjects increase the likelihood of poor self-care behaviors (i.e., anorexia, weight loss, noncompliance), which ultimately leads to higher rates of hospitalization and mortality. PMID:18495785

  8. Phospholipid Incorporation of Non-Methylene-Interrupted Fatty Acids (NMIFA) in Murine Microglial BV-2 Cells Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Jung; Chuang, Lu-Te; Liao, Jia-Siang; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Hong-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Sciadonic acid (SCA), pinolenic acid (PNA), and Δ7-eicosatrienoic acid (Δ7-ETrA) are three non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMIFA). Using murine microglial BV-2 cells, this study determined how NMIFA incorporation modulated phospholipid fatty acid composition and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Each NMIFA was rapidly taken up and incorporated in BV-2 cells, resulting in the differential redistribution of total lipids. The cellular phospholipid fatty acid compositions were altered, and a significant decrease in the proportions of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was observed while the proportions of NMIFA and its metabolites accounted for 38% of the fatty acid total. Incubation of microglial cells with NMIFA suppressed production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2). These inhibitory effects could be accounted for, in part, by the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling. In conclusion, Δ7-ETrA, PNA, and SCA are anti-inflammatory NMIFA that may be useful in suppressing in vitro immune responses involved in neural inflammation.

  9. Leptin is essential for microglial activation and neuropathic pain after preganglionic cervical root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Ting; Lin, Yi-Lo; Lin, Chi-Te; Hong, Chen-Jei; Tsai, May-Jywan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lee, Yi-Yen; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Ming-Chao

    2017-10-15

    Preganglionic cervical root avulsion (PCRA) affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems and is often associated with neuropathic pain. Unlike peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), central lesions caused by disruption of cervical roots from the spinal cord following PCRA contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Leptin is involved in the development of neuropathic pain after PNI by affecting neurons. However, whether leptin is involved in microglial activation leading to neuropathic pain after PCRA is unknown. Preganglionic avulsion of the left 6(th)-8(th) cervical roots was performed in C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice. A leptin antagonist or leptin was administered to C57B/6J mice and leptin-deficient mice after injury, respectively. The expression pattern of spinal and supraspinal microglia was examined by immunofluorescent staining. Von Frey filaments were used to test pain sensitivity. Leptin is essential for the development of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Allodynia was absent in the leptin-deficient mice and the mice administered the leptin antagonist. We also found that leptin deficiency or the administration of its antagonist inhibited the development of microgliosis in the dorsal horn and brainstem. Furthermore, increase in the expression of CD86 and iNOS, and Wallerian degeneration were noted in the spinal cord. The administration of exogenous leptin to leptin-deficient mice reversed these effects. We concluded that leptin is involved in the proliferation and activation of microglia, which in turn enhances the development of neuropathic pain. Blocking the effects of leptin might be a target for the treatment of neuropathic pain after PCRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Monocyte and microglial activation in patients with mood-stabilized bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Joel; Bjerke, Maria; Sahebi, Sara; Isgren, Anniella; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Olsson, Bob; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is associated with medical comorbidities that have been linked to systemic inflammatory mechanisms. There is, however, limited evidence supporting a role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Here we tested whether microglial activation and associated tissue remodelling processes are related to bipolar disorder by analyzing markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients and healthy controls. Methods Serum was sampled from euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls, and CSF was sampled from a large subset of these individuals. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), YKL-40, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), were measured, and we adjusted comparisons between patients and controls for confounding factors. Results We obtained serum samples from 221 patients and 112 controls and CSF samples from 125 patients and 87 controls. We found increased CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 and increased serum levels of sCD14 and YKL-40 in patients compared with controls; these differences remained after controlling for confounding factors, such as age, sex, smoking, blood–CSF barrier function, acute-phase proteins and body mass index. The CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 correlated with the serum levels, whereas the differences between patients and controls in CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 were independent of serum levels. Limitations The cross-sectional study design precludes conclusions about causality. Conclusion Our results suggest that both neuroinflammatory and systemic inflammatory processes are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Importantly, markers of immunological processes in the brain were independent of peripheral immunological activity. PMID:25768030

