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Sample records for activate nadph oxidase

  1. NADPH OXIDASE: STRUCTURE AND ACTIVATION MECHANISMS (REVIEW). NOTE I.

    PubMed

    Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina; Manciuc, Carmen; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Foia, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase), with its generically termed NOX isoforms, is the major source of ROS (reactive oxigen species) in biological systems. ROS are small oxygen-derived molecules with an important role in various biological processes (physiological or pathological). If under physiological conditions some processes are beneficial and necessary for life, under pathophysiological conditions they are noxious, harmful. NADPH oxidases are present in phagocytes and in a wide variety of nonphagocytic cells. The enzyme generates superoxide by transferring electrons from NADPH inside the cell across the membrane and coupling them to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anion, a reactive free-radical. Structurally, NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme which includes two integral membrane proteins, glycoprotein gp9 1 Phox and adaptor protein p22(phox), which together form the heterodimeric flavocytochrome b558 that constitutes the core of the enzyme. During the resting state, the multidomain regulatory subunits p40P(phox), p47(phox), p67(Phox) are located in the cytosol organized as a complex. The activation of phagocytic NADPH oxidase occurs through a complex series of protein interactions.

  2. Decavanadate inhibits the cell-free activation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase without affecting tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, N; Sakai, T; Nishimura, Y; Sakai, M; Araki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Ishibashi, S

    1999-08-01

    NADPH oxidase was activated by arachidonate in a cell-free system consisting of membrane and cytosol fractions prepared from guinea pig neutrophils. Vanadate apparently inhibited the NADPH oxidase activity in the cell-free system (IC50=2 microM) without phosphotyrosine accumulation. The pH dependency and stability of the inhibitory effect observed for vanadate solution indicated that decavanadate, an isopolyanion of vanadate, was responsible for the inhibition. Pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide) also inhibited the oxidase activity but at a higher concentration (IC50=0.2 mM). Decavanadate lowered the Vmax but did not affect the Km value of NADPH oxidase for NADPH. Decavanadate inhibited the activation process of NADPH oxidase but not the oxidase activity itself. Decavanadate-pretreatment of membrane and cytosol fractions irreversibly decreased the abilities of both fractions to activate NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system. Translocation of p47-phox, one of the cytosolic activation factors of NADPH oxidase, from cytosol to membrane, was little affected by decavanadate. These results suggest that decavanadate inhibits the activation of NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system without affecting the phosphotyrosine phosphatase, and that decavanadate can bind to both the membrane and cytosolic activation factors when they are in a dormant state, but not to the active oxidase complex.

  3. Method to Detect the Cellular Source of Over-Activated NADPH Oxidases Using NAD(P)H Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Daniel; Leben, Ruth; Mothes, Ronja; Radbruch, Helena; Niesner, Raluca

    2017-04-03

    Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a technique to generate images, in which the contrast is obtained by the excited-state lifetime of fluorescent molecules instead of their intensity and emission spectrum. The ubiquitous coenzymes NADH and NADPH, hereafter NAD(P)H, in cells show a short fluorescence lifetime ≈400 psec in the free-state and a longer fluorescence lifetime when bound to enzymes. The fluorescence lifetime of NAD(P)H in this state depends on the binding-site on the specific enzyme. In the case of NADPH bound to members of the NADPH oxidases family we measured a fluorescence lifetime of 3650 psec as compared to enzymes typically active in cells, in which case fluorescence lifetimes of ∼2000 psec are measured. Here we present a robust protocol based on NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging in isolated cells to distinguish between normally active enzymes and NADPH oxidases, mainly responsible for oxidative stress. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Thioredoxin-1/peroxiredoxin-1 as sensors of oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase activity in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Fernandez-Garcia, Carlos-Ernesto; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Burillo, Elena; Fortuño, Ana; Martinez-Pinna, Roxana; Llamas-Granda, Patricia; Beloqui, Oscar; Egido, Jesus; Zalba, Guillermo; Martin-Ventura, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    To assess the potential association between TRX-1/PRX-1 and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in vivo and in vitro, TRX-1/PRX-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 84 asymptomatic subjects with known phagocytic NADPH oxidase activity and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We found a positive correlation between TRX-1/PRX-1 and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production (r=0.48 and 0.47; p<0.001 for both) and IMT (r=0.31 and 0.36; p<0.01 for both) adjusted by age and sex. Moreover, asymptomatic subjects with plaques have higher PRX-1 and TRX plasma levels (p<0.01 for both). These data were confirmed in a second study in which patients with carotid atherosclerosis showed higher PRX-1 and TRX plasma levels than healthy subjects (p<0.001 for both). In human atherosclerotic plaques, the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox colocalized with TRX-1/PRX-1 in macrophages (immunohistochemistry). In monocytes and macrophages, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced NADPH activation and TRX-1/PRX-1 release to the extracellular medium, with a concomitant decrease in their intracellular levels, which was reversed by the NADPH inhibitor apocynin (Western blot). In loss-of-function experiments, genetic silencing of the NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 blocked PMA-induced intracellular TRX-1/PRX-1 downregulation in macrophages. Furthermore, the PMA-induced release of TRX-1/PRX-1 involves the modulation of their redox status and exosome-like vesicles. TRX-1/PRX-1 levels are associated with NADPH oxidase-activity in vivo and in vitro. These data could suggest a coordinated antioxidant response to oxidative stress in atherothrombosis.

  5. NADPH oxidase plays a crucial role in the activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2008-01-01

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play an important role in pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation, where oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis. NADPH oxidase might be a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the injured pancreas. This study aimed to clarify the expression and regulation of cell functions by NADPH oxidase in PSCs. PSCs were isolated from rat and human pancreas tissues. Expression of NADPH oxidase was assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and immunostaining. Intracellular ROS production was assessed using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. The effects of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, on key parameters of PSC activation were evaluated in vitro. In vivo, DPI (at 1 mg.kg body wt(-1).day(-1)) was administered in drinking water to 10-wk-old male Wistar Bonn/Kobori rats for 10 wk and to rats with chronic pancreatitis induced by dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). PSCs expressed key components of NADPH oxidase (p22(phox), p47(phox), NOX1, gp91(phox)/NOX2, NOX4, and NOX activator 1). PDGF-BB, IL-1beta, and angiotensin II induced ROS production, which was abolished by DPI and apocynin. DPI inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation, IL-1beta-induced chemokine production, and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen. DPI inhibited transformation of freshly isolated cells to a myofibroblast-like phenotype. In addition, DPI inhibited the development of pancreatic fibrosis in Wistar Bonn/Kobori rats and in rats with DBTC-induced chronic pancreatitis. In conclusion, PSCs express NADPH oxidase to generate ROS, which mediates key cell functions and activation of PSCs. NADPH oxidase might be a potential target for the treatment of pancreatic fibrosis.

  6. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  7. Autophagy protein Rubicon mediates phagocytic NADPH oxidase activation in response to microbial infection or TLR stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chul-Su; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rodgers, Mary; Min, Chan-Ki; Lee, June-Yong; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Kim, Chul-Joong; Oh, Byungha; Zandi, Ebrahim; Yue, Zhenyu; Kramnik, Igor; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U

    2012-03-15

    Phagocytosis and autophagy are two important and related arms of the host's first-line defense against microbial invasion. Rubicon is a RUN domain containing cysteine-rich protein that functions as part of a Beclin-1-Vps34-containing autophagy complex. We report that Rubicon is also an essential, positive regulator of the NADPH oxidase complex. Upon microbial infection or Toll-like-receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, Rubicon interacts with the p22phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, facilitating its phagosomal trafficking to induce a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of Rubicon profoundly affected ROS, inflammatory cytokine production, and subsequent antimicrobial activity. Rubicon's actions in autophagy and in the NADPH oxidase complex are functionally and genetically separable, indicating that Rubicon functions in two ancient innate immune machineries, autophagy and phagocytosis, depending on the environmental stimulus. Rubicon may thus be pivotal to generating an optimal intracellular immune response against microbial infection.

  8. Protein kinase C-beta contributes to NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, L V; Leitges, M; Altschuler, G; Mistry, N; McDermott, A; Roes, J; Segal, A W

    2000-01-01

    We have analysed the involvement of the beta isotype of the protein kinase C (PKC) family in the activation of NADPH oxidase in primary neutrophils. Using immunofluorescence and cell fractionation, PKC-beta is shown to be recruited to the plasma membrane upon stimulation with phorbol ester and to the phagosomal membrane upon phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles (Fcgamma-receptor stimulus). The time course of recruitment is similar to that of NADPH oxidase activation by these stimuli. The PKC-beta specific inhibitor 379196 inhibits the response to PMA as well as to IgG-coated bacteria. Partial inhibition occurs between 10 and 100 nM of inhibitor, the concentration at which PKC-beta, but not other PKC isotypes, is targeted. Neutrophils isolated from a mouse that lacks PKC-beta also showed an inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by PMA and IgG-coated particles. The level of inhibition is comparable to that achieved with 379196 in human neutrophils. Thus the PKC-beta isotype mediates activation of NADPH oxidase by PMA and by stimulation of Fcgamma receptors in neutrophils. PMID:10727429

  9. Modulation of p47PHOX activity by site-specific phosphorylation: Akt-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal, Carolyn R.; Gutierrez, Abel; Young, Brandon M.; Catz, Sergio D.; Lin, Jun-Hsiang; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Babior, Bernard M.

    2003-01-01

    The leukocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} at the expense of NADPH. Extensive phosphorylation of the oxidase subunit p47PHOX occurs during the activation of the enzyme in intact cells. p47PHOX carrying certain serine-to-alanine mutations fails to support NADPH oxidase activity in intact cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation of specific serines on p47PHOX is required for the activation of the oxidase. Earlier studies with both intact cells and a kinase-dependent, cell-free system have suggested that protein kinase C can phosphorylate those serines of p47PHOX whose phosphorylation is necessary for its activity. Work with inhibitors suggested that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway also can activate the oxidase. Phosphorylation of p47PHOX by Akt (protein kinase B), whose activation depends on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, could be the final step in such a pathway. We now find that Akt activates the oxidase in vitro by phosphorylating serines S304 and S328 of p47PHOX. These results suggest that Akt could participate in the activation of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:12704229

  10. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:26221064

  11. NADPH oxidase activity in allergenic pollen grains of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ling; Takai, Toshiro; Kamijo, Seiji; Gunawan, Hendra; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2009-09-25

    Pollen is an important trigger of allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that ragweed pollen NAD(P)H oxidase generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of allergies in mouse models. Here, we demonstrated that allergenic pollen grains showed NAD(P)H oxidase activity that differed in intensity and localization according to the plant families. The activity occurred at the surface or in the cytoplasm in pollen of grasses, birch, and ragweed; in subpollen particles released from ragweed pollen; and at the inner surface or in the cytoplasm but not on the outer wall, which was sloughed off after the rupture, of pollen of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress. The activity was mostly concentrated within insoluble fractions, suggesting that it facilitates the exposure of tissues to ROS generated by this enzyme. The extent of exposure to pollen-generated ROS could differ among the plant families.

  12. NADPH oxidase activation played a critical role in the oxidative stress process in stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiefang; Wang, Meihui; Li, Zhengwei; Bi, Xukun; Song, Jiale; Weng, Shaoxiang; Fu, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore the underlying mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent EPCs dysfunction. Methods: EPCs were isolated from patients with stable CAD (n=50) and matched healthy volunteers (n=50). NADPH oxidase activation was detected by measuring the expression of each subunit using western blotting and qPCR analyses and the membrane translocation of p47phox using immunofluorescence. The in vivo angiogenesis capacity was evaluated using immunofluorescence by transplanting EPCs into a rat hind limb ischemia model. The PKC inhibitor GÖ-6983 was used to determine the role of PKC in NADPH oxidase activation. Results: Oxidative stress level was increased and the in vivo angiogenesis capacity was impaired in EPCs obtained from CAD subjects with the activation of NADPH oxidase. P47phox membrane translocation increased in CAD group vs controls. These effects were resolved by NADPH oxidase inhibition. Up-regulation of PKCα/β2 was found in EPCs from CAD subjects, PKC inhibition GÖ-6983 could reduce the expression and activity of NADPH oxidation. Conclusions: NADPH oxidase activation via p47phox membrane translocation played a critical role in the initiation and progression of CAD, and the PKCα/β2 signaling pathway might be involved. PMID:28077995

  13. Rapid deactivation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils: continuous replacement by newly activated enzyme sustains the respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Akard, L P; English, D; Gabig, T G

    1988-07-01

    The cell-free system for activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase allowed us to examine activation of the oxidase in the absence of its NADPH-dependent turnover. The covalent sulfhydryl-modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide completely inhibited the activation step (Ki = 40 mumol/L) in the cell-free system but had no effect on turnover of the preactivated particulate NADPH oxidase (up to 1 mmol/L). When N-ethylmaleimide was added to intact neutrophils during the period of maximal O2 generation in response to stimuli that activate the respiratory burst (phorbol myristate acetate, f-Met-Leu-Phe, opsonized zymosan, arachidonic acid), O2- generation ceased within seconds. Study of components of the cell-free activation system indicated that the cytosolic cofactor was irreversibly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide whereas the N-ethylmaleimide-treated, membrane-associated oxidase could be activated by arachidonate and control cytosolic cofactor. Likewise, the cell-free system prepared from intact neutrophils that had been briefly exposed to N-ethylmaleimide and then washed reflected the effects of N-ethylmaleimide on the isolated cell-free components: cytosolic cofactor activity was absent, but the membrane oxidase remained fully activatable. Thus inhibition of oxidase activation by N-ethylamaleimide unmasked a rapid deactivation step that was operative in intact neutrophils but not in isolated particulate NADPH oxidase preparations. The demonstrated specificity of N-ethylmaleimide for oxidase activation and lack of effect on turnover of the NADPH oxidase suggested that sustained O2- generation by intact neutrophils was a result of continued replenishment of a small pool of active oxidase. The existence of an inactive pool of NADPH oxidase molecules in particulate preparations from stimulated neutrophils was supported more directly by activating these preparations again in the cell-free system.

  14. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in endothelial cells by ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David K; Schillinger, Kurt J; Kwait, David M; Hughes, Chambers V; McNamara, Erin J; Ishmael, Fauod; O'Donnell, Robert W; Chang, Ming-Mei; Hogg, Michael G; Dordick, Jonathan S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Ziegler, Linda M; Holland, James A

    2002-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a major enzymatic source of oxygen free radicals in stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). The ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), isolated from the traditional medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, inhibits the release of superoxide anion (O2*-) by this enzyme. The compound acts by blocking the assembly of a functional NADPH oxidase complex. The underlying chemistry of this inhibitory activity, and its physiological significance to EC proliferation, have been investigated. A critical event is the reaction of ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidase. Analysis of this reaction reveals that apocynin is converted to a symmetrical dimer through the formation of a 5,5' carbon-carbon bond. Both reduced glutathione and L-cysteine inhibit this dimerization process. Catechols without the ortho-methoxy-substituted group do not undergo this chemical reaction. Superoxide production by an endothelial cell-free system incubated with apocynin was nearly completely inhibited after a lagtime for inhibition of ca. 2 min. Conversely, O2*- production was nearly completely inhibited, without a lagtime, by incubation with the dimeric form of apocynin. The apocynin dimer undergoes a two-electron transfer reaction with standard redox potentials of -0.75 and -1.34 V as determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inhibition of endothelial NADPH oxidase by apocynin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. These findings identify a metabolite of an ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, which may be the active compound formed within stimulated ECs that prevents NADPH oxidase complex assembly and activation.

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulates NADPH oxidase activity via direct transcriptional regulation of p40phox expression.

    PubMed

    Wada, Taira; Sunaga, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Reiko; Shimba, Shigeki

    2013-05-01

    A member of the NADPH oxidase subunits, p40(phox) plays an important role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity and the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we show that mouse p40(phox) is a novel transcriptional target of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), known as a dioxin receptor or xenobiotic receptor, in the liver. Treatment of mice with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) increased p40(phox) gene expression in the liver, but this induction of p40(phox) gene expression was diminished by the deletion of the AhR gene in the liver. Consistent with the in vivo results, the expression of the p40(phox) gene was increased in 3MC-treated Hepa1c1c7 cells in an AhR-dependent manner. In addition, promoter analysis established p40(phox) as a transcriptional target of AhR. Studies using the RNA-interference technique revealed that p40(phox) is involved in the increase of NADPH oxidase activity and the subsequent ROS production in AhR-activated Hepa1c1c7 cells. Consequently, the results obtained here may provide a novel molecular mechanism for ROS production after exposure to dioxins.

  16. Hyper-responsive Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 activation in NADPH oxidase-deficient B lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    McLetchie, Shawna; Volpp, Bryan D; Dinauer, Mary C; Blum, Janice S

    2015-12-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency linked with mutations in the multi-subunit leucocyte NADPH oxidase. Myeloid-derived phagocytic cells deficient in NADPH oxidase fail to produce sufficient levels of reactive oxygen species to clear engulfed pathogens. In this study we show that oxidase also influences B-cell functions, including responses to single-stranded RNA or unmethylated DNA by endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9. In response to TLR7/9 ligands, B-cell lines derived from patients with CGD with mutations in either the NADPH oxidase p40(phox) or p47(phox) subunits produced only low levels of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, cytokine secretion and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by these oxidase-deficient B cells was significantly increased upon TLR7/9 activation when compared with oxidase-sufficient B cells. Increased TLR responsiveness was also detected in B cells from oxidase-deficient mice. NADPH oxidase-deficient patient-derived B cells also expressed enhanced levels of TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA and protein compared with the same cells reconstituted to restore oxidase activity. These data demonstrate that the loss of oxidase function associated with CGD can significantly impact B-cell TLR signalling in response to nucleic acids with potential repercussions for auto-reactivity in patients.

  17. Molecular Insights of p47phox Phosphorylation Dynamics in the Regulation of NADPH Oxidase Activation and Superoxide Production*

    PubMed Central

    Meijles, Daniel N.; Fan, Lampson M.; Howlin, Brendan J.; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47phox is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47phox phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47phox protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47phox is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22phox binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47phox−/− coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47phox cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47phox membrane translocation, binding to p22phox and endothelial O2⨪ production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47phox C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47phox conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells. PMID:24970888

  18. Molecular insights of p47phox phosphorylation dynamics in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Meijles, Daniel N; Fan, Lampson M; Howlin, Brendan J; Li, Jian-Mei

    2014-08-15

    Phagocyte superoxide production by a multicomponent NADPH oxidase is important in host defense against microbial invasion. However inappropriate NADPH oxidase activation causes inflammation. Endothelial cells express NADPH oxidase and endothelial oxidative stress due to prolonged NADPH oxidase activation predisposes many diseases. Discovering the mechanism of NADPH oxidase activation is essential for developing novel treatment of these diseases. The p47(phox) is a key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase; however, due to the lack of full protein structural information, the mechanistic insight of p47(phox) phosphorylation in NADPH oxidase activation remains incomplete. Based on crystal structures of three functional domains, we generated a computational structural model of the full p47(phox) protein. Using a combination of in silico phosphorylation, molecular dynamics simulation and protein/protein docking, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of p47(phox) is critical for stabilizing its autoinhibited structure. Ser-379 phosphorylation disrupts H-bonds that link the C-terminal tail to the autoinhibitory region (AIR) and the tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, allowing the AIR to undergo phosphorylation to expose the SH3 pocket for p22(phox) binding. These findings were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene transfection of p47(phox-/-) coronary microvascular cells. Compared with wild-type p47(phox) cDNA transfected cells, the single mutation of S379A completely blocked p47(phox) membrane translocation, binding to p22(phox) and endothelial O2(·-) production in response to acute stimulation of PKC. p47(phox) C-terminal tail plays a key role in stabilizing intramolecular interactions at rest. Ser-379 phosphorylation is a molecular switch which initiates p47(phox) conformational changes and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production by cells.

  19. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Diatchuk, V; Lotan, O; Koshkin, V; Wikstroem, P; Pick, E

    1997-05-16

    The elicitation of an oxidative burst in phagocytes rests on the assembly of a multicomponental complex (NADPH oxidase) consisting of a membrane-associated flavocytochrome (cytochrome b559), representing the redox element responsible for the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen to superoxide (O-2), two cytosolic components (p47(phox), p67(phox)), and the small GTPase Rac (1 or 2). We found that 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), an irreversible serine protease inhibitor, prevented the elicitation of O-2 production in intact macrophages and the amphiphile-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system, consisting of solubilized membrane or purified cytochrome b559 combined with total cytosol or a mixture of recombinant p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1. AEBSF acted at the activation step and did not interfere with the ensuing electron flow. It did not scavenge oxygen radicals and did not affect assay reagents. Five other serine protease inhibitors (three irreversible and two reversible) were found to lack an inhibitory effect on cell-free activation of NADPH oxidase. A structure-function study of AEBSF analogues demonstrated that the presence of a sulfonyl fluoride group was essential for inhibitory activity and that compounds containing an aminoalkylbenzene moiety were more active than amidinobenzene derivatives. Exposure of the membrane fraction or of purified cytochrome b559, but not of cytosol or recombinant cytosolic components, to AEBSF, in the presence of a critical concentration of the activating amphiphile lithium dodecyl sulfate, resulted in a marked impairment of their ability to support cell-free NADPH oxidase activation upon complementation with untreated cytosol or cytosolic components. Kinetic analysis of the effect of varying the concentration of each of the three cytosolic components on the inhibitory potency of AEBSF indicated that this was inversely related to the concentrations of p47(phox) and, to a lesser degree, p67

  20. RhoA/ROCK downregulates FPR2-mediated NADPH oxidase activation in mouse bone marrow granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Filina, Julia V; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Safronova, Valentina G

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) express the high and low affinity receptors to formylated peptides (mFPR1 and mFPR2 in mice, accordingly). RhoA/ROCK (Rho activated kinase) pathway is crucial for cell motility and oxidase activity regulated via FPRs. There are contradictory data on RhoA-mediated regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes. We have shown divergent Rho GTPases signaling via mFPR1 and mFPR2 to NADPH oxidase in PMNs from inflammatory site. The present study was aimed to find out the role of RhoA/ROCK in the respiratory burst activated via mFPR1 and mFPR2 in the bone marrow PMNs. Different kinetics of RhoA activation were detected with 0.1μM fMLF and 1μM WKYMVM operating via mFPR1 and mFPR2, accordingly. RhoA was translocated in fMLF-activated cells towards the cell center and juxtamembrane space versus uniform allocation in the resting cells. Specific inhibition of RhoA by CT04, Rho inhibitor I, weakly depressed the respiratory burst induced via mFPR1, but significantly increased the one induced via mFPR2. Inhibition of ROCK, the main effector of RhoA, by Y27632 led to the same effect on the respiratory burst. Regulation of mFPR2-induced respiratory response by ROCK was impossible under the cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D, whereas it persisted in the case of mFPR1 activation. Thus we suggest RhoA to be one of the regulatory and signal transduction components in the respiratory burst through FPRs in the mouse bone marrow PMNs. Both mFPR1 and mFPR2 binding with a ligand trigger the activation of RhoA. FPR1 signaling through RhoA/ROCK increases NADPH-oxidase activity. But in FPR2 action RhoA/ROCK together with cytoskeleton-linked systems down-regulates NADPH-oxidase. This mechanism could restrain the reactive oxygen species dependent damage of own tissues during the chemotaxis of PMNs and in the resting cells.

  1. Diacylglycerol kinases activate tobacco NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative burst in response to cryptogein.

    PubMed

    Cacas, Jean-Luc; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Fromentin, Jérôme; Cantrel, Catherine; Thomas, Dominique; Jeannette, Emmanuelle; Kalachova, Tetiana; Mongrand, Sébastien; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Ruelland, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Cryptogein is a 10 kDa protein secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea that activates defence mechanisms in tobacco plants. Among early signalling events triggered by this microbial-associated molecular pattern is a transient apoplastic oxidative burst which is dependent on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity of the RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG isoform D (RBOHD). Using radioactive [(33) P]-orthophosphate labelling of tobacco Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells, we here provide in vivo evidence for a rapid accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) in response to cryptogein because of the coordinated onset of phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) activities. Both enzyme specific inhibitors and silencing of the phylogenetic cluster III of the tobacco DGK family were found to reduce PA production upon elicitation and to strongly decrease the RBOHD-mediated oxidative burst. Therefore, it appears that PA originating from DGK controls NADPH-oxidase activity. Amongst cluster III DGKs, the expression of DGK5-like was up-regulated in response to cryptogein. Besides DGK5-like is likely to be the main cluster III DGK isoform silenced in one of our mutant lines, making it a strong candidate for the observed response to cryptogein. The relevance of these results is discussed with regard to early signalling lipid-mediated events in plant immunity.

  2. Acute Ethanol Intake Induces NAD(P)H Oxidase Activation and Rhoa Translocation in Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Simplicio, Janaina A.; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; do Vale, Gabriel Tavares; Callera, Glaucia Elena; Pereira, Camila André; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita de Cássia; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mechanism underlying the vascular dysfunction induced by ethanol is not totally understood. Identification of biochemical/molecular mechanisms that could explain such effects is warranted. Objective To investigate whether acute ethanol intake activates the vascular RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in resistance arteries and the role of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on such response. We also evaluated the requirement of p47phox translocation for ethanol-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ethanol (1g/kg, p.o. gavage) or water (control). Some rats were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavage, 5 days) before administration of water or ethanol. The mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) was collected 30 min after ethanol administration. Results Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in superoxide anion (O2-) generation and lipoperoxidation in the MAB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the reduced glutathione, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were not affected by ethanol. Vitamin C and 4-methylpyrazole prevented the increase on O2- generation induced by ethanol in cultured MAB vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol had no effect on phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and eNOS (Ser1177 or Thr495 residues) or MAB vascular reactivity. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in the membrane: cytosol fraction ratio of p47phox and RhoA expression in the rat MAB. Conclusion Acute ethanol intake induces activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by a mechanism that involves ROS generation. In resistance arteries, ethanol activates NAD(P)H oxidase by inducing p47phox translocation by a redox-sensitive mechanism. PMID:27812679

  3. Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Yiqun; Wan Rong; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2009-04-15

    Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67{sup phox} siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox} and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67{sup phox} siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Plays a Vital Role in Regulation of Rice Seed Vigor via Altering NADPH Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination. PMID:22448275

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays a vital role in regulation of rice seed vigor via altering NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been reported to be important in normal plant growth and stress responses. In this study, it was verified that PI3K played a vital role in rice seed germination through regulating NADPH oxidase activity. Suppression of PI3K activity by inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002 could abate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which resulted in disturbance to the seed germination. And then, the signal cascades that PI3K promoted the ROS liberation was also evaluated. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, suppressed most of ROS generation in rice seed germination, which suggested that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS in this process. Pharmacological experiment and RT-PCR demonstrated that PI3K promoted the expression of Os rboh9. Moreover, functional analysis by native PAGE and the measurement of the 2, 3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazo-lium-5- carboxanilide (XTT) formazan concentration both showed that PI3K promoted the activity of NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the western blot analysis of OsRac-1 demonstrated that the translocation of Rac-1 from cytoplasm to plasma membrane, which was known as a key factor in the assembly of NADPH oxidase, was suppressed by treatment with PI3K inhibitors, resulting in the decreased activity of NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these data favored the novel conclusion that PI3K regulated NADPH oxidase activity through modulating the recruitment of Rac-1 to plasma membrane and accelerated the process of rice seed germination.

  6. Suppression of NADPH Oxidase Activity May Slow the Expansion of Osteolytic Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F.; DiNicolantonio, James

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated in the microenvironment of cancer cells, can drive the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells by activating G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Moreover, in cancer cells that have metastasized to bone, LPA signaling can promote osteolysis by inducing cancer cell production of cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8, which can stimulate osteoblasts to secrete RANKL, a key promoter of osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, in cancers prone to metastasize to bone, LPA appears to be a major driver of the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases. Activation of NADPH oxidase has been shown to play a mediating role in the signaling pathways by which LPA, as well as RANKL, promote osteolysis. In addition, there is reason to suspect that Nox4 activation is a mediator of the feed-forward mechanism whereby release of TGF-beta from bone matrix by osteolysis promotes expression of PTHrP in cancer cells, and thereby induces further osteolysis. Hence, measures which can down-regulate NADPH oxidase activity may have potential for slowing the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases in cancer patients. Phycocyanin and high-dose statins may have utility in this regard, and could be contemplated as complements to bisphosphonates or denosumab for the prevention and control of osteolytic lesions. Ingestion of omega-3-rich flaxseed or fish oil may also have potential for controlling osteolysis in cancer patients. PMID:27571113

  7. Cell-free activation of phagocyte NADPH-oxidase: tissue and differentiation-specific expression of cytosolic cofactor activity.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, J F; Akard, L P; Schell, M J; Gabig, T G

    1987-06-30

    We examined a variety of tissues for the presence of cytosolic cofactor activity that would support arachidonate-dependent cell-free activation of NADPH-oxidase in isolated human neutrophil membranes. Cofactor activity was not found in cytosol isolated from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, placenta, brain, liver, or the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60. Induction of differentiation in HL-60 cells led to expression of cytosolic cofactor activity. In dimethylsulphoxide-induced HL-60 cells the level of cytosolic cofactor activity was closely correlated with phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated whole cell superoxide production. These results strongly suggest that the cytosolic cofactor is a phagocyte-specific regulatory protein of physiologic importance in NADPH-oxidase activation.

  8. p47phox Molecular Activation for Assembly of the Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Julien; Man, Petr; Petit-Haertlein, Isabelle; Vivès, Corinne; Forest, Eric; Fieschi, Franck

    2010-01-01

    The p47phox cytosolic factor from neutrophilic NADPH oxidase has always been resistant to crystallogenesis trials due to its modular organization leading to relative flexibility. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry was used to obtain structural information on the conformational mechanism that underlies p47phox activation. We confirmed a relative opening of the protein with exposure of the SH3 Src loops that are known to bind p22phox upon activation. A new surface was shown to be unmasked after activation, representing a potential autoinhibitory surface that may block the interaction of the PX domain with the membrane in the resting state. Within this surface, we identified 2 residues involved in the interaction with the PX domain. The double mutant R162A/D166A showed a higher affinity for specific phospholipids but none for the C-terminal part of p22phox, reflecting an intermediate conformation between the autoinhibited and activated forms. PMID:20592030

  9. NAD(P)H oxidase and renal epithelial ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for cellular vitality is the maintenance of plasma ion concentration within strict ranges. It is the function of the kidney to match urinary excretion of ions with daily ion intake and nonrenal losses to maintain a stable ionic milieu. NADPH oxidase is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within many cell types, including the transporting renal epithelia. The focus of this review is to describe the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS toward local renal tubular ion transport in each nephron segment and to discuss how NADPH oxidase-derived ROS signaling within the nephron may mediate ion homeostasis. In each case, we will attempt to identify the various subunits of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species involved and the ion transporters, which these affect. We will first review the role of NADPH oxidase on renal Na+ and K+ transport. Finally, we will review the relationship between tubular H+ efflux and NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21270341

  10. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations through inhibition of microglia over-activation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Gao, Xi; Pei, Zhong; Wu, Xuefei; Block, Michelle; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report that diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, shows potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects at femtomolar concentrations (10(-13) to 10(-14) M) in primary midbrain cultures. Mechanistic studies revealed that DPI-elicited effects were mediated by the inhibition of LPS-induced microglial ROS production and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFa, and the production of nitric oxide. Further studies showed that 10(-14) M DPI significantly reduced LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that femtomolar concentrations of DPI exert potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the inhibition of ERK-regulated PHOX activity.

  11. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and its Important Role in Lung Fibrosis by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Chang, Chong Hyun; Li, Ruibin; Zhang, Haiyuan; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2015-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the key role of NADPH oxidase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and generation of pulmonary fibrosis by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Although it is known that oxidative stress plays a role in pulmonary fibrosis by single-walled CNTs, the role of specific sources of reactive oxygen species, including NADPH oxidase, in inflammasome activation remains to be clarified. In this study, three long aspect ratio (LAR) materials (MWCNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires) are used to compare with spherical carbon black and silver nanoparticles for their ability to trigger oxygen burst activity and NLRP3 assembly. All LAR materials but not spherical nanoparticles induce robust NADPH oxidase activation and respiratory burst activity in THP-1 cells, which are blunted in p22(phox) -deficient cells. The NADPH oxidase is directly involved in lysosomal damage by LAR materials, as demonstrated by decreased cathepsin B release and IL-1β production in p22(phox) -deficient cells. Reduced respiratory burst activity and inflammasome activation are also observed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from p47(phox) -deficient mice. Moreover, p47(phox) -deficient mice have reduced IL-1β production and lung collagen deposition in response to MWCNTs. Lung fibrosis is also suppressed by N-acetyl-cysteine in wild-type animals exposed to MWCNTs.

  12. Exploiting algal NADPH oxidase for biophotovoltaic energy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Blaby, Ian K; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Davies, Julia M; Smith, Alison G

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbes exhibit light-dependent electron export across the cell membrane, which can generate electricity in biological photovoltaic (BPV) devices. How electrons are exported remains to be determined; the identification of mechanisms would help selection or generation of photosynthetic microbes capable of enhanced electrical output. We show that plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is a significant component of light-dependent generation of electricity by the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NADPH oxidases export electrons across the plasma membrane to form superoxide anion from oxygen. The C. reinhardtii mutant lacking the NADPH oxidase encoded by RBO1 is impaired in both extracellular superoxide anion production and current generation in a BPV device. Complementation with the wild-type gene restores both capacities, demonstrating the role of the enzyme in electron export. Monitoring light-dependent extracellular superoxide production with a colorimetric assay is shown to be an effective way of screening for electrogenic potential of candidate algal strains. The results show that algal NADPH oxidases are important for superoxide anion production and open avenues for optimizing the biological component of these devices.

  13. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  14. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox) phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox) mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  15. The insert region of the Rac GTPases is dispensable for activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Kei; Koga, Hirofumi; Minakami, Reiko; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2009-08-13

    Rac1 and Rac2, which belong to the Rho subfamily of Ras-related GTPases, play an essential role in activation of gp91phox/Nox2 (cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide; also known as Cybb), the catalytic core of the superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase in phagocytes. Rac1 also contributes to activation of the non-phagocytic oxidases Nox1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and Nox3 (NADPH oxidase 3), each related closely to gp91phox/Nox2. It has remained controversial whether the insert region of Rac (amino acids 123-135), unique to the Rho subfamily proteins, is involved in gp91phox/Nox2 activation. In the present study we show that removal of the insert region from Rac1 neither affects activation of gp91phox/Nox2, which is reconstituted under cell-free and whole-cell conditions, nor blocks its localization to phagosomes during ingestion of IgG-coated beads by macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The insert region of Rac2 is also dispensable for gp91phox/Nox2 activation at the cellular level. Although Rac2, as well as Rac1, is capable of enhancing superoxide production by Nox1 and Nox3, the enhancements by the two GTPases are both independent of the insert region. We also demonstrate that Rac3, a third member of the Rac family in mammals, has an ability to activate the three oxidases and that the activation does not require the insert region. Thus the insert region of the Rac GTPases does not participate in regulation of the Nox family NADPH oxidases.

  16. The complex roles of NADPH oxidases in fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary NADPH oxidases play key roles in immunity and inflammation that go beyond the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). The past decade has brought a new appreciation for the diversity of roles played by ROS in signaling associated with inflammation and immunity. NADPH oxidase activity affects disease outcome during infections by human pathogenic fungi, an important group of emerging and opportunistic pathogens that includes Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. Here we review how alternative roles of NADPH oxidase activity impact fungal infection and how ROS signaling affects fungal physiology. Particular attention is paid to roles for NADPH oxidase in immune migration, immunoregulation in pulmonary infection, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, autophagy and inflammasome activity. These recent advances highlight the power and versatility of spatiotemporally controlled redox regulation in the context of infection, and point to a need to understand the molecular consequences of NADPH oxidase activity in the cell. PMID:24905433

  17. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (P<0.05) reduced VEGF-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species by modulating NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox membrane translocation and the expression of Nox2 and Nox4. Moreover, the treatment of endothelial cells with serum obtained 4 h after acute intake of extra virgin olive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  18. NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox−/−) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox−/− mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox−/− mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  19. Polyphenols decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity, increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased gastrocnemius age-dependent autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Caroline; Chabi, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Py, Guillaume; Sairafi, Badie; Elong, Cecile; Gaillet, Sylvie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.

  20. Zinc pyrithione salvages reperfusion injury by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Viswanath; Bodiga, Sreedhar; Kommuguri, Upendra Nadh; Sankuru, Suneetha; Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2011-07-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT), has a strong anti-apoptotic effect when administered just before reperfusion. Because oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to myocardial reperfusion injury, we tested whether ZPT can reduce the production of reactive oxygen species during reoxygenation in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and evaluated the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. The cells were subjected to 8h of simulated ischemia, followed by either 30 min or 16 h of reoxygenation. ZPT when started just before reoxygenation significantly reduced superoxide generation, LDH release and improved cell survival compared to H/R. Attenuation of the ROS production by ZPT paralleled its capacity to prevent pyknotic nuclei formation. In addition, ZPT reversed the H/R-induced expression of NOX2 and p47(phox) phosphorylation indicating that ZPT directly protects cardiomyocytes from reperfusion injury by a mechanism that attenuates NADPH oxidase mediated intracellular oxidative stress.

  1. Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  2. Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

  3. Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1−/−), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  4. Sildenafil Promotes eNOS Activation and Inhibits NADPH Oxidase in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. Aims We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Main Outcome Measures Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Results Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of P-eNOS (Ser-1177), eNOS/HSP90 interaction, P-AKT, protein expression of gp91(phox), and 4-HNE, in the sickle cell mouse penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. PMID:24251665

  5. Role of the Rho GTPase Rac in the activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of the membrane-associated cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox) and 4 cytosolic components: p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase, Rac, in complex with RhoGDI. Superoxide is produced by the NADPH-driven reduction of molecular oxygen, via a redox gradient located in Nox2. Electron flow in Nox2 is initiated by interaction with cytosolic components, which translocate to the membrane, p67phox playing the central role. The participation of Rac is expressed in the following sequence: (1) Translocation of the RacGDP-RhoGDI complex to the membrane; (2) Dissociation of RacGDP from RhoGDI; (3) GDP to GTP exchange on Rac, mediated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor; (4) Binding of RacGTP to p67phox; (5) Induction of a conformational change in p67phox, promoting interaction with Nox2. The particular involvement of Rac in NADPH oxidase assembly serves as a paradigm for signaling by Rho GTPases, in general. PMID:24598074

  6. Impaired NADPH oxidase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of galactosemia patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Essa, Mazen; Dhaunsi, Gursev S; Al-Qabandi, Wafa'a; Khan, Islam

    2013-07-01

    Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of clinical abnormalities. Cellular oxidative stress is considered as one of the pathogenic mechanisms of galactosemia. In this study, we examined the activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a major superoxide-generating enzyme system, in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from galactosemia patients. PBL were isolated from galactosemia patients and healthy control subjects and used for cell culture studies and biochemical assays. PBL were cultured in the presence or absence of galactose or galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P), and enzyme activities and/or gene expression of NOX, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the cell homogenates. PBL isolated from galactosemia patients showed significantly reduced (P < 0.01) activities of catalase and GPx; however SOD activity remained unaltered. Galactosemia patients were found to have significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood lymphocytes. Enzymatic activity of NOX was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in galactosemia patients; however, Western blotting revealed that NOX-1 protein was not significantly altered. Interestingly, levels of NOX activity in lymphocytes isolated from galactosemia patients significantly increased but remained subnormal when cultured in galactose-deficient medium for two weeks, indicating a galactose-mediated inhibition of NOX. Lymphocytes isolated from control subjects were found to have significantly (P < 0.01) reduced NOX activity when cultured in the presence of galactose or Gal-1-P for two weeks. These results show that galactose-induced cellular oxidative stress is not NOX mediated. However, impairment of the NOX system might be responsible for some of the clinical complications in galactosemia patients.

  7. Mapping of functional domains in p47(phox) involved in the activation of NADPH oxidase by "peptide walking".

    PubMed

    Morozov, I; Lotan, O; Joseph, G; Gorzalczany, Y; Pick, E

    1998-06-19

    The superoxide generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists, in resting cells, of a membrane-associated electron transporting flavocytochrome (cytochrome b559) and four cytosolic proteins as follows: p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and the small GTPase, Rac(1 or 2). Activation of the oxidase is consequent to the assembly of a membrane-localized multimolecular complex consisting of cytochrome b559 and the cytosolic components. We used "peptide walking" (Joseph, G., and Pick, E. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 29079-29082) for mapping domains in the amino acid sequence of p47(phox) participating in the molecular events leading to the activation of NADPH oxidase. Ninety-five overlapping pentadecapeptides, with a four-residue offset between neighboring peptides, spanning the complete p47(phox) sequence, were tested for the ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase activation in a cell-free system. This consisted of solubilized macrophage membranes, recombinant p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1, and lithium dodecyl sulfate, as the activator. Eight functional domains were identified and labeled a-h. These were (N- and C-terminal residue numbers are given for each domain) as follows: a (21-35); b (105-119); c (149-159); d (193-207); e (253-267); f (305-319); g (325-339), and h (373-387). Four of these domains (c, d, e, and g) correspond to or form parts of regions shown before to participate in NADPH oxidase assembly. Thus, domain c corresponds to a region on the N-terminal boundary of the first src homology 3 (SH3) domain, whereas domains d and e represent more precisely defined sites within the full-length first and second SH3 domains, respectively. Domain g overlaps an extensively investigated arginine-rich region. Domains a and b, in the N-terminal half of p47(phox), and domains f and h, in the C-terminal half, represent newly identified entities, for which there is no earlier experimental evidence of involvement in NADPH oxidase activation. "Peptide walking" was also applied to

  8. Polyphenols enhance platelet nitric oxide by inhibiting protein kinase C-dependent NADPH oxidase activation: effect on platelet recruitment.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, P; Di Santo, S; Buchetti, B; Sanguigni, V; Brunelli, A; Violi, F

    2006-06-01

    Several studies demonstrated an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular events. Platelet recruitment is an important phase of platelet activation at the site of vascular injury, but it has never been investigated whether polyphenols influence platelet recruitment. The aim of the study was to analyze in vitro whether two polyphenols, quercetin and catechin, were able to affect platelet recruitment. Platelet recruitment was reduced by NO donors and by NADPH oxidase inhibitors and was enhanced by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase. Quercetin and catechin, but not single polyphenol, significantly inhibited platelet recruitment in a concentration-dependent fashion. The formation of superoxide anion was significantly inhibited in platelets incubated with quercetin and catechin but was unaffected by a single polyphenol. Incubation of platelets with quercetin and catechin resulted in inhibition of PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Treatment of platelets with quercetin and catechin resulted in an increase of NO and also down-regulated the expression of GpIIb/IIIa glycoprotein. This study shows that the polyphenols quercetin and catechin synergistically act in reducing platelet recruitment via inhibition of PKC-dependent NADPH oxidase activation. This effect, resulting in NO-mediated platelet glycoprotein GpIIb/IIIa down-regulation, could provide a novel mechanism through which polyphenols reduce cardiovascular disease.

  9. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2(+/+) ) mice with NOX subunit gp91(phox) -deficient (NOX2(-/-) ) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (P < 0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2(+/+) mice, whereas NOX2(-/-) mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2(+/+) mice, but not in NOX2(-/-) mice at 1 hr. Treatment of NOX2(+/+) mice with LPS resulted in a 12-fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5-6.5-fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared with the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined using diphenyliodonium histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hr and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2(+/+) mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX, and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age.

  10. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liya; Liu, Yuxin; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Crews, Fulton T.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated with increasing motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in inflammation-mediated SN neurotoxicity. A comparison of control (NOX2+/+) mice with NOX subunit gp91phox-deficient (NOX2−/−) mice 10 months after LPS administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a 39% (p<0.01) loss of TH+IR neurons in NOX2+/+ mice, whereas, NOX2−/− mice did not show a significant decrease. Microglia (Iba1+IR) showed morphological activation in NOX2+/+ mice, but not in NOX2−/− mice at 1 hour. Treatment of NOX2+/+ mice with LPS resulted in a 12 fold increase in NOX2 mRNA in midbrain and 5.5–6.5 fold increases in NOX2 protein (+IR) in SN compared to the saline controls. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by hydroethidine histochemistry, was increased by LPS in SN between 1 hour and 20 months. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor, blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and production of ROS, TNFα, IL-1β, and MCP-1. Although LPS increased microglial activation and ROS at all ages studied, saline control NOX2+/+ mice showed age-related increases in microglial activation, NOX and ROS levels at 12 and 22 months of age. Together, these results suggest that NOX contributes to persistent microglial activation, ROS production and dopaminergic neurodegeneration that persist and continue to increase with age. PMID:23536230

  11. Rotenone Activates Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase through Binding to Its Membrane Subunit gp91phox

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Shih-heng; Zhang, Dan; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-shyong; Gao, Hui-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Rotenone, a widely used pesticide, reproduces Parkinsonism in rodents and associates with increased risk for Parkinson’s disease. We previously reported rotenone increased superoxide production through stimulating microglial phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX). The present study identified a novel mechanism by which rotenone activates PHOX. Ligand-binding assay revealed that rotenone directly bound to membrane gp91phox, the catalytic subunit of PHOX; such binding was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a PHOX inhibitor with a binding site on gp91phox. Functional studies showed both membrane and cytosolic subunits were required for rotenone-induced superoxide production in cell-free systems, intact phagocytes, and COS7 cells transfected with membrane subunits (gp91phox/p22phox) and cytosolic subunits (p67phox and p47phox). Rotenone-elicited extracellular superoxide release in p47phox-deficient macrophages suggested rotenone enabled to activate PHOX through a p47phox-independent mechanism. Increased membrane translocation of p67phox, elevated binding of p67phox to rotenone-treated membrane fractions, and co-immunoprecipitation of p67phox and gp91phox in rotenone-treated wild-type and p47phox-deficient macrophages indicated p67phox played a critical role in rotenone-induced PHOX activation via its direct interaction with gp91phox. Rac1, a Rho-like small GTPase, enhanced p67phox-gp91phox interaction; Rac1 inhibition decreased rotenone-elicited superoxide release. In conclusion, rotenone directly interacted with gp91phox; such an interaction triggered membrane translocation of p67phox, leading to PHOX activation and superoxide production. PMID:22094225

  12. NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Photoreceptor Degeneration in Constitutively Active RAC1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongman; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zeng, Yong; Marangoni, Dario; Bush, Ronald A.; Wu, Zhijian; Sieving, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The active form of small GTPase RAC1 is required for activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), which in turn generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nonphagocytic cells. We explored whether NOX-induced oxidative stress contributes to rod degeneration in retinas expressing constitutively active (CA) RAC1. Methods Transgenic (Tg)–CA-RAC1 mice were given apocynin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a NOX inhibitor, or vehicle daily for up to 13 weeks. Superoxide production and oxidative damage were assessed by dihydroethidium staining and by protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels, respectively. Outer nuclear layer (ONL) cells were counted and electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes measured in Tg-CA-RAC1 mice. Outer nuclear layer cells were counted in wild-type (WT) mice after transfer of CA-Rac1 gene by subretinal injection of AAV8-pOpsin-CA Rac1-GFP. Results Transgenic-CA-RAC1 retinas had significantly fewer photoreceptor cells and more apoptotic ONL cells than WT controls from postnatal week (Pw) 3 to Pw13. Superoxide accumulation and protein and lipid oxidation were increased in Tg-CA-RAC1 retinas and were reduced in mice treated with apocynin. Apocynin reduced the loss of photoreceptors and increased the rod ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes when compared with vehicle-injected transgenic controls. Photoreceptor loss was also observed in regions of adult WT retina transduced with AAV8-pOpsin-CA Rac1-GFP but not in neighboring regions that were not transduced or in AAV8-pOpsin-GFP–transduced retinas. Conclusions Constitutively active RAC1 promotes photoreceptor cell death by oxidative damage that occurs, at least partially, through NOX-induced ROS. Reactive oxygen species are likely involved in multiple forms of retinal degenerations, and our results support investigating RAC1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach that targets this disease pathway. PMID:27233035

  13. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium activates the human TRPA1 nociceptor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroka; Hatano, Noriyuki; Muraki, Yukiko; Itoh, Yuka; Kimura, Satoko; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Onozaki, Kikuo; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Haji, Akira; Muraki, Katsuhiko

    2014-08-15

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal cells and plays an important role in acute and inflammatory pain. Here, we show that an NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), functions as a TRPA1 activator in human embryonic kidney cells expressing human TRPA1 (HEK-TRPA1) and in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Application of DPI at 0.03-10 μM induced a Ca(2+) response in HEK-TRPA1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca(2+) response was effectively blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (HC). In contrast, DPI had no effect on HEK cells expressing TRPV1-V4 or TRPM8. Four other NOX inhibitors, apocynin (APO), VAS2870 (VAS), plumbagin, and 2-acetylphenothiazine, also induced a Ca(2+) response in HEK-TRPA1 cells, which was inhibited by pretreatment with HC. In the presence of 5 mM glutathione, the Ca(2+) response to DPI was effectively reduced. Moreover, mutation of cysteine 621 in TRPA1 substantially inhibited the DPI-induced Ca(2+) response, while it did not inhibit the APO- and VAS-induced responses. The channel activity was induced by DPI in excised membrane patches with both outside-out and inside-out configurations. Internal application of neomycin significantly inhibited the DPI-induced inward currents. In inflammatory synoviocytes with TRPA1, DPI evoked a Ca(2+) response that was sensitive to HC. In mice, intraplantar injection of DPI caused a pain-related response which was inhibited by preadministration with HC. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that DPI and other NOX inhibitors activate human TRPA1 without mediating NOX.

  14. Involvement of activation of NADPH oxidase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in renal cell injury induced by zinc.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Kawai, Yoshiko; Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-05-01

    Zinc is employed as a supplement; however, zinc-related nephropathy is not generally known. In this study, we investigated zinc-induced renal cell injury using a pig kidney-derived cultured renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK(1), with proximal kidney tubule-like features, and examined the involvement of free radicals and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cell injury. The LLC-PK(1) cells showed early uptake of zinc (30 microM), and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an index of cell injury, was observed 24 hr after uptake. Three hours after zinc exposure, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased. An antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), inhibited a zinc-related increase in ROS generation and zinc-induced renal cell injury. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), inhibited a zinc-related increase in ROS generation and cell injury. We investigated translocation from the cytosol fraction of the p67(phox) subunit, which is involved in the activation of NADPH oxidase, to the membrane fraction, and translocation was induced 3 hr after zinc exposure. We examined the involvement of ERK1/2 in the deterioration of zinc-induced renal cell injury, and the association between ERK1/2 and an increase in ROS generation. Six hours after zinc exposure, the activation (phosphorylation) of ERK1/2 was observed. An antioxidant, DPPD, inhibited the zinc-related activation of ERK1/2. An MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, almost completely inhibited zinc-related cell injury (the release of LDH), but did not influence ROS generation. These results suggest that early intracellular uptake of zinc by LLC-PK(1) cells causes the activation of NADPH oxidase, and that ROS generation by the activation of the enzyme leads to the deterioration of renal cell injury via the activation of ERK1/2.

