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Sample records for activate opioid receptors

  1. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory. PMID:25553430

  3. The role of opioid antagonist efficacy and constitutive opioid receptor activity in the opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Navani, Dipesh M; Sirohi, Sunil; Madia, Priyanka A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of efficacy, opioid antagonists are classified as inverse opioid agonists (e.g. naltrexone) or neutral opioid antagonists (e.g. 6β-naltrexol). This study examined the interaction between naltrexone and 6β-naltrexol in the precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in morphine dependent mice. Furthermore, the possible contribution of constitutive opioid receptor activity to precipitated withdrawal was evaluated using increasing levels of morphine dependence. In the first experiment, low doses of 6β-naltrexol antagonized naltrexone precipitated withdrawal while high doses acted additively. All doses of naltrexone increased 6β-naltrexol's potency to precipitate withdrawal. The next experiment examined changes in antagonist potency to precipitate withdrawal with increasing morphine dependence. Mice were exposed to morphine for 1-6 days and then withdrawal was precipitated. Naltrexone was more potent than 6β-naltrexol at all the time points. The ED(50) of both drugs decreased at the same rate suggesting that increased dependence produced no change in constitutive opioid receptor activity. Taken together these results indicate that the functional efficacy of 6β-naltrexol is dose-dependent and that constitutive opioid receptor activity did not change as opioid dependence increased from 1 to 6 days. PMID:21736895

  4. The role of opioid antagonist efficacy and constitutive opioid receptor activity in the opioid withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Navani, Dipesh M; Sirohi, Sunil; Madia, Priyanka A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of efficacy, opioid antagonists are classified as inverse opioid agonists (e.g. naltrexone) or neutral opioid antagonists (e.g. 6β-naltrexol). This study examined the interaction between naltrexone and 6β-naltrexol in the precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in morphine dependent mice. Furthermore, the possible contribution of constitutive opioid receptor activity to precipitated withdrawal was evaluated using increasing levels of morphine dependence. In the first experiment, low doses of 6β-naltrexol antagonized naltrexone precipitated withdrawal while high doses acted additively. All doses of naltrexone increased 6β-naltrexol's potency to precipitate withdrawal. The next experiment examined changes in antagonist potency to precipitate withdrawal with increasing morphine dependence. Mice were exposed to morphine for 1-6 days and then withdrawal was precipitated. Naltrexone was more potent than 6β-naltrexol at all the time points. The ED(50) of both drugs decreased at the same rate suggesting that increased dependence produced no change in constitutive opioid receptor activity. Taken together these results indicate that the functional efficacy of 6β-naltrexol is dose-dependent and that constitutive opioid receptor activity did not change as opioid dependence increased from 1 to 6 days.

  5. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity.

    PubMed

    Brackley, Allison Doyle; Gomez, Ruben; Akopian, Armen N; Henry, Michael A; Jeske, Nathaniel A

    2016-09-01

    Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR), those that target the delta class (DOR) also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state. PMID:27568556

  6. Antitussive activity of Withania somnifera and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nosálová, Gabriela; Sivová, Veronika; Ray, Bimalendu; Fraňová, Soňa; Ondrejka, Igor; Flešková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Arabinogalactan is a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera L. It contains 65% arabinose and 18% galactose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan in conscious, healthy adult guinea pigs and the role of the opioid pathway in the antitussive action. A polysaccharide extract was given orally in a dose of 50 mg/kg. Cough was induced by an aerosol of citric acid in a concentration 0.3 mol/L, generated by a jet nebulizer into a plethysmographic chamber. The intensity of cough response was defined as the number of cough efforts counted during a 3-min exposure to the aerosol. The major finding was that arabinogalactan clearly suppressed the cough reflex; the suppression was comparable with that of codeine that was taken as a reference drug. The involvement of the opioid system was tested with the use of a blood-brain barrier penetrable, naloxone hydrochloride, and non-penetrable, naloxone methiodide, to distinguish between the central and peripheral mu-opioid receptor pathways. Both opioid antagonists acted to reverse the arabinogalactan-induced cough suppression; the reversion was total over time with the latter antagonist. We failed to confirm the presence of a bronchodilating effect of the polysaccharide, which could be involved in its antitussive action. We conclude that the polysaccharide arabinogalactan from Withania somnifera has a distinct antitussive activity consisting of cough suppression and that this action involves the mu-opioid receptor pathways.

  7. Orvinols with Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [35S]GTPγS assay are predictive of the in vivo profile. PMID:23438330

  8. Orvinols with mixed kappa/mu opioid receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Greedy, Benjamin M; Bradbury, Faye; Thomas, Mark P; Grivas, Konstantinos; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Archambeau, Ashley; Bosse, Kelly; Clark, Mary J; Aceto, Mario; Lewis, John W; Traynor, John R; Husbands, Stephen M

    2013-04-25

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [(35)S]GTPγS assay are predictive of the in vivo profile.

  9. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms. PMID:25330347

  10. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  11. Activation of G protein by opioid receptors: role of receptor number and G-protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Remmers, A E; Clark, M J; Alt, A; Medzihradsky, F; Woods, J H; Traynor, J R

    2000-05-19

    The collision-coupling model for receptor-G-protein interaction predicts that the rate of G-protein activation is dependent on receptor density, but not G-protein levels. C6 cells expressing mu- or delta-opioid receptors, or SH-SY5Y cells, were treated with beta-funaltrexamine (mu) or naltrindole-5'-isothiocyanate (delta) to decrease receptor number. The time course of full or partial agonist-stimulated ¿35SGTPgammaS binding did not vary in C6 cell membranes containing <1-25 pmol/mg mu-opioid receptor, or 1. 4-4.3 pmol/mg delta-opioid receptor, or in SHSY5Y cells containing 0. 16-0.39 pmol/mg receptor. The association of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding was faster in membranes from C6mu cells than from C6delta cells. A 10-fold reduction in functional G-protein, following pertussis toxin treatment, lowered the maximal level of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding but not the association rate. These data indicate a compartmentalization of opioid receptors and G protein at the cell membrane. PMID:10822058

  12. Structural insights into µ-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A J; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N; Sanborn, Adrian L; Kato, Hideaki E; Livingston, Kathryn E; Thorsen, Thor S; Kling, Ralf C; Granier, Sébastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M; Traynor, John R; Weis, William I; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O; Kobilka, Brian K

    2015-08-20

    Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To shed light on the structural basis for μOR activation, here we report a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the murine μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and a G protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor. Comparison with active β2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the μOR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26245379

  13. Peripheral Sensitization Increases Opioid Receptor Expression and Activation by Crotalphine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids. PMID:24594607

  14. Peripheral sensitization increases opioid receptor expression and activation by crotalphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids.

  15. Structural insights into μ-opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N.; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Kato, Hideaki E.; Livingston, Kathryn E.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Kling, Ralf; Granier, Sébastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M.; Traynor, John R.; Weis, William I.; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To understand the structural basis for μOR activation, we obtained a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and stabilized by a G protein-mimetic camelid-antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Comparison with active β2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the μOR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three GPCRs. PMID:26245379

  16. Molecular details of the activation of the μ opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jihyun; Coop, Andrew; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-07-01

    Molecular details of μ opioid receptor activations were obtained using molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor in the presence of three agonists, three antagonists, and a partial agonist and on the constitutively active T279K mutant. Agonists have a higher probability of direct interactions of their basic nitrogen (N) with Asp147 as compared with antagonists, indicating that direct ligand-Asp147 interactions modulate activation. Medium-size substituents on the basic N of antagonists lead to steric interactions that perturb N-Asp147 interactions, while additional favorable interactions occur with larger basic N substituents, such as in N-phenethylnormorphine, restoring N-Asp147 interactions, leading to agonism. With the orvinols, the increased size of the C19 substituent in buprenorphine over diprenorphine leads to increased interactions with residues adjacent to Asp147, partially overcoming the presence of the cyclopropyl N substituent, such that buprenorphine is a partial agonist. Results also indicate different conformational properties of the intracellular regions of the transmembrane helices in agonists versus antagonists. PMID:23758404

  17. Unexpected Opioid Activity Profiles of Analogs of the Novel Peptide Kappa Opioid Receptor Ligand CJ-15,208

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Jane V.; Kulkarni, Santosh S.; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N.; Ross, Nicolette C.; Reilley, Kate J.; Eans, Shainnel O.; Ganno, Michelle L.; Murray, Thomas F.; McLaughlin, Jay P.

    2013-01-01

    An alanine scan was performed on the novel kappa opioid receptor (KOR) peptide ligand CJ-15,208 to determine which residues contribute to the potent in vivo agonist activity observed for the parent peptide. These cyclic tetrapeptides were synthesized by a combination of solid phase peptide synthesis of the linear precursors, followed by cyclization in solution. Like the parent peptide, each of the analogs exhibited agonist activity and KOR antagonist activity in an antinociceptive assay in vivo. Unlike the parent peptide, the agonist activity of the potent analogs was mediated predominantly if not exclusively by mu opioid receptors (MOR). Thus analogs 2 and 4, in which one of the phenylalanine residues was replaced by alanine, exhibited both potent MOR agonist activity and KOR antagonist activity in vivo. These peptides represent novel lead compounds for the development of peptide-based opioid analgesics. PMID:21761566

  18. Activation of delta-opioid receptor contributes to the antinociceptive effect of oxycodone in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pao-Pao; Yeh, Geng-Chang; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Xi, Jinghua; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2016-09-01

    Oxycodone has been used clinically for over 90 years. While it is known that it exhibits low affinity for the multiple opioid receptors, whether its pharmacological activities are due to oxycodone activation of the opioid receptor type or due to its active metabolite (oxymorphone) that exhibits high affinity for the mu-opioid receptors remains unresolved. Ross and Smith (1997) reported the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (171nmol, i.c.v.) are induced by putative kappa-opioid receptors in SD rat while others have reported oxycodone activities are due to activation of mu- and/or delta-opioid receptors. In this study, using male mu-opioid receptor knock-out (MOR-KO) mice, we examined whether delta-opioid receptor was involved in oxycodone antinociception. Systemic subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of oxycodone (above 40mg/kg) could induce a small but significant antinociceptive effect in MOR-KO mice by the tail flick test. Delta-opioid receptor antagonist (naltrindole, 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg, i.p.) could block this effect. When oxycodone was injected directly into the brain of MOR-KO mice by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route, oxycodone at doses of 50nmol or higher could induce similar level of antinociceptive responses to those observed in wild type mice at the same doses by i.c.v. Delta-opioid receptor antagonists (naltrindole at 10nmol or ICI 154,129 at 20μg) completely blocked the supraspinal antinociceptive effect of oxycodone in MOR-KO mice. Such oxycodone antinociceptive responses were probably not due to its active metabolites oxymorphone because (a) the relative low level of oxymorphone was found in the brain after systemically or centrally oxycodone injection using LC/MS/MS analysis; (b) oxymorphone at a dose that mimics the level detected in the mice brain did not show any significant antinocieption effect; (c) oxycodone exhibits equal potency as oxymorphone albeit being a partial agonist in regulating [Ca(2+)]I transients in a clonal cell line

  19. Shadows across mu-Star? Constitutively active mu-opioid receptors revisited.

    PubMed

    Connor, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Constitutively active mu-opioid receptors (mu* receptors) are reported to be formed following prolonged agonist treatment of cells or whole animals. mu* receptors signal in the absence of activating ligand and a blockade of mu* activation of G-proteins by naloxone and naltrexone has been suggested to underlie the profound withdrawal syndrome precipitated by these antagonists in vivo. In this issue of the Journal, Divin et al. examined whether treatment of C6 glioma cells with mu-opioid receptor agonists produced constitutively active mu-opioid receptors or other commonly reported adaptations to prolonged agonist treatment. Adenylyl cyclase superactivation was readily apparent following agonist treatment but there was no evidence of the formation of constitutively active mu-opioid receptors. This result challenges the notion that prolonged agonist exposure inevitably produces mu* receptors, and is consistent with many studies of adaptations in neurons produced by chronic agonist treatment. The investigators provide no explanation of their failure to see mu* receptors in C6 cells, but this is perhaps understandable because the molecular nature of mu* receptors remains elusive, and the precise mechanisms that lead to their formation are unknown. Without knowing exactly what mu* receptors are, how they are formed and how they signal, understanding their role in cellular adaptations to prolonged opioid treatment will remain impossible. Studies such as this should refocus attention on establishing the molecular mechanisms that underlie that phenomenon of mu* receptors. PMID:19368530

  20. Endomorphin analogues with mixed μ-opioid (MOP) receptor agonism/δ-opioid (DOP) receptor antagonism and lacking β-arrestin2 recruitment activity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jun; Song, Bowen; Cai, Yunxin; Ma, Yu; Lam, Ai-Leen; Magiera, Julia; Sekar, Sunder; Wyse, Bruce D; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Smith, Maree T; Li, Tingyou

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of endomorphin (Dmt-Pro-Xaa-Xaa-NH2) modified at position 4 or at positions 4 and 3, and tripeptides (Dmt-Pro-Xaa-NH2) modified at position 3, with various phenylalanine analogues (Xaa=Trp, 1-Nal, 2-Nal, Tmp, Dmp, Dmt) were synthesized and their effects on in vitro opioid activity were investigated. Most of the peptides exhibited high μ-opioid (MOP) receptor binding affinity (KiMOP=0.13-0.81nM), modest MOP-selectivity (Kiδ-opioid (DOP)/KiMOP=3.5-316), and potent functional MOP agonism (GPI, IC50=0.274-249nM) without DOP and κ-opioid (KOP) receptor agonism. Among them, compounds 7 (Dmt-Pro-Tmp-Tmp-NH2) and 9 (Dmt-Pro-1-Nal-NH2) were opioids with potent mixed MOP receptor agonism/DOP receptor antagonism and devoid of β-arrestin2 recruitment activity. They may offer a unique template for the discovery of potent analgesics that produce less respiratory depression, less gastrointestinal dysfunction and that have a lower propensity to induce tolerance and dependence compared with morphine.

  1. Antinociceptive action of isolated mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through activation of opioid receptor system.

    PubMed

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor. PMID:23109863

  2. Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ1-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor. PMID:23109863

  3. Antinociceptive action of isolated mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through activation of opioid receptor system.

    PubMed

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.

  4. Opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP improves effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Hormann, Inis; Roscher, Mareike; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, having a very poor prognosis. The enhanced radio- and chemoresistance of glioblastoma and the glioblastoma stem cells might be the main reason why conventional therapies fail. The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Downregulation of cAMP sensitizes tumor cells for anti-cancer treatment. Opioid receptor agonists triggering opioid receptors can activate inhibitory Gi proteins, which, in turn, block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. In this study, we show that downregulation of cAMP by opioid receptor activation improves the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma. The µ-opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone sensitizes glioblastoma as well as the untreatable glioblastoma stem cells for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and activation of apoptosis pathways by reversing deficient caspase activation and deficient downregulation of XIAP and Bcl-xL, playing critical roles in glioblastomas’ resistance. Blocking opioid receptors using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or increasing intracellular cAMP by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) strongly reduced opioid receptor agonist-induced sensitization for doxorubicin. In addition, the opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux, whereas doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in glioblastomas. Furthermore, opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone inhibited tumor growth significantly in vivo. Our findings suggest that opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP is a promising strategy to inhibit tumor growth and to improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma and in killing glioblastoma stem cells. PMID:24626197

  5. Opiate-induced constipation related to activation of small intestine opioid μ2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wency; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of opioid μ-receptor subtype in opiate-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: The effect of loperamide on intestinal transit was investigated in mice. Ileum strips were isolated from 12-wk-old male BALB/c mice for identification of isometric tension. The ileum strips were precontracted with 1 μmol/L acetylcholine (ACh). Then, decrease in muscle tone (relaxation) was characterized after cumulative administration of 0.1-10 μmol/L loperamide into the organ bath, for a concentration-dependent study. Specific blockers or antagonists were used for pretreatment to compare the changes in loperamide-induced relaxation. RESULTS: In addition to the delay in intestinal transit, loperamide produced a marked relaxation in isolated ileum precontracted with ACh, in a dose-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished by cyprodime, a selective opioid μ-receptor antagonist, but not modified by naloxonazine at a dose sufficient to block opioid μ-1 receptors. Also, treatment with opioid μ-1 receptor agonist failed to modify the muscle tone. Moreover, the relaxation by loperamide was attenuated by glibenclamide at a dose sufficient to block ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, and by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, but was enhanced by an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). CONCLUSION: Loperamide induces intestinal relaxation by activation of opioid μ-2 receptors via the cAMP-PKA pathway to open KATP channels, relates to OIC. PMID:22493554

  6. Specific activation of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) by endomorphin 1 and endomorphin 2.

    PubMed

    Monory, K; Bourin, M C; Spetea, M; Tömböly, C; Tóth, G; Matthes, H W; Kieffer, B L; Hanoune, J; Borsodi, A

    2000-02-01

    The recently discovered endomorphin 1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin 2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) were investigated with respect to their direct receptor-binding properties, and to their ability to activate G proteins and to inhibit adenylyl cyclase in both cellular and animal models. Both tetrapeptides activated G proteins and inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity in membrane preparations from cells stably expressing the mu opioid receptor, an effect reversed by the mu receptor antagonist CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2), but they had no influence on cells stably expressing the delta opioid receptor. To further establish the selectivity of these peptides for the mu opioid receptor, brain preparations of mice lacking the mu opioid receptor gene were used to study their binding and signalling properties. Endomorphin 2, tritiated by a dehalotritiation method resulting in a specific radioactivity of 1.98 TBq/mmol (53.4 Ci/mmol), labelled the brain membranes of wild-type mice with a Kd value of 1.77 nM and a Bmax of 63.33 fmol/mg protein. In membranes of mice lacking the mu receptor gene, no binding was observed, and both endomorphins failed to stimulate [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding and to inhibit adenylyl cyclase. These data show that endomorphins are capable of activating G proteins and inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, and all these effects are mediated by the mu opioid receptors.

  7. Synthesis and κ-Opioid Receptor Activity of Furan-Substituted Salvinorin A Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, found in the leaves of Salvia divinorum, is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist, making it an attractive scaffold for development into a treatment for substance abuse. Although several successful semisynthetic studies have been performed to elucidate structure–activity relationships, the lack of analogues with substitutions to the furan ring of salvinorin A has prevented a thorough understanding of its role in binding to the κ-opioid receptor. Herein we report the synthesis of several salvinorin A derivatives with modified furan rings. Evaluation of these compounds in a functional assay indicated that sterically less demanding substitutions are preferred, suggesting the furan ring is bound in a congested portion of the binding pocket. The most potent of the analogues successfully reduced drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of drug-relapse without producing the sedation observed with other κ-opioid agonists. PMID:25426797

  8. Intrinsic relative activities of κ opioid agonists in activating Gα proteins and internalizing receptor: Differences between human and mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    DiMattio, Kelly M; Ehlert, Frederick J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-08-15

    Several investigators recently identified biased κ opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi-G) and receptor internalization (RAi-I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi-G - logRAi-I, RAi-G/RAi-I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1-17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed.

  9. Intrinsic Relative Activities of Opioid Agonists in Activating Gα proteins and Internalizing Receptor: Differences between Human and Mouse Receptors

    PubMed Central

    DiMattio, Kelly M.; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators recently identified biased opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi−G) and receptor internalization (RAi−I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi−G − Log RAi−I, RAi−G/RAi−I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1–17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed. PMID:26057692

  10. Opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Opium is arguably one of the oldest herbal medicines, being used as analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal drug for thousands of years. These effects mirror the actions of the endogenous opioid system and are mediated by the principal μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. In the gut, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, β-endorphin and dynorphin occur in both neurons and endocrine cells. When released, opioid peptides activate opioid receptors on the enteric circuitry controlling motility and secretion. As a result, inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, induction of stationary motor patterns and blockade of peristalsis ensue. Together with inhibition of ion and fluid secretion, these effects cause constipation, one of the most frequent and troublesome adverse reactions of opioid analgesic therapy. Although laxatives are most frequently used to ameliorate opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, their efficacy is unsatisfactory. Specific antagonism of peripheral opioid receptors is a more rational approach. This goal is addressed by the use of opioid receptor antagonists with limited absorption such as oral prolonged-release naloxone and opioid receptor antagonists that do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier such as methylnaltrexone and alvimopan. Preliminary evidence indicates that peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonists may act as prokinetic drugs in their own right. PMID:19345246

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Induced Aversion Requires p38 MAPK Activation in VTA Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Jonathan M.; Messinger, Daniel I.; Knakal, Cerise R.; Kuhar, Jamie R.; Schattauer, Selena S.; Bruchas, Michael R.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Phillips, Paul E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous dynorphin-κ opioid receptor (KOR) system encodes the dysphoric component of the stress response and controls the risk of depression-like and addiction behaviors; however, the molecular and neural circuit mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we report that KOR activation of p38α MAPK in ventral tegmental (VTA) dopaminergic neurons was required for conditioned place aversion (CPA) in mice. Conditional genetic deletion of floxed KOR or floxed p38α MAPK by Cre recombinase expression in dopaminergic neurons blocked place aversion to the KOR agonist U50,488. Selective viral rescue by wild-type KOR expression in dopaminergic neurons of KOR−/− mice restored U50,488-CPA, whereas expression of a mutated form of KOR that could not initiate p38α MAPK activation did not. Surprisingly, while p38α MAPK inactivation blocked U50,488-CPA, p38α MAPK was not required for KOR inhibition of evoked dopamine release measured by fast scan cyclic voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, KOR activation acutely inhibited VTA dopaminergic neuron firing, and repeated exposure attenuated the opioid response. This adaptation to repeated exposure was blocked by conditional deletion of p38α MAPK, which also blocked KOR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK) subunit Kir3.1 in VTA dopaminergic neurons. Consistent with the reduced response, GIRK phosphorylation at this amino terminal tyrosine residue (Y12) enhances channel deactivation. Thus, contrary to prevailing expectations, these results suggest that κ opioid-induced aversion requires regulation of VTA dopaminergic neuron somatic excitability through a p38α MAPK effect on GIRK deactivation kinetics rather than by presynaptically inhibiting dopamine release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists have the potential to be effective, nonaddictive analgesics, but their therapeutic utility is greatly limited by adverse effects on mood

  12. Activation of peripheral opioid receptors has no effect on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ellidokuz, Ender; Kaya, Dayimi; Uslan, Ihsan; Celik, Ataç; Esen, Ali Metin; Barutça, Irfan

    2008-06-01

    Opioid receptors involved in regulating the motility of the gastrointestinal tract have been localized in both contractile and neuronal tissues. Trimebutine, a peripheral opioid receptor agonist, modulates gastrointestinal motor activity in both directions and also may act on cardiac tissue. This study investigated the effects of trimebutine in clinical doses on cardiac autonomic functions with heart rate variability. The effect of trimebutine on cardiac autonomic outflows was evaluated in 11 healthy subjects. Trimebutine (200 mg) or placebo was administered orally at random in a double-blind, cross-over manner. Continuous electrocardiography recordings were obtained before and after drug administration during three states: rest, controlled breathing, and a hand grip exercise. Heart rate variability analysis showed that there was no significant difference between subjects administered with placebo or trimebutine throughout rest, controlled breathing, or the hand grip exercise. We concluded that trimebutine, in clinical doses, has no significant effect on cardiac autonomic functions. PMID:18449593

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Opioid Receptor-Dependent Signaling and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasani, Ream; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been targeted for the treatment of pain and related disorders for thousands of years, and remain the most widely used analgesics in the clinic. Mu (μ), kappa (κ), and delta (δ) opioid receptors represent the originally classified receptor subtypes, with opioid receptor like-1 (ORL1) being the least characterized. All four receptors are G-protein coupled, and activate inhibitory G-proteins. These receptors form homo- and hetereodimeric complexes, signal to kinase cascades, and scaffold a variety of proteins. In this review, we discuss classical mechanisms and developments in understanding opioid tolerance, opioid receptor signaling, and highlight advances in opioid molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and human genetics. We put into context how opioid receptor signaling leads to the modulation of behavior with the potential for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we conclude that there is a continued need for more translational work on opioid receptors in vivo. PMID:22020140

  14. Activity profiles of dalargin and its analogues in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor selective bioassays.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Pospisek, J; Hauzerova, L; Barth, T; Milanov, P

    1999-10-01

    1. To elucidate the structural features ensuring action of [D-Ala2, Leu5]-enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin), a series of dalargin analogues were tested for their effectiveness in depressing electrically-evoked contractions of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors) and the vasa deferentia of the hamster (delta-opioid receptors), mouse (mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors), rat (similar to mu-opioid receptors) and rabbit (kappa-opioid receptors). The naloxone KB values in the myenteric plexus were also obtained. 2. [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 19 times less potent than dalargin, and its pharmacological activity was peptidase-sensitive. The ratio of delta-activity to mu-activity for [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 6.78, and KB was 7.9 nM. This emphasizes the role that D-configuration of Ala2 plays in determining the active folding of dalargin molecule as well as in conferring resistance to peptidases. 3. [Met5]-dalargin was equipotent to dalargin in the myenteric plexus, but was more potent in the vasa deferentia of hamster and mouse (KB=5.5 nM). Leu5 and the interdependence of Leu5 and D-Ala2 are of importance for the selectivity of dalargin for mu-opioid receptors. 4. Dalarginamide was more potent and selective for mu-opioid receptors than dalargin, whilst dalarginethylamide, though equipotent to dalarginamide in the myenteric plexus, was more potent at delta-opioid receptors (KB=5.0 nM). [D-Phe4]-dalarginamide and N-Me-[D-Phe4]-dalarginamide were inactive indicating the contribution of L-configuration of Phe4 to the pharmacological potency of dalargin. 5. N-Me-[L-Phe4]-dalarginamide possessed the highest potency and selectivity for mu-opioid receptors (the ratio of delta-activity to mu-activity was 0.00053; KB=2.6 nM). The CONH2 terminus combined with the N-methylation of L-Phe4 increased the potency and selectivity of dalargin for mu-opioid receptors.

  15. Activity profiles of dalargin and its analogues in μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptor selective bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Nevena; Pospišek, Jan; Hauzerova, Linda; Barth, Tomislav; Milanov, Peter

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the structural features ensuring action of [D-Ala2, Leu5]-enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin), a series of dalargin analogues were tested for their effectiveness in depressing electrically-evoked contractions of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations (μ- and κ-opioid receptors) and the vasa deferentia of the hamster (δ-opioid receptors), mouse (μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors), rat (similar to μ-opioid receptors) and rabbit (κ-opioid receptors). The naloxone KB values in the myenteric plexus were also obtained.[L-Ala2]-dalargin was 19 times less potent than dalargin, and its pharmacological activity was peptidase-sensitive. The ratio of δ-activity to μ-activity for [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 6.78, and KB was 7.9 nM. This emphasizes the role that D-configuration of Ala2 plays in determining the active folding of dalargin molecule as well as in conferring resistance to peptidases.[Met5]-dalargin was equipotent to dalargin in the myenteric plexus, but was more potent in the vasa deferentia of hamster and mouse (KB=5.5 nM). Leu5 and the interdependence of Leu5 and D-Ala2 are of importance for the selectivity of dalargin for μ-opioid receptors.Dalarginamide was more potent and selective for μ-opioid receptors than dalargin, whilst dalarginethylamide, though equipotent to dalarginamide in the myenteric plexus, was more potent at δ-opioid receptors (KB=5.0 nM). [D-Phe4]-dalarginamide and N-Me-[D-Phe4]-dalarginamide were inactive indicating the contribution of L-configuration of Phe4 to the pharmacological potency of dalargin.N-Me-[L-Phe4]-dalarginamide possessed the highest potency and selectivity for μ-opioid receptors (the ratio of δ-activity to μ-activity was 0.00053; KB=2.6 nM). The CONH2 terminus combined with the N-methylation of L-Phe4 increased the potency and selectivity of dalargin for μ-opioid receptors. PMID:10516634

  16. Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dreborg, Susanne; Sundström, Görel; Larsson, Tomas A.; Larhammar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates ≈450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates. PMID:18832151

  17. Splice variation of the mu-opioid receptor and its effect on the action of opioids

    PubMed Central

    Droney, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary points An individual’s response to opioids is influenced by a complex combination of genetic, molecular and phenotypic factors. Intra- and inter-individual variations in response to mu opioids have led to the suggestion that mu-opioid receptor subtypes exist. Scientists have now proven that mu-opioid receptor subtypes exist and that they occur through a mechanism promoting protein diversity, called alternative splicing. The ability of mu opioids to differentially activate splice variants may explain some of the clinical differences observed between mu opioids. This article examines how differential activation of splice variants by mu opioids occurs through alternative mu-opioid receptor binding, through differential receptor activation, and as a result of the distinct distribution of variants located regionally and at the cellular level. PMID:26516547

  18. Activation of μ opioid receptors in the LPBN facilitates sodium intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Carolina G; Roncari, Camila F; Barbosa, Silas P; De Paula, Patrícia M; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

    2015-07-15

    Important inhibitory mechanisms for the control of water and sodium intake are present in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). Opioid receptors are expressed by LPBN neurons and injections of β-endorphin (nonspecific opioid receptor agonist) in this area induce 0.3M NaCl and water intake in satiated rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the injections of endomorphin-1 (μ opioid receptor agonist) alone or combined with the blockade of μ, κ or δ opioid receptors into the LPBN on 0.3M NaCl and water intake induced by subcutaneous injections of the diuretic furosemide (FURO) combined with low dose of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (CAP). Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of endomorphin-1 (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0nmol/0.2μl) into the LPBN increased 0.3M NaCl and water intake induced by FURO+CAP. The previous blockade of μ opioid receptor with CTAP (1.0nmol/0.2μl) into the LPBN reduced the effect of endomorphin-1 on FURO+CAP-induced 0.3M NaCl. GNTI (κ opioid receptor antagonist; 2.0nmol/0.2μl) and naltrindole (δ opioid receptor antagonist; 2.0nmol/0.2μl) injected into the LPBN did not change the effects of endomorphin-1 on FURO+CAP-induced 0.3M NaCl. The results suggest that μ opioid receptors in the LPBN are involved in the control of sodium intake.

  19. Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, derived from rapeseed napin, shows anti-opioid activity via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by the cholecystokinin CCK(2) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuko; Ohinata, Kousaku; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, is a vasorelaxing, anti-hypertensive and anorexigenic peptide derived from rapeseed napin. In this study, we found that rapakinin intracerebroventricularly administered to mice inhibited the analgesic effect of morphine, evaluated by the tail-pinch test. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was blocked by LY225910, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(2) receptor, but not by lorglumide, an antagonist of the CCK(1) receptor. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was also blocked by CAY10441, an antagonist of the prostaglandin (PG) IP receptor. These results suggest that the anti-opioid activity of rapakinin is mediated by the CCK(2) and IP receptors. The anti-opioid activity induced by ciprostene, an IP receptor agonist, was blocked by LY225910, while that of CCK-8 was not blocked by CAY10441. Thus, it is demonstrated that the CCK-CCK(2) system was activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. Taken together, rapakinin shows anti-opioid activity via the activation of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system followed by the CCK-CCK(2) receptor system.

  20. Collybolide is a novel biased agonist of κ-opioid receptors with potent antipruritic activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N; Fakira, Amanda K; Massaro, Nicholas P; Sharma, Indrajeet; Cavé, Adrien; Hamm, Heidi E; Parello, Joseph; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2016-05-24

    Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non-histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects. PMID:27162327

  1. Selectively Promiscuous Opioid Ligands: Discovery of High Affinity/Low Efficacy Opioid Ligands with Substantial Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor Affinity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a compound displaying high affinity for μ, κ, and δ opioid (MOP, KOP, and DOP) receptors and antagonist activity at each, coupled with moderate affinity and efficacy at nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptors will have utility as a relapse prevention agent for multiple types of drug abuse. Members of the orvinol family of opioid ligands have the desired affinity profile but have typically displayed substantial efficacy at MOP and or KOP receptors. In this study it is shown that a phenyl ring analogue (1d) of buprenorphine displays the desired profile in vitro with high, nonselective affinity for the MOP, KOP, and DOP receptors coupled with moderate affinity for NOP receptors. In vivo, 1d lacked any opioid agonist activity and was an antagonist of both the MOP receptor agonist morphine and the KOP receptor agonist ethylketocyclazocine, confirming the desired opioid receptor profile in vivo. PMID:24761755

  2. Pharmacological characterization of an opioid receptor in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, R; Silva, W I; Renaud, F L

    1993-01-01

    A pharmacological characterization has been performed of the opioid receptor involved in modulation of phagocytosis in the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena. Studies on inhibition of phagocytosis by mammalian prototypic opioid agonists revealed that morphine and beta-endorphin have the highest intrinsic activity, whereas all the other opioids tested can only be considered partial agonists. However, morphine (a mu-receptor agonist) is twice as potent as beta-endorphin (a delta-receptor agonist). Furthermore, the sensitivity for the opioid antagonist naloxone, determined in the presence of morphine and beta-endorphin, is very similar to the sensitivity exhibited by mammalian tissues rich in mu-opioid receptors. We suggest that the opioid receptor coupled to phagocytosis in Tetrahymena is mu-like in some of its pharmacological characteristics and may serve as a model system for studies on opioid receptor function and evolution.

  3. Behavioural activation system sensitivity is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tomi; Tuominen, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement-sensitivity theory proposes that behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS, respectively) guide approach and avoidance behaviour in potentially rewarding and punishing situations. Their baseline activity presumably explains individual differences in behavioural dispositions when a person encounters signals of reward and harm. Yet, neurochemical bases of BAS and BIS have remained poorly understood. Here we used in vivo positron emission tomography with a µ-opioid receptor (MOR) specific ligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test whether individual differences in MOR availability would be associated with BAS or BIS. We scanned 49 healthy subjects and measured their BAS and BIS sensitivities using the BIS/BAS scales. BAS but not BIS sensitivity was positively associated with MOR availability in frontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, brainstem, cingulate cortex and insula. Strongest associations were observed for the BAS subscale 'Fun Seeking'. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid system underlies BAS, and that differences in MOR availability could explain inter-individual differences in reward seeking behaviour.

  4. Behavioural activation system sensitivity is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tomi; Tuominen, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement-sensitivity theory proposes that behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS, respectively) guide approach and avoidance behaviour in potentially rewarding and punishing situations. Their baseline activity presumably explains individual differences in behavioural dispositions when a person encounters signals of reward and harm. Yet, neurochemical bases of BAS and BIS have remained poorly understood. Here we used in vivo positron emission tomography with a µ-opioid receptor (MOR) specific ligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test whether individual differences in MOR availability would be associated with BAS or BIS. We scanned 49 healthy subjects and measured their BAS and BIS sensitivities using the BIS/BAS scales. BAS but not BIS sensitivity was positively associated with MOR availability in frontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, brainstem, cingulate cortex and insula. Strongest associations were observed for the BAS subscale 'Fun Seeking'. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid system underlies BAS, and that differences in MOR availability could explain inter-individual differences in reward seeking behaviour. PMID:27053768

  5. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  6. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  7. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  8. Functional activity of the cannabinoid 1 receptor is not affected by opioid antagonists in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background WIN55212-2 is a synthetic cannabinoid agonist and selective to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, which are distributed mainly in the central nervous system. Opioid receptors and CB1 receptors have several similarities in terms of their intracellular signal transduction mechanisms, distributions, and pharmacological action. Several studies have therefore sought to describe the functional interactions between opioids and cannabinoids at the cellular and behavioral levels. The present study investigated agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding by WIN55212-2 in rat brain membranes and determined the antagonism by selective opioid antagonists at the level of receptor-ligand interaction and intracellular signal transduction. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (male, n = 20) were euthanized for the preparation of brain membranes. In agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding by WIN55212-2, the values of EC50 and maximum stimulation (% over basal) were determined in the absence or presence of the µ, κ and δ opioid receptor antagonists naloxone (20 nM), norbinaltorphimine (3 nM), and naltrindole (3 nM), respectively. Ke values for opioid antagonist inhibition in the absence or presence of each opioid receptor antagonist were calculated using the following equation: [nanomolar antagonist] / (dose ratio of EC50 - 1). Results In WIN55212-2-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the rat brain membranes, the values of EC50 and maximum stimulation (% over basal) were 154 ± 39.5 nM and 27.6 ± 5.3% over basal, respectively. Addition of selective opioid antagonists did not produce a significant rightward shift in the WIN55212-2 concentration-response curve, and Ke values were not applicable. Conclusions Our results suggest that the functional activity of WIN55212-2-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding was not affected by opioid antagonists in the rat brain membranes. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, our results may partially elucidate their actions. PMID:23560193

  9. Repeated activation of delta opioid receptors counteracts nerve injury-induced TNF-α up-regulation in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Nunzio; Parenti, Rosalba; Aricò, Giuseppina; Turnaturi, Rita; Scoto, Giovanna Maria; Chiechio, Santina

    2016-01-01

    Despite mu opioid receptor agonists are the cornerstones of moderate-to-severe acute pain treatment, their effectiveness in chronic pain conditions is controversial. In contrast to mu opioid receptor agonists, a number of studies have reported the effectiveness of delta opioid receptor agonists on neuropathic pain strengthening the idea that delta opioid receptors gain importance when chronic pain develops. Among other effects, it has been shown that delta opioid receptor activation in optic nerve astrocytes inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation in response to severe hypoxia. Considering the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-α in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, with this study we sought to correlate the effect of delta opioid receptor agonist on the development of mechanical allodynia to tumor necrosis factor-α expression at the site of nerve injury in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. To this aim, we measured the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain after repeated injections with a delta opioid receptor agonist. Results obtained demonstrated that repeated administrations of the delta opioid receptor agonist SNC80 (10 mg/kg, i.p. for seven consecutive days) significantly inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain and that the improvement of neuropathic symptom was timely related to the reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the rat sciatic nerve. We demonstrated also that when treatment with the delta opioid receptor agonist was suspended both allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α up-regulation in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain were restored. These results show that persistent delta opioid receptor activation significantly attenuates neuropathic pain and negatively regulates sciatic nerve tumor necrosis factor-α expression in chronic constriction injury rats. PMID:27590071

  10. Asymmetric synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activity of tetrahydroquinolines featuring a diverse set of polar substitutions at the 6 position as mixed-efficacy μ opioid receptoropioid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Bender, Aaron M; Griggs, Nicholas W; Anand, Jessica P; Traynor, John R; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Mosberg, Henry I

    2015-08-19

    We previously reported a small series of mixed-efficacy μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist/δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist peptidomimetics featuring a tetrahydroquinoline scaffold and showed the promise of this series as effective analgesics after intraperitoneal administration in mice. We report here an expanded structure-activity relationship study of the pendant region of these compounds and focus in particular on the incorporation of heteroatoms into this side chain. These analogues provide new insight into the binding requirements for this scaffold at MOR, DOR, and the κ opioid receptor (KOR), and several of them (10j, 10k, 10m, and 10n) significantly improve upon the overall MOR agonist/DOR antagonist profile of our previous compounds. In vivo data for 10j, 10k, 10m, and 10n are also reported and show the antinociceptive potency and duration of action of compounds 10j and 10m to be comparable to those of morphine.