  11. Puerarin suppresses production of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-induced N9 microglial cells through regulating MAPK phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation and NF-κB translocation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gao-Ming; Yu, Chao; Yang, Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Microglial cells play a critical role in mediating central nervous system inflammatory processes. Activated microglial cells induced by proinflammatory factor, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), release many kinds of neurotoxic cytokines including reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Puerarin, extracted from kudzu root, possesses the characteristic of neuroprotection, antioxidation and anticancer. In the present study, we observed that LPS induced over-production of nitric oxide (NO) and increased the level of intracellular ROS in N9 microglial cells, but it was inhibited by puerarin. Furthermore, treatment with puerarin on N9 cells suppressed the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by LPS which is implicated in intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) level, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. We also observed that the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2 in N9 cells induced by LPS were inhibited by puerarin, otherwise the down-regulation of O-GlcNAcylation level of protein in N9 cell induced by LPS was up-regulated by pretreatment with puerarin. These results indicate that puerarin effectively inhibits microglia activation induced by LPS through inhibiting expression of iNOS, production of NO and ROS which was mediated via regulating O-GlcNAcylation, phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB translocation.

  12. Silver and gold nanoparticles exposure to in vitro cultured retina--studies on nanoparticle internalization, apoptosis, oxidative stress, glial- and microglial activity.

    PubMed

    Söderstjerna, Erika; Bauer, Patrik; Cedervall, Tommy; Abdshill, Hodan; Johansson, Fredrik; Johansson, Ulrica Englund

    2014-01-01

    The complex network of neuronal cells in the retina makes it a potential target of neuronal toxicity--a risk factor for visual loss. With growing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial and medical applications, including ophthalmology, there is a need for reliable models for early prediction of NP toxicity in the eye and retina. Metal NPs, such as gold and silver, gain much of attention in the ophthalmology community due to their potential to cross the barriers of the eye. Here, NP uptake and signs of toxicity were investigated after exposure to 20 and 80 nm Ag- and AuNPs, using an in vitro tissue culture model of the mouse retina. The model offers long-term preservation of retinal cell types, numbers and morphology and is a controlled system for delivery of NPs, using serum-free defined culture medium. AgNO3-treatment was used as control for toxicity caused by silver ions. These end-points were studied; gross morphological organization, glial activity, microglial activity, level of apoptosis and oxidative stress, which are all well described as signs of insult to neural tissue. TEM analysis demonstrated cellular- and nuclear uptake of all NP types in all neuronal layers of the retina. Htx-eosin staining showed morphological disruption of the normal complex layered retinal structure, vacuole formation and pyknotic cells after exposure to all Ag- and AuNPs. Significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells as well as an increased number of oxidative stressed cells demonstrated NP-related neuronal toxicity. NPs also caused increased glial staining and microglial cell activation, typical hallmarks of neural tissue insult. This study demonstrates that low concentrations of 20 and 80 nm sized Ag- and AuNPs have adverse effects on the retina, using an organotypic retina culture model. Our results motivate careful assessment of candidate NP, metallic or-non-metallic, to be used in neural systems for therapeutic approaches.

  13. Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Exposure to In Vitro Cultured Retina – Studies on Nanoparticle Internalization, Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Glial- and Microglial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Söderstjerna, Erika; Bauer, Patrik; Cedervall, Tommy; Abdshill, Hodan; Johansson, Fredrik; Johansson, Ulrica Englund

    2014-01-01

    The complex network of neuronal cells in the retina makes it a potential target of neuronal toxicity – a risk factor for visual loss. With growing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial and medical applications, including ophthalmology, there is a need for reliable models for early prediction of NP toxicity in the eye and retina. Metal NPs, such as gold and silver, gain much of attention in the ophthalmology community due to their potential to cross the barriers of the eye. Here, NP uptake and signs of toxicity were investigated after exposure to 20 and 80 nm Ag- and AuNPs, using an in vitro tissue culture model of the mouse retina. The model offers long-term preservation of retinal cell types, numbers and morphology and is a controlled system for delivery of NPs, using serum-free defined culture medium. AgNO3-treatment was used as control for toxicity caused by silver ions. These end-points were studied; gross morphological organization, glial activity, microglial activity, level of apoptosis and oxidative stress, which are all well described as signs of insult to neural tissue. TEM analysis demonstrated cellular- and nuclear uptake of all NP types in all neuronal layers of the retina. Htx-eosin staining showed morphological disruption of the normal complex layered retinal structure, vacuole formation and pyknotic cells after exposure to all Ag- and AuNPs. Significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells as well as an increased number of oxidative stressed cells demonstrated NP-related neuronal toxicity. NPs also caused increased glial staining and microglial cell activation, typical hallmarks of neural tissue insult. This study demonstrates that low concentrations of 20 and 80 nm sized Ag- and AuNPs have adverse effects on the retina, using an organotypic retina culture model. Our results motivate careful assessment of candidate NP, metallic or-non-metallic, to be used in neural systems for therapeutic approaches. PMID:25144684