  15. Antioxidant effect of imperatorin from Angelica dahurica in hypertension via inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation and MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjun; Zhang, Yanmin; Wang, Nan; He, Langchong

    2014-08-01

    Imperatorin (IMP) is an active furocoumarin in the traditional Chinese medicine Angelica dahurica and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IMP on blood pressure (BP) and antioxidant effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. SHR were administered IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) or tempol (18 mg/kg/d) daily by gavage for 12 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, proteinuria levels, and superoxide dismutase activity were evaluated with commercial kits. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits of the renal cortical tissues were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Twenty-four hour urinary 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by treatment with IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) in SHR. Meanwhile, we found that renal cortical superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in IMP-treated groups. Renal cortical and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances' levels, the 24-hour urinary excretion of 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α, and proteinuria in the IMP-treated group, were lower than SHR group. After that, we found the messenger RNA expressions and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were markedly reduced after IMP treated in SHR. IMP also reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in renal cortical in SHR. In addition, H2O2-induced ROS production in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was markedly attenuated by IMP. H2O2-induced activation of MAPK, protein kinase B, and expression of NADPH oxidase were also attenuated by pretreatment of IMP. In summary, IMP showed antihypertensive effect via prevention of renal injury not only by reducing NADPH

  16. NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Park, Ji-hoon; Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook; Kim, Soon Ha

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC{sub 50} = 0.057 μM. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p < 0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in ‘Production of reactive oxygen species’ (p = 0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ► NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced in vitro cardiac cell death. ► NecroX-7 ameliorated doxorubicin-induced in vivo cardiomyopathy. ► NecroX-7 prevented oxidative stress and necrosis-enriched transcriptional changes. ► NecroX-7 effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. ► Cardioprotection of Necro-7 was brought on by modulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  17. Two pathways of activation of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes in vitro--distinctive effects of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Natalia; Gorzalczany, Yara; Pick, Edgar

    2003-06-01

    The NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes comprises a membrane-associated flavocytochrome b559, and 4 cytosolic components: p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase Rac. Activation of the oxidase in vivo is the result of assembly of the cytosolic components with cytochrome b559 and is mimicked in vitro by a cell-free system consisting of membranes, p47phox, p67phox, nonprenylated or prenylated Rac, and an anionic amphiphile as activator (defined as "p47phox and amphiphile-dependent" or canonical pathway). We reported that prenylated Rac1 is capable of activating the NADPH oxidase in vitro in the absence of p47phox and amphiphile (defined as "p47phox and amphiphile-independent" pathway). We now demonstrate that the 2 pathways exhibit distinctive susceptibilities to inhibitors: 1) The anionic amphiphile lithium dodecyl sulfate, an activator of the canonical pathway, has the opposite effect (inhibition) on oxidase activation by prenylated Rac and p67phox; 2) GDP and, paradoxically, GTP (but not GMP, ATP, ADP, and AMP) prevent oxidase activation by the p47phox and amphiphile-independent pathway but do not affect activation by the canonical pathway; 3) The Rac-binding domain of p21-activated kinase is a potent inhibitor of activation by the p47phox and amphiphile-independent pathway while exerting a milder inhibitory effect on the canonical pathway; 4) The C-terminal polybasic Rac1 peptide 177-191 and the cationic antibiotic neomycin sulfate inhibit activation by the canonical pathway but do not affect activation by the p47phox and amphiphile-independent pathway; 5) Binding of prenylated Rac1 to membrane-mimicking phospholipid vesicles is, nevertheless, enhanced when these contain negatively charged lipids. It is proposed that preferential inhibition of oxidase activation, via the p47phox and amphiphile-independent pathway, is a reflection of interference by the inhibitors with Rac-dependent recruitment of p67phox to the membrane.

  18. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  19. NADPH oxidase derived reactive oxygen species are involved in human neutrophil IL-1β secretion but not in inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Gabelloni, María Laura; Sabbione, Florencia; Jancic, Carolina; Fuxman Bass, Juan; Keitelman, Irene; Iula, Leonardo; Oleastro, Matías; Geffner, Jorge R; Trevani, Analía S

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophils are essential players in acute inflammatory responses. Upon stimulation, neutrophils activate NADPH oxidase, generating an array of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a major proinflammatory cytokine synthesized as a precursor that has to be proteolytically processed to become biologically active. The role of ROS in IL-1β processing is still controversial and has not been previously studied in neutrophils. We report here that IL-1β processing in human neutrophils is dependent on caspase-1 and on the serine proteases elastase and/or proteinase 3. NADPH oxidase deficient neutrophils activated caspase-1 and did not exhibit differences in NALP3 expression, indicating that ROS are neither required for inflammasome activation nor for its priming, as has been reported for macrophages. Strikingly, ROS exerted opposite effects on the processing and secretion of IL-1β; whereas ROS negatively controlled caspase-1 activity, as reported in mononuclear phagocytes, ROS were found to be necessary for the exportation of mature IL-1β out of the cell, a role never previously described. The complex ROS-mediated regulation of neutrophil IL-1β secretion might constitute a physiological mechanism to control IL-1β-dependent inflammatory processes where neutrophils play a crucial role.

  20. Phagocyte NADPH-oxidase. Studies with flavin analogues as active site probes in triton X-100-solubilized preparations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, J F; Gabig, T G

    1988-06-25

    NADPH-oxidase of stimulated human neutrophil membranes was solubilized in Triton X-100 and activity reconstituted with FAD, 8-F-FAD, 8-phenyl-S-FAD, and 8-S-FAD. The enzyme had similar affinities for all the flavins with Km values in the 60-80 nM range. Vmax was found to increase 4-fold with increasing redox midpoint potential of the flavin. 8-F-FAD reconstituted with the enzyme was reactive toward thiophenol, suggesting exposure of the 8-position to solvent, a finding supported by unsuccessful attempts to label the enzyme with the photoaffinity probe 8-N3-[32P]FAD. Solubilized oxidase stabilized the red thiolate form of 8-S-FAD, a characteristic of flavoproteins of the dehydrogenase/electron transferase classes which stabilize the blue neutral form of the flavin semiquinone radical.

  1. A neutrophil GTP-binding protein that regulates cell free NADPH oxidase activation is located in the cytosolic fraction.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Eklund, E A; Potter, G B; Dykes, J R

    1990-08-01

    The dormant O2(-)-generating oxidase in plasma membranes from unstimulated neutrophils becomes activated in the presence of arachidonate and a multicomponent cytosolic fraction. This process is stimulated by nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues and may involve a pertussis toxin insensitive GTP-binding protein. Our studies were designed to characterize the putative GTP-binding protein, localizing it to either membrane or cytosolic fraction in this system. Exposure of the isolated membrane fraction to guanosine-5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), with or without arachidonate, had no effect on subsequent NADPH oxidase activation by the cytosolic fraction. Preexposure of the cytosolic fraction to GTP gamma S alone did not enhance activation of the membrane oxidase. However, preexposure of the cytosol to GTP gamma S then arachidonate caused a four-fold enhancement of its ability to activate the membrane oxidase. This enhancement was evident after removal of unbound GTP gamma S and arachidonate, and was not augmented by additional GTP gamma S during membrane activation. A reconstitution assay was developed for cytosolic component(s) responsible for the GTP gamma S effect. Cytosol preincubated with GTP gamma 35S then arachidonate was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography. A single peak of protein-bound GTP gamma 35S was recovered that had reconstitutive activity. Cytosol preincubated with GTP gamma 35S alone was similarly fractionated and the same peak of protein-bound GTP gamma 35S was observed. However, this peak had no reconstitutive activity. We conclude that the GTP-binding protein regulating this cellfree system is located in the cytosolic fraction. The GTP gamma S-liganded form of this protein may be activated or stabilized by arachidonate.

  2. [NADPH oxidases, Nox: new isoenzymes family].

    PubMed

    Chuong Nguyen, Minh Vu; Lardy, Bernard; Paclet, Marie-Hélène; Rousset, Francis; Berthier, Sylvie; Baillet, Athan; Grange, Laurent; Gaudin, Philippe; Morel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases, Nox, are a family of isoenzymes, composed of seven members, whose sole function is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although Nox catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, they acquired from a common ancestor during evolution, specificities related to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, activation mechanisms and regulation. Their functions could vary depending on the pathophysiological state of the tissues. Indeed, ROS are not only bactericidal weapons in phagocytes but also essential cellular signaling molecules and their overproduction is involved in chronic diseases and diseases of aging. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the function of Nox and the emergence of Nox inhibitors, require a thorough knowledge of their nature and structure. The objectives of this review are to highlight, in a structure/function approach, the main similar and differentiated properties shared by the human Nox isoenzymes.

  3. Resolution of a low molecular weight G protein in neutrophil cytosol required for NADPH oxidase activation and reconstitution by recombinant Krev-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Eklund, E A; Marshall, M; Gibbs, J B; Crean, C D; Gabig, T G

    1991-07-25

    Activation of the membrane-associated NADPH oxidase in intact human neutrophils requires a receptor-associated heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that is sensitive to pertussis toxin. Activation of this NADPH oxidase by arachidonate in a cell-free system requires an additional downstream pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein (Gabig, T. G., English, D., Akard, L. P., and Schell, M. J. (1987) (J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1685-1690) that is located in the cytosolic fraction of unstimulated cells (Gabig, T. G., Eklund, E. A., Potter, G. B., and Dykes, J. R. (1990) J. Immunol. 145, 945-951). In the present study, immunodepletion of G proteins from the cytosolic fraction of unstimulated neutrophils resulted in a loss of the ability to activate NADPH oxidase in the membrane fraction. The activity in immunodepleted cytosol was fully reconstituted by a partially purified fraction from neutrophil cytosol that contained a 21-kDa GTP-binding protein. Purified human recombinant Krev-1 p21 also completely reconstituted immunodepleted cytosol whereas recombinant human H-ras p21 or yeast RAS GTP-binding proteins had no reconstitutive activity. Rabbit antisera raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the effector region of Krev-1 (amino acids 31-43) completely inhibited cell-free NADPH oxidase activation, and this inhibition was blocked by the synthetic 31-43 peptide. An inhibitory monoclonal antibody specific for ras p21 amino acids 60-77 (Y13-259) had no effect on cell-free NADPH oxidase activation. Activation of the NADPH oxidase in intact neutrophils by stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate caused a marked increase in the amount of membrane-associated antigen recognized by 151 antiserum on Western blot. Thus a G protein in the cytosol of unstimulated neutrophils antigenically and functionally related to Krev-1 may be the downstream effector G protein for NADPH oxidase activation. This system represents a unique model to study molecular interactions of a ras-like G

  4. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and

  5. Targeting NADPH oxidase and phospholipases A2 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Agnes; He, Yan; Sheng, Wenwen; Sun, Albert Y; Wood, W Gibson; Weisman, Gary A; Sun, Grace Y

    2010-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by an increase in the production of extracellular beta amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles associated with a decline in brain function. Increases in oxidative stress are regarded as an early sign of AD pathophysiology, although the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mechanism(s) whereby beta amyloid peptides (Abeta) impact oxidative stress have not been adequately investigated. Recent studies provide strong evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase and its downstream oxidative signaling pathways in the toxic effects elicited by Abeta. ROS produced by NADPH oxidase activate multiple signaling pathways leading to neuronal excitotoxicity and glial cell-mediated inflammation. This review describes recent studies demonstrating the neurotoxic effects of Abeta in conjunction with ROS produced by NADPH oxidase and the downstream pathways leading to activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and secretory PLA(2). In addition, this review also describes recent studies using botanical antioxidants to protect against oxidative damage associated with AD. Investigating the metabolic and signaling pathways involving Abeta NADPH oxidase and PLA(2) can help understand the mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative effects of oxidative stress in AD. This information should provide new therapeutic approaches for prevention of this debilitating disease.

  6. Inorganic nitrite attenuates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide generation in activated macrophages via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Peleli, Maria; Zollbrecht, Christa; Giulietti, Alessia; Terrando, Niccolo; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Carlström, Mattias

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Immune cells are major sources of superoxide (O2(∙-)) as part of the innate host defense system, but exaggerated and sustained O2(∙-) generation may lead to progressive inflammation and organ injuries. Previous studies have proven organ-protective effects of inorganic nitrite, a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), in conditions manifested by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study aimed at investigating the potential role of nitrite in modulating NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity in immune cells. Mice peritoneal macrophages or human monocytes were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without coincubation with nitrite. O2(∙-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formation were detected by lucigenin-based chemiluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. The intracellular NO production was measured by DAF-FM DA fluorescence. NOX isoforms and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression were detected by qPCR. LPS increased both O2(∙-) and ONOO(-) production in macrophages, which was significantly reduced by nitrite (10µmol/L). Mechanistically, the effects of nitrite are (1) linked to increased NO generation, (2) similar to that observed with the NO donor DETA-NONOate, and (3) can be abolished by the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or by the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor febuxostat. Nox2 expression was increased in activated macrophages, but was not influenced by nitrite. However, nitrite attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of iNOS expression. Similar to that observed in mice macrophages, nitrite also reduced O2(∙-) generation in LPS-activated human monocytes. In conclusion, XO-mediated reduction of nitrite attenuates NOX activity in activated macrophages, which may modulate the inflammatory response.

  7. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K.; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1–5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47phox). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  8. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-03-16

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1-5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47(phox)). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity.

  9. Real-Time Imaging of NADPH Oxidase Activity in Living Cells Using a Novel Fluorescent Protein Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rituraj; Basu Thakur, Poulami; Li, Shumin; Minard, Charles; Rodney, George G.

    2013-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathology of many conditions, including cardiovascular, inflammatory and degenerative diseases, aging, muscular dystrophy, and muscle fatigue. NADPH oxidases (Nox) have recently gained attention as an important source of ROS involved in redox signaling. However, our knowledge of the source of ROS has been limited by the relatively impoverished array of tools available to study them and the limitations of all imaging probes to provide meaningful spatial resolution. By linking redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP) to the Nox organizer protein, p47phox, we have developed a redox sensitive protein to specifically assess Nox activity (p47-roGFP). Stimulation of murine macrophages with endotoxin resulted in rapid, reversible oxidation of p47-roGFP. In murine skeletal muscle, both passive stretch and repetitive electrical stimulation resulted in oxidation of p47-roGFP. The oxidation of p47-roGFP in both macrophages and skeletal muscle was blocked by a Nox specific peptide inhibitor. Furthermore, expression of p47-roGFP in p47phox deficient cells restored Nox activity. As Nox has been linked to pathological redox signaling, our newly developed Nox biosensor will allow for the direct assessment of Nox activity and the development of therapeutic Nox inhibitors. PMID:23704967

  10. Activation of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase results in coupling of electron carrier function between ubiquinone-10 and cytochrome b559.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A

    1985-04-10

    The enzymatic activity underlying the respiratory burst in human neutrophils was examined in a subcellular fraction with high specific activity and shown to be a membrane-associated complex of a flavoprotein, ubiquinone-10, and cytochrome b559 in an approximate 1.3:1:2 molar ratio. Study of the redox poise of these electron carriers indicated that electron flow in the intact complex from unstimulated cells proceeded: NADPH----E-FAD----ubiquinone-10. Similar studies on the complex prepared from stimulated neutrophils indicated that electron flow proceeded: NADPH----E-FAD----ubiquinone-10----cytochrome b559----oxygen. The active enzyme complex was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. Inhibition persisted after removal of excess inhibitor, was reversed by dithiothreitol, and could be blocked by prior addition of substrate (NADPH). Inhibition of the active oxidase complex by p-chloromercuribenzoate also inhibited electron flow from NADPH to all purported electron carriers in the chain (i.e. E-FAD, ubiquinone-10, and cytochrome b559). We conclude that activation of the oxidase enzyme complex in the intact neutrophil resulted in linkage of electron carrier function between endogenous ubiquinone-10 and cytochrome b559 and was without demonstrable effect on proximal electron flow. The p-chloromercuribenzoate sensitive site(s) proximal to the initial electron acceptor (E-FAD) did not appear to be altered by the cellular activation process.

  11. p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

  12. Kaempferol suppresses collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and protecting SHP-2 from oxidative inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su Bin; Jang, Ji Yong; Chae, Yun Hee; Min, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Park, Yunjeong; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon collagen stimulation act as second messengers to propagate various platelet-activating events. Among the ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a prominent role in platelet activation. Thus, NOX has been suggested as a novel target for anti-platelet drug development. Although kaempferol has been identified as a NOX inhibitor, the influence of kaempferol on the activation of platelets and the underlying mechanism have never been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of kaempferol on NOX activation, ROS-dependent signaling pathways, and functional responses in collagen-stimulated platelets. Superoxide anion generation stimulated by collagen was significantly inhibited by kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX, and significantly inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and NOX activation. In accordance with the inhibition of NOX, ROS-dependent inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) was potently protected by kaempferol. Subsequently, the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLCγ2) of collagen receptor signaling pathways was suppressed by kaempferol. Kaempferol also attenuated downstream responses, including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Ultimately, kaempferol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. This study shows that kaempferol impairs collagen-induced platelet activation through inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. This effect suggests that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases.

  13. Quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the membrane NADPH oxidase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, R; Lopez-Sepulveda, R; Romero, M; Toral, M; Cogolludo, A; Perez-Vizcaino, F; Duarte, J

    2015-02-01

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts antioxidant effects reducing vascular superoxide (O2(-)) and improving endothelial function in animal models of cardiovascular disease. Herein we evaluated the effects of quercetin, and its plasma metabolites, on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity, the main source of O2(-) in the vessel wall, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and kaempferol inhibited the NADPH-stimulated lucigenin-chemiluminescence signal in VSMCs from both strains. The inhibitory effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide increased after prolonged incubation and was inhibited in the presence of the β-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone. These effects were unrelated to their O2(-) scavenging properties, since they induced only a small inhibition of the rate of pyrogallol autoxidation at high concentrations. All bioflavonoids tested acted as non-competitive inhibitors with respect to NADPH. In conclusion, quercetin and its metabolites inhibit the NADPH oxidase activity in VSMCs reducing O2(-) generation more efficiently than their effect as O2(-) scavengers. The effect of quercetin-3-glucuronide was due to deconjugation and release of free quercetin. The effect is similar in VSMCs from normotensive and hypertensive animals.

  14. A Novel Nontoxic Inhibitor of the Activation of NADPH Oxidase Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Mouse LungS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Intae; Dodia, Chandra; Chatterjee, Shampa; Zagorski, John; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Jain, Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33) is a fluorinated phospholipid analog that inhibits the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Prdx6 PLA2 activity is required for activation of NADPH oxidase 2 and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, MJ33 inhibited agonist-stimulated production of ROS by the isolated perfused mouse lung, lung microvascular endothelial cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. MJ33 (0.02–0.5 µmol MJ33/kg body weight) in mixed unilamellar liposomes was administered to C57BL/6 mice by either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. routes. Lung MJ33 content, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, showed uptake of 67–87% of the injected dose for i.t. and 23–42% for i.v. administration at 4 hours postinjection. PLA2 activity of lung homogenates was markedly inhibited (>85%) at 4 hours postadministration. Both MJ33 content and PLA2 activity gradually returned to near control levels over the subsequent 24–72 hours. Mice treated with MJ33 at 12.5–25 µmol/kg did not show changes (compared with control) in clinical symptomatology, body weight, hematocrit, and histology of lung, liver, and kidney during a 30- to 50-day observation period. Thus, the toxic dose of MJ33 was >25 µmol/kg, whereas the PLA2 inhibitory dose was approximately 0.02 µmol/kg, indicating a high margin of safety. MJ33 administered to mice prior to lung isolation markedly reduced ROS production and tissue lipid and protein oxidation during ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thus, MJ33 could be useful as a therapeutic agent to prevent ROS-mediated tissue injury associated with lung inflammation or in harvested lungs prior to transplantation. PMID:23475902

  15. Regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation in a cell-free system by guanine nucleotides and fluoride. Evidence for participation of a pertussis and cholera toxin-insensitive G protein.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; English, D; Akard, L P; Schell, M J

    1987-02-05

    Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) transduce a remarkably diverse group of extracellular signals to a relatively limited number of intracellular target enzymes. In the neutrophil, transduction of the signal following fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-ligand interaction is mediated by a pertussis toxin substrate (Gi) that activates inositol-specific phospholipase C. We have utilized a plasma membrane-containing fraction from unstimulated human neutrophils as the target enzyme to explore the role of G proteins in arachidonate and cytosolic cofactor-dependent activation of the NADPH-dependent O-2-generating oxidase. When certain guanine nucleotides or their nonhydrolyzable analogues were present during arachidonate and cytosolic cofactor-dependent activation, they exerted substantial dose-dependent effects. The GTP analogue, GTP gamma S, caused a 2-fold increase in NADPH oxidase activation (half-maximal stimulation, 1.1 microM). Either GDP or its nonhydrolyzable analogue, GDP beta S, inhibited up to 80% of the basal NADPH oxidase activation (Ki GDP = 0.12 mM, GDP beta S = 0.23 mM). GTP caused only slight and variable stimulation, whereas F-, an agent known to promote the active conformation of G proteins, caused a 1.6-fold stimulation of NADPH oxidase activation. NADPH oxidase activation in the cell-free system was absolutely and specifically dependent on Mg2+. Although O2- production in response to fMet-Leu-Phe was inhibited greater than 90% in neutrophils pretreated with pertussis toxin, cytosolic cofactor and target oxidase membranes from neutrophils treated with pertussis toxin showed no change in basal- or GTP gamma S-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation. Cholera toxin treatment of neutrophils also had no effect on the cell-free activation system. Our results suggest a role for a G protein that is distinct from Gs or Gi in the arachidonate and cytosolic cofactor-dependent NADPH oxidase cell-free activation system.

  16. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in high-dose phenolic acid-induced pro-oxidant activity on rat mesenteric venules.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Yuan; Xiao, Ying; Yao, Jian-Jing; Hao, Zhe; Zhao, Yu-Bin

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential role of phenolic acids in initiating oxidative damage to microvascular endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism mediating the pro-oxidant action. Male Wistar rats received high doses of phenolic acid [caffeic acid (CA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), chlorogenic acid (ChA) or ferulic acid (FA)]. The creation of reactive oxygen species in mesenteric microcirculation endothelial cells and adherent leukocytes along with venules were assessed using intravital microscopy. The expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox4 and p22(phox)) in terminal ileum tissues were determined by western blot analysis. Intravenous injection of high-dose ChA or CA (7 mg/kg) markedly increased the peroxide production in the venular walls and upregulated the protein expression levels of Nox4 and p22(phox) in the ileum tissues, while the same dose of CA and SAB made no difference within the observation period. No changes were observed in the number of leukocytes adhering to the venular walls. High-dose ChA and FA led to an imbalance between the oxidant and antioxidant mechanism by boosting the expression levels of NADPH oxidase. Thus, we clarified the rationale behind the adverse effects of a herbal injection containing high levels of phenolic acid compounds.

  17. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  18. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 has anti-atherosclerotic functions

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Christoph; Rezende, Flavia; Kruse, Christoph; Yasar, Yakub; Löwe, Oliver; Fork, Christian; van de Sluis, Bart; Bremer, Rolf; Weissmann, Norbert; Shah, Ajay M.; Jo, Hanjoong; Brandes, Ralf P.; Schröder, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Aims Oxidative stress is thought to be a risk for cardiovascular disease and NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important producers of reactive oxygen species. Within the Nox family, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 has a unique position as it is constitutively active and produces H2O2 rather than O2− . Nox4 is therefore incapable of scavenging NO and its low constitutive H2O2 production might even be beneficial. We hypothesized that Nox4 acts as an endogenous anti-atherosclerotic enzyme. Methods and results Tamoxifen-induced Nox4-knockout mice were crossed with ApoE−/− mice and spontaneous atherosclerosis under regular chow as well as accelerated atherosclerosis in response to partial carotid artery ligation under high-fat diet were determined. Deletion of Nox4 resulted in increased atherosclerosis formation in both models. Mechanistically, pro-atherosclerotic and pro-inflammatory changes in gene expression were observed prior to plaque development. Moreover, inhibition of Nox4 or deletion of the enzyme in the endothelium but not in macrophages resulted in increased adhesion of macrophages to the endothelial surface. Conclusions The H2O2-producing NADPH oxidase Nox4 is an endogenous anti-atherosclerotic enzyme. Nox4 inhibitors, currently under clinical evaluation, should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular side-effects. PMID:26385958

  19. PtdIns(3)P-DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF p40PHOX IN ACTIVATION OF THE NEUTROPHIL NADPH OXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Glazier, Christina M.; Stewart, Mary Q.; Brown, Glenn E.; Ellson, Chris D.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    In response to bacterial infection, the neutrophil NADPH oxidase assembles on phagolysosomes to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen, forming superoxide and downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS). The active oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome together with three cytosolic phox proteins, p40phox, p47phox and p67phox, and the small GTPase Rac2, and is regulated through a process involving Protein Kinase Cs, MAP kinases, and PI 3-kinases. The role of p40phox remains less well defined than those of p47phox and p67phox. We investigated the biological role of p40phox in differentiated PLB-985 neutrophils, and show that depletion of endogenous p40phox using lentiviral shRNA reduces ROS production and impairs bacterial killing under conditions where p67phox levels remain constant. Biochemical studies using a cytosol-reconstituted permeabilized human neutrophil cores system that recapitulates intracellular oxidase activation revealed that depletion of p40phox reduces both the maximal rate and total amount of ROS produced without altering the KM of the oxidase for NADPH. Using a series of mutants, p47PX-p40phox chimeras, and deletion constructs, we found that the p40phox PX domain has PtdIns(3)P-dependent and independent functions. Translocation of p67phox requires the PX domain but not 3-phosphoinositide binding. Activation of the oxidase by p40phox, however, requires both PtdIns(3)P binding and an SH3 domain competent to bind to poly-Pro ligands. Mutations that disrupt the closed auto-inhibited form of full-length p40phox can increase oxidase activity ∼2.5-fold above that of wild-type p40phox, but maintain the requirement for PX and SH3 domain function. We present a model where p40phox translocates p67phox to the region of the cytochrome and subsequently switches the oxidase to an activated state dependent upon PtdIns(3)P and SH3 domain engagement. PMID:18029359

  20. Activation of several MAP kinases upon stimulation of rat alveolar macrophages: role of the NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, M; Forman, H J

    1999-06-15

    Zymosan-activated serum (ZAS), a source of C5a, stimulates the rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to release superoxide anion. Here we show that treatment of rat AM with ZAS induced a time-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins (116, 105-110, 82-78, 66-72, 62, 45, 42, and 38 kDa). This increase was sensitive to genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. ZAS stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of three members of a family of serine/threonine kinases known as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), i.e., ERK1 and ERK2, as assessed by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and phosphotransferase activity, and p38 MAPK, as determined by immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies. In addition, ZAS induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of the SHC proteins and their association with GRB2, suggesting a role for this complex in the activation of the ERK pathway. Addition of extracellular catalase during ZAS stimulation significantly reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation response and the activation of ERK1 and ERK2 and their activator MEK1/2 while it did not affect that of p38 MAPK and MKK3/MKK6. Superoxide dismutase marginally increased the response to ZAS, supporting a role for hydrogen peroxide. In contrast to the results with AM, stimulation of human neutrophils with ZAS in the presence of catalase minimally altered the activation of ERK1 and ERK2. These data show that, in ZAS-stimulated rat AM, activation of the respiratory burst and production of hydrogen peroxide via superoxide dismutation are largely responsible for the activation of the ERK pathway through an upstream target.

  1. Function of wild-type or mutant Rac2 and Rap1a GTPases in differentiated HL60 cell NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Crean, C D; Mantel, P L; Rosli, R

    1995-02-01

    Studies of neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation in a cell-free system showed that the low molecular-weight guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac was required, and that Rap1a may participate in activation of the catalytic complex. Full-length posttranslationally modified Rac2 was active, whereas only the 1-166 truncated form of Rap1a was functional in the cell-free system, and thus, clarification of the function of Rap1a and Rac2 in intact human phagocytes is needed to provide further insight into their roles as signal transducers from plasma membrane receptors. In the present studies, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce a series of mutations into human rap1a or rac2 in the mammalian expression vector pSR alpha neo. HL60 cells transfected with wild-type or mutated rac2 or rap1a cDNA constructs and control HL60 cells transfected with the pSR alpha neo vector containing no inserted cDNA were selected in G418-containing media, then subclones were isolated. Compared with the parent HL60 cells, each of the stable transfected cell lines differentiated similarly into neutrophil-like cells and expressed comparable levels of NADPH oxidase components p47-phox, p67-phox and gp91-phox. The differentiated vector control cell line produced O2. in response to receptor stimulation at rates that were not significantly different from parent HL60 cells. O2-. production by differentiated cell lines expressing mutated N17 Rap1a or N17 Rac2 dominant-negative proteins was inhibited, whereas O2-. production by the subline overexpressing wild-type Rap1a was increased by fourfold. O2-. production by the differentiated cell line expressing GTPase-defective V12 Rap1a was also significantly inhibited, a finding that is consistent with a requirement for cycling between guanosine diphosphate- and GTP-bound forms of Rap1a for continuous NADPH oxidase activation in intact neutrophils. A model is proposed in which Rac2 mediates

  2. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  3. NADPH oxidases are critical targets for prevention of ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms through which chronic alcohol consumption induce bone loss and osteoporosis are largely unknown. Ethanol increases expression and activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzymes (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen spe...

  4. Nebivolol prevents ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species generation and lipoperoxidation in the rat kidney by regulating NADPH oxidase activation and expression.

    PubMed

    do Vale, Gabriel T; Gonzaga, Natália A; Simplicio, Janaina A; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2017-03-15

    We studied whether the β1-adrenergic antagonist nebivolol would prevent ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species generation and lipoperoxidation in the rat renal cortex. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v) for 2 weeks. Nebivolol (10mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage) prevented both the increase in superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration induced by ethanol in the renal cortex. Ethanol decreased nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration in the renal cortex, and nebivolol prevented this response. Nebivolol did not affect the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration induced by ethanol. Nebivolol prevented the ethanol-induced increase of catalase (CAT) activity. Both SOD activity and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected by treatment with nebivolol or ethanol. Neither ethanol nor nebivolol affected the expression of Nox1, Nox4, eNOS, nNOS, CAT, Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1), c-Src, p47(phox) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms in the renal cortex. On the other hand, treatment with ethanol increased Nox2 expression, and nebivolol prevented this response. Finally, nebivolol reduced the expression of protein kinase (PK) Cδ and Rac1. The major finding of our study is that nebivolol prevented ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species generation and lipoperoxidation in the kidney by a mechanism that involves reduction on the expression of Nox2, a catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. Additionally, we demonstrated that nebivolol reduces NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species by decreasing the expression of PKCδ and Rac1, which are important activators of NADPH oxidase.

  5. Activation of TRPM2 and TRPV1 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion by NADPH Oxidase and Protein Kinase C Molecular Pathways: a Patch Clamp Study.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by excessive oxidative stress production and overload calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are activated with different stimuli including oxidative stress. TRPM2 and TRPV1 have been shown to be involved in induction of neuropathic pain. However, the activation mechanisms of TRPM2 and TRPV1 via NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways are poorly understood. In this study, I investigated the roles of NADPH oxidase and PKC on Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in in vitro DRG neurons of rats. Rat DRG neurons were used in whole-cell patch clamp experiments. The H2O2-induced TRPM2 current densities were decreased by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), and dose-dependent capsaicin (CAP) and H2O2-induced TRPV1 currents were inhibited by capsazepine (CPZ). The TRPV1 channel is activated in the DRG neurons by 0.01 mM capsaicin but not 0.001 mM or 0.05 mM capsaicin. TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents were increased by the PKC activator, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), although the currents were decreased by ACA, CPZ, and the PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM). Both channel currents were further increased by PMA + H2O2 as compared to H2O2 only. In the combined presence of PMA + BIM, no TRPM2 or TRPV1 currents were observed. The CAP and H2O2-induced TRPM2 current densities were also decreased by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin and N-Acetylcysteine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate a protective role for NADPH oxidase and PKC inhibitors on Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons. Since excessive oxidative stress production and Ca(2+) entry are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, the findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  6. Upregulation of NAD(P)H oxidase 1 in hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 via increase in reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Parag; Weissmann, Norbert; Grimminger, Friedrich; Hegel, Cornelia; Bader, Lucius; Rose, Frank; Fink, Ludger; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Seeger, Werner; Hänze, Jörg

    2004-05-15

    Hypoxia sensing and related signaling events, including activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), represent key features in cell physiology and lung function. Using cultured A549 cells, we investigated the role of NAD(P)H oxidase 1 (Nox1), suggested to be a subunit of a low-output NAD(P)H oxidase complex, in hypoxia signaling. Nox1 expression was detected on both the mRNA and protein levels. Upregulation of Nox1 mRNA and protein occurred during hypoxia, accompanied by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A549 cells, which were transfected with a Nox1 expression vector, revealed an increase in ROS generation accompanied by activation of HIF-1-dependent target gene expression (heme oxygenase 1 mRNA, hypoxia-responsive-element reporter gene activity). In A549 cells stably overexpressing Nox1, accumulation of HIF-1alpha in normoxia and an additional increase in hypoxia were noted. Interference with ROS metabolism by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase inhibited HIF-1 induction. This suggests that H2O2 links Nox1 and HIF-1 activation. We conclude that hypoxic upregulation of Nox1 and subsequently augmented ROS generation may activate HIF-1-dependent pathways.

  7. The cytosolic component p47(phox) is not a sine qua non participant in the activation of NADPH oxidase but is required for optimal superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, V; Lotan, O; Pick, E

    1996-11-29

    The superoxide (O-2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes is a multicomponent complex consisting of a membrane-associated flavocytochrome (cytochrome b559), bearing the NADPH binding site and two redox centers (FAD and heme) and three cytosolic activating components: p47(phox), p67(phox), and the small GTPase Rac (1 or 2). The canonical view is that the induction of O-2 generation involves the stimulus-dependent assembly of all three cytosolic components with cytochrome b559, a process mimicked in vitro by a cell-free system activated by anionic amphiphiles. We studied the requirement for individual cytosolic components in the activation of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system consisting of purified and relipidated cytochrome b559, recombinant p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac1, and the amphiphile, lithium dodecyl sulfate. We found that pronounced activation of NADPH oxidase can be achieved by exposing cytochrome b559 to p67(phox) and Rac1, in the total absence of p47(phox) (turnover = 60 mol O-2/s/mol cytochrome b559). However, maximal activation (turnover = 153 mol O-2/s/mol cytochrome b559) could only be obtained in the presence of p47(phox). O-2 production, in the absence of p47(phox), was dependent on: high molar ratios of p67(phox) and Rac1 to cytochrome b559, Rac1 being in the GTP-bound form, cytochrome b559 being saturated with FAD, and an optimal concentration of amphiphile. Single cytosolic components or combinations of two cytosolic components, other than p67(phox) and Rac1, were incapable of activation. We conclude that p67(phox) and Rac1 are the only cytosolic components directly involved in the induction of electron transport in cytochrome b559. p47(phox) appears to facilitate or stabilize the interaction of p67(phox) and, possibly, Rac1 with cytochrome b559, and is required for optimal generation of O-2 under physiological conditions.

  8. NADPH oxidase expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions in relation to oxidative tissue damage and mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marie T; Sharma, Rakhi; Lim, Jamie L; Haider, Lukas; Frischer, Josa M; Drexhage, Joost; Mahad, Don; Bradl, Monika; van Horssen, Jack; Lassmann, Hans

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, and we recently provided evidence for oxidative damage of oligodendrocytes and dystrophic axons in early stages of active multiple sclerosis lesions. In this study, we identified potential sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through gene expression in carefully staged and dissected lesion areas and by immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression. Genome-wide microarrays confirmed mitochondrial injury in active multiple sclerosis lesions, which may serve as an important source of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found differences in the gene expression levels of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits between initial multiple sclerosis lesions and control white matter. These results were confirmed at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry, showing upregulation of the subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 in activated microglia in classical active as well as slowly expanding lesions. The subunits gp91phox and p22phox were constitutively expressed in microglia and were upregulated in the initial lesion. In contrast, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 expression were more restricted to the zone of initial damage or to lesions from patients with acute or early relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Double labelling showed co-expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in activated microglia and

  9. NADPH oxidase expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions in relation to oxidative tissue damage and mitochondrial injury

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marie T.; Sharma, Rakhi; Lim, Jamie L.; Haider, Lukas; Frischer, Josa M.; Drexhage, Joost; Mahad, Don; Bradl, Monika; van Horssen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, and we recently provided evidence for oxidative damage of oligodendrocytes and dystrophic axons in early stages of active multiple sclerosis lesions. In this study, we identified potential sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through gene expression in carefully staged and dissected lesion areas and by immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression. Genome-wide microarrays confirmed mitochondrial injury in active multiple sclerosis lesions, which may serve as an important source of reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found differences in the gene expression levels of various nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits between initial multiple sclerosis lesions and control white matter. These results were confirmed at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry, showing upregulation of the subunits gp91phox, p22phox, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 in activated microglia in classical active as well as slowly expanding lesions. The subunits gp91phox and p22phox were constitutively expressed in microglia and were upregulated in the initial lesion. In contrast, p47phox, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase organizer 1 expression were more restricted to the zone of initial damage or to lesions from patients with acute or early relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. Double labelling showed co-expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits in activated microglia and

  10. Growth arrest of lung carcinoma cells (A549) by polyacrylate-anchored peroxovanadate by activating Rac1-NADPH oxidase signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirupama; Anwar, Tarique; Islam, Nashreen S; Ramasarma, T; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is often required in sublethal, millimolar concentrations to show its oxidant effects on cells in culture as it is easily destroyed by cellular catalase. Previously, we had shown that diperoxovanadate, a physiologically stable peroxovanadium compound, can substitute H2O2 effectively in peroxidation reactions. We report here that peroxovanadate when anchored to polyacrylic acid (PAPV) becomes a highly potent inhibitor of growth of lung carcinoma cells (A549). The early events associated with PAPV treatment included cytoskeletal modifications, increase in GTPase activity of Rac1, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, and also increase in phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA damage. These effects persisted even at 24 h after removal of the compound and culminated in increased levels of p53 and p21 together with growth arrest. The PAPV-mediated growth arrest was significantly abrogated in cells pre-treated with the N-acetylcysteine, Rac1 knocked down by siRNA and DPI an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our results show that polyacrylate derivative of peroxovanadate efficiently arrests growth of A549 cancerous cells by activating the axis of Rac1-NADPH oxidase leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  11. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway.

  12. Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Nynke E; Musters, René J P; Fritz, Jan M; Pagano, Patrick J; Vonk, Alexander B A; Paulus, Walter J; van Rossum, Albert C; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

  13. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates cardiomyocyte differentiation via redox activation of c-Jun protein and the cis-regulation of GATA-4 gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas V A; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2013-05-31

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can modulate cellular phenotype and function in part through the redox modulation of the activity of transcription factors. We demonstrate here the potential of Nox4 to drive cardiomyocyte differentiation in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells, and we show that this involves the redox activation of c-Jun. This in turn acts to up-regulate GATA-4 expression, one of the earliest markers of cardiotypic differentiation, through a defined and highly conserved cis-acting motif within the GATA-4 promoter. These data therefore suggest a mechanism whereby ROS act in pluripotential cells in vivo to regulate the initial transcription of critical tissue-restricted determinant(s) of the cardiomyocyte phenotype, including GATA-4. The ROS-dependent activation, mediated by Nox4, of widely expressed redox-regulated transcription factors, such as c-Jun, is fundamental to this process.

  14. EquiNox2: A new method to measure NADPH oxidase activity and to study effect of inhibitors and their interactions with the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Derochette, Sandrine; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Franck, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Excessive neutrophil stimulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in numerous human or horse pathologies. The modulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX) has a great therapeutic potential since this enzyme produces superoxide anion whose most of the other ROS derive. The measurement of NOX activity by cell-free systems is often used to test potential inhibitors of the enzyme. A major drawback of this technique is the possible interferences between inhibitors and the probe, ferricytochrome c, used to measure the activity. We designed the "EquiNox2", a new pharmacological tool, to determine the direct interaction of potential inhibitors with equine phagocytic NOX and their effect on the enzyme activity or assembly. This method consists in binding the membrane fractions of neutrophils containing flavocytochrome b558 or the entire complex, reconstituted in vitro from membrane and cytosolic fractions of PMNs, onto the wells of a microplate followed by incubation with potential inhibitors or drugs. After incubation, the excess of the drug is simply eliminated or washed prior measuring the activity of the reconstituted complex. This latter step avoid the risk of interference between the inhibitor and the revelation solution and can distinguish if inhibitors, strongly bound or not, could interfere with the assembly of the enzymatic complex or with its activity. The EquiNox2 was validated using diphenyliodonium chloride and Gp91ds-tat, two well-known inhibitors largely described for human NADPH oxidase. The present technique was used to study and understand better the effect of curcumin and its water-soluble derivative, NDS27, on the assembly and activity of NOX. We demonstrated that curcumin and NDS27 can strongly bind to the enzyme and prevents its assembly making these molecules good candidates for the treatment of horse or human pathologies implying an excessive activation of neutrophils.

  15. A low temperature-inducible protein AtSRC2 enhances the ROS-producing activity of NADPH oxidase AtRbohF.

    PubMed

    Kawarazaki, Tomoko; Kimura, Sachie; Iizuka, Ayako; Hanamata, Shigeru; Nibori, Hitomi; Michikawa, Masataka; Imai, Aya; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kaya, Hidetaka; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play critical roles in plant environmental responses. Arabidopsis thaliana NADPH oxidase AtRbohF-mediated ROS-production is involved in abiotic stress responses. Because overproduction of ROS is highly toxic to cells, the activity of AtRbohF needs to be tightly regulated in response to diverse stimuli. The ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF is activated by Ca(2+) and protein phosphorylation, but other regulatory factors for AtRbohF are mostly unknown. In this study, we screened for proteins that interact with the N-terminal cytosolic region of AtRbohF by a yeast two-hybrid screen, and isolated AtSRC2, an A. thaliana homolog of SRC2 (soybean gene regulated by cold-2). A co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that AtSRC2 interacts with the N-terminal region of AtRbohF in plant cells. Intracellular localization of GFP-tagged AtSRC2 was partially overlapped with that of GFP-tagged AtRbohF at the cell periphery. Co-expression of AtSRC2 enhanced the Ca(2+)-dependent ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF in HEK293T cells, but did not affect its phosphorylation-dependent activation. Low-temperature treatment induced expression of the AtSRC2 gene in Arabidopsis roots in proportion to levels of ROS production that was partially dependent on AtRbohF. Our findings suggest that AtSRC2 is a novel activator of Ca(2+)-dependent AtRbohF-mediated ROS production and may play a role in cold responses.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 secretion and chondrocyte cell death via Nox4 NADPH oxidase activity in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Grange, Laurent; Morel, Françoise; Lardy, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1β stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1β signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22(phox) heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1β. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis.

  17. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.

  18. ATL9, a RING Zinc Finger Protein with E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Implicated in Chitin- and NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Stone, Sophia; Yang, Xin; Antico, Jay; Callis, Judy; Ramonell, Katrina M.; Somerville, Shauna

    2010-01-01

    Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are signals detected by plants that activate basal defenses. One of these PAMPs is chitin, a carbohydrate present in the cell walls of fungi and in insect exoskeletons. Previous work has shown that chitin treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana induced defense-related genes in the absence of a pathogen and that the response was independent of the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. One of these genes is ATL9 ( = ATL2G), which encodes a RING zinc-finger like protein. In the current work we demonstrate that ATL9 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression pattern of ATL9 is positively correlated with basal defense responses against Golovinomyces cichoracearum, a biotrophic fungal pathogen. The basal levels of expression and the induction of ATL9 by chitin, in wild type plants, depends on the activity of NADPH oxidases suggesting that chitin-mediated defense response is NADPH oxidase dependent. Although ATL9 expression is not induced by treatment with known defense hormones (SA, JA or ET), full expression in response to chitin is compromised slightly in mutants where ET- or SA-dependent signaling is suppressed. Microarray analysis of the atl9 mutant revealed candidate genes that appear to act downstream of ATL9 in chitin-mediated defenses. These results hint at the complexity of chitin-mediated signaling and the potential interplay between elicitor-mediated signaling, signaling via known defense pathways and the oxidative burst. PMID:21203445

  19. Ascorbate inhibits NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression in microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Schuster, David P; Tyml, Karel; Wilson, John X

    2007-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is central to the etiology of endothelial dysfunction in sepsis. Endothelial cells respond to infection by activating NADPH oxidases that are sources of intracellular ROS and potential targets for therapeutic administration of antioxidants. Ascorbate is an antioxidant that accumulates in these cells and improves capillary blood flow, vascular reactivity, arterial blood pressure, and survival in experimental sepsis. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that ascorbate regulates NADPH oxidases in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to septic insult. We observed that incubation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) increased NADPH oxidase activity and expression of the enzyme subunit p47phox in mouse microvascular endothelial cells of skeletal muscle origin. Pretreatment of the cells with ascorbate prevented these increases. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase and selective inhibitors of Jak2 also abrogated induction of p47phox. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide induced p47phox expression that was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with ascorbate. LPS+IFNgamma or hydrogen peroxide activated the Jak2/Stat1/IRF1 pathway and this effect was also inhibited by ascorbate. In conclusion, ascorbate blocks the stimulation by septic insult of redox-sensitive Jak2/Stat1/IRF1 signaling, p47phox expression, and NADPH oxidase activity in microvascular endothelial cells. Because endothelial NADPH oxidases produce ROS that can cause endothelial dysfunction, their inhibition by ascorbate may represent a new strategy for sepsis therapy.

  20. Induction of reactive oxygen species and the potential role of NADPH oxidase in hyperhydricity of garlic plantlets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jie; Cheng, Yaqi; Kong, Xiangyu; Liu, Min; Jiang, Fangling; Wu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder associated with oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in plants is initiated by various enzymatic sources, including plasma membrane-localized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, cell wall-bound peroxidase (POD), and apoplastic polyamine oxidase (PAO). The origin of the oxidative burst associated with hyperhydricity remains unknown. To investigate the role of NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO in ROS production and hyperhydricity, exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and inhibitors of each ROS-producing enzyme were applied to explore the mechanism of oxidative stress induction in garlic plantlets in vitro. A concentration of 1.5 mM H2O2 increased endogenous ROS production and hyperhydricity occurrence and enhanced the activities of NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO. During the entire treatment period, NADPH oxidase activity increased continuously, whereas POD and PAO activities exhibited a transient increase and subsequently declined. Histochemical and cytochemical visualization demonstrated that specific inhibitors of each enzyme effectively suppressed ROS accumulation. Moreover, superoxide anion generation, H2O2 content, and hyperhydric shoot frequency in H2O2-stressed plantlets decreased significantly. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor was the most effective at suppressing superoxide anion production. The results suggested that NADPH oxidases, POD, and PAO were responsible for endogenous ROS induction. NADPH oxidase activation might play a pivotal role in the oxidative burst in garlic plantlets in vitro during hyperhydricity.

  1. Human Recombinant Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Display Distinct Hydrogen Peroxide Generating Activities During Substrate Independent NADPH Oxidase Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Microsomal enzymes generate H2O2 in the presence of NADPH. In this reaction, referred to as “oxidase” activity, H2O2 is generated directly or indirectly via the formation of superoxide anion. In the presence of redox active transition metals, H2O2 can form highly toxic hydroxyl radicals and, depending on the “oxidase” activity of individual cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, this can compromise cellular functioning and contribute to tissue injury. In the present studies, we compared the initial rates of H2O2 generating activity of microsomal preparations containing various human recombinant cytochromes P450s. In the absence of cytochrome P450s the human recombinant NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) generated low, but detectable amounts of H2O2 (∼0.04 nmol H2O2/min/100 units of reductase). Significantly greater activity was detected in preparations containing individual cytochrome P450s coexpressed with CPR (from 6.0 nmol H2O2/min/nmol P450 to 0.2 nmol/min/nmol P450); CYP1A1 was the most active, followed by CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP4A11, CYP1A2, and CYP2C subfamily enzymes. H2O2 generating activity of the cytochrome P450s was independent of the ratio of CYP/CPR. Thus, similar H2O2 generating activity was noted with the same cytochrome P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9) expressed at or near the ratio of CYP/CPR in human liver microsomes (5–7), and when CPR was present in excess (CYP/CPR = 0.2–0.3). Because CYP3A4/5/7 represent up to 40% of total cytochrome P450 in the liver, these data indicate that these enzymes are the major source of H2O2 in human liver microsomes. PMID:25061110

  2. Female mice lacking active nadph-oxidase enzymes are protected against “western diet”--induced obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes have been implicated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and inflammation in a variety of tissues. We examined the effects of feeding AIN-93G or a “Western diet” (WD) (45% fat, 0.5% cholesterol) on development of obesity and “metabolic syndrome” in wild type (WT) m...

  3. Tobacco Nectaries Express a Novel NADPH Oxidase Implicated in the Defense of Floral Reproductive Tissues against Microorganisms1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Clay; Healy, Rosanne; O'Tool, Nicole M.; Naqvi, S.M. Saqlan; Ren, Gang; Park, Sanggyu; Beattie, Gwyn A.; Horner, Harry T.; Thornburg, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide produced from the nectar redox cycle was shown to be a major factor contributing to inhibition of most microbial growth in floral nectar; however, this obstacle can be overcome by the floral pathogen Erwinia amylovora. To identify the source of superoxide that leads to hydrogen peroxide accumulation in nectary tissues, nectaries were stained with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide production was localized near nectary pores and inhibited by diphenylene iodonium but not by cyanide or azide, suggesting that NAD(P)H oxidase is the source of superoxide. Native PAGE assays demonstrated that NADPH (not NADH) was capable of driving the production of superoxide, diphenyleneiodonium chloride was an efficient inhibitor of this activity, but cyanide and azide did not inhibit. These results confirm that the production of superoxide was due to an NADPH oxidase. The nectary enzyme complex was distinct by migration on gels from the leaf enzyme complex. Temporal expression patterns demonstrated that the superoxide production (NADPH oxidase activity) was coordinated with nectar secretion, the expression of Nectarin I (a superoxide dismutase in nectar), and the expression of NOX1, a putative gene for a nectary NADPH oxidase that was cloned from nectaries and identified as an rbohD-like NADPH oxidase. Further, in situ hybridization studies indicated that the NADPH oxidase was expressed in the early stages of flower development although superoxide was generated at later stages (after Stage 10), implicating posttranslational regulation of the NADPH oxidase in the nectary. PMID:17114277

  4. Tobacco nectaries express a novel NADPH oxidase implicated in the defense of floral reproductive tissues against microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Carter, Clay; Healy, Rosanne; O'Tool, Nicole M; Naqvi, S M Saqlan; Ren, Gang; Park, Sanggyu; Beattie, Gwyn A; Horner, Harry T; Thornburg, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide produced from the nectar redox cycle was shown to be a major factor contributing to inhibition of most microbial growth in floral nectar; however, this obstacle can be overcome by the floral pathogen Erwinia amylovora. To identify the source of superoxide that leads to hydrogen peroxide accumulation in nectary tissues, nectaries were stained with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide production was localized near nectary pores and inhibited by diphenylene iodonium but not by cyanide or azide, suggesting that NAD(P)H oxidase is the source of superoxide. Native PAGE assays demonstrated that NADPH (not NADH) was capable of driving the production of superoxide, diphenyleneiodonium chloride was an efficient inhibitor of this activity, but cyanide and azide did not inhibit. These results confirm that the production of superoxide was due to an NADPH oxidase. The nectary enzyme complex was distinct by migration on gels from the leaf enzyme complex. Temporal expression patterns demonstrated that the superoxide production (NADPH oxidase activity) was coordinated with nectar secretion, the expression of Nectarin I (a superoxide dismutase in nectar), and the expression of NOX1, a putative gene for a nectary NADPH oxidase that was cloned from nectaries and identified as an rbohD-like NADPH oxidase. Further, in situ hybridization studies indicated that the NADPH oxidase was expressed in the early stages of flower development although superoxide was generated at later stages (after Stage 10), implicating posttranslational regulation of the NADPH oxidase in the nectary.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha activates transcription of the NADPH oxidase organizer 1 (NOXO1) gene and upregulates superoxide production in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Yuki; Tominaga, Kumiko; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Sasaki, Hidekazu; Takeo, Keiko; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2008-12-15

    NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a multicomponent enzyme consisting of p22(phox), Nox organizer 1 (NOXO1), Nox1 activator 1, and Rac1. Interleukin-1beta, flagellin, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) similarly induced Nox1 in a colon cancer cell line (T84), whereas only TNF-alpha fully induced NOXO1 and upregulated superoxide-producing activity by ninefold. This upregulation was canceled by knockdown of NOXO1 with small interfering RNAs. TNF-alpha rapidly phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, followed by phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos and appearance of an AP-1 binding activity within 30 min. We cloned the 5' flank of the human NOXO1 gene (-3888 to +263 bp), and found that the region between -585 and -452 bp, which contains consensus elements of YY-1, AP-1, and Ets, and the GC-rich region encoding three putative binding sites for SP-1, was crucial for TNF-alpha-dependent promoter activity. Serial mutation analysis of the elements identified an AP-1 binding site (from -561 to -551 bp, agtAAGtcatg) as a crucial element for TNF-alpha-stimulated transcription of the human NOXO1 gene, which was also confirmed by the AP-1 decoy experiments. Thus, TNF-alpha acts as a potent activator of Nox1-based oxidase in colon epithelial cells, suggesting a potential role of this oxidase in inflammation of the colon.