  11. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walwyn, Wendy M.; Chen, Wenling; Kim, Hyeyoung; Minasyan, Ani; Ennes, Helena S.; McRoberts, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic pain disorders alternate between bouts of pain and periods of remission. The latent sensitization model reproduces this in rodents by showing that the apparent recovery (“remission”) from inflammatory or neuropathic pain can be reversed by opioid antagonists. Therefore, this remission represents an opioid receptor-mediated suppression of a sustained hyperalgesic state. To identify the receptors involved, we induced latent sensitization in mice and rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw. In WT mice, responses to mechanical stimulation returned to baseline 3 weeks after CFA. In μ-opioid receptor (MOR) knock-out (KO) mice, responses did not return to baseline but partially recovered from peak hyperalgesia. Antagonists of α2A-adrenergic and δ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia in WT mice and abolished the partial recovery from hyperalgesia in MOR KO mice. In rats, antagonists of α2A adrenergic and μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia during remission from CFA-induced hyperalgesia. Therefore, these four receptors suppress hyperalgesia in latent sensitization. We further demonstrated that suppression of hyperalgesia by MORs was due to their constitutive activity because of the following: (1) CFA-induced hyperalgesia was reinstated by the MOR inverse agonist naltrexone (NTX), but not by its neutral antagonist 6β-naltrexol; (2) pro-enkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, and pro-dynorphin KO mice showed recovery from hyperalgesia and reinstatement by NTX; (3) there was no MOR internalization during remission; (4) MORs immunoprecipitated from the spinal cord during remission had increased Ser375 phosphorylation; and (5) electrophysiology recordings from dorsal root ganglion neurons collected during remission showed constitutive MOR inhibition of calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic pain causes extreme suffering to millions of people, but its mechanisms remain to be unraveled. Latent

  12. BU08073 a buprenorphine analogue with partial agonist activity at μ-receptors in vitro but long-lasting opioid antagonist activity in vivo in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khroyan, T V; Wu, J; Polgar, W E; Cami-Kobeci, G; Fotaki, N; Husbands, S M; Toll, L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Buprenorphine is a potent analgesic with high affinity at μ, δ and κ and moderate affinity at nociceptin opioid (NOP) receptors. Nevertheless, NOP receptor activation modulates the in vivo activity of buprenorphine. Structure activity studies were conducted to design buprenorphine analogues with high affinity at each of these receptors and to characterize them in in vitro and in vivo assays. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Compounds were tested for binding affinity and functional activity using [35S]GTPγS binding at each receptor and a whole-cell fluorescent assay at μ receptors. BU08073 was evaluated for antinociceptive agonist and antagonist activity and for its effects on anxiety in mice. KEY RESULTS BU08073 bound with high affinity to all opioid receptors. It had virtually no efficacy at δ, κ and NOP receptors, whereas at μ receptors, BU08073 has similar efficacy as buprenorphine in both functional assays. Alone, BU08073 has anxiogenic activity and produces very little antinociception. However, BU08073 blocks morphine and U50,488-mediated antinociception. This blockade was not evident at 1 h post-treatment, but is present at 6 h and remains for up to 3–6 days. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These studies provide structural requirements for synthesis of ‘universal’ opioid ligands. BU08073 had high affinity for all the opioid receptors, with moderate efficacy at μ receptors and reduced efficacy at NOP receptors, a profile suggesting potential analgesic activity. However, in vivo, BU08073 had long-lasting antagonist activity, indicating that its pharmacokinetics determined both the time course of its effects and what receptor-mediated effects were observed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24903063

  13. [Opioid receptors of the CNS: function, structure and distribution].

    PubMed

    Slamberová, R

    2004-01-01

    Even though the alkaloids of opium, such as morphine and codeine, were isolated at the beginning of 19th century, the opioid receptors were not determined until 1970's. The discovery of endogenous opioid peptides, such as endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins, has helped to differentiate between the specific opioid receptor subtypes, mu, delta and kappa, that are used up to now. Opioid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system unevenly. Each receptor subtype has its own specific and nonspecific agonists and antagonists. Opioides, as exogenous opioid receptor agonists, are drugs that are often used in medicine for their analgesic effects, but they are also some of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Opioides may also induce long-term changes in the numbers and binding activities of opioid receptors. Some of our studies in fact demonstrate that prenatal morphine exposure can alter opioid receptors of adult rats. This may begin to provide insight into the sources of some of the morphological and behavioral changes in the progeny of mothers that received or abused opioides during pregnancy.

  14. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, the nociceptin or orphanin FQ receptor (ORL), is not as clear as hyperalgesia, analgesia, and no effect was reported after administration of ORL agonists. There are now cDNA sequences for all four types of opioid receptors that are expressed in the brain of six species from three different classes of vertebrates. This review presents a comparative analysis of vertebrate opioid receptors using bioinformatics and data from recent human genome studies. Results indicate that opioid receptors arose by gene duplication, that there is a vector of opioid receptor divergence, and that MOR shows evidence of rapid evolution. PMID:19273128

  15. Leukocyte opioid receptors mediate analgesia via Ca(2+)-regulated release of opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Celik, Melih Ö; Labuz, Dominika; Henning, Karen; Busch-Dienstfertig, Melanie; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Opioids are the most powerful analgesics. As pain is driven by sensory transmission and opioid receptors couple to inhibitory G proteins, according to the classical concept, opioids alleviate pain by activating receptors on neurons and blocking the release of excitatory mediators (e.g., substance P). Here we show that analgesia can be mediated by opioid receptors in immune cells. We propose that activation of leukocyte opioid receptors leads to the secretion of opioid peptides Met-enkephalin, β-endorphin and dynorphin A (1-17), which subsequently act at local neuronal receptors, to relieve pain. In a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, exogenous agonists of δ-, μ- and κ-opioid receptors injected at the damaged nerve infiltrated by opioid peptide- and receptor-expressing leukocytes, produced analgesia, as assessed with von Frey filaments. The analgesia was attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inactivation of opioid peptides, and by leukocyte depletion. This decrease in analgesia was restored by the transfer of wild-type, but not opioid receptor-lacking leukocytes. Ex vivo, exogenous opioids triggered secretion of opioid peptides from wild-type immune cells isolated from damaged nerves, which was diminished by blockade of Gαi/o or Gβγ (but not Gαs) proteins, by chelator of intracellular (but not extracellular) Ca(2+), by blockers of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, and was partially attenuated by protein kinase C inhibitor. Similarly, the leukocyte depletion-induced decrease in exogenous opioid analgesia was re-established by transfer of immune cells ex vivo pretreated with extracellular Ca(2+) chelator, but was unaltered by leukocytes pretreated with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator or blockers of Gαi/o and Gβγ proteins. Thus, both ex vivo opioid peptide release and in vivo analgesia were mediated by leukocyte opioid receptors coupled to the G

  16. Leukocyte opioid receptors mediate analgesia via Ca(2+)-regulated release of opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Celik, Melih Ö; Labuz, Dominika; Henning, Karen; Busch-Dienstfertig, Melanie; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-10-01

    Opioids are the most powerful analgesics. As pain is driven by sensory transmission and opioid receptors couple to inhibitory G proteins, according to the classical concept, opioids alleviate pain by activating receptors on neurons and blocking the release of excitatory mediators (e.g., substance P). Here we show that analgesia can be mediated by opioid receptors in immune cells. We propose that activation of leukocyte opioid receptors leads to the secretion of opioid peptides Met-enkephalin, β-endorphin and dynorphin A (1-17), which subsequently act at local neuronal receptors, to relieve pain. In a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, exogenous agonists of δ-, μ- and κ-opioid receptors injected at the damaged nerve infiltrated by opioid peptide- and receptor-expressing leukocytes, produced analgesia, as assessed with von Frey filaments. The analgesia was attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inactivation of opioid peptides, and by leukocyte depletion. This decrease in analgesia was restored by the transfer of wild-type, but not opioid receptor-lacking leukocytes. Ex vivo, exogenous opioids triggered secretion of opioid peptides from wild-type immune cells isolated from damaged nerves, which was diminished by blockade of Gαi/o or Gβγ (but not Gαs) proteins, by chelator of intracellular (but not extracellular) Ca(2+), by blockers of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, and was partially attenuated by protein kinase C inhibitor. Similarly, the leukocyte depletion-induced decrease in exogenous opioid analgesia was re-established by transfer of immune cells ex vivo pretreated with extracellular Ca(2+) chelator, but was unaltered by leukocytes pretreated with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator or blockers of Gαi/o and Gβγ proteins. Thus, both ex vivo opioid peptide release and in vivo analgesia were mediated by leukocyte opioid receptors coupled to the G

  17. Chronic Kappa opioid receptor activation modulates NR2B: Implication in treatment resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shalini; Kumar, Ajeet; Umrao, Deepmala; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Yadav, Prem N

    2016-01-01

    Psychotomimetic and prodepressive effect by kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in rodents and human is widely known. Significantly, recent clinical investigations demonstrated the salutary effects of KOR antagonists in patients with treatment resistant depression, indicating essential role of KOR signaling in refractory depression. This study was undertaken to reveal the molecular determinant of KOR mediated depression and antidepressant response of KOR antagonist. We observed that chronic KOR activation by U50488, a selective KOR agonist, significantly increased depression like symptoms (behavioral despair, anhedonia and sociability) in C57BL/6J mice, which were blocked by KOR antagonist norBNI and antidepressant imipramine, but not by fluoxetine or citalopram. Further, chronic KOR activation increased phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of NMDA at tyrosine 1472 (pNR2B NMDA) in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex. Similar to behavioral effects norBNI and imipramine, but not SSRIs, blocked NR2B phosphorylation. Moreover, KOR induced depression like behaviors were reversed by NR2B selective inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Mechanistic studies in primary cultured neurons and brain tissues using genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that stimulation of KOR modulates several molecular correlates of depression. Thus, these findings elucidate molecular mechanism of KOR signaling in treatment resistant depression like behaviors in mice. PMID:27634008

  18. Chronic Kappa opioid receptor activation modulates NR2B: Implication in treatment resistant depression

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Shalini; Kumar, Ajeet; Umrao, Deepmala; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Yadav, Prem N.

    2016-01-01

    Psychotomimetic and prodepressive effect by kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in rodents and human is widely known. Significantly, recent clinical investigations demonstrated the salutary effects of KOR antagonists in patients with treatment resistant depression, indicating essential role of KOR signaling in refractory depression. This study was undertaken to reveal the molecular determinant of KOR mediated depression and antidepressant response of KOR antagonist. We observed that chronic KOR activation by U50488, a selective KOR agonist, significantly increased depression like symptoms (behavioral despair, anhedonia and sociability) in C57BL/6J mice, which were blocked by KOR antagonist norBNI and antidepressant imipramine, but not by fluoxetine or citalopram. Further, chronic KOR activation increased phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of NMDA at tyrosine 1472 (pNR2B NMDA) in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex. Similar to behavioral effects norBNI and imipramine, but not SSRIs, blocked NR2B phosphorylation. Moreover, KOR induced depression like behaviors were reversed by NR2B selective inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Mechanistic studies in primary cultured neurons and brain tissues using genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that stimulation of KOR modulates several molecular correlates of depression. Thus, these findings elucidate molecular mechanism of KOR signaling in treatment resistant depression like behaviors in mice. PMID:27634008

  19. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  20. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. The crystal structure of a bimorphinan with highly selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbańczyk-Lipkowska, Zofia; Etter, Margaret C.; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Portoghese, Philip S.

    1987-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dihydrobromide heptahydrate of nor-binaltorphimine (17, 17'-bis(cyclopropylmethyl)-6,6',7,7'-tetrahydro-4,5α: 4',5'α-diepoxy-6,6'-imino[7,7' bimorphinan]-3,3',14,14'-tetraol)is presented. This structure is the first reported structure of a rigid bivalent opioid ligand. Two morphinan pharmacophores are connected by a rigid spacer, the pyrrole ring. The nor-binaltorphimine structure itself shows unique, high selectivity as a kappa opioid receptor antagonist. Crystal data: P3 2, Z = 3, a = b = 20.223 (4), c = 9.541(7) Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°; R = 0.079 (1765 reflections, Fobs > 1σ( F)).

  2. The contribution of activated peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in the inflamed knee joint to anti-nociception.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Wook; Park, Eui Ho; Suh, Hye Rim; Ko, Duk Hwan; Kim, Yang In; Han, Hee Chul

    2016-10-01

    The systemic administration of opioids can be used for their strong analgesic effect. However, extensive activation of opioid receptors (ORs) beyond the targeted tissue can cause dysphoria, pruritus, and constipation. Therefore, selective activation of peripheral ORs present in the afferent fibers of the targeted tissue can be considered a superior strategy in opioid analgesia to avoid potential adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of peripheral kappa opioid receptors (kORs) in arthritic pain for the possible use of peripheral ORs as a target in anti-nociceptive therapy. We administered U50488 or nor-BNI/DIPPA, a selective agonist or antagonist of kOR, respectively into arthritic rat knee joints induced using 1% carrageenan. After the injection of U50488 or U50488 with nor-BNI or DIPPA into the inflamed knee joint, we evaluated nociceptive behavior as indicated by reduced weight-bearing on the ipsilateral limbs of the rat and recorded the activity of mechanosensitive afferents (MSA). In the inflamed knee joint, the intra-articular application of 1μM, 10nM, or 0.1nM U50488 resulted in a significant reduction in nociceptive behavior. In addition, 1μM and 10nM U50488 decreased MSA activity. However, in a non-inflamed knee joint, 1μM U50488 had no effect on MSA activity. Additionally, intra-articular pretreatment with 20μM nor-BNI or 10μM DIPPA significantly blocked the inhibitory effects of 1μM U50488 on nociceptive behavior and MSA activity in the inflamed knee joint. These results implicate that peripheral kORs can contribute to anti-nociceptive processing in an inflamed knee joint. PMID:27378583

  3. Activation of amygdala opioid receptors by electroacupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints exacerbates focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of seizure suppression by acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints has been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot), however, there is a lack of scientific evidence to prove it. This current study was designed to elucidate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on the epileptic activity by employing an animal model of focal epilepsy. Methods Administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced the focal epilepsy in rats. Rats received a 30-min 100 Hz EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints per day, beginning at 30 minutes before the dark period and performing in three consecutive days. The broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone), μ-receptor antagonist (naloxonazine), δ-receptor antagonist (naltrindole) and κ-receptor antagonist (nor-binaltorphimine) were administered directly into the CeA to elucidate the involvement of CeA opioid receptors in the EA effect. Results High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints did not suppress the pilocarpine-induced epileptiform electroencephalograms (EEGs), whereas it further increased the duration of epileptiform EEGs. We also observed that epilepsy occurred while 100 Hz EA stimulation of Feng-Chi acupoints was delivered into naïve rats. EA-induced augmentation of epileptic activity was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, μ- (naloxonazine), κ- (nor-binaltorphimine) or δ-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting that activation of opioid receptors in the CeA mediates EA-exacerbated epilepsy. Conclusions The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints has no effect to protect against pilocarpine-induced focal epilepsy; in contrast, EA further exacerbated focal epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA

  4. Mu Opioid Receptor Gene: New Point Mutations in Opioid Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Dinarvand, Amin; Goodarzi, Ali; Vousooghi, Nasim; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Ostadzadeh, Fahimeh; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mu opioid receptor gene and drug addiction has been shown in various studies. Here, we have evaluated the existence of polymorphisms in exon 3 of this gene in Iranian population and investigated the possible association between these mutations and opioid addiction. Methods 79 opioid-dependent subjects (55 males, 24 females) and 134 non-addict or control individuals (74 males, 60 females) participated in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from volunteers’ peripheral blood and exon 3 of the mu opioid receptor gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) whose products were then sequenced. Results Three different heterozygote polymorphisms were observed in 3 male individuals: 759T > C and 877G > A mutations were found in 2 control volunteers and 1043G > C substitution was observed in an opioid-addicted subject. Association between genotype and opioid addiction for each mutation was not statistically significant. Discussion It seems that the sample size used in our study is not enough to confirm or reject any association between 759T > C, 877G > A and 1043G > C substitutions in exon 3 of the mu opioid receptor gene and opioid addiction susceptibility in Iranian population. PMID:25436079

  5. Regional differences in mu and kappa opioid receptor G-protein activation in brain in male and female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Martin, T J; Sexton, T; Kim, S A; Severino, A L; Peters, C M; Young, L J; Childers, S R

    2015-12-17

    Prairie voles are unusual mammals in that, like humans, they are capable of forming socially monogamous pair bonds, display biparental care, and engage in alloparental behaviors. Both mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in behaviors that either establish and maintain, or result from pair bond formation in these animals. Mu and kappa opioid receptors both utilize inhibitory G-proteins in signal transduction mechanisms, however the efficacy by which these receptor subtypes stimulate G-protein signaling across the prairie vole neuraxis is not known. Utilizing [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography, we characterized the efficacy of G-protein stimulation in coronal sections throughout male and female prairie vole brains by [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and U50,488H, selective mu and kappa opioid agonists, respectively. DAMGO stimulation was highest in the forebrain, similar to that found with other rodent species. U-50,488H produced greater stimulation in prairie voles than is typically seen in mice and rats, particularly in select forebrain areas. DAMGO produced higher stimulation in the core versus the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females, while the distribution of U-50,488H stimulation was the opposite. There were no gender differences for U50,488H stimulation of G-protein activity across the regions examined, while DAMGO stimulation was greater in sections from females compared to those from males for NAc core, entopeduncular nucleus, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the kappa opioid system may be more sensitive to manipulation in prairie voles compared to mice and rats, and that female prairie voles may be more sensitive to mu agonists in select brain regions than males.

  6. Regional differences in mu and kappa opioid receptor G-protein activation in brain in male and female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Martin, T J; Sexton, T; Kim, S A; Severino, A L; Peters, C M; Young, L J; Childers, S R

    2015-12-17

    Prairie voles are unusual mammals in that, like humans, they are capable of forming socially monogamous pair bonds, display biparental care, and engage in alloparental behaviors. Both mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in behaviors that either establish and maintain, or result from pair bond formation in these animals. Mu and kappa opioid receptors both utilize inhibitory G-proteins in signal transduction mechanisms, however the efficacy by which these receptor subtypes stimulate G-protein signaling across the prairie vole neuraxis is not known. Utilizing [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography, we characterized the efficacy of G-protein stimulation in coronal sections throughout male and female prairie vole brains by [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and U50,488H, selective mu and kappa opioid agonists, respectively. DAMGO stimulation was highest in the forebrain, similar to that found with other rodent species. U-50,488H produced greater stimulation in prairie voles than is typically seen in mice and rats, particularly in select forebrain areas. DAMGO produced higher stimulation in the core versus the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females, while the distribution of U-50,488H stimulation was the opposite. There were no gender differences for U50,488H stimulation of G-protein activity across the regions examined, while DAMGO stimulation was greater in sections from females compared to those from males for NAc core, entopeduncular nucleus, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the kappa opioid system may be more sensitive to manipulation in prairie voles compared to mice and rats, and that female prairie voles may be more sensitive to mu agonists in select brain regions than males. PMID:26523979

  7. The kappa-opioid receptor is involved in the stimulating effect of nicotine on adrenocortical activity but not in nicotine induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva Maria; Llorente, Ricardo; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; Moreno, Enrique; Guaza, Carmen; Viveros, Maria Paz

    2005-09-01

    The kappa (kappa) opioid system appears to interact with nicotine in the modulation of locomotion and addiction related processes. In this study we have investigated the possible implication of the kappa-opioid system in the effects of nicotine on anxiety and adrenocortical activity. In two different experiments, we analysed the possible interaction between nicotine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) and either the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (5 mg/kg i.p.) or the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U50,488H (1 mg/kg s.c.). Behavioural and endocrine experiments were performed in different groups of animals. Animals were exposed to the holeboard immediately followed by the plus-maze. Serum corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Nicotine induced an anxiogenic-like effect in the plus-maze and a significant decrease of holeboard activity. The anxiogenic-like effect in the plus-maze was not modified by any of the kappa-opioid receptor ligands. Nicotine also induced a significant increase in the corticosterone levels, and the kappa antagonist, which did not exert any effect per se, antagonised this effect. The kappa-agonist U50,488H induced a significant increase in corticosterone concentration when administered alone. We provide the first evidence for the involvement of the kappa-opioid receptor in the stimulatory effect of nicotine on adrenocortical activity.

  8. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    PubMed

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements. PMID:18259963

  9. Cellular and subcellular distributions of delta opioid receptor activation sites in the ventral oral pontine tegmentum of the cat.

    PubMed

    Alvira-Botero, Maria Ximena; Garzón, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    The ventral division of the reticular oral pontine nucleus (vRPO) is a pontine tegmentum region critically involved in REM sleep generation. Previous reports of morphine microinjections in the cat pontine tegmentum have shown that opioid receptor activation in this region modulates REM sleep. Even though opiate administration has marked effects on sleep-wake cycle architecture, the distribution of opioid receptors in vRPO has only been partially described. Using an antiserum directed against delta opioid receptor (DOR), to which morphine binds, in the present study, we use (1) light microscopy to determine DOR cellular distribution in the rostral pontine tegmentum and (2) electron microscopy to determine DOR subcellular distribution in the cat vRPO. In the dorsal pons, DOR immunoreactivity was evenly distributed throughout the neuropil of the reticular formation and was particularly intense in the parabrachial nuclei and locus coeruleus; the ventral and central areas of the RPO and locus coeruleus complex were especially rich in DOR-labeled somata. Within the vRPO, DOR was localized mainly in the cytoplasm and on plasma membranes of medium to large dendrites (47.8% of DOR-labeled profiles), which received both symmetric and asymmetric synaptic contacts mainly from non-labeled (82% of total inputs) axon terminals. Less frequently, DOR was distributed presynaptically in axon terminals (19% of DOR-labeled profiles). Our results suggest that DOR activation in vRPO regulates REM sleep occurrence by modulating postsynaptic responses to both excitatory and inhibitory afferents. DOR activation in vRPO could have, however, an additional role in direct modulation of neurotransmitter release from axon terminals.

  10. Activation of Opioid μ-Receptors, but not δ- or κ-Receptors, Switches Pulmonary C-Fiber-Mediated Rapid Shallow Breathing into An Apnea in Anesthetized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Cancan; Zhou, Moxi; Xu, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Rapid shallow breathing (RSB) is mainly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs). We asked whether this RSB could be modulated by opioid. In anesthetized rats right atrial bolus injection of phenylbiguanide (PBG) to evoke RSB was repeated after: 1) intravenously giving fentanyl (μ-receptor agonist), DPDPE (δ-receptor agonist), or U-50488H (κ-receptor agonist); 2) fentanyl (iv) following naloxone methiodide, a peripheral opioid receptor antagonist; 3) bilateral microinjection of fentanyl into the nodose ganglia; 4) fentanyl (iv) with pre-blocking histamine H1 and H2 receptors by diphenhydramine and ranitidine. Systemic fentanyl challenge, but not DPDPE or U-50488H, switched the PBG-induced RSB to a long lasting apnea. This switch was blocked by naloxone methiodide rather than diphenhydramine and ranitidine. After microinjecting fentanyl into the nodose ganglia, PBG also produced an apnea. Our results suggest that activating μ-receptors is capable of turning the PCF-mediated RSB into an apnea, at least partly, via facilitating PCFs’ activity and this switching effect appears independent of the released histamine. PMID:22796630

  11. Challenges for opioid receptor nomenclature: IUPHAR Review 9

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Brian M; Christie, Macdonald J; Devi, Lakshmi; Toll, Lawrence; Traynor, John R

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the structure and function of opioid receptors raise significant challenges for the definition of individual receptor types and the development of a nomenclature that precisely describes isoforms that may subserve different functions in vivo. Presentations at the 2013 meeting of the International Narcotics Research Conference in Cairns, Australia, considered some of the new discoveries that are now unravelling the complexities of opioid receptor signalling. Variable processing of opioid receptor messenger RNAs may lead to the presence of several isoforms of the μ receptor. Each opioid receptor type can function either as a monomer or as part of a homo- or heterodimer or higher multimer. Additionally, recent evidence points to the existence of agonist bias in the signal transduction pathways activated through μ receptors, and to the presence of regulatory allosteric sites on the receptors. This brief review summarizes the recent discoveries that raise challenges for receptor definition and the characterization of signal transduction pathways activated by specific receptor forms. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24528283

  12. Pharmacological Profiles of Oligomerized μ-Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Ho, Ing-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely prescribed pain relievers with multiple side effects and potential complications. They produce analgesia via G-protein-protein coupled receptors: μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and opioid receptor-like 1 receptors. Bivalent ligands targeted to the oligomerized opioid receptors might be the key to developing analgesics without undesired side effects and obtaining effective treatment for opioid addicts. In this review we will update the biological effects of μ-opioids on homo- or hetero-oligomerized μ-opioid receptor and discuss potential mechanisms through which bivalent ligands exert beneficial effects, including adenylate cyclase regulation and receptor-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:24709876

  13. Sex differences in opioid analgesia and addiction: interactions among opioid receptors and estrogen receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely used as the pain reliever and also notorious for being addictive drugs. Sex differences in the opioid analgesia and addiction have been reported and investigated in human subjects and animal models. Yet, the molecular mechanism underlying the differences between males and females is still unclear. Here, we reviewed the literature describing the sex differences in analgesic responses and addiction liabilities to clinically relevant opioids. The reported interactions among opioids, estrogens, opioid receptors, and estrogen receptors are also evaluated. We postulate that the sex differences partly originated from the crosstalk among the estrogen and opioid receptors when stimulated by the exogenous opioids, possibly through common secondary messengers and the downstream gene transcriptional regulators. PMID:24010861

  14. Opioid receptors and cardioprotection - 'opioidergic conditioning' of the heart.

    PubMed

    Headrick, John P; See Hoe, Louise E; Du Toit, Eugene F; Peart, Jason N

    2015-04-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) remains a major cause of morbidity/mortality globally, firmly established in Westernized or 'developed' countries and rising in prevalence in developing nations. Thus, cardioprotective therapies to limit myocardial damage with associated ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R), during infarction or surgical ischaemia, is a very important, although still elusive, clinical goal. The opioid receptor system, encompassing the δ (vas deferens), κ (ketocyclazocine) and μ (morphine) opioid receptors and their endogenous opioid ligands (endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins), appears as a logical candidate for such exploitation. This regulatory system may orchestrate organism and organ responses to stress, induces mammalian hibernation and associated metabolic protection, triggers powerful adaptive stress resistance in response to ischaemia/hypoxia (preconditioning), and mediates cardiac benefit stemming from physical activity. In addition to direct myocardial actions, central opioid receptor signalling may also enhance the ability of the heart to withstand I-R injury. The δ- and κ-opioid receptors are strongly implicated in cardioprotection across models and species (including anti-infarct and anti-arrhythmic actions), with mixed evidence for μ opioid receptor-dependent protection in animal and human tissues. A small number of clinical trials have provided evidence of cardiac benefit from morphine or remifentanil in cardiopulmonary bypass or coronary angioplasty patients, although further trials of subtype-specific opioid receptor agonists are needed. The precise roles and utility of this GPCR family in healthy and diseased human myocardium, and in mediating central and peripheral survival responses, warrant further investigation, as do the putative negative influences of ageing, IHD co-morbidities, and relevant drugs on opioid receptor signalling and protective responses. PMID:25521834

  15. Biased Agonism of Endogenous Opioid Peptides at the μ-Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Georgina L; Lane, J Robert; Coudrat, Thomas; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; Canals, Meritxell

    2015-08-01

    Biased agonism is having a major impact on modern drug discovery, and describes the ability of distinct G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands to activate different cell signaling pathways, and to result in different physiologic outcomes. To date, most studies of biased agonism have focused on synthetic molecules targeting various GPCRs; however, many of these receptors have multiple endogenous ligands, suggesting that "natural" bias may be an unappreciated feature of these GPCRs. The μ-opioid receptor (MOP) is activated by numerous endogenous opioid peptides, remains an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of pain, and exhibits biased agonism in response to synthetic opiates. The aim of this study was to rigorously assess the potential for biased agonism in the actions of endogenous opioids at the MOP in a common cellular background, and compare these to the effects of the agonist d-Ala2-N-MePhe4-Gly-ol enkephalin (DAMGO). We investigated activation of G proteins, inhibition of cAMP production, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 phosphorylation, β-arrestin 1/2 recruitment, and MOP trafficking, and applied a novel analytical method to quantify biased agonism. Although many endogenous opioids displayed signaling profiles similar to that of DAMGO, α-neoendorphin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and the putatively endogenous peptide endomorphin-1 displayed particularly distinct bias profiles. These may represent examples of natural bias if it can be shown that they have different signaling properties and physiologic effects in vivo compared with other endogenous opioids. Understanding how endogenous opioids control physiologic processes through biased agonism can reveal vital information required to enable the design of biased opioids with improved pharmacological profiles and treat diseases involving dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:26013541

  16. Mu-opioid receptor activation in the medial shell of nucleus accumbens promotes alcohol consumption, self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jocelyn M; Fields, Howard L

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous opioid signaling in ventral cortico-striatal-pallidal circuitry is implicated in elevated alcohol consumption and relapse to alcohol seeking. Mu-opioid receptor activation in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region implicated in multiple aspects of reward processing, elevates alcohol consumption while NAc opioid antagonists reduce it. However, the precise nature of the increases in alcohol consumption, and the effects of mu-opioid agonists on alcohol seeking and relapse are not clear. Here, we tested the effects of the mu-opioid agonist [D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) in rat NAc shell on lick microstructure in a free-drinking test, alcohol seeking during operant self-administration, extinction learning and expression, and cue-reinforced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. DAMGO enhanced the number, but not the size of drinking bouts. DAMGO also enhanced operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement, but did not affect extinction learning or elicit reinstatement in the absence of cues. Our results suggest that mu-opioid agonism in NAc shell elevates alcohol consumption, seeking and conditioned reinforcement primarily by enhancing the incentive motivational properties of alcohol and alcohol-paired cues, rather than by modulating palatability, satiety, or reinforcement. PMID:27089981

  17. Anticonvulsant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis Fruit: Involvement of Benzodiazepine and Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shojaii, Asie; Pur, Sogol Attari; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant activity of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extract used traditionally in the treatment of convulsion. Albino mice were pretreated with extract in different doses (10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), prior to injection of pentylenetetrazole. Animals received pretreatments with naloxone and flumazenil to further clarify the mechanisms of anticonvulsant action. The total flavonoid content of Citrullus colocynthis extract was also determined. Citrullus colocynthis hydroalcoholic extract with doses 25 and 50 mg/kg prolonged the onset of seizures and decreased the duration compared with control group. Pretreatment by flumazenil could inhibit the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on latency of seizure to some extent and administration of naloxone significantly inhibited changes in latency and duration of seizure produced by Citrullus colocynthis This study showed that Citrullus colocynthis has significant anticonvulsant effect in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice, and these effects may be related to its effect on γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic and opioid systems. These results confirmed the traditional use of Citrullus colocynthis in Iranian traditional medicine.

  18. Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation of p38 MAPK Is GRK3- and Arrestin-dependent in Neurons and Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Bruchas, Michael R.; Macey, Tara A.; Lowe, Janet D.; Chavkin, Charles

    2007-01-01

    AtT-20 cells expressing the wild-type kappa opioid receptor (KOR) increased phospho-p38 MAPK following treatment with the kappa agonist U50,488. The increase was blocked by the kappa antagonist norbinaltorphimine and not evident in untransfected cells. In contrast, U50,488 treatment of AtT-20 cells expressing KOR having alanine substituted for serine-369 (KSA) did not increase phospho-p38. Phosphorylation of serine 369 in the KOR carboxyl terminus by G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) was previously shown to be required for receptor desensitization, and the results suggest that p38 MAPK activation by KOR may require arrestin recruitment. This hypothesis was tested by transfecting arrestin3-(R170E), a dominant positive form of arrestin that does not require receptor phosphorylation for activation. AtT-20 cells expressing both KSA and arrestin3-(R170E) responded to U50,488 treatment with an increase in phospho-p38 consistent with the hypothesis. Primary cultured astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive) and neurons (γ-aminobutyric acid-positive) isolated from mouse striata also responded to U50,488 by increasing phospho-p38 immunolabeling. p38 activation was not evident in either striatal astrocytes or neurons isolated from KOR knock-out mice or GRK3 knock-out mice. Astrocytes pretreated with small interfering RNA for arrestin3 were also unable to activate p38 in response to U50,488 treatment. Furthermore, in striatal neurons, the kappa-mediated phospho-p38 labeling was colocalized with arrestin3. These findings suggest that KOR may activate p38 MAPK in brain by a GRK3 and arrestin-dependent mechanism. PMID:16648139

  19. Novel opioid cyclic tetrapeptides: Trp isomers of CJ-15,208 exhibit distinct opioid receptor agonism and short-acting κ opioid receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nicolette C; Reilley, Kate J; Murray, Thomas F; Aldrich, Jane V; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The κ opioid receptor antagonists demonstrate potential for maintaining abstinence from psychostimulant abuse, but existing non-peptide κ-receptor selective antagonists show exceptionally long activity. We hypothesized that the L- and D-Trp isomers of CJ-15,208, a natural cyclic tetrapeptide reported to be a κ-receptor antagonist in vitro, would demonstrate short-acting, dose-dependent antagonism in vivo, preventing reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Affinity, selectivity and efficacy of the L-Trp and D-Trp isomers for opioid receptors were assessed in vitro in radioligand and GTPγS binding assays. Opioid receptor agonist and antagonist activities were characterized in vivo following i.c.v. administration with the 55°C warm water tail-withdrawal assay. The D-Trp isomer, which demonstrated primarily κ-receptor selective antagonist activity, was further evaluated for its prevention of stress- and drug-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). KEY RESULTS The two isomers showed similar affinity and selectivity for κ receptors (Ki 30–35 nM) as well as κ receptor antagonism in vitro. As expected, the D-Trp cyclic tetrapeptide exhibited minimal agonist activity and induced dose-dependent κ-receptor selective antagonism lasting less than 18 h in vivo. Pretreatment with this peptide prevented stress-, but not cocaine-induced, reinstatement of extinguished cocaine CPP. In contrast, the L-Trp cyclic tetrapeptide unexpectedly demonstrated mixed opioid agonist/antagonist activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The L-Trp and the D-Trp isomers of CJ-15,208 demonstrate stereospecific opioid activity in vivo. The relatively brief κ opioid receptor antagonism, coupled with the prevention of stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behaviour, suggests the D-Trp isomer could be used therapeutically to maintain abstinence from psychostimulant abuse. PMID

  20. Expression and Localization of Opioid Receptors in Male Germ Cells and the Implication for Mouse Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gianzo, Marta; Urizar-Arenaza, Itziar; Casis, Luis; Irazusta, Jon; Subirán, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    The presence of endogenous opioid peptides in different testicular cell types has been extensively characterized and provides evidence for the participation of the opioid system in the regulation of testicular function. However, the exact role of the opioid system during the spermatogenesis has remained controversial since the presence of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in spermatogenic cells was yet to be demonstrated. Through a combination of quantitative real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry approaches, we report for the first time the presence of active mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in mouse male germ cells. They show an exposition time-dependent response to opioid agonist, hence suggesting their active involvement in spermatogenesis. Our results contribute to understanding the role of the opioid receptors in the spermatogenesis and could help to develop new strategies to employ the opioid system as a biochemical tool for the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:27031701

  1. Opioid requirement, opioid receptor expression, and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zylla, Dylan; Gourley, Brett L.; Vang, Derek; Jackson, Scott; Boatman, Sonja; Lindgren, Bruce; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Le, Chap; Gupta, Kalpna; Gupta, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical studies show that opioids stimulate angiogenesis and tumor progression through the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Although MOR is over-expressed in several human malignancies, the effect of chronic opioid requirement on cancer progression or survival has not been examined in humans. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on 113 patients identified in the Minneapolis VA Tumor Registry (test cohort) and 480 patients from the national VA Central Cancer Registry (validation cohort) diagnosed with stage IV prostate cancer between 1995 and 2010, to examine whether MOR expression or opioid requirement is associated with disease progression and survival. All opioids were converted to oral morphine equivalents (OME) for comparison. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to analyze MOR-immunoreactivity in prostate cancer biopsies. The effects of variables on outcomes were analyzed in univariable and multivariable models. Results In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, MOR expression and opioid requirement were independently associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 1.65, 1.33–2.07; p<0.001 and HR 1.08, 1.03–1.13; p<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (OS; HR 1.55, 1.20–1.99; p<0.001 and HR 1.05, 1.00–1.10; p=0.031, respectively). The validation cohort confirmed that increasing opioid requirement was associated with worse OS (HR 1.005, 1.002–1.008, p=0.001). Conclusion Higher MOR expression and greater opioid requirement are associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical practice should not be changed until prospective randomized trials show that opioid use is associated with inferior clinical outcomes, and that abrogation of the peripheral activities of opioids ameliorates this effect. PMID:24104703

  2. Interactions of trimebutine with guinea-pig opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Roman, F; Pascaud, X; Taylor, J E; Junien, J L

    1987-05-01

    Affinities of trimebutine (TMB) and N-desmethyl trimebutine (NDTMB) for mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor subtypes have been examined using specific 3H-ligands and guinea-pig membrane. TMB and NDTMB showed a relative higher affinity for the mu receptor subtype although they were, respectively, 30- and 48-fold less active than morphine. The receptor selectivity index for mu, delta and kappa were 100:12:14.4 for TMB, 100:32:25 for NDTMB and 100:5:5 for morphine. The sodium shift ratio was 14 for TMB, 10 for NDTMB and 37 for morphine. These data show that (unlike morphine, a pure mu agonist) TMB and NDTMB can be classified as weak opioid agonists and confirm that peripheral opioid receptors mediate their gastrointestinal motility effects. PMID:2886594

  3. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a rat kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Meng, F; Xie, G X; Thompson, R C; Mansour, A; Goldstein, A; Watson, S J; Akil, H

    1993-01-01

    A full-length cDNA was isolated from a rat striatal library by using low-stringency screening with two PCR fragments, one spanning transmembrane domains 3-6 of the mouse delta opioid receptor and the other unidentified but homologous to the mouse delta receptor from rat brain. The novel cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 380 residues with 59% identity to the mouse delta receptor and topography consistent with a seven-helix guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor. COS-1 cells transfected with the coding region of this clone showed high-affinity binding to kappa opioid receptor-selective ligands such as dynorphin A and U-50,488 and also nonselective opioid ligands such as bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine, and naloxone. Not bound at all (or bound with low affinity) were dynorphin A-(2-13), enantiomers of naloxone and levophanol [i.e., (+)-naloxone and dextrorphan], and selective mu and delta opioid receptor ligands. Activation of the expressed receptor by kappa receptor agonists led to inhibition of cAMP. Finally, in situ hybridization revealed a mRNA distribution in rat brain that corresponded well to the distribution of binding sites labeled with kappa-selective ligands. These observations indicate that we have cloned a cDNA encoding a rat kappa receptor of the kappa 1 subtype. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8234341

  4. Effects of μ-opioid receptor modulation on the hippocampal network activity of sharp wave and ripples

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulos, Panagiotis; Papatheodoropoulos, Costas

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hippocampus-dependent memory involves the activity of sharp wave ripples (SWRs), which are thought to participate in the process of memory consolidation. The hippocampus contains high levels of endogenous opioids and of μ-opioid receptors (MORs). Here, we have assessed the role of MOR agonists in the modulation of SWRs. Experimental Approach Using recordings of extracellular potentials from the CA1 field of rat hippocampal slices, we examined the pharmacological actions of morphine, DAMGO and fentanyl on SWRs and on network excitability and paired-pulse inhibition. Key Results All three MOR agonists (1 nM–10 μM) significantly increased the amplitude of sharp waves and the occurrence of SWR sequences, but reduced the initiation of episodes of SWRs. Fentanyl was most potent in producing these effects and morphine the least. Interestingly, although SWRs were reduced by relatively high concentrations (≥100 nM) of all agonists, they were significantly enhanced by very low concentrations of morphine (5–10 nM). Morphine and DAMGO at moderate-to-high concentrations increased network excitability and reduced inhibition. Furthermore, DAMGO suppressed inhibition more readily than it increased excitation, whereas morphine suppressed inhibition only at high concentrations. These drug effects were reversed by the MOR antagonists naloxone and CTOP. Conclusions and Implications We found that the SWRs were significantly modulated by three MOR agonists and that the SWRs were very sensitive to subtle changes in the excitation/inhibition balance induced by MOR agonists. Such modulation might underlie the effects of these agonists on hippocampus-dependent memory. PMID:23043226

  5. δ-Opioid receptors stimulate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase through coincident signaling with G(q/11)-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Olianas, Alessandra; Onali, Pierluigi

    2012-02-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and δ-opioid receptors (DORs) are both involved in controlling cell survival, energy metabolism, and food intake, but little is known on the interaction between these two signaling molecules. Here we show that activation of human DORs stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells increased AMPK activity and AMPK phosphorylation on Thr172. DOR-induced AMPK phosphorylation was prevented by pertussis toxin, reduced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators, and unaffected by PKA, transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C inhibitors. Conversely, the DOR effect was reduced by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) inhibition, apyrase treatment, G(q/11) antagonism, and blockade of P2 purinergic receptors. Apyrase treatment also depressed DOR stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas P2 receptor antagonism blocked DOR stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary olfactory bulb neurons, DOR activation failed to affect AMPK phosphorylation per se but potentiated the stimulation by either muscarinic agonists or 2-methyl-thio-ADP. Sequestration of G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) blocked the DOR potentiation of AMPK phosphorylation induced by oxotremorine-M. In CHO cells, the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribonucleoside stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake, whereas pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of AMPKα1, and P2Y receptor blockade reduced DOR-stimulated glucose uptake. The data indicate that in different cell systems, DOR activation up-regulates AMPK through a Gβγ-dependent synergistic interaction with G(q/11)-coupled receptors, potentiating Ca(2+) release and CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK phosphorylation. In CHO cells, this coincident signaling mechanism is involved in DOR-induced glucose uptake. PMID:22031472

  6. Acute and chronic effects of opioids on delta and mu receptor activation of G proteins in NG108-15 and SK-N-SH cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Breivogel, C S; Selley, D E; Childers, S R

    1997-04-01

    To compare activation of G proteins by opioid receptors, opioid agonist-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTP gamma S) binding in the presence of excess GDP was assayed in membranes from NG108-15 (delta) and SK-N-SH (primarily mu) cells. Basal [35S]GTP gamma S binding consisted of a single class of low-affinity sites (KD 400-500 nM). Addition of agonists produced a high-affinity site 100-300-fold higher in affinity than the basal site. The receptor/transducer amplification factor (ratio of activated G protein Bmax to opioid receptor Bmax) was 10-fold higher for SK-N-SH mu receptors than for NG108-15 delta receptors. Chronic delta agonist ([D-Ser2]-Leu-enkephalin-Thr; DSLET) treatment of NG108-15 cells resulted in an 80% loss of DSLET-stimulated [35S]-GTP gamma S binding within 1 h. Morphine treatment of SK-N-SH cells decreased mu agonist ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin; DAMGO)-stimulated [35S]GTP gamma S binding by 45% after 16 h, with no effect after 1 h. Loss of agonist response was due to a decrease in the Bmax of activated G proteins with no change in the KD. These results provide a quantitative description of G protein activation occurring on acute and chronic exposure to opioid agonists.