  14. Intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment attenuates immediate neuropathic pain by modulating Nav1.3 expression and decreasing spinal microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intrathecal lidocaine reverses tactile allodynia after nerve injury, but whether neuropathic pain is attenuated by intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment is uncertain. Methods Sixty six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three treatment groups: (1) sham (Group S), which underwent removal of the L6 transverse process; (2) ligated (Group L), which underwent left L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL); and (3) pretreated (Group P), which underwent L5 SNL and was pretreated with intrathecal 2% lidocaine (50 μl). Neuropathic pain was assessed based on behavioral responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Expression of sodium channels (Nav1.3 and Nav1.8) in injured dorsal root ganglia and microglial proliferation/activation in the spinal cord were measured on post-operative days 3 (POD3) and 7 (POD7). Results Group L presented abnormal behavioral responses indicative of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, exhibited up-regulation of Nav1.3 and down-regulation of Nav1.8, and showed increased microglial activation. Compared with ligation only, pretreatment with intrathecal lidocaine before nerve injury (Group P), as measured on POD3, palliated both mechanical allodynia (p < 0.01) and thermal hyperalgesia (p < 0.001), attenuated Nav1.3 up-regulation (p = 0.003), and mitigated spinal microglial activation (p = 0.026) by inhibiting phosphorylation (activation) of p38 MAP kinase (p = 0.034). p38 activation was also suppressed on POD7 (p = 0.002). Conclusions Intrathecal lidocaine prior to SNL blunts the response to noxious stimuli by attenuating Nav1.3 up-regulation and suppressing activation of spinal microglia. Although its effects are limited to 3 days, intrathecal lidocaine pretreatment can alleviate acute SNL-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:21676267

  15. Implicating Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK Ligand Signalling in Microglial Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kichev, Anton; Eede, Pascale; Gressens, Pierre; Thornton, Claire; Hagberg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation in the perinatal brain caused by maternal or intrauterine fetal infection is now well established as an important contributor to the development of perinatal brain injury. Exposure to inflammatory products can impair perinatal brain development and act as a risk factor for neurological dysfunction, cognitive disorders, cerebral palsy, or preterm birth. Pre-exposure to inflammation significantly exacerbates brain injury caused by hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a family of cytokines largely involved in inflammation signalling. In our previous study, we identified the importance of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signalling in the development of perinatal brain injury. We observed a significant increase in the expression levels of a soluble decoy receptor for TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG). Besides TRAIL, OPG is able to bind the receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and inhibit its signalling. The function of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in the brain has not come under much scrutiny. The aim of this research study was to elucidate the role of RANK, RANKL, and OPG in microglial responses to the proinflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C). Here, we show that RANK signalling is important for regulating the activation of the BV2 microglial cell line. We found that LPS treatment causes a significant decrease in the expression of RANK in the BV2 cell line while significantly increasing the expression of OPG, Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, and the adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF. We found that pretreatment of BV2 cells with RANKL for 24 h before the LPS or Poly I:C exposure decreases the expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase. This is accompanied by a decreased expression of the TLR adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF, which we observed after RANKL treatment. Similar results were obtained in our experiments with

  16. Sleep Deprivation Aggravates Median Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain and Enhances Microglial Activation by Suppressing Melatonin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Design: Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Participants: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Measurements: Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. Results: In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. Citation: Huang CT, Chiang RP, Chen CL, Tsai YJ. Sleep

  17. Pesticides, microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Taetzsch, Thomas; Block, Michelle L

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of microglial activation: NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This review will detail the role of microglia in selective DA neurotoxicity, highlight what is currently known about the mechanism of microglial NOX2 activation in these key pesticides, and describe the importance for DA neuron survival and PD etiology.