  6. l-Carnitine ameliorates the oxidative stress response to angiotensin II by modulating NADPH oxidase through a reduction in protein kinase c activity and NF-κB translocation to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Blanca, Antonio J; Ruiz-Armenta, María V; Zambrano, Sonia; Miguel-Carrasco, José L; González-Roncero, Francisco M; Fortuño, Ana; Revilla, Elisa; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M

    2017-08-01

    l-Carnitine (LC) exerts beneficial effects in arterial hypertension due, in part, to its antioxidant capacity. We investigated the signalling pathways involved in the effect of LC on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced NADPH oxidase activation in NRK-52E cells. Ang II increased the generation of superoxide anion from NADPH oxidase, as well as the amount of hydrogen peroxide and nitrotyrosine. Co-incubation with LC managed to prevent these alterations and also reverted the changes in NADPH oxidase expression triggered by Ang II. Cell signalling studies evidenced that LC did not modify Ang II-induced phosphorylation of Akt, p38 MAPK or ERK1/2. On the other hand, a significant decrease in PKC activity, and inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) translocation, were attributable to LC incubation. In conclusion, LC counteracts the pro-oxidative response to Ang II by modulating NADPH oxidase enzyme via reducing the activity of PKC and the translocation of NF-kB to the nucleus.

  7. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by synthetic peptides mapping within the carboxyl-terminal domain of small GTP-binding proteins. Lack of amino acid sequence specificity and importance of polybasic motif.

    PubMed

    Joseph, G; Gorzalczany, Y; Koshkin, V; Pick, E

    1994-11-18

    The small GTP-binding protein (G protein) Rac1 is an obligatory participant in the assembly of the superoxide (O2-.)-generating NADPH oxidase complex of macrophages. We investigated the effect of synthetic peptides, mapping within the near carboxyl-terminal domains of Rac1 and of related G proteins, on the activity of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system consisting of solubilized guinea pig macrophage membrane, a cytosolic fraction enriched in p47phox and p67phox (or total cytosol), highly purified Rac1-GDP dissociation inhibitor for Rho (Rho GDI) complex, and the activating amphiphile, lithium dodecyl sulfate. Peptides Rac1-(178-188) and Rac1-(178-191), but not Rac2-(178-188), inhibited NADPH oxidase activity in a Rac1-dependent system when added prior to or simultaneously with the initiation of activation. However, undecapeptides corresponding to the near carboxyl-terminal domains of RhoA and RhoC and, most notably, a peptide containing the same amino acids as Rac1-(178-188), but in reversed orientation, were also inhibitory. Surprisingly, O2-. production in a Rac2-dependent cell-free system was inhibited by Rac1-(178-188) but not by Rac2-(178-188). Finally, basic polyamino acids containing lysine, histidine, or arginine, also inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. We conclude that inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation by synthetic peptides mapping within the carboxyl-terminal domain of certain small G proteins is not amino acid sequence-specific but related to the presence of a polybasic motif. It has been proposed that such a motif serves as a plasma membrane targeting signal for a number of small G proteins (Hancock, J.F., Paterson, H., and Marshall, C.J. (1990) Cell 63, 133-139).

  8. Caveolin-1-dependent activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 by TGF-β in hepatocytes requires activation of Src and the NADPH oxidase NOX1.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Càceres, Joaquim; Mainez, Jèssica; Mayoral, Rafael; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Egea, Gustavo; Fabregat, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a dual role in hepatocytes, inducing both pro- and anti-apoptotic responses, the balance between which decides cell fate. Survival signals are mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, which is activated by TGF-β. We have previously shown that caveolin-1 (CAV1) is required for activation of the metalloprotease tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (TACE/ADAM17), and hence transactivation of the EGFR pathway. The specific mechanism by which TACE/ADAM17 is activated has not yet been determined. Here we show that TGF-β induces phosphorylation of sarcoma kinase (Src) in hepatocytes, a process that is impaired in Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes, coincident with a decrease in phosphorylated Src in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. TGF-β-induced activation of TACE/ADAM17 and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked using the Src inhibitor PP2. Cav1(+/+) hepatocytes showed early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by TGF-β, which was not seen in Cav1(-/-) cells. Production of ROS was inhibited by both the NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) inhibitor STK301831 and NOX1 knock-down, which also impaired TACE/ADAM17 activation and thus EGFR phosphorylation. Finally, neither STK301831 nor NOX1 silencing impaired Src phosphorylation, but PP2 blocked early ROS production, showing that Src is involved in NOX1 activation. As expected, inhibition of Src or NOX1 increased TGF-β-induced cell death in Cav1(+/+) cells. In conclusion, CAV1 is required for TGF-β-mediated activation of TACE/ADAM17 through a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of Src and NOX1-mediated ROS production.

  9. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 and aging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zablocki, Daniela; Kitazono, Takanari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress in mitochondria is believed to promote aging. Although passive leakage of electron from the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been considered as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart and the cardiomyocytes therein, enzymes actively producing reactive oxygen species may also exist in mitochondria. We have shown recently that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is localized on intracellular membranes, primarily at mitochondria, in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial expression of Nox4 is upregulated by cardiac stress and aging in the heart, where Nox4 could become a major source of oxidative stress. This raises an intriguing possibility that Nox4 may play an important role in mediating aging of the heart. Here we discuss the potential involvement of Nox4 in mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the heart.

  10. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-10-15

    TNF-α plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-α in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-α induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-α-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-κB (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-α markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-α-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-α-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-α-stimulated MAPKs and NF-κB activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-κB cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-α-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-α on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-α induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-α induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF

  11. Globular adiponectin inhibits ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species production through modulation of NADPH oxidase in macrophages: involvement of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nagy, Laura E; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipocytes, has been shown to play protective roles against chronic alcohol consumption. Although excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages is considered one of the critical events for ethanol-induced damage in various target tissues, the effect of adiponectin on ethanol-induced ROS production is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) on ethanol-induced ROS production and the potential mechanisms underlying these effects of gAcrp in macrophages. Here we demonstrated that gAcrp prevented ethanol-induced ROS production in both RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary murine peritoneal macrophages. Globular adiponectin also inhibited ethanol-induced activation of NADPH oxidase. In addition, gAcrp suppressed ethanol-induced increase in the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, including Nox2 and p22(phox), via modulation of nuclear factor-κB pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or knockdown of AMPK by small interfering RNA restored suppression of ethanol-induced ROS production and Nox2 expression by gAcrp. Finally, we found that gAcrp treatment induced phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream signaling molecule mediating AMPK activation. Knockdown of LKB1 restored gAcrp-suppressed Nox2 expression, suggesting that LKB1/AMPK pathway plays a critical role in the suppression of ethanol-induced ROS production and activation of NADPH oxidase by gAcrp. Taken together, these results demonstrate that globular adiponectin prevents ethanol-induced ROS production, at least in part, via modulation of NADPH oxidase in macrophages. Further, LKB1/AMPK axis plays an important role in the suppression of ethanol-induced NADPH oxidase activation by gAcrp in macrophages.

  12. Characterisation of electron currents generated by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-04-11

    Electron transport by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase is an important microbicidal weapon for phagocytes. The electron current (I{sub e}) generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is poorly characterised due to the lack of appropriate electrophysiological data. In this study, I fully characterise the neutrophil generated I{sub e} when the NADPH oxidase is activated by NADPH and GTP{gamma}S. The neutrophil I{sub e} was markedly voltage-dependent in the entire voltage range in comparison to those electron currents measured after chloride was removed from the external bath solution. The difference in I{sub e} measured in chloride free conditions was not due to a change in the activation kinetics of voltage-gated proton channels. The I{sub e} depolarises the neutrophil plasma membrane at a rate of 2.3 V s{sup -1} and this depolarisation was opposed when voltage-gated proton channels are activated. 3 mM ZnCl{sub 2} depolarised the membrane potential to +97.8 {+-} 2.5 mV (n = 4), and this depolarisation was abolished after NADPH oxidase inhibition.

  13. NOX3 NADPH Oxidase Couples Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 to Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1-Mediated Inflammation and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 999–1010. PMID:20712533

  14. NOX3 NADPH oxidase couples transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-mediated inflammation and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2011-03-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss.

  15. A wheat superoxide dismutase gene TaSOD2 enhances salt resistance through modulating redox homeostasis by promoting NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Zhen; Yin, Xunhao; Xing, Tian; Xia, Guangmin

    2016-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to enhance abiotic stress resistance by converting superoxide radical (O2 (-)) to H2O2 to lower ROS level and maintain redox homeostasis. ROS level is controlled via biphasic machinery of ROS production and scavenging. However, whether the role of SOD in abiotic stress resistance is achieved through influencing the biophasic machinery is not well documented. Here, we identified a wheat copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD gene, TaSOD2, who was responsive to NaCl and H2O2. TaSOD2 overexpression in wheat and Arabidopsis elevated SOD activities, and enhanced the resistance to salt and oxidative stress. TaSOD2 overexpression reduced H2O2 level but accelerated O2 (-) accumulation. Further, it improved the activities of H2O2 metabolic enzymes, elevated the activity of O2 (-) producer NADPH oxidase (NOX), and promoted the transcription of NOX encoding genes. The inhibition of NOX activity and the mutation of NOX encoding genes both abolished the salt resistance of TaSOD2 overexpression lines. These data indicate that Cu/Zn SOD enhances salt resistance, which is accomplished through modulating redox homeostasis via promoting NOX activity.

  16. A time course of NADPH-oxidase up-regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in the hippocampus following neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mubeen A.; Roberts, Kelly N.; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase; NOX) is a complex enzyme responsible for increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O2.−). NOX derived O2.− is a key player in oxidative stress and inflammation mediated multiple secondary injury cascades (SIC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The O2.− reacts with nitric oxide (NO), produces various reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and contributes to apoptotic cell death. Following a unilateral cortical contusion, young adult rats were killed at various times post injury (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Fresh tissue from the hippocampus was analyzed for NOX activity, and level of O2.−. In addition we evaluated the translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins (p67Phox, p47Phox and p40Phox) to the membrane, along with total NO and the activation (phosphorylation) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). Results show that both enzymes and levels of O2.− and NO have time dependent injury effects in the hippocampus. Translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins into membrane, NOX activity and O2.− were also increased in a time dependent fashion. Both, NOX activity and O2.− were increased at 6 h. Levels of p-eNOS increased within 1 h, with significant elevation of NO at 12 h post TBI. Levels of NO failed to show a significant association with p-eNOS, but did associate with O2.−. NOX up-regulation strongly associated with both the levels of O2.− and also total NO. The initial 12 hours post TBI are very important as a possible window of opportunity to interrupt SIC. It may be important to selectively target the translocation of cytosolic subunits for the modulation of NOX function. PMID:25224032

  17. Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. Aims We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Main Outcome Measures Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Results Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a

  18. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Increase Superoxide Anion Production by Acting on NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Rawand; Bizouarn, Tania; Trepout, Sylvain; Wien, Frank; Baciou, Laura; Marco, Sergio; Houée Levin, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase nanoparticles (NPs) are metal oxide NPs commercialized for several uses of everyday life. However their toxicity has been poorly investigated. Cellular internalization of NPs has been shown to activate macrophages and neutrophils that contribute to superoxide anion production by the NADPH oxidase complex. Transmission electron micrososcopy images showed that the membrane fractions were close to the NPs while fluorescence indicated an interaction between NPs and cytosolic proteins. Using a cell-free system, we have investigated the influence of TiO2 NPs on the behavior of the NADPH oxidase. In the absence of the classical activator molecules of the enzyme (arachidonic acid) but in the presence of TiO2 NPs, no production of superoxide ions could be detected indicating that TiO2 NPs were unable to activate by themselves the complex. However once the NADPH oxidase was activated (i.e., by arachidonic acid), the rate of superoxide anion production went up to 140% of its value without NPs, this effect being dependent on their concentration. In the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, the NADPH oxidase produces more superoxide ions, hence induces higher oxidative stress. This hyper-activation and the subsequent increase in ROS production by TiO2 NPs could participate to the oxidative stress development.

  19. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in cardiac pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Alison; Grieve, David; Johar, Sofian; Zhang, Min; Shah, Ajay M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure, secondary to left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction, is a condition with increasing morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this condition remain a subject of intense interest, there is now growing evidence that redox-sensitive pathways play an important role. This article focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from a family of superoxide-generating enzymes, termed NADPH oxidases (NOXs), in the pathophysiology of ventricular hypertrophy, the accompanying interstitial fibrosis and subsequent heart failure. In particular, the apparent ability of the different NADPH oxidase isoforms to define the response of a cell to a range of physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is reviewed. If confirmed, these data would suggest that independently targeting different members of the NOX family may hold the potential for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of cardiac disease. PMID:16321803

  20. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss in female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous in vitro data suggest that ethanol (EtOH) activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This might be a mechanism underlying inhibition of bone formation and increased bone resorption obse...

  1. Peroxisomal polyamine oxidase and NADPH-oxidase cross-talk for ROS homeostasis which affects respiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Andronis, Efthimios A.; Moschou, Panagiotis N.; Toumi, Imene; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intracellular compartments is of critical importance as ROS have been linked with nearly all cellular processes and more importantly with diseases and aging. PAs are nitrogenous molecules with an evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of metabolic and energetic status of cells. Recent evidence also suggests that polyamines (PA) are major regulators of ROS homeostasis. In Arabidopsis the backconversion of the PAs spermidine (Spd) and spermine to putrescine and Spd, respectively, is catalyzed by two peroxisomal PA oxidases (AtPAO). However, the physiological role of this pathway remains largely elusive. Here we explore the role of peroxisomal PA backconversion and in particular that catalyzed by the highly expressed AtPAO3 in the regulation of ROS homeostasis and mitochondrial respiratory burst. Exogenous PAs exert an NADPH-oxidase dependent stimulation of oxygen consumption, with Spd exerting the strongest effect. This increase is attenuated by treatment with the NADPH-oxidase blocker diphenyleneiodonium iodide (DPI). Loss-of-function of AtPAO3 gene results to increased NADPH-oxidase-dependent production of superoxide anions (O2•− ), but not H2O2, which activate the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOX). On the contrary, overexpression of AtPAO3 results to an increased but balanced production of both H2O2 and O2•− . These results suggest that the ratio of O2•− /H2O2 regulates respiratory chain in mitochondria, with PA-dependent production of O2•− by NADPH-oxidase tilting the balance of electron transfer chain in favor of the AOX pathway. In addition, AtPAO3 seems to be an important component in the regulating module of ROS homeostasis, while a conserved role for PA backconversion and ROS across kingdoms is discussed. PMID:24765099

  2. Unique targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to plasma membranes mediated by the NADPH oxidase in phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shmelzer, Zeev; Haddad, Nurit; Admon, Ester; Pessach, Itai; Leto, Thomas L.; Eitan-Hazan, Zahit; Hershfinkel, Michal; Levy, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)–generated arachidonic acid (AA) has been shown to be an essential requirement for the activation of NADPH oxidase, in addition to its being the major enzyme involved in the formation of eicosanoid at the nuclear membranes. The mechanism by which cPLA2 regulates NADPH oxidase activity is not known, particularly since the NADPH oxidase complex is localized in the plasma membranes of stimulated cells. The present study is the first to demonstrate that upon stimulation cPLA2 is transiently recruited to the plasma membranes by a functional NADPH oxidase in neutrophils and in granulocyte-like PLB-985 cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments and double labeling immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the unique colocalization of cPLA2 and the NADPH oxidase in plasma membranes of stimulated cells, in correlation with the kinetic burst of superoxide production. A specific affinity in vitro binding was detected between GST-p47phox or GST-p67phox and cPLA2 in lysates of stimulated cells. The association between these two enzymes provides the molecular basis for AA released by cPLA2 to activate the assembled NADPH oxidase. The ability of cPLA2 to regulate two different functions in the same cells (superoxide generation and eicosanoid production) is achieved by a novel dual subcellular localization of cPLA2 to different targets. PMID:12913107

  3. Multiple mechanisms of NADPH oxidase inhibition by type A and type B Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Ramona L.; Schwartz, Justin T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Moreland, Jessica G.; Buchan, Blake W.; Jones, Bradley D.; Allen, Lee-Ann H.

    2010-01-01

    Ft is a facultative intracellular pathogen that infects many cell types, including neutrophils. In previous work, we demonstrated that the type B Ft strain LVS disrupts NADPH oxidase activity throughout human neutrophils, but how this is achieved is incompletely defined. Here, we used several type A and type B strains to demonstrate that Ft-mediated NADPH oxidase inhibition is more complex than appreciated previously. We confirm that phagosomes containing Ft opsonized with AS exclude flavocytochrome b558 and extend previous results to show that soluble phox proteins were also affected, as indicated by diminished phosphorylation of p47phox and other PKC substrates. However, a different mechanism accounts for the ability of Ft to inhibit neutrophil activation by formyl peptides, Staphylococcus aureus, OpZ, and phorbol esters. In this case, enzyme targeting and assembly were normal, and impaired superoxide production was characterized by sustained membrane accumulation of dysfunctional NADPH oxidase complexes. A similar post-assembly inhibition mechanism also diminished the ability of anti-Ft IS to confer neutrophil activation and bacterial killing, consistent with the limited role for antibodies in host defense during tularemia. Studies of mutants that we generated in the type A Ft strain Schu S4 demonstrate that the regulatory factor fevR is essential for NADPH oxidase inhibition, whereas iglI and iglJ, candidate secretion system effectors, and the acid phosphatase acpA are not. As Ft uses multiple mechanisms to block neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity, our data strongly suggest that this is a central aspect of virulence. PMID:20610796

  4. Nonhematopoietic NADPH oxidase regulation of lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in experimentally induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Earwood, Julie; Bansal, Shelly; Jansen, Michael; Babcock, George; Garvy, Beth; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilia is one of the most consistent hallmarks of asthma. Infiltration of eosinophils into the lung in experimental asthma is dependent on the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Ligation of VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell NADPH oxidase, which is required for VCAM-1-dependent leukocyte migration in vitro. To examine whether endothelial-derived NADPH oxidase modulates eosinophil recruitment in vivo, mice deficient in NADPH oxidase (CYBB mice) were irradiated and received wild-type hematopoietic cells to generate chimeric CYBB mice. In response to ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, the chimeric CYBB mice had increased numbers of eosinophils bound to the endothelium as well as reduced eosinophilia in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage. This occurred independent of changes in VCAM-1 expression, cytokine/chemokine levels (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IFNγ, or eotaxin), or numbers of T cells, neutrophils, or mononuclear cells in the lavage fluids or lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. Importantly, the OVA-challenged chimeric CYBB mice had reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The AHR in OVA-challenged chimeric CYBB mice was restored by bypassing the endothelium with intratracheal administration of eosinophils. These data suggest that VCAM-1 induction of NADPH oxidase in the endothelium is necessary for the eosinophil recruitment during allergic inflammation. Moreover, these studies provide a basis for targeting VCAM-1-dependent signaling pathways in asthma therapies. PMID:17293377

  5. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 5 by Protein Kinase C Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Haigh, Steven; Johnson, John; Lucas, Rudolf; Stepp, David W.; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5) is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKCα inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKCα and PKCε, enhanced by loss of PKCδ and the silencing of PKCθ expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKCα robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKCε potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKCα directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKCα activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKCα inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKCα is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular complications of diabetes

  6. Nitro-oleic acid ameliorates oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation triggered oxidative stress in renal tubular cells via activation of Nrf2 and suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nie, Huibin; Xue, Xia; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guangju; Liu, Haiying; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Long; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Nitroalkene derivative of oleic acid (OA-NO2), due to its ability to mediate revisable Michael addition, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties and become a therapeutic agent in various diseases. Though its antioxidant properties have been reported in different models of acute kidney injury (AKI), the mechanism by which OA-NO2 attenuates intracellular oxidative stress is not well investigated. Here, we elucidated the anti-oxidative mechanism of OA-NO2 in an in vitro model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Human tubular epithelial cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) injury. Pretreatment with OA-NO2 (1.25 μM, 45 min) attenuated OGD/R triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. This action was mediated via up-regulating endogenous antioxidant defense components including superoxide dismutase (SOD1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase modulatory subunits (GCLM). Moreover, subcellular fractionation analyses demonstrated that OA-NO2 promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2- related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2 siRNA partially abrogated these protective effects. In addition, OA-NO2 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and p22(phox) up-regulation after OGD/R injury, which was not relevant to Nrf2. These results contribute to clarify that the mechanism of OA-NO2 reno-protection involves both inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and induction of SOD1, Nrf2-dependent HO-1, and GCLM.

  7. Correction of Aberrant NADPH Oxidase Activity in Blood-Derived Mononuclear Cells from Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients by a Naturally Fermented Papaya Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Ryan; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Gnyawali, Urmila; Lynch, Debbie; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supplementation of standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) to adult diabetic mice improves dermal wound healing outcomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients elicit a compromised respiratory burst activity resulting in increased risk of infections for the diabetic patients. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to determine the effect of FPP supplementation on human diabetic PBMC respiratory burst activity and to understand underlying mechanisms of such action of FPP. Results: When stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the production of reactive oxygen species by T2DM PBMC was markedly compromised compared to that of the PBMC from non-DM donors. FPP treated ex vivo improved respiratory burst outcomes in T2DM PBMC. FPP treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2 was potently upregulated after FPP supplemention. The proximal human Rac2 gene promoter is G–C rich and contains consensus binding sites for Sp1 and AP-1. While FPP had no significant effect on the AP-1 DNA binding activity, the Sp1 DNA binding activity was significantly upregulated in PBMC after treatment of the cells with FPP. Innovation: This work provided first evidence that compromised respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC may be corrected by a nutritional supplement. Conclusion: FPP can correct respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC via an Sp-1-dependant pathway. Studies testing the outcome of FPP supplementation in diabetic patients are warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 485–491. PMID:22369197

  8. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara . E-mail: dario.ghigo@unito.it

    2006-05-01

    Apocynin (acetovanillone) is often used as a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In N11 glial cells, apocynin induced, in a dose-dependent way, a significant increase of both malonyldialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) and lactate dehydrogenase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Apocynin evoked also, in a significant way, an increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and a decrease of the intracellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio, accompanied by augmented efflux of glutathione and glutathione disulfide. Apocynin induced the activation of both pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle, which was blocked when the cells were incubated with glutathione together with apocynin. The cell incubation with glutathione prevented also the apocynin-induced increase of malonyldialdehyde generation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Apocynin exerted an oxidant effect also in a cell-free system: indeed, in aqueous solution, it evoked a faster oxidation of the thiols glutathione and dithiothreitol, and elicited the generation of reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide anions. Our results suggest that apocynin per se can induce an oxidative stress and exert a cytotoxic effect in N11 cells and other cell types, and that some effects of apocynin in in vitro and in vivo experimental models should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Functional Heterogeneity of Nadph Oxidases in Atherosclerotic and Aneurysmal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kigawa, Yasuyoshi; Lei, Xiao-Feng; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-ri; Miyazaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes that catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Four species of NOX catalytic homologs (NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5) are reportedly expressed in vascular tissues. The pro-atherogenic roles of NOX1, NOX2, and their organizer protein p47phox were manifested, and it was noted that the hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme NOX4 possesses atheroprotective effects. Loss of NOX1 or p47phox appears to ameliorate murine aortic dissection and subsequent aneurysmal diseases; in contrast, the ablation of NOX2 exacerbates the aneurysmal diseases. It is possible that the loss of NOX2 activates inflammatory cascades in macrophages in the lesions. Roles of NOX5 in vascular functions are currently undetermined, owing to the absence of this enzyme in rodents and the limitation of the experimental procedure. Thus, it is possible that the NOX family of enzymes exhibits heterogeneity in the atherosclerotic diseases. In this aspect, subtype-selective NOX inhibitor may be promising when NOX systems serve as a molecular target for atherosclerotic and aneurysmal diseases. PMID:27476665

  10. NADPH oxidase deficiency underlies dysfunction of aged CD8+ Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhenke; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Li, Yinyin; Ju, Jihang; Yang, Zhen; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Immune aging results in progressive loss of both protective immunity and T cell–mediated suppression, thereby conferring susceptibility to a combination of immunodeficiency and chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. In young, healthy individuals, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs are localized in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, suppress activation and expansion of CD4 T cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of membrane-proximal signaling molecules, and effectively inhibit proliferative expansion of CD4 T cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. CD8 Tregs suppress by releasing exosomes that carry preassembled NOX2 membrane clusters and are taken up by CD4 T cells. Overexpression of NOX2 in aged CD8 Tregs promptly restored suppressive function. Together, our data support NOX2 as a critical component of the suppressive machinery of CD8 Tregs and suggest that repairing NOX2 deficiency in these cells may protect older individuals from tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, such as large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:27088800

  11. Structural changes are induced in human neutrophil cytochrome b by NADPH oxidase activators, LDS, SDS, and arachidonate: intermolecular resonance energy transfer between trisulfopyrenyl-wheat germ agglutinin and cytochrome b(558).

    PubMed

    Foubert, Thomas R; Burritt, James B; Taylor, Ross M; Jesaitis, Algirdas J

    2002-12-23

    Anionic amphiphiles such as sodium- and lithium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, LDS), or arachidonate (AA) initiate NADPH oxidase and proton channel activation in cell-free systems and intact neutrophils. To investigate whether these amphiphiles exert allosteric effects on cytochrome b, trisulfopyrenyl-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (Cascade Blue-wheat germ agglutinin, CCB-WGA) was used as an extrinsic fluorescence donor for resonance energy transfer (RET) to the intrinsic heme acceptors of detergent-solubilized cytochrome b. In solution, cytochrome b complexed with the CCB-WGA causing a rapid, saturable, carbohydrate-dependent quenching of up to approximately 55% of the steady-state fluorescence. Subsequent additions of SDS, LDS, or AA to typical cell-free oxidase assay concentrations completely relaxed the fluorescence quenching. The relaxation effects were specific, and not caused by dissociation of the CCB-WGA-cytochrome b complex or alterations in the spectral properties of the chromophores. In contrast, addition of the oxidase antagonist, arachidonate methyl ester, caused an opposite effect and was able to partially reverse the activator-induced relaxation. We conclude that the activators induce a cytochrome b conformation wherein the proximity or orientation between the hemes and the extrinsic CCB fluorescence donors has undergone a significant change. These events may be linked to NADPH oxidase assembly and activation or proton channel induction.

  12. Amyloid-β and proinflammatory cytokines utilize a prion protein-dependent pathway to activate NADPH oxidase and induce cofilin-actin rods in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Keifer P; Minamide, Laurie S; Kane, Sarah J; Shaw, Alisa E; Brown, David R; Pulford, Bruce; Zabel, Mark D; Lambeth, J David; Kuhn, Thomas B; Bamburg, James R

    2014-01-01

    Neurites of neurons under acute or chronic stress form bundles of filaments (rods) containing 1∶1 cofilin∶actin, which impair transport and synaptic function. Rods contain disulfide cross-linked cofilin and are induced by treatments resulting in oxidative stress. Rods form rapidly (5-30 min) in >80% of cultured hippocampal or cortical neurons treated with excitotoxic levels of glutamate or energy depleted (hypoxia/ischemia or mitochondrial inhibitors). In contrast, slow rod formation (50% of maximum response in ∼6 h) occurs in a subpopulation (∼20%) of hippocampal neurons upon exposure to soluble human amyloid-β dimer/trimer (Aβd/t) at subnanomolar concentrations. Here we show that proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) also induce rods at the same rate and within the same neuronal population as Aβd/t. Neurons from prion (PrP(C))-null mice form rods in response to glutamate or antimycin A, but not in response to proinflammatory cytokines or Aβd/t. Two pathways inducing rod formation were confirmed by demonstrating that NADPH-oxidase (NOX) activity is required for prion-dependent rod formation, but not for rods induced by glutamate or energy depletion. Surprisingly, overexpression of PrP(C) is by itself sufficient to induce rods in over 40% of hippocampal neurons through the NOX-dependent pathway. Persistence of PrP(C)-dependent rods requires the continuous activity of NOX. Removing inducers or inhibiting NOX activity in cells containing PrP(C)-dependent rods causes rod disappearance with a half-life of about 36 min. Cofilin-actin rods provide a mechanism for synapse loss bridging the amyloid and cytokine hypotheses for Alzheimer disease, and may explain how functionally diverse Aβ-binding membrane proteins induce synaptic dysfunction.

  13. Evidence for the involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in palmitic acid-induced superoxide production and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Graciano, Maria Fernanda; Valle, Maíra Mello; Curi, Rui; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex have been shown to be involved in the fatty acid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of palmitic acid on superoxide production and insulin secretion by INS-1E cells and the possible involvement of GPR40 and NADPH oxidase in these processes were examined in this study. Cells were incubated during 1 h with palmitic acid in low and high glucose concentrations, a GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium, DPI) and PKC (calphostin C). GW9508 induced superoxide production at 2.8 and 5.6 mM glucose concentrations and stimulated insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose concentration involving both PKC and NADPH oxidase activation. Palmitic acid induced superoxide production through NADPH oxidase and GPR40-dependent pathways and the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of a high glucose concentration was reduced by knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA. Our results suggest that palmitic acid induces superoxide production and potentiates GSIS through NADPH oxidase and GPR40 pathways in pancreatic ? cells.

  14. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase in glycated LDL-induced upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Le, Khuong; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in diabetic patients. Fibroblasts are one of the major types of cells in the heart or vascular wall. Increased levels of glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies in our group demonstrated that oxidized LDL increased the amounts of NADPH oxidase (NOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) in fibroblasts. This study examined the expression of NOX, PAI-1, and HSF1 in glyLDL-treated wild-type or HSF1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and in leptin receptor-knockout (db/db) diabetic mice. Treatment with physiologically relevant levels of glyLDL increased superoxide and H2O2 release and the levels of NOX4 and p22phox (an essential component of multiple NOX complexes) in wild-type or HSF1-deficient MEFs. The levels of HSF1 and PAI-1 were increased by glyLDL in wild-type MEFs, but not in HSF1-deficient MEFs. Diphenyleneiodonium (a nonspecific NOX inhibitor) or small interfering RNA for p22phox prevented glyLDL-induced increases in the levels of NOX4, HSF1, or PAI-1 in MEFs. The amounts of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were elevated in hearts of db/db diabetic mice compared to wild-type mice. The results suggest that glyLDL increased the abundance of NOX4 or p22phox via an HSF1-independent pathway, but that of PAI-1 via an HSF1-dependent manner. NOX4 plays a crucial role in glyLDL-induced expression of HSF1 and PAI-1 in mouse fibroblasts. Increased expression of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 was detected in cardiovascular tissue of diabetic mice.

  15. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced mouse osteoclast differentiation is associated with switching between NADPH oxidase homologues.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tominaga, Kumiko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2009-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to regulate receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclast differentiation. Stimulation of wild-type mouse bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage (BMM) cells by RANKL down-regulated NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) mRNA expression by half. RANKL reciprocally increased Nox1 mRNA levels and newly induced Nox4 transcript expression. BMM cells from Nox1 knockout (Nox1(-/-)) as well as Nox2(-/-) mice generated ROS in response to RANKL and differentiated into osteoclasts in the same way as wild-type BMM cells, which was assessed by the appearance of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive, multinucleated cells having the ability to form resorption pits and by the expression of osteoclast marker genes. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Nox1 or Nox2 failed to inhibit the RANKL-stimulated ROS generation and osteoclast formation in wild-type cells, whereas Nox1 and Nox2 siRNAs significantly suppressed the ROS generation and osteoclast formation in Nox2(-/-) and Nox1(-/-) cells, respectively. We also confirmed that Nox4 siRNA did not affect the RANKL-dependent events in Nox2(-/-) cells, whereas p22(phox) siRNA suppressed the events in both wild-type and Nox1(-/-) cells. Collectively, our results suggest that there may be a flexible compensatory mechanism between Nox1 and Nox2 for RANKL-stimulated ROS generation to facilitate osteoclast differentiation.

  16. Biphasic Regulation of the NADPH Oxidase by HGF/c-Met Signaling Pathway in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Enriquez-Cortina, Cristina; López-Reyes, Alberto; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño, Natalia; Domínguez-Meraz, Marcela; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Factor, Valentina M.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis E.

    2013-01-01

    Redox signaling is emerging as an essential mechanism in the regulation of biological activities of the cell. The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway has been implicated as a key regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. We previously demonstrated that genetic deletion of c-met in hepatocytes disrupts redox homeostasis by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase. Here, we were focused to address the mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation by HGF/c-Met signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes and its relevance. HGF induced a biphasic mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation. The first phase employed the rapid increase in production of ROS as signaling effectors to activate the Nrf2-mediated protective response resulting in up-regulation of the antioxidant proteins, such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The second phase operated under a prolonged HGF exposure, caused a suppression of the NADPH oxidase components, including NOX2, NOX4, p22 and p67, and was able to abrogate the TGFβ-induced ROS production and improve cell viability. In conclusion, HGF/c-Met induces a Nrf2-mediated protective response by a double mechanism driven by NADPH oxidase. PMID:23333744

  17. Reduced NADPH oxidase type 2 activity mediates sleep fragmentation-induced effects on TC1 tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiamao; Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shelley X; Carreras, Alba; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Gozal, David

    2015-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying how sleep fragmentation (SF) influences cancer growth and progression remain largely elusive. Here, we present evidence that SF reduced ROS production by downregulating gp91(phox) expression and activity in TC1 cell tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), while genetic ablation of phagocytic Nox2 activity increased tumor cell proliferation, motility, invasion, and extravasation in vitro. Importantly, the in vivo studies using immunocompetent syngeneic murine tumor models suggested that Nox2 deficiency mimics SF-induced TAMs infiltration and subsequent tumor growth and invasion. Taken together, these studies reveal that perturbed sleep could adversely affect innate immunity within the tumor by altering Nox2 expression and activity, and indicate that selective potentiation of Nox2 activity may present a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer.

  18. Cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NF-κB-MT1MMP in activating proMMP-2 by ET-1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chowdhury, Animesh; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused an increase in the expression and activation of proMMP-2 in the cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this scenario. We demonstrated that (i) pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin; PKC-α inhibitor, Go6976; p(38)MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and NF-κB inhibitor, Bay11-7082 inhibited the expression and activation of proMMP-2 induced by ET-1; (ii) ET-1 treatment to the cells stimulated NADPH oxidase and PKCα activity, p(38)MAPK phosphorylation as well as NF-κB activation by translocation of NF-κBp65 subunit from cytosol to the nucleus, and subsequently by increasing its DNA-binding activity; (iii) ET-1 increases MT1-MMP expression, which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin, Go6976, SB293580, and Bay 11-7082; (iv) ET-1 treatment to the cells downregulated TIMP-2 level. Although apocynin and Go6976 pretreatment reversed ET-1 effect on TIMP-2 level, yet pretreatment of the cells with SB203580 and Bay 11-7082 did not show any discernible change in TIMP-2 level by ET-1. Overall, our results suggest that ET-1-induced activation of proMMP-2 is mediated via cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NFκB-MT1MMP signaling pathways along with a marked decrease in TIMP-2 expression in the cells.

  19. Myeloperoxidase amplified high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in vasculature: Role of NADPH oxidase and hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rong; Ding, Yun; Peng, Yi-Yuan; Lu, Naihao

    2017-03-11

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), have emerged as important molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, neutrophils-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) and MPO-catalyzed hypochlorous acid (HOCl) play important roles in the vascular injury. However, it is unknown whether MPO can use vascular-derived ROS to induce diabetic endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we demonstrated that NADPH oxidase was the main source of ROS formation in high glucose-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and played a critical role in high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction such as cell apoptosis, loss of cell viability and reduction of nitric oxide (NO). However, the addition of MPO could amplify the high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction which was inhibited by the presence of apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), catalase (H2O2 scavenger), or methionine (HOCl scavenger), demonstrating the contribution of NADPH oxidase-H2O2-MPO-HOCl pathway in the MPO/high glucose-induced vascular injury. In high glucose-incubated rat aortas, MPO also exacerbated the NADPH oxidase-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation. Consistent with these in vitro data, in diabetic rat aortas, both MPO expresion and NADPH oxidase activity were increased while the endothelial function was simultaneously impaired. The results suggested that vascular-bound MPO could amplify high glucose-induced vascular injury in diabetes. MPO-NADPH oxidase-HOCl may represent an important pathogenic pathway in diabetic vascular diseases.

  20. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor, proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase in apoptosis and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Becker, Donald F

    2012-01-01

    Flavoproteins catalyze a variety of reactions utilizing flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors. The oxidoreductase properties of flavoenzymes implicate them in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress, and various cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Here we explore three critical flavoproteins involved in apoptosis and redox signaling, ie, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase. These proteins have diverse biochemical functions and influence apoptotic signaling by unique mechanisms. The role of AIF in apoptotic signaling is two-fold, with AIF changing intracellular location from the inner mitochondrial membrane space to the nucleus upon exposure of cells to apoptotic stimuli. In the mitochondria, AIF enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics and complex I activity/assembly to help maintain proper cellular redox homeostasis. After translocating to the nucleus, AIF forms a chromatin degrading complex with other proteins, such as cyclophilin A. AIF translocation from the mitochondria to the nucleus is triggered by oxidative stress, implicating AIF as a mitochondrial redox sensor. Proline dehydrogenase is a membrane-associated flavoenzyme in the mitochondrion that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of proline oxidation. Upregulation of proline dehydrogenase by the tumor suppressor, p53, leads to enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species that induce the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. NADPH oxidases are a group of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species for oxidative stress and signaling purposes. Upon activation, NADPH oxidase 2 generates a burst of superoxide in neutrophils that leads to killing of microbes during phagocytosis. NADPH oxidases also participate in redox signaling that involves hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of different pathways regulating cell proliferation and cell death. Potential therapeutic strategies for each enzyme are also highlighted. PMID:22593641

  1. NADPH oxidase-mediated redox signaling promotes oxidative stress resistance and longevity through memo-1 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Collin Yvès; Hourihan, John M; Bland, Monet S; Obieglo, Carolin; Katic, Iskra; Moronetti Mazzeo, Lorenza E; Alcedo, Joy; Blackwell, T Keith; Hynes, Nancy E

    2017-01-01

    Transient increases in mitochondrially-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an adaptive stress response to promote longevity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases produce ROS locally in response to various stimuli, and thereby regulate many cellular processes, but their role in aging remains unexplored. Here, we identified the C. elegans orthologue of mammalian mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility, MEMO-1, as a protein that inhibits BLI-3/NADPH oxidase. MEMO-1 is complexed with RHO-1/RhoA/GTPase and loss of memo-1 results in an enhanced interaction of RHO-1 with BLI-3/NADPH oxidase, thereby stimulating ROS production that signal via p38 MAP kinase to the transcription factor SKN-1/NRF1,2,3 to promote stress resistance and longevity. Either loss of memo-1 or increasing BLI-3/NADPH oxidase activity by overexpression is sufficient to increase lifespan. Together, these findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-induced redox signaling initiates a transcriptional response that protects the cell and organism, and can promote both stress resistance and longevity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19493.001 PMID:28085666

  2. NADPH oxidase-mediated redox signaling promotes oxidative stress resistance and longevity through memo-1 in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Collin Yvès; Hourihan, John M; Bland, Monet S; Obieglo, Carolin; Katic, Iskra; Moronetti Mazzeo, Lorenza E; Alcedo, Joy; Blackwell, T Keith; Hynes, Nancy E

    2017-01-13

    Transient increases in mitochondrially-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate an adaptive stress response to promote longevity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases produce ROS locally in response to various stimuli, and thereby regulate many cellular processes, but their role in aging remains unexplored. Here, we identified the C. elegans orthologue of mammalian mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility, MEMO-1, as a protein that inhibits BLI-3/NADPH oxidase. MEMO-1 is complexed with RHO-1/RhoA/GTPase and loss of memo-1 results in an enhanced interaction of RHO-1 with BLI-3/NADPH oxidase, thereby stimulating ROS production that signal via p38 MAP kinase to the transcription factor SKN-1/NRF1,2,3 to promote stress resistance and longevity. Either loss of memo-1 or increasing BLI-3/NADPH oxidase activity by overexpression is sufficient to increase lifespan. Together, these findings demonstrate that NADPH oxidase-induced redox signaling initiates a transcriptional response that protects the cell and organism, and can promote both stress resistance and longevity.

  3. Redox-mediated signal transduction by cardiovascular Nox NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Ralf P; Weissmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2014-08-01

    The only known function of the Nox family of NADPH oxidases is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some Nox enzymes show high tissue-specific expression and the ROS locally produced are required for synthesis of hormones or tissue components. In the cardiovascular system, Nox enzymes are low abundant and function as redox-modulators. By reacting with thiols, nitric oxide (NO) or trace metals, Nox-derived ROS elicit a plethora of cellular responses required for physiological growth factor signaling and the induction and adaptation to pathological processes. The interactions of Nox-derived ROS with signaling elements in the cardiovascular system are highly diverse and will be detailed in this article, which is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System".

  4. Role of NADPH Oxidase-4 in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Nora Y.; Ranjan, Amaresh K.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Dusting, Greg J.; Peshavariya, Hitesh M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) display a unique ability to promote angiogenesis and restore endothelial function in injured blood vessels. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) serves as a signaling molecule and promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as protecting against cell death. However, the role of NOX4 in EPC function is not completely understood. Methods: EPCs were isolated from human saphenous vein and mammary artery discarded during bypass surgery. NOX4 gene and protein expression in EPCs were measured by real time-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. NOX4 gene expression was inhibited using an adenoviral vector expressing human NOX4 shRNA (Ad-NOX4i). H2O2 production was measured by Amplex red assay. EPC migration was evaluated using a transwell migration assay. EPC proliferation and viability were measured using trypan blue counts. Results: Inhibition of NOX4 using Ad-NOX4i reduced Nox4 gene and protein expression as well as H2O2 formation in EPCs. Inhibition of NOX4-derived H2O2 decreased both proliferation and migration of EPCs. Interestingly, pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) decreased NOX4 expression and reduced survival of EPCs. However, the survival of EPCs was further diminished by TNF-α in NOX4-knockdown cells, suggesting that NOX4 has a protective role in EPCs. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NOX4-type NADPH oxidase is important for proliferation and migration functions of EPCs and protects against pro-inflammatory cytokine induced EPC death. These properties of NOX4 may facilitate the efficient function of EPCs which is vital for successful neovascularization. PMID:28386230

  5. Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; de la Peña, Gema; Sánchez-Martín, Carolina C; Teresa Guerra, M; Bartolomé, Begoña; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2009-10-01

    The NADPH oxidase enzyme system is the main source of superoxide anions in phagocytic and vascular cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation has been found to be abnormally enhanced in several chronic diseases. Evidence is accumulating that polyphenols may have the potential to improve cardiovascular health, although the mechanism is not fully established. Consumption of concentrated red grape juice, rich in polyphenols, has been recently shown to reduce NADPH oxidase activity in circulating neutrophils from human subjects. In the present work we studied whether red grape juice polyphenols affected NADPH oxidase subunit expression at the transcription level. For this, we used human neutrophils and mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, HL-60-derived neutrophils and the endothelial cell line EA.hy926.Superoxide production was measured with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate or lucigenin, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Each experiment was performed at least three times. In all cell types tested, red grape juice, dealcoholised red wine and pure polyphenols decreased superoxide anion production. Red grape juice and dealcoholised red wine selectively reduced p47phox, p22phox and gp91phox expression at both mRNA and protein levels, without affecting the expression of p67phox. Pure polyphenols, particularly quercetin, also reduced NADPH oxidase subunit expression, especially p47phox, in all cell types tested. The present results showing that red grape juice polyphenols reduce superoxide anion production provide an alternative mechanism by which consumption of grape derivatives may account for a reduction of oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and/or inflammatory diseases related to NADPH oxidase superoxide overproduction.

  6. Targeting and Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Nox Family NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Stanislas; Hurt, Darrell; Ueyama, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing, and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as multicomponent superoxide-generating enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2 > Nox1 > Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: (a) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, (b) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1 and p40phox), and (c) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11, 2607–2619. PMID:19438290

  7. The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V.

    2003-04-01

    The enzyme NADPH oxidase in phagocytes is important in the body's defence against microbes: it produces superoxide anions (O2-, precursors to bactericidal reactive oxygen species). Electrons move from intracellular NADPH, across a chain comprising FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) and two haems, to reduce extracellular O2 to O2-. NADPH oxidase is electrogenic, generating electron current (Ie) that is measurable under voltage-clamp conditions. Here we report the complete current-voltage relationship of NADPH oxidase, the first such measurement of a plasma membrane electron transporter. We find that Ie is voltage-independent from -100mV to >0mV, but is steeply inhibited by further depolarization, and is abolished at about +190mV. It was proposed that H+ efflux mediated by voltage-gated proton channels compensates Ie, because Zn2+ and Cd2+ inhibit both H+ currents and O2- production. Here we show that COS-7 cells transfected with four NADPH oxidase components, but lacking H+ channels, produce O2- in the presence of Zn2+ concentrations that inhibit O2- production in neutrophils and eosinophils. Zn2+ does not inhibit NADPH oxidase directly, but through effects on H+ channels. H+ channels optimize NADPH oxidase function by preventing membrane depolarization to inhibitory voltages.

  8. Polymorphisms in NADPH oxidase CYBA gene modify the risk of ESRD in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Min; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Bing; Liu, Xiao-ning; Zuo, Zhi; Tang, Feng-Ying

    2016-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) was defined as start of renal replacement therapy or death due to kidney disease. However, death due to acute kidney injury was not included. It typically occurs when chronic renal failure progresses to a point where the kidneys are permanently functioning at less than 10% of their capacity. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a crucial role in ESRD. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is one of the most important enzymes during oxidative stress. Cytochrome b light chain (CYBA), encoded by a polymorphic gene, which is a critical component of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)/NADPH oxidase system and plays an important role in electron transport and superoxide anion production, is located on chromosome band 16q24 and has six exons spanning almost 7.76 kb of genomic DNA. CYBA gene polymorphisms can influence the activity of NADPH oxidase. To evaluate the association between CYBA gene polymorphisms and ESRD, we genotyped five CYBA polymorphisms using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay on DNA samples from 306 healthy controls and 332 patients with ESRD. Our results suggested that rs1049255 polymorphism of CYBA modified the risk of ESRD (p  =  0.019; OR  =  0.625; 95%CI  =  0.424-0.921). GG genotype and G allele might be a protective factor against the risk of ESRD, especially in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

  9. fMLP-Induced IL-8 Release Is Dependent on NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, María A.; Carretta, María D.; Teuber, Stefanie E.; Zárate, Cristian; Cárcamo, Leonardo; Concha, Ilona I.; Burgos, Rafael A.

    2015-01-01

    N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) induce similar intracellular signalling profiles; but only fMLP induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase activity in neutrophils. Because the role of ROS on IL-8 release in neutrophils is until now controversial, we assessed if NADPH oxidase is involved in the IL-8 secretions and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways activity induced by fMLP. Neutrophils were obtained from healthy volunteers. IL-8 was measured by ELISA, IL-8 mRNA by qPCR, and ROS production by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, reduction of ferricytochrome c, and FACS. Intracellular pH changes were detected by spectrofluorescence. ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were analysed by immunoblotting and NF-κB was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Hydroxy-3-methoxyaceto-phenone (HMAP), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and siRNA Nox2 reduced the ROS and IL-8 release in neutrophils treated with fMLP. HMAP, DPI, and amiloride (a Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor) inhibited the Akt phosphorylation and did not affect the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activity. DPI and HMAP reduced NF-κB translocation induced by fMLP. We showed that IL-8 release induced by fMLP is dependent on NADPH oxidase, and ROS could play a redundant role in cell signalling, ultimately activating the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways in neutrophils. PMID:26634216

  10. fMLP-Induced IL-8 Release Is Dependent on NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, María A; Carretta, María D; Teuber, Stefanie E; Zárate, Cristian; Cárcamo, Leonardo; Concha, Ilona I; Burgos, Rafael A

    2015-01-01

    N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) induce similar intracellular signalling profiles; but only fMLP induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase activity in neutrophils. Because the role of ROS on IL-8 release in neutrophils is until now controversial, we assessed if NADPH oxidase is involved in the IL-8 secretions and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways activity induced by fMLP. Neutrophils were obtained from healthy volunteers. IL-8 was measured by ELISA, IL-8 mRNA by qPCR, and ROS production by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, reduction of ferricytochrome c, and FACS. Intracellular pH changes were detected by spectrofluorescence. ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were analysed by immunoblotting and NF-κB was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Hydroxy-3-methoxyaceto-phenone (HMAP), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and siRNA Nox2 reduced the ROS and IL-8 release in neutrophils treated with fMLP. HMAP, DPI, and amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor) inhibited the Akt phosphorylation and did not affect the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activity. DPI and HMAP reduced NF-κB translocation induced by fMLP. We showed that IL-8 release induced by fMLP is dependent on NADPH oxidase, and ROS could play a redundant role in cell signalling, ultimately activating the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways in neutrophils.

  11. Nebivolol Reduces Proteinuria and Renal NADPH Oxidase-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species in the Transgenic Ren2 Rat

    PubMed Central

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Habibi, Javad; Johnson, Megan; Tilmon, Roger; Rehmer, Nathan; Rehmer, Jenna; Wiedmeyer, Charles; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Sowers, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system activation are crucial in the pathogenesis of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease. NADPH oxidase-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important mediator for RAAS-induced cardiovascular and renal injury. Increased levels of ROS can diminish the bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO), a critical modulator of RAAS effects on the kidney. Thereby, we hypothesized that in vivo nebivolol therapy in a rodent model of activated RAAS would attenuate glomerular damage and proteinuria through its actions to reduce NADPH oxidase activity/ROS and increase bioavailable NO. Methods We utilized the transgenic Ren2 rat which displays heightened tissue RAAS, hypertension, and proteinuria. Ren2 rats (6–9 weeks of age) and age-matched Sprague-Dawley littermates were treated with nebivolol 10 mg/kg/day (osmotic mini-pump) for 21 days. Results Ren2 rats exhibited increases in systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, kidney cortical tissue total NADPH oxidase activity and subunits (Rac1, p67phox, and p47phox), ROS and 3-nitrotyrosine, as well as reductions in podocyte protein markers; each of these parameters improved with nebivolol treatment along with increases in renal endothelial NO synthase expression. Conclusions Our data suggest that nebivolol improves proteinuria through reductions in renal RAAS-mediated increases in NADPH oxidase/ROS and increases in bioavailable NO. PMID:19609077

  12. Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

  13. Purification and characterization of a lipid thiobis ester from human neutrophil cytosol that reversibly deactivates the O2- -generating NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Eklund, E A; Gabig, T G

    1990-05-25

    Intact neutrophils possess a cellular mechanism that efficiently deactivates the microbicidal O2-generating NADPH oxidase during the respiratory burst (Akard, L. P., English, D., and Gabig, T. G. (1988) Blood 72, 322-327). The present studies directed at identifying the molecular mechanism(s) involved in NADPH oxidase deactivation showed that a heat- and trypsin-insensitive species in the cytosolic fraction from normal unstimulated neutrophils was capable of deactivating the membrane-associated NADPH oxidase isolated from opsonized zymosan- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. This cytosolic species also deactivated the cell-free-activated oxidase. Deactivation by this cytosolic species occurred in the absence of NADPH-dependent catalytic turnover and was reversible, since NADPH oxidase activity could be subsequently reactivated in the cell-free system. The sedimentable particulate fraction from unstimulated neutrophils did not demonstrate deactivator activity. Deactivator activity was demonstrated in the neutral lipid fraction of neutrophil cytosol extracted with chloroform:methanol. Following complete purification of cytosolic deactivator activity by thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, the deactivator species was shown to be a lipid thiobis ester compound by mass spectroscopy. Cellular metabolism of this compound in human neutrophils may reveal a unique mechanism for enzymatic control of the NADPH oxidase system and thereby play an important role in regulation of the inflammatory response.