  7. Protective role of µ opioid receptor activation in intestinal inflammation induced by mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Francesca, Saccani; Laura, Anselmi; Jaramillo, Ingrid; Simona, Bertoni; Elisabetta, Barocelli; Sternini, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is a clinical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether activation of µ opioid receptor (µOR) protects from the inflammation induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in mice. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (45 min) and followed by reperfusion (5 hours). Sham Operated (SO) and normal (N) mice served as controls. Each group received subcutaneously: (1) saline solution; (2) the µOR selective agonist, [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.01 mg.kg−1); (3) DAMGO and the selective µOR antagonist [H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2] (CTAP) (0.1 mg.kg−1) or (4) CTAP alone. I/R induced intestinal inflammation as indicated by histological damage and the significant increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, index of tissue neutrophil accumulation. TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA levels were also increased in I/R mice compared to SO. DAMGO significantly reduced tissue damage, MPO activity and TNF-α mRNA levels in I/R and these effects were reversed by CTAP. By contrast, DAMGO did not modify IL-10 mRNA levels and gastrointestinal transit. DAMGO effects are receptor-mediated and are likely due to activation of peripheral µORs since it does not readily cross the blood brain barrier. These findings suggest that activation of peripheral µOR protects from the inflammatory response induced by I/R through a pathway involving the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. Reduction of acute inflammation might prevent I/R complications, including motility impairment, which develop at a later stage of reperfusion and are likely due to inflammatory cell infiltrates. PMID:22806643

  8. Opioid receptors: Structural and mechanistic insights into pharmacology and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yi; Filizola, Marta

    2015-09-15

    Opioid receptors are important drug targets for pain management, addiction, and mood disorders. Although substantial research on these important subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors has been conducted over the past two decades to discover ligands with higher specificity and diminished side effects, currently used opioid therapeutics remain suboptimal. Luckily, recent advances in structural biology of opioid receptors provide unprecedented insights into opioid receptor pharmacology and signaling. We review here a few recent studies that have used the crystal structures of opioid receptors as a basis for revealing mechanistic details of signal transduction mediated by these receptors, and for the purpose of drug discovery.

  9. Comparison of [Dmt1]DALDA and DAMGO in binding and G protein activation at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Min; Qian, Xuanxuan; Schiller, Peter W; Szeto, Hazel H

    2003-12-01

    [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) binds with high affinity and selectivity to the mu opioid receptor and is a surprisingly potent and long-acting analgesic, especially after intrathecal administration. In an attempt to better understand the unique pharmacological profile of [Dmt1]DALDA, we have prepared [3H][Dmt1]DALDA and compared its binding properties with that of [3H]DAMGO ([d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin). Kinetic studies revealed rapid association of [3H][Dmt1]DALDA when incubated with mouse brain membranes (K+1 = 0.155 nM(-1) min(-1)). Dissociation of [3H][Dmt1]DALDA was also rapid (K(-1) = 0.032 min(-1)) and indicated binding to a single site. [3H][Dmt1]DALDA binds with very high affinity to human mu opioid receptor (hMOR) (Kd = 0.199 nM), and Kd and Bmax were reduced by sodium but not Gpp(NH)p [guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate]. Similar Kd values were obtained in brain and spinal cord tissues and SH-SY5Y cells. The hMOR:hDOR (human delta opioid receptor) selectivity of [Dmt1]DALDA ( approximately 10,000) is 8-fold higher than DAMGO. However, [Dmt1]DALDA is less selective than DAMGO against hKOR (human kappa opioid receptor) (26-versus 180-fold). The Ki values for a number of opioid ligands were generally higher when determined by competitive displacement binding against [3H][Dmt1]DALDA compared with [3H]DAMGO, with the exception of Dmt1-substituted peptide analogs. All Dmt1 analogs showed much higher affinity for the mu receptor than corresponding Tyr1 analogs. [35S]GTPgammaS (guanosine 5'-O -(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate) binding showed that [Dmt1]DALDA and DAMGO are full agonists at hMOR and hDOR but are only partial agonists at hKOR. The very high affinity and selectivity of [3H][Dmt1]DALDA for the mu receptor, together with its very low nonspecific binding (10-15%) and metabolic stability, make [3H][Dmt1]DALDA an ideal radioligand for labeling mu receptors. PMID:14534366

  10. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of novel μ-opioid receptor agonist compounds.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Yoshiaki; Kurosawa, Aya; Saikawa, Hitomi; Kuroiwa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Chiharu; Kuwabara, Nobuo; Hoshino, Hazime; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takeda, Shigeki

    2015-11-15

    Opioids are the most effective and widely used drugs for pain treatment. Morphine is an archetypal opioid and is an opioid receptor agonist. Unfortunately, the clinical usefulness of morphine is limited by adverse effects such as analgesic tolerance and addiction. Therefore, it is important to study the development of novel opioid agonists as part of pain control. The analgesic effects of opioids are mediated by three opioid receptors, namely opioid μ-, δ-, and κ-receptors. They belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are coupled to Gi proteins. In the present study, we developed a ligand screening system to identify novel opioid μ-receptor agonists that measures [(35)S]GTPγS binding to cell membrane fractions prepared from the fat body of transgenic silkworms expressing μ-receptor-Gi1α fusion protein. We screened the RIKEN Natural Products Depository (NPDepo) chemical library, which contains 5848 compounds, and analogs of hit compounds. We successfully identified a novel, structurally unique compound, that we named GUM1, with agonist activity for the opioid μ-receptor (EC50 of 1.2 µM). The Plantar Test (Hargreaves' Method) demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of 3mg/kg of GUM1 into wild-type rats significantly extended latency time. This extension was also observed in a rat model of morphine tolerance and was inhibited by pre-treatment of naloxone. The unique molecular skeleton of GUM1 makes it an attractive molecule for further ligand-opioid receptor binding studies.

  11. Kir3 channel signaling complexes: focus on opioid receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Karim; Pineyro, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are among the most effective drugs to treat severe pain. They produce their analgesic actions by specifically activating opioid receptors located along the pain perception pathway where they inhibit the flow of nociceptive information. This inhibition is partly accomplished by activation of hyperpolarizing G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels. Kir3 channels control cellular excitability in the central nervous system and in the heart and, because of their ubiquitous distribution, they mediate the effects of a large range of hormones and neurotransmitters which, upon activation of corresponding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) lead to channel opening. Here we analyze GPCR signaling via these effectors in reference to precoupling and collision models. Existing knowledge on signaling bias is discussed in relation to these models as a means of developing strategies to produce novel opioid analgesics with an improved side effects profile. PMID:25071446

  12. Opioid-induced redistribution of 6TM and 7TM μ opioid receptors: A hypothesized mechanistic facilitator model of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Xiaoju; Liu, Yusheng; Xu, Shiqin; Lei, Liming; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Fuzhou

    2016-08-01

    Opioids are still the most popular form of pain treatment, but many unavoidable side effects make opioids a big challenge in effective pain management. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), a paradoxical phenomenon, portrays an increased sensitivity to harmful stimuli caused by opioid exposure. Changes in the neural modulation are considered a major contributor to the development of OIH. Activation of opioid receptors (ORs) and corresponding downstream molecules are the vital composition of functional performance of opioids. Increasing interests were proposed of the interaction between ORs and other neural transmitter systems such as glutamatergic, GABAergic and adrenergic ones to the genesis of OIH. G protein coupled μ-opioid receptor (MOR) was studied comprehensively on its role in the development of OIH. In addition to the relationship between MOR and other neurotransmitter receptors, a new intracellular MOR that has six transmembrane (6TM) domains was identified, and found to perform a pro-nociceptive task in contrast to the counterpart 7TM isoform. A mechanistic model of OIH in which both 6TM and 7TM MORs undergoing membrane redistribution upon opioid exposure is proposed which eventually facilitates the neurons more sensitive to nociceptive stimulation than that of the preceding opioid exposure.

  13. Development of concepts on the interaction of drugs with opioid receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, N. E.; Kuzmin, V. S.

    2011-02-01

    The development of concepts on the molecular mechanisms of the action of medicinal drugs on the opioid receptors is briefly surveyed. The modern point of view on the mechanism of activation of opioid receptors is given based on the data from chimeric and site-directed mutagenesis of the cloned opioid receptors and the computer-aided simulations of the reception zone and ligand-receptor complexes. Three-dimensional models of the opioid pharmacophore derived by both conventional methods and a comparative analysis of molecular fields are described in detail.

  14. Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP⁺ Injury: Effect of δ-Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Zhi, Feng; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yilin; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The pathological changes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are, at least partially, associated with the dysregulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and caspase 3. Since hypoxic and neurotoxic insults are underlying causes of PD, and since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine whether DOR activation could protect the cells from damage induced by hypoxia and/or MPP⁺ by regulating PINK1 and caspase 3 expressions. We exposed PC12 cells to either severe hypoxia (0.5%-1% O₂) for 24-48 h or to MPP⁺ at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 mM) and then detected the levels of PINK1 and cleaved caspase 3. Both hypoxia and MPP⁺ reduced cell viability, progressively suppressed the expression of PINK1 and increased the cleaved caspase 3. DOR activation using UFP-512, effectively protected the cells from hypoxia and/or MPP⁺ induced injury, reversed the reduction in PINK1 protein and significantly attenuated the increase in the cleaved caspase 3. On the other hand, the application of DOR antagonist, naltrindole, greatly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase 3. These findings suggest that DOR is cytoprotective against both hypoxia and MPP⁺ through the regulation of PINK1 and caspase 3 pathways. PMID:27517901

  15. Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP+ Injury: Effect of δ–Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuan; Zhi, Feng; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yilin; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The pathological changes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are, at least partially, associated with the dysregulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and caspase 3. Since hypoxic and neurotoxic insults are underlying causes of PD, and since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine whether DOR activation could protect the cells from damage induced by hypoxia and/or MPP+ by regulating PINK1 and caspase 3 expressions. We exposed PC12 cells to either severe hypoxia (0.5%–1% O2) for 24–48 h or to MPP+ at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 mM) and then detected the levels of PINK1 and cleaved caspase 3. Both hypoxia and MPP+ reduced cell viability, progressively suppressed the expression of PINK1 and increased the cleaved caspase 3. DOR activation using UFP-512, effectively protected the cells from hypoxia and/or MPP+ induced injury, reversed the reduction in PINK1 protein and significantly attenuated the increase in the cleaved caspase 3. On the other hand, the application of DOR antagonist, naltrindole, greatly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase 3. These findings suggest that DOR is cytoprotective against both hypoxia and MPP+ through the regulation of PINK1 and caspase 3 pathways. PMID:27517901

  16. Conformational Dynamics of Kir3.1/Kir3.2 Channel Activation Via δ-Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Lalonde, Melissa; Nagi, Karim; Audet, Nicolas; Sleno, Rory; Amraei, Mohammad; Hogue, Mireille; Balboni, Gianfranco; Schiller, Peter W.; Bouvier, Michel; Hébert, Terence E.; Pineyro, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed how conformational information encoded by ligand binding to δ-opioid receptors (DORs) is transmitted to Kir3.1/Kir3.2 channels. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells were transfected with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) donor/acceptor pairs that allowed us to evaluate independently reciprocal interactions among signaling partners. These and coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that DORs, Gβγ, and Kir3 subunits constitutively interacted with one another. GαoA associated with DORs and Gβγ, but despite being part of the complex, no evidence of its direct association with the channel was obtained. DOR activation by different ligands left DOR-Kir3 interactions unmodified but modulated BRET between DOR-GαoA, DOR-Gβγ, GαoA-Gβγ, and Gβγ-Kir3 interfaces. Ligand-induced BRET changes assessing Gβγ-Kir3.1 subunit interaction 1) followed similar kinetics to those monitoring the GαoA-Gβγ interface, 2) displayed the same order of efficacy as those observed at the DOR-Gβγ interface, 3) were sensitive to pertussis toxin, and 4) were predictive of whether a ligand could evoke channel currents. Conformational changes at the Gβγ/Kir3 interface were lost when Kir3.1 subunits were replaced by a mutant lacking essential sites for Gβγ-mediated activation. Thus, conformational information encoded by agonist binding to the receptor is relayed to the channel via structural rearrangements that involve repositioning of Gβγ with respect to DORs, GαoA, and channel subunits. Further, the fact that BRET changes at the Gβγ-Kir3 interface are predictive of a ligand’s ability to induce channel currents points to these conformational biosensors as screening tools for identifying GPCR ligands that induce Kir3 channel activation. PMID:23175530

  17. Ignavine: a novel allosteric modulator of the μ opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Miyagi, Chika; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Mizuno, Keita; Omiya, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Warabi, Eiji; Sudo, Yuka; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Miyano, Kanako; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy. PMID:27530869

  18. Ignavine: a novel allosteric modulator of the μ opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Miyagi, Chika; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Mizuno, Keita; Omiya, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Warabi, Eiji; Sudo, Yuka; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Miyano, Kanako; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy. PMID:27530869

  19. Designing bifunctional NOP receptor-mu opioid receptor ligands from NOP-receptor selective scaffolds. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Journigan, V. Blair; Polgar, Willma; Khroyan, Taline V.; Zaveri, Nurulain T.

    2014-01-01

    The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP) and its endogenous peptide ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ have been shown to modulate the pharmacological effects of the classical opioid receptor system. Suppression of opioid-induced reward associated with mu-opioid receptor (MOP)-mediated analgesia, without decreasing anti-nociceptive efficacy, can potentially be achieved with NOP agonists having bifunctional agonist activity at MOP, to afford ‘non-addicting’ analgesics. In Part II of this series, we describe a continuing structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the NOP-selective piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one scaffold, to obtain bifunctional activity at MOP, and a suitable ratio of NOP/MOP agonist activity that produces a non-addicting analgesic profile. The SAR reported here is focused on the influence of various piperidine nitrogen aromatic substituents on the ratio of binding affinity and intrinsic activity at both the NOP and MOP receptors. PMID:24657054

  20. Peripheral δ-opioid receptors attenuate the exercise pressor reflex.

    PubMed

    Leal, Anna K; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Kim, Joyce; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P

    2013-10-15

    In rats with ligated femoral arteries, the exercise pressor reflex is exaggerated, an effect that is attenuated by stimulation of peripheral μ-opioid receptors on group IV metabosensitive afferents. In contrast, δ-opioid receptors are expressed mostly on group III mechanosensitive afferents, a finding that prompted us to determine whether stimulation of these opioid receptors could also attenuate the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in "ligated" rats. We found femoral arterial injection of [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE; 1.0 μg), a δ-opioid agonist, significantly attenuated the pressor and cardioaccelerator components of the exercise pressor reflex evoked by hindlimb muscle contraction in both rats with ligated and patent femoral arteries. DPDPE significantly decreased the pressor responses to muscle mechanoreflex activation, evoked by tendon stretch, in ligated rats only. DPDPE (1.0 μg) had no effect in either group on the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to capsaicin (0.2 μg), which primarily stimulates group IV afferents. DPDPE (1.0 μg) had no effect on the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to lactic acid (24 mM), which stimulates group III and IV afferents, in rats with patent femoral arteries but significantly decreased the pressor response in ligated rats. Western blots revealed the amount of protein comprising the δ-opioid receptor was greater in dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs with ligated femoral arteries than in dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs with patent femoral arteries. Our findings support the hypothesis that stimulation of δ-opioid receptors on group III afferents attenuated the exercise pressor reflex.

  1. Activation of μ-opioid receptors inhibits calcium-currents in the vestibular afferent neurons of the rat through a cAMP dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Seseña, Emmanuel; Vega, Rosario; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors are expressed in the vestibular endorgans (afferent neurons and hair cells) and are activated by the efferent system, which modulates the discharge of action potentials in vestibular afferent neurons (VANs). In mammals, VANs mainly express the μ opioid-receptor, but the function of this receptors activation and the cellular mechanisms by which they exert their actions in these neurons are poorly studied. To determine the actions of μ opioid receptor (MOR) and cell signaling mechanisms in VANs, we made perforated patch-clamp recordings of VANs that were obtained from postnatal days 7 to 10 (P7–10) rats and then maintained in primary culture. The MOR agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the total voltage-gated outward current; this effect was prevented by the perfusion of a Ca2+-free extracellular solution. We then studied the voltage-gated calcium current (Ica) and found that DAMGO Met-enkephalin or endomorphin-1 inhibited the ICa in a dose-response fashion. The effects of DAMGO were prevented by the MOR antagonist (CTAP) or by pertussis toxin (PTX). The use of specific calcium channel blockers showed that MOR activation inhibited T-, L- and N-type ICa. The use of various enzyme activators and inhibitors and of cAMP analogs allowed us to demonstrate that the MOR acts through a cAMP dependent signaling mechanism. In current clamp experiments, MOR activation increased the duration and decreased the amplitude of the action potentials and modulated the discharge produced by current injection. Pre-incubation with PTX occluded MOR activation effect. We conclude that MOR activation inhibits the T-, L- and N-type ICa through activation of a Gαi/o protein that involves a decrease in AC-cAMP-PKA activity. The modulation of ICa may have an impact on the synaptic integration, excitability, and neurotransmitter release from VANs. PMID:24734002

  2. Relative Timing Between Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation and Cocaine Determines the Impact on Reward and Dopamine Release.

    PubMed

    Chartoff, Elena H; Ebner, Shayla R; Sparrow, Angela; Potter, David; Baker, Phillip M; Ragozzino, Michael E; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2016-03-01

    Negative affective states can increase the rewarding value of drugs of abuse and promote drug taking. Chronic cocaine exposure increases levels of the neuropeptide dynorphin, an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KOR) that suppresses dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and elicits negative affective states upon drug withdrawal. However, there is evidence that the effects of KOR activation on affective state are biphasic: immediate aversive effects are followed by delayed increases in reward. The impact of KOR-induced affective states on reward-related effects of cocaine over time is not known. We hypothesize that the initial aversive effects of KOR activation increase, whereas the delayed rewarding effects decrease, the net effects of cocaine on reward and dopamine release. We treated rats with cocaine at various times (15 min to 48 h) after administration of the selective KOR agonist salvinorin A (salvA). Using intracranial self-stimulation and fast scan cyclic voltammetry, we found that cocaine-induced increases in brain stimulation reward and evoked dopamine release in the NAc core were potentiated when cocaine was administered within 1 h of salvA, but attenuated when administered 24 h after salvA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to show that KOR and prodynorphin mRNA levels were decreased in the NAc, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter mRNA levels and tissue dopamine content were increased in the ventral tegmental area 24 h post-salvA. These findings raise the possibility that KOR activation-as occurs upon withdrawal from chronic cocaine-modulates vulnerability to cocaine in a time-dependent manner. PMID:26239494

  3. Activation of delta-type opioid receptors modulates the responses of cat terminal ileum to field electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Venkova, K; Pencheva, N; Radomirov, R

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of (D-Ala2, D-Leu5) enkephalin amide (DADLE) on the responses of the cat terminal ileum to field electrical stimulation (pulse duration of 0.5 msec, train duration of 10 sec, 30 V) were evaluated by the changes in the contractile or the relaxatory responses of longitudinal and circular strips to electrical stimuli with a frequency of 2, 10 or 30 Hz. 2. Stimulation with a frequency of 2, 10 or 30 Hz elicited contractile responses from the longitudinal strips while in the circular strips 2 Hz stimulation induced contractions and 10 or 30 Hz stimulation caused relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.1 mumol/l) abolished the electrically-induced responses in both longitudinal and circular strips. 3. DADLE (1 nmol/l) significantly inhibited the cholinergic contractile responses of the longitudinal strips to 2, 10 or 30 Hz stimulation and the contractile responses of the circular strips to 2 Hz stimulation. The relaxatory responses of the circular strips to 10 or 30 Hz stimulation were insignificantly increased by DADLE. 4. On the background of guanetidine (10 mumol/l) and atropine (3 mumol/l) DADLE significantly decreased the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic relaxatory responses of the circular strips to 2, 10 or 30 Hz stimulation. 5. DADLE did not change the maximum effects and the EC50 values of acetylcholine and noradrenaline in both longitudinal and circular strips. 6. It is suggested that in the cat terminal ileum activation of delta-type opioid receptors modulates the mechanical activity suppressing the cholinergic responses in the longitudinal and circular layers as well as the adrenergic and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses in the circular layer.

  4. SEIZURE ACTIVITY INVOLVED IN THE UP-REGULATION OF BDNF mRNA EXPRESSION BY ACTIVATION OF CENTRAL MU OPIOID RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, H. N.; KO, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical-induced seizures up-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of endogenous opioids preferentially activating μ opioid receptor (MOR) could also increase BDNF mRNA expression. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent i.c.v. administration of synthetic MOR-selective agonists in rats can modulate both seizure activity and up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression. Effects and potencies of i.c.v. administration of morphine and [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), were directly investigated by scoring behavioral seizures and measuring BDNF mRNA expression. In addition, effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and antiepileptic drugs, diazepam, phenobarbital, and valproate, on i.c.v. MOR agonist-induced behavioral seizures and up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression were determined. A single i.c.v. administration of morphine (10–100 μg) or DAMGO (0.15–1.5 μg) dose-dependently elicited behavioral seizures and increased BDNF mRNA expression in the widespread brain regions. However, subcutaneous administration of MOR agonists neither produced behavioral seizures nor increased BDNF mRNA expression. Pretreatment with naloxone 1 mg/kg significantly reduced behavioral seizure scores and the up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression elicited by i.c.v. morphine or DAMGO. Similarly, diazepam 10 mg/kg and phenobarbital 40 mg/kg significantly blocked i.c.v. MOR agonist-induced actions. Pretreatment with valproate 300 mg/kg only attenuated behavioral seizures, but it did not affect morphine-induced increase of BDNF mRNA expression. This study provides supporting evidence that seizure activity plays an important role in the up-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression elicited by central MOR activation and that decreased inhibitory action of GABAergic system through the modulation on GABA receptor synaptic function by central MOR activation is involved in its regulation of BDNF m

  5. Crosstalk between cdk5 and MEK-ERK signalling upon opioid receptor stimulation leads to upregulation of activator p25 and MEK1 inhibition in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Miguel, A; García-Sevilla, J A

    2012-07-26

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) participates in opioid receptor signalling through complex molecular mechanisms. The acute effects of selective μ-(fentanyl) and δ-(SNC-80) opioid receptor agonists, as well as the chronic effects of morphine (the prototypic opiate agonist mainly acting at μ-receptors), modulating cdk5 and activators p35/p25 and their interactions with neurotoxic/apoptotic factors, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were quantified (Western Blot analyses) in the rat corpus striatum and/or cerebral cortex. To assess the involved mechanisms, MDL28170 was used to inhibit calpain activity and SL327 to disrupt MEK (ERK kinase)-ERK activation. Acute fentanyl (0.1mg/kg) and SNC-80 (10mg/kg) induced rapid (7-60 min) 2- to 4-fold increases of p25 content, without induction of cdk5/p25 pro-apoptotic c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase or aberrant cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1, a hallmark of apoptosis. In contrast, fentanyl and SNC-80 stimulated cdk5-mediated p-Thr75 DARPP-32 (+116-166%; PKA inhibition) and p-Thr286 MEK1 (+21-82%; MEK inactivation), and this latter effect resulted in uncoupling of MEK to ERK signals. Calpain inhibition with MDL28170 (cleavage of p35 to p25) attenuated fentanyl-induced p25 accumulation (-57%), but not the stimulation of p-Thr286 MEK1 or p-Thr75 DARPP-32. MEK-ERK inhibition with SL327 fully prevented fentanyl-induced p25 upregulation. Notably, chronic morphine treatment (10-100mg/kg for 6 days) also increased p25 content and p25/p35 ratio (and activated/inactivated MEK1) in rat brain cortex, which indicated that p25 upregulation persisted under the sustained stimulation of μ-opioid receptors. The results demonstrate that the acute stimulation of opioid receptors leads to upregulation of p25 activator through a MEK-ERK and calpain-dependent pathway, and to disruption of MEK-ERK signalling by a cdk5/p35-induced MEK1 inhibition. Moreover

  6. Crosstalk between cdk5 and MEK-ERK signalling upon opioid receptor stimulation leads to upregulation of activator p25 and MEK1 inhibition in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Miguel, A; García-Sevilla, J A

    2012-07-26

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) participates in opioid receptor signalling through complex molecular mechanisms. The acute effects of selective μ-(fentanyl) and δ-(SNC-80) opioid receptor agonists, as well as the chronic effects of morphine (the prototypic opiate agonist mainly acting at μ-receptors), modulating cdk5 and activators p35/p25 and their interactions with neurotoxic/apoptotic factors, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were quantified (Western Blot analyses) in the rat corpus striatum and/or cerebral cortex. To assess the involved mechanisms, MDL28170 was used to inhibit calpain activity and SL327 to disrupt MEK (ERK kinase)-ERK activation. Acute fentanyl (0.1mg/kg) and SNC-80 (10mg/kg) induced rapid (7-60 min) 2- to 4-fold increases of p25 content, without induction of cdk5/p25 pro-apoptotic c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase or aberrant cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1, a hallmark of apoptosis. In contrast, fentanyl and SNC-80 stimulated cdk5-mediated p-Thr75 DARPP-32 (+116-166%; PKA inhibition) and p-Thr286 MEK1 (+21-82%; MEK inactivation), and this latter effect resulted in uncoupling of MEK to ERK signals. Calpain inhibition with MDL28170 (cleavage of p35 to p25) attenuated fentanyl-induced p25 accumulation (-57%), but not the stimulation of p-Thr286 MEK1 or p-Thr75 DARPP-32. MEK-ERK inhibition with SL327 fully prevented fentanyl-induced p25 upregulation. Notably, chronic morphine treatment (10-100mg/kg for 6 days) also increased p25 content and p25/p35 ratio (and activated/inactivated MEK1) in rat brain cortex, which indicated that p25 upregulation persisted under the sustained stimulation of μ-opioid receptors. The results demonstrate that the acute stimulation of opioid receptors leads to upregulation of p25 activator through a MEK-ERK and calpain-dependent pathway, and to disruption of MEK-ERK signalling by a cdk5/p35-induced MEK1 inhibition. Moreover

  7. Opioid ligands having delayed long-term antagonist activity: potential pharmacotherapies for opioid abuse.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Stephen M; Lewis, John W

    2003-03-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the micro -opioid receptor with long duration of action and also exhibits delayed antagonist activity. Buprenorphine is finding increasing use as a treatment agent for opioid abuse, though its low efficacy is not well tolerated by all addicts. There is interest in developing a higher efficacy version of buprenorphine and in this mini-review some of the ligands recently discovered, that share with buprenorphine a profile of agonism followed by delayed antagonism, are discussed.

  8. Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Kruegel, Andrew C; Gassaway, Madalee M; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Váradi, András; Majumdar, Susruta; Filizola, Marta; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sames, Dalibor

    2016-06-01

    Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties. Here we describe the first receptor-level functional characterization of mitragynine and related natural alkaloids at the human mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors. These results show that mitragynine and the oxidized analogue 7-hydroxymitragynine, are partial agonists of the human mu-opioid receptor and competitive antagonists at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. We also show that mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are G-protein-biased agonists of the mu-opioid receptor, which do not recruit β-arrestin following receptor activation. Therefore, the Mitragyna alkaloid scaffold represents a novel framework for the development of functionally biased opioid modulators, which may exhibit improved therapeutic profiles. Also presented is an enantioselective total synthesis of both (-)-mitragynine and its unnatural enantiomer, (+)-mitragynine, employing a proline-catalyzed Mannich-Michael reaction sequence as the key transformation. Pharmacological evaluation of (+)-mitragynine revealed its much weaker opioid activity. Likewise, the intermediates and chemical transformations developed in the total synthesis allowed the elucidation of previously unexplored structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the Mitragyna scaffold. Molecular docking studies, in combination with the observed chemical SAR, suggest that Mitragyna alkaloids adopt a binding pose at the mu-opioid receptor that is distinct from that of classical opioids. PMID

  9. Autistic-Like Syndrome in Mu Opioid Receptor Null Mice is Relieved by Facilitated mGluR4 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jérôme AJ; Clesse, Daniel; Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Schwab, Yannick; Le Merrer, Julie; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) remains largely unknown. Identifying vulnerability genes for autism represents a major challenge in the field and allows the development of animal models for translational research. Mice lacking the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1−/−) were recently proposed as a monogenic mouse model of autism, based on severe deficits in social behavior and communication skills. We confirm this hypothesis by showing that adult Oprm1−/− animals recapitulate core and multiple comorbid behavioral symptoms of autism and also display anatomical, neurochemical, and genetic landmarks of the disease. Chronic facilitation of mGluR4 signaling, which we identified as a novel pharmacological target in ASDs in these mice, was more efficient in alleviating behavioral deficits than the reference molecule risperidone. Altogether, our data provide first evidence that disrupted mu opioid receptor signaling is sufficient to trigger a comprehensive autistic syndrome, maybe through blunted social reward processes, and this mouse model opens promising avenues for therapeutic innovation. PMID:24619243

  10. Side chain methyl substitution in the delta-opioid receptor antagonist TIPP has an important effect on the activity profile.

    PubMed

    Tourwé, D; Mannekens, E; Diem, T N; Verheyden, P; Jaspers, H; Tóth, G; Péter, A; Kertész, I; Török, G; Chung, N N; Schiller, P W

    1998-12-17

    The delta-opioid antagonist H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH (TIPP-OH) or its C-terminal amide analogue was systematically modified topologically by substitution of each amino acid residue by all stereoisomers of the corresponding beta-methyl amino acid. The potency and selectivity (delta- vs mu- and kappa-opioid receptor) were evaluated by radioreceptor binding assays. Agonist or antagonist potency were assayed in the mouse vas deferens and in the guinea pig ileum. In the TIPP analogues containing L-beta-methyl amino acids the influence on delta-receptor affinity and on delta-antagonist potency is limited, the [(2S,3R)-beta-MePhe3]TIPP-OH analogue being among the most potent delta-antagonists reported. In the D-beta-methyl amino acid series, the [D-beta-MeTic2] analogues are delta-selective antagonists whereas [D-Tic2]TIPP-NH2 is a delta-agonist. NMR studies did not indicate any influence of the beta-methyl substituent on the conformation of the Tic residue. The [(2R,3S)-beta-MePhe3]TIPP-NH2 is a potent delta-agonist, its C-terminal carboxylic acid analogue being more delta-selective but displaying partial agonism in both the delta- and mu-bioassay. These results constitute further examples of a profound influence of beta-methyl substitution on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of a peptide.

  11. Activation of adult rat CNS endothelial cells by opioid-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling induces proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Peter M.; Ramos, Khara M.; Rodgers, Krista M.; Wang, Xiaohui; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Lewis, Makenzie T.; Morgan, Kelly N.; Kroll, Juliet L.; Taylor, Frederick R.; Strand, Keith A.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra; Huey, Madeline G.; Greene, Lisa I.; Cochran, Thomas A.; Yin, Hang; Barth, Daniel S.; Johnson, Kirk W.; Rice, Kenner; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    CNS immune signaling contributes to deleterious opioid effects including hyperalgesia, tolerance, reward, and dependence/withdrawal. Such effects are mediated by opioid signaling at TLR4, presumptively of glial origin. Whether CNS endothelial cells express TLR4 is controversial. If so, they would be well positioned for activation by blood-borne opioids, contributing to opioid-induced pro-inflammatory responses. These studies examined adult primary rat CNS endothelial cell responses to (-)-morphine or its mu-opioid receptor (MOR) inactive metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), both known TLR4 agonists. We demonstrate that adult rat CNS endothelial cells express functional TLR4. M3G activated NFκB, increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNAs, and released prostaglandin E2 from these cells. (-)-Morphine-induced upregulation of TNFα mRNA and prostaglandin E2 release were unmasked by pre-treatment with nalmefene, a MOR antagonist without TLR4 activity (unlike CTAP, shown to have both MOR- and TLR4-activity), suggestive of an interplay between MOR and TLR4 co-activation by (-)-morphine. In support, MOR-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) opposed TLR4 signaling, as PKA inhibition (H-89) also unmasked (-)-morphine-induced TNFα and COX2 mRNA upregulation. Intrathecal injection of CNS endothelial cells, stimulated in vitro with M3G, produced TLR4-dependent tactile allodynia. Further, cortical suffusion with M3G in vivo induced TLR4-dependent vasodilation. Finally, endothelial cell TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide and/or M3G was blocked by the glial inhibitors AV1013 and propentofylline, demonstrating endothelial cells as a new target of such drugs. These data indicate that (-)-morphine and M3G can activate CNS endothelial cells via TLR4, inducing proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequalae. CNS endothelial cells may have previously unanticipated roles in opioid-induced effects, in phenomena blocked by

  12. Duration of opioid receptor blockade determines biotherapeutic response.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Patricia J; Zagon, Ian S

    2015-10-01

    Historically, studies on endogenous and exogenous opioids and their receptors focused on the mediation of pain, with excess opiate consumption leading to addiction. Opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone blocked these interactions, and still are widely used to reverse drug and alcohol overdose. Although specific opioid antagonists have been designed for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, the general antagonists remain the most effective. With the discovery of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis as a novel biological pathway involved in homeostasis of replicating cells and tissues, the role of opioid receptor antagonists was expanded. An intermittent OGFr blockade by low dosages of naltrexone resulted in depressed cell replication, whereas high (or sustained) dosages of naltrexone that conferred a continuous OGFr blockade resulted in enhanced growth. More than 3 decades of research have confirmed that the duration of opioid receptor blockade, not specifically the dosage, by general opioid antagonists determines the biotherapeutic outcome. Dysregulation of the OGF-OGFr pathway is apparent in a number of human disorders including diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer, and thus opioid antagonist disruption of interaction prevails as a therapeutic intervention. We review evidence that the duration of opioid receptor blockade is correlated with the magnitude and direction of response, and discuss the potential therapeutic effectiveness of continuous receptor blockade for treatment of diabetic complications such as corneal defects and skin wounds, and of intermittent receptor blockade by low dosages of naltrexone for treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. PMID:26119823

  13. The opioid receptors of the rat periaqueductal gray

    SciTech Connect

    Fedynyshyn, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The opioid binding characteristics of the rat (PAG) and the signal transduction mechanisms of the opioid receptors were examined with in vitro radioligand binding, GTPase, adenylyl cyclase, and inositol phosphate assays. The nonselective ligand {sup 3}H-ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), the {mu} and {delta} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Ala{sup 2}, D-Leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE), the {mu} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Ala{sup 2}, N-methyl Phe{sup 4}, Glyol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAGO), and the {delta} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) were separately used as tracer ligands to label opioid binding sites in rat PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane in competition with unlabeled DADLE, DAGO, DPDPE, or the {kappa} selective ligand trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide, methane sulfonate, hydrate (U50, 488H). Only {mu} selective high affinity opioid binding was observed. No high affinity {delta} or {kappa} selective binding was detected. {sup 3}H-DAGO was used as a tracer ligand to label {mu} selective high affinity opioid binding sites in PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane in competition with unlabeled {beta}-endorphin, dynorphin A (1-17), BAM-18, methionine enkephalin, dynorphin A (1-8), and leucine enkephalin. Of these endogenous opioid peptides only those with previously reported high affinity {mu} type opioid binding activity competed with {sup 3}H-DAGO for binding sites in rat PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane with affinities similar to that of unlabeled DAGO.