  18. Pesticides, Microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Taetzsch, Thomas; Block, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of microglial activation: NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This review will detail the role of microglia in selective DA neurotoxicity, highlight what is currently known about the mechanism of microglial NOX2 activation in these key pesticides, and describe the importance for DA neuron survival and PD etiology. PMID:23349115

  19. Microglial Dysregulation in Psychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Williams, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, are phagocytes of the macrophage lineage that have a key role in responding to inflammation and immune challenge in the brain. More recently, they have been shown to have a number of important roles beyond immune surveillance and response, including synaptic pruning during development and the support of adult neurogenesis. Microglial abnormalities have been found in several neuropsychiatric conditions, though in most cases it remains unclear whether these are causative or are a reaction to some other underlying pathophysiology. Here we summarize postmortem, animal, neuroimaging, and other evidence for microglial pathology in major depression, schizophrenia, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. We identify gaps in the existing literature and important areas for future research. If microglial pathology proves to be an important causative factor in these or other neuropsychiatric diseases, modulators of microglial function may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:23690824

  20. Microglial Acid Sensing Regulates Carbon Dioxide Evoked Fear

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Lauren Larke; Ghosal, Sriparna; McGuire, Jennifer L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca L.; Li, Ke-Yong; Santin, Joseph M.; Ratliff-Rang, Christine A.; Patrone, Luis G. A.; Rush, Jennifer; Lewkowich, Ian P.; Herman, James P; Putnam, Robert W.; Sah, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation, a biological challenge and pathological marker in Panic Disorder, evokes intense fear and panic attacks in susceptible individuals. The molecular identity and anatomical location of CO2-sensing systems that translate CO2-evoked fear remains unclear. We investigated contributions of microglial acid sensor T cell death associated gene-8 (TDAG8) and microglial pro-inflammatory responses in CO2-evoked behavioral and physiological responses. Methods CO2-evoked freezing, autonomic and respiratory responses were assessed in TDAG8-deficient (−/−) and wildtype (+/+) mice. Involvement of TDAG8-dependent microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β with CO2-evoked responses was investigated using microglial blocker, minocycline and IL-1β antagonist, IL- 1RA. CO2-chemosensitive firing responses using single-cell patch clamping were measured in TDAG8−/− and +/+ mice to gain functional insights. Results; TDAG8 expression was localized in microglia enriched within the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs). TDAG8−/− mice displayed attenuated CO2-evoked freezing and sympathetic responses. TDAG8 deficiency was associated with reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β within the subfornical organ (SFO). Central infusion of microglial activation blocker, minocycline and IL-1β antagonist, IL-1RA attenuated CO2-evoked freezing. Finally, CO2-evoked neuronal firing in patch clamped SFO neurons was dependent on acid sensor TDAG8 and IL-1β. Conclusions Our data identify TDAG8-dependent microglial acid-sensing as a unique chemosensor for detecting and translating hypercapnia to fear-associated behavioral and physiological responses, providing a novel mechanism for homeostatic threat detection of relevance to psychiatric conditions such as panic disorder. PMID:27422366

  1. Microglial Acid Sensing Regulates Carbon Dioxide-Evoked Fear.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Lauren Larke; Ghosal, Sriparna; McGuire, Jennifer L; Ahlbrand, Rebecca L; Li, Ke-Yong; Santin, Joseph M; Ratliff-Rang, Christine A; Patrone, Luis G A; Rush, Jennifer; Lewkowich, Ian P; Herman, James P; Putnam, Robert W; Sah, Renu