  14. Catalytic properties of the resolved flavoprotein and cytochrome B components of the NADPH dependent O2- . generating oxidase from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A

    1984-01-30

    The resolved flavoprotein and cytochrome b559 components of the NADPH dependent O2- . generating oxidase from human neutrophils were the subject of further study. The resolved flavoprotein, depleted of cytochrome b559, was reduced by NADPH under anaerobic conditions and reoxidized by oxygen. NADPH dependent O2- . generation by the resolved flavoprotein fraction was not detectable, however it was competent in the transfer of electrons from NADPH to artificial electron acceptors. The resolved cytochrome b559, depleted of flavoprotein, demonstrated no measureable NADPH dependent O2- . generating activity and was not reduced by NADPH under anaerobic conditions. The dithionite reduced form of the resolved cytochrome b559 was rapidly oxidized by oxygen, as was the cytochrome b559 in the intact oxidase.

  15. Oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet and preventive effect of polyphenols: Involvement of mitochondrial and NAD(P)H oxidase systems.

    PubMed

    Feillet-Coudray, C; Sutra, T; Fouret, G; Ramos, J; Wrutniak-Cabello, C; Cabello, G; Cristol, J P; Coudray, C

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondrial and NADPH oxidase systems and oxidative stress were investigated in 12 week high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-fed rats. A protective effect of wine polyphenol (PP) extract was also examined. In liver, maximal activities of CII and CII+III mitochondrial complexes were decreased but NADPH oxidase expression (p22(phox) and p47(phox)) and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide anion production were not modified, whereas oxidative stress (lipid and protein oxidation products and antioxidant systems) was increased with HFHS diet. In muscle, anion superoxide production was slightly increased while mitochondrial complex activities and lipid and protein oxidation products were not modified with HFHS diet. In heart, NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide anion production were increased, and maximal activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes or oxidative stress parameters were not modified. Wine polyphenol extract had an inhibiting effect on liver oxidative stress and on heart NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide anion production, and on induction of hepatic steatosis with HFHS diet. Induction of mitochondrial dysfunction could be a primary event in the development of oxidative stress in liver, while in skeletal muscle and in heart the NADPH oxidase system seems to be mainly involved in oxidative stress. Wine polyphenol extract was shown to partially prevent oxidative stress in liver and heart tissues and to nearly completely prevent steatosis development in liver.

  16. NADPH Oxidase 4 is required for interleukin-1β-mediated activation of protein kinase Cδ and downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ginnan, Roman; Jourd’heuil, Frances L.; Guikema, Benjamin; Simons, Malorie; Singer, Harold A.; Jourd’heuil, David

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the vascular wall upon stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines and are important mediators of diverse cellular responses that occur as a result of vascular injury. Member of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of proteins have been identified in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSM) as important sources of ROS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NOX4 is a proximal mediator of IL-1β-dependent activation of PKCδ and increases IL-1β stimulated c-Jun kinase (JNK) signaling in primary rat aortic VSM cells. We found that stimulation of VSM cells with IL-1β increased PKCδ activity and intracellular ROS generation. SiRNA silencing of NOX4 but not NOX1 ablated the IL-1β-dependent increase in ROS production. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ activity as well as siRNA depletion of PKCδ or NOX4 blocked the IL-1β-dependent activation of JNK. Further studies showed that the IL-1β-dependent upregulation of iNOS expression was inhibited through JNK inhibition and NOX4 silencing. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1β-dependent activation of PKCδ is modulated by NOX4-derived ROS. Our study positions PKCδ as an important redox sensitive mediator of IL-1β-dependent signaling and downstream activation of inflammatory mediators in VSM cells. PMID:23022406

  17. Quercetin attenuates high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice: A critical role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Liu, Liang; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Liegang; Tang, Yuhan; Yao, Ping

    2017-03-27

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important molecules in cardiovascular function. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is the major source of ROS in phagocytic and vascular cells. Several lines of evidence indicate that quercetin contributes to protecting against atherosclerosis. Herein, we investigated the effect of quercetin on alleviating atherosclerosis by regulating NADPH oxidase subunits expression in vivo, and explored the mechanism of quercetin suppressing the ROS overproduction stimulated by ox-LDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs). Model ApoE KO mice were fed with either a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with or without dosed quercetin for 24 weeks. Quercetin significantly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area, alleviated the systemic oxidative stress, and suppressed aortic p47phox, p67phox expressions but partially reversed the NOX4 expression as compared to those in the HFD group. In vitro, quercetin effectively inhibited the ox-LDL induced ROS formation in MPMs, and blocked the vital step in activation of NADPH oxidase - membrane translocation of p47phox. Our findings suggest that regular consumption of dietary quercetin plays a role in preventing atherosclerosis giving its evident regulatory effect on subunits of NADPH oxidase.

  18. NADPH oxidase 4 is an oncoprotein localized to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kelly A; Kulawiec, Mariola; Owens, Kjerstin M; Li, Xiurong; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Chandra, Dhyan; Singh, Keshav K

    2010-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Initially ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) proteins were thought to be present in phagocytes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that NOX proteins are expressed in many other cell types and tissues. NOX family members' expression and function seems to vary from tissue to tissue. We determined the expression of the NOX family of proteins (NOX1-5) in normal breast tissue and breast tumors. Our study revealed that normal breast tissues express NOX1, 4 and 5 genes. Similar pattern of expression was revealed in a breast epithelial cell line. We found that NOX4 was overexpressed in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors. NOX4 was also overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Overexpression of NOX4 in normal breast epithelial cells resulted in cellular senescence, resistance to apoptosis, and tumorigenic transformation. Overexpression of NOX4 in already transformed breast tumor cells also showed increased tumorigenicity. Strong evidence suggests that regulation of these processes occurs through NOX4 generation of ROS in the mitochondria. We demonstrate that the NOX4 protein contains a 73 amino acid long mitochondrial localization signal at the N-terminus that is capable of transporting a passenger protein GFP into the mitochondria. Treatment of NOX4 overexpressing cells with catalase resulted in decreased tumorigenic characteristics. Together, this study provides evidence for an oncogenic function for NOX4 protein localized to mitochondria and suggests that NOX4 is a novel source of ROS produced in the mitochondria. This study also identifies a possible treatment of NOX4-induced breast cancer by antioxidant treatment.

  19. Globular adiponectin elicits neuroprotection by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative damage in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Huo, T; Guo, F; Wang, H; Wei, H; Yang, Q; Dong, H; Wang, Q; Xiong, L

    2013-09-17

    Recent studies indicate that adiponectin can attenuate cerebral ischemic lesions via its functional area located in the C-terminal globular domain, which is called globular adiponectin (gAD). However, the mechanisms underlying this action remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of gAD during cerebral ischemia. Adult male C57BL/6 mice received an intracerebral injection of gAD with or without tetrabromocinnamic acid (TBCA, a NADPH oxidase activator). Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) after gAD injection. Infarct volume, neurological function, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) were examined at 24h after MCAO. Infarct volume was attenuated in gAD-transduced mice when compared with mice in the MCAO group, with significant improvement in neurological function. In addition, neuronal apoptosis was attenuated, along with the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase 3. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and catalase increased, and the content of MDA reduced. However, TBCA blocked the effect of gAD on cerebral protection and its antioxidant abilities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the neuroprotective action of gAD may result from the promotion of antioxidant capacity by inhibiting the NOX2 signaling system.

  20. Curcumin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy partially by inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Liao, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Xuan; He, Wan-You; Wang, Han-Bing; Yang, Cheng-Xiang

    2014-02-07

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are the main enzymes that produce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy. Curcumin has been reported to exert an antinociceptive effect in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy by suppressing oxidative stress in the spinal cord. However, it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which curcumin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy can be attributed to spinal NADPH oxidases. This study was designed to determine the effect of curcumin on diabetic neuropathy and to investigate its precise mechanism in relation to NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with 1% streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). After the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a subset of the diabetic rats received daily intragastric administrations of curcumin (200mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injections of apocynin (2.5mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, whereas other diabetic rats received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS). STZ resulted in diabetic neuropathy with hyperglycemia and a lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), accompanied by elevations in the expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox) and in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05) in the spinal cord. Both curcumin and apocynin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain in diabetic rats, at least partly by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

  1. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Zhuang, Wei-Ling; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity. Rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH with/without daily treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide anion scavenger), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or vehicle. At 16 h after their last exposure, intravenous capsaicin, adenosine, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked an augmented apneic response in anesthetized rats with 14-days CIH exposure, compared to anesthetized rats with 14-days RA exposure. The augmented apneic responses to these LVCF stimulants were abolished by bilateral vagotomy or perivagal capsaicin treatment, which block LVCFs neural conduction and were significantly suppressed by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin, but not vehicle. Electrophysiological studies revealed that 14-days CIH exposure potentiated the responses of LVCFs to these stimulants. This effect was inhibited by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin treatment and was not seen in rats who received 7-days of CIH exposure. Biochemical analysis indicated that 14-days CIH exposure increased both lung lipid peroxidation, which is indicative of oxidative stress, and expression of the p47phox subunit in the membrane fraction of lung tissue, which is an index of NADPH oxidase activation. The former was prevented by treatment with either MnTMPyP or apocynin, while the later was prevented by treatment with apocynin only. These results suggest that 14-days CIH exposure sensitizes LVCFs in rats, leading to an exaggerated reflex and afferent responses to

  2. The NADPH-dependent O-.2-generating oxidase from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1983-05-25

    A subcellular particulate fraction from normal neutrophils that was enriched in NADPH-dependent O-.2-generating activity (Gabig, T. G., Schervish, E. W., and Santinga, J. T. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4114-4119) has been further characterized. This preparation contained 0.25 +/- 0.02 nmol of flavin adenine dinucleotide/mg of protein and 0.28 +/- 0.01 nmol of cytochrome b/mg of protein. Measurable amounts of riboflavin or flavin mononucleotide were not present. The flavoprotein was completely resolved from the cytochrome b by selective bile salt extraction of the particulate oxidase fraction. The identical subcellular particulate fraction was studied in the neutrophils from two male patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The neutrophil oxidase fraction from one of the chronic granulomatous disease patients had a cytochrome b component that was spectrally abnormal, but a normal content of flavin adenine dinucleotide. The fraction from this patient's neutrophils corresponding to the resolved flavoprotein from normal cells had fluorescence excitation and emission spectra that were identical to the normal flavoprotein. The neutrophil oxidase fraction from the second chronic granulomatous disease patient had a quantitatively and spectrally normal cytochrome b but less than 8% of the normal amount of flavin adenine dinucleotide. The fraction from the latter patient's neutrophils corresponding to the resolved flavoprotein from normal cells had no detectable flavoprotein by fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy. It is postulated that these two patients represent distinct mutants in two separate components of the neutrophil NADPH-dependent O-.2-generating oxidase system, flavoprotein and cytochrome b.

  3. Dynamin 2 and c-Abl are novel regulators of hyperoxia-mediated NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species production in caveolin-enriched microdomains of the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Patrick A; Pendyala, Srikanth; Gorshkova, Irina A; Mambetsariev, Nurbek; Moitra, Jaideep; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-12-11

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly by the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins, plays a major role in the pathophysiology associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. We examined potential regulators of ROS production and discovered that hyperoxia treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells induced recruitment of the vesicular regulator, dynamin 2, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Abl, and the NADPH oxidase subunit, p47(phox), to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). Silencing caveolin-1 (which blocks CEM formation) and/or c-Abl expression with small interference RNA inhibited hyperoxia-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and association of dynamin 2 with p47(phox) and ROS production. In addition, treatment of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells with dynamin 2 small interfering RNA or the dynamin GTPase inhibitor, Dynasore, attenuated hyperoxia-mediated ROS production and p47(phox) recruitment to CEMs. Using purified recombinant proteins, we observed that c-Abl tyrosine-phosphorylated dynamin 2, and this phosphorylation increased p47(phox)/dynamin 2 association (change in the dissociation constant (K(d)) from 85.8 to 6.9 nm). Furthermore, exposure of mice to hyperoxia increased ROS production, c-Abl activation, dynamin 2 association with p47(phox), and pulmonary leak, events that were attenuated in the caveolin-1 knock-out mouse confirming a role for CEMs in ROS generation. These results suggest that hyperoxia induces c-Abl-mediated dynamin 2 phosphorylation required for recruitment of p47(phox) to CEMs and subsequent ROS production in lung endothelium.

  4. The anorexigenic effect of serotonin is mediated by the generation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Ling; Shu, Gang; Yu, Jian-Jian; Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Cheng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Qing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway.

  5. Discovery of GSK2795039, a Novel Small Molecule NADPH Oxidase 2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Kazufumi; Chen, Woei Shin; Chueng, Adeline L.W.; Dunne, Angela A.; Seredenina, Tamara; Filippova, Aleksandra; Ramachandran, Sumitra; Bridges, Angela; Chaudry, Laiq; Pettman, Gary; Allan, Craig; Duncan, Sarah; Lee, Kiew Ching; Lim, Jean; Ma, May Thu; Ong, Agnes B.; Ye, Nicole Y.; Nasir, Shabina; Mulyanidewi, Sri; Aw, Chiu Cheong; Oon, Pamela P.; Liao, Shihua; Li, Dizheng; Johns, Douglas G.; Miller, Neil D.; Davies, Ceri H.; Browne, Edward R.; Matsuoka, Yasuji; Chen, Deborah W.; Jaquet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX enzymes not only have a key role in a variety of physiological processes but also contribute to oxidative stress in certain disease states. To date, while numerous small molecule inhibitors have been reported (in particular for NOX2), none have demonstrated inhibitory activity in vivo. As such, there is a need for the identification of improved NOX inhibitors to enable further evaluation of the biological functions of NOX enzymes in vivo as well as the therapeutic potential of NOX inhibition. In this study, both the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles of GSK2795039, a novel NOX2 inhibitor, were characterized in comparison with other published NOX inhibitors. Results: GSK2795039 inhibited both the formation of ROS and the utilization of the enzyme substrates, NADPH and oxygen, in a variety of semirecombinant cell-free and cell-based NOX2 assays. It inhibited NOX2 in an NADPH competitive manner and was selective over other NOX isoforms, xanthine oxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzymes. Following systemic administration in mice, GSK2795039 abolished the production of ROS by activated NOX2 enzyme in a paw inflammation model. Furthermore, GSK2795039 showed activity in a murine model of acute pancreatitis, reducing the levels of serum amylase triggered by systemic injection of cerulein. Innovation and Conclusions: GSK2795039 is a novel NOX2 inhibitor that is the first small molecule to demonstrate inhibition of the NOX2 enzyme in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 358–374. PMID:26135714

  6. Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH oxidase-dependent two-wave cascade

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, suggesting that Parkinson's disease (PD) with its wholesale death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (nigra) may be a case in point. Although microglial NADPH oxidase-produced superoxide contributes to dopaminergic neuron death in an MPTP mouse model of PD, this is secondary to an initial die off of such neurons, suggesting that the initial MPTP-induced death of neurons may be via activation of NADPH oxidase in neurons themselves, thus providing an early therapeutic target. Methods NADPH oxidase subunits were visualized in adult mouse nigra neurons and in N27 rat dopaminergic cells by immunofluorescence. NADPH oxidase subunits in N27 cell cultures were detected by immunoblots and RT-PCR. Superoxide was measured by flow cytometric detection of H2O2-induced carboxy-H2-DCFDA fluorescence. Cells were treated with MPP+ (MPTP metabolite) following siRNA silencing of the Nox2-stabilizing subunit p22phox, or simultaneously with NADPH oxidase pharmacological inhibitors or with losartan to antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced NADPH oxidase activation. Results Nigral dopaminergic neurons in situ expressed three subunits necessary for NADPH oxidase activation, and these as well as several other NADPH oxidase subunits and their encoding mRNAs were detected in unstimulated N27 cells. Overnight MPP+ treatment of N27 cells induced Nox2 protein and superoxide generation, which was counteracted by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, by siRNA silencing of p22phox, or losartan. A two-wave ROS cascade was identified: 1) as a first wave, mitochondrial H2O2 production was first noted at three hours of MPP+ treatment; and 2) as a second wave, H2O2 levels were further increased by 24 hours. This second wave was eliminated by pharmacological inhibitors

  7. Evidence for cancer-associated expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-based oxidase system in the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Kumiko; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Sano, Toshiaki; Toida, Kazunori; Kuwano, Yuki; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2007-12-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been suggested to stimulate expression of the NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-based oxidase system in guinea pig gastric epithelium, whereas Nox1 mRNA expression has not yet been documented in the human stomach. PCR of human stomach cDNA libraries showed that Nox1 and Nox organizer 1 (NOXO1) messages were absent from normal stomachs, while they were specifically coexpressed in intestinal- and diffuse-type adenocarcinomas including signet-ring cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that Nox1 and NOXO1 proteins were absent from chronic atrophic gastritis (15 cases), adenomas (4 cases), or surrounding tissues of adenocarcinomas (45 cases). In contrast, Nox1 and its partner proteins were expressed in intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (19/21 cases), diffuse-type adenocarcinomas (15/15 cases), and signet-ring cell carcinomas (9/9 cases). Confocal microscopy revealed that Nox1, NOXO1, Nox activator 1, and p22(phox) were predominantly associated with Golgi apparatus in these cancer cells, while diffuse-type adenocarcinomas also contained cancer cells having Nox1 and its partner proteins in their nuclei. Nox1-expressing cancer cells exhibited both gastric and intestinal phenotypes, as assessed by expression of mucin core polypeptides. Thus, the Nox1-base oxidase may be a potential marker of neoplastic transformation and play an important role in oxygen radical- and inflammation-dependent carcinogenesis in the human stomach.

  8. NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Oxalate Induced Injury in Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Ammon B.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2013-01-01

    A major role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes is to catalyze the production of superoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, in turn, play a key role as messengers in cell signal transduction and cell cycling, but when they are produced in excess they can lead to oxidative stress (OS). Oxidative stress in the kidneys is now considered a major cause of renal injury and inflammation, giving rise to a variety of pathological disorders. In this review, we discuss the putative role of oxalate in producing oxidative stress via the production of reactive oxygen species by isoforms of NADPH oxidases expressed in different cellular locations of the kidneys. Most renal cells produce ROS, and recent data indicate a direct correlation between upregulated gene expressions of NADPH oxidase, ROS, and inflammation. Renal tissue expression of multiple NADPH oxidase isoforms most likely will impact the future use of different antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibitors to minimize OS and renal tissue injury in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney stone disease. PMID:23840917

  9. NADPH oxidases, reactive oxygen species, and hypertension: clinical implications and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Paravicini, Tamara M; Touyz, Rhian M

    2008-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence many physiological processes including host defense, hormone biosynthesis, fertilization, and cellular signaling. Increased ROS production (termed "oxidative stress") has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. A major source for vascular and renal ROS is a family of nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases, including the prototypic Nox2 homolog-based NAD(P)H oxidase, as well as other NAD(P)H oxidases, such as Nox1 and Nox4. Other possible sources include mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS plays a physiological role in the regulation of endothelial function and vascular tone and a pathophysiological role in endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, migration, fibrosis, angiogenesis, and rarefaction, important processes underlying cardiovascular and renal remodeling in hypertension and diabetes. These findings have evoked considerable interest because of the possibilities that therapies against nonphagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase to decrease ROS generation and/or strategies to increase nitric oxide (NO) availability and antioxidants may be useful in minimizing vascular injury and renal dysfunction and thereby prevent or regress target organ damage associated with hypertension and diabetes. Here we highlight current developments in the field of reactive oxygen species and cardiovascular disease, focusing specifically on the recently identified novel Nox family of NAD(P)H oxidases in hypertension. We also discuss the potential role of targeting ROS as a therapeutic possibility in the management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  10. NADPH Oxidase-Driven Phagocyte Recruitment Controls Candida albicans Filamentous Growth and Prevents Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Gratacap, Remi L.; Barker, Sarah E.; Newman, Zachary R.; Norum, Ashley; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human commensal and clinically important fungal pathogen that grows as both yeast and hyphal forms during human, mouse and zebrafish infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play diverse roles in immunity, including their long-appreciated function as microbicidal oxidants. Here we demonstrate a non-traditional mechanistic role of NADPH oxidase in promoting phagocyte chemotaxis and intracellular containment of fungi to limit filamentous growth. We exploit the transparent zebrafish model to show that failed NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocyte recruitment to C. albicans in the first four hours post-infection permits fungi to germinate extracellularly and kill the host. We combine chemical and genetic tools with high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to implicate both phagocyte oxidase and dual-specific oxidase in recruitment, suggesting that both myeloid and non-myeloid cells promote chemotaxis. We show that early non-invasive imaging provides a robust tool for prognosis, strongly connecting effective early immune response with survival. Finally, we demonstrate a new role of a key regulator of the yeast-to-hyphal switching program in phagocyte-mediated containment, suggesting that there are species-specific methods for modulation of NADPH oxidase-independent immune responses. These novel links between ROS-driven chemotaxis and fungal dimorphism expand our view of a key host defense mechanism and have important implications for pathogenesis. PMID:24098114

  11. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activate NADPH oxidase in adipocytes and raise the H2O2 pool to prevent cAMP-stimulated protein kinase a activation and inhibit lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) —aspirin, naproxen, nimesulide, and piroxicam— lowered activation of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-II) in isolated rat adipocytes, decreasing adrenaline- and dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP)-stimulated lipolysis. The molecular bases of insulin-like actions of NSAID were studied. Results Based on the reported inhibition of lipolysis by H2O2, catalase was successfully used to block NSAID inhibitory action on Bt2cAMP-stimulated lipolysis. NSAID, at (sub)micromolar range, induced an H2O2 burst in rat adipocyte plasma membranes and in whole adipocytes. NSAID-mediated rise of H2O2 was abrogated in adipocyte plasma membranes by: diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX); the NOX4 antibody; and cytochrome c, trapping the NOX-formed superoxide. These three compounds prevented the inhibition of Bt2cAMP-stimulated lipolysis by NSAIDs. Inhibition of aquaporin-mediated H2O2 transport with AgNO3 in adipocytes allowed NOX activation but prevented the lipolysis inhibition promoted by NSAID: i.e., once synthesized, H2O2 must reach the lipolytic machinery. Since insulin inhibits adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis, the effect of aspirin on isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in rat adipocytes was studied. As expected, isoproterenol-mediated lipolysis was blunted by both insulin and aspirin. Conclusions NSAIDs activate NOX4 in adipocytes to produce H2O2, which impairs cAMP-dependent PKA-II activation, thus preventing isoproterenol-activated lipolysis. H2O2 signaling in adipocytes is a novel and important cyclooxygenase-independent effect of NSAID. PMID:23718778

  12. NADPH oxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide production, induced by salinity stress, may be involved in the regulation of total calcium in roots of wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingli; Xu, Shijian; An, Lizhe; Chen, Nianlai

    2007-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is often generated by cells and tissues under environmental stress. In this work, we provide evidence that plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) production might act as an intermediate step in the NaCl-induced elevation of calcium (Ca) in roots of wheat. Remarkable increases in the content of total Ca were observed not only in roots exposed to NaCl but also in roots of seedlings exposed to exogenous H(2)O(2). In roots, H(2)O(2) production increased upon exposure to salt stress. PM vesicles were isolated from roots, and NADPH oxidase activity was determined by measuring superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production. NADPH oxidase-dependent O(2)(-) production was 11.6nmolmg(-1)proteinmin(-1) in control vesicles, but 19.6nmol after NaCl treatment (24h), indicating that salt stress resulted in the activation of the PM NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the NaCl-induced increase in total Ca was partially abolished by the addition of 150U/mL catalase (CAT), a H(2)O(2) scavenger, and also by 10microM diphenylane iodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. This data suggest that NADPH oxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) production might be involved in the modulation of the Ca content in wheat roots. In conclusion, our results show that salinity stress increases the total Ca content of wheat roots, which is partly due to PM NADPH oxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) generation.

  13. Potential role of NADPH oxidase in pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Kai; Xu, Wei; Xia, Shi-Hai

    2014-08-15

    Studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to inflammatory disorders. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), originally found in phagocytes, is the main source of ROS in nonphagocytic cells. Besides directly producing the detrimental highly reactive ROS to act on biomolecules (lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), NOX can also activate multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis by producing ROS. Recently, research on pancreatic NOX is no longer limited to inflammatory cells, but extends to the aspect of pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic stellate cells, which are considered to be potentially associated with pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize the literature on NOX protein structure, activation, function and its role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

  14. Potential role of NADPH oxidase in pathogenesis of pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wei-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Kai; Xu, Wei; Xia, Shi-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to inflammatory disorders. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), originally found in phagocytes, is the main source of ROS in nonphagocytic cells. Besides directly producing the detrimental highly reactive ROS to act on biomolecules (lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), NOX can also activate multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis by producing ROS. Recently, research on pancreatic NOX is no longer limited to inflammatory cells, but extends to the aspect of pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic stellate cells, which are considered to be potentially associated with pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize the literature on NOX protein structure, activation, function and its role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. PMID:25133019

  15. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  16. IL-13-induced oxidative stress via microglial NADPH oxidase contributes to death of hippocampal neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun W; Baik, Hyung H; Jin, Byung K

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of IL-13, a well-known anti-inflammatory cytokine, on the thrombin-treated hippocampus in vivo. NeuN immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining revealed significant loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons upon intrahippocampal injection of thrombin. This neurotoxicity was accompanied by substantial microglial activation, as evident from OX-42 immunohistochemistry results. In parallel, Western blot analysis and hydroethidine histochemistry disclosed activation of NADPH oxidase, generation of reactive oxygen species, and oxidative damage in the hippocampal CA1 area showing hippocampal neuron degeneration. Interestingly, immunohistochemical and biochemical experiments showed that intrahippocampal injection of thrombin increased IL-13 immunoreactivity and IL-13 levels as early as 8 h after thrombin, reaching a peak at 7 days, which was maintained up to 14 days. Moreover, double-label immunohistochemistry revealed IL-13 immunoreactivity exclusively in activated microglia. IL-13-neutralizing Abs significantly rescued CA1 hippocampal neurons from thrombin neurotoxicity. In parallel, neutralization of IL-13 inhibited activation of NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species production, and oxidative damage. Additionally, IL-13 neutralization suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and several proinflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that IL-13 triggers microglial NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress, leading to the degeneration of hippocampal neurons in vivo, as occurs in cases of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Parasitic worms stimulate host NADPH oxidases to produce reactive oxygen species that limit plant cell death and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Matera, Christiane; Radakovic, Zoran S; Hasan, M Shamim; Gutbrod, Philipp; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Torres, Miguel Angel; Grundler, Florian M W

    2014-04-08

    Plants and animals produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to infection. In plants, ROS not only activate defense responses and promote cell death to limit the spread of pathogens but also restrict the amount of cell death in response to pathogen recognition. Plants also use hormones, such as salicylic acid, to mediate immune responses to infection. However, there are long-lasting biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions, such as the interaction between parasitic nematodes and plant roots during which defense responses are suppressed and root cells are reorganized to specific nurse cell systems. In plants, ROS are primarily generated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidases, and loss of NADPH oxidase activity compromises immune responses and cell death. We found that infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii activated the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF to produce ROS, which was necessary to restrict infected plant cell death and promote nurse cell formation. RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants exhibited larger regions of cell death in response to nematode infection, and nurse cell formation was greatly reduced. Genetic disruption of SID2, which is required for salicylic acid accumulation and immune activation in nematode-infected plants, led to the increased size of nematodes in RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants, but did not decrease plant cell death. Thus, by stimulating NADPH oxidase-generated ROS, parasitic nematodes fine-tune the pattern of plant cell death during the destructive root invasion and may antagonize salicylic acid-induced defense responses during biotrophic life stages.

  18. Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Methods Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. Results In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the

  19. FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo is mediated by PKCδ, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Park, Edward; Mori, Yusaku; Haber, C Andrew; Han, Ping; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Stavar, Laura; Oprescu, Andrei I; Koulajian, Khajag; Ivovic, Alexander; Yu, Zhiwen; Li, Deling; Bowman, Thomas A; Dewald, Jay; El-Benna, Jamel; Brindley, David N; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Lam, Tony K T; Najjar, Sonia M; McKay, Robert A; Bhanot, Sanjay; Fantus, I George; Giacca, Adria

    2014-07-01

    Fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although PKC and inflammatory pathways have been implicated in fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance, the sequence of events leading to impaired insulin signaling is unknown. We used Wistar rats to investigate whether PKCδ and oxidative stress play causal roles in this process and whether this occurs via IKKβ- and JNK-dependent pathways. Rats received a 7-h infusion of Intralipid plus heparin (IH) to elevate circulating free fatty acids (FFA). During the last 2 h of the infusion, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tracer was performed to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), prevented IH-induced hepatic insulin resistance in parallel with prevention of decreased IκBα content, increased JNK phosphorylation (markers of IKKβ and JNK activation, respectively), increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, and impaired insulin signaling in the liver without affecting IH-induced hepatic PKCδ activation. Furthermore, an antisense oligonucleotide against PKCδ prevented IH-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) (marker of NADPH oxidase activation) and hepatic insulin resistance. Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevented IH-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance similarly to NAC. These results demonstrate that PKCδ, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress play a causal role in FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo and suggest that the pathway of FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is FFA → PKCδ → NADPH oxidase and oxidative stress → IKKβ/JNK → impaired hepatic insulin signaling.

  20. Proinflammatory cytokines provoke oxidative damage to actin in neuronal cells mediated by Rac1 and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Barth, Brian M; Stewart-Smeets, Shelli; Kuhn, Thomas B

    2009-06-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and Il-1beta orchestrate the progression of CNS inflammation, which substantially contributes to neurodegeneration in many CNS pathologies. TNFalpha and Il-1beta stimulate actin filament reorganization in non-neuronal cells often accompanied by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Actin filament dynamics is vital for cellular plasticity, mitochondrial function, and gene expression despite being highly susceptible to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that, in neuronal cells, TNFalpha and Il-1beta stimulate a transient, redox-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into lamellipodia under the regulation of Rac1 and a neuronal NADPH oxidase as the source of ROS. The persistent presence of intracellular ROS provoked oxidative damage (carbonylation) to actin coinciding with the loss of lamellipodia and arrest of cellular plasticity. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity or Rac1 abolished the adverse effects of cytokines. These findings suggest that oxidative damage to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton could represent a key step in CNS neurodegeneration.

  1. The subcellular particulate NADPH-dependent O2.(-)-generating oxidase from human blood monocytes: comparison to the neutrophil system.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, A N; Santinga, J T; Gabig, T G

    1982-10-01

    Highly purified preparations of normal human monocytes obtained from peripheral blood were shown to contain a subcellular particulate O2.(-)-generating oxidase system. This O2.(-)-generating activity was present in particulate preparations from monocytes that had been previously stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate but was low or absent in control preparations from unstimulated monocytes or stimulated monocytes from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. In the stimulated preparations from normal monocytes, O2.(-)-generation was linearly proportional to cell protein concentration, insensitive to inhibition by azide, and dependent on NADPH as substrate. These characteristics are similar to the O2.(-)-generating oxidase system from human neutrophils. A significant difference in the apparent Km for NADPH was shown between preparations from stimulated monocytes and neutrophils (monocyte 83 +/- 16 microM, neutrophil 31 +/- 5 microM, mean +/- SE). Additionally, affinity of the stimulated monocyte particulate preparation for NADH was unmeasurably low.

  2. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol

  3. ClC-3 deficiency prevents apoptosis induced by angiotensin II in endothelial progenitor cells via inhibition of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jie; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Du, Yan-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in postnatal neovascularization and re-endothelialization in response to tissue ischemia and endothelial injury. It is reported that the circulating EPCs number is decreased during hypertension. However, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. Our previous studies have shown that ClC-3 chloride channel is up-regulated with the development of hypertension. This study aims to test whether ClC-3 participates in EPC apoptosis under the condition of increased oxidative stress in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. The results showed that stimulation with 10(-6)mol/L Ang II significantly up-regulated the endogenous ClC-3 expression and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in EPCs of wild type mice, accompanied by an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and the expression of gp91(phox) (NOX-2), a key catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. However, these effects of Ang II were significantly reduced in EPCs of ClC-3(-/-) mice. Compared with control, treatment with Ang II induced EPCs apoptosis in wild type mice, concomitantly with declined Bcl-2/Bax ratio, depressed mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which was remarkably prevented by both ClC-3 knockout and NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. In addition, the role of ClC-3 deficiency in protecting EPCs against Ang II-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis was further confirmed in Ang II-infused hypertensive mice in vivo. In conclusion, ClC-3 deficiency inhibited Ang II-induced EPC apoptosis via suppressing ROS generation derived from NADPH oxidase.

  4. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

  5. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels as Novel Drug Targets: From NADPH Oxidase Regulation to Sperm Biology

    PubMed Central

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated proton channels are increasingly implicated in cellular proton homeostasis. Proton currents were originally identified in snail neurons less than 40 years ago, and subsequently shown to play an important auxiliary role in the functioning of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Molecular identification of voltage-gated proton channels was achieved less than 10 years ago. Interestingly, so far, only one gene coding for voltage-gated proton channels has been identified, namely hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), which codes for the HV1 proton channel protein. Over the last years, the first picture of putative physiological functions of HV1 has been emerging. Recent Advances: The best-studied role remains charge and pH compensation during the respiratory burst of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX). Strong evidence for a role of HV1 is also emerging in sperm biology, but the relationship with the sperm NOX5 remains unclear. Probably in many instances, HV1 functions independently of NOX: for example in snail neurons, basophils, osteoclasts, and cancer cells. Critical Issues: Generally, ion channels are good drug targets; however, this feature has so far not been exploited for HV1, and hitherto no inhibitors compatible with clinical use exist. However, there are emerging indications for HV1 inhibitors, ranging from diseases with a strong activation of the phagocyte NOX (e.g., stroke) to infertility, osteoporosis, and cancer. Future Directions: Clinically useful HV1-active drugs should be developed and might become interesting drugs of the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 490–513. PMID:24483328

  6. Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2013-09-01

    Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2 (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress.

  7. Role of the NADPH Oxidases DUOX and NOX4 in Thyroid Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise P.; Dupuy, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations are present at high levels in the rat thyroid gland, indicating that the thyrocyte is under oxidative stress, a state in which cellular oxidant levels are high. The most important class of free radicals, or reactive metabolites, is reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main source of ROS in every cell type seems to be mitochondrial respiration; however, recent data support the idea that NADPH:O(2) oxidoreductase flavoproteins or simply NADPH oxidases (NOX) are enzymes specialized in controlled ROS generation at the subcellular level. Several decades ago, high concentrations of H2O2 were detected at the apical surface of thyrocytes, where thyroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. Only in the last decade has the enzymatic source of H2O2 involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis been well characterized. The cloning of two thyroid genes encoding NADPH oxidases dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DUOX1 and DUOX2) revealed that DUOX2 mutations lead to hereditary hypothyroidism in humans. Recent reports have also described the presence of NOX4 in the thyroid gland and have suggested a pathophysiological role of this member of the NOX family. In the present review, we describe the participation of NADPH oxidases not only in thyroid physiology but also in gland pathophysiology, particularly the involvement of these enzymes in the regulation of thyroid oxidative stress. PMID:24847449

  8. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  9. 20-HETE increases NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production and stimulates the L-type Ca2+ channel via a PKC-dependent mechanism in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong; Bao, Yuyan; Li, Wei; Li, Xingting; Shen, Xin; Wang, Xu; Yao, Fanrong; O'Rourke, Stephen T.; Sun, Chengwen

    2010-01-01

    The production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is increased during ischemia-reperfusion, and inhibition of 20-HETE production has been shown to reduce infarct size caused by ischemia. This study was aimed to discover the molecular mechanism underlying the action of 20-HETE in cardiac myocytes. The effect of 20-HETE on L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) was examined in rat isolated cardiomyocytes by patch-clamp recording in the whole cell mode. Superfusion of cardiomyocytes with 20-HETE (10–100 nM) resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in ICa,L, and this action of 20-HETE was attenuated by a specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor, gp91ds-tat (5 μM), or a superoxide scavenger, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (25 U/ml), suggesting that NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide is involved in the stimulatory action of 20-HETE on ICa,L. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with 20-HETE (100 nM) increased both NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production by approximately twofold. To study the molecular mechanism mediating the 20-HETE-induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC activity was measured in cardiomyocytes. Incubation of the cells with 20-HETE (100 nM) significantly increased PKC activity, and pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with a selective PKC inhibitor, GF-109203 (1 μM), attenuated the 20-HETE-induced increases in ICa,L and in NADPH oxidase activity. In summary, 20-HETE stimulates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, which activates L-type Ca2+ channels via a PKC-dependent mechanism in cardiomyocytes. 20-HETE and 20-HETE-producing enzymes could be novel targets for the treatment of cardiac ischemic diseases. PMID:20675568

  10. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J; Traverso, José Á; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen-pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed.

  11. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Infection in NADPH Oxidase Deficiency: Defective Mycobacterial Sequestration and Granuloma Formation

    PubMed Central

    Deffert, Christine; Schäppi, Michela G.; Pache, Jean-Claude; Cachat, Julien; Vesin, Dominique; Bisig, Ruth; Ma Mulone, Xiaojuan; Kelkka, Tiina; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%). The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter). Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (∼50%). Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-12) early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine production and impaired

  12. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates homocysteine metabolism and protects against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas V A; Dong, Xuebin; Sawyer, Greta J; Caldwell, Anna; Halket, John; Sherwood, Roy; Quaglia, Alberto; Dew, Tracy; Anilkumar, Narayana; Burr, Simon; Mistry, Rajesh K; Martin, Daniel; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Hughes, Robin D; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione is the major intracellular redox buffer in the liver and is critical for hepatic detoxification of xenobiotics and other environmental toxins. Hepatic glutathione is also a major systemic store for other organs and thus impacts on pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Sickle Cell Anaemia and chronic diseases associated with aging. Glutathione levels are determined in part by the availability of cysteine, generated from homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. The partitioning of homocysteine between remethylation and transsulfuration pathways is known to be subject to redox-dependent regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. An association between plasma Hcy and a single nucleotide polymorphism within the NADPH oxidase 4 locus led us to investigate the involvement of this reactive oxygen species- generating enzyme in homocysteine metabolism. Here we demonstrate that NADPH oxidase 4 ablation in mice results in increased flux of homocysteine through the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway to methionine, catalysed by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase within the liver. As a consequence NADPH oxidase 4-null mice display significantly lowered plasma homocysteine and the flux of homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway is reduced, resulting in lower hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels. Mice deficient in NADPH oxidase 4 had markedly increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury which could be corrected by administration of N-acetyl cysteine. We thus conclude that under physiological conditions, NADPH oxidase 4-derived reactive oxygen species is a regulator of the partitioning of the metabolic flux of homocysteine, which impacts upon hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels and thereby upon defence against environmental toxins.

  13. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  14. Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-κB-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1β-exposed Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2014-02-01

    Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1β, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1β brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-κB, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 μM), and IL-1β prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1β also prevented the IL-1β-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-κB was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level.

  15. Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-02-15

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-κB activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-β, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1α, and α-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-κB and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-κB-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-β signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH.

  16. Calcium-dependent protein kinases regulate the production of reactive oxygen species by potato NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Ohura, Ikuko; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Yokota, Naohiko; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Shimamoto, Ko; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2007-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in plant innate immunity. NADPH oxidase (RBOH; for Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog) plays a central role in the oxidative burst, and EF-hand motifs in the N terminus of this protein suggest possible regulation by Ca(2+). However, regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. We identified Ser-82 and Ser-97 in the N terminus of potato (Solanum tuberosum) St RBOHB as potential phosphorylation sites. An anti-phosphopeptide antibody (pSer82) indicated that Ser-82 was phosphorylated by pathogen signals in planta. We cloned two potato calcium-dependent protein kinases, St CDPK4 and St CDPK5, and mass spectrometry analyses showed that these CDPKs phosphorylated only Ser-82 and Ser-97 in the N terminus of St RBOHB in a calcium-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of the constitutively active mutant of St CDPK5, St CDPK5VK, provoked ROS production in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The CDPK-mediated ROS production was disrupted by knockdown of Nb RBOHB in N. benthamiana. The loss of function was complemented by heterologous expression of wild-type potato St RBOHB but not by a mutant (S82A/S97A). Furthermore, the heterologous expression of St CDPK5VK phosphorylated Ser-82 of St RBOHB in N. benthamiana. These results suggest that St CDPK5 induces the phosphorylation of St RBOHB and regulates the oxidative burst.

  17. A Medicago truncatula NADPH oxidase is involved in symbiotic nodule functioning

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Daniel; Andrio, Emilie; Danchin, Etienne G J; Oger, Elodie; Gucciardo, Sébastien; Lambert, Annie; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Summary The plant plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), appear to play crucial roles in plant growth and development. They are involved in important processes, such as root hair growth, plant defence reactions and abscisic acid signalling.Using sequence similarity searches, we identified seven putative RBOH-encoding genes in the Medicago truncatula genome. A phylogenetic reconstruction showed that Rboh gene duplications occurred in legume species. We analysed the expression of these MtRboh genes in different M. truncatula tissues: one of them, MtRbohA, was significantly up-regulated in Sinorhizobium meliloti-induced symbiotic nodules.MtRbohA expression appeared to be restricted to the nitrogen-fixing zone of the functional nodule. Moreover, using S. meliloti bacA and nifH mutants unable to form efficient nodules, a strong link between nodule nitrogen fixation and MtRbohA up-regulation was shown. MtRbohA expression was largely enhanced under hypoxic conditions. Specific RNA interference for MtRbohA provoked a decrease in the nodule nitrogen fixation activity and the modulation of genes encoding the microsymbiont nitrogenase.These results suggest that hypoxia, prevailing in the nodule-fixing zone, may drive the stimulation of MtRbohA expression, which would, in turn, lead to the regulation of nodule functioning. PMID:21155825

  18. The function of the NADPH oxidase of phagocytes and its relationship to other NOXs in plants, invertebrates, and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Anthony W.

    2008-01-01

    The NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (NOX) of ‘professional’ phagocytic cells transfers electrons across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole, forming superoxide in the lumen. It is generally accepted that this system promotes microbial killing through the generation of reactive oxygen species and through the activity of myeloperoxidase. An alternative scenario exists in which the passage of electrons across the membrane alters the pH and generates a charge that drives ions into, and out of, the vacuole. It is proposed that the primary function of the oxidase is to produce these pH changes and ion fluxes, and the issues surrounding these processes are considered. The neutrophil oxidase is the prototype of a whole family of NOXs that exist throughout biology, from plants to man, which might function, at least in part, in a similar fashion. Some examples of how these other NOXs might influence ion fluxes are examined. PMID:18036868

  19. NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production is required for salt-induced antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Benzarti, Maâli; Debez, Ahmed; Bailly, Christophe; Savouré, Arnould; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) in the antioxidant defense system was assessed in salt-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. In the wild-type, short-term salt exposure led to a transient and significant increase of H2O2 concentration, followed by a marked increase in catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.16), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities. Pre-treatment with either a chemical trap for H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) or two widely used NADPH oxidase inhibitors (imidazol and diphenylene iodonium) significantly decreased the above-mentioned enzyme activities under salinity. Double mutant atrbohd/f plants failed to induce the antioxidant response under the culture conditions. Under long-term salinity, the wild-type was more salt-tolerant than the mutant based on the plant biomass production. The better performance of the wild-type was related to a significantly higher photosynthetic activity, a more efficient K(+) selective uptake, and to the plants' ability to deal with the salt-induced oxidative stress as compared to atrbohd/f. Altogether, these data suggest that the early H2O2 generation by NADPH oxidase under salt stress could be the beginning of a reaction cascade that triggers the antioxidant response in A. thaliana in order to overcome the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thereby mitigating the salt stress-derived injuries.

  20. Differential Expression of NADPH Oxidases Depends on Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Adriano César Carneiro; do Rêgo-Monteiro, Igor Coutinho; Louzada, Ruy A.; Ortenzi, Victor Hugo; de Aguiar, Angélica Ponte; de Abreu, Ewerton Sousa; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Hecht, Fabio; de Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, being involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Thus, we aimed to investigate if NOX activity and expression in skeletal muscle are fiber type specific and the possible contribution of this difference to cellular oxidative stress. Oxygen consumption rate, NOX activity and mRNA levels, and the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reactive protein thiol levels, were measured in the soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles of rats. RG showed higher oxygen consumption flow than SOL and WG, while SOL had higher oxygen consumption than WG. SOL showed higher NOX activity, as well as NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA levels, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and reactive protein thiol contents when compared to WG and RG. NOX activity and NOX4 mRNA levels as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were higher in RG than in WG. Physical exercise increased NOX activity in SOL and RG, specifically NOX2 mRNA levels in RG and NOX4 mRNA levels in SOL. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NOX activity and expression differ according to the skeletal muscle fiber type, as well as antioxidant defense. PMID:27847553

  1. Differential Expression of NADPH Oxidases Depends on Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type in Rats.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Adriano César Carneiro; do Rêgo-Monteiro, Igor Coutinho; Louzada, Ruy A; Ortenzi, Victor Hugo; de Aguiar, Angélica Ponte; de Abreu, Ewerton Sousa; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Hecht, Fabio; de Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, being involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Thus, we aimed to investigate if NOX activity and expression in skeletal muscle are fiber type specific and the possible contribution of this difference to cellular oxidative stress. Oxygen consumption rate, NOX activity and mRNA levels, and the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the reactive protein thiol levels, were measured in the soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles of rats. RG showed higher oxygen consumption flow than SOL and WG, while SOL had higher oxygen consumption than WG. SOL showed higher NOX activity, as well as NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA levels, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and reactive protein thiol contents when compared to WG and RG. NOX activity and NOX4 mRNA levels as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were higher in RG than in WG. Physical exercise increased NOX activity in SOL and RG, specifically NOX2 mRNA levels in RG and NOX4 mRNA levels in SOL. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NOX activity and expression differ according to the skeletal muscle fiber type, as well as antioxidant defense.

  2. Bilirubin inhibits the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated by the toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Idelman, Gila; Smith, Darcey L H; Zucker, Stephen D

    2015-08-01

    It has been previously shown that bilirubin prevents the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to LPS. The present study examines whether this effect is exerted through modulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling. LPS-stimulated iNOS and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was assessed by measuring cellular nitrate and superoxide ( [Formula: see text] ) production, respectively. The generation of both nitrate and [Formula: see text] in response to LPS was suppressed by TLR4 inhibitors, indicating that activation of iNOS and Nox is TLR4-dependent. While treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and bilirubin effectively abolished LPS-mediated [Formula: see text] production, hydrogen peroxide and nitrate release were inhibited by bilirubin and PEG-catalase, but not SOD, supporting that iNOS activation is primarily dependent upon intracellular H2O2. LPS treatment increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), an effect that was abolished by bilirubin. Cells transfected with murine iNOS reporter constructs in which the HIF-1α-specific hypoxia response element was disrupted exhibited a blunted response to LPS, supporting that HIF-1α mediates Nox-dependent iNOS expression. Bilirubin, but not SOD, blocked the cellular production of interferon-β, while interleukin-6 production remained unaffected. These data support that bilirubin inhibits the TLR4-mediated up-regulation of iNOS by preventing activation of HIF-1α through scavenging of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species. Bilirubin also suppresses interferon-β release via a ROS-independent mechanism. These findings characterize potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of bilirubin.

  3. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

    PubMed

    McNally, J Scott; Davis, Michael E; Giddens, Don P; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G

    2003-12-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  4. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  5. A novel pyrazole derivative protects from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jung Hee; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jee Hyun; Park, Doo Ri; Lee, Yoonji; Lee, Seul Gee; Choi, Sun; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Song, Seong-Won; Jeong, Yongmi; Goo, Ja-Il; Choi, Yongseok; Baek, Hye Kyung; Yi, Sun Shin; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Kee-In; Lee, Soo Young; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast cells (OCs) are differentiated from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) by activation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) isozymes is involved in RANKL-dependent OC differentiation, implicating Nox isozymes as therapeutic targets for treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we show that a novel pyrazole derivative, Ewha-18278 has high inhibitory potency on Nox isozymes. Blocking the activity of Nox with Ewha-18278 inhibited the responses of BMMs to RANKL, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and NF-κB, and OC differentiation. To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic function of Ewha-18278, the derivative was applied to estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) ddY mice. Oral administration of Ewha-18278 (10 mg/kg/daily, 4 weeks) into the mice recovered bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone length, number and thickness, compared to control OVX ddY mice. Moreover, treatment of OVX ddY mice with Ewha-18278 increased bone strength by increasing cortical bone thickness. We provide that Ewha-18278 displayed Nox inhibition and blocked the RANKL-dependent cell signaling cascade leading to reduced differentiation of OCs. Our results implicate Ewha-18278 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26975635

  6. Leonurine (SCM-198) attenuates myocardial fibrotic response via inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Deng, Hai-Yan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wu, Dan; Huang, Guo-Ying; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we have reported that leonurine, a plant phenolic alkaloid in Herba leonuri, exerted cardioprotective properties in a number of preclinical experiments. Herein, we investigated the roles and the possible mechanisms of leonurine for reducing fibrotic responses in angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts and post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. In in vitro experiments performed in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, leonurine (10-20 μM) pretreatment attenuated Ang II-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin and types I and III collagen. A small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown strategy for NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) revealed that Nox4 was required for Ang II-induced activation of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo studies using a post-MI model in rats indicated that administration of leonurine inhibited myocardial fibrosis while reducing cardiac Nox4 expression, ROS production, NF-κB activation, and plasma MMP-2 activity. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that leonurine could prevent cardiac fibrosis and the activation of cardiac fibroblasts partly through modulation of a Nox4-ROS pathway.

  7. Red wine polyphenols prevent endothelial dysfunction induced by endothelin-1 in rat aorta: role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    López-Sepúlveda, Rocío; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Zarzuelo, Maria José; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Quintela, Ana María; Galindo, Pilar; O'Valle, Francisco; Tamargo, Juan; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan; Jiménez, Rosario

    2011-04-01

    RWPs (red wine polyphenols) exert antihypertensive effects and improve endothelial function by reducing the plasma levels of ET-1 (endothelin-1) and the subsequent vascular production of O(2)(•-) (superoxide anion). Our present study was designed to evaluate whether RWPs act directly in the vascular wall improving endothelial dysfunction and O(2)(•-) production induced by ET-1 and to analyse the compounds responsible for these protective effects. We incubated rat isolated aortic rings in the presence or absence of ET-1 (10 nM) and RWPs (10(-4) to 10(-2) g/l) or catechin (0.2 μM), epicatechin (10 μM) and resveratrol (0.1 μM). ET-1 reduced the relaxant responses to acetylcholine, increased intracellular O(2)(•-) production, NADPH oxidase activity and protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. All these changes were prevented by RWPs. The preventive effects of RWPs were unaffected by co-incubation with either ICI-182780, an ER (oestrogen receptor) antagonist, or GW9662, a PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) antagonist. RWPs inhibited the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), a key regulator of p47phox expression in response to ET-1. When the isolated polyphenols were tested, at the concentrations found in 10(-2) g/l RWPs, only epicatechin prevented endothelial dysfunction and all biochemical changes induced by ET-1 in the vascular wall. Taken together, these results indicate that RWPs prevent ET-1-induced vascular O(2)(•-) production by reducing overexpression of p47phox and the subsequent increased NADPH oxidase activity, leading to improvement in endothelial function. The effects of RWPs appear to be independent of ER and PPARγ activation and are related to ERK1/2 inhibition.