  14. Activation of κ Opioid Receptors in Cutaneous Nerve Endings by Conorphin-1, a Novel Subtype-Selective Conopeptide, Does Not Mediate Peripheral Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Deuis, Jennifer R; Whately, Ella; Brust, Andreas; Inserra, Marco C; Asvadi, Naghmeh H; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F; Cabot, Peter J; Vetter, Irina

    2015-10-21

    Selective activation of peripheral κ opioid receptors (KORs) may overcome the dose-limiting adverse effects of conventional opioid analgesics. We recently developed a vicinal disulfide-stabilized class of peptides with subnanomolar potency at the KOR. The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effects of one of these peptides, named conorphin-1, in comparison with the prototypical KOR-selective small molecule agonist U-50488, in several rodent pain models. Surprisingly, neither conorphin-1 nor U-50488 were analgesic when delivered peripherally by intraplantar injection at local concentrations expected to fully activate the KOR at cutaneous nerve endings. While U-50488 was analgesic when delivered at high local concentrations, this effect could not be reversed by coadministration with the selective KOR antagonist ML190 or the nonselective opioid antagonist naloxone. Instead, U-50488 likely mediated its peripheral analgesic effect through nonselective inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, including peripheral sensory neuron isoforms NaV1.8 and NaV1.7. Our study suggests that targeting the KOR in peripheral sensory nerve endings innervating the skin is not an alternative analgesic approach. PMID:26225903

  15. The mechanism of μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-TRPV1 crosstalk in TRPV1 activation involves morphine anti-nociception, tolerance and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Yu, Jing; Hou, Wei; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    Initiated by the activation of various nociceptors, pain is a reaction to specific stimulus modalities. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, including morphine, remain the most potent analgesics to treat patients with moderate to severe pain. However, the utility of MOR agonists is limited by the adverse effects associated with the use of these drugs, including analgesic tolerance and physical dependence. A strong connection has been suggested between the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channel and the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. TRPV1 is important for thermal nociception induction, and is mainly expressed on sensory neurons. Recent reports suggest that opioid or TRPV1 receptor agonist exposure has contrasting consequences for anti-nociception, tolerance and dependence. Chronic morphine exposure modulates TRPV1 activation and induces the anti-nociception effects of morphine. The regulation of many downstream targets of TRPV1 plays a critical role in this process, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Additional factors also include capsaicin treatment blocking the anti-nociception effects of morphine in rats, as well as opioid modulation of TRPV1 responses through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway and MAPK signaling pathways. Here, we review new insights concerning the mechanism underlying MOR-TRPV1 crosstalk and signaling pathways and discuss the potential mechanisms of morphine-induced anti-nociception, tolerance and dependence associated with the TRPV1 signaling pathway and highlight how understanding these mechanisms might help find therapeutic targets for the treatment of morphine induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PMID:26176938

  16. Mu-opioid receptor activation prevents apoptosis following serum withdrawal in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, M; Segura, M F; Comella, J X; Olmos, G

    2003-03-01

    Opioid peptides and alkaloids exert their effects via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It has been shown that, in addition to trophic factors, some GPCRs are able to activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI 3-K/Akt) signal transduction pathway, thus leading to cell survival. The aim of this study was to test whether activation of mu-opioid receptors has protective effects on serum withdrawal-induced cell death and to study the possible implication of PI 3-K in this process. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells fully differentiated by exposure to retinoic acid for five days, the enkephalin derivative selective mu-agonist DAMGO (0.1-2 microM) and the alkaloid morphine (0.1-10 microM) promoted cell survival after serum deprivation (MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays), without inducing cell proliferation. These effects were fully reversed by naloxone, by the selective mu-antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) and also by the specific PI 3-K inhibitor LY294002. The two agonists stimulated Akt phosphorylation and the effect was also abolished by beta-FNA and by LY294002. In mouse primary cortical neurons, DAMGO reduced the percentage of apoptosis after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of serum withdrawal; as determined by Hoechst staining. This effect was blocked by beta-FNA, by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin and by LY294002. DAMGO also stimulated Akt phosphorylation via PI 3-K in this primary neuronal culture. Together, these results indicate that stimulation of the mu-opioid receptor promotes neuronal survival in a G(i/o)-linked, PI 3-K-dependent signaling cascade and suggest that Akt may be a key downstream kinase involved in this anti-apoptotic effect. PMID:12646285

  17. Discovery of positive allosteric modulators and silent allosteric modulators of the μ-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Burford, Neil T; Clark, Mary J; Wehrman, Tom S; Gerritz, Samuel W; Banks, Martyn; O'Connell, Jonathan; Traynor, John R; Alt, Andrew

    2013-06-25

    μ-Opioid receptors are among the most studied G protein-coupled receptors because of the therapeutic value of agonists, such as morphine, that are used to treat chronic pain. However, these drugs have significant side effects, such as respiratory suppression, constipation, allodynia, tolerance, and dependence, as well as abuse potential. Efforts to fine tune pain control while alleviating the side effects of drugs, both physiological and psychological, have led to the development of a wide variety of structurally diverse agonist ligands for the μ-opioid receptor, as well as compounds that target κ- and δ-opioid receptors. In recent years, the identification of allosteric ligands for some G protein-coupled receptors has provided breakthroughs in obtaining receptor subtype-selectivity that can reduce the overall side effect profiles of a potential drug. However, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) can also have the specific advantage of only modulating the activity of the receptor when the orthosteric agonist occupies the receptor, thus maintaining spatial and temporal control of receptor signaling in vivo. This second advantage of allosteric modulators may yield breakthroughs in opioid receptor research and could lead to drugs with improved side-effect profiles or fewer tolerance and dependence issues compared with orthosteric opioid receptor agonists. Here, we describe the discovery and characterization of μ-opioid receptor PAMs and silent allosteric modulators, identified from high-throughput screening using a β-arrestin-recruitment assay. PMID:23754417

  18. A role for kappa-, but not mu-opioid, receptor activation in acute food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Sedki, Firas; Eigenmann, Karine; Gelinas, Jessica; Schouela, Nicholas; Courchesne, Shannon; Shalev, Uri

    2015-05-01

    Stress is considered to be one of the major triggers to drug relapse, even after prolonged periods of abstinence. In rats, the activation of stress-related brain systems, including corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine, is critical for stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking, an animal model for drug relapse. In addition, there are strong indications that activation of the endogenous opioid system is important for the effects of stress on drug seeking. More specifically, activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is critically involved in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking following exposure to stressors, such as footshock, forced swimming or social stress. However, studies on the role of the dynorphin/KOR system in stress-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking are scarce. Here, rats were trained to self-administer heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 10 days. Drug seeking was then extinguished and the rats were tested for acute (21 hours) food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In two separate experiments, rats were injected with the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist, naltrexone (0.0, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or the KOR antagonist, norBNI (0.0, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg; i.p.) before the reinstatement test. Naltrexone treatment did not affect stress-induced reinstatement. In contrast, treatment with norBNI dose-dependently attenuated food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. These results support the hypothesis that activation of KOR, but not MOR, is critically involved in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking.

  19. Antagonists of toll like receptor 4 maybe a new strategy to counteract opioid-induced hyperalgesia and opioid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Long term opioid treatment results in hyperalgesia and tolerance, which is a troublesome phenomenon in clinic application. Recent studies have revealed a critical role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the neuropathological process of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. TLR4 is predominantly expressed by microglial cells and is a key modulator in the activation of the innate immune system. Activation of TLR4 may initiate the activation of microglia and hence a number of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that could enhance neuronal excitability are released. Blockade of TLR4 activation by its antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone, which were also demonstrated to be TLR4 antagonist, may have clinic application value in attenuation of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance.

  20. In vivo opioid receptor heteromerization: where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Massotte, D

    2015-01-01

    Opioid receptors are highly homologous GPCRs that modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration, including autonomous, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. Opioid receptors functionally interact in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms involving direct receptor–receptor interactions, affecting signalling pathways or engaging different neuronal circuits, remain unsolved. Heteromer formation through direct physical interaction between two opioid receptors or between an opioid receptor and a non-opioid one has been postulated and can be characterized by specific ligand binding, receptor signalling and trafficking properties. However, despite numerous studies in heterologous systems, evidence for physical proximity in vivo is only available for a limited number of opioid heteromers, and their physiopathological implication remains largely unknown mostly due to the lack of appropriate tools. Nonetheless, data collected so far using endogenous receptors point to a crucial role for opioid heteromers as a molecular entity that could underlie human pathologies such as alcoholism, acute or chronic pain as well as psychiatric disorders. Opioid heteromers therefore stand as new therapeutic targets for the drug discovery field. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24666391

  1. The “Toll” of Opioid-Induced Glial Activation: Improving the Clinical Efficacy of Opioids by Targeting Glia

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Linda R.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Maier, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    Glial activation participates in the mediation of pain including neuropathic pain, due to release of neuroexcitatory, proinflammatory products. Glial activation is now known to occur in response to opioids as well. Opioid-induced glial activation opposes opioid analgesia and enhances opioid tolerance, dependence, reward and respiratory depression. Such effects can occur, not via classical opioid receptors, but rather via non-stereoselective activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a recently recognized key glial receptor participating in neuropathic pain as well. This discovery identifies a means for separating the beneficial actions of opioids (opioid receptor mediated) from the unwanted side-effects (TLR4/glial mediated) by pharmacologically targeting TLR4. Such a drug should be a stand-alone therapeutic for treating neuropathic pain as well. Excitingly, with newly-established clinical trials of two glial modulators for treating neuropathic pain and improving the utility of opioids, translation from rats-to-humans now begins with the promise of improved clinical pain control. PMID:19762094

  2. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. PMID:27511839

  3. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  4. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication.

    PubMed

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse.

  5. Mu Opioid Receptor Actions in the Lateral Habenula

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Elyssa B.; Fields, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of lateral habenula (LHb) neurons is correlated with aversive states including pain, opioid abstinence, rodent models of depression, and failure to receive a predicted reward. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are among the most powerful rewarding and pain relieving drugs. Injection of the MOR agonist morphine directly into the habenula produces analgesia, raising the possibility that MOR acts locally within the LHb. Consequently, we examined the synaptic actions of MOR agonists in the LHb using whole cell patch clamp recording. We found that the MOR selective agonist DAMGO inhibits a subset of LHb neurons both directly and by inhibiting glutamate release onto these cells. Paradoxically, DAMGO also presynaptically inhibited GABA release onto most LHb neurons. The behavioral effect of MOR activation will thus depend upon both the level of intrinsic neuronal activity in the LHb and the balance of activity in glutamate and GABA inputs to different LHb neuronal populations. PMID:27427945

  6. Mu Opioid Receptor Actions in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Elyssa B; Fields, Howard L

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of lateral habenula (LHb) neurons is correlated with aversive states including pain, opioid abstinence, rodent models of depression, and failure to receive a predicted reward. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are among the most powerful rewarding and pain relieving drugs. Injection of the MOR agonist morphine directly into the habenula produces analgesia, raising the possibility that MOR acts locally within the LHb. Consequently, we examined the synaptic actions of MOR agonists in the LHb using whole cell patch clamp recording. We found that the MOR selective agonist DAMGO inhibits a subset of LHb neurons both directly and by inhibiting glutamate release onto these cells. Paradoxically, DAMGO also presynaptically inhibited GABA release onto most LHb neurons. The behavioral effect of MOR activation will thus depend upon both the level of intrinsic neuronal activity in the LHb and the balance of activity in glutamate and GABA inputs to different LHb neuronal populations. PMID:27427945

  7. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Catherine M.; Taylor, Anna M. W.; Cook, Christopher; Ong, Edmund; Morón, Jose A.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25452729

  8. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    SciTech Connect

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  9. Opioids and their receptors: Are we there yet?

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    Opioids have an important place in pharmacology. While their clinical use as analgesics is fundamental in medicine, their use is constrained by their side-effects and abuse potential. Pharmacologists have sought analgesics lacking side-effects and the abuse liability of the current agents. The identification of the opioid receptors in 1973 marked the beginning of our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these agents. The isolation of the opioid peptides quickly followed, along with the classification of three families of opioid receptors. Clinicians have long been aware of subtle differences among the mu opioids that were not easily reconciled with a single receptor and selective antagonists implied two subdivisions of mu receptors. However, the cloning of the mu opioid receptor MOR-1 has led to the realization of the extensive complexity of the mu opioid receptor gene and its vast array of splice variants. Many of these splice variants are truncated and do not conform to the structure of traditional G-protein coupled receptors. Yet, evidence now shows that they are quite important and may prove valuable targets in the development of potent analgesics lacking the undesirable properties of current opioids. PMID:23624289

  10. kappa-Opioid receptor signaling and brain reward function.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W

    2009-12-11

    The dynorphin-like peptides have profound effects on the state of the brain reward system and human and animal behavior. The dynorphin-like peptides affect locomotor activity, food intake, sexual behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and drug intake. Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors, the endogenous receptor for the dynorphin-like peptides, inhibits dopamine release in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen) and induces a negative mood state in humans and animals. The administration of drugs of abuse increases the release of dopamine in the striatum and mediates the concomitant release of dynorphin-like peptides in this brain region. The reviewed studies suggest that chronic drug intake leads to an upregulation of the brain dynorphin system in the striatum and in particular in the dorsal part of the striatum/caudate putamen. This might inhibit drug-induced dopamine release and provide protection against the neurotoxic effects of high dopamine levels. After the discontinuation of chronic drug intake these neuroadaptations remain unopposed which has been suggested to contribute to the negative emotional state associated with drug withdrawal and increased drug intake. kappa-Opioid receptor agonists have also been shown to inhibit calcium channels. Calcium channel inhibitors have antidepressant-like effects and inhibit the release of norepinephrine. This might explain that in some studies kappa-opioid receptor agonists attenuate nicotine and opioid withdrawal symptomatology. A better understanding of the role of dynorphins in the regulation of brain reward function might contribute to the development of novel treatments for mood disorders and other disorders that stem from a dysregulation of the brain reward system.

  11. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  12. Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation Potentiates the Cocaine-Induced Increase in Evoked Dopamine Release Recorded In Vivo in the Mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Jonathan M; Phillips, Paul E M; Chavkin, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral stressors increase addiction risk in humans and increase the rewarding valence of drugs of abuse including cocaine, nicotine and ethanol in animal models. Prior studies have established that this potentiation of drug reward was mediated by stress-induced release of the endogenous dynorphin opioids and subsequent kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation. In this study, we used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry to test the hypothesis that KOR activation before cocaine administration might potentiate the evoked release of dopamine from ventral tegmental (VTA) synaptic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and thereby increase the rewarding valence of cocaine. The KOR agonist U50488 inhibited dopamine release evoked by either medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) activation of VTA inputs to the shell or core of the mouse NAc. Cocaine administration increased the dopamine response recorded in either the shell or core evoked by either MFB or PPTg stimulation. Administration of U50488 15 min before cocaine blocked the conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine, but only significantly reduced the effect of cocaine on the dopamine response evoked by PPTg stimulation to NAc core. In contrast, administration of U50488 60 min before cocaine significantly potentiated cocaine CPP and significantly increased the effects of cocaine on the dopamine response evoked by either MFB or PPTg stimulation, recorded in either NAc shell or core. Results of this study support the concept that stress-induced activation of KOR by endogenous dynorphin opioids may enhance the rewarding valence of drugs of abuse by potentiating the evoked dopamine response. PMID:24971603

  13. Kappa opioid receptor activation potentiates the cocaine-induced increase in evoked dopamine release recorded in vivo in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Jonathan M; Phillips, Paul E M; Chavkin, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral stressors increase addiction risk in humans and increase the rewarding valence of drugs of abuse including cocaine, nicotine and ethanol in animal models. Prior studies have established that this potentiation of drug reward was mediated by stress-induced release of the endogenous dynorphin opioids and subsequent kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation. In this study, we used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry to test the hypothesis that KOR activation before cocaine administration might potentiate the evoked release of dopamine from ventral tegmental (VTA) synaptic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and thereby increase the rewarding valence of cocaine. The KOR agonist U50488 inhibited dopamine release evoked by either medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) activation of VTA inputs to the shell or core of the mouse NAc. Cocaine administration increased the dopamine response recorded in either the shell or core evoked by either MFB or PPTg stimulation. Administration of U50488 15 min before cocaine blocked the conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine, but only significantly reduced the effect of cocaine on the dopamine response evoked by PPTg stimulation to NAc core. In contrast, administration of U50488 60 min before cocaine significantly potentiated cocaine CPP and significantly increased the effects of cocaine on the dopamine response evoked by either MFB or PPTg stimulation, recorded in either NAc shell or core. Results of this study support the concept that stress-induced activation of KOR by endogenous dynorphin opioids may enhance the rewarding valence of drugs of abuse by potentiating the evoked dopamine response. PMID:24971603

  14. G Protein independent phosphorylation and internalization of the δ-opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Faye A.; Zelnik, Jennifer C.; Traynor, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Agonist activation of the δ-opioid receptor leads to internalization via Gβγ recruitment of G protein coupled receptor kinase-2, which phosphorylates the receptor at several sites, including Ser363, allowing β-arrestin binding and localization to clathrin coated pits. Using HEK cells expressing a δ-opioid receptor we tested the hypothesis that prevention of receptor coupling to G protein by treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) will block these processes. PTX treatment did not reduce phosphorylation of δ-opioid receptor Ser363 in response to the agonist DPDPE, or recruitment of β-arrestin 2-GFP to the membrane and only slowed, but did not prevent, DPDPE-induced internalization. Similarly PTX treatment only partially prevented the ability of the δ-opioid peptide agonists deltorphin II and [Met5]enkephalin and the non-peptide agonist BW373U86 to induce receptor internalization. No internalization was seen with morphine, oxymorphindole or the putative δ1-opioid agonist TAN-67 in the presence or absence of PTX, even though TAN-67 showed a strong activation of G protein, as measured by [35S]GTPγS binding. The ability of an agonist to stimulate phosphorylation at Ser363 was predictive of its capacity to induce internalization. The results suggest a role for G protein in δ-opioid receptor internalization, but show that alternative G protein independent pathways exist. PMID:19344370

  15. Blockade of central delta-opioid receptors inhibits salt appetite in sodium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A I R; Ferreira, H S; Cerqueira, D R; Fregoneze, J B

    2014-05-01

    Various studies have investigated the role of central opioid peptides in feeding behavior; however, only a few have addressed the participation of opioids in the control of salt appetite. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular injections of the δ-opioid antagonist, naltrindole (5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) and the agonist, deltorphin II (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) on salt intake. Two protocols for inducing salt intake were used: sodium-depletion and the central injection of angiotensin II. In addition, the effect of a central δ-opioid receptor blockade on locomotor activity, on palatable solution intake (0.1% saccharin) and on blood pressure was also studied. The blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake in sodium-depleted rats, while the pharmacological stimulation of these receptors increases salt intake in sodium-replete animals. Furthermore, the blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake induced by central angiotensinergic stimulation. These data suggest that during sodium-depletion activation of the δ-opioid receptors regulates salt appetite to correct the sodium imbalance and it is possible that an interaction between opioidergic and angiotensinergic brain system participates in this control. Under normonatremic conditions, δ-opioid receptors may be necessary to modulate sodium intake, a response that could be mediated by angiotensin II. The decrease in salt intake following central δ-opioid receptors blockade does not appear to be due to a general inhibition of locomotor activity, changes in palatability or in blood pressure.

  16. Dynamic measurement of extracellular opioid activity: status quo, challenges, and significance in rewarded behaviors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Niall P

    2015-01-21

    Opioid peptides are the endogenous ligands of opioid receptors, which are also the molecular target of naturally occurring and synthetic opiates, such as morphine and heroin. Since their discovery in the 1970s, opioid peptides, which are found widely throughout the central nervous system and the periphery, have been intensely studied because of their involvement in pain and pleasure. Over the years, our understanding of opioid peptides has widened to cover a multitude of functions, including learning and memory, affective state, gastrointestinal transit, feeding, immune function, and metabolism. Unsurprisingly, aberrant opioid activity is implicated in numerous pathologies, including drug addiction, overeating, pain, depression, and obesity. To date, virtually all preclinical and clinical studies aimed at understanding the function of endogenous opioids have relied upon manipulating endogenous opioid fluxes using opioid receptor ligands or genetic manipulations of opioid receptors and endogenous opioids. Difficulties in directly monitoring endogenous opioid fluxes, particularly in the central nervous system, have presented a major obstacle to fully understanding endogenous opioid function. This review summarizes these challenges and offers suggestions for future goals while focusing on the neurobiology of reward, specifically drawing attention to studies that have succeeded in dynamically measuring opioid peptides. PMID:25585132

  17. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  18. Both Estrogen and Androgen Modify the Response to Activation of Neurokinin-3 and κ-Opioid Receptors in Arcuate Kisspeptin Neurons From Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruka, Kristen A; Burger, Laura L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2016-02-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate the pattern of GnRH secretion. Arcuate kisspeptin (kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin [KNDy]) neurons may convey steroid feedback to GnRH neurons. KNDy neurons increase action potential firing upon the activation of neurokinin B receptors (neurokinin-3 receptor [NK3R]) and decrease firing upon the activation of dynorphin receptors (κ-opioid receptor [KOR]). In KNDy neurons from intact vs castrated male mice, NK3R-mediated stimulation is attenuated and KOR-mediated inhibition enhanced, suggesting gonadal secretions are involved. Estradiol suppresses spontaneous GnRH neuron firing in male mice, but the mediators of the effects on firing in KNDy neurons are unknown. We hypothesized the same gonadal steroids affecting GnRH firing pattern would regulate KNDy neuron response to NK3R and KOR agonists. To test this possibility, extracellular recordings were made from KNDy neurons in brain slices from intact, untreated castrated or castrated adult male mice treated in vivo with steroid receptor agonists. As observed previously, the stimulation of KNDy neurons by the NK3R agonist senktide was attenuated in intact vs castrated mice and suppression by dynorphin was enhanced. In contrast to observations of steroid effects on the GnRH neuron firing pattern, both estradiol and DHT suppressed senktide-induced KNDy neuron firing and enhanced the inhibition caused by dynorphin. An estrogen receptor-α agonist but not an estrogen receptor-β agonist mimicked the effects of estradiol on NK3R activation. These observations suggest the steroid modulation of responses to activation of NK3R and KOR as mechanisms for negative feedback in KNDy neurons and support the contribution of these neurons to steroid-sensitive elements of a GnRH pulse generator.

  19. Both Estrogen and Androgen Modify the Response to Activation of Neurokinin-3 and κ-Opioid Receptors in Arcuate Kisspeptin Neurons From Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruka, Kristen A; Burger, Laura L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2016-02-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate the pattern of GnRH secretion. Arcuate kisspeptin (kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin [KNDy]) neurons may convey steroid feedback to GnRH neurons. KNDy neurons increase action potential firing upon the activation of neurokinin B receptors (neurokinin-3 receptor [NK3R]) and decrease firing upon the activation of dynorphin receptors (κ-opioid receptor [KOR]). In KNDy neurons from intact vs castrated male mice, NK3R-mediated stimulation is attenuated and KOR-mediated inhibition enhanced, suggesting gonadal secretions are involved. Estradiol suppresses spontaneous GnRH neuron firing in male mice, but the mediators of the effects on firing in KNDy neurons are unknown. We hypothesized the same gonadal steroids affecting GnRH firing pattern would regulate KNDy neuron response to NK3R and KOR agonists. To test this possibility, extracellular recordings were made from KNDy neurons in brain slices from intact, untreated castrated or castrated adult male mice treated in vivo with steroid receptor agonists. As observed previously, the stimulation of KNDy neurons by the NK3R agonist senktide was attenuated in intact vs castrated mice and suppression by dynorphin was enhanced. In contrast to observations of steroid effects on the GnRH neuron firing pattern, both estradiol and DHT suppressed senktide-induced KNDy neuron firing and enhanced the inhibition caused by dynorphin. An estrogen receptor-α agonist but not an estrogen receptor-β agonist mimicked the effects of estradiol on NK3R activation. These observations suggest the steroid modulation of responses to activation of NK3R and KOR as mechanisms for negative feedback in KNDy neurons and support the contribution of these neurons to steroid-sensitive elements of a GnRH pulse generator. PMID:26562263

  20. mu-Opioid receptor downregulation contributes to opioid tolerance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stafford, K; Gomes, A B; Shen, J; Yoburn, B C

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the contribution of downregulation of mu-opioid receptors to opioid tolerance in an intact animal model. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with osmotic minipumps that infused etorphine (50-250 microg/kg/day) for 7 days. Other mice were implanted subcutaneously with a morphine pellet (25 mg) or a morphine pellet plus an osmotic minipump that infused morphine (5-40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Controls were implanted with an inert placebo pellet. At the end of treatment, pumps and pellets were removed, and saturation binding studies were conducted in whole brain ([3H]DAMGO) or morphine and etorphine analgesic ED(50)s were determined (tail-flick). Morphine tolerance increased linearly with the infusion dose of morphine (ED(50) shift at highest infusion dose, 4.76). No significant downregulation of mu-receptors in whole brain was observed at the highest morphine treatment dose. Etorphine produced dose-dependent downregulation of mu-opioid receptor density and tolerance (ED(50) shift at highest infusion dose, 6.97). Downregulation of mu-receptors only occurred at the higher etorphine infusion doses (> or =150 microg/kg/day). Unlike morphine tolerance, the magnitude of etorphine tolerance was a nonlinear function of the dose and increased markedly at infusion doses that produced downregulation. These results suggest that mu-opioid receptor downregulation contributes to opioid tolerance in vivo. Therefore, opioid tolerance appears to rely upon both "receptor density-dependent" and " receptor density-independent" mechanisms.

  1. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allouche, Stéphane; Noble, Florence; Marie, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors (OR) are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization, and post-endocytic fate of the receptor. PMID:25566076

  2. An early granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment attenuates neuropathic pain through activation of mu opioid receptors on the injured nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming-Feng; Yeh, Shin-Rung; Lo, Ai-Lun; Chao, Po-Kuan; Lee, Yun-Lin; Hung, Yu-Hui; Lu, Kwok-Tung; Ro, Long-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the mu opioid receptor (MOR) located in the peripheral nerves can be activated after nerve injury and that it attenuates peripheral nociceptive signals to the spinal dorsal horn. Various cytokines and phosphorylated-p38 (p-p38) activation in the dorsal horn also play an important role in neuropathic pain development. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is a growth factor that can stimulate granulocyte formation and has been shown to exert an analgesic effect on neuropathic pain through recruiting opioid-containing leukocytes to the injured nerve. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, the results of behavior tests in addition to MOR levels in the injured sciatic nerve and the levels of p-p38 and various cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn were studied in vehicle-treated or GCSF-treated chronic constriction injured (CCI) rats at different time points (i.e., 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively) after nerve injury. The results showed that a single early systemic GCSF treatment after nerve injury can up-regulate MORs in the injured nerve, which can decrease peripheral nociceptive signals. Thereafter, those changes suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 but enhance the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, followed by decreases in p-p38 in the dorsal horn, and thus further attenuate neuropathic pain. PMID:27180600

  3. N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS AND LARGE CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNELS INHIBIT THE RELEASE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES THAT INDUCE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR INTERNALIZATION IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    SONG, B.; MARVIZÓN, J. C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the μ-opioid receptor, we measured μ-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced μ-opioid receptor internalization in half of the μ-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-d-aspartate (IC50=2 μM), and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. μ-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect μ-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase μ-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-d-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked μ-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  4. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels inhibit the release of opioid peptides that induce mu-opioid receptor internalization in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Marvizón, J C G

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the mu-opioid receptor, we measured mu-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced mu-opioid receptor internalization in half of the mu-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (IC50=2 microM), and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. mu-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-D-aspartate did not affect mu-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-D-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase mu-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked mu-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  5. Opioid agonist and antagonist treatment differentially regulates immunoreactive mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yoburn, Byron C; Purohit, Vishal; Patel, Kaushal; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2004-09-13

    Opioid agonists and antagonists can regulate the density of mu-opioid receptors in whole animal and in cell culture. High intrinsic efficacy agonists (e.g., etorphine), but not lower intrinsic efficacy agonists (e.g., morphine), produce mu-opioid receptor down-regulation and can alter the abundance of mu-opioid receptor mRNA. Conversely, opioid antagonists substantially increase the density of mu-opioid receptors without changing its mRNA. Mu-opioid receptor up-regulation has been associated with decreases in the trafficking protein dynamin-2, whereas mu-opioid receptor down-regulation produces an increase in dynamin-2 abundance. To probe the differences between opioid agonist and antagonist-induced mu-opioid receptor regulation, the current study determined changes in mu-opioid receptor density using a combined radioligand binding ([3H] DAMGO) and quantitative Western blotting approach in mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, the differences between intermittent and continuous dosing protocols were evaluated. Continuous (7-8 days) s.c. infusions of naloxone (5 mg/kg/day) or naltrexone (15 mg s.c. implant pellet) increased mu-opioid receptor density in radioligand binding assays (approximately +80%) in mouse spinal cord and down-regulated dynamin-2 abundance (approximately -30%), but had no effect on the abundance of immunoreactive mu-opioid receptor. Continuous (7 days) s.c. infusion of etorphine (200 microg/kg/day) decreased immunoreactive mu-opioid receptor (approximately -35%) and [3H] DAMGO binding (approximately -30%), and concurrently increased dynamin-2 abundance (approximately +40%). Continuous (7 days) morphine infusion (40 mg/kg/day plus 25 mg s.c. implant pellet) had no effect on any outcome measure. Delivery of the same daily dose of etorphine or naloxone using intermittent (every 24 h for 7 days) s.c. administration had no effect on immunoreactive mu-opioid receptor, [3H] DAMGO binding or dynamin-2 abundance. These data indicate that mu-opioid receptor

  6. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  7. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

    PubMed Central

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I.; MacDermott, Amy B.; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  8. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  9. PreBotzinger complex neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons mediate opioid-induced respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Montandon, Gaspard; Qin, Wuxuan; Liu, Hattie; Ren, Jun; Greer, John J; Horner, Richard L

    2011-01-26

    The analgesic properties of the opium poppy Papever somniferum were first mentioned by Hippocrates around 400 BC, and opioid analgesics remain the mainstay of pain management today. These drugs can cause the serious side-effect of respiratory depression that can be lethal with overdose, however the critical brain sites and neurochemical identity of the neurons mediating this depression are unknown. By locally manipulating neurotransmission in the adult rat, we identify the critical site of the medulla, the preBötzinger complex, that mediates opioid-induced respiratory depression in vivo. Here we show that opioids at the preBötzinger complex cause respiratory depression or fatal apnea, with anesthesia and deep-sleep being particularly vulnerable states for opioid-induced respiratory depression. Importantly, we establish that the preBötzinger complex is fully responsible for respiratory rate suppression following systemic administration of opioid analgesics. The site in the medulla most sensitive to opioids corresponds to a region expressing neurokinin-1 receptors, and we show in rhythmically active brainstem section in vitro that neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing preBötzinger complex neurons are selectively inhibited by opioids. In summary, neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing preBötzinger complex neurons constitute the critical site mediating opioid-induced respiratory rate depression, and the key therapeutic target for its prevention or reversal.

  10. Synergistic activity between the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 and amphetamine occurs via a glutamatergic NMDA-receptor dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Kelly E.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Schultz, Kristin N.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Gnegy, Margaret E.; Traynor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is known to cause the release of dopamine through a Ca2+-sensitive mechanism that involves activation of NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the delta opioid agonist SNC80 acts indirectly, via the glutamatergic system, to enhance both amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux from striatal preparations and amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. SNC80 increased extracellular glutamate content, which was accompanied by a concurrent decrease in GABA levels. Inhibition of NMDA signaling with the selective antagonist MK801 blocked the enhancement of both amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux and hyperlocomotion observed with SNC80 pretreatment. Addition of exogenous glutamate also potentiated amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux in a Mg2+- and MK801-sensitive manner. After removal of Mg2+ to relieve the ion conductance inhibition of NMDA receptors, SNC80 both elicited dopamine release alone and produced a greater enhancement of amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux. The action of SNC80 to enhance amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux was mimicked by the GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen. These cumulative findings suggest SNC80 modulates amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux through an intra-striatal mechanism involving inhibition of GABA transmission leading to the local release of glutamate followed by subsequent activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:24035916

  11. A6V polymorphism of the human μ-opioid receptor decreases signalling of morphine and endogenous opioids in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Knapman, Alisa; Santiago, Marina; Connor, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Polymorphisms of the μ opioid receptor (MOPr) may contribute to the variation in responses to opioid drugs in clinical and unregulated situations. The A6V variant of MOPr (MOPr-A6V) is present in up to 20% of individuals in some populations, and may be associated with heightened susceptibility to drug abuse. There are no functional studies examining the acute signalling of MOPr-A6V in vitro, so we investigated potential functional differences between MOPr and MOPr-A6V at several signalling pathways using structurally distinct opioid ligands. Experimental Approach CHO and AtT-20 cells stably expressing MOPr and MOPr-A6V were used. AC inhibition and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were assayed in CHO cells; K channel activation was assayed in AtT-20 cells. Key Results Buprenorphine did not inhibit AC or stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CHO cells expressing MOPr-A6V, but buprenorphine activation of K channels in AtT-20 cells was preserved. [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin, morphine and β-endorphin inhibition of AC was significantly reduced via MOPr-A6V, as was signalling of all opioids to ERK1/2. However, there was little effect of the A6V variant on K channel activation. Conclusions and Implications Signalling to AC and ERK via the mutant MOPr-A6V was decreased for many opioids, including the clinically significant drugs morphine, buprenorphine and fentanyl, as well endogenous opioids. The MOPr-A6V variant is common and this compromised signalling may affect individual responses to opioid therapy, while the possible disruption of the endogenous opioid system may contribute to susceptibility to substance abuse. PMID:25521224

  12. Imaging of opioid receptors in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Gjermund

    2008-01-01

    In vivo functional imaging by means of positron emission tomography (PET) is the sole method for providing a quantitative measurement of μ-, κ and δ-opioid receptor-mediated signalling in the central nervous system. During the last two decades, measurements of changes to the regional brain opioidergic neuronal activation—mediated by endogenously produced opioid peptides, or exogenously administered opioid drugs—have been conducted in numerous chronic pain conditions, in epilepsy, as well as by stimulant- and opioidergic drugs. Although several PET-tracers have been used clinically for depiction and quantification of the opioid receptors changes, the underlying mechanisms for regulation of changes to the availability of opioid receptors are still unclear. After a presentation of the general signalling mechanisms of the opioid receptor system relevant for PET, a critical survey of the pharmacological properties of some currently available PET-tracers is presented. Clinical studies performed with different PET ligands are also reviewed and the compound-dependent findings are summarized. An outlook is given concluding with the tailoring of tracer properties, in order to facilitate for a selective addressment of dynamic changes to the availability of a single subclass, in combination with an optimization of the quantification framework are essentials for further progress in the field of in vivo opioid receptor imaging. PMID:18048446

  13. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  14. Discovery of a Novel Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist Using Crystal Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Ana; Rives, Marie-Laure; Caspers, Michael J.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Filizola, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Kappa-opioid (KOP) receptor agonists exhibit analgesic effects without activating reward pathways. In the search for non-addictive opioid therapeutics and novel chemical tools to study physiological functions regulated by the KOP receptor, we screened in silico its recently released inactive crystal structure. A selective novel KOP receptor agonist emerged as a notable result, and is proposed as a new chemotype for the study of the KOP receptor in the etiology of drug addiction, depression, and/or pain. PMID:23461591

  15. μ-Opioid receptor desensitization: homologous or heterologous?