    2016-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation, a biological challenge and pathologic marker in panic disorder, evokes intense fear and panic attacks in susceptible individuals. The molecular identity and anatomic location of CO2-sensing systems that translate CO2-evoked fear remain unclear. We investigated contributions of microglial acid sensor T cell death-associated gene-8 (TDAG8) and microglial proinflammatory responses in CO2-evoked behavioral and physiological responses. CO2-evoked freezing, autonomic, and respiratory responses were assessed in TDAG8-deficient ((-/-)) and wild-type ((+/+)) mice. Involvement of TDAG8-dependent microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β with CO2-evoked responses was investigated using microglial blocker, minocycline, and IL-1β antagonist IL-1RA. CO2-chemosensitive firing responses using single-cell patch clamping were measured in TDAG8(-/-) and TDAG8(+/+) mice to gain functional insights. TDAG8 expression was localized in microglia enriched within the sensory circumventricular organs. TDAG8(-/-) mice displayed attenuated CO2-evoked freezing and sympathetic responses. TDAG8 deficiency was associated with reduced microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β within the subfornical organ. Central infusion of microglial activation blocker minocycline and IL-1β antagonist IL-1RA attenuated CO2-evoked freezing. Finally, CO2-evoked neuronal firing in patch-clamped subfornical organ neurons was dependent on acid sensor TDAG8 and IL-1β. Our data identify TDAG8-dependent microglial acid sensing as a unique chemosensor for detecting and translating hypercapnia to fear-associated behavioral and physiological responses, providing a novel mechanism for homeostatic threat detection of relevance to psychiatric conditions such as panic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of microglial activation by the herbal flavonoid baicalein attenuates inflammation-mediated degeneration of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, F-Q; Wang, T; Pei, Z; Liu, B; Hong, J-S

    2005-03-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammation in the brain participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, anti-inflammatory therapy has attracted much attention as novel interference to neurodegenerative diseases. Baicalein, a major flavonoid extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huangqin), possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. To test the potential neuroprotective effect of baicalein on dopaminergic neurons, primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures from E-14 rat embryos were used. Cultures were pretreated with baicalein for 30 min prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng/ml). LPS leads to massive activation of microglial cells revealed by OX-42 immunostaining, and produced excessive quantities of NO. Excessive elevation of superoxide level was also observed in enriched-microglia after stimulating with LPS. LPS-induced damage to dopaminergic neurons was evaluated by uptake capacity for [3H]dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunocytochemistry. Pretreatment with baicalein concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake and loss of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons, which the maximum protective effect was observed at the concentration of 5 microM. Post-treatment with baicalein (5 microM) was also shown to be effective even if baicalein administered up to 2 h later than LPS application. Morphological study shows that baicalein (5 microM) almost completely blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia. Excessive production of TNF(alpha) and free radicals such as NO and superoxide by LPS stimulation were also attenuated by baicalein at a concentration-dependent pattern. The present study indicates that baicalein exerts potent neuroprotective effect on LPS-induced injury of dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesize that the inhibition of LPS-induced production of NO and free radicals from microglia may underlie the mechanism of

  3. Infant nerve injury induces delayed microglial polarization to the M1 phenotype, and exercise reduces delayed neuropathic pain by modulating microglial activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingrui; Chen, Yongmei; Fu, Bao; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Mazhong

    2017-05-04

    Neuropathic pain is absent in infants and emergent years after injury. Adult spinal cord microglia play a key role in initiating neuropathic pain, and modulation of microglia is a potential target for treating neuropathic pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of microglia after infant peripheral nerve injury and the effect of exercise on the delayed-onset neuropathic pain. Rat pups received spared nerve injury, and behavior tests were performed to evaluate their pain threshold. qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used for M1 and M2 marker expression analysis. In contrast to the microglial polarization to the M1 phenotype observed in the adult spinal cord, in infant nerve injury, microglial polarization immediately shifted to the M2 phenotype. In adolescence, microglia polarized to the M1 phenotype, which was concomitant with the emergence of neuropathic pain. Exercise shifted spinal cord microglia polarization to the M2 phenotype and reduced neuropathic pain. In addition, IL-10 increased and TNF-α decreased after exercise, and intrathecal injection of the IL-10 antibody reduced the exercise-induced analgesia. Our study found that infant nerve injury induced delayed spinal cord microglia polarization to the M1 phenotype and that exercise was effective in the treatment of delayed adolescent neuropathic pain via the modulation of microglial polarization. C