  8. HIV-1 Nef associates with p22-phox, a component of the NADPH oxidase protein complex.

    PubMed

    Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Peterson, Darrel L; Reyes, Elbert; Rosales, Jose D; Berrueta, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    Altered neutrophil function may contribute to the development of AIDS during the course of HIV infection. It has been described that Nef, a regulatory protein from HIV, can modulate superoxide production in other cells, therefore altered superoxide production in neutrophils from HIV infected patients, could be secondary to a direct effect of Nef on components of the NADPH oxidase complex. In this work, we describe that Nef, was capable of increasing superoxide production in human neutrophils. Furthermore, a specific association between Nef and p22-phox, a membrane component of the NADPH oxidase complex, was found. We propose that this association may reflect a capability of Nef to modulate by direct association, the enzymatic complex responsible for one of the most efficient innate defense mechanisms in phagocytes, contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Redox Regulation in Rat Brain: Involvement of NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Nevena V.; Jevtić, Gordana; Stojković, Tihomir; Velimirović, Milica; Aksić, Milan; Poleksić, Joko; Nikolić, Tatjana; Aleksić, Dubravka; Radonjić, Vidosava; Filipović, Branislav; Petronijević, Nataša D.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) causes perinatal stress, with subsequent behavioral changes which resemble the symptoms of schizophrenia. The NADPH oxidase is one of the major generators of reactive oxygen species, known to play a role in stress response in different tissues. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of MD on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (gp91phox, p22phox, p67phox, p47phox, and p40phox). Activities of cytochrome C oxidase and respiratory chain Complex I, as well as the oxidative stress parameters using appropriate spectrophotometric techniques were analyzed. Nine-day-old Wistar rats were exposed to a 24 h maternal deprivation and sacrificed at young adult age. The structures affected by perinatal stress, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nuclei were investigated. The most prominent findings were increased expressions of gp91phox in the cortex and hippocampus, increased expression of p22phox and p40phox, and decreased expression of gp91phox, p22phox, and p47phox in the caudate nuclei. Complex I activity was increased in all structures except cortex. Content of reduced glutathione was decreased in all sections while region-specific changes of other oxidative stress parameters were found. Our results indicate the presence of long-term redox alterations in MD rats.

  10. Evolution of NADPH Oxidase Inhibitors: Selectivity and Mechanisms for Target Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Altenhöfer, Sebastian; Radermacher, Kim A.; Kleikers, Pamela W.M.; Wingler, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress, an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production versus consumption, may be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The only known enzymes solely dedicated to ROS generation are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases with their catalytic subunits (NOX). After the clinical failure of most antioxidant trials, NOX inhibitors are the most promising therapeutic option for diseases associated with oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Historical NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenylene iodonium, are un-specific and not isoform selective. Novel NOX inhibitors stemming from rational drug discovery approaches, for example, GKT137831, ML171, and VAS2870, show improved specificity for NADPH oxidases and moderate NOX isoform selectivity. Along with NOX2 docking sequence (NOX2ds)-tat, a peptide-based inhibitor, the use of these novel small molecules in animal models has provided preliminary in vivo evidence for a pathophysiological role of specific NOX isoforms. Critical Issues: Here, we discuss whether novel NOX inhibitors enable reliable validation of NOX isoforms' pathological roles and whether this knowledge supports translation into pharmacological applications. Modern NOX inhibitors have increased the evidence for pathophysiological roles of NADPH oxidases. However, in comparison to knockout mouse models, NOX inhibitors have limited isoform selectivity. Thus, their use does not enable clear statements on the involvement of individual NOX isoforms in a given disease. Future Directions: The development of isoform-selective NOX inhibitors and biologicals will enable reliable validation of specific NOX isoforms in disease models other than the mouse. Finally, GKT137831, the first NOX inhibitor in clinical development, is poised to provide proof of principle for the clinical potential of NOX inhibition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 406–427. PMID:24383718

  11. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2•- by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase. PMID:24936444

  12. NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Lauren S.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Kershaw, Michael J.; Thornton, Christopher R.; Schuster, Martin; Chen, Jisheng; Wang, Zonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a toroidal F-actin network at the point of penetration peg emergence. Maintenance of the cortical F-actin network during plant infection independently requires Nox1, a second NADPH oxidase, which is necessary for penetration hypha elongation. Organization of F-actin in appressoria is disrupted by application of antioxidants, whereas latrunculin-mediated depolymerization of appressorial F-actin is competitively inhibited by reactive oxygen species, providing evidence that regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species by fungal NADPH oxidases directly controls septin and F-actin dynamics. PMID:23382235

  13. Relative contributions of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Jia, Zhanjun; Wang, Ningning; Tidwell, Tyson J; Yang, Tianxin

    2011-07-01

    We assessed the relative contribution of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase to deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in mice. The daily mean arterial pressure was monitored by radiotelemetry in DOCA-salt-treated mice given vehicle or the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor rotenone. This treatment produced remarkable attenuation of DOCA-salt hypertension. Similar results were obtained with other inhibitors of mitochondrial function, including 5-hydroxydecanoate (specific for mitochondrial potassium-ATP channels), benzylguanidine (complexes I and III), and the cell-permeable manganese tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (a mimic of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase). In parallel with the blood pressure-lowering effect of rotenone, the DOCA-salt-induced increases in urinary 8-isoprostane excretion and in reactive oxygen species production of isolated kidney mitochondria were both significantly attenuated. Conversely, the DOCA-salt-induced reduction of urinary nitrate/nitrite excretion was significantly elevated. Following DOCA-salt treatment, mice deficient in NADPH oxidase subunits gp91(phox) or p47(phox) exhibited a partial attenuation of the hypertensive response at early but not later time points. Thus, the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of oxidative stress in DOCA-salt hypertension, whereas NADPH oxidase may have a relatively minor role during the early stage of hypertension.

  14. Endotoxin priming of neutrophils requires endocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent endosomal reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Fred S; Hook, Jessica S; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Huber, Jody N; Volk, A Paige Davis; Moreland, Jessica G

    2012-04-06

    NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91(phox), p40(phox), p67(phox), and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin.

  15. Role of NADPH oxidases in the redox biology of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Fabregat, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the pathological consequence of chronic liver diseases, where an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins occurs, concomitantly with the processes of repair and regeneration. It is characterized by increased production of matrix proteins, in particular collagens, and decreased matrix remodelling. The principal source of ECM accumulation is myofibroblasts (MFB). Most fibrogenic MFB are endogenous to the liver, coming from hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts. Dysregulated inflammatory responses have been associated with most (if not all) hepatotoxic insults and chronic oxidative stress play a role during the initial liver inflammatory phase and its progression to fibrosis. Redox-regulated processes are responsible for activation of HSC to MFB, as well as maintenance of the MFB function. Increased oxidative stress also induces hepatocyte apoptosis, which contributes to increase the liver injury and to transdifferentiate HSC to MFB, favouring the fibrogenic process. Mitochondria and other redox-active enzymes can generate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as a by-product in liver cells. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that NADPH oxidases (NOXs), which play a critical role in the inflammatory response, may contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during liver fibrosis, being important players in HSC activation and hepatocyte apoptosis. Based on the knowledge of the pathogenic role of ROS, different strategies to prevent or reverse the oxidative damage have been developed to be used as therapeutic tools in liver fibrosis. This review will update all these concepts, highlighting the relevance of redox biology in chronic fibrogenic liver pathologies. PMID:26204504

  16. NADPH Oxidase and the Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S.; Café-Mendes, Cecília C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking gp91phox−/−, the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of p47phox, a Nox subunit, in striatum. gp91phox−/− mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and gp91phox−/− mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in gp91phox−/− mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and gp91phox−/− mice groups. PMID:24379900

  17. Influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocytic bacterial clearance and enhances susceptibility to secondary methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Keer; Metzger, Dennis W

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. In this study, we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage of influenza infection, even though MRSA superinfection had no significant effect on viral burdens. Compared with mice infected with bacteria alone, postinfluenza MRSA-infected mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance, which was not due to defective phagocyte recruitment, but rather coincided with reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. NADPH oxidase is responsible for reactive oxygen species production during phagocytic bacterial killing, a process also known as oxidative burst. We found that gp91(phox)-containing NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages and neutrophils was essential for optimal bacterial clearance during respiratory MRSA infections. In contrast to wild-type animals, gp91(phox-/-) mice exhibited similar defects in MRSA clearance before and after influenza infection. Using gp91(phox+/-) mosaic mice, we further demonstrate that influenza infection inhibits a cell-intrinsic contribution of NADPH oxidase to phagocyte bactericidal activity. Taken together, our results establish that influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent bacterial clearance and leads to susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection.

  18. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  19. PLATELET-ASSOCIATED NAD(P)H OXIDASE CONTRIBUTES TO THE THROMBOGENIC PHENOTYPE INDUCED BY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Karen Y.; Russell, Janice M.; Jennings, Merilyn H.; Alexander, J. Steven; Granger., D. Neil

    2007-01-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels promote pro-inflammatory and prothrombogenic responses in venules and impaired endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation. Although NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide has been implicated in the altered vascular responses to hypercholesterolemia, it remains unclear whether this oxidative pathway mediates the associated arteriolar dysfunction and platelet adhesion in venules. Platelet and leukocyte adhesion in cremasteric postcapillary venules, and arteriolar dilation responses to acetylcholine were monitored in wild-type (WT), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase transgenic (SOD-TgN) and NAD(P)H oxidase-knockout (gp91phox-/-) mice placed on normal (ND) or high cholesterol (HC) diet for 2 wk. HC elicited increased platelet and leukocyte adhesion in WT mice, versus ND. Cytosolic subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase (p47phox and p67phox) were expressed in platelets. This was not altered by hypercholesterolemia, however platelets and leukocytes from HC mice exhibited elevated generation of reactive oxygen species when compared to ND mice. Hypercholesterolemia-induced leukocyte recruitment was attenuated in SOD-TgN-HC and gp91phox-/--HC mice. Recruitment of platelets derived from WT-HC mice in venules of SOD-TgN-HC or gp91phox-/--HC recipients was comparable to ND levels. Adhesion of SOD-TgN-HC platelets paralleled the leukocyte response and was attenuated in SOD-TgN-HC recipients, but not in WT-HC recipients. However, gp91phox-/--HC platelets exhibited low levels of adhesion comparable to WT-ND in both hypercholesterolemic gp91phox-/- and WT recipients. Arteriolar dysfunction was evident in WT-HC mice, compared to WT-ND. Overexpression of SOD or, to a lesser extent, gp91phox deficiency, restored arteriolar vasorelaxation responses towards WT-ND levels. These findings reveal a novel role for platelet-associated NAD(P)H oxidase in producing the thrombogenic phenotype in hypercholesterolemia and demonstrate that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide mediates the HC

  20. NADPH oxidase 4 deficiency increases tubular cell death during acute ischemic reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Nlandu-Khodo, Stellor; Dissard, Romain; Hasler, Udo; Schäfer, Matthias; Pircher, Haymo; Jansen-Durr, Pidder; Krause, Karl Heinz; Martin, Pierre-Yves; de Seigneux, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is highly expressed in kidney proximal tubular cells. NOX4 constitutively produces hydrogen peroxide, which may regulate important pro-survival pathways. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a classical model mimicking human ischemic acute tubular necrosis. We hypothesized that NOX4 plays a protective role in kidney IRI. In wild type (WT) animals subjected to IRI, NOX4 protein expression increased after 24 hours. NOX4 KO (knock-out) and WT littermates mice were subjected to IRI. NOX4 KO mice displayed decreased renal function and more severe tubular apoptosis, decreased Bcl-2 expression and higher histologic damage scores compared to WT. Activation of NRF2 was decreased in NOX4 KO mice in response to IRI. This was related to decreased KEAP1 oxidation leading to decreased NRF2 stabilization. This resulted in decreased glutathione levels. In vitro silencing of NOX4 in cells showed an enhanced propensity to apoptosis, with reduced expression of NRF2, glutathione content and Bcl-2 expression, similar to cells derived from NOX4 KO mice. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of NRF2 (caNRF2) in NOX4 depleted cells rescued most of this phenotype in cultured cells, implying that NRF2 regulation by ROS issued from NOX4 may play an important role in its anti-apoptotic property. PMID:27924932

  1. Urotensin II Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Signaling Pathways via the NADPH Oxidase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Xin-Rui; Yang, Hui; Yin, Chun-Lin; Shi, Li-Jin; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that the urotensin (UII) and its receptor are up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of mice with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the significance of UII in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UII on NADPH oxidase and glucose transport signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of mice with T2DM and in C2C12 mouse myotube cells. KK/upj-AY/J mice (KK) mice were divided into the following groups: KK group, with saline treatment for 2 weeks; KK+ urantide group, with daily 30 µg/kg body weight injections over the same time period of urantide, a potent urotensin II antagonist peptide; Non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice were used as normal controls. After urantide treatment, mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, in addition to measurements of the levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase and the phosphorylated AKT, PKC and ERK. C2C12 cells were incubated with serum-free DMEM for 24 hours before conducting the experiments, and then administrated with 100 nM UII for 2 hours or 24 hours. Urantide treatment improved glucose tolerance, decreased the translocation of the NADPH subunits p40-phox and p47-phox, and increased levels of the phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK. In contrast, UII treatment increased ROS production and p47-phox and p67-phox translocation, and decreased the phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK; Apocynin abrogated this effect. In conclusion, UII increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase, leading to the inhibition of signaling pathways involving glucose transport, such as AKT/PKC/ERK. Our data imply a role for UII at the molecular level in glucose homeostasis, and possibly in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in T2DM. PMID:24116164

  2. Suppressive effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on intestinal tumorigenesis in obese KK-A(y) and Apc mutant Min mice.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Miyamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Mami; Ishigamori, Rikako; Onuma, Wakana; Ishino, Kousuke; Totsuka, Yukari; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The accumulation of abdominal fat tissue causes abundant reactive oxygen species production through the activation of NADPH oxidase due to excessive insulin stimulation. The enzyme NADPH oxidase catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species and evokes the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Apocynin is an NADPH oxidase inhibitor that blocks the formation of the NADPH oxidase complex (active form). In this study, we investigated the effects of apocynin on the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in obese KK-A(y) mice and on the development of intestinal polyps in Apc mutant Min mice. Six-week-old KK-A(y) mice were injected with azoxymethane (200 μg/mouse once per week for 3 weeks) and given 250 mg/L apocynin or 500 mg/L apocynin in their drinking water for 7 weeks. Six-week-old Min mice were also treated with 500 mg/L apocynin for 6 weeks. Treatment with apocynin reduced the number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci in KK-A(y) mice by 21% and the number of intestinal polyps in Min mice by 40% compared with untreated mice. Both groups of mice tended to show improved oxidation of serum low-density lipoprotein and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in their adipose tissues. In addition, the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels in polyp tissues decreased. Moreover, apocynin was shown to suppress nuclear factor-κB transcriptional activity in vitro. These results suggest that apocynin and other NADPH oxidase inhibitors may be effective colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents.

  3. Insulin increases surface expression of TRPC6 channels in podocytes: role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Anderson, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Insulin receptors in podocytes are essential for normal kidney function. Here, we show that insulin evokes a rapid increase in the surface expression of canonical transient receptor potential-6 channel (TRPC6) channels in cultured podocytes, but caused a decrease in surface expression of TRPC5. These effects are accompanied by a marked increase in outwardly rectifying cationic currents that can be blocked by 10 μM SKF96365 or 100 μM La3+. Application of oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) also increased SKF96365- and La3+-sensitive cationic currents in podocytes. Importantly, current responses to a combination of OAG and insulin were the same amplitude as those evoked by either agent applied alone. This occlusion effect suggests that OAG and insulin are targeting the same population of channels. In addition, shRNA knockdown of TRPC6 markedly reduced cationic currents stimulated by insulin. The effects of insulin on TRPC6 were mimicked by treating podocytes with H2O2. Insulin treatment rapidly increased the generation of H2O2 in podocytes, and it increased the surface expression of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 in cultured podocytes. Basal and insulin-stimulated surface expression of TRPC6 were reduced by pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases and other flavin-dependent enzymes, by siRNA knockdown of NOX4, and by manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride, a membrane-permeable mimetic of superoxide dismutase and catalase. These observations suggest that insulin increases generation of ROS in part through activation of NADPH oxidases, and that this step contributes to modulation of podocyte TRPC6 channels. PMID:22031853

  4. Hydrogen peroxide generated by NADPH oxidase is involved in high blue-light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Xing, Da; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-08-01

    One of the most important functions of blue light is to induce chloroplast movements by reducing the damage to photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by various environmental stimuli, can act as a signaling molecule that regulates a number of developmental processes and environmental responses. To investigate whether H2O2 is involved in high blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements, we use luminescence spectrometer to observe H2O2 generation with the assistance of the fluorescence probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). After treatment with high blue light, a large quantity of H2O2 indicated by the fluorescence intensity of DCF is produced in a dose-dependent manner in leaf strip of Arabidopsis. Enzymatic assay shows that the activity of NADPH oxidase, which is a major site for H2O2 generation, also rapidly increases in treated strips. Exogenously applied H2O2 can promote the high blue light-induced chloroplast movements. Moreover, high blue light-induced H2O2 generation can be abolished completely by addition of exogenous catalase (CAT), and partly by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (DCMU), which are an NADPH oxidase inhibitor and a blocker of electron transport chain. And subsequent chloroplast movements can be abolished by CAT and DPI, but not by DCMU. These results presented here suggested that high blue light can induce oxidative burst, and NADPH oxidase as a major producer for H2O2 is involved in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements.

  5. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin Is a NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Interacting Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Kim-Kristin; Wittig, Ilka; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Groenendyk, Jody; Weissmann, Norbert; Michalak, Marek; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Shah, Ajay M.; Brandes, Ralf P.

    2016-01-01

    Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profiling from BN-PAGE. The calnexin NOX4 interaction could be confirmed by reverse Co-IP and proximity ligation assay, whereas NOX1, NOX2, or NOX5 did not interact with calnexin. Calnexin deficiency as studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from calnexin−/− mice or in response to calnexin shRNA reduced cellular NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that endogenous NOX4 forms macromolecular complexes with calnexin, which are needed for the proper maturation, processing, and function of NOX4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26861875

  6. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin Is a NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Interacting Protein.

    PubMed

    Prior, Kim-Kristin; Wittig, Ilka; Leisegang, Matthias S; Groenendyk, Jody; Weissmann, Norbert; Michalak, Marek; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Shah, Ajay M; Brandes, Ralf P

    2016-03-25

    Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profiling from BN-PAGE. The calnexin NOX4 interaction could be confirmed by reverse Co-IP and proximity ligation assay, whereas NOX1, NOX2, or NOX5 did not interact with calnexin. Calnexin deficiency as studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from calnexin(-/-)mice or in response to calnexin shRNA reduced cellular NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that endogenous NOX4 forms macromolecular complexes with calnexin, which are needed for the proper maturation, processing, and function of NOX4 in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  7. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  8. Organochlorine Pesticide-Mediated Induction of NADPH Oxidase and Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Endothelial Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddharth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) are detected ubiquitously in human and have been shown to be associated with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Aim To find out the effect of organochlorine pesticides in endothelial cell with regard to oxidative stress and associated expression of enzymes producing superoxide and Nitric Oxide (NO). Materials and Methods Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) were cultured and treated with four OCPs which were found in human blood at a concentration of 0.1μM. The cells were tested for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, NO production and mRNA expression of NAPDH oxidase (p47phox) and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS). ROS generation was measured by using 2’, 7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) method. NO was analysed by Bioxytech nitric oxide assay kit method and mRNA of NADPH oxidase and eNOS was quantified by real time PCR. Data were expressed as the mean±SEM. Comparison between the groups were made by student’s t-test (2-tailed) or one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis depending on number of groups. For all statistical tests, p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results All the four pesticides generated ROS accompanied by enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase. Maximum effect was observed with β-endosulfan. Level of NO was found to be decreased significantly in endothelial cells treated with these pesticides accompanied by enhanced expression of eNOS. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS generation and enhanced NO formation. Pesticide-mediated ROS generation possibly reacts with NO forming peroxinitrite and thereby reducing the bioavailability of NO although eNOS expression is increased. Conclusion OCPs induce endothelial dysfunction through increased ROS generation via NADPH oxidase expression and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. PMID:28273962

  9. NADPH Oxidase 1 and NADPH Oxidase 4 Have Opposite Prognostic Effects for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Yun; Paik, Yong-Han; Yang, Jung Wook; Lee, Min Ju; Bae, Hyunsik; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-mediated reactive oxygen species contribute to various liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Uncertainties remain regarding the prognostic relevance of NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression in HCC. Methods NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression was examined by using immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue from 227 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy. Results High immunoreactivity for NOX1 was observed in 197 (86.8%) of the 227 HCC cases and low immunoreactivity for NOX4 in 112 (49.3%). NOX1 and NOX4 proteins had opposite prognostic effects. High NOX1 expression was an independent predictor of both shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p<0.01) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.01). Low NOX4 expression was an independent predictor of both shorter RFS (p<0.01) and shorter OS (p=0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that, among patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels, patients with tumor size ≤5.0 cm and patients in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A, high NOX1 expression had unfavorable effects on RFS, whereas low NOX4 expression had unfavorable effects on both RFS and OS. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression had opposite prognostic effects for HCC patients. Moreover, both proteins had prognostic value in HCC patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels or with early-stage HCC. PMID:27282266

  10. Pharmacological evidence for the stimulation of NADPH oxidase by P2X7 receptors in mouse submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Michèle; Fontanils, Unai; Etxebarria, Irantzu Gorrono; Pochet, Stéphanie; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Marino, Aida

    2008-01-01

    ATP in the 100 μM-1 mM concentration range provoked a calcium-independent increase of the oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) to dichlorofluorescein (DCF) by mouse submandibular cells. 3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BzATP), a P2X7 agonist, but not a muscarinic or an adrenergic agonist, reproduced the effect of ATP. The inhibition of phospholipase C by U73122 or the potentiation of P2X4 receptor activation with ivermectin did not modify the response to ATP. ATP did not increase the oxidation of DCFH in cells isolated from submandibular glands of P2X7 knockout mice or in cells pretreated with a P2X7 antagonist. The inhibition of protein kinase C or of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) or of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase blocked the oxidation of DCFH without affecting the increase of the intracellular concentration of calcium or the uptake of ethidium bromide in response to extracellular ATP. From these results it is concluded that the activation of the P2X7 receptors from submandibular glands triggers an intracellular signalling cascade involving protein kinase C and MAP kinase leading to the stimulation of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:18581262

  11. NADPH Oxidase 1 Is Associated with Altered Host Survival and T Cell Phenotypes after Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Amelia R.; De La Cruz, Juan A.; Cao, Weiping; Patel, Jenish; Belser, Jessica A.; McCoy, James; Liepkalns, Justine S.; Amoah, Samuel; Cheng, Guangjie; Ranjan, Priya; Diebold, Becky A.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lambeth, J. David; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2016-01-01

    The role of the reactive oxygen species-producing NADPH oxidase family of enzymes in the pathology of influenza A virus infection remains enigmatic. Previous reports implicated NADPH oxidase 2 in influenza A virus-induced inflammation. In contrast, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was reported to decrease inflammation in mice within 7 days post-influenza A virus infection. However, the effect of NADPH oxidase 1 on lethality and adaptive immunity after influenza A virus challenge has not been explored. Here we report improved survival and decreased morbidity in mice with catalytically inactive NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1*/Y) compared with controls after challenge with A/PR/8/34 influenza A virus. While changes in lung inflammation were not obvious between Nox1*/Y and control mice, we observed alterations in the T cell response to influenza A virus by day 15 post-infection, including increased interleukin-7 receptor-expressing virus-specific CD8+ T cells in lungs and draining lymph nodes of Nox1*/Y, and increased cytokine-producing T cells in lungs and spleen. Furthermore, a greater percentage of conventional and interstitial dendritic cells from Nox1*/Y draining lymph nodes expressed the co-stimulatory ligand CD40 within 6 days post-infection. Results indicate that NADPH oxidase 1 modulates the innate and adaptive cellular immune response to influenza virus infection, while also playing a role in host survival. Results suggest that NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitors may be beneficial as adjunct therapeutics during acute influenza infection. PMID:26910342

  12. The reactivity of ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol radicals with sulfhydryl groups: contribution for the comprehension of the mechanism of inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Marília P P; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Brunetti, Iguatemy L; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Ximenes, Valdecir F

    2007-08-01

    Redox processes are involved in the mechanism of action of NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin. Here, we studied the structure-activity relationship for apocynin and analogous ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols as inhibitors of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils and their reactivity with peroxidase. Aiming to alter the reduction potential, the ortho-methoxy-catechol moiety was kept constant and the substituents at para position related to the hydroxyl group were varied. Two series of compounds were employed: methoxy-catechols bearing electron-withdrawing groups (MC-W) such as apocynin, vanillin, 4-nitroguaiacol, 4-cyanoguaiacol, and methoxy-catechol bearing electron-donating groups (MC-D) such as 4-methylguaiacol and 4-ethylguaiacol. We found that MC-D were weaker inhibitors compared to MD-W. Furthermore, the radicals generated by oxidation of MC-W via MPO/H(2)O(2), but not for MC-D, were able to oxidize glutathione (GSH) as verified by the formation of thiyl radicals, depletion of GSH, and recycling of the ortho-methoxy-catechols during their oxidations. The capacity of oxidizing sulfhydryl (SH) groups was also verified when ovalbumin was incubated with MC-W, but not for MC-D. Since the effect of apocynin has been correlated with inactivation of the cytosolic fractions of the NADPH oxidase complex and its oxidation during the inhibitory process develops a special role in this process, we suggest that the close relationship between the reactivity of the radicals of MC-W compounds with thiol groups and their efficacy as NADPH oxidase inhibitor could be the chemical pathway behind the mechanism of action of apocynin and should be taken into account in the design of new and specific NADPH oxidase inhibitors.

  13. Melatonin nephroprotective action in Zucker diabetic fatty rats involves its inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Winiarska, Katarzyna; Dzik, Jolanta M; Labudda, Mateusz; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz; Owczarek, Aleksandra; Komorowski, Lukasz; Bielecki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Excessive activity of NADPH oxidase (Nox) is considered to be of importance for the progress of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the study was to elucidate the effect of melatonin, known for its nephroprotective properties, on Nox activity under diabetic conditions. The experiments were performed on three groups of animals: (i) untreated lean (?/+) Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats; (ii) untreated obese diabetic (fa/fa) ZDF rats; and (iii) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with melatonin (20 mg/L) in drinking water. Urinary albumin excretion was measured weekly. After 4 wk of the treatment, the following parameters were determined in kidney cortex: Nox activity, expression of subunits of the enzyme, their phosphorylation and subcellular distribution. Histological studies were also performed. Compared to ?/+ controls, ZDF fa/fa rats exhibited increased renal Nox activity, augmented expression of Nox4 and p47(phox) subunits, elevated level of p47(phox) phosphorylation, and enlarged phospho-p47(phox) and p67(phox) content in membrane. Melatonin administration to ZDF fa/fa rats resulted in the improvement of renal functions, as manifested by considerable attenuation of albuminuria and some amelioration of structural abnormalities. The treatment turned out to nearly normalize Nox activity, which was accompanied by considerably lowered expression and diminished membrane distribution of regulatory subunits, that is, phospho-p47(phox) and p67(phox) . Thus, it is concluded that: (i) melatonin beneficial action against diabetic nephropathy involves attenuation of the excessive activity of Nox; and (ii) the mechanism of melatonin inhibitory effect on Nox is based on the mitigation of expression and membrane translocation of its regulatory subunits.

  14. NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Resistance against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-Induced Periodontitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bast, Antje; Kubis, Helen; Holtfreter, Birte; Ribback, Silvia; Martin, Heiner; Schreiner, Helen C; Dominik, Malte J; Breitbach, Katrin; Dombrowski, Frank; Kocher, Thomas; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2017-02-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative commensal bacterium of the oral cavity which has been associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis with severe alveolar bone destruction. The role of host factors such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in periodontal A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and progression to periodontitis is still ill-defined. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the role of NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a murine model of A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontitis. NADPH oxidase-deficient (gp91(phox) knockout [KO]), iNOS-deficient (iNOS KO), and C57BL/6 wild-type mice were orally infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans and analyzed for bacterial colonization at various time points. Alveolar bone mineral density and alveolar bone volume were quantified by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography, and the degree of tissue inflammation was calculated by histological analyses. At 5 weeks after infection, A. actinomycetemcomitans persisted at significantly higher levels in the murine oral cavities of infected gp91(phox) KO mice than in those of iNOS KO and C57BL/6 mice. Concomitantly, alveolar bone mineral density was significantly lower in all three infected groups than in uninfected controls, but with the highest loss of bone density in infected gp91(phox) KO mice. Only infected gp91(phox) KO mice revealed significant loss of alveolar bone volume and enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as an increased number of osteoclasts. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase is important to control A. actinomycetemcomitans infection in the murine oral cavity and to prevent subsequent alveolar bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis.

  15. Oxygen-coupled redox regulation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel by NADPH oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-An; Hess, Douglas T; Nogueira, Leonardo; Yong, Sandro; Bowles, Dawn E; Eu, Jerry; Laurita, Kenneth R; Meissner, Gerhard; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2011-09-20

    Physiological sensing of O(2) tension (partial O(2) pressure, pO(2)) plays an important role in some mammalian cellular systems, but striated muscle generally is not considered to be among them. Here we describe a molecular mechanism in skeletal muscle that acutely couples changes in pO(2) to altered calcium release through the ryanodine receptor-Ca(2+)-release channel (RyR1). Reactive oxygen species are generated in proportion to pO(2) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the consequent oxidation of a small set of RyR1 cysteine thiols results in increased RyR1 activity and Ca(2+) release in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum and in cultured myofibers and enhanced contractility of intact muscle. Thus, Nox4 is an O(2) sensor in skeletal muscle, and O(2)-coupled hydrogen peroxide production by Nox4 governs the redox state of regulatory RyR1 thiols and thereby governs muscle performance. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism for O(2)-based signaling by an NADPH oxidase and demonstrate a physiological role for oxidative modification of RyR1.

  16. Targeting NADPH oxidase with a novel dual Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor attenuates renal pathology in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cavaglieri, Rita C.; Khazim, Khaled; Lee, Doug-Yoon; Bruno, Francesca; Thakur, Sachin; Fanti, Paolo; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Block, Karen; Abboud, Hanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Nox NADPH oxidases may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The efficacy of the Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor GKT137831 on the manifestations of DN was studied in OVE26 mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. Starting at 4–5 mo of age, OVE26 mice were treated with GKT137831 at 10 or 40 mg/kg, once-a-day for 4 wk. At both doses, GKT137831 inhibited NADPH oxidase activity, superoxide generation, and hydrogen peroxide production in the renal cortex from diabetic mice without affecting Nox1 or Nox4 protein expression. The increased expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen was reduced in the renal cortex, including glomeruli, of diabetic mice treated with GKT137831. GKT137831 significantly reduced glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, urinary albumin excretion, and podocyte loss in OVE26 mice. GKT137831 also attenuated macrophage infiltration in glomeruli and tubulointerstitium. Collectively, our data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of Nox1/4 affords broad renoprotection in mice with preexisting diabetes and established kidney disease. This study validates the relevance of targeting Nox4 and identifies GKT137831 as a promising compound for the treatment of DN in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25656366

  17. Knock out of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 has no impact on life span in mice.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flavia; Schürmann, Christoph; Schütz, Susanne; Harenkamp, Sabine; Herrmann, Eva; Seimetz, Michael; Weißmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    The free radical theory of aging suggests reactive oxygen species as a main reason for accumulation of damage events eventually leading to aging. Nox4, a member of the family of NADPH oxidases constitutively produces ROS and therefore has the potential to be a main driver of aging. Herein we analyzed the life span of Nox4 deficient mice and found no difference when compared to their wildtype littermates. Accordingly neither Tert expression nor telomere length was different in cells isolated from those animals. In fact, Nox4 mRNA expression in lungs of wildtype mice dropped with age. We conclude that Nox4 has no influence on lifespan of healthy mice.

  18. NADPH oxidase gp91phox contributes to RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by upregulating NFATc1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Soon; Kim, Chaekyun

    2016-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived monocyte-macrophages (BMMs) differentiate into osteoclasts by M-CSF along subsequent RANKL stimulation possibly in collaboration with many other unknown cytokines released by pre- or mature osteoblasts. The differentiation process requires receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2•−). Gp91phox, a plasma membrane subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox), is constitutively expressed in BMMs and plays a major role in superoxide anion production. In this study, we found that mice deficient in gp91phox (gp91phox−/−) showed defects in osteoclast differentiation. Femurs of these mice produced osteoclasts at about 70% of the levels seen in femurs from wild-type mice, and accordingly exhibited excessive bone density. This abnormal bone growth in the femurs of gp91phox−/− mice resulted from impaired osteoclast differentiation. In addition, gp91phox−/− mice were defective for RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). However, H2O2 treatment compensated for gp91phox deficiency in BMMs, almost completely rescuing osteoclast differentiation. Treating wild-type BMMs with antioxidants and superoxide inhibitors resulted in a differentiation defect resembling the phenotype of gp91phox−/− BMMs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that gp91phox-derived superoxide is important for promoting efficient osteoclast differentiation by inducing NFATc1 as a downstream signaling mediator of RANK. PMID:27897222

  19. Pathophysiology and Treatments of Oxidative Injury in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on the Phagocytic NADPH Oxidase 2

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Federico; Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Phagocytes play a key role in promoting the oxidative stress after ischemic stroke occurrence. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is a membrane-bound enzyme complex involved in the antimicrobial respiratory burst and free radical production in these cells. Recent Advances: Different oxidants have been shown to induce opposite effects on neuronal homeostasis after a stroke. However, several experimental models support the detrimental effects of NOX activity (especially the phagocytic isoform) on brain recovery after stroke. Therapeutic strategies selectively targeting the neurotoxic ROS and increasing neuroprotective oxidants have recently produced promising results. Critical Issues: NOX2 might promote carotid plaque rupture and stroke occurrence. In addition, NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by resident and recruited phagocytes enhance cerebral ischemic injury, activating the inflammatory apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to update evidence on phagocyte-related oxidative stress, focusing on the role of NOX2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce ROS-related cerebral injury after stroke. Future Directions: Radical scavenger compounds (such as Ebselen and Edaravone) are under clinical investigation as a therapeutic approach against stroke. On the other hand, NOX inhibition might represent a promising strategy to prevent the stroke-related injury. Although selective NOX inhibitors are not yet available, nonselective compounds (such as apocynin and fasudil) provided encouraging results in preclinical studies. Whereas additional studies are needed to better evaluate this therapeutic potential in human beings, the development of specific NOX inhibitors (such as monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, or aptamers) might further improve brain recovery after stroke. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 460–489. PMID:24635113

  20. Cellular and temporal expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) isotypes after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain injury results in an increase in the activity of the reactive oxygen species generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes. Preliminary studies have shown that NOX2, NOX3, and NOX4 are the most prominently expressed NOX isotypes in the brain. However, the cellular and temporal expression profile of these isotypes in the injured and non-injured brain is currently unclear. Methods Double immunofluorescence for NOX isotypes and brain cell types was performed at acute (24 hours), sub-acute (7 days), and chronic (28 days) time points after controlled cortical impact-induced brain injury or sham-injury in rats. Results NOX2, NOX3, and NOX4 isotypes were found to be expressed in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, and this expression was dependent on both cellular source and post-injury time. NOX4 was found in all cell types assessed, while NOX3 was positively identified in neurons only, and NOX2 was identified in microglia and neurons. NOX2 was the most responsive to injury, increasing primarily in microglia in response to injury. Quantitation of this isotype showed a significant increase in NOX2 expression at 24 hours, with reduced expression at 7 days and 28 days post-injury, although expression remained above sham levels at later time points. Cellular confirmation using purified primary or cell line culture demonstrated similar patterns in microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. Further, inhibition of NOX, and more specifically NOX2, reduced pro-inflammatory activity in microglia, demonstrating that NOX is not only up-regulated after stimulation, but may also play a significant role in post-injury neuroinflammation. Conclusions This study illustrates the expression profiles of NOX isotypes in the brain after injury, and demonstrates that NOX2, and to a lesser extent, NOX4, may be responsible for the majority of oxidative stress observed acutely after traumatic brain injury. These data may provide insight into the design of future therapeutic approaches. PMID

  1. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant’s response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  2. Diaphragm Abnormalities in Patients with End-Stage Heart Failure: NADPH Oxidase Upregulation and Protein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Bumsoo; Coblentz, Philip D.; Beharry, Adam W.; Patel, Nikhil; Judge, Andrew R.; Moylan, Jennifer. S.; Hoopes, Charles W.; Bonnell, Mark R.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) have diaphragm abnormalities that contribute to disease morbidity and mortality. Studies in animals suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause diaphragm abnormalities in HF. However, the effects of HF on ROS sources, antioxidant enzymes, and protein oxidation in the diaphragm of humans is unknown. NAD(P)H oxidase, especially the Nox2 isoform, is an important source of ROS in the diaphragm. Our main hypothesis was that diaphragm from patients with HF have heightened Nox2 expression and p47phox phosphorylation (marker of enzyme activation) that is associated with elevated protein oxidation. We collected diaphragm biopsies from patients with HF and brain-dead organ donors (controls). Diaphragm mRNA levels of Nox2 subunits were increased 2.5–4.6-fold over controls (p < 0.05). Patients also had increased protein levels of Nox2 subunits (p47phox, p22phox, and p67phox) and total p47phox phosphorylation, while phospho-to-total p47phox levels were unchanged. The antioxidant enzyme catalase was increased in patients, whereas glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutases were unchanged. Among markers of protein oxidation, carbonyls were increased by ~40% (p < 0.05) and 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosines were unchanged in patients with HF. Overall, our findings suggest that Nox2 is an important source of ROS in the diaphragm of patients with HF and increases in levels of antioxidant enzymes are not sufficient to maintain normal redox homeostasis. The net outcome is elevated diaphragm protein oxidation that has been shown to cause weakness in animals. PMID:28119629

  3. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, improves renal glutathione status in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Winiarska, Katarzyna; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz; Lewandowski, Krystian; Orlowska, Marta; Usarek, Michal

    2014-07-25

    Apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone) is the most commonly used NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. However, its application raises serious controversies, as the compound has been reported to reveal some prooxidative effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate apocynin action on glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, metabolism in kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a well established model of diabetes type 2. Additionally, apocynin effects were compared with those of melatonin. The experiments were performed on five groups of animals: (1) untreated lean (?/+) ZDF rats, (2) ZDF ?/+ rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, (3) untreated obese diabetic (fa/fa) ZDF rats, (4) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, and (5) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with melatonin (20 mg/l) in drinking water. After 8weeks of the treatment, the following parameters were measured in kidneys: NADPH oxidase activity, the rate of hydroxyl free radicals (HFR) production, GSH and GSSG content and the activities of the enzymes of glutathione metabolism: γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Compared to ?/+ controls, ZDF fa/fa rats exhibited increased Nox activity, accelerated HFR generation and dramatically lowered GSH/GSSG ratio accompanied by increased GPx and diminished GCS activities. In case of diabetic animals, apocynin treatment resulted in attenuation of both Nox activity and HFR production, restoration of control GSH/GSSG ratio (due to both an increase in GSH and a decline in GSSG content), normalization of GPx activity and a slight increase in GCS activity. Similar observations were made upon melatonin application to ZDF fa/fa rats. Thus, it is concluded that, in the diabetic model studied, apocynin extends a beneficial effect on renal glutathione homeostasis. The mechanism of this phenomenon involves attenuation of glutathione peroxidase activity, which is

  4. Antimutagenic activity of oxidase enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Agabeili, R.A.

    1986-11-01

    By means of a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in plant cells (Welsh onion, wheat) it was found that the cofactors nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and riboflavin possess antimutagenic activity.

  5. NADPH OXIDASE 4 MEDIATES TGF-β-INDUCED SMOOTH MUSCLE α-ACTIN VIA p38MAPK AND SRF

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Garrido, Abel; Brown, David I.; Lyle, Alicia N.; Dikalova, Anna; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Lassègue, Bernard; Martín, Alejandra San; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to other cell types, vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype in response to external signals. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is critical for maintenance of smooth muscle gene expression; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterized. Using smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) as a prototypical smooth muscle gene and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) as a differentiating agent, we examined Nox4-dependent signaling. TGF-β increases Nox4 expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Transfection of HASMC with siRNA against Nox4 (siNox4) abolishes TGF-β-induced SMA expression and stress fiber formation. siNox4 also significantly inhibits TGF-β-stimulated p38MAPK phosphorylation, as well as that of its substrate, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK-2). Moreover, the p38MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 nearly completely blocks the SMA increase induced by TGF-β. Inhibition of either p38MAPK or NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species impairs the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Ser103 on serum response factor (SRF) and reduces its transcriptional activity. Binding of SRF to myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) is also necessary, because downregulation of MRTF by siRNA abolishes TGF-β-induced SMA expression. Taken together, these data suggest that Nox4 regulates SMA expression via activation of a p38MAPK/SRF/MRTF pathway in response to TGF-β. PMID:21074607

  6. Role of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase derived reactive oxygen species in hyperoxaluria induced nephrolithiasis: therapeutic intervention with combinatorial therapy of N-acetyl cysteine and Apocynin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Kaur, Tanzeer; Singla, S K

    2016-03-01

    The interactions between the main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidase, are known to play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a combinatorial therapy based on the attenuation of oxidative stress with antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine), and NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin), that might be required to effectively eliminate hyperoxaluric manifestations. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Wistar rats by administering 0.4% ethylene glycol with 1% ammonium chloride in drinking water for 9 days. Hyperoxaluria accentuated renal oxidative stress in terms of increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial dysfunction, a central deleterious event in renal stone crystallization, was evident by decreased activities of electron transport chain complex I, II and IV, augmented mitochondrial ROS, reduced GSH/GSSG ratio, which resulted in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening as indicated by increased mitochondrial swelling in hyperoxaluric rats. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased, with raised expression of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, p38MAPK and MnSOD, in the renal tissue of hyperoxaluric rats compared to control. However, combinatorial therapy with N-acetyl cysteine (50mg/kg/day) and apocynin (200mg/kg/day), intraperitoneally, significantly improved renal functions in hyperoxaluric rats and considerably ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction. NAC with apocynin was also found to be effective in reducing the redundant activity of NADPH oxidase in renal tissue of hyperoxaluric rats. Hence, our investigation provides novel mechanistic insights that combinatorial approaches using targeted modulators of ROS offer therapeutic benefits in hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis.

  7. Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced vascular changes by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Fornai, Matteo; Duranti, Emiliano; Antonioli, Luca; Rugani, Ilaria; Aydinoglu, Fatma; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Taddei, Stefano; Blandizzi, Corrado; Virdis, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1 participate in vascular damage induced by angiotensin II. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-infused rats. Experimental Approach Male rats received angiotensin II (120 ng·kg−1·min−1, subcutaneously) for 14 days with or without rosuvastatin (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, oral gavage) or vehicle. Vascular functions and morphological parameters were assessed by pressurized myography. Key Results In angiotensin II-infused rats, ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated compared with controls, less sensitive to L-NAME, enhanced by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or SQ-29548 (prostanoid TP receptor antagonist), and normalized by the antioxidant ascorbic acid or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. After rosuvastatin, relaxations to ACh were normalized, fully sensitive to L-NAME, and no longer affected by SC-560, SQ-29548 or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Angiotensin II enhanced intravascular superoxide generation, eutrophic remodelling, collagen and fibronectin depositions, and decreased elastin content, resulting in increased vessel stiffness. All these changes were prevented by rosuvastatin. Angiotensin II increased phosphorylation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox and its binding to subunit p67phox, effects inhibited by rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin down-regulated vascular Nox4/NAD(P)H isoform and COX-1 expression, attenuated the vascular release of 6-keto-PGF1α, and enhanced copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase expression. Conclusion and Implications Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced alterations in resistance arteries in terms of function, structure, mechanics and composition. These effects depend on restoration of NO availability, prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidant excess, reversal of COX-1 induction and its prostanoid production, and stimulation of

  8. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2−/−/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2−/−/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX−/−/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  9. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Induces Microglial Death by NADPH-Oxidase-Independent Reactive Oxygen Species as well as Energy Depletion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuj Kumar; Singh, Vikas; Gera, Ruchi; Purohit, Mahaveer Prasad; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2016-10-06

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) is one of the most widely used engineered nanoparticles. Upon exposure, nanoparticle can eventually reach the brain through various routes, interact with different brain cells, and alter their activity. Microglia is the fastest glial cell to respond to any toxic insult. Nanoparticle exposure can activate microglia and induce neuroinflammation. Simultaneous to activation, microglial death can exacerbate the scenario. Therefore, we focused on studying the effect of ZnO-NP on microglia and finding out the pathway involved in the microglial death. The present study showed that the 24 h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of ZnO-NP for microglia is 6.6 μg/ml. Early events following ZnO-NP exposure involved increase in intracellular calcium level as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neither of NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin, (APO) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPIC) were able to reduce the ROS level and rescue microglia from ZnO-NP toxicity. In contrary, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) showed opposite effect. Exogenous supplementation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced ROS significantly even beyond control level but partially rescued microglial viability. Interestingly, pyruvate supplementation rescued microglia near to control level. Following 10 h of ZnO-NP exposure, intracellular ATP level was measured to be almost 50 % to the control. ZnO-NP-induced ROS as well as ATP depletion both disturbed mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently triggered the apoptotic pathway. The level of apoptosis-inducing proteins was measured by western blot analysis and found to be upregulated. Taken together, we have deciphered that ZnO-NP induced microglial apoptosis by NADPH oxidase-independent ROS as well as ATP depletion.

  10. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation and Platelet Adhesion in Advanced Atherosclerosis: Effects of Antioxidant Therapy with NADPH Oxidase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya Ni; Davidson, Brian P.; Yue, Qi; Belcik, Todd; Xie, Aris; Inaba, Yoichi; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Tormoen, Garth W.; Zhao, Yan; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Kaufmann, Beat A.; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background In atherosclerosis, local generation of reactive oxygen species amplifies the inflammatory response and contributes to plaque vulnerability. We used molecular imaging to test whether inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin would reduce endothelial inflammatory activation and endothelial-platelet interactions, thereby interrupting progression to high-risk plaque phenotype. Methods and Results Mice deficient for both the LDL receptor and Apobec-1 were studied at 30 weeks of age and again after 10 weeks with or without apocynin treatment (10 or 50 mg/kg/day orally). In vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1, P-selectin and platelet GPIbα in the thoracic aorta was performed with targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging. Arterial elastic modulus and pulse wave transit time were assessed using ultra-high frequency ultrasound and invasive hemodynamic measurements. Plaque size and composition were assessed by histology. Molecular imaging in non-treated mice detected a 2-fold increase in P-selectin expression, VCAM-1 expression, and platelet adhesion between 30 and 40 wks of age. Apocynin reduced all of these endothelial events in a dose-dependent fashion (25% and 50% reduction in signal at 40 weeks for low- and high-dose apocynin). Apocynin also decreased aortic elastic modulus and increased the pulse transit time. On histology, apocynin reduced total monocyte accumulation in a dose-dependent manner as well as platelet adhesion, although total plaque area was reduced in only the high-dose apocynin treatment group. Conclusions Inhibition of NADPH oxidase in advanced atherosclerosis reduces endothelial activation and platelet adhesion; which are likely responsible for the arrest of plaque growth and improvement of vascular mechanical properties. PMID:23239832

  11. Resveratrol decreases fructose-induced oxidative stress, mediated by NADPH oxidase via an AMPK-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Ho, Wen-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Bo-Zone; Cheng, Wen-Han; Lu, Wen-Hsien; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in the development of hypertension. Resveratrol, the main antioxidant in red wine, improves NO bioavailability and prevents cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol decreases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby reducing BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Experimental Approach Rats were fed 10% fructose with or without resveratrol (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 1 week or for 4 weeks with resveratrol treatment beginning at week 2; systolic BP (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff method. Endogenous in vivo O2− production in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) was determined with dihydroethidium. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting analyses were used to quantify RNA and protein expression levels. Key Results In fructose-fed rats, ROS levels in the NTS were higher, whereas the NO level was significantly decreased. Also, RNA and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (p67, p22-phox) were elevated, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) reduced and AMP-activated PK (AMPK) T172 phosphorylation levels in the NTS were lower in fructose-fed rats. Treatment with the AMPK activator resveratrol decreased levels of NADPH oxidase subunits and ROS, and increased NO and SOD2 levels in the NTS of fructose-fed rats. Administration of resveratrol, in combination with fructose at week 0 and later at week 2, significantly reduced the SBP of fructose-fed rats. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, resveratrol decreased BP through the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and neuronal NOS in fructose-fed rats. These novel findings suggest that resveratrol may be a potential pharmacological candidate for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:24547812

  12. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  13. NADPH oxidases: key modulators in aging and age-related cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Meijles, Daniel N.; Pagano, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress have long been linked to aging and diseases prominent in the elderly such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF). NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a major source of ROS in the vasculature and are key players in mediating redox signalling under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on the Nox-mediated ROS signalling pathways involved in the regulation of ‘longevity genes’ and recapitulate their role in age-associated vascular changes and in the development of age-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review is predicated on burgeoning knowledge that Nox-derived ROS propagate tightly regulated yet varied signalling pathways, which, at the cellular level, may lead to diminished repair, the aging process and predisposition to CVDs. In addition, we briefly describe emerging Nox therapies and their potential in improving the health of the elderly population. PMID:26814203

  14. Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathophysiology of NADPH Oxidases in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Lassègue, Bernard; San Martín, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2012-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes are critical mediators of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. These proteins are expressed in virtually all cardiovascular cells, and regulate such diverse functions as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, inflammatory responses and oxygen sensing. They target a number of important signaling molecules, including kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, ion channels and proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. Nox enzymes have been implicated in many different cardiovascular pathologies: atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, angiogenesis and collateral formation, stroke and heart failure. In this review, we discuss in detail the biochemistry of Nox enzymes expressed in the cardiovascular system (Nox1, 2, 4 and 5), their roles in cardiovascular cell biology, and their contributions to disease development. PMID:22581922

  15. Nrf2 promotes reparative angiogenesis through regulation of NADPH oxidase-2 in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanhong; Gong, Junsong; Xu, Zhenhua; Duh, Elia J

    2016-10-01

    Revascularization of ischemic tissue is a highly desirable outcome in multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and ischemic retinopathies. Oxidative stress and inflammation are both known to play a role in suppressing reparative angiogenesis in ischemic disease models including oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), but the regulatory molecules governing these pathophysiologic processes in retinal ischemia are largely unknown. Nrf2 is a major stress-response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulating ischemic angiogenesis in the retina and other tissue beds. Using Nrf2-deficient mice, we investigated the effects of Nrf2 in regulating revascularization and modulating the retinal tissue milieu during ischemia. Strikingly, Nrf2's beneficial effect on reparative angiogenesis only became manifested in the later phase of ischemia in OIR, from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P17. This was temporally associated with a reduction in both oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in wild-type compared to Nrf2(-/-) mice. Nrf2(-/-) retinas exhibited an increase in VEGF but also induction of anti-angiogenic Dll4/Notch signaling. NADPH oxidase (NOX), and especially NOX2, is a major pathogenic molecule and a particularly important contributor to oxidative stress in multiple retinal disease processes. Nrf2(-/-) mice exhibited a significant exacerbation of NOX2 induction in OIR that manifested in the later phases of ischemia. Pharmacologic inhibition of NADPH oxidase abrogated the adverse effect of Nrf2 deficiency on reparative angiogenesis. Taken together, this suggests that Nrf2 is an important regulator of the retinal milieu during tissue ischemia, and that the Nrf2/NOX2 balance may play a critical role in determining the fate of ischemic revascularization.

  16. Redox mechanisms in pathological angiogenesis in the retina: roles for NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elsa C; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Dusting, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis in the retina is a leading cause of serious vision loss in potentially blinding eye diseases, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. Hypoxia is thought to be the driver of pathological angiogenesis, and transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key mediators in these processes. Current treatments employ either laser photocoagulation or intravitreal injection of therapeutic antibodies for VEGF, in order to arrest the growth of leaky blood vessels in the avascular vitreous cavity and to restore visual acuity. However, all such therapeutic approaches are limited by low or variable efficacy, and the inconvenience, risk and financial burden of such treatments, which need to be given frequently. The lack of noninvasive and efficacious therapy has therefore driven the search for alternative strategies. We have been interested in the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which when produced intracellularly at low concentration can act as second messengers to regulate physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS are involved in regulation of the angiogenic signalling pathways of HIF and VEGF. Suppressing pathological neovascularisation in the retina by manipulating such redox mechanisms appears to be an attractive and clinically translatable therapeutic strategy to treat proliferative neovascular eye diseases. Here we provide a brief overview of the roles of NADPH oxidase in the sensing and regulation processes involving HIF and VEGF that contribute to the development of pathological angiogenesis in the retina.