    PubMed

    Llorente, Javier; Lowe, Janet D; Sanderson, Helen S; Tsisanova, Elena; Kelly, Eamonn; Henderson, Graeme; Bailey, Chris P

    2012-12-01

    There is considerable controversy over whether μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) desensitization is homologous or heterologous and over the mechanisms underlying such desensitization. In different cell types MOPr desensitization has been reported to involve receptor phosphorylation by various kinases, including G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), second messenger and other kinases as well as perturbation of the MOPr effector pathway by GRK sequestration of G protein βγ subunits or ion channel modulation. Here we report that in brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) neurons prepared from relatively mature rats (5-8 weeks old) rapid MOPr desensitization induced by the high-efficacy opioid peptides methionine enkephalin and DAMGO was homologous and not heterologous to α(2)-adrenoceptors and somatostatin SST(2) receptors. Given that these receptors all couple through G proteins to the same set of G-protein inwardly rectifying (GIRK) channels it is unlikely therefore that in mature neurons MOPr desensitization involves G protein βγ subunit sequestration or ion channel modulation. In contrast, in slices from immature animals (less than postnatal day 20), MOPr desensitization was observed to be heterologous and could be downstream of the receptor. Heterologous MOPr desensitization was not dependent on protein kinase C or c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity, but the change from heterologous to homologous desensitization with age was correlated with a decrease in the expression levels of GRK2 in the LC and other brain regions. The observation that the mechanisms underlying MOPr desensitization change with neuronal development is important when extrapolating to the mature brain results obtained from experiments on expression systems, cell lines and immature neuronal preparations.

  16. Gabaergic and opioid receptors mediate the facilitation of NaCl intake induced by α₂-adrenergic activation in the lateral parabrachial nucleus.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C A F; De Oliveira, L B; Andrade-Franzé, G M F; De Luca, L A; Colombari, Débora S A; Menani, J V

    2015-02-01

    Alpha2-adrenergic, gabaergic or opioidergic activation in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increases sodium intake. In the present study, we investigated the effects of single or combined blockade of opioidergic and gabaergic receptors in the LPBN on the increase of 0.3M NaCl intake induced by α2-adrenoceptor activation in the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats (n=5-9/group) with cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN were treated with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg b wt.) combined with low dose of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg b wt.) subcutaneously. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist, 0.5 nmol) into the LPBN increased furosemide+captopril-induced 0.3M NaCl intake (25.8±1.4, vs. vehicle: 3.8±1.1 ml/60 min). The opioidergic receptor antagonist naloxone (100 nmol) or the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 nmol) injected into the LPBN partially reduced the increase of 0.3M NaCl intake produced by LPBN moxonidine (11.8±4.0 and 22.8±4.5, respectively, vs. vehicle+moxonidine: 31.6±4.0 ml/60 min, respectively). Similar to the treatment with each antagonist alone, the combined injections of naloxone (100 nmol) and bicuculline (5 nmol) into the LPBN also partially reduced moxonidine effects on 0.3M NaCl intake (15.5±6.5 ml/60 min). The GABAB receptor antagonist saclofen (5 nmol) injected into the LPBN did not change the effects of moxonidine on 0.3M NaCl intake (24.3±7.8 ml/120 min). These results suggest that the increase of 0.3M NaCl intake by α2-adrenergic receptor activation in the LPBN is partially dependent on GABAA and opioid receptor activation in this area.

  17. Human native kappa opioid receptor functions not predicted by recombinant receptors: Implications for drug design

    PubMed Central

    Broad, John; Maurel, Damien; Kung, Victor W. S.; Hicks, Gareth A.; Schemann, Michael; Barnes, Michael R.; Kenakin, Terrence P.; Granier, Sébastien; Sanger, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    If activation of recombinant G protein-coupled receptors in host cells (by drugs or other ligands) has predictive value, similar data must be obtained with native receptors naturally expressed in tissues. Using mouse and human recombinant κ opioid receptors transfected into a host cell, two selectively-acting compounds (ICI204448, asimadoline) equi-effectively activated both receptors, assessed by measuring two different cell signalling pathways which were equally affected without evidence of bias. In mouse intestine, naturally expressing κ receptors within its nervous system, both compounds also equi-effectively activated the receptor, inhibiting nerve-mediated muscle contraction. However, whereas ICI204448 acted similarly in human intestine, where κ receptors are again expressed within its nervous system, asimadoline was inhibitory only at very high concentrations; instead, low concentrations of asimadoline reduced the activity of ICI204448. This demonstration of species-dependence in activation of native, not recombinant κ receptors may be explained by different mouse/human receptor structures affecting receptor expression and/or interactions with intracellular signalling pathways in native environments, to reveal differences in intrinsic efficacy between receptor agonists. These results have profound implications in drug design for κ and perhaps other receptors, in terms of recombinant-to-native receptor translation, species-dependency and possibly, a need to use human, therapeutically-relevant, not surrogate tissues. PMID:27492592

  18. Human native kappa opioid receptor functions not predicted by recombinant receptors: Implications for drug design.

    PubMed

    Broad, John; Maurel, Damien; Kung, Victor W S; Hicks, Gareth A; Schemann, Michael; Barnes, Michael R; Kenakin, Terrence P; Granier, Sébastien; Sanger, Gareth J

    2016-01-01

    If activation of recombinant G protein-coupled receptors in host cells (by drugs or other ligands) has predictive value, similar data must be obtained with native receptors naturally expressed in tissues. Using mouse and human recombinant κ opioid receptors transfected into a host cell, two selectively-acting compounds (ICI204448, asimadoline) equi-effectively activated both receptors, assessed by measuring two different cell signalling pathways which were equally affected without evidence of bias. In mouse intestine, naturally expressing κ receptors within its nervous system, both compounds also equi-effectively activated the receptor, inhibiting nerve-mediated muscle contraction. However, whereas ICI204448 acted similarly in human intestine, where κ receptors are again expressed within its nervous system, asimadoline was inhibitory only at very high concentrations; instead, low concentrations of asimadoline reduced the activity of ICI204448. This demonstration of species-dependence in activation of native, not recombinant κ receptors may be explained by different mouse/human receptor structures affecting receptor expression and/or interactions with intracellular signalling pathways in native environments, to reveal differences in intrinsic efficacy between receptor agonists. These results have profound implications in drug design for κ and perhaps other receptors, in terms of recombinant-to-native receptor translation, species-dependency and possibly, a need to use human, therapeutically-relevant, not surrogate tissues. PMID:27492592

  19. Delta opioid receptor analgesia: recent contributions from pharmacology and molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte Lina

    2012-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors represent a promising target for the development of novel analgesics. A number of tools have been developed recently that have significantly improved our knowledge of delta receptor function in pain control. These include several novel delta agonists with potent analgesic properties, as well as genetic mouse models with targeted mutations in the delta opioid receptor gene. Also, recent findings have further documented the regulation of delta receptor function at cellular level, which impacts on the pain-reducing activity of the receptor. These regulatory mechanisms occur at transcriptional and post-translational levels, along agonist-induced receptor activation, signaling and trafficking, or in interaction with other receptors and neuromodulatory systems. All these tools for in vivo research, as well as proposed mechanisms at molecular level, have tremendously increased our understanding of delta receptor physiology, and contribute to designing innovative strategies for the treatment of chronic pain and other diseases such as mood disorders. PMID:21836459

  20. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Becker, Howard C.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Methods: Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Results: Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. Conclusions: These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase

  1. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  2. Potent Dmt-Tic pharmacophoric delta- and mu-opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingyou; Fujita, Yoshio; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2005-12-15

    A series of dimeric Dmt-Tic (2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) analogues (8-14, 18-22) were covalently linked through diaminoalkane and symmetric or asymmetric 3,6-diaminoalkyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone moieties. All the compounds exhibited high affinity for both delta-opioid receptors [Ki(delta) = 0.06-1.53 nM] and mu-opioid receptors [Ki(mu) = 1.37-5.72 nM], resulting in moderate delta-receptor selectivity [Ki(mu)/Ki(delta) = 3-46]. Regardless of the type of linker between the Dmt-Tic pharmacophores, delta-opioid-mediated antagonism was extraordinarily high in all analogues (pA2 = 10.42-11.28), while in vitro agonism (MVD and GPI bioassays) was essentially absent (ca. 3 to >10 microM). While an unmodified N-terminus (9, 13, 18) revealed weak mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 6.78-6.99), N,N'-dimethylation (21, 22), which negatively impacts on mu-opioid-associated agonism (Balboni et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003, 11, 5435-5441), markedly enhanced mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 8.34 and 7.71 for 21 and 22, respectively) without affecting delta-opioid activity. These data are the first evidence that a single dimeric opioid ligand containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore exhibits highly potent delta- and mu-opioid antagonist activities.

  3. Increased gabaergic input to ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons associated with decreased cocaine reinforcement in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mathon, D S; Lesscher, H M B; Gerrits, M A F M; Kamal, A; Pintar, J E; Schuller, A G P; Spruijt, B M; Burbach, J P H; Smidt, M P; van Ree, J M; Ramakers, G M J

    2005-01-01

    There is general agreement that dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex play a key role in drug reinforcement. The activity of these neurons is strongly modulated by the inhibitory and excitatory input they receive. Activation of mu-opioid receptors, located on GABAergic neurons in the VTA, causes hyperpolarization of these GABAergic neurons, thereby causing a disinhibition of VTA dopaminergic neurons. This effect of mu-opioid receptors upon GABA neurotransmission is a likely mechanism for mu-opioid receptor modulation of drug reinforcement. We studied mu-opioid receptor signaling in relation to cocaine reinforcement in wild-type and mu-opioid receptor knockout mice using a cocaine self-administration paradigm and in vitro electrophysiology. Cocaine self-administration was reduced in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, suggesting a critical role of mu-opioid receptors in cocaine reinforcement. The frequency of spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents onto dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area was increased in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice compared with wild-type controls, while the frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents was unaltered. The reduced cocaine self-administration and increased GABAergic input to VTA dopaminergic neurons in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice supports the notion that suppression of GABAergic input onto dopaminergic neurons in the VTA contributes to mu-opioid receptor modulation of cocaine reinforcement. PMID:15664692

  4. Nalmefene induced elevation in serum prolactin in normal human volunteers: partial kappa opioid agonist activity?

    PubMed

    Bart, Gavin; Schluger, James H; Borg, Lisa; Ho, Ann; Bidlack, Jean M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2005-12-01

    In humans, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists lower tuberoinfundibular dopamine, which tonically inhibits prolactin release. Serum prolactin is, therefore, a useful biomarker for tuberoinfundibular dopamine. The current study evaluated the unexpected finding that the relative mu- and kappa-opioid receptor selective antagonist nalmefene increases serum prolactin, indicating possible kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. In all, 33 healthy human volunteers (14 female) with no history of psychiatric or substance use disorders received placebo, nalmefene 3 mg, and nalmefene 10 mg in a double-blind manner. Drugs were administered between 0900 and 1000 on separate days via 2-min intravenous infusion. Serial blood specimens were analyzed for serum levels of prolactin. Additional in vitro studies of nalmefene binding to cloned human kappa-opioid receptors transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells were performed. Compared to placebo, both doses of nalmefene caused significant elevations in serum prolactin (p<0.002 for nalmefene 3 mg and p<0.0005 for nalmefene 10 mg). There was no difference in prolactin response between the 3 and 10 mg doses. Binding assays confirmed nalmefene's affinity at kappa-opioid receptors and antagonism of mu-opioid receptors. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding studies demonstrated that nalmefene is a full antagonist at mu-opioid receptors and has partial agonist properties at kappa-opioid receptors. Elevations in serum prolactin following nalmefene are consistent with this partial agonist effect at kappa-opioid receptors. As kappa-opioid receptor activation can lower dopamine in brain regions important to the persistence of alcohol and cocaine dependence, the partial kappa agonist effect of nalmefene may enhance its therapeutic efficacy in selected addictive diseases.

  5. Opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray regulate extinction of pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    McNally, Gavan P; Pigg, Michael; Weidemann, Gabrielle

    2004-08-01

    Four experiments studied the role of opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), an important structure eliciting conditioned fear responses, in the extinction of Pavlovian fear. Rats received pairings of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a foot shock unconditioned stimulus (US). The freezing conditioned response (CR) elicited by the CS was then extinguished via nonreinforced presentations of the CS. Microinjection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone into the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) before nonrein-forced CS presentations impaired development of extinction, but such microinjections at the end of extinction did not reinstate an already extinguished freezing CR. This role for opioid receptors in fear extinction was specific to the vlPAG because infusions of naloxone into the dorsal PAG did not impair fear extinction. Finally, the impairment of fear extinction produced by vlPAG infusions of naloxone was dose-dependent. These results show for the first time that the midbrain PAG contributes to fear extinction and specifically identify a role for vlPAG opioid receptors in the acquisition but not the expression of such extinction. Taken together with our previous findings, we suggest that, during fear conditioning, activation of vlPAG opioid receptors contributes to detection of the discrepancy between the actual and expected outcome of the conditioning trial. vlPAG opioid receptors regulate the learning that accrues to the CS and other stimuli present on a trial because they instantiate an associative error correction process influencing US information reaching the site of CS-US convergence in the amygdala. During nonreinforcement, this vlPAG opioid receptor contribution signals extinction.

  6. Opioid receptor types involved in the development of nicotine physical dependence in an invertebrate (Planaria) model.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Baron, Steve; Bhandal, Jaspreet S; Brown, Tevin; Song, Kevin; Tallarida, Christopher S; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    Recent data suggest that opioid receptors are involved in the development of nicotine physical dependence in mammals. Evidence in support of a similar involvement in an invertebrate (Planaria) is presented using the selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and the more receptor subtype-selective antagonists CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) (μ, MOR), naltrindole (δ, DOR), and nor-BNI (norbinaltorphimine) (κ, KOR). Induction of physical dependence was achieved by 60-min pre-exposure of planarians to nicotine and was quantified by abstinence-induced withdrawal (reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity). Known MOR and DOR subtype-selective opioid receptor antagonists attenuated the withdrawal, as did the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but a KOR subtype-selective antagonist did not. An involvement of MOR and DOR, but not KOR, in the development of nicotine physical dependence or in abstinence-induced withdrawal was thus demonstrated in a sensitive and facile invertebrate model.

  7. Purification and characterization of mu-specific opioid receptor from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, J.; Cho, T.M.; Ge, B.L.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    A mu-specific opioid receptor was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat brain membranes by 6-succinylmorphine affinity chromatography, Ultrogel filtration, wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. The purified receptor had a molecular weight of 58,000 as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was judged to be homogeneous by the following criteria: (1) a single band on the SDS gel; and (2) a specific opioid binding activity of 17,720 pmole/mg protein, close to the theoretical value. In addition, the 58,000 molecular weight value agrees closely with that determined by covalently labelling purified receptor with bromoacetyl-/sup 3/H-dihydromorphine or with /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and dimethyl suberimidate. To their knowledge, this is the first complete purification of an opioid receptor that retains its ability to bind opiates.

  8. Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Role of the Furan in Affinity for Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Denise S.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Lozama, Anthony; Han, Nina; Day, Victor W.; Dersch, Christina M.; Rothman, Richard B.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Further synthetic modification of the furan ring of salvinorin A (1), the major active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. A computational study has predicted 1 to be a reproductive toxicant in mammals and is suggestive that use of 1 may be associated with adverse effects. We report in this study that piperidine 21 and thiomorpholine 23 have been identified as selective partial agonists at kappa opioid receptors. This indicates that additional structural modifications of 1 may provide ligands with good selectivity for opioid receptors but with reduced potential for toxicity. PMID:19707679

  9. Methamphetamine-induced stereotypy correlates negatively with patch-enhanced prodynorphin and arc mRNA expression in the rat caudate putamen: the role of mu opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Noble, Erika S; Gilbert, Yamiece E

    2010-06-01

    Amphetamines induce stereotypy, which correlates with patch-enhanced c-Fos expression the patch compartment of caudate putamen (CPu). Methamphetamine (METH) treatment also induces patch-enhanced expression of prodynorphin (PD), arc and zif/268 in the CPu. Whether patch-enhanced activation of any of these genes correlates with METH-induced stereotypy is unknown, and the factors that contribute to this pattern of expression are poorly understood. Activation of mu opioid receptors, which are expressed by the neurons of the patch compartment, may underlie METH-induced patch-enhanced gene expression and stereotypy. The current study examined whether striatal mu opioid receptor blockade altered METH-induced stereotypy and patch-enhanced gene expression, and if there was a correlation between the two responses. Animals were intrastriatally infused with the mu antagonist CTAP (10 microg/microl), treated with METH (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), placed in activity chambers for 3h, and then sacrificed. CTAP pretreatment attenuated METH-induced increases in PD, arc and zif/268 mRNA expression and significantly reduced METH-induced stereotypy. Patch-enhanced PD and arc mRNA expression in the dorsolateral CPu correlated negatively with METH-induced stereotypy. These data indicate that mu opioid receptor activation contributes to METH-induced gene expression in the CPu and stereotypy, and that patch-enhanced PD and arc expression may be a homeostatic response to METH treatment.

  10. Opioid receptors regulate the extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    McNally, Gavan P; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2003-12-01

    Rats received a single pairing of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a footshock unconditioned stimulus (US). The fear (freezing) that had accrued to the CS was then extinguished. Injection of naloxone prior to this extinction significantly impaired the development of extinction. This impairment was mediated by opioid receptors in the brain and was not observed when naloxone was injected after extinction training. Finally, an injection of naloxone on test failed to reinstate extinguished responding that had already accrued to the CS. These experiments show that opioid receptors regulate the development, but not the expression, of fear extinction and are discussed with reference to the roles of opioid receptors in US processing, memory, and appetitive motivation.

  11. (D-Pen2,4 prime -125I-Phe4,D-Pen5)enkephalin: A selective high affinity radioligand for delta opioid receptors with exceptional specific activity

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.J.; Sharma, S.D.; Toth, G.; Duong, M.T.; Fang, L.; Bogert, C.L.; Weber, S.J.; Hunt, M.; Davis, T.P.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-09-01

    (D-Pen2,4{prime}-125I-Phe4,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((125I)DPDPE) is a highly selective radioligand for the delta opioid receptor with a specific activity (2200 Ci/mmol) that is over 50-fold greater than that of tritium-labeled DPDPE analogs. (125I)DPDPE binds to a single site in rat brain membranes with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) value of 421 {plus minus} 67 pM and a receptor density (Bmax) value of 36.4 {plus minus} 2.7 fmol/mg protein. The high affinity of this site for delta opioid receptor ligands and its low affinity for mu or kappa receptor-selective ligands are consistent with its being a delta opioid receptor. The distribution of these sites in rat brain, observed by receptor autoradiography, is also consistent with that of delta opioid receptors. Association and dissociation binding kinetics of 1.0 nM (125I) DPDPE are monophasic at 25 degrees C. The association rate (k + 1 = 5.80 {plus minus} 0.88 {times} 10(7) M-1 min-1) is about 20- and 7-fold greater than that measured for 1.0 nM (3H) DPDPE and 0.8 nM (3H) (D-Pen2,4{prime}-Cl-Phe4, D-Pen5)enkephalin, respectively. The dissociation rate of (125I)DPDPE (0.917 {plus minus} 0.117 {times} 10(-2) min-1) measured at 1.0 nM is about 3-fold faster than is observed for either of the other DPDPE analogs. The rapid binding kinetics of (125I)DPDPE is advantageous because binding equilibrium is achieved with much shorter incubation times than are required for other cyclic enkephalin analogs. This, in addition to its much higher specific activity, makes (125I)DPDPE a valuable new radioligand for studies of delta opioid receptors.

  12. Role of opioid receptors in the reinstatement of opioid-seeking behavior: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Antinori, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abuse in humans is characterized by discontinuous periods of drug use and abstinence. With time, the probability of falling into renewed drug consumption becomes particularly high and constitutes a considerable problem in the management of heroin addicts. The major problem in the treatment of opioid dependence still remains the occurrence of relapse, to which stressful life events, renewed use of heroin, and exposure to drug-associated environmental cues are all positively correlated. To study the neurobiology of relapse, many research groups currently use the reinstatement animal model, which greatly contributed to disentangle the mechanisms underlying relapse to drug-seeking in laboratory animals. The use of this model is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and new versions have been recently developed to better appreciate the differential contribution of each opioid receptor subtype to the relapse phenomenon. In this chapter we review the state of the art of our knowledge on the specific role of the opioid receptors as unrevealed by the reinstatement animal model of opioid-seeking behavior.

  13. Regulation of extinction-related plasticity by opioid receptors in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Ryan G; Gafford, Georgette M; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has led to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Long-term synaptic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for extinction learning, but very little is currently known about how the mPFC and other brain areas interact during extinction. The current study examined the effect of drugs that impair the extinction of fear conditioning on the activation of the extracellular-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) in brain regions that likely participate in the consolidation of extinction learning. Inhibitors of opioid and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors were applied to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) and amygdala shortly before extinction training. Results from these experiments show that blocking opioid receptors in the vlPAG prevented the formation of extinction memory, whereas NMDA receptor blockade had no effect. Conversely, blocking NMDA receptors in the amygdala disrupted the formation of fear extinction memory, but opioid receptor blockade in the same brain area did not. Subsequent experiments tested the effect of these drug treatments on the activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in various brain regions following extinction training. Only opioid receptor blockade in the vlPAG disrupted ERK phosphorylation in the mPFC and amygdala. These data support the idea that opiodergic signaling derived from the vlPAG affects plasticity across the brain circuit responsible for the formation of extinction memory.

  14. The novel delta opioid receptor agonist UFP-512 dually modulates motor activity in hemiparkinsonian rats via control of the nigro-thalamic pathway.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, O S; Marti, M; Salvadori, S; Morari, M

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the ability of the novel delta opioid peptide (DOP) receptor agonist H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(CH2-COOH)-Bid (UFP-512) to attenuate motor deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemilesioned rats. Lower doses (0.1-10 microg/kg) of UFP-512 administered systemically (i.p.) stimulated stepping activity in the drag test and overall gait abilities in the rotarod test whereas higher doses (100-1000 microg/kg) were ineffective or even worsened Parkinsonism. Microdialysis coupled to an akinesia test (bar test) was then used to determine the circuitry involved in the motor actions of UFP-512. An antiakinetic dose of UFP-512 (10 microg/kg) decreased GABA in globus pallidus (GP) as well as GABA and glutamate (GLU) release in substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). On the other hand, a pro-akinetic dose (1000 microg/kg) of UFP-512 increased pallidal GABA, simultaneously producing a decrease in GABA and an increase in nigral GLU release. Moreover, to test the hypothesis that changes in motor behavior were associated with changes in nigro-thalamic transmission, amino acid release in ventromedial thalamus (VMTh, a target of nigro-thalamic GABAergic projections) was also measured. The anti-akinetic dose of UFP-512 reduced GABA and increased thalamic GLU release while the pro-akinetic dose increased GABA without affecting thalamic GLU release. Finally, regional microinjections were performed to investigate the brain areas involved in motor actions of UFP-512. UFP-512 microinjections into GP increased akinesia whereas UFP-512 microinjections into SNr reduced akinesia. Furthermore, the selective DOP receptor antagonist naltrindole (NTD) increased akinesia when injected into either area, GP being more sensitive. We conclude that UFP-512, depending on dose, improves or worsens motor activity in hemiparkinsonian rats by acting differentially as a DOP receptor agonist in SNr and a DOP receptor antagonist in GP, ultimately decreasing or increasing the activity of

  15. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand (/sup 3/H)DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas.

  16. Curvilinear relationships between mu-opioid receptor labeling and undirected song in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2013-01-01

    Female-directed communication in male songbirds has been reasonably well studied; yet, relatively little is known about communication in other social contexts. Songbirds also produce song that is not clearly directed towards another individual (undirected song) when alone or in flocks. Although the precise functions of undirected song may differ across species, this type of song is considered important for flock maintenance, song learning or practice. Past studies show that undirected song is tightly coupled to analgesia and positive affective state, which are both mediated by opioid activity. Furthermore, labeling for the opioid met-enkephalin in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) correlates positively with undirected song production. We propose that undirected song is facilitated and maintained by opioid receptor activity in the POM and other brain regions involved in affective state, analgesia, and social behavior. To provide insight into this hypothesis, we used immunohistochemistry to examine relationships between undirected song and mu-opioid receptors in male starlings. Polynomial regression analyses revealed significant inverted-U shaped relationships between measures of undirected song and mu-opioid receptor labeling in the POM, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), and periaqueductal gray (PAG). These results suggest that low rates of undirected song may stimulate and/or be maintained by mu-opioid receptor activity; however, it may be that sustained levels of mu-opioid receptor activity associated with high rates of undirected song cause mu-opioid receptor down-regulation. The results indicate that mu-opioid receptor activity in POM, BSTm, and PAG may underlie previous links identified between undirected song, analgesia, and affective state. PMID:23774651

  17. Curvilinear relationships between mu-opioid receptor labeling and undirected song in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Riters, Lauren V

    2013-08-21

    Female-directed communication in male songbirds has been reasonably well studied; yet, relatively little is known about communication in other social contexts. Songbirds also produce song that is not clearly directed towards another individual (undirected song) when alone or in flocks. Although the precise functions of undirected song may differ across species, this type of song is considered important for flock maintenance, song learning or practice. Past studies show that undirected song is tightly coupled to analgesia and positive affective state, which are both mediated by opioid activity. Furthermore, labeling for the opioid met-enkephalin in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) correlates positively with undirected song production. We propose that undirected song is facilitated and maintained by opioid receptor activity in the POM and other brain regions involved in affective state, analgesia, and social behavior. To provide insight into this hypothesis, we used immunohistochemistry to examine relationships between undirected song and mu-opioid receptors in male starlings. Polynomial regression analyses revealed significant inverted-U shaped relationships between measures of undirected song and mu-opioid receptor labeling in the POM, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), and periaqueductal gray (PAG). These results suggest that low rates of undirected song may stimulate and/or be maintained by mu-opioid receptor activity; however, it may be that sustained levels of mu-opioid receptor activity associated with high rates of undirected song cause mu-opioid receptor down-regulation. The results indicate that mu-opioid receptor activity in POM, BSTm, and PAG may underlie previous links identified between undirected song, analgesia, and affective state. PMID:23774651

  18. The Kappa Opioid Receptor: From Addiction to Depression, and Back

    PubMed Central

    Lalanne, Laurence; Ayranci, Gulebru; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Lutz, Pierre-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity is a major issue in psychiatry that notably associates with more severe symptoms, longer illness duration, and higher service utilization. Therefore, identifying key clusters of comorbidity and exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms represent important steps toward improving mental health care. In the present review, we focus on the frequent association between addiction and depression. In particular, we summarize the large body of evidence from preclinical models indicating that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR), a member of the opioid neuromodulatory system, represents a central player in the regulation of both reward and mood processes. Current data suggest that the KOR modulates overlapping neuronal networks linking brainstem monoaminergic nuclei with forebrain limbic structures. Rewarding properties of both drugs of abuse and natural stimuli, as well as the neurobiological effects of stressful experiences, strongly interact at the level of KOR signaling. In addiction models, activity of the KOR is potentiated by stressors and critically controls drug-seeking and relapse. In depression paradigms, KOR signaling is responsive to a variety of stressors, and mediates despair-like responses. Altogether, the KOR represents a prototypical substrate of comorbidity, whereby life experiences converge upon common brain mechanisms to trigger behavioral dysregulation and increased risk for distinct but interacting psychopathologies. PMID:25538632

  19. The kappa opioid receptor: from addiction to depression, and back.

    PubMed

    Lalanne, Laurence; Ayranci, Gulebru; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Lutz, Pierre-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity is a major issue in psychiatry that notably associates with more severe symptoms, longer illness duration, and higher service utilization. Therefore, identifying key clusters of comorbidity and exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms represent important steps toward improving mental health care. In the present review, we focus on the frequent association between addiction and depression. In particular, we summarize the large body of evidence from preclinical models indicating that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR), a member of the opioid neuromodulatory system, represents a central player in the regulation of both reward and mood processes. Current data suggest that the KOR modulates overlapping neuronal networks linking brainstem monoaminergic nuclei with forebrain limbic structures. Rewarding properties of both drugs of abuse and natural stimuli, as well as the neurobiological effects of stressful experiences, strongly interact at the level of KOR signaling. In addiction models, activity of the KOR is potentiated by stressors and critically controls drug-seeking and relapse. In depression paradigms, KOR signaling is responsive to a variety of stressors, and mediates despair-like responses. Altogether, the KOR represents a prototypical substrate of comorbidity, whereby life experiences converge upon common brain mechanisms to trigger behavioral dysregulation and increased risk for distinct but interacting psychopathologies. PMID:25538632

  20. Baseline reward circuitry activity and trait reward responsiveness predict expression of opioid analgesia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Lee, Michael C.; Rogers, Richard; Kong, Yazhuo; Leknes, Siri; Andersson, Jesper; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Variability in opioid analgesia has been attributed to many factors. For example, genetic variability of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-encoding gene introduces variability in MOR function and endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Emerging evidence suggests that personality trait related to the experience of reward is linked to endogenous opioid neurotransmission. We hypothesized that opioid-induced behavioral analgesia would be predicted by the trait reward responsiveness (RWR) and the response of the brain reward circuitry to noxious stimuli at baseline before opioid administration. In healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging and the μ-opioid agonist remifentanil, we found that the magnitude of behavioral opioid analgesia is positively correlated with the trait RWR and predicted by the neuronal response to painful noxious stimuli before infusion in key structures of the reward circuitry, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area. These findings highlight the role of the brain reward circuitry in the expression of behavioral opioid analgesia. We also show a positive correlation between behavioral opioid analgesia and opioid-induced suppression of neuronal responses to noxious stimuli in key structures of the descending pain modulatory system (amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and rostral–ventromedial medulla), as well as the hippocampus. Further, these activity changes were predicted by the preinfusion period neuronal response to noxious stimuli within the ventral tegmentum. These results support the notion of future imaging-based subject-stratification paradigms that can guide therapeutic decisions. PMID:23045652

  1. Interaction of trimebutine and Jo-1196 (fedotozine) with opioid receptors in the canine ileum.

    PubMed

    Allescher, H D; Ahmad, S; Classen, M; Daniel, E E

    1991-05-01

    Receptor binding of the opioid receptor antagonist, [3H]diprenorphine, which has a similar affinity to the various opioid receptor subtypes, was characterized in subcellular fractions derived from either longitudinal or circular smooth muscle of the canine small intestine with their plexuses (myenteric plexus and deep muscular plexus, respectively) attached. The distribution of opioid binding activity showed a good correlation in the different fractions with the binding of the neuronal marker [3H]saxitoxin but no correlation to the smooth muscle plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase. The saturation data (Kd = 0.12 +/- 0.04 nM and maximum binding = 400 +/- 20 fmol/mg) and the data from kinetic experiments (Kd = 0.08 nmol) in the myenteric plexus were in good agreement with results obtained previously from the circular muscle/deep muscular plexus preparation. Competition experiments using selective drugs for mu [morphiceptin-analog (N-MePhe3-D-Pro4)-morphiceptin] ), delta (D-Pen2,5-enkephalin) and kappa (dynorphin 1-13, U50488-H) ligands showed the existence of all three receptor subtypes. The existence of kappa receptors was confirmed in saturation experiments using [3H] ethylketocycloazocine as labeled ligand. Two putative opioid agonists, with effects on gastrointestinal motility, trimebutine and JO-1196 (fedotozin), were also examined. Trimebutine (Ki = 0.18 microM), Des-Met-trimebutine (Ki = 0.72 microM) and Jo-1196 (Ki = 0.19 microM) displaced specific opiate binding. The relative affinity for the opioid receptor subtypes was mu = 0.44, delta = 0.30 and kappa = 0.26 for trimebutine and mu = 0.25, delta = 0.22 and kappa = 0.52 for Jo-1196. Thus, Jo-1196 had some selectivity for kappa receptors compared to trimebutine. We conclude that there are similar types of opioid receptors in the myenteric plexus and the deep muscular plexus and that specificity of function of opioid nerves must depend on differential location of receptor types on particular neurons. The

  2. Orally active opioid compounds from a non-poppy source.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Beckett, Jaclyn R; Brahmbhatt, Vivek N; Ebinger, Theresa M; Fabian, Chrisjon A; Nixon, Justin R; Orlando, Steven T; Rana, Chintan A; Tejani, Ali H; Tomazic, Robert J

    2013-06-27

    The basic science and clinical use of morphine and other "opioid" drugs are based almost exclusively on the extracts or analogues of compounds isolated from a single source, the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). However, it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source. Specifically, at least two alkaloids isolated from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, mitragynine ((E)-2-[(2S,3S)-3-ethyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12b-octahydroindolo[3,2-h]quinolizin-2-yl]-3-methoxyprop-2-enoic acid methyl ester; 9-methoxy coryantheidine; MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-OH-MG), and several synthetic analogues of these natural products display centrally mediated (supraspinal and spinal) antinociceptive (analgesic) activity in various pain models. Several characteristics of these compounds suggest a classic "opioid" mechanism of action: nanomolar affinity for opioid receptors, competitive interaction with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and two-way analgesic cross-tolerance with morphine. However, other characteristics of the compounds suggest novelty, particularly chemical structure and possible greater separation from side effects. We review the chemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds. PMID:23517479

  3. Structural improvement of compounds with analgesic activity: AC-MPF4, a compound with mixed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity via opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rotta, Mariane; Machado, Pablo; Martins, Marcos A P; Ferreira, Juliano

    2015-02-01

    Successful pain control is a world health problem, which indicates an ever-growing need in the discovery of new molecules with improved analgesic activity and reduced side effects. The aim of this study was to describe the synthesis and biological activity of AC-MPF4, a new acetyl- and pyrazole-containing molecule derivate from MPF4. Firstly, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-edematogenic effect of AC-MPF4 in the carrageenan test. AC-MPF4 presented similar analgesic properties to MPF4 (opioid drug) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) (maximal effect of 85.4±10.9%, 62.0±11.0% and 95.0±10.4% of allodynia reduction, respectively). Regarding anti-edematogenic properties, AC-MPF4 presented similar results to ASA, while MPF4 presented no effect (maximal effect of 42.2±8.3% and 46.1±5.1% in paw thickness reduction, respectively). Remarkably, Naloxone fully prevented the analgesic effect of MPF4 and partially prevented the analgesic effect of AC-MPF4. However, neither ASA nor the anti-edematogenic activity was affected by Naloxone. The gastrointestinal motility and gastric mucosa integrity, which are parameters affected by opioid and NSAID drugs, respectively, were also evaluated. Neither of these parameters showed alterations induced by AC-MPF4, whereas ASA induced gastric ulceration (10 fold higher), and MPF4 decreased gastrointestinal motility (62.0±7.7%). Together, these data indicate that AC-MPF4 presents good analgesic and anti-edematogenic effects with no detectable side effects. AC-MPF4 may be considered a good prototype for the development of new analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. A variant on the kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) is associated with stress response and related drug craving, limbic brain activation and cocaine relapse risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Seo, D; Hodgkinson, C; Hu, Y; Goldman, D; Sinha, R

    2013-01-01

    Stress increases drug craving and relapse risk. The kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) mediates stress responses. Here, we examined whether the OPRK1 rs6989250 C>G affects stress-induced cocaine craving and cortisol responses, subsequent cocaine relapse risk and the neural response to stress using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in cocaine dependence. Sixty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent cocaine-dependent African-Americans were genotyped (CG: N=10; CC: N=57) and participated in a 3-day experiment in which they were exposed to personalized script-driven imagery of stress, drug cues and neutral scenarios, one condition per day, randomly assigned and counterbalanced across subjects. Repeated measures of craving and cortisol were obtained. The subjects were followed prospectively for 90 days to assess relapse risk. A follow-up preliminary fMRI experiment assessed neural responses to stress, drug cue and neutral conditions in matched CG (N=5) and CC (N=8) subgroups. We found greater stress-induced craving (P=0.019), higher cortisol during stress and cue relative to the neutral condition (P's<0.003), and increased cocaine relapse risk (P=0.0075) in the CG compared with the CC group. The CG relative to the CC group also showed greater activation of limbic and midbrain regions during stress and cues relative to the neutral condition with additional stress-induced activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus (P<0.05, whole-brain corrected). These results suggest that OPRK1 is associated with stress-induced craving and cortisol, hyperactive hypothalamus/thalamus-midbrain-cerebellum responses, and also associated with greater subsequent cocaine relapse risk. Future studies to replicate these findings in a larger sample size are warranted. PMID:23962922

  5. A variant on the kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) is associated with stress response and related drug craving, limbic brain activation and cocaine relapse risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K; Seo, D; Hodgkinson, C; Hu, Y; Goldman, D; Sinha, R

    2013-01-01

    Stress increases drug craving and relapse risk. The kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) mediates stress responses. Here, we examined whether the OPRK1 rs6989250 C>G affects stress-induced cocaine craving and cortisol responses, subsequent cocaine relapse risk and the neural response to stress using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in cocaine dependence. Sixty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent cocaine-dependent African-Americans were genotyped (CG: N=10; CC: N=57) and participated in a 3-day experiment in which they were exposed to personalized script-driven imagery of stress, drug cues and neutral scenarios, one condition per day, randomly assigned and counterbalanced across subjects. Repeated measures of craving and cortisol were obtained. The subjects were followed prospectively for 90 days to assess relapse risk. A follow-up preliminary fMRI experiment assessed neural responses to stress, drug cue and neutral conditions in matched CG (N=5) and CC (N=8) subgroups. We found greater stress-induced craving (P=0.019), higher cortisol during stress and cue relative to the neutral condition (P's<0.003), and increased cocaine relapse risk (P=0.0075) in the CG compared with the CC group. The CG relative to the CC group also showed greater activation of limbic and midbrain regions during stress and cues relative to the neutral condition with additional stress-induced activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus (P<0.05, whole-brain corrected). These results suggest that OPRK1 is associated with stress-induced craving and cortisol, hyperactive hypothalamus/thalamus–midbrain–cerebellum responses, and also associated with greater subsequent cocaine relapse risk. Future studies to replicate these findings in a larger sample size are warranted. PMID:23962922

  6. A variant on the kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) is associated with stress response and related drug craving, limbic brain activation and cocaine relapse risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Seo, D; Hodgkinson, C; Hu, Y; Goldman, D; Sinha, R

    2013-08-20

    Stress increases drug craving and relapse risk. The kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) mediates stress responses. Here, we examined whether the OPRK1 rs6989250 C>G affects stress-induced cocaine craving and cortisol responses, subsequent cocaine relapse risk and the neural response to stress using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in cocaine dependence. Sixty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent cocaine-dependent African-Americans were genotyped (CG: N=10; CC: N=57) and participated in a 3-day experiment in which they were exposed to personalized script-driven imagery of stress, drug cues and neutral scenarios, one condition per day, randomly assigned and counterbalanced across subjects. Repeated measures of craving and cortisol were obtained. The subjects were followed prospectively for 90 days to assess relapse risk. A follow-up preliminary fMRI experiment assessed neural responses to stress, drug cue and neutral conditions in matched CG (N=5) and CC (N=8) subgroups. We found greater stress-induced craving (P=0.019), higher cortisol during stress and cue relative to the neutral condition (P's<0.003), and increased cocaine relapse risk (P=0.0075) in the CG compared with the CC group. The CG relative to the CC group also showed greater activation of limbic and midbrain regions during stress and cues relative to the neutral condition with additional stress-induced activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus (P<0.05, whole-brain corrected). These results suggest that OPRK1 is associated with stress-induced craving and cortisol, hyperactive hypothalamus/thalamus-midbrain-cerebellum responses, and also associated with greater subsequent cocaine relapse risk. Future studies to replicate these findings in a larger sample size are warranted.