  17. NADPH oxidase 4 attenuates cerebral artery changes during the progression of Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onetti, Yara; Meirelles, Thayna; Dantas, Ana P; Schröder, Katrin; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc

    2016-05-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder that is often associated with the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene mutation and characterized by cardiovascular alterations, predominantly ascending aortic aneurysms. Although neurovascular complications are uncommon in MFS, the improvement in Marfan patients' life expectancy is revealing other secondary alterations, potentially including neurovascular disorders. However, little is known about small-vessel pathophysiology in MFS. MFS is associated with hyperactivated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which among numerous other downstream effectors, induces the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) isoform of NADPH oxidase, a strong enzymatic source of H2O2 We hypothesized that MFS induces middle cerebral artery (MCA) alterations and that Nox4 contributes to them. MCA properties from 3-, 6-, or 9-mo-old Marfan (Fbn1(C1039G/+)) mice were compared with those from age/sex-matched wild-type littermates. At 6 mo, Marfan compared with wild-type mice developed higher MCA wall/lumen (wild-type: 0.081 ± 0.004; Marfan: 0.093 ± 0.002; 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), coupled with increased reactive oxygen species production, TGF-β, and Nox4 expression. However, wall stiffness and myogenic autoregulation did not change. To investigate the influence of Nox4 on cerebrovascular properties, we generated Marfan mice with Nox4 deficiency (Nox4(-/-)). Strikingly, Nox4 deletion in Marfan mice aggravated MCA wall thickening (cross-sectional area; Marfan: 6,660 ± 363 μm(2); Marfan Nox4(-/-): 8,795 ± 824 μm(2); 60 mmHg; P < 0.05), accompanied by decreased TGF-β expression and increased collagen deposition and Nox1 expression. These findings provide the first evidence that Nox4 mitigates cerebral artery structural changes in a murine model of MFS.

  18. Which NADPH Oxidase Isoform Is Relevant for Ischemic Stroke? The Case for Nox 2

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance and Recent Advances: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability and third in mortality in industrialized nations. Immediate restoration of cerebral blood flow is crucial to salvage brain tissue, but only few patients are eligible for recanalization therapy. Thus, the need for alternative neuroprotective strategies is huge, and antioxidant interventions have long been studied in this context. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) physiologically serve as signaling molecules, but excessive amounts of ROS, as generated during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), contribute to tissue injury. Critical Issues: Nevertheless and despite a strong rational of ROS being a pharmacological target, all antioxidant interventions failed to improve functional outcome in human clinical trials. Antioxidants may interfere with physiological functions of ROS or do not reach the crucial target structures of ROS-induced injury effectively. Future Directions: Thus, a potentially more promising approach is the inhibition of the source of disease-promoting ROS. Within recent years, NADPH oxidases (Nox) of the Nox family have been identified as mediators of neuronal pathology. As, however, several Nox homologs are expressed in neuronal tissue, and as many of the pharmacological inhibitors employed are rather unspecific, the concept of Nox as mediators of brain damage is far from being settled. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of Nox homologs to I/R injury at large as well as to neuronal damage in particular. We will illustrate that the current data provide evidence for Nox2 as the most important NADPH oxidase mediating cerebral injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1400–1417. PMID:22746273

  19. NADPH oxidases in the gastrointestinal tract: a potential role of Nox1 in innate immune response and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rokutan, Kazuhito; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Kuwano, Yuki; Tominaga, Kumiko; Sekiyama, Atsuo; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium functions as physical and innate immune barriers against commensal or pathogenic microbes. NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and dual oxidase 2 (Duox2), highly expressed in the colon, are suggested to play a potential role in host defense. Guinea-pig gastric pit cells and human colonic epithelial cells (T84 cells) express Nox1. With regard to activation of Nox1, the gastric epithelial cells are primed with Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide, whereas T84 cells preferentially use the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5, rather than TLR4, against Salmonella enteritidis infection. Thus, gastric and colonic epithelial cells may use different TLR members to discern pathogenicities among bacteria, depending on their environments and to activate Nox1 appropriately for host defense. Nox1-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated tumor development. The human stomach does not express Nox1. Helicobacter pylori infection alone does not induce it, whereas Nox1 is specifically expressed in gastric adenocarcinomas. In the human colon, Nox1 is differentiation-dependently expressed, and its expression is upregulated in adenomas and well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. Although Nox1 expression may not be directly linked to mitogenic activity, Nox1-derived ROS may exert a cancer-promoting effect by increasing resistance to programmed cell death of tumor cells.

  20. NADPH oxidase DUOX1 promotes long-term persistence of oxidative stress after an exposure to irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Talbot, Monique; de Souza Dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Hartl, Dana; Bidart, Jean-Michel; De Deken, Xavier; Miot, Françoise; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage, but also late effects in several cell generations after the initial exposure. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of IR, and we have recently highlighted that an oxidative stress is responsible for the chromosomal rearrangements found in radio-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma. Using both a human thyroid cell line and primary thyrocytes, we investigated the mechanism by which IR induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) several days after irradiation. We focused on NADPH oxidases, which are specialized ROS-generating enzymes known as NOX/DUOX. Our results show that IR induces delayed NADPH oxidase DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in a dose-dependent manner, which is sustained for several days. We report that p38 MAPK, activated after IR, increased DUOX1 via IL-13 expression, leading to persistent DNA damage and growth arrest. Pretreatment of cells with catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, or DUOX1 down-regulation by siRNA abrogated IR-induced DNA damage. Analysis of human thyroid tissues showed that DUOX1 is elevated not only in human radio-induced thyroid tumors, but also in sporadic thyroid tumors. Taken together, our data reveal a key role of DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in long-term persistent radio-induced DNA damage. Our data also show that DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production, which induces DNA double-strand breaks, can cause genomic instability and promote the generation of neoplastic cells through its mutagenic effect. PMID:25848056

  1. Partial characterization of lipids that develop during the routine storage of blood and prime the neutrophil NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Christopher C.; Clay, Keith L.; Thurman, Gail W.; Johnson, Chris A.; Ambruso, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Factors developed during the routine storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells that primed the neutrophil (PMN) reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase significantly by 2 weeks of storage, with maximal priming activity by product outdate (2.5 to 3.7 fold). These agents appeared to be generated by cellular constituents because stored, acellular plasma did not demonstrate PMN priming. The priming activity was soluble in chloroform. Priming of the oxidase by plasma and plasma extracts was inhibited by WEB 2170, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. Separation of the chloroform-soluble compounds from plasma by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated two peaks of priming activity at the retention times of neutral lipids and lysophos-phatidylcholines (lyso-PCs) for both whole blood and packed red blood cells, Analysis of the latter peak of PMN priming by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy identified several specific lyso-PC species including C16 and C16 lyso-PAF. Further evaluation by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy demonstrated that three of these species increased dramatically over product storage time, while the other two species increased modestly, and paralleled the Increase in priming activity. Commercially available, purified mixtures of these lyso-PCs primed the PMN oxidase by twofold. When PMNs were incubated with this mixture of lyso-PCs, acetylated analogs of these compounds rapidly accumulated. Thus lipids, including specific lyso-PC species, develop during routine storage of cellular blood components, prime PMNs, and possibly play a role in the severe complications of transfusion therapy. PMID:7964126

  2. Coronatine Inhibits Stomatal Closure through Guard Cell-Specific Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Toum, Laila; Torres, Pablo S.; Gallego, Susana M.; Benavídes, María P.; Vojnov, Adrián A.; Gudesblat, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes trigger stomatal closure through microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) synthesizes the polyketide toxin coronatine, which inhibits stomatal closure by MAMPs and by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanism by which coronatine, a jasmonic acid-isoleucine analog, achieves this effect is not completely clear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential second messengers in stomatal immunity, therefore we investigated the possible effect of coronatine on their production. We found that coronatine inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production induced by ABA, and by the flagellin-derived peptide flg22. This toxin also inhibited NADPH oxidase-dependent stomatal closure induced by darkness, however, it failed to prevent stomatal closure by exogenously applied H2O2 or by salicylic acid, which induces ROS production through peroxidases. Contrary to what was observed on stomata, coronatine did not affect the oxidative burst induced by flg22 in leaf disks. Additionally, we observed that in NADPH oxidase mutants atrbohd and atrbohd/f, as well as in guard cell ABA responsive but flg22 insensitive mutants mpk3, mpk6, npr1-3, and lecrk-VI.2-1, the inhibition of ABA stomatal responses by both coronatine and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium was markedly reduced. Interestingly, coronatine still impaired ABA-induced ROS synthesis in mpk3, mpk6, npr1-3, and lecrk-VI.2-1, suggesting a possible feedback regulation of ROS on other guard cell ABA signaling elements in these mutants. Altogether our results show that inhibition of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS synthesis in guard cells plays an important role during endophytic colonization by Pst through stomata. PMID:28018388

  3. Role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2), NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species in diallyl disulphide-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lan; Ji, Xiao-Xia; Tan, Hui; Lin, Min; Tang, Yi; Wen, Ling; Ma, Yan-Hua; Su, Qi

    2010-12-01

    1. Diallyl disulphide (DADS) has potential as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent. Previous studies have reported that Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2), a regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, is upregulated in DADS-induced apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Rac2, NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DADS-induced apoptosis. 2. Expression of the Rac2 gene along with that of five other genes of NADPH oxidase subunits were in HL-60 cells measured by Sybergreen quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RNA interference was used to test the effect of Rac2. Protein expression was evaluated using western blot analysis and ROS levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence. DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect apoptotic cells. 3. Levels of Rac2 gene and protein were significantly upregulated and NADPH oxidase was activated in DADS-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with small interfering (si) RNAs to inhibit Rac2 blocked DADS-induced apoptosis. Diallyl disulphide-induced intracellular ROS production was increased in phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated cells, but decreased in Rac2 siRNA-treated cells. In Rac2 siRNA-treated cells, activator protein-1 and caspase 3 levels decreased, c-myc protein levels were increased and p38 protein levels were unchanged compared with Rac2-competent, DADS-treated cells. 4. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase is the main source of DADS-induced ROS. In addition, Rac2 selectively activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, but not the p38 pathway, in DADS-induced apoptosis. So, Rac2, NADPH oxidase and ROS have a critical role in DADS-induced apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.

  4. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Amplified TLR4 Signaling and Sepsis-Induced Mortality in Nrf2-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoni; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Biswal, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis syndrome is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection. NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) play significant roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We previously showed that disruption of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defenses, caused a dysregulation of innate immune response that resulted in greater mortality in a polymicrobial sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shock model; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, compared to wild-type (Nrf2+/+) macrophages, we observed greater PKC-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in Nrf2-disrupted (Nrf2−/−) macrophages that was modulated by glutathione (GSH) levels. To address the NADPH oxidase-mediated hyper-inflammatory response and sepsis-induced lung injury and mortality in Nrf2−/− mice, we used double knockout mice lacking Nrf2 and NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91phox (Nrf2−/−//Gp91phox−/−). Compared to Nrf2+/+ macrophages, LPS induced greater activation of TLR4 as evident by TLR4 surface trafficking and downstream recruitment of MYD88 and TRIF in Nrf2−/− macrophages that was diminished by ablation of gp91phox. Similarly, phosphorylation of IκB and IRF3 as well as cytokine expression was markedly higher in Nrf2−/− macrophages, while it was similar in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/−//Gp91phox−/−. In vivo studies showed greater LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in Nrf2−/− mice that was significantly reduced by ablation of gp91phox. Furthermore, LPS shock and polymicrobial sepsis induced early and greater mortality in Nrf2−/− mice, while Nrf2−/−//Gp91phox−/− showed prolong survival. Together, these results demonstrate that Nrf2 is essential for the regulation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS-mediated TLR4 activation and lethal innate immune response in sepsis. PMID:20511556

  5. Two NADPH oxidase isoforms are required for sexual reproduction and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Lalucque, Hervé; Lepère, Gersende; Silar, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) using electrons derived from intracellular NADPH. In plants and mammals, ROS have been proposed to be second messengers that signal defence responses or cell proliferation. By inactivating PaNox1 and PaNox2, two genes encoding NADPH oxidases, we demonstrate the crucial role of these enzymes in the control of two key steps of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina life cycle. PaNox1 mutants are impaired in the differentiation of fruiting bodies from their progenitor cells, and the deletion of the PaNox2 gene specifically blocks ascospore germination. Furthermore, we show that PaNox1 likely acts upstream of PaASK1, a MAPKKK previously implicated in stationary phase differentiation and cell degeneration. Using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and diaminobenzidine (DAB) assays, we detect a regulated secretion of both superoxide and peroxide during P. anserina vegetative growth. In addition, two oxidative bursts are shown to occur during fruiting body development and ascospore germination. Analysis of mutants establishes that PaNox1, PaNox2, and PaASK1, as well as a still unknown additional source of ROS, modulate these secretions. Altogether, our data point toward a role for NADPH oxidases in signalling fungal developmental transitions with respect to nutrient availability. These enzymes are conserved in other multicellular eukaryotes, suggesting that early eukaryotes were endowed with a redox network used for signalling purposes.

  6. Persistent activation of microglia and NADPH drive hippocampal dysfunction in experimental multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, Massimiliano; de Iure, Antonio; Giampà, Carmela; Chiasserini, Davide; Tozzi, Alessandro; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Mancini, Andrea; Costa, Cinzia; Sarchielli, Paola; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Calabresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, the synaptic and molecular mechanisms underlying MS-associated cognitive dysfunction are largely unknown. We explored the presence and the underlying mechanism of cognitive and synaptic hippocampal dysfunction during the remission phase of experimental MS. Experiments were performed in a chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, after the resolution of motor deficits. Immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recordings were performed in the CA1 hippocampal area. The hole-board was utilized as cognitive/behavioural test. In the remission phase of experimental MS, hippocampal microglial cells showed signs of activation, CA1 hippocampal synapses presented an impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and an alteration of spatial tests became evident. The activation of hippocampal microglia mediated synaptic and cognitive/behavioural alterations during EAE. Specifically, LTP blockade was found to be caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. We suggest that in the remission phase of experimental MS microglia remains activated, causing synaptic dysfunctions mediated by NADPH oxidase. Inhibition of microglial activation and NADPH oxidase may represent a promising strategy to prevent neuroplasticity impairment associated with active neuro-inflammation, with the aim to improve cognition and counteract MS disease progression. PMID:26887636

  7. NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species: A new mechanism for X-ray-induced HeLa cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qing; He Xiaoqing; Liu Yongsheng; Du Bingbing; Wang Xiaoyan; Zhang Weisheng; Jia Pengfei; Dong Jingmei; Ma Jianxiu; Wang Xiaohu; Li Sha; Zhang Hong

    2008-12-19

    Oxidative damage is an important mechanism in X-ray-induced cell death. Radiolysis of water molecules is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to X-ray-induced cell death. In this study, we showed by ROS detection and a cell survival assay that NADPH oxidase has a very important role in X-ray-induced cell death. Under X-ray irradiation, the upregulation of the expression of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91{sup phox} was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47{sup phox} was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with p22{sup phox} and gp91{sup phox} to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest, for the first time, that NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of ROS is an important contributor to X-ray-induced cell death. This suggests a new target for combined gene transfer and radiotherapy.

  8. Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, via endogenous carbon monoxide, promote survival of brain endothelial cells during TNF-α-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Tcheranova, Dilyara; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Leffler, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in promoting cell survival during oxidative stress induced by the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) from newborn piglets. Nox4 is the major isoform of NADPH oxidase responsible for TNF-α-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in CMVEC. We present novel data that Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived ROS also initiate a cell survival mechanism by increasing production of a gaseous antioxidant mediator carbon monoxide (CO) by constitutive heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2). TNF-α rapidly enhanced endogenous CO production in a superoxide- and NADPH oxidase-dependent manner in CMVEC with innate, but not with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-downregulated Nox4 activity. CORM-A1, a CO-releasing compound, inhibited Nox4-mediated ROS production and enhanced cell survival in TNF-α-challenged CMVEC. The ROS-induced CO-mediated survival mechanism requires functional interactions between the protein kinase B/Akt and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)/p38 MAPK signaling pathways activated by TNF-α. In Akt siRNA-transfected CMVEC and in cells with pharmacologically inhibited Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, CORM-A1 was no longer capable of blocking Nox4 activation and apoptosis caused by TNF-α. Overall, Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived ROS initiate both death and survival pathways in TNF-α-challenged CMVEC. The ROS-dependent cell survival pathway is mediated by an endogenous antioxidant CO, which inhibits Nox4 activation via a mechanism that includes Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. The ability of CO to inhibit TNF-α-induced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activities in an Akt-dependent manner appears to be the key element in ROS-dependent survival of endothelial cells during TNF-α-mediated brain inflammatory disease. PMID:21123734

  9. Involvement of myeloperoxidase and NADPH oxidase in the covalent binding of amodiaquine and clozapine to neutrophils: implications for drug-induced agranulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Alexandra R; Uetrecht, Jack

    2014-04-21

    Amodiaquine (AQ) and clozapine (CLZ) are associated with a relatively high incidence of idiosyncratic agranulocytosis, a reaction that is suspected to involve covalent binding of reactive metabolites to neutrophils. Previous studies have shown that both AQ and CLZ are oxidized to reactive intermediates in vitro by activated neutrophils or by the combination of hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Neutrophil activation leads to an oxidative burst with activation of NADPH oxidase and the production of hydrogen peroxide. However, the importance of this pathway in covalent binding in vivo has not been examined. In this study, we found that the binding of both AQ and CLZ to neutrophils from MPO knockout mice ex vivo decreased approximately 2-fold compared to neutrophils from wild-type mice, whereas binding to activated neutrophils from gp91 knockout (NADPH oxidase null) mice decreased 6-7-fold. When the AQ studies were performed in vivo, again the binding was decreased in MPO knockout mice to about 50% of the binding in wild-type mice; however, covalent binding was significant in the absence of MPO. Surprisingly, there was no significant decrease in covalent binding of AQ to neutrophils in vivo in gp91 knockout mice. In addition, there was extensive binding of AQ to many types of bone marrow cells and to peripheral lymphocytes. These results indicate that MPO is not the only neutrophil enzyme involved in the oxidation of AQ and that NADPH oxidase is not the major source of peroxide. There was also no decrease in AQ binding to neutrophils in COX-1 or COX-2 knockout mice. We were not able to readily reproduce the AQ in vivo studies with CLZ because of its acute toxicity in mice. These are the first studies to examine the enzymes involved in the bioactivation of AQ by neutrophils in vivo.

  10. LMP1 Increases Expression of NADPH Oxidase (NOX) and Its Regulatory Subunit p22 in NP69 Nasopharyngeal Cells and Makes Them Sensitive to a Treatment by a NOX Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yinghui; Sun, Rui; Fang, Yujing; Fan, Yuhua; Xu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to cancer development. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and its encoded oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), are closely associated with the transformation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL). In this study, we used LMP1-transformed NP cells and EBV-related malignant cell lines to assess the effects of LMP1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and glycolytic activity. Using NPC tissue samples and a tissue array to address clinical implications, we report that LMP1 activates NAD(P)H oxidases to generate excessive amount of ROS in EBV-related malignant diseases. By evaluating NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) subunit expression, we found that the expression of the NAD(P)H oxidase regulatory subunit p22phox was significantly upregulated upon LMP1-induced transformation. Furthermore, this upregulation was mediated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In addition, LMP1 markedly stimulated anaerobic glycolytic activity through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Additionally, in both NPC cells and tissue samples, p22phox expression correlated with LMP1 expression. The NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) also exerted a marked cytotoxic effect in LMP1-transformed and malignant cells, providing a novel strategy for anticancer therapy. PMID:26244812

  11. NADPH oxidase-derived ROS and the regulation of pulmonary vessel tone

    PubMed Central

    Frazziano, G.; Champion, H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary vessel constriction results from an imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor factors released by the endothelium including nitric oxide, endothelin, prostanoids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS, generated by a variety of enzymatic sources (such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, a.k.a. Nox), appear to play a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, whereas elevated levels effect vascular disease. The pulmonary circulation is very sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and differs from the systemic circulation in its response to this change. In fact, the pulmonary vessels contract in response to low oxygen tension, whereas systemic vessels dilate. Growing evidence suggests that ROS production and ROS-related pathways may be key factors that underlie this differential response to oxygen tension. A major emphasis of our laboratory is the role of Nox isozymes in cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will focus our attention on the role of Nox-derived ROS in the control of pulmonary vascular tone. PMID:22427511

  12. The Role of the NADPH Oxidase NOX2 in Prion Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis. PMID:25502554

  13. NADPH oxidase enzymes in skin fibrosis: molecular targets and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olubukola; Mamalis, Andrew; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Jagdeo, Jared

    2014-05-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components eventually resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. In dermatology, fibrosis is the hallmark component of many skin diseases, including systemic sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, hypertrophic scars, keloids, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, restrictive dermopathy and other conditions. Fibrotic skin disorders may be debilitating and impair quality of life. There are few FDA-approved anti-fibrotic drugs; thus, research in this area is crucial in addressing this deficiency. Recent investigations elucidating the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis have implicated endogenous reactive oxygen species produced by the multicomponent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzyme complex. In this review, we discuss Nox enzymes and their role in skin fibrosis. An overview of the Nox enzyme family is presented and their role in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis is discussed. The mechanisms by which Nox enzymes influence specific fibrotic skin disorders are also reviewed. Finally, we describe the therapeutic approaches to ameliorate skin fibrosis by directly targeting Nox enzymes with the use of statins, p47phox subunit modulators, or GKT137831, a competitive inhibitor of Nox enzymes. Nox enzymes can also be targeted indirectly via scavenging ROS with antioxidants. We believe that Nox modulators are worthy of further investigation and have the potential to transform the management of skin fibrosis by dermatologists.

  14. The role of the NADPH oxidase NOX2 in prion pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2014-12-01

    Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis.

  15. NADPH Oxidase Enzymes in Skin Fibrosis: Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components eventually resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. In dermatology, fibrosis is the hallmark component of many skin diseases, including systemic sclerosis, graft versus host disease, hypertrophic scars, keloids, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, restrictive dermopathy and other conditions. Fibrotic skin disorders may be debilitating and impair quality of life. There are few FDA-approved anti-fibrotic drugs; thus, research in this area is crucial in addressing this deficiency. Recent investigations elucidating the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis have implicated endogenous reactive oxygen species produced by the multicomponent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzyme complex. In this review we discuss Nox enzymes and their role in skin fibrosis. An overview of the Nox enzyme family is presented and their role in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis is discussed. The mechanisms that Nox enzymes influence specific skin fibrotic disorders are also reviewed. Finally, we describe the therapeutic approaches to ameliorate skin fibrosis by directly targeting Nox enzymes with the use of statins, p47phox subunit modulators, or GKT137831, a competitive inhibitor of Nox enzymes. Nox enzymes can also be targeted indirectly via scavenging ROS with antioxidants. We believe that Nox modulators are worthy of further investigation and have the potential to transform the management of skin fibrosis by dermatologists. PMID:24155025

  16. Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rhonda C; Gleason, Cynthia A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.

  17. Urotensin II-induced insulin resistance is mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Yong; Feng, Ping; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigated the effects of urotensin II (UII) on hepatic insulin resistance in HepG2 cells and the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were cultured with or without exogenous UII for 24 h, in the presence or absence of 100 nmol/L insulin for the last 30 min. Glucose levels were detected by the glucose-oxidase method and glycogen synthesis was analyzed by glycogen colorimetric/fluorometric assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected with a multimode reader using a 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. The protein expression and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), insulin signal essential molecules such as insulin receptor substrate -1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and glucose transporter-2 (Glut 2), and NADPH oxidase subunits such as gp91phox, p67phox, p47phox, p40phox, and p22phox were evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: Exposure to 100 nmol/L UII reduced the insulin-induced glucose consumption (P < 0.05) and glycogen content (P < 0.01) in HepG2 cells compared with cells without UII. UII also abolished insulin-stimulated protein expression (P < 0.01) and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (P < 0.05), associated with down-regulation of Akt (P < 0.05) and GSK-3β (P < 0.05) phosphorylation levels, and the expression of Glut 2 (P < 0.001), indicating an insulin-resistance state in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, UII enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK (P < 0.05), while the activity of JNK, insulin signaling, such as total protein of IRS-1 (P < 0.001), phosphorylation of IRS-1 (P < 0.001) and GSK-3β (P < 0.05), and glycogen synthesis (P < 0.001) could be reversed by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Besides, UII markedly improved ROS generation (P < 0.05) and NADPH oxidase subunit expression (P < 0.05). However, the antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin could decrease UII-induced ROS production (P < 0.05), JNK phosphorylation (P < 0

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, convalesce behavior and biochemistry of hypertension induced vascular dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhupesh; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive disorders are likely to increase over the coming years (5-10). Vascular dementia (VaD) has heterogeneous pathology and is a challenge for clinicians. Current Alzheimer's disease drugs have had limited clinical efficacy in treating VaD and none have been approved by major regulatory authorities specifically for this disease. Role of iNOS and NADPH-oxidase has been reported in various pathological conditions but there role in hypertension (Hypt) induced VaD is still unclear. This research work investigates the salutiferous effect of aminoguanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor and 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone (HMAP), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor in Hypt induced VaD in rats. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-S) hypertension has been used for development of VaD in rats. Morris water-maze was used for testing learning and memory. Vascular system assessment was done by testing endothelial function. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), oxidative stress [aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and brain glutathione (GSH)], nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) and cholinergic activity (brain acetyl cholinesterase activity-AChE) were also measured. DOCA-S treated rats have shown increased MABP with impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate & brain GSH levels along with increase in serum & brain TBARS, and brain AChE activity. AG as well as HMAP significantly convalesce Hypt induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that AG, an iNOS inhibitor and HMAP, a NADPH-oxidase inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of Hypt induced VaD.

  19. Direct regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by the PRR-associated kinase BIK1 during plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Stransfeld, Lena; Asai, Shuta; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Jones, Jonathan Dg; Shirasu, Ken; Menke, Frank; Jones, Alexandra; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-04-10

    The rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a conserved signaling output in immunity across kingdoms. In plants, perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that RBOHD exists in complex with the receptor kinases EFR and FLS2, which are the PRRs for bacterial EF-Tu and flagellin, respectively. The plasma-membrane-associated kinase BIK1, which is a direct substrate of the PRR complex, directly interacts with and phosphorylates RBOHD upon PAMP perception. BIK1 phosphorylates different residues than calcium-dependent protein kinases, and both PAMP-induced BIK1 activation and BIK1-mediated phosphorylation of RBOHD are calcium independent. Importantly, phosphorylation of these residues is critical for the PAMP-induced ROS burst and antibacterial immunity. Our study reveals a rapid regulatory mechanism of a plant RBOH, which occurs in parallel with and is essential for its paradigmatic calcium-based regulation.

  20. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 μg/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′, 7′-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. Results HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. Conclusions GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:24580748

  1. Enteric glial cells counteract Clostridium difficile Toxin B through a NADPH oxidase/ROS/JNK/caspase-3 axis, without involving mitochondrial pathways

    PubMed Central

    Macchioni, Lara; Davidescu, Magdalena; Fettucciari, Katia; Petricciuolo, Maya; Gatticchi, Leonardo; Gioè, Davide; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bellini, Massimo; Marconi, Pierfrancesco; Roberti, Rita; Bassotti, Gabrio; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-01

    Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are components of the intestinal epithelial barrier essential for regulating the enteric nervous system. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, toxin B (TcdB) being the major virulence factor, due to its ability to breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and to act on other cell types. Here we investigated TcdB effects on EGCs and the activated molecular mechanisms. Already at 2 hours, TcdB triggered ROS formation originating from NADPH-oxidase, as demonstrated by their reduction in the presence of the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor ML171. Although EGCs mitochondria support almost completely the cellular ATP need, TcdB exerted weak effects on EGCs in terms of ATP and mitochondrial functionality, mitochondrial ROS production occurring as a late event. ROS activated the JNK signalling and overexpression of the proapoptotic Bim not followed by cytochrome c or AIF release to activate the downstream apoptotic cascade. EGCs underwent DNA fragmentation through activation of the ROS/JNK/caspase-3 axis, evidenced by the ability of ML171, N-acetylcysteine, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 to inhibit caspase-3 or to contrast apoptosis. Therefore, TcdB aggressiveness towards EGCs is mainly restricted to the cytosolic compartment, which represents a peculiar feature, since TcdB primarily influences mitochondria in other cellular types. PMID:28349972

  2. WRKY Transcription Factors Phosphorylated by MAPK Regulate a Plant Immune NADPH Oxidase in Nicotiana benthamiana[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Nakano, Takaaki; Miyagawa, Noriko; Ishihama, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Katou, Yuri; Yaeno, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack sequentially confers pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) after sensing of pathogen patterns and effectors by plant immune receptors, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in PTI and ETI as signaling molecules. Nicotiana benthamiana RBOHB, an NADPH oxidase, is responsible for both the transient PTI ROS burst and the robust ETI ROS burst. Here, we show that RBOHB transactivation mediated by MAPK contributes to R3a/AVR3a-triggered ETI (AVR3a-ETI) ROS burst. RBOHB is markedly induced during the ETI and INF1-triggered PTI (INF1-PTI), but not flg22-tiggered PTI (flg22-PTI). We found that the RBOHB promoter contains a functional W-box in the R3a/AVR3a and INF1 signal-responsive cis-element. Ectopic expression of four phospho-mimicking mutants of WRKY transcription factors, which are MAPK substrates, induced RBOHB, and yeast one-hybrid analysis indicated that these mutants bind to the cis-element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated direct binding of the WRKY to the cis-element in plants. Silencing of multiple WRKY genes compromised the upregulation of RBOHB, resulting in impairment of AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts, but not the flg22-PTI ROS burst. These results suggest that the MAPK-WRKY pathway is required for AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts by activation of RBOHB. PMID:26373453

  3. Potential role of the NADPH oxidase NOX1 in the pathogenesis of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masashi; Kato, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Iimori, Maho; Utsumi, Daichi; Kitahara, Yumeno; Iwata, Kazumi; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Amagase, Kikuko; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-05-15

    Although NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) has been shown to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this enzyme are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX1 in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in mice. Intestinal mucositis was induced in Nox1 knockout (Nox1KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice via single, daily administration of 5-FU for 5 days. In WT mice, 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis characterized by a shortening of villus height, a disruption of crypts, a loss of body weight, and diarrhea. In Nox1KO mice, however, the severity of mucositis was significantly reduced, particularly with respect to crypt disruption. The numbers of apoptotic caspase-3- and caspase-8-activated cells in the intestinal crypt increased 24 h after the first 5-FU administration but were overall significantly lower in Nox1KO than in WT mice. Furthermore, the 5-FU-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NOX1 and the production of reactive oxygen species were significantly attenuated in Nox1KO mice compared with that in WT mice. These findings suggest that NOX1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. NOX1-derived ROS production following administration of 5-FU may promote the apoptotic response through upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 mediates cigarette smoke-induced superoxide generation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2017-02-01

    Smoking is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is one of the common etiological factors, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been suggested as a potential mediator of oxidative stress. In this study, cigarette smoke (CS)-induced superoxide production was characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). CS was prepared in forms of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and total particulate matter (TPM). Several molecular probes for reactive oxygen species were trialed, and dihydroethidium (DHE) and WST-1 were chosen for superoxide detection considering the autofluorescence, light absorbance, and peroxidase inhibitory activity of CS. Both CSE and TPM generated superoxide in a VSMC culture system by stimulating cells to produce superoxide and by directly producing superoxide in the aqueous solution. NOX, specifically NOX1 was found to be an important cellular source of superoxide through experiments with the NOX inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and VAS2870 as well as isoform-specific NOX knockdown. NOX inhibitors and the superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL reduced the cytotoxicity of CSE, thus suggesting the contribution of NOX1-derived superoxide to cytotoxicity. Since NOX1 is known to mediate diverse pathological processes in the vascular system, NOX1 may be a critical effector of cardiovascular toxicity caused by smoking.

  5. NADPH oxidase 4 protects against development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Langbein, Heike; Brunssen, Coy; Hofmann, Anja; Cimalla, Peter; Brux, Melanie; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Deussen, Andreas; Koch, Edmund; Morawietz, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aims Endothelial dysfunction is an early step in the development of atherosclerosis. Increased formation of superoxide anions by NADPH oxidase Nox1, 2, and 5 reduces nitric oxide availability and can promote endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, recent evidence supports a vasoprotective role of H2O2 produced by main endothelial isoform Nox4. Therefore, we analysed the impact of genetic deletion of Nox4 on endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) knockout model. Methods and results Ex vivo analysis of endothelial function by Mulvany myograph showed impaired endothelial function in thoracic aorta of Nox4−/−/Ldlr−/− mice. Further progression of endothelial dysfunction due to high-fat diet increased atherosclerotic plaque burden and galectin-3 staining in Nox4−/−/Ldlr−/− mice compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Under physiological conditions, loss of Nox4 does not influence aortic vascular function. In this setting, loss of Nox4-derived H2O2 production could be partially compensated for by nNOS upregulation. Using an innovative optical coherence tomography approach, we were able to analyse endothelial function by flow-mediated vasodilation in the murine saphenous artery in vivo. This new approach revealed an altered flow-mediated dilation in Nox4−/− mice, indicating a role for Nox4 under physiological conditions in peripheral arteries in vivo. Conclusions Nox4 plays an important role in maintaining endothelial function under physiological and pathological conditions. Loss of Nox4-derived H2O2 could be partially compensated for by nNOS upregulation, but severe endothelial dysfunction is not reversible. This leads to increased atherosclerosis under atherosclerotic prone conditions. PMID:26578199

  6. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor imipramine-blue in the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Marcel; Becker, Jürgen; Eberth, Sonja; Kube, Dieter; Wilting, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a rare malignancy arising from B cells. Current chemotherapeutic regimens achieve excellent overall survival rates in children, but less impressive rates in adults. There are cases with poor outcome caused by toxic effects of the therapy, tumor lysis syndrome, or metastatic spread of lymphomas to the central nervous system. Modulators of reactive oxygen species are currently discussed as potential drugs for the treatment of cancer. The NADPH oxidase 4 inhibitor imipramine-blue might satisfy the aforementioned requirements, and was studied here. We used MTT assay, crystal violet assay, and thymidine 3H-incorporation assay to analyze the effects of imipramine-blue on Burkitt lymphoma (BL2, BL2B95, BL30B95, BL41B95), neuroblastoma (KELLY, SH-SY5Y, SMS-KAN), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), breast cancer (MDA-MB231), angiosarcoma (AS-M), human embryonic kidney (HEK293WT), and nonmalignant (FLP1) cell lines. The effects of imipramine-blue on BL2B95 cells in vivo were investigated in xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We report that imipramine-blue is a potent growth inhibitor for several cancer cell lines in vitro with IC(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin (0.16-7.7 μmol/L). Tumor size of BL2B95 cells inoculated in the CAM was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment with 10 μmol/L imipramine-blue. Lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 and the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels in experimental tumors were not affected. We show that imipramine-blue can be used to decrease the viability of cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Imipramine-blue reduces the size of experimental Burkitt lymphoma significantly but does not affect the dissemination of BL2B95 cells, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis.

  7. NADPH oxidase-2 inhibition restores contractility and intracellular calcium handling and reduces arrhythmogenicity in dystrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Daniel R; Treuer, Adriana V; Lamirault, Guillaume; Mayo, Vera; Cao, Yenong; Dulce, Raul A; Hare, Joshua M

    2014-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy may affect cardiac muscle, producing a dystrophic cardiomyopathy in humans and the mdx mouse. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress participates in disrupting calcium handling and contractility in the mdx mouse with established cardiomyopathy. We found increased expression (fivefold) of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 in the mdx hearts compared with wild type, along with increased superoxide production. Next, we tested the impact of NOX2 inhibition on contractility and calcium handling in isolated cardiomyocytes. Contractility was decreased in mdx myocytes compared with wild type, and this was restored toward normal by pretreating with apocynin. In addition, the amplitude of evoked intracellular Ca(2+) concentration transients that was diminished in mdx myocytes was also restored with NOX2 inhibition. Total sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content was reduced in mdx hearts and normalized by apocynin treatment. Additionally, NOX2 inhibition decreased the production of spontaneous diastolic calcium release events and decreased the SR calcium leak in mdx myocytes. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) synthase 1 (NOS-1) expression was increased eightfold in mdx hearts compared with wild type. Nevertheless, cardiac NO production was reduced. To test whether this paradox implied NOS-1 uncoupling, we treated cardiac myocytes with exogenous tetrahydrobioterin, along with the NOX inhibitor VAS2870. These agents restored NO production and phospholamban phosphorylation in mdx toward normal. Together, these results demonstrate that, in mdx hearts, NOX2 inhibition improves the SR calcium handling and contractility, partially by recoupling NOS-1. These findings reveal a new layer of nitroso-redox imbalance in dystrophic cardiomyopathy.

  8. ROS signaling by NADPH oxidase 5 modulates the proliferation and survival of prostate carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Monika; Koziel, Rafal; Schäfer, Georg; Pircher, Haymo; Pauck, Alexander; Hermann, Martin; Klocker, Helmut; Jansen‐Dürr, Pidder

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western nations. Thus, new treatment modalities are urgently needed. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes is implicated in tumorigenesis of the prostate and other tissues. However, the identity of the Nox enzyme(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Analysis of radical prostatectomy tissue samples and benign and malignant prostate epithelial cell lines identified Nox5 as an abundantly expressed Nox isoform. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining of a human PCa tissue microarray revealed distinct Nox5 expression in epithelial cells of benign and malignant prostatic glands. shRNA‐mediated knockdown of Nox5 impaired proliferation of Nox5‐expressing (PC‐3, LNCaP) but not Nox5‐negative (DU145) PCa cell lines. Similar effects were observed upon ROS ablation via the antioxidant N‐acetylcysteine confirming ROS as the mediators. In addition, Nox5 silencing increased apoptosis of PC‐3 cells. Concomitantly, protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) protein levels and c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation were reduced. Moreover, the effect of Nox5 knockdown on PC‐3 cell proliferation could be mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of JNK. Collectively, these data indicate that Nox5 is expressed at functionally relevant levels in the human prostate and clinical PCa. Moreover, findings herein suggest that Nox5‐derived ROS and subsequent depletion of PKCζ and JNK inactivation play a critical role in modulating intracellular signaling cascades involved in the proliferation and survival of PCa cells. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25559363

  9. The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

    2015-01-29

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular

  10. Hydrogen peroxide produced by NADPH oxidases increases proline accumulation during salt or mannitol stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Lefebvre-De Vos, Delphine; Le Disquet, Isabel; Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Bordenave, Marianne; Maldiney, Régis; Jdey, Asma; Abdelly, Chedly; Savouré, Arnould

    2015-12-01

    Many plants accumulate proline, a compatible osmolyte, in response to various environmental stresses such as water deficit and salinity. In some stress responses, plants generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) that mediates numerous physiological and biochemical processes. The aim was to study the relationship between stress-induced proline accumulation and H2 O2 production. Using pharmacological and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidases, Respiratory burst oxidase homologues (Rboh), in the induction of proline accumulation was investigated in response to stress induced by either 200 mM NaCl or 400 mM mannitol. Stress from NaCl or mannitol resulted in a transient increase in H2 O2 content accompanied by accumulation of proline. Dimethylthiourea, a scavenger of H2 O2 , and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2 O2 production by NADPH oxidase, were found to significantly inhibit proline accumulation in these stress conditions. DPI also reduced the expression level of Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline. Similarly, less proline accumulated in knockout mutants lacking either AtRbohD or AtRbohF than in wild-type plants in response to the same stresses. Our data demonstrate that AtRbohs (A. thaliana Rbohs) contribute to H2 O2 production in response to NaCl or mannitol stress to increase proline accumulation in this plant.

  11. Angiotensin II and NADPH oxidase increase ADMA in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaiming; Teerlink, Tom; Griendling, Kathy; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2010-09-01

    Asymmetrical dimethylarginine inhibits nitric oxide synthase, cationic amino acid transport, and endothelial function. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors often have endothelial dysfunction associated with increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine and markers of reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species, generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, enhance cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Incubation of rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells with angiotensin II doubled the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase but decreased the activities of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase by 35% and of cationic amino acid transport by 20% and doubled cellular (but not medium) asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations (P<0.01). This was blocked by tempol or candesartan. Cells stably transfected with p22(phox) had a 50% decreased protein expression and activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase despite increased promoter activity and mRNA. The decreased DDAH protein expression and the increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentration in p22(phox)-transfected cells were prevented by proteosomal inhibition. These cells had enhanced protein arginine methylation, a 2-fold increased expression of protein arginine methyltransferase-3 (P<0.05) and a 30% reduction in cationic amino acid transport activity (P<0.05). Asymmetrical dimethylarginine was increased from 6+/-1 to 16+/-3 micromol/L (P<0.005) in p22(phox)-transfected cells. Thus, angiotensin II increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine via type 1 receptors and reactive oxygen species. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine by increasing enzymes that generate it, enhancing the degradation of enzymes that metabolize it, and reducing its cellular transport. This could underlie increases in cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine during

  12. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to impaired cutaneous microvascular function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Jennifer J; Ramick, Meghan G; Farquhar, William B; Townsend, Raymond R; Edwards, David G

    2014-06-15

    Oxidative stress promotes vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We utilized the cutaneous circulation to test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase impair nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in CKD. Twenty subjects, 10 stage 3 and 4 patients with CKD (61 ± 4 yr; 5 men/5 women; eGFR: 39 ± 4 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)) and 10 healthy controls (55 ± 2 yr; 4 men/6 women; eGFR: >60 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)) were instrumented with 4 intradermal microdialysis fibers for the delivery of 1) Ringer solution (Control), 2) 10 μM tempol (scavenge superoxide), 3) 100 μM apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition), and 4) 10 μM allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibition). Skin blood flow was measured via laser-Doppler flowmetry during standardized local heating (42°C). N(g)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mM) was infused to quantify the NO-dependent portion of the response. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as a percentage of the maximum CVC achieved during sodium nitroprusside infusion at 43°C. Cutaneous vasodilation was attenuated in patients with CKD (77 ± 3 vs. 88 ± 3%, P = 0.01), but augmented with tempol and apocynin (tempol: 88 ± 2 (P = 0.03), apocynin: 91 ± 2% (P = 0.001). The NO-dependent portion of the response was reduced in patients with CKD (41 ± 4 vs. 58 ± 2%, P = 0.04), but improved with tempol and apocynin (tempol: 58 ± 3 (P = 0.03), apocynin: 58 ± 4% (P = 0.03). Inhibition of xanthine oxidase did not alter cutaneous vasodilation in either group (P > 0.05). These data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase is a source of reactive oxygen species and contributes to microvascular dysfunction in patients with CKD.

  13. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  14. Expression of gp91phox and p22phox, catalytic subunits of NADPH oxidase, on microglia in Nasu-Hakola disease brains

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kino, Yoshihiro; Yanaizu, Motoaki; Tosaki, Youhei; Sakai, Kenji; Ishida, Tusyoshi; Saito, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Summary The superoxide-producing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex of phagocytes (phox) plays a key role in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by microglia. The catalytic subunits of the NADPH oxidase are composed of p22phox and gp91phox. Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a loss-of-function mutation of either TYROBP (DAP12) or TREM2. Pathologically, the brains of NHD patients exhibit extensive demyelination designated leukoencephalopathy, astrogliosis, accumulation of axonal spheroids, and remarkable activation of microglia predominantly in the white matter of frontal and temporal lobes. However, a pathological role of the gp91phox-p22phox complex in generation of leukoencephalopathy in NHD remains unknown. We clarified the expression of gp91phox and p22phox in the white matter of the frontal cortex derived from five NHD and eight control subjects. We identified the expression of p22phox and gp91phox immunoreactivity almost exclusively on microglia. Microglia overexpressed gp91phox in NHD brains and p22phox in myotonic dystrophy (MD) brains, when compared with non-neurological control (NC) brains. These results suggest that the enhanced expression of gp91phox by microglia might contribute to overproduction of ROS highly toxic to myelinating oligodendrocytes, resulting in oligodendrocyte cell death that induces leukoencephalopathy in NHD brains. PMID:27904823

  15. PKC/NADPH oxidase are involved in the protective effect of pioglitazone in high homocysteine-induced paracrine dyfunction in endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengjie; Zhao, Yanbo; Jin, Chongying; Yu, Lu; Ding, Fang; Fu, Guosheng; Zhu, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that EPCs improve neovascularization and endothelial regeneration via the production of paracrine factors. VEGF and IL-8 are major cytokines involved in EPC-mediated angiogenesis and re-endothelialization. In our previous studies, Hcy impaired EPC migratory and adhesive activities. We devised this study to determine whether Hcy could affect the expression and secretion of VEGF and IL-8 from EPCs. We found that high levels of Hcy (100-500 μM) decreased the EPC-mediated protein secretion and mRNA expression of VEGF and IL-8. Moreover, PIO, a PPARγ agonist, has been suggested to regulate EPC adhesion, migration, survival. In this study, PIO normalized the production of these cytokines by EPCs stimulated with Hcy. These effects of Hcy and PIO were primarily mediated by PKC and ROS via NADPH oxidase. We further confirmed this mechanism via knockdown of the NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox and Nox2. Furthermore, the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 was not observed to abrogate the beneficial effect of PIO, indicating that PIO protected EPC paracrine function against Hcy in a PPARγ-independent manner. PMID:28386331

  16. NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent VCAM-1 Induction on TNF-α-Challenged Human Cardiac Fibroblasts Enhances Monocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tseng, Hui-Ching; Pan, Chih-Shuo; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation-dependent adhesion molecule expressions are characterized in cardiovascular diseases and myocardial tissue infiltrations. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in the acute myocardial injury and infarction. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is raised in the injury tissues and inflammatory regions and involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac injury, inflammation, and apoptosis. In fibroblasts, TNF-α-triggered expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 aggravated the heart inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying TNF-α-mediated VCAM-1 expression in cardiac fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, the primary cultured human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) were used to investigate the effects of TNF-α on VCAM-1 expression. The molecular evidence, including protein, mRNA, and promoter analyses, indicated that TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 gene expression is mediated through the TNFR-dependent manner. Activation of TNF-α/TNFR system triggered PKCα-dependent NADPH oxidase (Nox)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal linking to MAPK cascades, and then led to activation of the transcription factor, AP-1. Moreover, the results of mRNA and promoter assay demonstrated that c-Jun/AP-1 phosphorylated by TNF-α turns on VCAM-1 gene expression. Subsequently, up-regulated VCAM-1 on the cell surface of TNF-α-challenged HCFs increased the number of monocytes adhering to these cells. These results indicated that in HCFs, activation of AP-1 by PKCα-dependent Nox/ROS/MAPKs cascades is required for TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression. To clarify the mechanisms of TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in HCFs may provide therapeutic strategies for heart injury and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26858641

  17. Rhinovirus-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Polarized Airway Epithelial Cells Is Mediated by NADPH Oxidase 1▿

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Adam T.; Ganesan, Shyamala; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Faris, Andrea N.; Margolis, Benjamin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.; Sajjan, Umadevi S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, disrupts airway epithelial barrier function, as evidenced by reduced transepithelial resistance (RT), dissociation of zona occludins 1 (ZO-1) from the tight junction complex, and bacterial transmigration across polarized cells. We also showed that RV replication is required for barrier function disruption. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are not known. In the present study, we found that a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mimetic, poly(I:C), induced tight junction breakdown and facilitated bacterial transmigration across polarized airway epithelial cells, similar to the case with RV. We also found that RV and poly(I:C) each stimulated Rac1 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity. Inhibitors of Rac1 (NSC23766), NOX (diphenylene iodonium), and NOX1 (small interfering RNA [siRNA]) each blocked the disruptive effects of RV and poly(I:C) on RT, as well as the dissociation of ZO-1 and occludin from the tight junction complex. Finally, we found that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is not required for either poly(I:C)- or RV-induced reductions in RT. Based on these results, we concluded that Rac1-dependent NOX1 activity is required for RV- or poly(I:C)-induced ROS generation, which in turn disrupts the barrier function of polarized airway epithelia. Furthermore, these data suggest that dsRNA generated during RV replication is sufficient to disrupt barrier function. PMID:21507984

  18. Amyloid β-induced astrogliosis is mediated by β1-integrin via NADPH oxidase 2 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wyssenbach, Ane; Quintela, Tania; Llavero, Francisco; Zugaza, Jose L; Matute, Carlos; Alberdi, Elena

    2016-10-05

    Astrogliosis is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may constitute a primary pathogenic component of that disorder. Elucidation of signaling cascades inducing astrogliosis should help characterizing the function of astrocytes and identifying novel molecular targets to modulate AD progression. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which soluble amyloid-β modulates β1-integrin activity and triggers NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent astrogliosis in vitro and in vivo. Amyloid-β oligomers activate a PI3K/classical PKC/Rac1/NOX pathway which is initiated by β1-integrin in cultured astrocytes. This mechanism promotes β1-integrin maturation, upregulation of NOX2 and of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in astrocytes in vitro and in hippocampal astrocytes in vivo. Notably, immunochemical analysis of the hippocampi of a triple-transgenic AD mouse model shows increased levels of GFAP, NOX2, and β1-integrin in reactive astrocytes which correlates with the amyloid β-oligomer load. Finally, analysis of these proteins in postmortem frontal cortex from different stages of AD (II to V/VI) and matched controls confirmed elevated expression of NOX2 and β1-integrin in that cortical region and specifically in reactive astrocytes, which was most prominent at advanced AD stages. Importantly, protein levels of NOX2 and β1-integrin were significantly associated with increased amyloid-β load in human samples. These data strongly suggest that astrogliosis in AD is caused by direct interaction of amyloid β oligomers with β1-integrin which in turn leads to enhancing β1-integrin and NOX2 activity via NOX-dependent mechanisms. These observations may be relevant to AD pathophysiology.

  19. Subpicomolar diphenyleneiodonium inhibits microglial NADPH oxidase with high specificity and shows great potential as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingshan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Qian, Li; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2014-01-01

    Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2) plays a critical role in mediating neuroinflammation, which is closely linked with the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). The inhibition of NOX2-generated superoxide has become an effective strategy for developing disease-modifying therapies for PD. However, the lack of specific and potent NOX2 inhibitors has hampered the progress of this approach. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) is a widely used, long-acting NOX2 inhibitor. However, due to its non-specificity for NOX2 and high cytotoxicity at standard doses (μM), DPI has been precluded from human studies. In this study, using ultra-low doses of DPI, we aimed to: 1) investigate whether these problems could be circumvented and 2) determine whether ultra-low doses of DPI were able to preserve its utility as a potent NOX2 inhibitor. We found that DPI at subpicomolar concentrations (10−14 and 10−13 M) displays no toxicity in primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures. More importantly, we observed that subpicomolar DPI inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced activation of NOX2. The same concentrations of DPI did not inhibit the activities of a series of flavoprotein-containing enzymes. Furthermore, potent neuroprotective efficacy was demonstrated in a post-treatment study. When subpicomolar DPI was added to neuron-glia cultures pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium or rotenone, it potently protected the dopaminergic neurons. In summary, DPI’s unique combination of high specificity towards NOX2, low cytotoxicity and potent neuroprotective efficacy in post-treatment regimens suggests that subpicomolar DPI may be an ideal candidate for further animal studies and potential clinical trials. PMID:25043383

  20. The Crystal Structure of the Plant Small GTPase OsRac1 Reveals Its Mode of Binding to NADPH Oxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Kosami, Ken-ichi; Ohki, Izuru; Nagano, Minoru; Furuita, Kyoko; Sugiki, Toshihiko; Kawano, Yoji; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Ko; Kojima, Chojiro

    2014-01-01

    Rac/Rop proteins are Rho-type small GTPases that act as molecular switches in plants. Recent studies have identified these proteins as key components in many major plant signaling pathways, such as innate immunity, pollen tube growth, and root hair formation. In rice, the Rac/Rop protein OsRac1 plays an important role in regulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase OsRbohB during innate immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which OsRac1 regulates OsRbohB remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of OsRac1 complexed with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5′-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate at 1.9 Å resolution; this represents the first active-form structure of a plant small GTPase. To elucidate the ROS production in rice cells, structural information was used to design OsRac1 mutants that displayed reduced binding to OsRbohB. Only mutations in the OsRac1 Switch I region showed attenuated interactions with OsRbohB in vitro. In particular, Tyr39 and Asp45 substitutions suppressed ROS production in rice cells, indicating that these residues are critical for interaction with and activation of OsRbohB. Structural comparison of active-form OsRac1 with AtRop9 in its GDP-bound inactive form showed a large conformational difference in the vicinity of these residues. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of the immune response through OsRac1 and the various cellular responses associated with plant Rac/Rop proteins. PMID:25128531

  1. Subpicomolar diphenyleneiodonium inhibits microglial NADPH oxidase with high specificity and shows great potential as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Qian, Li; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2014-12-01

    Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2) plays a critical role in mediating neuroinflammation, which is closely linked with the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The inhibition of NOX2-generated superoxide has become an effective strategy for developing disease-modifying therapies for PD. However, the lack of specific and potent NOX2 inhibitors has hampered the progress of this approach. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) is a widely used, long-acting NOX2 inhibitor. However, due to its non-specificity for NOX2 and high cytotoxicity at standard doses (µM), DPI has been precluded from human studies. In this study, using ultra-low doses of DPI, we aimed to: (1) investigate whether these problems could be circumvented and (2) determine whether ultra-low doses of DPI were able to preserve its utility as a potent NOX2 inhibitor. We found that DPI at subpicomolar concentrations (10(-14) and 10(-13) M) displays no toxicity in primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures. More importantly, we observed that subpicomolar DPI inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced activation of NOX2. The same concentrations of DPI did not inhibit the activities of a series of flavoprotein-containing enzymes. Furthermore, potent neuroprotective efficacy was demonstrated in a post-treatment study. When subpicomolar DPI was added to neuron-glia cultures pretreated with lipopolysaccharide, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium or rotenone, it potently protected the dopaminergic neurons. In summary, DPI's unique combination of high specificity toward NOX2, low cytotoxicity and potent neuroprotective efficacy in post-treatment regimens suggests that subpicomolar DPI may be an ideal candidate for further animal studies and potential clinical trials.

  2. Involvement of NADPH oxidases in alkali burn-induced corneal injury.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xue-Jun; Liu, Xian; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Yao; Xu, Man; Han, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Qiu-Ping; Yi, Jing-Lin; Li, Jing-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Chemical burns are a major cause of corneal injury. Oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and neovascularization after the chemical burn aggravate corneal damage, and lead to loss of vision. Although NADPH oxidases (Noxs) play a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the role of Noxs in chemical burn-induced corneal injury remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the transcription and expression of Noxs in corneas were examined by RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. It was found that alkali burns markedly upregulated the transcription and expression of Nox2 and Nox4 in human or mouse corneas. The inhibition of Noxs by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or apocynin (Apo) effectively attenuated alkali burn-induced ROS production and decreased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein levels in the corneas. In addition, Noxs/CD11b double‑immunofluorescence staining indicated that Nox2 and Nox4 were partially co-localized with CD11b. DPI or Apo prevented the infiltration of CD11b-positive inflammatory cells, and inhibited the transcription of inflammatory cytokines following alkali burn-induced corneal injury. In our mouse model of alkali burn-induced corneal injury, corneal neovascularization (CNV) occurred on day 3, and it affected 50% of the whole area of the cornea on day 7, and on day 14, CNV coverage of the cornea reached maximum levels. DPI or Apo effectively attenuated alkali burn‑induced CNV and decreased the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Taken together, our data indicate that Noxs play a role in alkali burn-induced corneal injury by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and CNV, and we thus suggest that Noxs are a potential therapeutic target in the future treatment of chemical-induced corneal injury.

  3. A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-06-01

    Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. This article aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. It was found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron/glia cultures. Results showed that submicromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR)-deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than β2-AR are involved. To this end, It was found that submicromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (-) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism.

  4. Sinomenine, a natural dextrorotatory morphinan analog, is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Xu, Zongli; Zhang, Wei; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    Background The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated inflammation has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for progressive neurodegeneration. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of sinomenine (SN)-mediated anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in both the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-mediated models of PD. Results SN showed equivalent efficacy in protecting against DA neuron death in rat midbrain neuron-glial cultures at both micro- and sub-picomolar concentrations, but no protection was seen at nanomolar concentrations. The neuroprotective effect of SN was attributed to inhibition of microglial activation, since SN significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by microglia. In addition, from the therapeutic point of view, we focused on sub-picomolar concentration of SN for further mechanistic studies. We found that 10-14 M of SN failed to protect DA neurons against MPP+-induced toxicity in the absence of microglia. More importantly, SN failed to show a protective effect in neuron-glia cultures from mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase (PHOX), a key enzyme for extracellular superoxide production in immune cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SN reduced LPS-induced extracellular ROS production through the inhibition of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47phoxtranslocation to the cell membrane. Conclusion Our findings strongly suggest that the protective effects of SN are most likely mediated through the inhibition of microglial PHOX activity. These findings suggest a novel therapy to treat inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17880684

  5. Strboh A homologue of NADPH oxidase regulates wound-induced oxidative burst and facilitates wound-healing in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Iyer, Suresh; Knowles, N Richard

    2007-12-01

    During 30-months of storage at 4 degrees C, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers progressively lose the ability to produce superoxide in response to wounding, resist microbial infection, and develop a suberized wound periderm. Using differentially aged tubers, we demonstrate that Strboh A is responsible for the wound-induced oxidative burst in potato and aging attenuates its expression. In vivo superoxide production and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity from 1-month-old tubers increased to a maximum 18-24 h after wounding and then decreased to barely detectable levels by 72 h. Wounding also induced a 68% increase in microsomal protein within 18 h. These wound-induced responses were lost over a 25- to 30-month storage period. Superoxide production and NOX activity were inhibited by diphenylene iodonium chloride, a specific inhibitor of NOX, which in turn effectively inhibited wound-healing and increased susceptibility to microbial infection and decay in 1-month-old tubers. Wound-induced superoxide production was also inhibited by EGTA-mediated destabilization of membranes. The ability to restore superoxide production to EGTA-treated tissue with Ca(+2) declined with advancing tuber age, likely a consequence of age-related changes in membrane architecture. Of the five homologues of NOX (Strboh A-D and F), wounding induced the expression of Strboh A in 6-month-old tubers but this response was absent in tubers stored for 25-30 months. Strboh A thus mediates the initial burst of superoxide in response to wounding of potato tubers; loss of its expression increases the susceptibility to microbial infection and contributes to the age-induced loss of wound-healing ability.

  6. Modulation of mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis by red wine polyphenols via estrogen receptor, NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase pathways.

    PubMed

    Duluc, Lucie; Jacques, Caroline; Soleti, Raffaella; Iacobazzi, Francesco; Simard, Gilles; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2013-04-01

    Red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPC) are reported to exert vasculoprotective properties on endothelial cells, involving nitric oxide (NO) release via a redox-sensitive pathway. This NO release involves the activation of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα). Paradoxical effects of a RWPC treatment occur in a rat model of post-ischemic neovascularization, where a low-dose is pro-angiogenic while a higher dose is anti-angiogenic. NO and ERα are key regulators of mitochondrial capacity, and angiogenesis is a highly energetic process associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. However, whether RWPC induces changes in mitochondrial capacity has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of RWPC at low (10(-4)g/l, LCP) and high concentration (10(-2)g/l, HCP) in human endothelial cells. Mitochondrial respiration, expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content were assessed using oxygraphy and quantitative PCR respectively. In vitro capillary formation using ECM gel(®) was also performed. Treatment with LCP increased mitochondrial respiration, with a maximal effect achieved at 48h. LCP also increased expression of several mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, HCP did not affect these parameters. Furthermore, LCP modulated both mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis through mechanisms sensitive to ER, NADPH oxidase and NO-synthase inhibitors. Finally, the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis abolished the pro-angiogenic capacity of LCP. These results suggest a possible association between the modulation of mitochondrial capacity by LCP and its pro-angiogenic activity. These data provide evidence for a role of mitochondria in the regulation of angiogenesis by RWPC.

  7. A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well-documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system is unclear. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. We found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures. Results showed that sub-micromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than β2-AR are involved. To this end, we found that sub-micromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (−) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism. PMID:25740080

  8. Severity of pancreatitis-associated intestinal mucosal barrier injury is reduced following treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenhong; Abliz, Ablikim; Xu, Sheng; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Shi, Qiao; Yu, Jia; Wang, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, significantly decreased acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. In addition, apocynin was able to reduce ischemic reperfusion injury-associated damage; however, the exact effects of apocynin on acute pancreatitis-associated intestinal mucosal injury have yet to be fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of apocynin on intestinal mucosal injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham operation group (SO), SAP group, apocynin treatment (APO) group and drug control (APO-CON) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Apocynin was administered 30 min prior to SAP induction in the APO group. All rats were sacrificed 12 h after SAP induction. Intestinal integrity was assessed by measuring diamine oxidase (DAO) levels. Morphological alterations to intestinal tissue were determined under light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression levels were detected in the intestine by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress was detected by measuring intestinal malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase content. In addition, blood inflammatory cytokines, and amylase (AMY) and lipase (LIP) levels were evaluated. The results demonstrated that apocynin attenuated the following: i) Serum AMY, LIP and DAO levels; ii) pancreatic and intestinal pathological injury; iii) intestinal MDA content; iv) intestinal ultrastructural alterations; v) serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels; and vi) NOX2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB expression in intestinal tissues. These results suggested that apocynin may attenuate

  9. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Parvalbumin-Immunoreactive Interneurons Loss and Neurobehavioral Impairment is Mediated by NADPH-Oxidase-2.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Jiang; Li, Guowei; Liang, Dong

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea usually contribute to psychiatric diseases and cognitive impairments in adults. Loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive interneurons (PV-IN) in the brain cortex is an important feature of psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. Here we investigate the causal contribution of oxidative stress in the brain cortex to neuropathological alterations in a mouse model of sleep apnea. Wild-type (WT) and the NADPH-oxidase-2 (gp91-phox/NOX2) knock-out adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) or standard room air in the same chamber. In vivo we determined the impact (1) of IH exposures on NOX2 expression, (2) of genetic gp91-phox/NOX2 knock-out and (3) of pharmacological NOX2 inhibition on IH-induced neuropathological alterations in adult mice. Endpoints were oxidative stress, PV-IN and neurobehavioral alterations. The results showed IH exposures increased NOX2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of WT mice, which was accompanied with elevations of indirect markers of oxidative stress (HNE, HIF-1α, 8-OHDG). WT mice showed loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and increased locomotion activity and anxiety levels after exposed to IH, while no change emerged in NOX2 knock-out mice. Treatment of WT mice with the antioxidant/NOX inhibitor apocynin prevented the neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations induced by IH exposures. Our data suggest that NOX2-derived oxidative stress is involved in the loss of PV-IN in the prefrontal cortex and development of neurobehavioral alterations for adult mice exposed to IH. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the coupling between sleep apnea and brain oxidative stress as well as potential new therapeutic avenues.

  10. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by {gamma}-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  11. Human monocytes and macrophages express NADPH oxidase 5; a potential source of reactive oxygen species in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Manea, Simona-Adriana; Gan, Ana Maria; Constantin, Alina; Fenyo, Ioana Madalina; Raicu, Monica; Muresian, Horia; Simionescu, Maya

    2015-05-22

    Monocytes (Mon) and Mon-derived macrophages (Mac) orchestrate important oxidative and inflammatory reactions in atherosclerosis by secreting reactive oxygen species (ROS) due, in large part, to the upregulated NADPH oxidases (Nox). The Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in human Mon and Mac. However, the expression and functional significance of the Nox5 subtypes is not known. We aimed at elucidating whether Nox5 is expressed in human Mon and Mac, and examine its potential role in atherosclerosis. Human monocytic THP-1 cell line and CD14(+) Mon were employed to search for Nox5 expression. RT-PCR, Western blot, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium assays were utilized to examine Nox5 in these cells. We found that Nox5 transcription variants and proteins are constitutively expressed in THP-1 cells and primary CD14(+) Mon. Silencing of Nox5 protein expression by siRNA reduced the Ca(2+)-dependent Nox activity and the formation of ROS in Mac induced by A23187, a selective Ca(2+) ionophore. Exposure of Mac to increasing concentrations of IFNγ (5-100 ng/ml) or oxidized LDL (5-100 μg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in Nox5 protein expression and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Nox5 is present in CD68(+) Mac-rich area within human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that Nox5 is constitutively expressed in human Mon. Induction of Nox5 expression in IFNγ- and oxidized LDL-exposed Mac and the presence of Nox5 in Mac-rich atheroma are indicative of the implication of Nox5 in atherogenesis.

  12. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation.

  13. Genetic Targeting or Pharmacologic Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase Nox4 Provides Renoprotection in Long-Term Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Jay C.; Gray, Stephen P.; Barit, David; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam; Namikoshi, Tamehachi; Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Wingler, Kirstin; Szyndralewiez, Cedric; Heitz, Freddy; Touyz, Rhian M.; Cooper, Mark E.; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy may occur, in part, as a result of intrarenal oxidative stress. NADPH oxidases comprise the only known dedicated reactive oxygen species (ROS)–forming enzyme family. In the rodent kidney, three isoforms of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase are expressed (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4). Here we show that Nox4 is the main source of renal ROS in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin administration in ApoE−/− mice. Deletion of Nox4, but not of Nox1, resulted in renal protection from glomerular injury as evidenced by attenuated albuminuria, preserved structure, reduced glomerular accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, attenuated glomerular macrophage infiltration, and reduced renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and NF-κB in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ApoE−/− mice. Importantly, administration of the most specific Nox1/4 inhibitor, GKT137831, replicated these renoprotective effects of Nox4 deletion. In human podocytes, silencing of the Nox4 gene resulted in reduced production of ROS and downregulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic markers that are implicated in diabetic nephropathy. Collectively, these results identify Nox4 as a key source of ROS responsible for kidney injury in diabetes and provide proof of principle for an innovative small molecule approach to treat and/or prevent chronic kidney failure. PMID:24511132

  14. Transient congenital hypothyroidism caused by compound heterozygous mutations affecting the NADPH-oxidase domain of DUOX2.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa-Ogasawara, Atsuko; Abe, Kiyomi; Ogikubo, Sayaka; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Satoh, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Here, we describe three cases of loss-of-function mutations in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase (NOX) domain of dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) occurring along with concurrent missense mutations in thyroid peroxidase (TPO), leading to transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Three Japanese boys with nonconsanguineous parents were diagnosed with CH during their neonatal screenings. All patients presented with moderate-to-severe neonatal hypothyroidism and were diagnosed with transient CH after re-evaluation of thyroid function. Two siblings were compound heterozygous for p.[R1110Q]+[Y1180X] in DUOX2; one of them was also heterozygous for p.[R361L] in TPO. The third patient was compound heterozygous for p.[L1160del]+[R1334W] in DUOX2 and heterozygous for p.[P883S] in TPO. This is the first report of a de novo L1160del mutation affecting the DUOX2 gene and of the novel mutations Y1180X in DUOX2 and R361L in TPO. R1110Q and L1160del were found to reduce H2O2 production (5%-9%, p<0.01), while Y1180X, which introduces a premature stop codon, did not confer detectable H2O2 production (-0.7%±0.6%, p<0.01). Moreover, R1334W, a missense mutation possibly affecting electron transfer, led to reduced H2O2 production (24%±0.9%, p<0.01) in vitro, and R1110Q and R1334W resulted in reduced protein expression. Y1180X was detected in a 120 kDa truncated form, whereas L1160del expression was maintained. Further, R361L, a novel missense mutation in TPO, caused partial reduction in peroxidase activity (20.6%±0.8%, p=0.01), whereas P883S, a missense variant, increased it (133.7%±2.8%, p=0.02). The protein expression levels in the case of R361L and P883S were maintained. In conclusion, we provide clinical and in vitro demonstrations of different functional defects and phenotypic heterogeneity in the same thyroid hormonogenesis pathway.

  15. NADPH oxidase deficient mice develop colitis and bacteremia upon infection with normally avirulent, TTSS-1- and TTSS-2-deficient Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Felmy, Boas; Songhet, Pascal; Slack, Emma Marie Caroline; Müller, Andreas J; Kremer, Marcus; Van Maele, Laurye; Cayet, Delphine; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn's disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb (-/-)) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tm(avir); invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb (-/-) mice are efficiently infected by S.Tm(avir) and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb (-/-) Myd88 (-/-) mice indicated that the S.Tm(avir)-inflicted disease in Cybb (-/-) mice hinges on CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tm(avir) in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large

  16. Receptor signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule family 1 (Slamf1) regulates membrane fusion and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activity by recruiting a Beclin-1/Vps34/ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG) complex.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Ninghai; Detre, Cynthia; Wang, Guoxing; O'Keeffe, Michael; Terhorst, Cox

    2012-05-25

    Phagocytosis is a pivotal process by which macrophages eliminate microorganisms upon recognition by pathogen sensors. Surprisingly, the self-ligand cell surface receptor Slamf1 functions not only as a co-stimulatory molecule but also as a microbial sensor of several Gram-negative bacteria. Upon entering the phagosome of macrophages Slamf1 induces production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, which positively regulates the activity of the NOX2 enzyme and phagolysosomal maturation. Here, we report that in Escherichia coli-containing phagosomes of mouse macrophages, Slamf1 interacts with the class III PI3K Vps34 in a complex with Beclin-1 and UVRAG. Upon phagocytosis of bacteria the NOX2 activity was reduced in macrophages isolated from Beclin-1(+/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. This Slamf1/Beclin-1/Vps34/UVRAG protein complex is formed in intracellular membrane compartments as it is found without inducing phagocytosis in macrophages, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, and transfectant HEK293 cells. Elimination of its cytoplasmic tail abolished the interaction of Slamf1 with the complex, but deletion or mutation of the two ITAM motifs did not. Both the BD and CCD domains of Beclin-1 were required for efficient binding to Slamf1. Because Slamf1 did not interact with Atg14L or Rubicon, which can also form a complex with Vps34 and Beclin-1, we conclude that Slamf1 recruits a subset of Vps34-associated proteins, which is involved in membrane fusion and NOX2 regulation.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/−) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/− mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

  18. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is frequently correlated with the lung inflammation. In lung injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, bioactive sphingolipid metabolite), participate gene regulation of adhesion molecule in inflammation progression and aggravate tissue damage. To investigate the transduction mechanisms of the S1P in pulmonary epithelium, we demonstrated that exposure of HPAEpiCs (human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells) to S1P significantly induces ICAM-1 expression leading to increase monocyte adhesion on the surface of HPAEpiCs. These phenomena were effectively attenuated by pretreatments with series of inhibitors such as Rottlerin (PKCδ), PF431396 (PYK2), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (NADPH oxidase), Edaravone (ROS), and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB). Consistently, knockdown with siRNA transfection of PKCδ, PYK2, p47phox, and p65 exhibited the same results. Pretreatment with both Gq-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2A) and Gi/o-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2) also blocked the upregulation of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA induced by S1P. We observed that S1P induced PYK2 activation via a Gq-coupled receptor/PKCδ-dependent pathway. In addition, S1P induced NADPH oxidase activation and intracellular ROS generation, which were also reduced by Rottlerin or PF431396. We demonstrated that S1P induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in HPAEpiCs. Activated NF-κB was blocked by Rottlerin, PF431396, APO, DPI, or Edaravone. Besides, the results of monocyte adhesion assay indicated that S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression on HPAEpiCs can enhance the monocyte attachments. In the S1P-treated mice, we found that the levels of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA in the lung fractions, the pulmonary hematoma and leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were enhanced through a PKCδ/PYK2/NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. We concluded that S1P-accelerated lung damage is due to the ICAM-1 induction associated with

  19. Differential contribution of mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and glycolysis to region-specific oxidant stress in the anoxic-reoxygenated embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Eric; Thomas, Anne-Catherine; Sarre, Alexandre; Benathan, Messod

    2011-03-01

    The ability of the developing myocardium to tolerate oxidative stress during early gestation is an important issue with regard to possible detrimental consequences for the fetus. In the embryonic heart, antioxidant defences are low, whereas glycolytic flux is high. The pro- and antioxidant mechanisms and their dependency on glucose metabolism remain to be explored. Isolated hearts of 4-day-old chick embryos were exposed to normoxia (30 min), anoxia (30 min), and hyperoxic reoxygenation (60 min). The time course of ROS production in the whole heart and in the atria, ventricle, and outflow tract was established using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. Cardiac rhythm, conduction, and arrhythmias were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, gutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase as well as the content of reduced and oxidized glutathione were measured. The relative contribution of the ROS-generating systems was assessed by inhibition of mitochondrial complexes I and III (rotenone and myxothiazol), NADPH oxidases (diphenylene iodonium and apocynine), and nitric oxide synthases (N-monomethyl-L-arginine and N-iminoethyl-L-ornithine). The effects of glycolysis inhibition (iodoacetate), glucose deprivation, glycogen depletion, and lactate accumulation were also investigated. In untreated hearts, ROS production peaked at 10.8 ± 3.3, 9 ± 0.8, and 4.8 ± 0.4 min (means ± SD; n = 4) of reoxygenation in the atria, ventricle, and outflow tract, respectively, and was associated with arrhythmias. Functional recovery was complete after 30-40 min. At reoxygenation, 1) the respiratory chain and NADPH oxidases were the main sources of ROS in the atria and outflow tract, respectively; 2) glucose deprivation decreased, whereas glycogen depletion increased, oxidative stress; 3) lactate worsened oxidant stress via NADPH oxidase activation; 4) glycolysis blockade enhanced ROS production; 5) no nitrosative stress was detectable; and 6) the glutathione redox

  20. Ethanol-induced erectile dysfunction and increased expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle are mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Leite, Letícia N; do Vale, Gabriel T; Simplicio, Janaina A; De Martinis, Bruno S; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2017-03-15

    Ethanol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), but the molecular mechanisms through which ethanol causes ED remain elusive. Reactive oxygen species are described as mediators of ethanol-induced cell toxicity/damage in distinctive tissues. The enzyme NADPH oxidase is the main source of reactive oxygen species in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and ethanol is described to increase NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species generation. This study evaluated the contribution of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species to ethanol-induced ED, endothelial dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory and redox-sensitive proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM). Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v) or ethanol plus apocynin (30mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage) for six weeks. Apocynin prevented both the decreased in acetylcholine-induced relaxation and intracavernosal pressure induced by ethanol. Ethanol increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation and catalase activity in CSM, and treatment with apocynin prevented these responses. Similarly, apocynin prevented the ethanol-induced decreased of nitrate/nitrite (NOx), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and SOD activity. Treatment with ethanol increased p47phox translocation to the membrane as well as the expression of Nox2, COX-1, catalase, iNOS, ICAM-1 and p65. Apocynin prevented the effects of ethanol on protein expression and p47phox translocation. Finally, treatment with ethanol increased both TNF-α production and neutrophil migration in CSM. The major new finding of this study is that NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species play a role on chronic ethanol consumption-induced ED and endothelial dysfunction in the rat CSM.

  1. Deficient flavoprotein component of the NADPH-dependent O2-.-generating oxidase in the neutrophils from three male patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A

    1984-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent O2-.-generating oxidase in subcellular fractions from the neutrophils of three male patients with chronic granulomatous disease was compared with the corresponding preparations from normal neutrophils. The oxidase from normal neutrophils contained flavin adenine dinucleotide in an approximately 0.9:1 molar ratio with cytochrome b559. Each of the three chronic granulomatous disease patients had decreased amounts of the flavoprotein component of the oxidase fraction. The oxidase from two chronic granulomatous disease patients had undetectable amounts of cytochrome b559 whereas the third patient had a normal content of cytochrome b559, which was spectrally indistinguishable from the normal. The intrinsic cytochrome b559 in the oxidase fraction from stimulated neutrophils of the latter chronic granulomatous disease patient was not reduced by NADPH under anaerobic conditions, in distinction with the previously reported reduction of the normal cytochrome b559 under identical conditions. We conclude that the flavoprotein component of the oxidase may mediate transfer of electrons from NADPH to the cytochrome b559 in normal neutrophils, and that deficiency of this flavoprotein is associated with the chronic granulomatous disease phenotype in the three patients studied. PMID:6707199

  2. Deficient flavoprotein component of the NADPH-dependent O2-.-generating oxidase in the neutrophils from three male patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A

    1984-03-01

    The NADPH-dependent O2-.-generating oxidase in subcellular fractions from the neutrophils of three male patients with chronic granulomatous disease was compared with the corresponding preparations from normal neutrophils. The oxidase from normal neutrophils contained flavin adenine dinucleotide in an approximately 0.9:1 molar ratio with cytochrome b559. Each of the three chronic granulomatous disease patients had decreased amounts of the flavoprotein component of the oxidase fraction. The oxidase from two chronic granulomatous disease patients had undetectable amounts of cytochrome b559 whereas the third patient had a normal content of cytochrome b559, which was spectrally indistinguishable from the normal. The intrinsic cytochrome b559 in the oxidase fraction from stimulated neutrophils of the latter chronic granulomatous disease patient was not reduced by NADPH under anaerobic conditions, in distinction with the previously reported reduction of the normal cytochrome b559 under identical conditions. We conclude that the flavoprotein component of the oxidase may mediate transfer of electrons from NADPH to the cytochrome b559 in normal neutrophils, and that deficiency of this flavoprotein is associated with the chronic granulomatous disease phenotype in the three patients studied.

  3. TMEM16A Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction by Facilitating Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Ming; Gao, Min; Guo, Kai-Min; Wang, Mi; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zeng, Xue-Lin; Sun, Lu; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Du, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guan-Lei; Zhou, Jia-Guo; Guan, Yong-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, the role of TMEM16A in vascular endothelial dysfunction during hypertension is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific involvement of TMEM16A in regulating endothelial function and blood pressure and the underlying mechanism. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal imaging, patch-clamp recordings, and TMEM16A endothelial-specific transgenic and knockout mice were used. We found that TMEM16A was expressed abundantly and functioned as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in endothelial cells. Angiotensin II induced endothelial dysfunction with an increase in TMEM16A expression. The knockout of endothelial-specific TMEM16A significantly lowered the blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas the overexpression of endothelial-specific TMEM16A resulted in the opposite effects. These results were related to the increased reactive oxygen species production, Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase activation, and Nox2 and p22phox protein expression that were facilitated by TMEM16A on angiotensin II-induced hypertensive challenge. Moreover, TMEM16A directly bound with Nox2 and reduced the degradation of Nox2 through the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Therefore, TMEM16A is a positive regulator of endothelial reactive oxygen species generation via Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, which induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Modification of TMEM16A may be a novel therapeutic strategy for endothelial dysfunction-associated diseases.

  4. High Expression Levels of NADPH Oxidase 3 in the Cerebrum of Ten-Week-Old Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Michihara, Akihiro; Oda, Asaki; Mido, Mayuko

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the high levels of oxidative stress in the brains of ten-week-old stroke-prone hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were attributable to intrinsic, not extrinsic factors (Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33, 2010, Michihara et al.). The aim of the present study was to determine whether increases in the enzymes producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reductions in the enzymes and proteins removing ROS, or increases in an enzyme and transporter removing antioxidants promoted oxidative stress in the SHRSP cerebrum. No significant decreases were observed in the mRNA levels of enzymes that remove ROS between SHRSP and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. The activity of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and the protein and mRNA levels of NOX3, an enzyme that produces ROS, were significantly increased in the SHRSP cerebrum. These results suggested that the high expression levels of NOX3 increased oxidative stress in the SHRSP cerebrum.

  5. NADPH Oxidase 4 (Nox4) Suppresses Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Bioenergetics in Lung Fibroblasts via a Nuclear Factor Erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2)-dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Karen; Logsdon, Naomi J; Miguel, Veronica; Benavides, Gloria A; Zhang, Jianhua; Carter, A Brent; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Thannickal, Victor J

    2017-02-17

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense, and tissue fibrosis. In this study we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4. Inhibition of Nox4 expression/activity by genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by elevated mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratio and increased expression of the mitochondrial markers transcription factor A (TFAM), citrate synthase, voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (COX IV). Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on TFAM up-regulation but was independent of the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α). The enhancement of mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as the increase in mitochondrial proteins in Nox4-deficient lung fibroblasts is inhibited by silencing of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), supporting a key role for Nrf2 in control of mitochondrial biogenesis. Together, these results indicate a critical role for both Nox4 and Nrf2 in counter-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-{kappa}B in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Manea, Adrian; Tanase, Laurentia I.; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya

    2010-06-11

    Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-{kappa}B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cultured cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), a potent inducer of both Nox and NF-{kappa}B, up to 24 h. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dichlorofluorescein assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B pathway reduced significantly the TNF{alpha}-dependent up-regulation of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species production, Nox1 and Nox4 expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-{kappa}B elements in the promoters of Nox1 and Nox4. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-{kappa}B significantly increased the promoter activities of both isoforms. Physical interaction of p65/NF-{kappa}B proteins with the predicted sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These findings demonstrate that NF-{kappa}B is an essential regulator of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase in SMCs. Elucidation of the complex relationships between NF-{kappa}B and Nox enzymes may lead to a novel pharmacological strategy to reduce both inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and its associated complications.

  7. High-throughput assays for superoxide and hydrogen peroxide: design of a screening workflow to identify inhibitors of NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Jacek; Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Monika; Ganesh, Thota; Sun, Aiming; Joseph, Joy; Michalski, Radosław; O'Brien, William J; Lambeth, J David; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2014-06-06

    Recent progress characterizing the reaction mechanism(s) of fluorescent probes with reactive oxygen species has made it possible to rigorously analyze these reactive species in biological systems. We have developed rapid high throughput-compatible assays for monitoring cellular production of superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide using hydropropidine and coumarin boronic acid probes, respectively. Coupling plate reader-based fluorescence measurements with HPLC-based simultaneous monitoring of superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide provides the basis for the screening protocol for NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitors. Using this newly developed approach along with the medium-throughput plate reader-based oximetry and EPR spin trapping as confirmatory assays, it is now eminently feasible to rapidly and reliably identify Nox enzyme inhibitors with a markedly lower rate of false positives. These methodological advances provide an opportunity to discover selective inhibitors of Nox isozymes, through enhanced conceptual understanding of their basic mechanisms of action.

  8. Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in chronic granulomatous disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H; Zarember, Kol A; Mills, Teresa A; Gallin, John I

    2013-09-15

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to nonoxidative killing mechanisms. Although G. bethesdensis extends the survival of PMN, persistent intracellular bacterial survival might rely on longer-lived macrophages and their precursor monocytes. Therefore, we examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Cells from both normal and CGD subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal PMN. Normal but not CGD monocytes and MDM killed G. bethesdensis and required in vitro treatment with IFN-γ to maintain this killing effect. Although in vitro IFN-γ did not enhance G. bethesdensis killing in CGD monocytes, it restricted growth in proportion to CGD PMN residual superoxide production, providing a potential method to identify patients responsive to IFN-γ therapy. In IFN-γ-treated CGD MDM, G. bethesdensis persisted for the duration of the study (7 d) without decreasing viability of the host cells. These results indicate that G. bethesdensis is highly resistant to oxygen-independent microbicides of myeloid cells, requires an intact NADPH oxidase for clearance, and can persist long-term in CGD mononuclear phagocytes, most likely relating to the persistence of this microorganism in infected CGD patients.

  9. Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H.; Zarember, Kol A.; Mills, Teresa A.; Gallin, John I.

    2013-01-01

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to non-oxidative killing mechanisms. While G. bethesdensis extends the survival of PMN, persistent intracellular bacterial survival might rely on longer-lived macrophages and their precursor monocytes. Therefore, we examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Cells from both normal and CGD subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal PMN. Normal but not CGD monocytes and MDM killed G. bethesdensis and required in vitro treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to maintain this killing effect. Although in vitro IFN-γ did not enhance G. bethesdensis killing in CGD monocytes, it restricted growth in proportion to CGD PMN residual superoxide production, providing a potential method to identify patients responsive to IFN-γ therapy. In IFN-γ-treated CGD MDM, G. bethesdensis persisted for the duration of the study (7 days) without decreasing viability of the host cells. These results indicate that G. bethesdensis is highly resistant to oxygen-independent microbicides of myeloid cells, requires an intact NADPH oxidase for clearance, and can persist long-term in CGD mononuclear phagocytes, likely relating to the persistence of this microorganism in infected CGD patients. PMID:23956436

  10. Phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis is powerfully responsible for reducing oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase expression induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Riss, Jérome; Décordé, Kelly; Sutra, Thibault; Delage, Martine; Baccou, Jean-Claude; Jouy, Nicolas; Brune, Jean-Pierre; Oréal, Henri; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2007-09-19

    The effects of spirulina and its chromophore phycocyanin, both without bound Se or selenium-enriched, were studied on plasma cholesterol, early atherosclerosis, cardiac production of superoxide anions, and NAD(P)H oxidase expression in hamsters. Forty hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 8 and fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received by gavage either 7.14 mL/(kg day) phycocyanin (PC), Se-rich phycocyanin (SePC), spirulina (SP) or Se-rich spirulina (SeSP) in water, or water as control. SeSP and SePC supplied 0.4 microg of Se per 100 g body weight. Plasma cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were lower in group consuming SePC. HDL-cholesterol was never affected. SePC significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity by 42% compared with controls. A sparing effect in liver glutathione peroxidase (87% on average) and superoxide dismutase (56% on average) activity was observed for all the groups compared to controls. Aortic fatty streak area was significantly reduced in the experimental groups, especially by PC (82%) and SePC (85%). Cardiac production of superoxide anion significantly decreased by approximately 46-76% in the four experimental groups and especially in SePC group (76%). The expression of p22phox subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase decreased by 34% after consumption of SePC. The results indicate that chronic consumption of Se-rich spirulina phycocyanin powerfully prevents the development of atherosclerosis. The underlying mechanism is related mainly to inhibiting pro-oxidant factors and at a lesser extent improving the serum lipid profile.

  11. Dysregulation of alveolar macrophage PPARγ, NADPH oxidases and TGFβ1 in otherwise healthy HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Yeligar, Samantha M; Ward, Janine M; Harris, Frank L; Brown, Lou Ann; Guidot, David; Cribbs, Sushma K

    2017-03-17

    Rationale: Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), respiratory infections increase mortality in individuals living with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In experimental and clinical studies of chronic HIV infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) exhibit impaired phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) are critical mediators of AM oxidative stress and phagocytic dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that HIV alters AM expression of these targets, resulting in chronic lung oxidative stress and subsequent immune dysfunction. Methods: A cross-sectional study of HIV-infected (n=22) and HIV-uninfected (n=6) subjects was conducted. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and AMs were isolated. Lung H2O2 generation was determined by measuring H2O2 in the BAL fluid. In AMs, PPARγ, Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and TGFβ1 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and protein (fluorescent immunomicroscopy) levels were assessed. Results: Compared to HIV-uninfected (control) subjects, HIV-infected subjects were relatively older and the majority were African American; ~86% were on ART and their median CD4 count was 445 with a median viral load of 0 log copies/mL. HIV infection was associated with increased H2O2 in the BAL, decreased AM mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ, and increased AM mRNA and protein levels of Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and TGFβ1. Conclusions: PPARγ attenuation and increases in Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and TGFβ1 contribute to AM oxidative stress and immune dysfunction in the AMs of otherwise healthy HIV-infected subjects. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms by which HIV increases susceptibility to pulmonary infections.

  12. Expression of genes belonging to the interacting TLR cascades, NADPH-oxidase and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Laura A.; Santos, Sidnéia S.; Brunialti, Milena K. C.; Sharma, Narendra Kumar; Machado, Flavia R.; Assunção, Murillo; de Azevedo, Luciano C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Sepsis is a complex disease that is characterized by activation and inhibition of different cell signaling pathways according to the disease stage. Here, we evaluated genes involved in the TLR signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative metabolism, aiming to assess their interactions and resulting cell functions and pathways that are disturbed in septic patients. Materials and methods Blood samples were obtained from 16 patients with sepsis secondary to community acquired pneumonia at admission (D0), and after 7 days (D7, N = 10) of therapy. Samples were also collected from 8 healthy volunteers who were matched according to age and gender. Gene expression of 84 genes was performed by real-time polymerase chain reactions. Their expression was considered up- or down-regulated when the fold change was greater than 1.5 compared to the healthy volunteers. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Twenty-two genes were differently expressed in D0 samples; most of them were down-regulated. When gene expression was analyzed according to the outcomes, higher number of altered genes and a higher intensity in the disturbance was observed in non-survivor than in survivor patients. The canonical pathways altered in D0 samples included interferon and iNOS signaling; the role of JAK1, JAK2 and TYK2 in interferon signaling; mitochondrial dysfunction; and superoxide radical degradation pathways. When analyzed according to outcomes, different pathways were disturbed in surviving and non-surviving patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation and superoxide radical degradation pathway were among the most altered in non-surviving patients. Conclusion Our data show changes in the expression of genes belonging to the interacting TLR cascades, NADPH-oxidase and oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, distinct patterns are clearly observed in surviving and non-surviving patients. Interferon signaling, marked by

  13. Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg Cells in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Show Alterations of Genes Encoding the NADPH Oxidase Complex and Impaired Reactive Oxygen Species Synthesis Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Sosna, Justyna; Döring, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Küppers, Ralf; Böttcher, Sebastian; Adam, Dieter; Siebert, Reiner; Schütze, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The membrane bound NADPH oxidase involved in the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a multi-protein enzyme encoded by CYBA, CYBB, NCF1, NCF2 and NCF4 genes. Growing evidence suggests a role of ROS in the modulation of signaling pathways of non-phagocytic cells, including differentiation and proliferation of B-cell progenitors. Transcriptional downregulation of the CYBB gene has been previously reported in cell lines of the B-cell derived classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Thus, we explored functional consequences of CYBB downregulation on the NADPH complex. Using flow cytometry to detect and quantify superoxide anion synthesis in cHL cell lines we identified recurrent loss of superoxide anion production in all stimulated cHL cell lines in contrast to stimulated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. As CYBB loss proved to exert a deleterious effect on the NADPH oxidase complex in cHL cell lines, we analyzed the CYBB locus in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of primary cHL biopsies by in situ hybridisation and identified recurrent deletions of the gene in 8/18 cases. Immunohistochemical analysis to 14 of these cases revealed a complete lack of detectable CYBB protein expression in all HRS cells in all cases studied. Moreover, by microarray profiling of cHL cell lines we identified additional alterations of NADPH oxidase genes including CYBA copy number loss in 3/7 cell lines and a significant downregulation of the NCF1 transcription (p=0.006) compared to normal B-cell subsets. Besides, NCF1 protein was significantly downregulated (p<0.005) in cHL compared to other lymphoma cell lines. Together this findings show recurrent alterations of the NADPH oxidase encoding genes that result in functional inactivation of the enzyme and reduced production of superoxide anion in cHL. PMID:24376854

  14. NADPH oxidase complex and IBD candidate gene studies: identification of a rare variant in NCF2 that results in reduced binding to RAC2

    PubMed Central

    Muise, Aleixo M; Xu, Wei; Guo, Cong-Hui; Walters, Thomas D; Wolters, Victorien M; Fattouh, Ramzi; Lam, Grace Y; Hu, Pingzhao; Murchie, Ryan; Sherlock, Mary; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Russell, Richard K; Glogauer, Michael; Duerr, Richard H; Cho, Judy H; Lees, Charlie W; Satsangi, Jack; Wilson, David C; Paterson, Andrew D; Griffiths, Anne M; Silverberg, Mark S; Brumell, John H

    2013-01-01

    Objective The NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex produces reactive oxygen species and plays a critical role in the killing of microbes by phagocytes. Genetic mutations in genes encoding components of the complex result in both X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Patients with CGD often develop intestinal inflammation that is histologically similar to Crohn's colitis, suggesting a common aetiology for both diseases. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms in NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex genes that do not cause CGD are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Direct sequencing and candidate gene approaches were used to identify susceptibility loci in NADPH oxidase complex genes. Functional studies were carried out on identified variants. Novel findings were replicated in independent cohorts. Results Sequence analysis identified a novel missense variant in the neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene that is associated with very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) and subsequently found in 4% of patients with VEO-IBD compared with 0.2% of controls (p=1.3×10−5, OR 23.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 142.5); Fisher exact test). This variant reduced binding of the NCF2 gene product p67phox to RAC2. This study found a novel genetic association of RAC2 with Crohn's disease (CD) and replicated the previously reported association of NCF4 with ileal CD. Conclusion These studies suggest that the rare novel p67phox variant results in partial inhibition of oxidase function and are associated with CD in a subgroup of patients with VEO-IBD; and suggest that components of the NADPH oxidase complex are associated with CD. PMID:21900546

  15. NADPH Oxidase Deficient Mice Develop Colitis and Bacteremia upon Infection with Normally Avirulent, TTSS-1- and TTSS-2-Deficient Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Emma Marie Caroline; Müller, Andreas J.; Kremer, Marcus; Van Maele, Laurye; Cayet, Delphine; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn’s disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb−/−) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tmavir; invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb−/− mice are efficiently infected by S.Tmavir and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb−/−Myd88−/− mice indicated that the S.Tmavir-inflicted disease in Cybb−/− mice hinges on CD11c+CX3CR1+ monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tmavir in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the failing heart, NADPH oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase utilize cytosolic NADPH to form superoxide. NADPH is supplied principally by the pentose phosphate pathway, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac G6PD activation dr...

  17. TNF-α-Induced cPLA2 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wei-Ning; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and then enhancing the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) in inflammatory diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α induced cPLA2 expression were not fully defined in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). We found that TNF-α-stimulated increases in cPLA2 mRNA (5.2 folds) and protein (3.9 folds) expression, promoter activity (4.3 folds), and PGE2 secretion (4.7 folds) in HPAEpiCs, determined by Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity assay and PGE2 ELISA kit. These TNF-α-mediated responses were abrogated by the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], ROS [N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC)], NF-κB (Bay11-7082) and transfection with siRNA of ASK1, p47phox, TRAF2, NIK, IKKα, IKKβ, or p65. TNF-α markedly stimulated NADPH oxidase activation and ROS including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production which were inhibited by pretreatment with a TNFR1 neutralizing antibody, APO, DPI or transfection with siRNA of TRAF2, ASK1, or p47phox. In addition, TNF-α also stimulated p47phox phosphorylation and translocation in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, TNF-α induced TNFR1, TRAF2, ASK1, and p47phox complex formation in HPAEpiCs, which were attenuated by a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. We found that pretreatment with NAC, DPI, or APO also attenuated the TNF-α-stimulated IKKα/β and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB (p65) translocation, and NF-κB promoter activity in HPAEpiCs. Finally, we observed that TNF-α-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation and ROS generation activates NF-κB through the NIK/IKKα/β pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrated that in HPAEpiCs, up-regulation of cPLA2 by TNF-α is, at least in part, mediated through the cooperation of TNFR1, TRAF2, ASK1, and NADPH oxidase leading to ROS generation and ultimately activates NF-κB pathway. PMID:27932980

  18. Genistein effect on xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Sumbayev, V V

    2001-01-01

    Genistein was defined to be an allosteric xanthine oxidase inhibitor in the concentrations 0.1-4.0 microM and xanthine oxidase activator with superoxide scavenging activity in the concentrations 5.0 microM and higher. But the most effective allosteric binding with the highest affinity was observed in the genistein concentrations 0.1-1.0 microM. Intraperitoneum injections of genistein (500 micrograms/kg) during three days with the interval 24 hours decrease xanthine oxidase activity in the liver, lung and brain of the Vistar rats.

  19. FgNoxR, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidases, is required for female fertility and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengkang; Lin, Yahong; Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Norvienyeku, Justice; Li, Guangpu; Yu, Wenying; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal pathogen that causes wheat Fusarium head blight. In this study, we identified FgNoxR, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidases (Nox) in F. graminearum, and found that it plays an important role in the pathogenicity of F. graminearum. FgNoxR is localized on punctate structures throughout the cytoplasm in aerial hyphae while these structures tend to accumulate at or near the plasma membrane, septa and hyphal tips in germinated conidia. Deletion of the FgNOXR gene results in reduced conidiation and germination. Importantly, sexual development is totally abolished in the FgNOXR deletion mutant. In addition, the disease lesion of FgNOXR deletion mutant is limited to the inoculated spikelets of wheat heads. Finally, FgNoxR interacts with FgRac1 and FgNoxA, and all three proteins are required for female fertility. Taken together, our data indicate that FgNoxR contributes to conidiation, sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in F. graminearum.

  20. Resveratrol inhibits foam cell formation via NADPH oxidase 1-mediated reactive oxygen species and monocyte chemotactic protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae-Weon; Baek, Kheewoong; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Jae-Jin; Ryu, Sang-Ho; Chin, Byung-Rho

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound in red wine that has anti-oxidant and cardioprotective effects in animal models. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) play key roles in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. We studied LPS-mediated foam cell formation and the effect of resveratrol. Resveratrol pretreatment strongly suppressed LPS-induced foam cell formation. To determine if resveratrol affected the expression of genes that control ROS generation in macrophages, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was measured. Resveratrol treatment of macrophages inhibited LPS-induced Nox1 expression as well as ROS generation, and also suppressed LPS-induced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. We investigated the upstream targets of Nox1 and MCP-1 expression and found that Akt-forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO3a) is an important signaling pathway that regulates both genes. These inhibitory effects of resveratrol on Nox1 expression and MCP-1 production may target to the Akt and FoxO3a signaling pathways. PMID:19293636

  1. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  2. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  3. NADPH oxidases as electrochemical generators to produce ion fluxes and turgor in fungi, plants and humans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The NOXs are a family of flavocytochromes whose basic structure has been largely conserved from algae to man. This is a very simple system. NADPH is generally available, in plants it is a direct product of photosynthesis, and oxygen is a largely ubiquitous electron acceptor, and the electron-transporting core of an FAD and two haems is the minimal required to pass electrons across the plasma membrane. These NOXs have been shown to be essential for diverse functions throughout the biological world and, lacking a clear mechanism of action, their effects have generally been attributed to free radical reactions. Investigation into the function of neutrophil leucocytes has demonstrated that electron transport through the prototype NOX2 is accompanied by the generation of a charge across the membrane that provides the driving force propelling protons and other ions across the plasma membrane. The contention is that the primary function of the NOXs is to supply the driving force to transport ions, the nature of which will depend upon the composition and characteristics of the local ion channels, to undertake a host of diverse functions. These include the generation of turgor in fungi and plants for the growth of filaments and invasion by appressoria in the former, and extension of pollen tubes and root hairs, and stomatal closure, in the latter. In neutrophils, they elevate the pH in the phagocytic vacuole coupled to other ion fluxes. In endothelial cells of blood vessels, they could alter luminal volume to regulate blood pressure and tissue perfusion. PMID:27249799

  4. Activation of polyphenol oxidase of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N E

    1973-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or -18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density.Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes.Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30

  5. Resveratrol inhibits collagen-induced platelet stimulation through suppressing NADPH oxidase and oxidative inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Yong; Min, Ji Hyun; Wang, Su Bin; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced upon collagen stimulation are implicated in propagating various platelet-activating pathways. Among ROS-producing enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) is largely responsible for collagen receptor-dependent ROS production. Therefore, NOX has been proposed as a novel target for the development of antiplatelet agent. We here investigate whether resveratrol inhibits collagen-induced NOX activation and further examine the effects of resveratrol on ROS-dependent signaling pathways in collagen-stimulated platelets. Collagen-induced superoxide anion production in platelets was inhibited by resveratrol. Resveratrol suppressed collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX. Correlated with the inhibitory effects on NOX, resveratrol protected SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) from ROS-mediated inactivation and subsequently attenuated the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (spleen tyrosine kinase, Vav1, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and phospholipase Cγ2) for collagen receptor signaling cascades. Resveratrol also inhibited downstream responses such as cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen. The antiplatelet effects of resveratrol through the inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2 suggest that resveratrol is a potential compound for prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases.

  6. The role of NADPH oxidase in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alexandria J.; Dreve, Nathan; Yin, Huaizhi; Tamayo, Esther; Saade, George; Bytautiene, Egle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation. Oxidative stress is one of the purported mechanisms. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme involved in the production of reactive oxygen species. Our objective was to evaluate NOX in the fetal brain of a well-validated mouse model of FAS. STUDY DESIGN Timed, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03 mL/g of either 25% ethyl alcohol or saline. Fetal brain, liver, and placenta were harvested on gestational day 18. The unit of analysis was the litter; tissue from 6–8 litters in the alcohol and control group was isolated. Evaluation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of NOX subunits (DUOX1, DUOX2, NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOXA1, NOXO1, RAC1, p22phox, and p67phox) was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; alcohol vs placebo groups were compared using a Student t test or a Mann-Whitney test (P < .05). RESULTS Alcohol exposed fetal brains showed significant up-regulation in subunits DUOX2 (1.61 ± 0.28 vs 0.84 ± 0.09; P = .03), NOXA1 (1.75 ± 0.27 vs 1.09 ± 0.06; P = .04), and NOXO1 (1.59 ± 0.10 vs 1.28 ± 0.05; P = .02). Differences in mRNA expression in the placenta were not significant; p67phox was significantly up-regulated in alcohol-exposed livers. CONCLUSION Various NOX subunits are up-regulated in fetal brains exposed to alcohol. This effect was not observed in the fetal liver or placenta. Given the available evidence, the NOX system may be involved in the causation of FAS through the generation of reactive oxygen species and may be a potential target for preventative treatment in FAS. PMID:24334207

  7. Neutrophils from patients with SAPHO syndrome show no signs of aberrant NADPH oxidase-dependent production of intracellular reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wekell, Per; Björnsdottir, Halla; Björkman, Lena; Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Osla, Veronica; Berg, Stefan; Fasth, Anders; Welin, Amanda; Bylund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate if aberrant intracellular production of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils is a disease mechanism in the autoinflammatory disease SAPHO syndrome, characterized by synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, as has previously been suggested based on a family with SAPHO syndrome-like disease. Methods. Neutrophil function was explored in a cohort of four patients with SAPHO syndrome, two of whom were sampled during both inflammatory and non-inflammatory phase. Intracellular neutrophil ROS production was determined by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in response to phorbol myristate acetate. Results. Cells from all patients produced normal amounts of ROS, both intra- and extracellularly, when compared with internal controls as well as with a large collection of healthy controls assayed in the laboratory over time (showing an extensive inter-personal variability in a normal population). Further, intracellular production of ROS increased during the inflammatory phase. Neutrophil activation markers were comparable between patients and controls. Conclusion. Dysfunctional generation of intracellular ROS in neutrophils is not a generalizable feature in SAPHO syndrome. Secondly, serum amyloid A appears to be a more sensitive inflammatory marker than CRP during improvement and relapses in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:27121779

  8. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species are essential for differentiation of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) into osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tominaga, Kumiko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2009-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (Nox) homologues have been suggested to regulate osteoclast differentiation. However, no bone abnormalities have been documented in Nox1 deficient, Nox2 deficient, or Nox3 mutant mice. During receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated differentiation of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) into osteoclasts, mRNA levels of Nox enzymes (Nox1-4) and their adaptor proteins were monitored by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. RAW264.7 cells constitutively expressed abundant Nox2 mRNA and small amounts of Nox1 and Nox3 transcripts. RANKL markedly attenuated Nox2 mRNA expression in association with reciprocal up-regulation of Nox1 and Nox3 transcripts. Introduction of small interference RNA targeting p67(phox) or p22(phox) into RAW264.7 cells effectively down-regulated ROS generation and significantly suppressed the RANKL-stimulated differentiation, which was assessed by appearance of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive, multinucleated cells having an ability to form resorption pits on calcium phosphate thin film-coated disks, and by expression of osteoclast marker genes (TRAP, cathepsin K, Atp6i, ClC-7, and NFATc1). Our results suggest that RANKL may stimulate switching between Nox homologues during osteoclast differentiation, and Nox-derived ROS may be crucial for RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

  9. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Induces Inflammation in Human Endothelial Cells by an NADPH Oxidase- and Nuclear Factor Kappa B-Dependent and Retinol-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Rafal A.; Halsey, Stacey; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Ma, Jian-xing

    2012-01-01

    Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the sole specific vitamin A (retinol) transporter in blood. Elevation of serum RBP4 in patients has been linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetic retinopathy. However, the significance of RBP4 elevation in the pathogenesis of these vascular diseases is unknown. Here we show that RBP4 induces inflammation in primary human retinal capillary endothelial cells (HRCEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by stimulating expression of proinflammatory molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment and adherence to endothelium, including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We demonstrate that these novel effects of RBP4 are independent of retinol and the RBP4 membrane receptor STRA6 and occur in part via activation of NADPH oxidase and NF-κB. Importantly, retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4) was as potent as retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) in inducing proinflammatory molecules in both HRCEC and HUVEC. These studies reveal that RBP4 elevation can directly contribute to endothelial inflammation and therefore may play a causative role in the development or progression of vascular inflammation during cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications of diabetes. PMID:23071093

  10. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  11. Effects of ANG II type 1 and 2 receptors on oxidative stress, renal NADPH oxidase, and SOD expression.