  7. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T.; Abbruscato, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10 nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10 nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype. PMID:25801116

  8. Antagonism of κ opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens prevents the depressive-like behaviors following prolonged morphine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Zan, Gui-Ying; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Yao; Hang, Ai; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-09-15

    The association between morphine withdrawal and depressive-like symptoms is well documented, however, the role of dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system and the underlying neural substrates have not been fully understood. In the present study, we found that four weeks morphine abstinence after a chronic escalating morphine regimen significantly induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. Prodynorphin mRNA and protein levels were increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after four weeks of morphine withdrawal. Local injection of κ opioid receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine (norBNI) in the NAc significantly blocked the expression of depressive-like behaviors without influencing general locomotor activity. Thus, the present study extends previous findings by showing that prolonged morphine withdrawal-induced depressive-like behaviors are regulated by dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system, and shed light on the κ opioid receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of depressive-like behaviors induced by opiate withdrawal.

  9. Periaqueductal gray μ and κ opioid receptors determine behavioral selection from maternal to predatory behavior in lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marianne Orlandini; Cruz, Aline de Mello; Machado, Franciele Corrêa; Picolo, Gisele; Canteras, Newton Sabino; Felicio, Luciano Freitas

    2014-11-01

    Every mother must optimize her time between caring for her young and her subsistence. The rostro lateral portion of the periaqueductal grey (rlPAG) is a critical site that modulates the switch between maternal and predatory behavior. Opioids play multiple roles in both maternal behavior and this switching process. The present study used a pharmacological approach to evaluate the functional role of rlPAG μ and κ opioid receptors in behavioral selection. Rat dams were implanted with a guide cannula in the rlPAG and divided into three experiments in which we tested the role of opioid agonists (Experiment 1), the influence of μ and κ opioid receptor blockade in the presence of morphine (Experiment 2), and the influence of μ and κ opioid receptor blockade (Experiment 3). After behavioral test, in Experiment 4, we evaluated rlPAG μ and κ receptor activation in all Experiments 1-3. The results showed that massive opioidergic activation induced by morphine in the rlPAG inhibited maternal behavior without interfering with predatory hunting. No behavioral changes and no receptor activation were promoted by the specific agonist alone. However, κ receptor blockade increased hunting behavior and increased the level of μ receptor activation in the rlPAG. Thus, endogenous opioidergic tone might be modulated by a functional interaction between opioid receptor subtypes. Such a compensatory receptor interaction appears to be relevant for behavioral selection among motivated behaviors. These findings indicate a role for multiple opioid receptor interactions in the modulation of behavioral selection between maternal and predatory behaviors in the PAG.

  10. Chronic exposure to morphine decreases the expression of EAAT3 via opioid receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingyan; Cao, Dexiong; Zhu, Siyu; Fu, Ganglan; Wu, Qiang; Liang, Jianjun; Cao, Minghui

    2015-12-01

    Alterations in glutamate transporter expression are closely related to opiate addition behavior, but the role of opioid receptors is unclear. In this study, we used primary cultures of hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats to study the effects of chronic exposure to morphine on excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) expression and the roles of µ opioid receptor (MOR), δ opioid receptor (DOR), and κ opioid receptor (KOR) in the morphine-dependent alterations in EAAT3 expression. The results showed that the EAAT3 protein and mRNA expression levels decreased significantly after chronic exposure to morphine (10μmol/L) for 48h, whereas the concentration of extracellular glutamate increased. In addition, we found that both the MOR inhibitor CTOP and the DOR inhibitor naltrindole could reverse the decreased expression of EAAT3 after exposure to morphine, whereas the MOR activator DAMGO and the DOR activator DPDPE significantly decreased EAAT3 expression. The KOR inhibitor had no effect on the expression of EAAT3, whereas its activator increased EAAT3 expression. These results suggest that the down-regulation of morphine-dependent EAAT3 expression in primary rat hippocampal cultures may be mediated by MOR and DOR and that KOR may not contribute significantly to this effect.

  11. Distribution of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors and Their Relationship with Mu-Opioid Receptors in the Rat Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Poe, A.R.; Morgan, M.M.; Aicher, S.A.; Hegarty, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is part of a descending pain modulatory system that, when activated, produces widespread and profound antinociception. Microinjection of either opioids or cannabinoids into the PAG elicits antinociception. Moreover, microinjection of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor agonist HU-210 into the PAG enhances the antinociceptive effect of subsequent morphine injections, indicating a direct relationship between these two systems. The objective of this study was to characterize the distribution of CB1 receptors in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral PAG in relationship to mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptors. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed extensive and diffuse CB1 receptor labeling in the PAG, 60% of which was found in somatodendritic profiles. CB1 and MOP receptor immunolabeling were co-localized in 32% of fluorescent Nissl-stained cells that were analyzed. Eight percent (8%) of PAG neurons that were MOP receptor-immunoreactive received CB1 receptor-immunoreactive appositions. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence CB1 receptor-immunoreactive somata, dendrites and axon terminals in the PAG. These results indicate that behavioral interactions between cannabinoids and opioids may be the result of cellular adaptations within PAG neurons co-expressing CB1 and MOP receptors. PMID:22521830

  12. Analgesia produced by exposure to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) is mediated by brain mu- and kappa-opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Salomon, G.; Park, E.J.; Quock, R.M. )

    1992-02-26

    This study was conducted to identify the opioid receptor subtype(s) responsible for RFR-induced analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 20 mW/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested 15 min later in the abdominal constriction paradigm which detects {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid activity. Immediately following RFR exposure, different groups of mice were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with different opioid receptor blockers with selectivity for {mu}- or {kappa}-opioid receptors. Results show that RFR-induced analgesia was attenuated by higher but not lower doses of the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but the selective {mu}-opioid antagonist {beta}-funaltrexamine and by the selective {kappa}-opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine. RFR-induced analgesia was also reduced by subcutaneous pretreatment with 5.0 mg/kg of the {mu}-/{kappa}-opioid antagonist({minus})-5,9-diethyl-{alpha}-5,9-dialkyl-2{prime}-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan(MR-2266). These findings suggest that RFR-induced analgesia may be mediated by both {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid mechanisms.

  13. Micro-opioid receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala mediates the learning of increases but not decreases in the incentive value of a food reward.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Cely, Ingrid C; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-02-01

    The decision to perform, or not perform, actions known to lead to a rewarding outcome is strongly influenced by the current incentive value of the reward. Incentive value is largely determined by the affective experience derived during previous consumption of the reward-the process of incentive learning. We trained rats on a two-lever, seeking-taking chain paradigm for sucrose reward, in which responding on the initial seeking lever of the chain was demonstrably controlled by the incentive value of the reward. We found that infusion of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, CTOP (d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2)), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during posttraining, noncontingent consumption of sucrose in a novel elevated-hunger state (a positive incentive learning opportunity) blocked the encoding of incentive value information normally used to increase subsequent sucrose-seeking responses. Similar treatment with δ [N, N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH (ICI 174,864)] or κ [5'-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI)] antagonists was without effect. Interestingly, none of these drugs affected the ability of the rats to encode a decrease in incentive value resulting from experiencing the sucrose in a novel reduced-hunger state. However, the μ agonist, DAMGO ([d-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin), appeared to attenuate this negative incentive learning. These data suggest that upshifts and downshifts in endogenous opioid transmission in the BLA mediate the encoding of positive and negative shifts in incentive value, respectively, through actions at μ-opioid receptors, and provide insight into a mechanism through which opiates may elicit inappropriate desire resulting in their continued intake in the face of diminishing affective experience. PMID:21289167

  14. Morphine Protects against Methylmercury Intoxication: A Role for Opioid Receptors in Oxidative Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Malaquias, Allan; Almeida, Mauro B.; Souza Monteiro, José R.; Macchi, Barbarella de Matos; do Nascimento, José Luiz M.; Crespo-Lopez, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is an extremely dangerous environmental contaminant responsible for episodes of human intoxication throughout the world. Methylmercury, the most toxic compound of this metal, mainly targets the central nervous system, accumulating preferentially in cells of glial origin and causing oxidative stress. Despite studies demonstrating the current exposure of human populations, the consequences of mercury intoxication and concomitant use of drugs targeting the central nervous system (especially drugs used in long-term treatments, such as analgesics) are completely unknown. Morphine is a major option for pain management; its global consumption more than quadrupled in the last decade. Controversially, morphine has been proposed to function in oxidative stress independent of the activation of the opioid receptors. In this work, a therapeutic concentration of morphine partially protected the cellular viability of cells from a C6 glioma cell line exposed to methylmercury. Morphine treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and totally prevented increases in nitrite levels in those cells. A mechanistic study revealed no alteration in sulfhydryl groups or direct scavenging at this opioid concentration. Interestingly, the opioid antagonist naloxone completely eliminated the protective effect of morphine against methylmercury intoxication, pointing to opioid receptors as the major contributor to this action. Taken together, the experiments in the current study provide the first demonstration that a therapeutic concentration of morphine is able to reduce methylmercury-induced oxidative damage and cell death by activating the opioid receptors. Thus, these receptors may be a promising pharmacological target for modulating the deleterious effects of mercury intoxication. Although additional studies are necessary, our results support the clinical safety of using this opioid in methylmercury-intoxicated patients, suggesting that normal analgesic doses could confer an additional

  15. Regulation of μ and δ opioid receptor functions: involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Beaudry, H; Mercier-Blais, A-A; Delaygue, C; Lavoie, C; Parent, J-L; Neugebauer, W; Gendron, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phosphorylation of δ opioid receptors (DOP receptors) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was shown to regulate the trafficking of this receptor. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of CDK5 in regulating DOP receptors in rats treated with morphine or with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). As μ (MOP) and DOP receptors are known to be co-regulated, we also sought to determine if CDK5-mediated regulation of DOP receptors also affects MOP receptor functions. Experimental Approach The role of CDK5 in regulating opioid receptors in CFA- and morphine-treated rats was studied using roscovitine as a CDK inhibitor and a cell-penetrant peptide mimicking the second intracellular loop of DOP receptors (C11-DOPri2). Opioid receptor functions were assessed in vivo in a series of behavioural experiments and correlated by measuring ERK1/2 activity in dorsal root ganglia homogenates. Key Results Chronic roscovitine treatment reduced the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of deltorphin II (Dlt II) in morphine- and CFA-treated rats respectively. Repeated administrations of C11-DOPri2 also robustly decreased Dlt II-induced analgesia. Interestingly, DAMGO-induced analgesia was significantly increased by roscovitine and C11-DOPri2. Concomitantly, in roscovitine-treated rats the Dlt II-induced ERK1/2 activation was decreased, whereas the DAMGO-induced ERK1/2 activation was increased. An acute roscovitine treatment had no effect on Dlt II- or DAMGO-induced analgesia. Conclusions and Implications Together, our results demonstrate that CDK5 is a key player in the regulation of DOP receptors in morphine- and CFA-treated rats and that the regulation of DOP receptors by CDK5 is sufficient to modulate MOP receptor functions through an indirect process. PMID:25598508

  16. Mu Opioids and Their Receptors: Evolution of a Concept

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ying-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are among the oldest medications available to manage a number of medical problems. Although pain is the current focus, early use initially focused upon the treatment of dysentery. Opium contains high concentrations of both morphine and codeine, along with thebaine, which is used in the synthesis of a number of semisynthetic opioid analgesics. Thus, it is not surprising that new agents were initially based upon the morphine scaffold. The concept of multiple opioid receptors was first suggested almost 50 years ago (Martin, 1967), opening the possibility of new classes of drugs, but the morphine-like agents have remained the mainstay in the medical management of pain. Termed mu, our understanding of these morphine-like agents and their receptors has undergone an evolution in thinking over the past 35 years. Early pharmacological studies identified three major classes of receptors, helped by the discovery of endogenous opioid peptides and receptor subtypes—primarily through the synthesis of novel agents. These chemical biologic approaches were then eclipsed by the molecular biology revolution, which now reveals a complexity of the morphine-like agents and their receptors that had not been previously appreciated. PMID:24076545

  17. Biotinylated human. beta. -endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhaus, G.; Gibson, B.W.; Sadee, W.

    1988-01-05

    The reaction of human ..beta..-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH/sup +/), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human ..beta..-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Try-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies monobiotinylation of Lys-9, Lys-19, and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives. IC/sub 50/ values for binding to ..mu.. and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human ..beta..-endorphin. Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C/sub 6/ spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to ..mu.. and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the ..cap alpha..-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were considerably reduced when derivatives were bound to avidin. The ability of biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphin to cross-link the ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors to avidin allows application of the biotin-avidin system as a molecular probe of the opioid receptor.

  18. Electrophysiological demonstration of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, I; Napier, T C

    1995-03-01

    Opioid mu, kappa and delta receptors are present in significant densities in the ventral pallidum (VP). To examine their contribution to VP neuronal activity, changes in firing rate during microiontophoresis of the receptor-selective agonists [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (mu), [D-Pen2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) (delta) and trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) cy-clohexyl]-benzene-acetamide methane sulfonate (U50488H) (kappa), and the antagonists D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP) (mu) and norbinaltorphimine (kappa) were determined in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. A majority of the neurons demonstrated ejection current-dependent decreases in neuronal activity to DAMGO and U50488H. The rate suppressions were attenuated by coiontophoresis of the homotypic antagonist, indicating receptor subtype-specificity of the responses. In contrast, DPDPE decreased firing in only 24% of the recorded neurons. In those neurons tested with all three agonists, nearly 70% were sensitive to at least one. Among responding neurons, approximately one-quarter was influenced by activation of all three receptor subtypes while another quarter was sensitive to only mu activation. Thus, subpopulations of VP neurons may exist according to the influence of particular opioid receptor subtypes. These findings were compared to the nonselective opioid, morphine. Morphine iontophoresis elicited both excitations and inhibitions whereas DAMGO exclusively inhibited the same VP neurons. Responses to both were antagonized by naloxone and CTOP, indicating mu receptor-specific actions. The results are discussed in terms of differential direct and indirect effects of morphine and DAMGO. In summary, mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors can independently alter neuronal activity within the VP, and direct and indirect effects are most likely involved. PMID:7891342

  19. NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with μ-Opioid Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the μ-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the μ-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on μ-opioid receptor function. Structure–activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 μM), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent μ-opioid binding affinity, Ki = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 μM). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain. PMID:24900459

  20. Interaction of trimebutine and Jo-1196 (fedotozine) with opioid receptors in the canine ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Allescher, H.D.; Ahmad, S.; Classen, M.; Daniel, E.E. )

    1991-05-01

    Receptor binding of the opioid receptor antagonist, ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine, which has a similar affinity to the various opioid receptor subtypes, was characterized in subcellular fractions derived from either longitudinal or circular smooth muscle of the canine small intestine with their plexuses (myenteric plexus and deep muscular plexus, respectively) attached. The distribution of opioid binding activity showed a good correlation in the different fractions with the binding of the neuronal marker ({sup 3}H)saxitoxin but no correlation to the smooth muscle plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase. The saturation data (Kd = 0.12 +/- 0.04 nM and maximum binding = 400 +/- 20 fmol/mg) and the data from kinetic experiments (Kd = 0.08 nmol) in the myenteric plexus were in good agreement with results obtained previously from the circular muscle/deep muscular plexus preparation. Competition experiments using selective drugs for mu (morphiceptin-analog (N-MePhe3-D-Pro4)-morphiceptin), delta (D-Pen2,5-enkephalin) and kappa (dynorphin 1-13, U50488-H) ligands showed the existence of all three receptor subtypes. The existence of kappa receptors was confirmed in saturation experiments using ({sup 3}H) ethylketocycloazocine as labeled ligand. Two putative opioid agonists, with effects on gastrointestinal motility, trimebutine and JO-1196 (fedotozin), were also examined. Trimebutine (Ki = 0.18 microM), Des-Met-trimebutine (Ki = 0.72 microM) and Jo-1196 (Ki = 0.19 microM) displaced specific opiate binding. The relative affinity for the opioid receptor subtypes was mu = 0.44, delta = 0.30 and kappa = 0.26 for trimebutine and mu = 0.25, delta = 0.22 and kappa = 0.52 for Jo-1196.

  1. μ-Opioid and 5-HT1A receptors heterodimerize and show signalling crosstalk via G protein and MAP-kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Cussac, Didier; Rauly-Lestienne, Isabelle; Heusler, Peter; Finana, Frédéric; Cathala, Claudie; Bernois, Sophie; De Vries, Luc

    2012-08-01

    μ-opioid receptors have been shown to form heterodimers with several G protein coupled receptors involved in pain regulation such as α(2A)-adrenergic and neurokinin 1 receptors. Because the 5-HT(1A) receptor is also involved in pain control, we investigated whether it can interact with the μ-opioid receptor in cell lines. Using epitope-tagged μ-opioid and 5-HT(1A) receptors, we show that both receptors can co-immunoprecipate when expressed in the same cells. This physical interaction was corroborated by a Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer signal between the μ-opioid receptor fused to Renilla luciferase and the 5-HT(1A) receptor fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein. Consistent with the presence of functional heterodimers, the μ-opioid receptor activated a Gα(o) protein covalently fused to the 5-HT(1A) receptor in membrane preparations as well as a Gα(15) protein fused to the 5-HT(1A) receptor in living cells. We demonstrate that both receptors can coexerce control of the ERK1/2 pathway: for example, μ-opioid receptor-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was selectively desensitized by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Although 5-HT(1A) and μ-opioid receptors were capable to internalize in response to their own activation, they were ineffective to induce the co-internalization of their partners. Thus, we show a functional heterodimerization of μ-opioid and 5-HT(1A) receptors in cell lines, a complex that might play a role in the control of pain in vivo. These results also support the potential therapeutic action of 5-HT(1A) agonists against nociceptive processes.

  2. Opioid antinociception and positive reinforcement are mediated by different types of opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pollerberg, G E; Costa, T; Shearman, G T; Herz, A; Reid, L D

    1983-10-17

    Fentanyl (FEN) and diprenorphine's (DIPR) potentials for analgesia and reinforcement were assayed using rats. Analgesia was measured by the classic tail-flick test. The test germane to opioid reinforcement involved measuring pressing rates for direct electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area. FEN, as does morphine and heroin, produced strong analgesia and enhanced pressing rates for brain stimulation. DIPR produced no analgesia and antagonized FEN's analgesia. DIPR, at doses antagonizing FEN's analgesia, enhanced pressing for brain stimulation. DIPR's enhancement of pressing was antagonized by naloxone (100 micrograms/kg). When FEN and DIPR were given concurrently, pressing for brain stimulation was not reduced and was greater than after FEN alone was given. These data support a conclusion that different types of receptors are associated with opioid analgesia and reinforcement.

  3. Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonists: The 6β-Naltrexamines

    PubMed Central

    Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Neal, Adrian P.; Bradbury, Faye A.; Purington, Lauren C.; Aceto, Mario D.; Harris, Louis S.; Lewis, John W.; Traynor, John R.; Husbands, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Ligands from the naltrexamine series have consistently demonstrated agonist activity at kappa opioid receptors (KOR), with varying activity at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Various 6β-cinnamoylamino derivatives were made with the aim of generating ligands with a KOR agonist/MOR partial agonist profile, as ligands with this activity may be of interest as treatment agents for cocaine abuse. The ligands all displayed the desired high affinity, non-selective binding in vitro and in the functional assays were high efficacy KOR agonists with some partial agonist activity at MOR. Two of the new ligands (12a, 12b) have been evaluated in vivo, with 12a acting as a KOR agonist, and therefore somewhat similar to the previously evaluated analogues 3–6, while 12b displayed predominant MOR agonist activity. PMID:19253970

  4. Identification of rat brain opioid (enkephalin) receptor by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    A photoreactive, radioactive enkephalin derivative was prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Rat brain and spinal cord plasma membranes were incubated with this radioiodinated photoprobe and were subsequently photolysed. Autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the solubilized and reduced membranes showed that a protein having an apparent molecular weight of 46,000 daltons was specifically labeled, suggesting that this protein may be the opioid (enkephalin) receptor.

  5. Opioid receptor types on adrenergic nerve terminals of rabbit ear artery.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, H.; Hosoki, E.; Ishida, Y.; Moritoki, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin, alpha-neoendorphin, beta-endorphin, dynorphin (1-13) and ethylketocyclazocine inhibited the contractions of rabbit ear artery ring segments elicited by transmural nerve stimulation at 8 Hz. Ethylketocyclazocine, dynorphin (1-13) and leucine enkephalin produced partial inhibition, their apparent intrinsic activities (alpha) being 0.57, 0.75 and 0.66, respectively. Morphine and normorphine, which are agonists at mu-receptors, did not inhibit the response of the artery. Naloxone antagonized the actions of opioids and ethylketocyclazocine, and was more effective against methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin and [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin than against alpha-neoendorphin, ethylketocyclazocine and dynorphin (1-13). The pA2 values of naloxone against so-called delta-agonists were approx. 8.5, and against so-called kappa-agonists were approx. 7.7. The supposed kappa-antagonist, Mr2266, was more effective than naloxone in antagonizing the actions of alpha-neoendorphin, and the kappa-agonists dynorphin (1-13) and ethylketocyclazocine. The pA2 values of Mr2266 against kappa-agonists were 8.5-9.0, and against delta-agonists were 7.8 or less. The opioid peptides and opioids tested did not cause dilatation of the artery previously contracted with histamine. These results suggest that the opioid peptides and ethylketocyclazocine acted on opioid receptors at adrenergic nerve terminals in the ear artery. The opioid receptors appear to be of the delta- and kappa-types, not the mu-type. PMID:2998521

  6. Remifentanil produces cross-desensitization and tolerance with morphine on the mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Nowoczyn, M; Marie, N; Coulbault, L; Hervault, M; Davis, A; Hanouz, J L; Allouche, S

    2013-10-01

    Remifentanil is a powerful mu-opioid (MOP) receptor agonist used in anaesthesia with a very short half-life. However, per-operative perfusion of remifentanil was shown to increase morphine consumption during post-operative period to relieve pain. In the present study, we aimed to describe the cellular mechanisms responsible for this apparent reduction of morphine efficacy. For this purpose, we first examined the pharmacological properties of both remifentanil and morphine at the MOP receptor, endogenously expressed in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, to regulate adenylyl cyclase and the MAP kinase ERK1/2 pathway, their potency to promote MOP receptor phosphorylation, arrestin 3-CFP (cyan fluorescent protein) recruitment and receptor trafficking during acute and sustained exposure. In the second part of this work, we studied the effects of a prior exposure of remifentanil on morphine-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation, activation of ERK1/2 and analgesia. We showed that sustained exposure to remifentanil promoted a rapid desensitization of opioid receptors on both signalling pathways and a pretreatment with this agonist reduced signal transduction produced by a second challenge with morphine. While both opioid agonists promoted Ser(375) phosphorylation on MOP receptor, remifentanil induced a rapid internalization of opioid receptors compared to morphine but without detectable arrestin 3-CFP translocation to the plasma membrane in our experimental conditions. Lastly, a cross-tolerance between remifentanil and morphine was observed in mice using the hot plate test. Our in vitro and in vivo data thus demonstrated that remifentanil produced a rapid desensitization and internalization of the MOP receptor that would reduce the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine. PMID:23792280

  7. Differential receptor binding characteristics of consecutive phenylalanines in micro-opioid specific peptide ligand endomorphin-2.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takeshi; Shirasu, Naoto; Isozaki, Kaname; Kawano, Michiaki; Shigehiro, Daiki; Chuman, Yoshiro; Fujita, Tsugumi; Nose, Takeru; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides consist of a conserved amino acid residue of Phe(3) and Phe(4), although their binding modes for opioid receptors have not been elucidated in detail. Endomorphin-2, which is highly selective and specific for the mu opioid receptor, possesses two Phe residues at the consecutive positions 3 and 4. In order to clarify the role of Phe(3) and Phe(4) in binding to the mu receptor, we synthesized a series of analogs in which Phe(3) and Phe(4) were replaced by various amino acids. It was found that the aromaticity of the Phe-beta-phenyl groups of Phe(3) and Phe(4) is a principal determinant of how strongly it binds to the receptor, although better molecular hydrophobicity reinforces the activity. The receptor binding subsites of Phe(3) and Phe(4) of endomorphin-2 were found to exhibit different structural requirements. The results suggest that [Trp(3)]endomorphin-2 (native endomorphin-1) and endomorphin-2 bind to different receptor subclasses. PMID:17395470

  8. Sigma and opioid receptors in human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.; Szuecs, M.; Mamone, J.Y.; Bem, W.T.; Rush, M.D.; Johnson, F.E.; Coscia, C.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Human brain tumors and nude mouse-borne human neuroblastomas and gliomas were analyzed for sigma and opioid receptor content. Sigma binding was assessed using ({sup 3}H) 1, 3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), whereas opioid receptor subtypes were measured with tritiated forms of the following: {mu}, (D-ala{sup 2}, mePhe{sup 4}, gly-ol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAMGE); {kappa}, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) or U69,593; {delta}, (D-pen{sup 2}, D-pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) or (D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE) with {mu} suppressor present. Binding parameters were estimated by homologous displacement assays followed by analysis using the LIGAND program. Sigma binding was detected in 15 of 16 tumors examined with very high levels found in a brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of lung and a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) passaged in nude mice. {kappa} opioid receptor binding was detected in 4 of 4 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and 2 of 2 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but not in the other brain tumors analyzed.

  9. New 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) opioid peptidomimetics based on the Aba-Gly scaffold. Development of unique mu-opioid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ballet, Steven; Salvadori, Severo; Trapella, Claudio; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Lattanzi, Roberta; Tourwé, Dirk; Balboni, Gianfranco

    2006-06-29

    The Aba-Gly scaffold, incorporated into Dmt-Tic ligands (H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH2-Ph, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph, H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH2-Bid), exhibited mixed micro/delta or delta opioid receptor activities with micro agonism. Substitution of Tic by Aba-Gly coupled to -NH-CH2-Ph (1), -NH-Ph (2), or -Bid (Bid=1H-benzimidazole-2-yl) (3) shifted affinity (Ki(micro)=0.46, 1.48, and 19.9 nM, respectively), selectivity, and bioactivity to micro-opioid receptors. These compounds represent templates for a new class of lead opioid agonists that are easily synthesized and suitable for therapeutic pain relief.

  10. Heteromers of μ-δ opioid receptors: new pharmacology and novel therapeutic possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Wakako; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest that heteromerization between μ (MOP) and δ (DOP) opioid receptors modulates the signalling properties of the individual receptors. For example, whereas activation of MOP receptors by an agonist induces G protein-mediated signalling, the same agonist induces β-arrestin-mediated signalling in the context of the MOP-DOP receptor heteromer. Moreover, heteromer-mediated signalling is allosterically modulated by a combination of MOP and DOP receptor ligands. This has implications in analgesia given that morphine-induced antinociception can be potentiated by DOP receptor ligands. Recently reagents selectively targeting the MOP-DOP receptor heteromer such as bivalent ligands, antibodies or membrane permeable peptides have been generated; these reagents are enabling studies to elucidate the contribution of endogenously expressed heteromers to analgesia as well as to the development of side-effects associated with chronic opioid use. Recent advances in drug screening technology have led to the identification of a MOP-DOP receptor heteromer-biased agonist that activates both G protein-mediated and β-arrestin-mediated signalling. Moreover, this heteromer-biased agonist exhibits potent antinociceptive activity but with reduced side-effects, suggesting that ligands targeting the MOP-DOP receptor heteromer form a basis for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of pain. In this review, we summarize findings regarding the biological and functional characteristics of the MOP-DOP receptor heteromer and the in vitro and in vivo properties of heteromer-selective ligands. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24571499

  11. Cholinergic modulation by opioid receptor ligands: potential application to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Motel, William C; Coop, Andrew; Cunningham, Christopher W

    2013-03-01

    Morphinans have a storied history in medicinal chemistry as pain management drugs but have received attention as modulators of cholinergic signaling for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Galantamine is a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and allosteric potentiating ligand of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR-APL) that shares many common structural elements with morphinan-based opioids. The structurally diverse opioids codeine and eseroline, like galantamine, are also nAChR-APL that have greatly diminished affinity for AChE, representing potential lead compounds for selective nAChR-APL development. In accordance with the emerging repurposing trend of evaluating known compounds for novel pharmacological activity, ongoing research on augmentation of cholinergic signaling that has been aided by the use of opioids will be reviewed. PMID:22931533

  12. Role of opioid receptors in neurogenic dural vasodilation and sensitization of trigeminal neurones in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D J; Shepheard, S L; Cook, D A; Hargreaves, R J; Hill, R G; Cumberbatch, M J

    2001-01-01

    Migraine headache is thought to be caused by a distension of meningeal blood vessels, the activation of trigeminal sensory neurones and the the development of a central sensitization within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). It has been proposed that clinically effective 5-HT1B/1D agonists act peripherally to inhibit the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neurogenic dural vasodilation, and to attenuate nociceptive neurotransmission within the TNC. Since opioids are also effective anti-migraine agents the present studies investigated the role of opioids within the trigemino-vascular system in anaesthetised rats. Electrical stimulation of the dura mater evoked neurogenic dural vasodilation which was significantly inhibited by morphine (1 mg kg−1) the selective μ-opioid agonist DAGO (10 μg kg−1) and the mixed agonist/antagonist butorphanol (1 mg kg−1) but not by the κ- and δ-opioid agonists (±) U50488H (100 μg kg−1) and DPDPE (1 mg kg−1). Morphine had no effect on CGRP-evoked dural vasodilation. In electrophysiological studies morphine (1 – 10 mg kg−1) significantly attenuated brainstem neuronal activity in response to electrical stimulation of the dura by 65% at 10 mg kg−1. Morphine (3 mg kg−1) also inhibited the TNC neuronal sensitization following CGRP-evoked dilation. The present studies have demonstrated that opioids block the nociceptive neurotransmission within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and in addition inhibit neurogenic dural vasodilation via an action on μ-opioid receptors located on trigeminal sensory fibres innervating dural blood vessels. These peripheral and central actions are similar to those of the ‘triptan' 5-HT1B/1D agonists and could account for the anti-migraine actions of opioids. PMID:11454653

  13. Modulation of brain opioid receptors by zinc and histidine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanissian, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of zinc and several trace elements was studied on the binding of the opioid receptor antagonist ({sup 3}H)-naloxone and the agonists ({sup 3}H)-DAGO, ({sup 3}H)-DSTLE, and ({sup 3}H)-EKC, specific for the mu, delta and kappa receptors, respectively, in several areas of the rat brain. Physiological concentrations of zinc were inhibitory to the binding of naloxone, DAGO, and EKC, whereas delta receptors were insensitive to this inhibition. Copper, cadmium, and mercury also inhibited the binding of all the ligands studied to their receptors. Histidine was most effective in preventing the inhibitory effects of zinc and copper, whereas it was less effective on cadmium, and without any effect on the inhibit was less effective on cadmium, and without any effect on the inhibition caused by mercury. Its metabolites histamine and imidazoleacetic acid, and also citrate were ineffective. Magnesium and manganese were stimulatory to opioid receptor binding, whereas cobalt and nickel had dual effects. Concentrations of zinc less that its IC{sub 50} totally prevented the stimulatory effects of magnesium and manganese on the mu and delta receptors on which zinc alone had no effects. The reducing reagents dithiothreitol and B-mercaptoethanol partially protected against zinc inhibition, and the oxidizing reagent dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid even potentiated the inhibitory effects of zinc on DSTLE and DAGO binding, although to different extents.

  14. The opioid peptide dynorphin directly blocks NMDA receptor channels in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Gu, Y; Huang, L Y

    1995-01-01

    1. The actions of dynorphin on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responses were examined in acutely dissociated trigeminal neurons in rat. Whole-cell and single-channel currents were recorded using the patch clamp technique. 2. Dynorphins reduced NMDA-activated currents (INMDA). The IC50 was 0.25 microM for dynorphin (1-32), 1.65 microM for dynorphin (1-17) and 1.8 microM for dynorphin (1-13). 3. The blocking action of dynorphin is voltage independent. 4. The inhibitory action of dynorphin cannot be blocked by high concentration of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, nor by the specific kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). 5. Single-channel analyses indicate that dynorphin reduces the fraction of time the channel is open without altering the channel conductance. 6. We propose that dynorphin acts directly on NMDA receptors. PMID:7537820

  15. Opioid neurotransmission in the post-ictal analgesia: involvement of mu(1)-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, N C; Freitas, R L; Savoldi, M; Castro-Souza, C; Segato, E N; Kishi, R; Weltson, A; Resende, G C

    2001-06-01

    Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a non-competitive antagonist that blocks GABA-mediated Cl(-) flux, was used in the present work to induce seizures in animals. The aim of this work is to study the neurochemical basis of the antinociception induced by convulsions elicited by peripheral administration of PTZ (64 mg/kg). The analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test, in eight rats per group. Convulsions were followed by significative increase in the tail-flick latencies (TFL), for at least 120 min of the post-ictal period. Peripheral administration of naltrexone (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the TFL in seizing animals, as compared to controls. These data were corroborated with peripheral administration of naloxonazine (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg), a mu(1)-opioid blocker, in the same doses used for non-specific antagonist. These results indicate that endogenous opioids may be involved in the post-ictal analgesia. The involvement of mu(1)-opioid receptor was also considered.

  16. Significance of neuronal cytochrome P450 activity in opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Hough, Lindsay B; Nalwalk, Julia W; Yang, Weizhu; Ding, Xinxin

    2014-08-26

    Stressful environmental changes can suppress nociceptive transmission, a phenomenon known as "stress-induced analgesia". Depending on the stressor and the subject, opioid or non-opioid mechanisms are activated. Brain μ opioid receptors mediate analgesia evoked either by exogenous agents (e.g. morphine), or by the release of endogenous opioids following stressful procedures. Recent work with morphine and neuronal cytochrome P450 (P450)-deficient mice proposed a signal transduction role for P450 enzymes in µ analgesia. Since µ opioid receptors also mediate some forms of stress-induced analgesia, the present studies assessed the significance of brain P450 activity in opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia. Two widely-used models of opioid stress-induced analgesia (restraint and warm water swim) were studied in both sexes of wild-type control and P450-deficient (Null) mice. In control mice, both stressors evoked moderate analgesic responses which were blocked by pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone, confirming the opioid nature of these responses. Consistent with literature, sex differences (control female>control male) were seen in swim-induced, but not restraint-induced, analgesia. Null mice showed differential responses to the two stress paradigms. As compared with control subjects, Null mice showed highly attenuated restraint-induced analgesia, showing a critical role for neuronal P450s in this response. However, warm water swim-induced analgesia was unchanged in Null vs. control mice. Additional control experiments confirmed the absence of morphine analgesia in Null mice. These results are the first to show that some forms of opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia require brain neuronal P450 activity.

  17. Impact of Efficacy at the μ-Opioid Receptor on Antinociceptive Effects of Combinations of μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists and Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ9-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ9-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ9-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ9-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain. PMID:25194020

  18. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex. PMID:22375000

  19. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex.

  20. Magnesium ions and opioid agonist activity in streptozotocin-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bujalska, Magdalena; Malinowska, Ewelina; Makulska-Nowak, Helena; Gumułka, Stanisław Witold

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia accompanied by a chronic decrease in the nociceptive threshold is considered a useful model of experimental hyperalgesia. We examined (1) the effect of the opioid receptor agonists and (2) the effect of the magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) on the antinociceptive action of opioid agonists in a diabetic neuropathic pain model. When administered alone, opioid agonists like morphine (5 mg/kg i.p.) and fentanyl (0.0625 mg/kg i.p.), as well as the partial agonist buprenorphine (0.075 mg/kg) had only little effect on streptozotocin-induced hyperalgesia. However, pretreatment with Mg(2+) at a dose of 40 mg magnesium sulfate/kg i.p. markedly enhanced the analgesic activity of all three investigated opioids. Practical aspects of co-administration of magnesium and opioids in diabetic neuropathy are discussed. PMID:18701828

  1. Development of a peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bihel, Frédéric; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Schneider, Séverine; Bertin, Isabelle; Wagner, Patrick; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoît; Schneider, Elodie; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Simonin, Frédéric; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-18

    Through the development of a new class of unnatural ornithine derivatives as bioisosteres of arginine, we have designed an orally active peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR). Systemic low-dose administration of this compound to rats blocked opioid-induced hyperalgesia, without any apparent side-effects. Interestingly, we also observed that this compound potentiated opioid-induced analgesia. This unnatural ornithine derivative provides a novel therapeutic approach for both improving analgesia and reducing hyperalgesia induced by opioids in patients being treated for chronic pain.

  2. Social touch modulates endogenous μ-opioid system activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri; Dunbar, Robin; Hirvonen, Jussi; Manninen, Sandra; Arponen, Eveliina; Machin, Anna; Hari, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    In non-human primates, opioid-receptor blockade increases social grooming, and the endogenous opioid system has therefore been hypothesized to support maintenance of long-term relationships in humans as well. Here we tested whether social touch modulates opioidergic activation in humans using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). Eighteen male participants underwent two PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a ligand specific to μ-opioid receptors (MOR). During the social touch scan, the participants lay in the scanner while their partners caressed their bodies in a non-sexual fashion. In the baseline scan, participants lay alone in the scanner. Social touch triggered pleasurable sensations and increased MOR availability in the thalamus, striatum, and frontal, cingulate, and insular cortices. Modulation of activity of the opioid system by social touching might provide a neurochemical mechanism reinforcing social bonds between humans.

  3. Molecular mechanism for opioid dichotomy: bidirectional effect of μ-opioid receptors on P2X₃ receptor currents in rat sensory neurones.

    PubMed

    Chizhmakov, Igor; Kulyk, Vyacheslav; Khasabova, Iryna; Khasabov, Sergey; Simone, Donald; Bakalkin, Georgy; Gordienko, Dmitri; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    Here, we describe a molecular switch associated with opioid receptors-linked signalling cascades that provides a dual opioid control over P2X3 purinoceptor in sensory neurones. Leu-enkephalin inhibited P2X3-mediated currents with IC50 ~10 nM in ~25% of small nociceptive rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. In contrast, in neurones pretreated with pertussis toxin leu-enkephalin produced stable and significant increase of P2X3 currents. All effects of opioid were abolished by selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), nonselective inhibitor naloxone, and by PLC inhibitor U73122. Thus, we discovered a dual link between purinoceptors and μ-opioid receptors: the latter exert both inhibitory (pertussis toxin-sensitive) and stimulatory (pertussis toxin-insensitive) actions on P2X3 receptors through phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathways. This dual opioid control of P2X3 receptors may provide a molecular explanation for dichotomy of opioid therapy. Pharmacological control of this newly identified facilitation/inhibition switch may open new perspectives for the adequate medical use of opioids, the most powerful pain-killing agents known today.

  4. Synaptic localization of. kappa. opioid receptors in guinea pig neostriatum

    SciTech Connect

    Jomary, C.; Beaudet, A. ); Gairin, J.E. )

    1992-01-15

    Distribution of {kappa} opioid receptors was examined by EM radioautography in sections of guinea pig neostriatum with the selective {sup 125}I-labeled dynorphin analog (D-Pro{sup 10})dynorphin-(1-11). Most specifically labeled binding sites were found by probability circle analysis to be associated with neuronal membrane appositions. Because of limitations in resolution of the method, the radioactive sources could not be ascribed directly to either one of the apposed plasma membranes. Nevertheless, three lines of evidence favored a predominant association of ligand with dendrites of intrinsic striatal neurons: (1) the high frequency with which labeled interfaces implicated a dendrite, (2) the enrichment of dendrodendritic interfaces, and (3) the occurrence of dendritic profiles labeled at several contact points along their plasma membranes. A small proportion of labeled sites was associated with axo-axonic interfaces, which may subserve the {kappa} opioid-induced regulation of presynaptic dopamine and acetylcholine release documented in guinea pig neostriatum. These results support the hypothesis that in mammalian brain {kappa} opioid receptors are conformationally and functionally distinct from {mu} and {delta} types.

  5. Mu Opioid Receptor Binding Correlates with Nicotine Dependence and Reward in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brasic, James R.; Contoreggi, Carlo; Cascella, Nicola; Mackowick, Kristen M.; Taylor, Richard; Rousset, Olivier; Willis, William; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Concheiro, Marta; Wand, Gary; Wong, Dean F.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    The rewarding effects of nicotine are associated with activation of nicotine receptors. However, there is increasing evidence that the endogenous opioid system is involved in nicotine's rewarding effects. We employed PET imaging with [11C]carfentanil to test the hypotheses that acute cigarette smoking increases release of endogenous opioids in the human brain and that smokers have an upregulation of mu opioid receptors (MORs) when compared to nonsmokers. We found no significant changes in binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil between the placebo and the active cigarette sessions, nor did we observe differences in MOR binding between smokers and nonsmokers. Interestingly, we showed that in smokers MOR availability in bilateral superior temporal cortices during the placebo condition was negatively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Also in smokers, smoking-induced decreases in [11C]carfentanil binding in frontal cortical regions were associated with self-reports of cigarette liking and wanting. Although we did not show differences between smokers and nonsmokers, the negative correlation with FTND corroborates the role of MORs in superior temporal cortices in nicotine addiction and provides preliminary evidence of a role of endogenous opioid signaling in frontal cortex in nicotine reward. PMID:25493427

  6. Opioid agonist efficacy predicts the magnitude of tolerance and the regulation of mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mohit; Kumar, Priyank; Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Sirohi, Sunil; Walker, Ellen A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that opioid agonist efficacy may play a role in tolerance and the regulation of opioid receptor density. To address this issue, the present studies estimated the in vivo efficacy of three opioid agonists and then examined changes in spinal mu-opioid receptor density following chronic treatment in the mouse. In addition, tolerance and regulation of the trafficking protein dynamin-2 were determined. To evaluate efficacy, the method of irreversible receptor alkylation was employed and the efficacy parameter tau estimated. Mice were injected with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist clocinnamox (0.32-25.6 mg/kg, i.p), and 24 h later, the analgesic potency of s.c. morphine, oxycodone and etorphine were determined. Clocinnamox dose-dependently antagonized the analgesic effects of morphine, etorphine and oxycodone. The shift to the right of the dose-response curves was greater for morphine and oxycodone compared to etorphine and the highest dose of clocinnamox reduced the maximal effect of morphine and oxycodone, but not etorphine. The order of efficacy calculated from these results was etorphine>morphine>oxycodone. Other mice were infused for 7 days with oxycodone (10-150 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or etorphine (50-250 microg/kg/day, s.c.) and the analgesic potency of s.c. morphine determined. The low efficacy agonist (oxycodone) produced more tolerance than the high efficacy agonist (etorphine) at equi-effective infusion doses. In saturation binding experiments, the low efficacy opioid agonists (morphine, oxycodone) did not regulate the density of spinal mu-opioid receptors, while etorphine produced approximately 40% reduction in mu-opioid receptor density. Furthermore, etorphine increased spinal dynamin-2 abundance, while oxycodone did not produce any significant change in dynamin-2 abundance. Overall, these data indicate that high efficacy agonists produce less tolerance at equi-effective doses. Furthermore, increased efficacy was associated with

  7. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  8. Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; Meske, Diana; Qu, Chaoling; Morimura, Kozo; Okun, Alec; Arakawa, Naohisa; Ossipov, Michael; Fields, Howard L; Porreca, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Pain is aversive, and its relief elicits reward mediated by dopaminergic signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a part of the mesolimbic reward motivation pathway. How the reward pathway is engaged by pain-relieving treatments is not known. Endogenous opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area encoding pain aversiveness, contributes to pain modulation. We examined whether endogenous ACC opioid neurotransmission is required for relief of pain and subsequent downstream activation of NAc dopamine signaling. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and in vivo microdialysis were used to assess negative reinforcement and NAc dopaminergic transmission. In rats with postsurgical or neuropathic pain, blockade of opioid signaling in the rostral ACC (rACC) inhibited CPP and NAc dopamine release resulting from non-opioid pain-relieving treatments, including peripheral nerve block or spinal clonidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist. Conversely, pharmacological activation of rACC opioid receptors of injured, but not pain-free, animals was sufficient to stimulate dopamine release in the NAc and produce CPP. In neuropathic, but not sham-operated, rats, systemic doses of morphine that did not affect withdrawal thresholds elicited CPP and NAc dopamine release, effects that were prevented by blockade of ACC opioid receptors. The data provide a neural explanation for the preferential effects of opioids on pain affect and demonstrate that engagement of NAc dopaminergic transmission by non-opioid pain-relieving treatments depends on upstream ACC opioid circuits. Endogenous opioid signaling in the ACC appears to be both necessary and sufficient for relief of pain aversiveness.

  9. Structural and functional interactions between six-transmembrane μ-opioid receptors and β2-adrenoreceptors modulate opioid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Samoshkin, Alexander; Convertino, Marino; Viet, Chi T.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Kambur, Oleg; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Patel, Pinkal; Stone, Laura S.; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt, Brian L.; Maixner, William; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-01-01

    The primary molecular target for clinically used opioids is the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Besides the major seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the MOR gene codes for alternatively spliced six-transmembrane (6TM) isoforms, the biological and clinical significance of which remains unclear. Here, we show that the otherwise exclusively intracellular localized 6TM-MOR translocates to the plasma membrane upon coexpression with β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) through an interaction with the fifth and sixth helices of β2-AR. Coexpression of the two receptors in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells potentiates calcium responses to a 6TM-MOR ligand, and this calcium response is completely blocked by a selective β2-antagonist in BE(2)-C cells, and in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Co-administration of 6TM-MOR and β2-AR ligands leads to substantial analgesic synergy and completely reverses opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodent behavioral models. Together, our results provide evidence that the heterodimerization of 6TM-MOR with β2-AR underlies a molecular mechanism for 6TM cellular signaling, presenting a unique functional responses to opioids. This signaling pathway may contribute to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids that can be efficiently blocked by β2-AR antagonists, providing a new avenue for opioid therapy. PMID:26657998

  10. Variations in Opioid Receptor Genes in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Wachman, Elisha M; Hayes, Marie J; Sherva, Richard; Brown, Mark S; Davis, Jonathan M; Farrer, Lindsay A; Nielsen, David A

    2015-01-01

    Background There is significant variability in the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to in-utero opioid exposure. We wanted to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key candidate genes contribute to this variability. Methods Full-term opioid-exposed newborns and their mothers (n=86 pairs) were studied. DNA was genotyped for 80 SNPs from 14 genes utilizing a custom designed microarray. The association of each SNP with NAS outcomes was evaluated. Results SNPs in two opioid receptor genes in the infants were associated with worse NAS severity: 1) The PNOC rs732636 A allele (OR=3.8, p=0.004) for treatment with 2 medications and a longer hospital stay (LOS) of 5.8 days (p=0.01), and 2) The OPRK1 rs702764 C allele (OR=4.1, p=0.003) for treatment with 2 medications. The OPRM1 rs1799971 G allele (β= −6.9 days, p=0.02) and COMT rs740603 A allele (β= −5.3 days, p=0.01) were associated with shorter LOS. The OPRD1 rs204076 A allele in the mothers was associated with a longer LOS by 6.6 days (p=0.008). Results were significant point-wise but did not meet the experiment-wide significance level. Conclusions These findings suggest that SNPs in opioid receptor and the PNOC genes are associated with NAS severity. However, further testing in a large sample is warranted. This has important implications for prenatal prediction and personalized treatment regimens for infants at highest risk for severe NAS. PMID:26233486

  11. Interactions between cannabinoid receptor agonists and mu opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys discriminating fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) enhance some (antinociceptive) but not other (positive reinforcing) effects of mu opioid receptor agonists, suggesting that cannabinoids might be combined with opioids to treat pain without increasing, and possibly decreasing, abuse. The degree to which cannabinoids enhance antinociceptive effects of opioids varies across drugs insofar as Δ(9)-THC and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 increase the potency of some mu opioid receptor agonists (e.g., fentanyl) more than others (e.g., nalbuphine). It is not known whether interactions between cannabinoids and opioids vary similarly for other (abuse-related) effects. This study examined whether Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 differentially impact the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine in monkeys (n=4) discriminating 0.01mg/kg of fentanyl (s.c.) from saline. Fentanyl (0.00178-0.0178mg/kg) and nalbuphine (0.01-0.32mg/kg) dose-dependently increased drug-lever responding. Neither Δ(9)-THC (0.032-1.0mg/kg) nor CP55940 (0.0032-0.032mg/kg) enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl or nalbuphine; however, doses of Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 that shifted the nalbuphine dose-effect curve markedly to the right and/or down were less effective or ineffective in shifting the fentanyl dose-effect curve. The mu opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.032mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine similarly. These data indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are more sensitive to attenuation by cannabinoids than those of fentanyl. That the discriminative stimulus effects of some opioids are more susceptible to modification by drugs from other classes has implications for developing maximally effective therapeutic drug mixtures with reduced abuse liability. PMID:27184925

  12. The G Protein–Biased κ-Opioid Receptor Agonist RB-64 Is Analgesic with a Unique Spectrum of Activities In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    White, Kate L.; Robinson, J. Elliott; Zhu, Hu; DiBerto, Jeffrey F.; Polepally, Prabhakar R.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Nichols, David E.; Malanga, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that functionally selective G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists may have enhanced therapeutic benefits has revitalized interest for many GPCR targets. In particular, although κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists are analgesic with a low risk of dependence and abuse, their use is limited by a propensity to induce sedation, motor incoordination, hallucinations, and dysphoria-like states. Several laboratories have produced a body of work suggesting that G protein–biased KOR agonists might be analgesic with fewer side effects. Although that has been an intriguing hypothesis, suitable KOR-selective and G protein–biased agonists have not been available to test this idea. Here we provide data using a G protein–biased agonist, RB-64 (22-thiocyanatosalvinorin A), which suggests that KOR-mediated G protein signaling induces analgesia and aversion, whereas β-arrestin-2 signaling may be associated with motor incoordination. Additionally, unlike unbiased KOR agonists, the G protein–biased ligand RB-64 does not induce sedation and does not have anhedonia-like actions, suggesting that a mechanism other than G protein signaling mediates these effects. Our findings provide the first evidence for a highly selective and G protein–biased tool compound for which many, but not all, of the negative side effects of KOR agonists can be minimized by creating G protein–biased KOR agonists. PMID:25320048

  13. The role of mu opioid receptor desensitization and endocytosis in morphine tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lene; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2007-10-01

    Following activation, most G protein coupled receptors undergo regulation by a cascade of events that promote receptor desensitization and endocytosis. Following endocytosis, receptors can then be recycled to the plasma membrane, retained in an intracellular compartment, or targeted for degradation. For receptors that are recycled, like the mu opioid receptor (MOR), endocytosis serves as the first step toward resensitizing receptors. For receptors that are degraded, endocytosis serves as the first step toward receptor downregulation. Thus, for receptors like the MOR, the desensitization-endocytosis-resensitization cycle serves as a rapid and dynamic means to titrate signaling through the receptor. However, not all agonist ligands at the MOR promote the same degree of receptor desensitization and endocytosis. For example, the endogenous peptide ligands at the MOR induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis, and recycling. By contrast, morphine induces only weak or partial desensitization and little to no endocytosis. As a consequence, signal transduction promoted by morphine is less dynamic than that induced by endogenous ligands as well as other opioid agonists that promote endocytosis. The resulting imbalance of desensitization-endocytosis-resensitization has at least two consequences: (1) in cell types where morphine induces desensitization but not endocytosis and/or resensitization, desensitization is protracted; (2) in cell types where morphine induces neither desensitization nor endocytosis, prolonged signaling through the receptor leads to multiple cellular adaptations downstream of receptor-G protein coupling. Both protracted desensitization and adaptive cellular changes probably contribute to the pronounced in vivo tolerance and dependence that occur with chronic morphine treatment. As a consequence, facilitating receptor endocytosis, using either genetic or pharmacological approaches, can restore the balance of signaling through the receptor and affect the

  14. The Effect of Opioid Receptor Blockade on the Neural Processing of Thermal Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Schoell, Eszter D.; Bingel, Ulrike; Eippert, Falk; Yacubian, Juliana; Christiansen, Kerrin; Andresen, Hilke; May, Arne; Buechel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system represents one of the principal systems in the modulation of pain. This has been demonstrated in studies of placebo analgesia and stress-induced analgesia, where anti-nociceptive activity triggered by pain itself or by cognitive states is blocked by opioid antagonists. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the physiological processing of painful thermal stimulation in the absence of cognitive manipulation. We therefore measured BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal responses and intensity ratings to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in a double-blind, cross-over design using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. On the behavioral level, we observed an increase in intensity ratings under naloxone due mainly to a difference in the non-painful stimuli. On the neural level, painful thermal stimulation was associated with a negative BOLD signal within the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and this deactivation was abolished by naloxone. PMID:20811582

  15. Increased agonist affinity at the mu-opioid receptor induced by prolonged agonist exposure

    PubMed Central

    Birdsong, William T.; Arttamangkul, Seksiri; Clark, Mary J.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Traynor, John R.; Williams, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high-efficacy agonists results in desensitization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Desensitized receptors are thought to be unable to couple to G-proteins, preventing downstream signaling, however the changes to the receptor itself are not well characterized. In the current study, confocal imaging was used to determine whether desensitizing conditions cause a change in agonist-receptor interactions. Using rapid solution exchange, the binding kinetics of fluorescently labeled opioid agonist, dermorphin Alexa594 (derm A594), to MORs was measured in live cells. The affinity of derm A594 binding increased following prolonged treatment of cells with multiple agonists that are known to cause receptor desensitization. In contrast, binding of a fluorescent antagonist, naltrexamine Alexa 594, was unaffected by similar agonist pre-treatment. The increased affinity of derm A594 for the receptor was long-lived and partially reversed after a 45 min wash. Treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin did not alter the increase in affinity of the derm A594 for MOR. Likewise the affinity of derm A594 for MORs expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from arrestin 1 and 2 knockout animals increased following treatment of the cells with the desensitization protocol. Thus, opioid receptors were “imprinted” with a memory of prior agonist exposure that was independent of G-protein activation or arrestin binding that altered subsequent agonist-receptor interactions. The increased affinity suggests that acute desensitization results in a long lasting but reversible conformational change in the receptor. PMID:23447620

  16. Characterization and visualization of rat and guinea pig brain. kappa. opioid receptors: Evidence for. kappa. sub 1 and. kappa. sub 2 opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zukin, R.S.; Eghbali, M.; Olive, D.; Unterwald, E.M.; Tempel, A. )

    1988-06-01

    {kappa} opioid receptors ({kappa} receptors) have been characterized in homogenates of guinea pig and rat brain under in vitro binding conditions. {kappa} receptors were labeled by using the tritiated prototypic {kappa} opioid ethylketocyclazocine under conditions in which {mu} and {delta} opioid binding was suppressed. In the case of guinea pig brain membranes, a single population of high-affinity {kappa} opioid receptor sites was observed. In contrast, in the case of rat brain, two populations of {kappa} sites were observed. To test the hypothesis that the high- and low-affinity {kappa} sites represent two distinct {kappa} receptor subtypes, a series of opioids were tested for their abilities to compete for binding to the two sites. U-69,593 and Cambridge 20 selectively displaced the high-affinity {kappa} site in both guinea pig and rat tissue, but were inactive at the rat-brain low-affinity site. Other {kappa} opioid drugs competed for binding to both sites, but with different rank orders of potency. Quantitative light microscopy in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of {kappa} receptors in rat and guinea pig brain. The distribution patterns of the two {kappa} receptor subtypes of rat brain were clearly different. Collectively, these data provide direct evidence for the presence of two {kappa} receptor subtypes; the U-69,593-sensitive, high-affinity {kappa}{sub 1} site predominates in guinea pig brain, and the U-69,593-insensitive, low-affinity {kappa}{sub 2} site predominates in rat brain.

  17. Cannabinoid, melanocortin and opioid receptor expression on DRD1 and DRD2 subpopulations in rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Oude Ophuis, Ralph J. A.; Boender, Arjen J.; van Rozen, Andrea J.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    The striatum harbors two neuronal populations that enable action selection. One population represents the striatonigral pathway, expresses the dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) and promotes the execution of motor programs, while the other population represents the striatopallidal pathway, expresses the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and suppresses voluntary activity. The two populations integrate distinct sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional information streams and their combined activity enables the selection of adaptive behaviors. Characterization of these populations is critical to the understanding of their role in action selection, because it aids the identification of the molecular mechanisms that separate them. To that end, we used fluorescent in situ hybridization to quantify the percentage of striatal cells that (co)express dopaminergic receptors and receptors of the cannabinoid, melanocortin or opioid neurotransmitters systems. Our main findings are that the cannabinoid 1 receptor is equally expressed on both populations with a gradient from dorsal to ventral striatum, that the opioid receptors have a preference for expression with either the DRD1 or DRD2 and that the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is predominantly expressed in ventral parts of the striatum. In addition, we find that the level of MC4R expression determines its localization to either the DRD1 or the DRD2 population. Thereby, we provide insight into the sensitivity of the two dopaminoceptive populations to these neurotransmitters and progress the understanding of the mechanisms that enable action selection. PMID:24723856

  18. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  19. Sympathetic activation triggers endogenous opioid release and analgesia within peripheral inflamed tissue.

    PubMed

    Binder, Waltraud; Mousa, Shaaban A; Sitte, Nicolle; Kaiser, Myriam; Stein, Christoph; Schäfer, Michael

    2004-07-01

    Stress induces analgesia by mechanisms within and outside the brain. Here we show that the sympathetic nervous system is an essential trigger of intrinsic opioid analgesia within peripheral injured tissue. Noradrenaline, injected directly into inflamed hind paws of male Wistar rats, produced dose-dependent antinociception, reversible by alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and beta(2)-antagonists. alpha(1)-, alpha(2)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors were demonstrated on beta-endorphin-containing immune cells and noradrenaline induced adrenergic receptor-specific release of beta-endorphin from immune cell suspensions. This antinociceptive effect of noradrenaline was reversed by micro - and delta-opioid antagonists as well as by anti-beta-endorphin. Stress-induced peripheral analgesia was abolished by chemical sympathectomy and by adrenergic antagonists. These findings indicate that sympathetic neuron-derived noradrenaline stimulates adrenergic receptors on inflammatory cells to release beta-endorphin, which induces analgesia via activation of peripheral opioid receptors. PMID:15245482

  20. Delta opioid receptor ligands modulate anxiety-like behaviors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A; Hoshaw, Brian A; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2006-01-01

    The role of the delta opioid receptor in regulating anxiety-like behavior in male Sprague–Dawley rats was examined. Using an elevated plus maze, the effects of the selective delta opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 or 5 mg kg−1) and agonist SNC80 (1, 5 or 20 mg kg−1) on anxiety-like behavior were measured. Anxiety was also measured following administration of diazepam (3 mg kg−1) and amphetamine (1 mg kg−1) and compared to the effects of SNC80. Locomotor activity following administration of naltrindole, SNC80, diazepam, and amphetamine was measured. Finally, the defensive burying paradigm was used to confirm the findings from the elevated plus maze. Results demonstrated that SNC80 produced dose-dependent anxiolytic effects similar to that of the classical antianxiety agent, diazepam. Administration of naltrindole caused anxiogenic behavior in rats further supporting the involvement of the delta opioid receptor system in regulating anxiety. Naltrindole also blocked the anxiolytic effects of SNC80. Amphetamine had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. SNC80 induced hyperactivity similar to amphetamine at the doses tested, while naltrindole and diazepam did not significantly affect locomotor activity. Although SNC80 can increase locomotor activity, control experiments reported herein indicate that hyperlocomotion is not sufficient to produce an anxiolytic response on the elevated plus maze. Together with the results from the defensive burying paradigm, this suggests that the effects of SNC80 on reducing anxiety are independent of its effects on locomotion. Collectively these data show that the delta opioid receptor system can regulate anxiety-like behavior in an anxiolytic (agonist) and anxiogenic (antagonist) manner. PMID:16491101

  1. The opioid receptor selectivity for trimebutine in isolated tissues experiments and receptor binding studies.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, H; Takahashi, M; Watanabe, J

    1990-07-01

    Differences of affinity to and selectivity for trimebutine between peripheral and central opioid receptors have been investigated. Trimebutine inhibited electrically induced contraction of guinea-pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) but not of rabbit vas deferens, and the inhibition was antagonized by naloxone and, to lesser extent, by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). The pA2 values for morphine and trimebutine with naloxone were higher than the values for these compounds with nor-BNI in both GPI and MVD preparations. GPI preparations incubated with a high concentration of morphine or trimebutine developed tolerance; however, there was no cross-tolerance between them, suggesting difference in the underlying mechanisms. In mouse and guinea-pig brain homogenate trimebutine was about 1/13 as potent as morphine to displace the [3H]naloxone binding, while it has no appreciable affinity for kappa-opioid receptors in [3H]U-69593, a selective kappa-receptor agonist. These results suggest that trimebutine, showing its low affinity to opioid receptors, possesses mu-receptor selective properties rather than those of kappa-opioid receptor in the peripheral tissues and in the central brain homogenate. PMID:1963196

  2. Opioid Receptors Mediate Direct Predictive Fear Learning: Evidence from One-Trial Blocking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sindy; McNally, Gavan P.

    2007-01-01

    Pavlovian fear learning depends on predictive error, so that fear learning occurs when the actual outcome of a conditioning trial exceeds the expected outcome. Previous research has shown that opioid receptors, including [mu]-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), mediate such predictive fear…

  3. Binding-site analysis of opioid receptors using monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Structural relatedness between the variable region of anti-ligand antibodies and opioid binding sites allowed the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognized opioid receptors. The IgG{sub 3}k antibodies which bound to opioid receptors were obtained when an anti-morphine antiserum was the idiotype. Both antibodies bound to opioid receptors, but only one of these blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone. The antibody which did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone was itself displaced from the receptor by opioid ligands. The unique binding properties displayed by this antibody indicated that anti-idiotypic antibodies are not always a perfect image of the original ligand, and therefore may be more useful than typical ligands as probes for the receptor. An auto-anti-idiotypic technique was successfully used to obtain anti-opioid receptor antibodies. Another IgG{sub 3}k antibody that blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone to rat brain opioid receptors was obtained when a mouse was immunized with naloxone conjugated to bovine serum albumin. These data confirmed that an idiotype-anti-idiotype network which can generate an anti-receptor antibody normally functions when an opioid ligand is introduced into an animal in an immunogenic form.

  4. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulation of mu (mu) opioid receptors in adult rat sphenopalatine ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Margas, Wojciech; Mahmoud, Saifeldin; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurons represent the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system involved in controlling cerebral blood flow. In the present study, we examined the coupling mechanism between mu (mu) opioid receptors (MOR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) with Ca(2+) channels in acutely dissociated adult rat SPG neurons. Successful MOR activation was recorded in approximately 40-45% of SPG neurons employing the whole cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. In addition, immunofluorescence assays indicated that MOR are not expressed in all SPG neurons while M(2) mAChR staining was evident in all neurons. The concentration-response relationships generated with morphine and [d-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Glycol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) showed IC(50) values of 15.2 and 56.1 nM and maximal Ca(2+) current inhibition of 26.0 and 38.7%, respectively. Activation of MOR or M(2) mAChR with morphine or oxotremorine-methiodide (Oxo-M), respectively, resulted in voltage-dependent inhibition of Ca(2+) currents via coupling with Galpha(i/o) protein subunits. The acute prolonged exposure (10 min) of neurons to morphine or Oxo-M led to the homologous desensitization of MOR and M(2) mAChR, respectively. The prolonged stimulation of M(2) mAChR with Oxo-M resulted in heterologous desensitization of morphine-mediated Ca(2+) current inhibition, and was sensitive to the M(2) mAChR blocker methoctramine. On the other hand, when the neurons were exposed to morphine or DAMGO for 10 min, heterologous desensitization of M(2) mAChR was not observed. These results suggest that in rat SPG neurons activation of M(2) mAChR likely modulates opioid transmission in the brain vasculature to adequately maintain cerebral blood flow. PMID:19889856

  5. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  6. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R

    2016-07-27

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs.

  7. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  8. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-phenylalkyl-substituted tramadol derivatives as novel μ opioid receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qing; Qian, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Xue-jun; Li, Wei; Liu, Jing-gen; Fu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Tramadol is an atypical opioid analgesic with low potential for tolerance and addiction. However, its opioid activity is much lower than classic opiates such as morphine. To develop novel analgesic and further explore the structure activity relationship (SAR) of tramadol skeleton. Methods: Based on a three-dimensional (3D) structure superimposition and molecular docking study, we found that M1 (the active metabolite of tramadol) and morphine have common pharmacophore features and similar binding modes at the μ opioid receptor in which the substituents on the nitrogen atom of both compounds faced a common hydrophobic pocket formed by Trp2936.48 and Tyr3267.43. In this study, N-phenethylnormorphine was docked to the μ opioid receptor. It was found that the N-substituted group of N-phenethylnormorphine extended into a hydrophobic pocket formed by Trp2936.48 and Tyr3267.43. This hydrophobic interaction may contribute to the improvement of its opioid activities as compared with morphine. The binding modes of M1, morphine and N-phenethylnormorphine overlapped, indicating that the substituent on the nitrogen atoms of the three compounds may adopt common orientations. A series of N-phenylalkyl derivatives from the tramadol scaffold were designed, synthesized and assayed in order to generate a new type of analgesics. Results: As a result, compound 5b was identified to be an active candidate from these compounds. Furthermore, the binding modes of 5b and morphine derivatives in the μ opioid receptor were comparatively studied. Conclusion: Unlike morphine-derived structures in which bulky N-substitution is associated with improved opioid-like activities, there seems to be a different story for tramadol, suggesting the potential difference of SAR between these compounds. A new type of interaction mechanism in tramadol analogue (5b) was discovered, which will help advance potent tramadol-based analgesic design. PMID:26051109

  9. Ovarian hormones influence corticotropin releasing factor receptor colocalization with delta opioid receptors in CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tanya J.; Akama, Keith T.; Knudsen, Margarete G.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    receptor-ir colocalization with DOR-ir in the same neuron using the hormone responsive neuronal cell line NG108-15, which endogenously express DORs, and assayed intracellular cAMP production in response to CRF receptor and DOR agonists. Results demonstrated that short-term application of DOR agonist SNC80 inhibited CRF-induced cAMP accumulation in NG108-15 cells transfected with the CRF receptor. These studies provide new insights on opioid-stress system interaction in the hippocampus of both males and females and establish potential mechanisms through which DOR activation may influence CRF receptor activity. PMID:21549703

  10. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhanced mu-opioid affinity [K(i)(mu) = 17.0, 15.1, and 15.7 nM, respectively], while Gly-NH(2) (8), Ser-NH(2) (10), and His-OH (12) were nearly one-tenth as active; and (v) D-isomers exhibited mixed effects on mu-opioid receptor affinity (2' < 3' < 4' < 1' < 5') and decreased delta-selectivity in D-Asp-NH(2) (1') and D-Lys(Ac)-OH (5'). The analogues exhibited delta-opioid receptor antagonism (pA(2) = 6.9-10.07) and weak mu-opioid receptor agonism (IC(50) > 1 microM) except H-Dmt-Tic-Glu-NH(2) (3), which was a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). Thus, these C-terminally extended analogues indicated that an amino acid residue containing a single charge, amino or guanidino functionality, or aromatic group substantially altered the delta-opioid receptor activity profile (selectivity and antagonism) of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, which suggests that the C-terminal constituent plays a major role in determining

  11. Involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in visceral nociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M H; Bayati, A; Lindström, E; Larsson, H

    2008-10-01

    It has been shown that the behavioural responses to chemically evoked visceral nociception are increased in transgenic mice lacking the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of KOR in mechanically evoked visceral pain by performing colorectal distension (CRD) and monitoring the subsequent visceromotor response (VMR) in control mice (KOR(+/+)) and in mice lacking KOR (KOR(-/-)). Pseudo-affective visceral pain responses were evoked in conscious mice using increasing (10-80 mmHg) and repeated (12 x 55 mmHg) phasic CRD paradigms. The resulting VMR was determined by monitoring the electromyographic activity of the abdominal muscle. The increasing and repeated CRD paradigms, respectively, evoked similar responses in both KOR(+/+) and KOR(-/-) mice. The selective KOR-agonists U-69593 (5 and 25 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and asimadoline (25 mg kg(-1), s.c.) significantly decreased the VMR in KOR(+/+) mice, while having no effect in KOR(-/-) mice. In contrast, the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl significantly reduced the VMR in both types of mice and appeared more efficacious in KOR(-/-) mice. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.3-30 mg kg(-1) s.c.) did not affect the response to CRD in C57BL/6 mice at any dose tested. In conclusion, the data confirm that the KOR agonists used in this study inhibit the VMR to CRD in mice by acting via KOR receptors. In addition, the data suggest that the endogenous opioid system is not likely to modulate the VMR to mechanically evoked visceral pain in mice.

  12. Crystal structure of the[mu]-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Mathiesen, Jesper M.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Pardo, Leonardo; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Granier, Sébastien

    2012-06-27

    Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled {mu}-opioid receptor ({mu}-OR) in the central nervous system. Here we describe the 2.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of the mouse {mu}-OR in complex with an irreversible morphinan antagonist. Compared to the buried binding pocket observed in most G-protein-coupled receptors published so far, the morphinan ligand binds deeply within a large solvent-exposed pocket. Of particular interest, the {mu}-OR crystallizes as a two-fold symmetrical dimer through a four-helix bundle motif formed by transmembrane segments 5 and 6. These high-resolution insights into opioid receptor structure will enable the application of structure-based approaches to develop better drugs for the management of pain and addiction.

  13. Inflammatory Pain Promotes Increased Opioid Self-Administration: Role of Dysregulated Ventral Tegmental Area μ Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Lucia; Wilson-Poe, Adrianne; Campos-Jurado, Yolanda; Zhong, Elaine; Gonzalez-Romero, Jose; Virag, Laszlo; Whittington, Robert; Comer, Sandra D.; Carlton, Susan M.; Walker, Brendan M.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Pain management in opioid abusers engenders ethical and practical difficulties for clinicians, often resulting in pain mismanagement. Although chronic opioid administration may alter pain states, the presence of pain itself may alter the propensity to self-administer opioids, and previous history of drug abuse comorbid with chronic pain promotes higher rates of opioid misuse. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory pain leads to increased heroin self-administration resulting from altered mu opioid receptor (MOR) regulation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission. To this end, the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammation was used to assess the neurochemical and functional changes induced by inflammatory pain on MOR-mediated mesolimbic DA transmission and on rat intravenous heroin self-administration under fixed ratio (FR) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In the presence of inflammatory pain, heroin intake under an FR schedule was increased for high, but attenuated for low, heroin doses with concomitant alterations in mesolimbic MOR function suggested by DA microdialysis. Consistent with the reduction in low dose FR heroin self-administration, inflammatory pain reduced motivation for a low dose of heroin, as measured by responding under a PR schedule of reinforcement, an effect dissociable from high heroin dose PR responding. Together, these results identify a connection between inflammatory pain and loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that increases intake of high doses of heroin. These findings suggest that pain-induced loss of MOR function in the mesolimbic pathway may promote opioid dose escalation and contribute to opioid abuse-associated phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides critical new insights that show that inflammatory pain alters heroin intake through a desensitization of MORs located within the VTA. These findings expand our knowledge of the interactions between

  14. δ-Opioid receptor agonists inhibit migraine-related hyperalgesia, aversive state and cortical spreading depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Amynah A; Smith, Monique L; Zyuzin, Jekaterina; Charles, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Migraine is an extraordinarily common brain disorder for which treatment options continue to be limited. Agonists that activate the δ-opioid receptor may be promising for the treatment of migraine as they are highly effective for the treatment of chronic rather than acute pain, do not induce hyperalgesia, have low abuse potential and have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of δ-opioid receptor agonists for migraine by characterizing their effects in mouse migraine models. Experimental Approach Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed in mice treated with acute and chronic doses of nitroglycerin (NTG), a known human migraine trigger. Conditioned place aversion to NTG was also measured as a model of migraine-associated negative affect. In addition, we assessed evoked cortical spreading depression (CSD), an established model of migraine aura, in a thinned skull preparation. Key Results NTG evoked acute and chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice, as well as conditioned place aversion. Three different δ-opioid receptor agonists, SNC80, ARM390 and JNJ20788560, significantly reduced NTG-evoked hyperalgesia. SNC80 also abolished NTG-induced conditioned place aversion, suggesting that δ-opioid receptor activation may also alleviate the negative emotional state associated with migraine. We also found that SNC80 significantly attenuated CSD, a model that is considered predictive of migraine preventive therapies. Conclusions and Implications These data show that δ-opioid receptor agonists modulate multiple basic mechanisms associated with migraine, indicating that δ-opioid receptors are a promising therapeutic target for this disorder. PMID:24467301

  15. Tonic inhibitory control exerted by opioid peptides in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus on regional hemodynamic activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Andrée; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-07-01

    1. Systemic and regional cardiovascular changes were measured following bilateral microinjection of specific and selective opioid-receptor antagonists into the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) of awake, freely moving rats. 2. PVN microinjection of increasing doses of the specific opioid antagonist naloxone - methiodide (1 - 5.0 nmol), or a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (0.05 - 0.5 nmol), evoked important cardiovascular changes characterized by small and transient increases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), vasoconstriction in renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds and vasodilation in the hindquarter vascular bed. 3. No significant cardiovascular changes were observed following PVN administration of the highly selective delta-opioid-receptor antagonist, ICI 174864 (0.1 - 1 nmol), or the selective kappa-opioid-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphine (0.1 - 1 nmol). 4. Most of the cardiovascular responses to naloxone (3 nmol) and beta-funaltrexamine (0.5 nmol) were attenuated or abolished by an i.v. treatment with a specific vasopressin V(1) receptor antagonist. 5. These results suggest that endogenous opioid peptides and mu-type PVN opioid receptors modulate a tonically-active central depressor pathway acting on systemic and regional haemodynamic systems. Part of this influence could involve a tonic inhibition of vasopressin release.