    PubMed

    Chabrashvili, Tina; Kitiyakara, Chagriya; Blau, Jonathan; Karber, Alex; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2003-07-01

    Oxidative stress accompanies angiotensin (ANG) II infusion, but the role of ANG type 1 vs. type 2 receptors (AT1-R and AT2-R, respectively) is unknown. We infused ANG II subcutaneously in rats for 1 wk. Excretion of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were related to renal cortical mRNA abundance for subunits of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutases (SODs) using real-time PCR. Subsets of ANG II-infused rats were given the AT1-R antagonist candesartan cilexetil (Cand) or the AT2-R antagonist PD-123,319 (PD). Compared to vehicle (Veh), ANG II increased 8-Iso excretion by 41% (Veh, 5.4 +/- 0.8 vs. ANG II, 7.6 +/- 0.5 pg/24 h; P < 0.05). This was prevented by Cand (5.6 +/- 0.5 pg/24 h; P < 0.05) and increased by PD (15.8 +/- 2.0 pg/24 h; P < 0.005). There were similar changes in MDA excretion. Compared to Veh, ANG II significantly (P < 0.005) increased the renal cortical mRNA expression of p22phox (twofold), Nox-1 (2.6-fold), and Mn-SOD (1.5-fold) and decreased expression of Nox-4 (2.1-fold) and extracellular (EC)-SOD (2.1-fold). Cand prevented all of these changes except for the increase in Mn-SOD. PD accentuated changes in p22phox and Nox-1 and increased p67phox. We conclude that ANG II infusion stimulates oxidative stress via AT1-R, which increases the renal cortical mRNA expression of p22phox and Nox-1 and reduces abundance of Nox-4 and EC-SOD. This is offset by strong protective effects of AT2-R, which are accompanied by decreased expression of p22phox, Nox-1, and p67phox.

  12. NADPH Oxidase-Derived Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Impairs Postischemic Neovascularization in Mice with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Téni G; Heymes, Christophe; You, Dong; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Mees, Barend; Waeckel, Ludovic; Duriez, Micheline; Vilar, José; Brandes, Ralph P.; Levy, Bernard I.; Shah, Ajay M.; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesized that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may affect postischemic neovascularization. The response to unilateral femoral artery ligation was studied in wild-type or gp91phox-deficient control or type 1 diabetic mice or in animals treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or with in vivo electrotransfer of a plasmid encoding dominant-negative Rac1 (50 μg) for 21 days. Postischemic neovascularization was reduced in diabetic mice in association with down-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A protein levels. In diabetic animals vascular endothelial growth factor levels and postischemic neovascularization were restored to nondiabetic levels by the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAC administration or the inhibition of ROS generation by gp91phox deficiency or by administration of dominant-negative Rac1. Finally, diabetes reduced the ability of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells. Treatment with NAC (3 mmol/L), apocynin (200 μmol/L), or the p38MAPK inhibitor LY333351 (10 μmol/L) up-regulated the number of endothelial progenitor cell colonies derived from diabetic BM-MNCs by 1.5-, 1.6-, and 1.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). In the ischemic hindlimb model, injection of diabetic BM-MNCs isolated from NAC-treated or gp91phox-deficient diabetic mice increased neovascularization by ∼1.5-fold greater than untreated diabetic BM-MNCs (P < 0.05). Thus, inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction improves the angiogenic and vasculogenic processes and restores postischemic neovascularization in type 1 diabetic mice. PMID:16877369

  13. NADPH oxidase-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species impairs postischemic neovascularization in mice with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Téni G; Heymes, Christophe; You, Dong; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Mees, Barend; Waeckel, Ludovic; Duriez, Micheline; Vilar, José; Brandes, Ralph P; Levy, Bernard I; Shah, Ajay M; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    We hypothesized that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may affect postischemic neovascularization. The response to unilateral femoral artery ligation was studied in wild-type or gp91(phox)-deficient control or type 1 diabetic mice or in animals treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or with in vivo electrotransfer of a plasmid encoding dominant-negative Rac1 (50 microg) for 21 days. Postischemic neovascularization was reduced in diabetic mice in association with down-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor-A protein levels. In diabetic animals vascular endothelial growth factor levels and postischemic neovascularization were restored to nondiabetic levels by the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAC administration or the inhibition of ROS generation by gp91(phox) deficiency or by administration of dominant-negative Rac1. Finally, diabetes reduced the ability of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells. Treatment with NAC (3 mmol/L), apocynin (200 micromol/L), or the p38MAPK inhibitor LY333351 (10 micromol/L) up-regulated the number of endothelial progenitor cell colonies derived from diabetic BM-MNCs by 1.5-, 1.6-, and 1.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). In the ischemic hindlimb model, injection of diabetic BM-MNCs isolated from NAC-treated or gp91(phox)-deficient diabetic mice increased neovascularization by approximately 1.5-fold greater than untreated diabetic BM-MNCs (P < 0.05). Thus, inhibition of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction improves the angiogenic and vasculogenic processes and restores postischemic neovascularization in type 1 diabetic mice.

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by NADPH Oxidases Promote Radicle Protrusion and Root Elongation during Rice Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Yan; Chen, Bing-Xian; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Gao, Yin-Tao; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is a complicated biological process that requires regulation through various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. Although it has been recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate radicle emergence and root elongation in a non-enzymatic manner during dicot seed germination, the role of ROS in monocot seed germination remains unknown. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are the major ROS producers in plants; however, whether and how NOXs regulate rice seed germination through ROS generation remains unclear. Here, we report that diphenyleneiodinium (DPI), a specific NOX inhibitor, potently inhibited embryo and seedling growth—especially that of the radicle and of root elongation—in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the DPI-mediated inhibition of radicle and root growth could be eliminated by transferring seedlings from DPI to water. Furthermore, ROS production/accumulation during rice seed germination was quantified via histochemistry. Superoxide radicals (O2−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) accumulated steadily in the coleorhiza, radicle and seedling root of germinating rice seeds. Expression profiles of the nine typical NOX genes were also investigated. According to quantitative PCR, OsNOX5, 7 and 9 were expressed relatively higher. When seeds were incubated in water, OsNOX5 expression progressively increased in the embryo from 12 to 48 h, whereas OsNOX7 and 9 expressions increased from 12 to 24 h and decreased thereafter. As expected, DPI inhibits the expression at predetermined time points for each of these genes. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS produced by NOXs are involved in radicle and root elongation during rice seed germination, and OsNOX5, 7 and 9 could play crucial roles in rice seed germination. These findings will facilitate further studies of the roles of ROS generated by NOXs during seed germination and seedling establishment and also provide valuable information for the regulation of NOX

  15. NADPH oxidase-derived H2O2 mediates the regulatory effects of microglia on astrogliosis in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liyan; Zhou, Xueying; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Xiaofang; Che, Yuning; Sun, Fuqiang; Li, Huihua; Wang, Qingshan; Zhang, Dan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2017-02-22

    Astrogliosis has long been recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. However, the mechanisms of how astroglia become activated remain unclear. Reciprocal interactions between microglia and astroglia play a pivotal role in regulating the activities of astroglia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism by which microglia regulate astrogliosis by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse PD models. We found that the activation of microglia preceded astroglia in the substantia nigra of mice treated with either LPS or MPTP. Furthermore, suppression of microglial activation by pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of NADPH oxidase (NOX2) in mice attenuated astrogliosis. The important role of NOX2 in microglial regulation of astrogliosis was further mirrored in a mixed-glia culture system. Mechanistically, H2O2, a product of microglial NOX2 activation, serves as a direct signal to regulate astrogliosis. Astrogliosis was induced by H2O2 through a process in which extracellularly generated H2O2 diffused into the cytoplasm and subsequently stimulated activation of transcription factors, STAT1 and STAT3. STAT1/3 activation regulated the immunological functions of H2O2-induced astrogliosis since AG490, an inhibitor of STAT1/3, attenuated the gene expressions of both proinflammatory and neurotrophic factors in H2O2-treated astrocyte. Our findings indicate that microglial NOX2-generated H2O2 is able to regulate the immunological functions of astroglia via a STAT1/3-dependent manner, providing additional evidence for the immune pathogenesis and therapeutic studies of PD.

  16. WO3/Pt nanoparticles are NADPH oxidase biomimetics that mimic effector cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Coury, Emma L.; Meilhac, Alexandra M.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    To provide a means of delivering an artificial immune effector cell-like attack on tumor cells, we report the tumoricidal ability of inorganic WO3/Pt nanoparticles that mimic a leukocyte’s functional abilities. These nanoparticles route electrons from organic structures and electron carriers to form hydroxyl radicals within tumor cells. During visible light exposure, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture hydroxyl radicals, degrade organic compounds, use NADPH, trigger lipid peroxidation, promote lysosomal membrane disruption, promote the loss of reduced glutathione, and activate apoptosis. In a model of advanced breast cancer metastasis to the eye’s anterior chamber, we show that WO3/Pt nanoparticles prolong the survival of 4T1 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. This new generation of inorganic photosensitizers do not photobleach, and therefore should provide an important therapeutic advance in photodynamic therapy. As biomimetic nanoparticles destroy targeted cells, they may be useful in treating ocular and other forms of cancer.

  17. H2O2 generated by NADPH oxidase 4 contributes to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel-mediated mechanosensation in the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chian-Shiung; Lee, Shang-Hsing; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-08-15

    The presence of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in the kidney, especially Nox4, results in H2O2 production, which regulates Na(+) excretion and urine formation. Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1s) are distributed in mechanosensory fibers of the renal pelvis and monitor changes in intrapelvic pressure (IPP) during urine formation. The present study tested whether H2O2 derived from Nox4 affects TRPV1 function in renal sensory responses. Perfusion of H2O2 into the renal pelvis dose dependently increased afferent renal nerve activity and substance P (SP) release. These responses were attenuated by cotreatment with catalase or TRPV1 blockers. In single unit recordings, H2O2 activated afferent renal nerve activity in response to rising IPP but not high salt. Western blots revealed that Nox2 (gp91(phox)) and Nox4 are both present in the rat kidney, but Nox4 is abundant in the renal pelvis and originates from dorsal root ganglia. This distribution was associated with expression of the Nox4 regulators p22(phox) and polymerase δ-interacting protein 2. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that IPP increases polymerase δ-interacting protein 2 association with Nox4 or p22(phox) in the renal pelvis. Interestingly, immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated that Nox4 colocalizes with TRPV1 in sensory fibers of the renal pelvis, indicating that H2O2 generated from Nox4 may affect TRPV1 activity. Stepwise increases in IPP and saline loading resulted in H2O2 and SP release, sensory activation, diuresis, and natriuresis. These effects, however, were remarkably attenuated by Nox inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that Nox4-positive fibers liberate H2O2 after mechanostimulation, thereby contributing to a renal sensory nerve-mediated diuretic/natriuretic response.

  18. Critical role of X-box binding protein 1 in NADPH oxidase 4-triggered cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Junli; Wang, Yu; Bao, Qinxue; Wu, Siyuan; Deng, Xueqin; Tang, Xiaoju; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2017-02-16

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and the NOX4-related redox signaling are implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. NOX4 is interrelated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s) is a key mediator of ERS while its role in cardiac hypertrophy is still poorly understood. Recently, receptor interacting protein kinase 1(RIPK1) has been increasingly reported to be associated with ERS. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that Xbp1s mediates NOX4-triggered cardiac hypertrophy via RIPK1 signaling. In the heart tissue of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rats and in primary cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes(NCMs) treated with angiotensinII(AngII) or isoproterenol (ISO), NOX4 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and expression of Xbp1s as well as RIPK1-related phosphorylation of P65 subunit of NF-κB were elevated. Gene silencing of NOX4 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly blocked the upregulation of NOX4, generation of ROS, splicing of Xbp1 and activation of the RIPK1-related NF-κB signaling, meanwhile attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In addition, ROS scavenger (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) and NOX4 inhibitor GKT137831 reduced ROS generation and alleviated activation of Xbp1 and RIPK1-related NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, splicing of Xbp1 was responsible for the increase in RIPK1 expression in AngII or ISO-treated NCMs. Upregulated RIPK1 in turn activates NF-κB signaling in a kinase activity-independent manner. These findings suggest that Xbp1s plays an important role in NOX4-triggered cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via activating its downstream effector RIPK1, which may prove significant for the development of future therapeutic strategies.

  19. Role of gp91phox-Containing NADPH Oxidase in Mediating the Effect of K Restriction on ROMK Channels and Renal K Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Babilonia, Elisa; Lin, Daohong; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yuan; Yue, Peng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Previous study has demonstrated that superoxide and the related products are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). This study investigated the role of gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase (NOXII) in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K excretion and ROMK channel activity in gp91(-/-) mice. K depletion increased superoxide levels, phosphorylation of c-Jun, expression of c-Src, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in renal cortex and outer medulla in wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, tempol treatment in WT mice abolished whereas deletion of gp91 significantly attenuated the effect of low K intake on superoxide production, c-Jun phosphorylation, c-Src expression, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that low K intake decreased mean product of channel number (N) and open probability (P) (NPo) of ROMK channels from 1.1 to 0.4 in the CCD. However, the effect of low K intake on ROMK channel activity was significantly attenuated in the CCD from gp91(-/-) mice and completely abolished by tempol treatment. Immunocytochemical staining also was used to examine the ROMK distribution in WT, gp91(-/-), and WT mice with tempol treatment in response to K restriction. K restriction decreased apical staining of ROMK in WT mice. In contrast, a sharp apical ROMK staining was observed in the tempol-treated WT or gp91(-/-) mice. Metabolic cage study further showed that urinary K loss is significantly higher in gp91(-/-) mice than in WT mice. It is concluded that superoxide anions play a key role in suppressing K secretion during K restriction and that NOXII is involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity. PMID:17538186

  20. Role of gp91phox -containing NADPH oxidase in mediating the effect of K restriction on ROMK channels and renal K excretion.

    PubMed

    Babilonia, Elisa; Lin, Daohong; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yuan; Yue, Peng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2007-07-01

    Previous study has demonstrated that superoxide and the related products are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). This study investigated the role of gp91(phox)-containing NADPH oxidase (NOXII) in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K excretion and ROMK channel activity in gp91(-/-) mice. K depletion increased superoxide levels, phosphorylation of c-Jun, expression of c-Src, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in renal cortex and outer medulla in wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, tempol treatment in WT mice abolished whereas deletion of gp91 significantly attenuated the effect of low K intake on superoxide production, c-Jun phosphorylation, c-Src expression, and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that low K intake decreased mean product of channel number (N) and open probability (P) (NP(o)) of ROMK channels from 1.1 to 0.4 in the CCD. However, the effect of low K intake on ROMK channel activity was significantly attenuated in the CCD from gp91(-/-) mice and completely abolished by tempol treatment. Immunocytochemical staining also was used to examine the ROMK distribution in WT, gp91(-/-), and WT mice with tempol treatment in response to K restriction. K restriction decreased apical staining of ROMK in WT mice. In contrast, a sharp apical ROMK staining was observed in the tempol-treated WT or gp91(-/-) mice. Metabolic cage study further showed that urinary K loss is significantly higher in gp91(-/-) mice than in WT mice. It is concluded that superoxide anions play a key role in suppressing K secretion during K restriction and that NOXII is involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K secretion and ROMK channel activity.

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of Cystathionine-γ-Lyase in Endothelial Cells by NADPH Oxidase 4-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rajesh K; Murray, Thomas V A; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Martin, Daniel; Burgoyne, Joseph R; Santos, Celio; Eaton, Philip; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2016-01-22

    The gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as an important mediator of endothelial cell homeostasis and function that impacts upon vascular tone and blood pressure. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is the predominant endothelial generator of H2S, and recent evidence suggests that its transcriptional expression is regulated by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. However, the cellular source of H2O2 and the redox-dependent molecular signaling pathway that modulates this is not known. We aimed to investigate the role of Nox4, an endothelial generator of H2O2, in the regulation of CSE in endothelial cells. Both gain- and loss-of-function experiments in human endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated Nox4 to be a positive regulator of CSE transcription and protein expression. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon a heme-regulated inhibitor kinase/eIF2α/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) signaling module. ATF4 was further demonstrated to bind directly to cis-regulatory sequences within the first intron of CSE to activate transcription. Furthermore, CSE expression was also increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice, compared with wild-type littermate controls. Using wire myography we demonstrate that endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice exhibit a hypo-contractile phenotype in response to phenylephrine that was abolished when vessels were incubated with a CSE inhibitor, propargylglycine. We, therefore, conclude that Nox4 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CSE in endothelial cells and propose that it may in turn contribute to the regulation of vascular tone via the modulation of H2S production.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Cystathionine-γ-Lyase in Endothelial Cells by NADPH Oxidase 4-Dependent Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Rajesh K.; Murray, Thomas V. A.; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Martin, Daniel; Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Santos, Celio; Eaton, Philip; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2016-01-01

    The gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as an important mediator of endothelial cell homeostasis and function that impacts upon vascular tone and blood pressure. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is the predominant endothelial generator of H2S, and recent evidence suggests that its transcriptional expression is regulated by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. However, the cellular source of H2O2 and the redox-dependent molecular signaling pathway that modulates this is not known. We aimed to investigate the role of Nox4, an endothelial generator of H2O2, in the regulation of CSE in endothelial cells. Both gain- and loss-of-function experiments in human endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated Nox4 to be a positive regulator of CSE transcription and protein expression. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon a heme-regulated inhibitor kinase/eIF2α/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) signaling module. ATF4 was further demonstrated to bind directly to cis-regulatory sequences within the first intron of CSE to activate transcription. Furthermore, CSE expression was also increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice, compared with wild-type littermate controls. Using wire myography we demonstrate that endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice exhibit a hypo-contractile phenotype in response to phenylephrine that was abolished when vessels were incubated with a CSE inhibitor, propargylglycine. We, therefore, conclude that Nox4 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CSE in endothelial cells and propose that it may in turn contribute to the regulation of vascular tone via the modulation of H2S production. PMID:26620565

  3. Oscillatory shear stress stimulates endothelial production of O2- from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidases, leading to monocyte adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Jinah; Saha, Aniket; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P.; McNally, J. Scott; Holland, Steven M.; Dikalov, Sergei; Giddens, Don P.; Griendling, Kathy K.; Harrison, David G.; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Arterial regions exposed to oscillatory shear (OS) in branched arteries are lesion-prone sites of atherosclerosis, whereas those of laminar shear (LS) are relatively well protected. Here, we examined the hypothesis that OS and LS differentially regulate production of O2- from the endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, is responsible for their opposite effects on a critical atherogenic event, monocyte adhesion. We used aortic endothelial cells obtained from C57BL/6 (MAE-C57) and p47phox-/- (MAE-p47-/-) mice, which lack a component of NAD(P)H oxidase. O2- production was determined by dihydroethidium staining and an electron spin resonance using an electron spin trap methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine. Chronic exposure (18 h) to an arterial level of OS (+/- 5 dynes/cm2) increased O2- (2-fold) and monocyte adhesion (3-fold) in MAE-C57 cells, whereas chronic LS (15 dynes/cm2, 18 h) significantly decreased both monocyte adhesion and O2- compared with static conditions. In contrast, neither LS nor OS were able to induce O2- production and monocyte adhesion to MAE-p47-/-. Treating MAE-C57 with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase compound, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase, also inhibited OS-induced monocyte adhesion. In addition, over-expressing p47phox in MAE-p47-/- restored OS-induced O2- production and monocyte adhesion. These results suggest that chronic exposure of endothelial cells to OS stimulates O2- and/or its derivatives produced from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, leads to monocyte adhesion, an early and critical atherogenic event.

  4. Rhein and rhubarb similarly protect the blood-brain barrier after experimental traumatic brain injury via gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK/MMP-9 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Fan, Xuegong; Tang, Tao; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Chunhu; Huang, Zebing; Peng, Weijun; Gan, Pingping; Xiong, Xingui; Huang, Wei; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress chiefly contributes to the disruption of the BBB following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Chinese herbal medicine rhubarb is a promising antioxidant in treating TBI. Here we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine whether rhubarb and its absorbed bioactive compound protected the BBB after TBI by increasing ZO-1 expression through inhibition of gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK/MMP-9 pathway. Rats were subjected to the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model, and primary rat cortical astrocytes were exposed to scratch-wound model. The liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method showed that rhein was the compound absorbed in the brains of CCI rats after rhubarb administration. The wet-dry weights and Evans blue measurements revealed that rhubarb and rhein ameliorated BBB damage and brain edema in CCI rats. Western blots showed that rhubarb and rhein downregulated GFAP in vitro. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate analysis indicated that rhubarb prevented activation of gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase induced ROS production, subsequently inhibited ERK/MMP-9 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, rhein and rhubarb similarly protected the BBB by inhibiting this signaling cascade. The results provide a novel herbal medicine to protect BBB following TBI via an antioxidative molecular mechanism. PMID:27901023

  5. Effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that naphthalene inhibits oxygen consumption in Daphnia magna tissue culture cells, and intact mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. These studies were extended to algal mitochondrial respiration as well as photosynthetic activity. The authors were able to demonstrate the specific site of apparent respiratory inhibition to be coenzyme Q (ubiquinone, UQ) and later to demonstrate the molecular basis of this inhibition at ubiquinone. The authors previously could not demonstrate an effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity. However, the observation that naphthalene can stimulate respiration in algae prompted the reinvestigation of the effect of naphthalene on the kinetics of cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome oxidase is a multi-subunit membranous protein responsible for the oxidation of cytochrome c and the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Because of the complicated nature and mechanism of this enzyme, the potential exists for multiple and possibly opposite effects of naphthalene on its function.

  6. Inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase potentiates AT2 receptor agonist-induced natriuresis in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sabuhi, Rifat; Asghar, Mohammad; Hussain, Tahir

    2010-10-01

    A positive association between renin-angiotensin system, especially AT1 receptor, and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular/renal diseases has been suggested. However, the role of oxidative stress, especially superoxide radicals in renal sodium handling in response to AT1 and AT2 receptors, is not known. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX), a major superoxide radical producing enzyme, in AT1 and AT2 receptor function on natriuresis/diuresis in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats under anesthesia were intravenously infused with NOX inhibitor apocynin (3.5 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), the AT1 receptor antagonist candesartan (100 μg/kg; bolus), and the AT2 receptor agonist CGP-42112A (1 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) alone and in combinations. Candesartan alone significantly increased urinary flow (UF; μl/30 min) by 53 and urinary Na excretion (U(Na)V; μmol/min) by 0.4 over basal. Preinfusion of apocynin had no effect on the net increase in UF or U(Na)V in response to candesartan. On the other hand, apocynin preinfusion caused profound increases in CGP-42112A-induced UF by 72, U(Na)V by 1.14, and fractional excretion of Na by 7.8. Apocynin and CGP-42112A alone did not cause significant increase in UF or U(Na)V over the basal. CGP-42112A infusion in the presence of apocynin increased urinary nitrite/nitrates and cGMP over basal. The infusion of candesartan, apocynin, and CGP-42112A alone or in combinations had no effect on the blood pressure or the glomerular filtration rate, suggesting tubular effects on natriuresis/diuresis. The data suggest that NOX may have an antagonistic role in AT2 receptor-mediated natriuresis/diuresis possibly via neutralizing nitric oxide and thereby influence fluid-Na homeostasis.

  7. Cambogin exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on breast adenocarcinoma through the induction of NADPH oxidase 1 and the alteration of mitochondrial morphology and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jianling; Wu, Minfeng; Cai, Bo; Liu, Yurong; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hongsheng; Pan, Yingyi; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-01-01

    Cambogin, a bioactive polycyclic polyprenylated acylphoroglucinol (PPAP) derived from the Garcinia genus, possesses proapoptotic effect in medulloblastoma and breast cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated that the proapoptotic effect of cambogin is driven by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we have shown that the inhibitory effect of cambogin on cell proliferation is associated with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial fragmentation. Cambogin also promotes the mutual complex formation of the membrane-bound subunit p22phox of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), as well as the phosphorylation of the cytosolic subunit p47phox, subsequently enhancing membrane-bound NOX1 activity, which leads to increases in intracellular and mitochondrial levels of O2.- and H2O2. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX1 using apocynin (pan-NOX inhibitor), ML171 (NOX1 inhibitor) or siRNA against NOX1 prevents the increases in O2.- and H2O2 levels and the anti-proliferative effect of cambogin. Antioxidants, including SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and EUK-8, are also able to restore cell viability in the presence of cambogin. Besides, cambogin increases the dissociation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) from ASK1, switching the inactive form of ASK1 to the active kinase, subsequently leads to the phosphorylation of JNK/SAPK, which is abolished upon ML171 treatment. The proapoptotic effect of cambogin in breast cancer cells is also aggravated upon knocking down Trx1 in MCF-7 cells. Taken in conjunction, these data indicate that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of cambogin is mediated via inducing NOX1-dependent ROS production and the dissociation of ASK1 and Trx1. PMID:27418140

  8. Dopamine induces lipid accumulation, NADPH oxidase-related oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Begieneman, Mark P V; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Rijvers, Liza; Meinster, Elisa; Leen, René; Pankras, Jeannette E; Fritz, Jan; Kubat, Bela; Musters, René J P; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Stap, Jan; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2016-11-01

    Excess catecholamine levels are suggested to be cardiotoxic and to underlie stress-induced heart failure. The cardiotoxic effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine are well recognized. However, although cardiac and circulating dopamine levels are also increased in stress cardiomyopathy patients, knowledge regarding putative toxic effects of excess dopamine levels on cardiomyocytes is scarce. We now studied the effects of elevated dopamine levels in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. H9c2 cells were cultured and treated with dopamine (200 μM) for 6, 24, and 48 h. Subsequently, the effects on lipid accumulation, cell viability, flippase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subcellular NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression, and ATP/ADP and GTP/GDP levels were analyzed. Dopamine did not result in cytotoxic effects after 6 h. However, after 24 and 48 h dopamine treatment induced a significant increase in lipid accumulation, nitrotyrosine levels, indicative of ROS production, and cell death. In addition, dopamine significantly reduced flippase activity and ATP/GTP levels, coinciding with phosphatidylserine exposure on the outer plasma membrane. Furthermore, dopamine induced a transient increase in cytoplasmic and (peri)nucleus NOX1 and NOX4 expression after 24 h that subsided after 48 h. Moreover, while dopamine induced a similar transient increase in cytoplasmic NOX2 and p47(phox) expression, in the (peri)nucleus this increased expression persisted for 48 h where it colocalized with ROS. Exposure of H9c2 cells to elevated dopamine levels induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane. This can, in part, explain the inflammatory response in patients with stress-induced heart failure.

  9. Polyphenol oxidase activity in annual forage clovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated phenol reactions in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) bind forage protein and reduce proteolysis, producing beneficial effects on forage protein degradability, silage fermentation, and soil-N cycling. We evaluated PPO activity in seven previously untested annual c...

  10. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers.

  11. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  12. Chronic intake of red wine polyphenols by young rats prevents aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance: role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ros, Stéphanie; Zoll, Joffrey; Lang, Anne-Laure; Auger, Cyril; Keller, Nathalie; Bronner, Christian; Geny, Bernard; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-01-14

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance, which promote cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether chronic intake of red wine polyphenols (RWPs), a rich source of natural antioxidants, prevents aging-related impairment of vascular function and physical exercise capacity. Vascular reactivity from 12, 20 and 40 week-old rats was assessed in organ chambers. Rats received from week 16 to 40 either solvent, RWPs or the antioxidant and NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Aging was associated with blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations, oxidative stress (dihydroethidine staining), and an upregulation of eNOS, arginase I, NADPH oxidase p22phox and nox1 subunits, and AT1 and AT2 receptors (assessed by immunohistochemistry) in the mesenteric artery. RWPs and apocynin improved the endothelial dysfunction, normalized oxidative stress and the expression of the different proteins. RWPs also improved aging-related decline in physical exercise. Thus, intake of RWPs protects against aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance. These effects likely involve the ability of RWPs to normalize oxidative stress and the expression of proteins involved in the formation of NO and the angiotensin II pathway.

  13. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  14. Clematichinenoside inhibits VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-treated endothelial cells via NADPH oxidase-dependent IκB kinase/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Simin; Zhang, Xu; Zheng, Haili; Hu, Danhong; Zhang, Yongtian; Guan, Qinghua; Liu, Lifang; Ding, Qilong; Li, Yunman

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α-induced adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays a critical role in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and redox-sensitive transcription factors are implicated in the process. Thus, compounds that mediate intracellular redox status and regulate transcription factors are of great therapeutic interest. Clematichinenoside (AR), a triterpene saponin isolated from the root of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. However, little is known about the exact mechanism underlying these actions. Thus we performed a detailed study on its effect on leukocytes-endothelial cells adhesion with TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cell-free systems. First, we found that AR reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and their promoter activity, inhibited translocation of p65 and phosphorylation of IκBα, suppressed IκB kinase-β (IKK-β) activity, lowered O2(∙-) and H2O2 levels, tackled p47(phox) translocation, and decreased NOX4 NADPH oxidase expression. Second, we showed that AR exhibited no direct free radical scavenging ability in cell-free systems at concentrations that were used in intact cells. Besides, AR had no direct effect on the activity of IKK-β that was extracted from TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. We also found that p47 translocation, NOX4 expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were up-regulated before IκB phosphorylation in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. Moreover, TNF-α-enhanced IKK-β activity was also inhibited by (polyethylene glycol) PEG-catalase, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and vitamin E. In conclusion, these results suggest that AR reduces VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression through NADPH oxidase-dependent IKK/NF-κB pathways in TNF-α-induced HUVECs, which finally suppress monocyte-HUVECs adhesion. This compound is potentially beneficial for early-stage atherosclerosis.

  15. On the use of L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent probe, for detecting superoxide and identifying inhibitors of NADPH oxidase: a reevaluation.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Jacek; Lambeth, J David; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-12-01

    L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent (CL) probe, is widely used in vitro and in vivo to detect NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide (O2(*-)) and identify Nox inhibitors. Yet understanding of the free radical chemistry of the L-012 probe is still lacking. We report that peroxidase and H2O2 induce superoxide dismutase (SOD)-sensitive, L-012-derived CL in the presence of oxygen. O2(*-) alone does not react with L-012 to emit luminescence. Self-generated O2(*-) during oxidation of L-012 and luminol analogs artifactually induce CL inhibitable by SOD. These aspects make assays based on luminol analogs less than ideal for specific detection and identification of O2(*-) and NOX inhibitors.

  16. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived peroxide mediates elevated basal and impaired flow-induced NO production in SHR mesenteric arteries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaosun; Bohlen, H Glenn; Miller, Steven J; Unthank, Joseph L

    2008-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have fundamentally important roles in the regulation of vascular tone and remodeling. Although arterial disease and endothelial dysfunction alter NO and ROS levels to impact vasodilation and vascular structure, direct measurements of these reactive species under in vivo conditions with flow alterations are unavailable. In this study, in vivo measurements of NO and H2O2 were made on mesenteric arteries to determine whether antioxidant therapies could restore normal NO production in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Flow was altered from approximately 50-200% of control in anesthetized Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR by selective placement of microvascular clamps on adjacent arteries while NO and H2O2 were directly measured with microelectrodes. Relative to WKY, SHR had significantly increased baseline NO and H2O2 concentrations (2,572 +/- 241 vs. 1,059 +/- 160 nM, P < 0.01; and 26 +/- 7 vs. 7 +/- 1 microM, P < 0.05, respectively). With flow elevation, H2O2 but not NO increased in SHR; NO but not H2O2 was elevated in WKY. Apocynin and polyethylene-glycolated catalase decreased baseline SHR NO and H2O2 to WKY levels and restored flow-mediated NO production. Suppression of NAD(P)H oxidase with gp91ds-tat decreased SHR H2O2 to WKY levels. Addition of topical H2O2 to increase peroxide to the basal concentration measured in SHR elevated WKY NO to levels observed in SHR. The results support the hypothesis that increased vascular peroxide in SHR is primarily derived from NAD(P)H oxidase and increases NO concentration to levels that cannot be further elevated with increased flow. Short-term and even acute administration of antioxidants are able to restore normal flow-mediated NO signaling in young SHR.

  17. Root growth restraint can be an acclimatory response to low pH and is associated with reduced cell mortality: a possible role of class III peroxidases and NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Graças, J P; Ruiz-Romero, R; Figueiredo, L D; Mattiello, L; Peres, L E P; Vitorello, V A

    2016-07-01

    Low pH (<5.0) can significantly decrease root growth but whether this is a direct effect of H(+) or an active plant response is examined here. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom) roots were exposed directly or gradually to low pH through step-wise changes in pH over periods ranging from 4 to 24 h. Roots exposed gradually to pH 4.5 grew even less than those exposed directly, indicating a plant-coordinated response. Direct exposure to pH 4.0 suppressed root growth and caused high cell mortality, in contrast to roots exposed gradually, in which growth remained inhibited but cell viability was maintained. Total class III peroxidase activity increased significantly in all low pH treatments, but was not correlated with the observed differential responses. Use of the enzyme inhibitors salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) suggest that peroxidase and, to a lesser extent, NADPH oxidase were required to prevent or reduce injury in all low pH treatments. However, a role for other enzymes, such as the alternative oxidase is also possible. The results with SHAM, but not DPI, were confirmed in tobacco BY-2 cells. Our results indicate that root growth inhibition from low pH can be part of an active plant response, and suggest that peroxidases may have a critical early role in reducing loss of cell viability and in the observed root growth constraint.

  18. Individual variation in hepatic aldehyde oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Salmy, H S

    2001-04-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdo-flavo enzyme expressed predominantly in the liver, lung, and kidney. AO plays a major role in oxidation of aldehydes, as well as oxidation of various N-heterocyclic compounds of pharmacological and toxicological importance including antiviral (famciclovir), antimalarial (quinine), antitumour (methotrexate), and nicotine. The aim of this study was to investigate cytosolic aldehyde oxidase activity in human liver. Cytosolic AO was characterised using both the metabolism of N-[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl] acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and benzaldehyde to form DACA-9(10H)-acridone (quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection) and benzoic acid (quantified spectrophotometrically). Thirteen livers (10 female, 3 male) were examined. The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of DACA varied 18-fold (0.03-0.50 m/min/mg). Vmax ranged from 0.20-3.10 nmol/ min/mg, and Km ranged from 3.5-14.2 microM. In the same specimens, the intrinsic clearance for benzaldehyde varied 5-fold (0.40-1.8 ml/min/mg). Vmax ranged from 3.60-12.6 nmol/min/mg and Km ranged from 3.6-14.6 microM. Furthermore, there were no differences in AO activity between male and female human livers, nor was there any relationship to age of donor (range 29-73 years), smoking status, or disease status. In conclusion, our results showed that there are variations in AO activity in human liver. These variations in aldehyde oxidase activity might reflect individual variations or they might be due to AO stability during processing and storage.

  19. 4-Coumaroyl coenzyme A 3-hydroxylase activity from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and its relationship to polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z X; Li, S M; Löscher, R; Heide, L

    1997-11-15

    A 4-coumaroyl-CoA 3-hydroxylase activity was purified 4600-fold from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. The enzyme showed a molecular mass of 42,400 +/- 1700 Da in gel chromatography and required ascorbate, NADH, or NADPH as cofactors. 4-Coumaroyl-CoA, 4-coumarate, p-cresol, and several other phenolic substances, but not tyrosine, were accepted as substrates for the hydroxylation. Besides hydroxylase activity, the enzyme showed diphenol oxidase activity. Both activities were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate or beta-mercaptoethanol, although at different concentrations. The enzyme showed striking similarity to a 4-coumaroyl-glucose 3-hydroxylase from sweet potato (Ipomoe batatas) roots, which has reportedly been purified to homogeneity and identified as a specific enzyme of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis. Close examination and comparison to a commercially available polyphenol oxidase, however, suggest that the enzyme activities purified from both Lithospermum and sweet potato are polyphenol oxidases rather than specific enzymes of secondary metabolism.

  20. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Nicotinamide Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Activation and Antioxidant Status in Heart, Lung, Liver and Kidney in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaoqing; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Huimin; Yu, Hong; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS production in diabetes. We, therefore, examined the possibility that NADPH oxidase activation is increased in various tissues, and that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may have tissue specific effects on NADPH oxidase and tissue antioxidant status in diabetes. Materials and Methods Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated either with NAC (1.5 g/kg/day) orally or placebo for 4 weeks. The plasma, heart, lung, liver, kidney were harvested immediately and stored for biochemical or immunoblot analysis. Results levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane were increased in plasma, heart, lung, liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats, accompanied with significantly increased membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox in all tissues and increased expression of the membrane-bound subunit p22phox in heart, lung and kidney. The tissue antioxidant activity in lung, liver and kidney was decreased in diabetic rats, while it was increased in heart tissue. NAC reduced the expression of p22phox and p67phox, suppressed p67phox membrane translocation, and reduced free 15-F2t-isoprostane levels in all tissues. NAC increased antioxidant activity in liver and lung, but did not significantly affect antioxidant activity in heart and kidney. Conclusion The current study shows that NAC inhibits NADPH oxidase activation in diabetes and attenuates tissue oxidative damage in all organs, even though its effects on antioxidant activity are tissue specific. PMID:22318816

  1. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  2. Spatiotemporal Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by NADPH Oxidase Is Critical for Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong-Tao; Wan, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Male sterility in angiosperms has wide applications in agriculture, particularly in hybrid crop breeding and gene flow control. Microspores develop adjacent to the tapetum, a layer of cells that provides nutrients for pollen development and materials for pollen wall formation. Proper pollen development requires programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum, which requires transcriptional cascades and proteolytic enzymes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also affect tapetal PCD, and failures in ROS scavenging cause male sterility. However, many aspects of tapetal PCD remain unclear, including what sources generate ROS, whether ROS production has a temporal pattern, and how the ROS-producing system interacts with the tapetal transcriptional network. We report here that stage-specific expression of NADPH oxidases in the Arabidopsis thaliana tapetum contributes to a temporal peak of ROS production. Genetic interference with the temporal ROS pattern, by manipulating RESPIRATORY-BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG (RBOH) genes, affected the timing of tapetal PCD and resulted in aborted male gametophytes. We further show that the tapetal transcriptional network regulates RBOH expression, indicating that the temporal pattern of ROS production intimately connects to other signaling pathways regulated by the tapetal transcriptional network to ensure the proper timing of tapetal PCD. PMID:24808050

  3. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this microorganism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the phenolic substrate, pH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration used. It was demonstrated that three different PPOs are expressed. The genes coding for the enzymes were unambiguously correlated with the enzymatic activities detected by generation of null mutations in the genes by using insertional mutagenesis with a suicide plasmid and estimating the changes in the levels of enzymatic activities compared to the levels in the wild-type strain. The protein encoded by the RSp1530 locus is a multicopper protein with laccase activity. Two other genes, RSc0337 and RSc1501, code for nonblue copper proteins exhibiting homology to tyrosinases. The product of RSc0337 has strong tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and it has been shown that this enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis by R. solanacearum. The product of the RSc1501 gene is an enzyme that shows a clear preference for oxidation of o-diphenols. Preliminary characterization of the mutants obtained indicated that PPOs expressed by R. solanacearum may participate in resistance to phenolic compounds since the mutants exhibited higher sensitivity to l-tyrosine than the wild-type strain. These results suggest a possible role in the pathogenic process to avoid plant resistance mechanisms involving the participation of phenolic compounds. PMID:16269713

  4. Thyroid Ca2+/NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation is partially inhibited by propylthiouracil and methimazole.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Andrea C Freitas; de Carvalho Cardoso, Luciene; Rosenthal, Doris; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2003-06-01

    H2O2 generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Biochemical studies have confirmed that H2O2 is generated by a thyroid Ca2+/NADPH-dependent oxidase. Decreased H2O2 availability may be another mechanism of inhibition of thyroperoxidase activity produced by thioureylene compounds, as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) are antioxidant agents. Therefore, we analyzed whether PTU or MMI could scavenge H2O2 or inhibit thyroid NADPH oxidase activity in vitro. Our results show that PTU and thiourea did not significantly scavenge H2O2. However, MMI significantly scavenged H2O2 at high concentrations. Only MMI was able to decrease the amount of H2O2 generated by the glucose-glucose oxidase system. On the other hand, both PTU and MMI were able to partially inhibit thyroid NADPH oxidase activity in vitro. As PTU did not scavenge H2O2 under the conditions used here, we presume that this drug may directly inhibit thyroid NADPH oxidase. Also, at the concentration necessary to inhibit NADPH oxidase activity, MMI did not scavenge H2O2, also suggesting a direct effect of MMI on thyroid NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, this study shows that MMI, but not PTU, is able to scavenge H2O2 in the micromolar range and that both PTU and MMI can impair thyroid H2O2 generation in addition to their potent thyroperoxidase inhibitory effects.

  5. Lysyl oxidase activity in human normal skins and postburn scars.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Hino, N; Fuyamada, H; Nagatsu, T; Aoyama, H

    1976-09-06

    Lysyl oxidase activity of human normal skins derived from the frontal thighs of 33 subjects showed large variations and the mean value was 11 455 +/- 7 172 (S.D.) cpm/g of wet weight tissue. The age of lesion affected the lysyl oxidase activity in postburn scars. Granulation tissues showed a fairly low activity; however, the activity increased sharply within 2--3 months, and reached a significantly higher value than that of normal skin. The high level of activity continued for up to 2--3 years, then gradually decreased to normal range after 5 years or so. Lysyl oxidase activity was detected only after 4 M urea treatment of tissues. Benzylamine oxidase activity also showed large variations in both normal skins and postburn scars, with mean values of: 0.128 +/- 0.077 (S.D.) and 0.145 +/- 0.090 (S.D.) mmol/g of wet weight/h, respectively. No correlation was observed between lysyl oxidase and benzylamine oxidase activities. The granulation tissues showed significantly high values of benzylamine oxidase activity in contrast to the low values of lysyl oxidase activity.

  6. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

    2013-08-01

    In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  7. Identification of a thermolabile component of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase. A model for chronic granulomatous disease caused by deficiency of the p67-phox cytosolic component.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, R W; Malawista, S E; Garrett, M C; Van Blaricom, G; Leto, T L; Curnutte, J T

    1992-01-01

    Mild heating of human neutrophils inactivates the respiratory burst oxidase, producing a defect in superoxide production and bacterial killing comparable to that seen in patients afflicted with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We have now investigated the mechanism and specificity of this inactivation by examining the effect of mild heating on the known oxidase components: the membrane-bound subunits of the cytochrome b558 (gp91-phox and p22-phox) and the two cytosolic oxidase factors (p47-phox and p67-phox). Heating (46 degrees C for 7.5 min) caused intact neutrophils to lose greater than 85% of their capacity to produce superoxide, a defect which was localized to the cytosolic, but not the membrane, fraction. Complementation studies with CGD cytosols deficient in either p47-phox or p67-phox suggested that the defective component of heat-inactivated cytosol was p67-phox. This was confirmed by experiments showing that recombinant p67-phox, but not p47-phox, exhibited lability at 46 degrees C and completely reconstituted oxidase activity of heat-treated cytosol. These studies indicate that mild heating of either intact neutrophils or normal neutrophil cytosol results in a selective inactivation of p67-phox, providing a model oxidase system for the extremely rare p67-phox-deficient form of CGD. PMID:1314852

  8. A ROS-Assisted Calcium Wave Dependent on the AtRBOHD NADPH Oxidase and TPC1 Cation Channel Propagates the Systemic Response to Salt Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew J.; Choi, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Plants exhibit rapid, systemic signaling systems that allow them to coordinate physiological and developmental responses throughout the plant body, even to highly localized and quickly changing environmental stresses. The propagation of these signals is thought to include processes ranging from electrical and hydraulic networks to waves of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytoplasmic Ca2+ traveling throughout the plant. For the Ca2+ wave system, the involvement of the vacuolar ion channel TWO PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) has been reported. However, the precise role of this channel and the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of the wave have remained largely undefined. Here, we use the fire-diffuse-fire model to analyze the behavior of a Ca2+ wave originating from Ca2+ release involving the TPC1 channel in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We conclude that a Ca2+ diffusion-dominated calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism is insufficient to explain the observed wave transmission speeds. The addition of a ROS-triggered element, however, is able to quantitatively reproduce the observed transmission characteristics. The treatment of roots with the ROS scavenger ascorbate and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium and analysis of Ca2+ wave propagation in the Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (AtrbohD) knockout background all led to reductions in Ca2+ wave transmission speeds consistent with this model. Furthermore, imaging of extracellular ROS production revealed a systemic spread of ROS release that is dependent on both AtRBOHD and TPC1. These results suggest that, in the root, plant systemic signaling is supported by a ROS-assisted calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism intimately involving ROS production by AtRBOHD and Ca2+ release dependent on the vacuolar channel TPC1. PMID:27261066

  9. A ROS-Assisted Calcium Wave Dependent on the AtRBOHD NADPH Oxidase and TPC1 Cation Channel Propagates the Systemic Response to Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew J; Choi, Won-Gyu; Gilroy, Simon; Morris, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Plants exhibit rapid, systemic signaling systems that allow them to coordinate physiological and developmental responses throughout the plant body, even to highly localized and quickly changing environmental stresses. The propagation of these signals is thought to include processes ranging from electrical and hydraulic networks to waves of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) traveling throughout the plant. For the Ca(2+) wave system, the involvement of the vacuolar ion channel TWO PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) has been reported. However, the precise role of this channel and the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of the wave have remained largely undefined. Here, we use the fire-diffuse-fire model to analyze the behavior of a Ca(2+) wave originating from Ca(2+) release involving the TPC1 channel in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We conclude that a Ca(2+) diffusion-dominated calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism is insufficient to explain the observed wave transmission speeds. The addition of a ROS-triggered element, however, is able to quantitatively reproduce the observed transmission characteristics. The treatment of roots with the ROS scavenger ascorbate and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium and analysis of Ca(2+) wave propagation in the Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (AtrbohD) knockout background all led to reductions in Ca(2+) wave transmission speeds consistent with this model. Furthermore, imaging of extracellular ROS production revealed a systemic spread of ROS release that is dependent on both AtRBOHD and TPC1 These results suggest that, in the root, plant systemic signaling is supported by a ROS-assisted calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism intimately involving ROS production by AtRBOHD and Ca(2+) release dependent on the vacuolar channel TPC1.

  10. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented.

  11. TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4

    SciTech Connect

    St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D.; Ravid, Katya

    2008-10-24

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

  12. The Overexpression of NALP3 Inflammasome in Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated with Synovial Membrane Prolidase and NADPH Oxidase 2.

    PubMed

    Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Martínez-Flores, Karina; Silva-Luna, Karina; Martínez-Nava, Gabriela Angélica; Fernández-Torres, Javier; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Guadalupe Santamaría-Olmedo, Mónica; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Pineda, Carlos; López-Reyes, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is characterized by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. We aimed to clarify the role of prooxidant enzyme content at the synovial membrane level and how it correlates with the inflammatory process in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In synovial membranes from KOA patients and control group, we analyzed the protein content of prooxidant enzymes such as Nox2, xanthine oxidase (XO), and prolidase as well as the proinflammatory NALP3. Results show that protein content of prolidase and Nox2 increased 4.8- and 8.4-fold, respectively, and XO showed an increasing trend, while the NALP3 inflammasome increased 5.4-fold with respect to control group. Levels of prolidase and XO had a positive correlation between the levels of NALP3 and Nox2. By principal component analysis the protein expression pattern by study groups was evaluated. Three clusters were identified; protein expression patterns were higher for clusters two (prolidase) and three (XO and Nox2) between KOA patients and controls. Data suggest that prooxidant enzymes increase in synovial membrane of KOA patients and may contribute to the inflammatory state and degradation of the articular cartilage.

  13. The Overexpression of NALP3 Inflammasome in Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated with Synovial Membrane Prolidase and NADPH Oxidase 2

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Martínez-Flores, Karina; Silva-Luna, Karina; Fernández-Torres, Javier; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Guadalupe Santamaría-Olmedo, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is characterized by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. We aimed to clarify the role of prooxidant enzyme content at the synovial membrane level and how it correlates with the inflammatory process in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In synovial membranes from KOA patients and control group, we analyzed the protein content of prooxidant enzymes such as Nox2, xanthine oxidase (XO), and prolidase as well as the proinflammatory NALP3. Results show that protein content of prolidase and Nox2 increased 4.8- and 8.4-fold, respectively, and XO showed an increasing trend, while the NALP3 inflammasome increased 5.4-fold with respect to control group. Levels of prolidase and XO had a positive correlation between the levels of NALP3 and Nox2. By principal component analysis the protein expression pattern by study groups was evaluated. Three clusters were identified; protein expression patterns were higher for clusters two (prolidase) and three (XO and Nox2) between KOA patients and controls. Data suggest that prooxidant enzymes increase in synovial membrane of KOA patients and may contribute to the inflammatory state and degradation of the articular cartilage. PMID:27777643

  14. Combined NADPH Oxidase 1 and Interleukin 10 Deficiency Induces Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Causes Ulcerative Colitis-Like Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because of the lack of relevant preclinical model mimicking the disease. Here we generated the IL10/Nox1dKO mouse model which combines immune dysfunction (IL-10 deficiency) and abnormal epithelium (NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) deficiency) and spontaneously develops a UC-like phenotype with similar complications (colorectal cancer) than UC. Our data identified an unanticipated combined role of IL10 and Nox1 in the fine-tuning of ER stress responses in goblet cells. As in humans, the ER stress was unbalanced in mice with decreased eIF2α phosphorylation preceding inflammation. In IL10/Nox1dKO mice, salubrinal preserved eIF2α phosphorylation through inhibition of the regulatory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 PP1R15A/GADD34 and prevented colitis. Thus, this new experimental model highlighted the central role of epithelial ER stress abnormalities in the development of colitis and defined the defective eIF2α pathway as a key pathophysiological target for UC. Therefore, specific regulators able to restore the defective eIF2α pathway could lead to the molecular remission needed to treat UC. PMID:25014110

  15. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD) of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD) and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q) and NCaBD(E63Q) showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract PMID:22490336

  16. Folate Deficiency Triggered Apoptosis of Synoviocytes: Role of Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated via NADPH Oxidase/Mitochondrial Complex II and Calcium Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Jin-Yi; Huang, Chin-Chin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Yeh, Rang-Hui; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of literature has documented that osteoarthritis (OA) is veritably associated with oxidative stress-mediated chondrocyte death and matrix degradation, yet the possible involvement of synoviocyte abnormality as causative factor of OA has not been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, we conduct the current studies to insight into how synoviocytes could respond to an episode of folate-deprived (FD) condition. First, when HIG-82 synoviocytes were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature mediated through FD-evoked overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and drastically released of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. Next, we uncovered that FD-evoked ROS overproduction could only be strongly suppressed by either mitochondrial complex II inhibitors (TTFA and carboxin) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors (AEBSF and apocynin), but not by mitochondrial complex I inhibitor (rotenone) and mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A). Interestingly, this selective inhibition of FD-evoked ROS by mitochondrial complex II and NOX inhibitors was found to correlate excellently with the suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ release and reduced the magnitude of the apoptotic TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, we present the first evidence here that FD-triggered ROS overproduction in synoviocytes is originated from mitochondrial complex II and NOX. Both elevated ROS in tandem with cytosolic Ca2+ overload serve as final arbitrators for apoptotic lethality of synoviocytes cultivated under FD condition. Thus, folate supplementation may be beneficial to patients with OA.

  17. Combined NADPH oxidase 1 and interleukin 10 deficiency induces chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress and causes ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which pro