  16. Tonic inhibitory control exerted by opioid peptides in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus on regional hemodynamic activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Andrée; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-01-01

    Systemic and regional cardiovascular changes were measured following bilateral microinjection of specific and selective opioid-receptor antagonists into the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) of awake, freely moving rats.PVN microinjection of increasing doses of the specific opioid antagonist naloxone – methiodide (1 – 5.0 nmol), or a selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine (0.05 – 0.5 nmol), evoked important cardiovascular changes characterized by small and transient increases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), vasoconstriction in renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds and vasodilation in the hindquarter vascular bed.No significant cardiovascular changes were observed following PVN administration of the highly selective δ-opioid-receptor antagonist, ICI 174864 (0.1 – 1 nmol), or the selective κ-opioid-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphine (0.1 – 1 nmol).Most of the cardiovascular responses to naloxone (3 nmol) and β-funaltrexamine (0.5 nmol) were attenuated or abolished by an i.v. treatment with a specific vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist.These results suggest that endogenous opioid peptides and μ-type PVN opioid receptors modulate a tonically-active central depressor pathway acting on systemic and regional haemodynamic systems. Part of this influence could involve a tonic inhibition of vasopressin release. PMID:12086985

  17. The pharmacological profile of delta opioid receptor ligands, (+) and (-) TAN-67 on pain modulation.

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Yajima, Y; Fujii, H; Kawamura, K; Narita, M; Kamei, J; Suzuki, T

    2001-04-01

    We designed the nonpeptidic highly selective delta opioid receptor agonist on the basis of message address concept and the accessory site theory and synthesized (+/-) TAN-67. In spite of highly potent agonistic activity in in vitro assay, (+/-) TAN-67 (racemate) afforded a weak antinociceptive effect in the mouse tail-flick test. This result led us to separate (+/-) TAN-67 to optical pure compounds, (+) and (-) TAN-67. An i.t.-treatment with (-) TAN-67 produced profound antinociceptive effects through specifically acting on delta1 receptors. Unlike (-) TAN-67, i.t.-administered (+) TAN-67 displayed dose-related nociceptive behaviors such as scratching, biting and licking. The effect of (+) TAN-67 was blocked by i.t.-treatment with NTI (delta receptor antagonist) and (-) TAN-67 (delta1 receptor agonist), but not by morphine (mu receptor agonist). The mechanisms involved in spinal pain modulation induced by (+) and (-) TAN-67 were also described. PMID:11358331

  18. Identifying ligand-specific signalling within biased responses: focus on δ opioid receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Charfi, I; Audet, N; Bagheri Tudashki, H; Pineyro, G

    2015-01-01

    Opioids activate GPCRs to produce powerful analgesic actions but at the same time induce side effects and generate tolerance, which restrict their clinical use. Reducing this undesired response profile has remained a major goal of opioid research and the notion of ‘biased agonism’ is raising increasing interest as a means of separating therapeutic responses from unwanted side effects. However, to fully exploit this opportunity, it is necessary to confidently identify biased signals and evaluate which type of bias may support analgesia and which may lead to undesired effects. The development of new computational tools has made it possible to quantify ligand-dependent signalling and discriminate this component from confounders that may also yield biased responses. Here, we analyse different approaches to identify and quantify ligand-dependent bias and review different types of confounders. Focus is on δ opioid receptor ligands, which are currently viewed as promising agents for chronic pain management. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24665881

  19. κ-Opioid receptors within the nucleus accumbens shell mediate pair bond maintenance.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Shanna L; Kuhnmuench, Morgan; Krzywosinski, Tarin; Aragona, Brandon J

    2012-05-16

    The prairie vole is a socially monogamous species in which breeder pairs typically show strong and selective pair bonds. The establishment of a pair bond is associated with a behavioral transition from general affiliation to aggressive rejection of novel conspecifics. This "selective aggression" is indicative of mate guarding that is necessary to maintain the initial pair bond. In the laboratory, the neurobiology of this behavior is studied using resident-intruder testing. Although it is well established that social behaviors in other species are mediated by endogenous opioid systems, opiate regulation of pair bond maintenance has never been studied. Here, we used resident-intruder testing to determine whether endogenous opioids within brain motivational circuitry mediate selective aggression in prairie voles. We first show that peripheral blockade of κ-opioid receptors with the antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 100 mg/kg), but not with the preferential μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1, 10, or 30 mg/kg), decreased selective aggression in males. We then provide the first comprehensive characterization of κ- and μ-opioid receptors in the prairie vole brain. Finally, we demonstrate that blockade of κ-opioid receptors (500 ng nor-BNI) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell abolishes selective aggression in both sexes, but blockade of these receptors within the NAc core enhances this behavior specifically in females. Blockade of κ-opioid receptors within the ventral pallidum or μ-opioid receptors with the specific μ-opioid receptor antagonist H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-PenThr-NH2 (1 ng CTAP) within the NAc shell had no effect in either sex. Thus, κ-opioid receptors within the NAc shell mediate aversive social motivation that is critical for pair bond maintenance. PMID:22593047

  20. The mu (μ) and delta (δ) opioid receptors modulate boar sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous and exogenous opioids modulate reproductive functions in target cells via opioid receptors (μ, δ, and κ). Sperm motility is a metric of gamete functionality, and serves as a suitable parameter for in vitro drug-induced toxicity assays. This study identifies the presence and location of opioid receptors in pig spermatozoa as well as their functional response after in vitro challenge with known agonists (morphine [μ]; [D-Pen 2,5]-enkephanile [δ]; and U 50488 [κ]) and antagonists (naloxone [μ]; naltrindole [δ]; and nor-binaltrorphimine [κ]). Only the μ- and δ-opioid receptors were present in the boar sperm plasma membrane, overlying the acrosome, neck, and principal piece. Challenge experiments with agonists and antagonists identified both μ- and δ-opioid receptors as regulators of sperm kinematics, wherein μ maintains or increases sperm movement whereas δ decreases sperm motility over time. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 724-734, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The mu (μ) and delta (δ) opioid receptors modulate boar sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous and exogenous opioids modulate reproductive functions in target cells via opioid receptors (μ, δ, and κ). Sperm motility is a metric of gamete functionality, and serves as a suitable parameter for in vitro drug-induced toxicity assays. This study identifies the presence and location of opioid receptors in pig spermatozoa as well as their functional response after in vitro challenge with known agonists (morphine [μ]; [D-Pen 2,5]-enkephanile [δ]; and U 50488 [κ]) and antagonists (naloxone [μ]; naltrindole [δ]; and nor-binaltrorphimine [κ]). Only the μ- and δ-opioid receptors were present in the boar sperm plasma membrane, overlying the acrosome, neck, and principal piece. Challenge experiments with agonists and antagonists identified both μ- and δ-opioid receptors as regulators of sperm kinematics, wherein μ maintains or increases sperm movement whereas δ decreases sperm motility over time. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 724-734, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27391529

  2. Opioid receptors from a lower vertebrate (Catostomus commersoni): Sequence, pharmacology, coupling to a G-protein-gated inward-rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1), and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Darlison, Mark G.; Greten, Florian R.; Harvey, Robert J.; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Stühmer, Thorsten; Zwiers, Henk; Lederis, Karl; Richter, Dietmar

    1997-01-01

    The molecular evolution of the opioid receptor family has been studied by isolating cDNAs that encode six distinct opioid receptor-like proteins from a lower vertebrate, the teleost fish Catostomus commersoni. One of these, which has been obtained in full-length form, encodes a 383-amino acid protein that exhibits greatest sequence similarity to mammalian μ-opioid receptors; the corresponding gene is expressed predominantly in brain and pituitary. Transfection of the teleost cDNA into HEK 293 cells resulted in the appearance of a receptor having high affinity for the μ-selective agonist [d-Ala2, MePhe4-Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) (Kd = 0.63 ± 0.15 nM) and for the nonselective antagonist naloxone (Kd = 3.1 ± 1.3 nM). The receptor had negligible affinity for U50488 and [d-Pen2, d-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE), which are κ- and δ-opioid receptor selective agonists, respectively. Stimulation of transfected cells with 1 μM DAMGO lowered forskolin-induced cAMP levels, an effect that could be reversed by naloxone. Experiments in Xenopus oocytes have demonstrated that the fish opioid receptor can, in an agonist-dependent fashion, activate a coexpressed mouse G-protein-gated inward-rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1). The identification of six distinct fish opioid receptor-like proteins suggests that additional mammalian opioid receptors remain to be identified at the molecular level. Furthermore, our data indicate that the μ-opioid receptor arose very early in evolution, perhaps before the appearance of vertebrates, and that the pharmacological and functional properties of this receptor have been conserved over a period of ≈400 million years implying that it fulfills an important physiological role. PMID:9223341

  3. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons

    PubMed Central

    Connor, M; Bagley, E E; Chieng, B C; Christie, M J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tolerance to the behavioural effects of morphine is blunted in β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, but opioid withdrawal is largely unaffected. The cellular mechanisms of tolerance have been studied in some neurons from β-arrestin-2 knockouts, but tolerance and withdrawal mechanisms have not been examined at the cellular level in periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons, which are crucial for central tolerance and withdrawal phenomena. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH μ-Opioid receptor (MOPr) inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (ICa) was examined by patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated PAG neurons from wild-type and β-arrestin-2 knockout mice treated chronically with morphine (CMT) or vehicle. Opioid withdrawal-induced activation of GABA transporter type 1 (GAT-1) currents was determined using perforated patch recordings from PAG neurons in brain slices. KEY RESULTS MOPr inhibition of ICa in PAG neurons was unaffected by β-arrestin-2 deletion. CMT impaired coupling of MOPrs to ICa in PAG neurons from wild-type mice, but this cellular tolerance was not observed in neurons from CMT β-arrestin-2 knockouts. However, β-arrestin-2 knockouts displayed similar opioid-withdrawal-induced activation of GAT-1 currents as wild-type PAG neurons. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, the central neurons involved in the anti-nociceptive actions of opioids also fail to develop cellular tolerance to opioids following chronic morphine. The results also provide the first cellular physiological evidence that opioid withdrawal is not disrupted by β-arrestin-2 deletion. However, the unaffected basal sensitivity to opioids in PAG neurons provides further evidence that changes in basal MOPr sensitivity cannot account for the enhanced acute nociceptive response to morphine reported in β-arrestin-2 knockouts. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other

  4. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  5. Androgen receptor transcriptionally regulates μ-opioid receptor expression in rat trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Seok; Zhang, Youping; Asgar, Jamila; Auh, Q-Schick; Chung, Man-Kyo; Ro, Jin Y

    2016-09-01

    The involvement of testosterone in pain, inflammation, and analgesia has been reported, but the role of androgen receptor (AR), a steroid receptor for testosterone, is not well understood. We have previously shown that peripheral inflammation upregulates μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG) in a testosterone-dependent manner. In this study, we hypothesized that testosterone regulates MOR expression via transcriptional activities of AR in TG. We first examined whether AR is co-expressed with MOR in TG neurons. Our immunohistochemical experiment revealed that AR staining is detected in neurons of all sizes in TG and that a subset of AR is expressed in MOR as well as in TRPV1-positive neurons. We identified the promoter region of the rat MOR gene contains putative AR binding sites. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that AR directly binds to these sites in TG extracts. We confirmed with luciferase reporter assay that AR activated the MOR promoter in response to androgens in a human neuroblastoma cell line (5H-5YSY). These data demonstrated that AR functions as a transcriptional regulator of the MOR gene activity. Finally, we showed that flutamide, a specific AR antagonist, prevents complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced upregulation of MOR mRNA in TG, and that flutamide dose-dependently blocks the efficacy of DAMGO, a specific MOR agonist, on CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Our results expand the knowledge regarding the role of androgens and their receptor in pain and analgesia and have important clinical implications, particularly for inflammatory pain patients with low or compromised plasma testosterone levels. PMID:27320211

  6. Induction of delta-opioid receptor function in the midbrain after chronic morphine treatment.

    PubMed

    Hack, Stephen P; Bagley, Elena E; Chieng, Billy C H; Christie, MacDonald J

    2005-03-23

    Delta-opioid receptor (DOPr) activation fails to produce cellular physiological responses in many brain regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), despite neural expression of high densities of the receptor. Previous histochemical studies have demonstrated that a variety of stimuli, including chronic morphine treatment, induce the translocation of DOPr from intracellular pools to the surface membrane of CNS neurons. PAG neurons in slices taken from untreated mice exhibited mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) but not DOPr-mediated presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic synaptic currents. In contrast, after 5-6 d of chronic morphine treatment, DOPr stimulation inhibited synaptic GABA release onto most neurons. Shorter exposure to morphine in vitro (upto 4 h) or in vivo (18 h) did not induce functional DOPr responses. DOPr-mediated presynaptic inhibition could not be induced in slices from untreated animals by increasing synaptic activity in vitro using high extracellular potassium concentrations or activation of protein kinase A. Induction of functional DOPr signaling by chronic morphine required MOPr expression, because no DOPr receptor responses were observed in MOPr knock-out mice. DOPr agonists also had no effect on miniature IPSCs in beta-arrestin-2 knock-out mice after chronic morphine. These results suggest that induction of DOPr-mediated actions in PAG by chronic morphine requires prolonged MOPr stimulation and expression of beta-arrestin-2.

  7. Central D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide mu/delta-opioid receptor activation reverses the anxiogenic-like properties of cholecystokinin on locomotor and rearing activity in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hebb, Andrea L O; Zacharko, Robert M

    2003-04-25

    There is evidence to suggest an antagonistic interaction between the anxiogenic peptide, cholecystokinin (CCK) and the anxiolytic opioid peptide, enkephalin in mesolimbic sites following stressor applications in humans and animals which may define specific behavioral symptom subsets and alter the course of anxiety-like behavior. Locomotor and rearing behavior were decreased following a central CCK-8S (50 ng) injection among independent groups of mice relative to saline-treated animals. Central administration of DALA not only ameliorated the CCK-induced behavioral deficits but exaggerated behavioral activity of CCK and saline control mice (SAL). Locomotor activity and rearing behavior were depressed 24 h following DALA administration yet returned to basal values 168 h following drug applications. Eighteen days following the initial 50 ng CCK-8S and intervening DALA challenge, mice were administered 5 ng CCK-8S. An intervening dose of DALA in mice following the original 50 ng CCK-8S administration on Day 1 was associated with elevated locomotor activity in mice in response to the 5 ng CCK-8S challenge on Day 18. In contrast to locomotor activity, mice administered DALA following the original 50 ng CCK-8S administration on Day 1 demonstrated decreased rearing behavior to both 5 ng CCK-8S challenge and SAL on Day 18. Moreover, administration of 5 ng CCK-8S on Day 18 was associated with decreased rearing behavior in mice previously administered SAL on Day 1. These data imply that while CCK induces relatively protracted behavioral disturbances, mu/delta receptor activation may change the course of psychopathology.

  8. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context.

  9. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context. PMID:23324378

  10. Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Serecigni, Josep Guardia

    2015-09-29

    Objetivos: A partir de los recientes progresos en la farmacoterapia del alcoholismo, hemos efectuado una revisión sobre los fármacos antagonistas de los receptores opioides, que tienen aprobada la indicación para el tratamiento del alcoholismo, como son naltrexona y nalmefeno. Metodología: Hemos revisado más de 100 publicaciones sobre péptidos y receptores opioides, el efecto de los fármacos antagonistas de los receptores opioides sobre el consumo de alcohol, tanto en animales como en humanos, tanto en el laboratorio como para el tratamiento del alcoholismo. También se describen las características farmacológicas de naltrexona y de nalmefeno y su utilidad en la práctica clínica. Resultados: Múltiples evidencias han demostrado la eficacia de naltrexona y nalmefeno para reducir el consumo de alcohol, tanto en animales de laboratorio como también en personas estudiadas en situación de bar experimental, aunque debido al diferente perfil receptorial, nalmefeno ha sido relacionado con una mayor eficacia para la reducción del consumo de alcohol, en ratas que presentan dependencia del alcohol. Además, un gran número de ensayos clínicos controlados han demostrado la eficacia de naltrexona para la prevención de recaídas, en personas que presentan un trastorno por dependencia del alcohol. Ensayos clínicos controlados recientes han demostrado la eficacia de nalmefeno “a demanda” para reducir el consumo de alcohol, en personas que presentan un trastorno por dependencia del alcohol de baja gravedad. Conclusiones: Tanto naltrexona como nalmefeno han demostrado ser fármacos seguros, bien tolerados, de manejo sencillo, y eficaces para el tratamiento del trastorno por dependencia del alcohol, (actualmente llamado trastorno por consumo de alcohol). A partir de recientes ensayos clínicos controlados se ha comprobado que nalmefeno produce una reducción significativa del consumo de alcohol, lo cual supone un nuevo objetivo que amplía las posibilidades de

  11. Sex-related differences in mechanical nociception and antinociception produced by mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists in rats.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Andrew C; Smith, Eric S; Picker, Mitchell J

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies indicate that in antinociceptive procedures employing thermal, chemical and electrical stimuli, opioids are generally more potent in male than female rodents. The purpose of the present study was to examine nociception and opioid antinociception in male and female rats using a mechanical nociceptive stimulus. Results indicated that males had a higher threshold for nociception, and in tests in which a constant pressure was applied to the hindpaw, the paw withdrawal latencies were consistently longer in males. Opioids with activity at the mu receptor, including levorphanol, morphine, dezocine, buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine, were generally more potent and/or effective in males. In contrast, sex differences were not consistently observed with the kappa-opioid receptor agonists spiradoline, (5,7,8b)-N-methyl-N[2-1(1-pyrrolidinyl),1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl benzeneacetamide (U69593), trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50488), enadoline, ethylketocyclazocine, and nalorphine. These findings suggest that males and females differ in their responsiveness to mechanical nociception and that sex differences in sensitivity to kappa-, but not mu-, opioid receptor agonists are specific to certain nociceptive stimulus modalities. PMID:12354566

  12. Crystal structure of the μ-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Mathiesen, Jesper M.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Pardo, Leonardo; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Granier, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Summary Opium is one of the world’s oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many of their undesirable side effects (sedation, apnea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled μ-opioid receptor (μOR) in the central nervous system. Here we describe the 2.8 Å crystal structure of the μOR in complex with an irreversible morphinan antagonist. Compared to the buried binding pocket observed in most GPCRs published to date, the morphinan ligand binds deeply within a large solvent-exposed pocket. Of particular interest, the μOR crystallizes as a two-fold symmetric dimer through a four-helix bundle motif formed by transmembrane segments 5 and 6. These high-resolution insights into opioid receptor structure will enable the application of structure-based approaches to develop better drugs for the management of pain and addiction. PMID:22437502

  13. Structure of the human [kappa]-opioid receptor in complex with JDTic

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huixian; Wacker, Daniel; Mileni, Mauro; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Vardy, Eyal; Liu, Wei; Thompson, Aaron A.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Carroll, F. Ivy; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2013-04-25

    Opioid receptors mediate the actions of endogenous and exogenous opioids on many physiological processes, including the regulation of pain, respiratory drive, mood, and - in the case of {kappa}-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) - dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Here we report the crystal structure of the human {kappa}-OR in complex with the selective antagonist JDTic, arranged in parallel dimers, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals important features of the ligand-binding pocket that contribute to the high affinity and subtype selectivity of JDTic for the human {kappa}-OR. Modelling of other important {kappa}-OR-selective ligands, including the morphinan-derived antagonists norbinaltorphimine and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole, and the diterpene agonist salvinorin A analogue RB-64, reveals both common and distinct features for binding these diverse chemotypes. Analysis of site-directed mutagenesis and ligand structure-activity relationships confirms the interactions observed in the crystal structure, thereby providing a molecular explanation for {kappa}-OR subtype selectivity, and essential insights for the design of compounds with new pharmacological properties targeting the human {kappa}-OR.

  14. Kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system: Genetic and pharmacotherapeutic implications for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Butelman, Eduardo R.; Yuferov, Vadim; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. Kappa-opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN) have counter-modulatory effects on reward caused by cocaine or MOPr agonist exposure, and exhibit plasticity in addictive-like states. KOPr/dynorphin activation is implicated in depression/anxiety, often co-morbid with addictions. In this Opinion article, we propose that particular stages of the addiction cycle are differentially affected by KOPr/dynorphin systems. Vulnerability and resilience can be due to pre-existing (e.g., genetic) factors, or epigenetic modifications of the OPRK1 or PDYN genes during the addiction cycle. Pharmacotherapeutic approaches limiting changes in KOPr/dynorphin tone, especially with KOPr partial agonists, may hold potential for the treatment of specific drug addictions and psychiatric co-morbidity. PMID:22709632

  15. Morphine withdrawal precipitated by specific mu, delta or kappa opioid receptor antagonists: a c-Fos protein study in the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Stéphanie; Gestreau, Christian; Besson, Jean-Marie

    2003-06-01

    We have recently shown concurrent changes in behavioural responses and c-Fos protein expression in the central nervous system in both naive and morphine-dependent rats after systemic administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. However, because naloxone acts on the three major types of opioid receptors, the present study aimed at determining, in the same animals, both changes in behaviour and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity after intravenous injection of selective opioid antagonists, such as mu (beta-funaltrexamine, 10 mg/kg), delta (naltrindole, 4 mg/kg) or kappa (nor-binaltorphimine, 5 mg/kg) opioid receptor antagonists, in naive or morphine-dependent rats. In a first experimental series, only beta-funaltrexamine increased c-Fos expression in the eight central nervous system structures examined, whereas no effect was seen after naltrindole or nor-binaltorphimine administration in naive rats. These results suggest a tonic activity in the endogenous opioid peptides acting on mu opioid receptors in normal rats. A second experimental series in morphine-dependent rats showed that beta-funaltrexamine had the highest potency in the induction of classical signs of morphine withdrawal syndrome, as well as the increase in c-Fos expression in the 22 central nervous system structures studied, suggesting a major role of mu opioid receptors in opioid dependence. However, our results also demonstrated that naltrindole and, to a lesser extent, nor-binaltorphimine were able to induce moderate signs of morphine withdrawal and relatively weak c-Fos protein expression in restricted central nervous system structures. Therefore, delta and kappa opioid receptors may also contribute slightly to opioid dependence.

  16. Amisulpride-induced seizurogenic effect: a potential role of opioid receptor-linked transduction systems.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet; Chand, Prem

    2011-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of opioid receptors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, mast cells and histamine receptors (H(1) subtype) in the seizurogenic effect of amisulpride on mice. A single injection of amisulpride (180 mg/kg) was employed to evaluate the seizurogenicity of the drug in mice. Seizures were assessed in terms of a composite seizure severity score (SSS), time of the onset of straub-like tail, onset of jerky movements of whole body, convulsions and death. Amisulpride administration (180 mg/kg) induced a significant pro-convulsant effect in mice as measured in terms of the SSS (21.12 ± 2.71) and a significant decrease in the time latency of the onset of straub-like tail (132.45 ± 12.31), jerky movements of whole body (153.28 ± 14.12), convulsions (184.97 ± 13.11) and death (100%). Moreover, prior administration of naloxone, cetrizine, sodium cromoglycate and gabapentin, respectively, attenuated this seizurogenic activity that amisulpride exerted on mice (p < 0.05). Therefore, it may be suggested that amisulpride exerts a seizurogenic effect on mice possibly via an opioid receptor activation-dependent release of histamine from the mast cells and a simultaneous inhibition of GABA release.

  17. The role of the dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ai; Wang, Yu-jun; He, Ling; Liu, Jing-gen

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common and prevalent forms of psychiatric disease, although the biological basis of anxiety is not well understood. The dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system is widely distributed in the central nervous system and has been shown to play a critical role in modulating mood and emotional behaviors. In the present review, we summarize current literature relating to the role played by the dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system in anxiety and κ opioid receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  18. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenoids from Salvia splendens and evaluation of Opioid Receptor affinity

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Savona, Giuseppe; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Dersch, Christina M.; Rothman, Richard B.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1), a neoclerodane diterpene from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum, is the only known non-nitrogenous and specific κ-opioid agonist. Several structural congeners of 1 isolated from Salvia splendens (2 – 8) together with a series of semisynthetic derivatives (9 – 24), some of which possess a pyrazoline structural moiety (9, 19 – 22), have been tested for affinity at human μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors. None of these compounds showed high affinity binding to these receptors. However, 10 showed modest affinity for κ receptors suggesting other naturally neoclerodanes from different Salvia species may possess opioid affinity. PMID:20027203

  19. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Ceredig, R A; Matifas, A; Vonesch, J-L; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2016-01-28

    Delta opioid (DOP) receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor-positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased DOP receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline-treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces DOP receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits.

  20. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-07-15

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (K(i Human) of 383±183 nM and EC(50 Human) of 194±70 nM  and EC(50 Mouse) of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC(50 Human) of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC(50 Mouse) of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions.

  1. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (K(i Human) of 383±183 nM and EC(50 Human) of 194±70 nM  and EC(50 Mouse) of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC(50 Human) of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC(50 Mouse) of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. PMID:25026323

  2. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (Ki Human of 383±183 nM and EC50 Human of 194±70 nM  and EC50 Mouse of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC50 Human of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC50 Mouse of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. PMID:25026323

  3. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts.

  4. Species differences in the effects of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist zyklophin.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Aldrich, Jane V; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-03-01

    We have shown that dysregulation of the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (DYN/KOR) system contributes to escalated alcohol self-administration in alcohol dependence and that KOR antagonists with extended durations of action selectively reduce escalated alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent animals. As KOR antagonism has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat alcoholism and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, we tested the effect of zyklophin (a short-acting KOR antagonist) on escalated alcohol self-administration in rats made alcohol-dependent using intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following dependence induction, zyklophin was infused centrally prior to alcohol self-administration sessions and locomotor activity tests during acute withdrawal. Zyklophin did not impact alcohol self-administration or locomotor activity in either exposure condition. To investigate the neurobiological basis of this atypical effect for a KOR antagonist, we utilized a κ-, μ-, and δ-opioid receptor agonist-stimulated GTPyS coupling assay to examine the opioid receptor specificity of zyklophin in the rat brain and mouse brain. In rats, zyklophin did not affect U50488-, DAMGO-, or DADLE-stimulated GTPyS coupling, whereas the prototypical KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (norBNI) attenuated U50488-induced stimulation in the rat brain tissue at concentrations that did not impact μ- and δ-receptor function. To reconcile the discrepancy between the present rat data and published mouse data, comparable GTPyS assays were conducted using mouse brain tissue; zyklophin effects were consistent with KOR antagonism in mice. Moreover, at higher concentrations, zyklophin exhibited agonist properties in rat and mouse brains. These results identify species differences in zyklophin efficacy that, given the rising interest in the development of short-duration KOR antagonists, should provide valuable information for therapeutic development efforts. PMID:26992699

  5. Role of active metabolites in the use of opioids.

    PubMed

    Coller, Janet K; Christrup, Lona L; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2009-02-01

    The opioid class of drugs, a large group, is mainly used for the treatment of acute and chronic persistent pain. All are eliminated from the body via metabolism involving principally CYP3A4 and the highly polymorphic CYP2D6, which markedly affects the drug's function, and by conjugation reactions mainly by UGT2B7. In many cases, the resultant metabolites have the same pharmacological activity as the parent opioid; however in many cases, plasma metabolite concentrations are too low to make a meaningful contribution to the overall clinical effects of the parent drug. These metabolites are invariably more water soluble and require renal clearance as an important overall elimination pathway. Such metabolites have the potential to accumulate in the elderly and in those with declining renal function with resultant accumulation to a much greater extent than the parent opioid. The best known example is the accumulation of morphine-6-glucuronide from morphine. Some opioids have active metabolites but at different target sites. These are norpethidine, a neurotoxic agent, and nordextropropoxyphene, a cardiotoxic agent. Clinicians need to be aware that many opioids have active metabolites that will become therapeutically important, for example in cases of altered pathology, drug interactions and genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Thus, dose individualisation and the avoidance of adverse effects of opioids due to the accumulation of active metabolites or lack of formation of active metabolites are important considerations when opioids are used.

  6. Functional and structural characterization of axonal opioid receptors as targets for analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Mambretti, Egle M; Kistner, Katrin; Mayer, Stefanie; Massotte, Dominique; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Hoffmann, Carsten; Reeh, Peter W; Brack, Alexander; Asan, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioids are the gold standard for the treatment of acute pain despite serious side effects in the central and enteric nervous system. µ-opioid receptors (MOPs) are expressed and functional at the terminals of sensory axons, when activated by exogenous or endogenous ligands. However, the presence and function of MOP along nociceptive axons remains controversial particularly in naïve animals. Here, we characterized axonal MOPs by immunofluorescence, ultrastructural, and functional analyses. Furthermore, we evaluated hypertonic saline as a possible enhancer of opioid receptor function. Results Comparative immunolabeling showed that, among several tested antibodies, which all provided specific MOP detection in the rat central nervous system (CNS), only one monoclonal MOP-antibody yielded specificity and reproducibility for MOP detection in the rat peripheral nervous system including the sciatic nerve. Double immunolabeling documented that MOP immunoreactivity was confined to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive fibers and fiber bundles. Almost identical labeling and double labeling patterns were found using mcherry-immunolabeling on sciatic nerves of mice producing a MOP-mcherry fusion protein (MOP-mcherry knock-in mice). Preembedding immunogold electron microscopy on MOP-mcherry knock-in sciatic nerves indicated presence of MOP in cytoplasm and at membranes of unmyelinated axons. Application of [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) or fentanyl dose-dependently inhibited depolarization-induced CGRP release from rat sciatic nerve axons ex vivo, which was blocked by naloxone. When the lipophilic opioid fentanyl was applied perisciatically in naïve Wistar rats, mechanical nociceptive thresholds increased. Subthreshold doses of fentanyl or the hydrophilic opioid DAMGO were only effective if injected together with hypertonic saline. In vitro, using β-arrestin-2/MOP double-transfected human embryonic kidney cells, DAMGO as well as fentanyl

  7. The pharmacological basis of opioids.

    PubMed

    Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bianchi, Enrica

    2015-01-01

    An opioid is a chemical that binds to opioid receptors, which are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The different effects elicited by activation of these receptors are due to their specific neuronal and extraneuronal distribution. The painkiller effect of opioids is induced by the synergy of the two events, namely reduction of pain threshold and emotional detachment from pain. The opioid effects transcending analgesia include sedation, respiratory depression, constipation and a strong sense of euphoria. There are opioid-like substances endogenously produced by the body. Naturally occurring peptides, called enkephalins, have opioid-like activities but are not derived from opium and exert opioid-like effects by interacting with opioid receptors on cell membranes. Yet, animals do contain the same morphine precursors and metabolites as opium poppy and are able to synthesize endogenous morphine alkaloid. Experimental and clinical studies show that opioids, at doses comparable to those of endogenous opioids, can activate pronociceptive systems, leading to pain hypersensitivity and short-term tolerance, a phenomenon encountered in postoperative pain management by acute opioid administration. Whether endogenous opioids play a role in the acute pain necessary to the survival of the individual, remains an open question. PMID:26811699

  8. Characterization of methadone as a β-arrestin-biased μ-opioid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Seira; Mori, Tomohisa; Uzawa, Naoki; Arima, Takamichi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Masashi; Yawata, Ayaka; Narita, Michiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Background Methadone is a unique µ-opioid receptor agonist. Although several researchers have insisted that the pharmacological effects of methadone are mediated through the blockade of NMDA receptor, the underlying mechanism by which methadone exerts its distinct pharmacological effects compared to those of other µ-opioid receptor agonists is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the pharmacological profile of methadone compared to those of fentanyl and morphine as measured mainly by the discriminative stimulus effect and in vitro assays for NMDA receptor binding, µ-opioid receptor-internalization, and µ-opioid receptor-mediated β-arrestin recruitment. Results We found that fentanyl substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone, whereas a relatively high dose of morphine was required to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone in rats. Under these conditions, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone. In association with its discriminative stimulus effect, methadone failed to displace the receptor binding of MK801 using mouse brain membrane. Methadone and fentanyl, but not morphine, induced potent µ-opioid receptor internalization accompanied by the strong recruitment of β-arrestin-2 in µ-opioid receptor-overexpressing cells. Conclusions These results suggest that methadone may, at least partly, produce its pharmacological effect as a β-arrestin-biased µ-opioid receptor agonist, similar to fentanyl, and NMDA receptor blockade is not the main contributor to the pharmacological profile of methadone. PMID:27317580

  9. It still hurts: altered endogenous opioid activity in the brain during social rejection and acceptance in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, D T; Sanford, B J; Meyers, K K; Love, T M; Hazlett, K E; Walker, S J; Mickey, B J; Koeppe, R A; Langenecker, S A; Zubieta, J-K

    2015-02-01

    The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system, well known for dampening physical pain, is also hypothesized to dampen 'social pain.' We used positron emission tomography scanning with the selective MOR radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test the hypothesis that MOR system activation (reflecting endogenous opioid release) in response to social rejection and acceptance is altered in medication-free patients diagnosed with current major depressive disorder (MDD, n=17) compared with healthy controls (HCs, n=18). During rejection, MDD patients showed reduced endogenous opioid release in brain regions regulating stress, mood and motivation, and slower emotional recovery compared with HCs. During acceptance, only HCs showed increased social motivation, which was positively correlated with endogenous opioid release in the nucleus accumbens, a reward structure. Altered endogenous opioid activity in MDD may hinder emotional recovery from negative social interactions and decrease pleasure derived from positive interactions. Both effects may reinforce depression, trigger relapse and contribute to poor treatment outcomes.

  10. The effect of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone on extinction of conditioned fear in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Richardson, Rick

    2009-03-01

    Several recent studies report that neurotransmitters that are critically involved in extinction in adult rats are not important for extinction in young rats. Specifically, pretest injection of the gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor inverse agonist FG7142 has no effect on extinction in postnatal day (P)17 rats, although it reverses extinction in P24 rats as reported by Kim and Richardson in an earlier paper. Further, pre-extinction injection of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 has no effect on extinction in P17 rats, whereas it impairs long-term extinction in P24 rats as per Langton and colleagues in an earlier work. These findings indicate that extinction in P17 rats is qualitatively different from extinction in older rats. The present study examines the involvement of the endogenous opioid system in extinction in the developing rat using systemic injections of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Experiment 1 showed that injection of naloxone before extinction training disrupted the acquisition of extinction in both P17 and P24 rats. This effect was dependent on central rather than peripheral mu-opioid receptors (Experiment 2), and neither pre-test nor post-extinction injection of naloxone had effects on extinction (Experiments 3 and 4). Taken together, these findings indicate that opioid neurotransmission, in contrast to GABA and NMDA activity, is critical for extinction acquisition across development.

  11. Knockin mice expressing fluorescent delta-opioid receptors uncover G protein-coupled receptor dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Grégory; Tryoen-Tóth, Petra; Filliol, Dominique; Matifas, Audrey; Laustriat, Delphine; Cao, Yu Q; Basbaum, Allan I; Dierich, Andrée; Vonesh, Jean-Luc; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2006-06-20

    The combination of fluorescent genetically encoded proteins with mouse engineering provides a fascinating means to study dynamic biological processes in mammals. At present, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were mainly developed to study gene expression patterns or cell morphology and migration. Here we used enhanced GFP (EGFP) to achieve functional imaging of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in vivo. We created mice where the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is replaced by an active DOR-EGFP fusion. Confocal imaging revealed detailed receptor neuroanatomy throughout the nervous system of knock-in mice. Real-time imaging in primary neurons allowed dynamic visualization of drug-induced receptor trafficking. In DOR-EGFP animals, drug treatment triggered receptor endocytosis that correlated with the behavioral response. Mice with internalized receptors were insensitive to subsequent agonist administration, providing evidence that receptor sequestration limits drug efficacy in vivo. Direct receptor visualization in mice is a unique approach to receptor biology and drug design. PMID:16766653

  12. Hydromorphone efficacy and treatment protocol impact on tolerance and mu-opioid receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priyank; Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V; Walker, Ellen A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2008-11-12

    This study examined the antinociceptive (analgesic) efficacy of hydromorphone and hydromorphone-induced tolerance and regulation of mu-opioid receptor density. Initially s.c. hydromorphone's time of peak analgesic (tail-flick) effect (45 min) and ED50 using standard and cumulative dosing protocols (0.22 mg/kg, 0.37 mg/kg, respectively) were determined. The apparent analgesic efficacy (tau) of hydromorphone was then estimated using the operational model of agonism and the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist clocinnamox. Mice were injected with clocinnamox (0.32-25.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and 24 h later, the analgesic potency of hydromorphone was determined. The tau value for hydromorphone was 35, which suggested that hydromorphone is a lower analgesic efficacy opioid agonist. To examine hydromorphone-induced tolerance, mice were continuously infused s.c. with hydromorphone (2.1-31.5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days and then morphine cumulative dose response studies were performed. Other groups of mice were injected with hydromorphone (2.2-22 mg/kg/day) once, or intermittently every 24 h for 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, mice were tested using morphine cumulative dosing studies. There was more tolerance with infusion treatments compared to intermittent treatment. When compared to higher analgesic efficacy opioids, hydromorphone infusions induced substantially more tolerance. Finally, the effect of chronic infusion (31.5 mg/kg/day) and 7 day intermittent (22 mg/kg/day) hydromorphone treatment on spinal cord mu-opioid receptor density was determined. Hydromorphone did not produce any change in mu-opioid receptor density following either treatment. These results support suggestions that analgesic efficacy is correlated with tolerance magnitude and regulation of mu-opioid receptors when opioid agonists are continuously administered. Taken together, these studies indicate that analgesic efficacy and treatment protocol are important in determining tolerance and

  13. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues with enhanced μ opioid agonist potency and with a mixed μ/κ opioid activity profile.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longxiang; Li, Ziyuan; Chen, Jiajia; Chung, Nga N; Wilkes, Brian C; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity, were prepared by replacing Phe(3) with various 2',6'-dialkylated Phe analogues, including 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (Dmp), 2',4',6'-trimethylphenylalanine (Tmp), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Imp) and 2'-ethyl-6'-methylphenylalanine (Emp), or with the bulky amino acids 3'-(1-naphthyl)alanine (1-Nal), 3'-(2-naphthyl)alanine (2-Nal) or Trp. Several compounds showed significantly increased μ agonist potency, retained μ receptor selectivity and are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. Surprisingly, the Dmp(3)-, Imp(3)-, Emp(3)- and 1-Nal(3)-containing analogues showed much increased κ receptor binding affinity and had mixed μ/κ properties. In these cases, molecular dynamics studies indicated conformational preorganization of the unbound peptide ligands due to rotational restriction around the C(β)C(γ) bond of the Xxx(3) residue, in correlation with the observed κ receptor binding enhancement. Compounds with a mixed μ/κ opioid activity profile are known to have therapeutic potential for treatment of cocaine abuse.

  14. Affinity of the enantiomers of. alpha. - and. beta. -cyclazocine for binding to the phencyclidine and. mu. opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.L.; Balster, R.L.; Martin, B.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The enantiomers in the {alpha} and {beta} series of cyclazocine were evaluated for their ability to bind to phencyclidine (PCP) and {mu}-opioid receptors in order to determine their receptor selectivity. The affinity of (-)-{beta}-cyclazocine for the PCP receptor was 1.5 greater than PCP itself. In contrast, (-)-{alpha}-cyclazocine, (+)-{alpha}-cyclazocine, and (+)-{beta}-cyclazocine were 3-, 5- and 138-fold less potent than PCP, respectively. Scatchard analysis of saturable binding of ({sup 3}H)Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) also exhibited a homogeneous population of binding sites with an apparent K{sub D} of 1.9 nM and an estimated Bmax of 117 pM. (3H)Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) binding studies revealed that (-)-{alpha}-cyclazocine (K{sub D} = 0.48 nM) was 31-, 1020- and 12,600-fold more potent than (-)-{beta}-cyclazocine, (+)-{alpha}-cyclazocine and (+)-{beta}-cyclazocine, respectively, for binding to the {mu}-opioid receptor. These data show that, although (-)-{beta}-cyclazocine is a potent PCP receptor ligand consistent with its potent PCP-like discriminative stimulus effects, it shows little selectivity for PCP receptor since it also potently displaces {mu}-opioid binding. However, these cyclazocine isomers, due to their extraordinary degree of stereoselectivity, may be useful in characterizing the structural requirements for benzomorphans having activity at the PCP receptor.

  15. Granulocyte defects and opioid receptors in chronic exposure to heroin or methadone in humans.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, A; Mazzucchelli, I; Fossati, G; Gritti, D; Fea, M; Ricevuti, G

    1994-11-01

    In order to elucidate better the immunological effect of opioid abuse in the absence of HIV infection as a confounding factor, granulocyte function was investigated in three groups of HIV-negative subjects, including 20 active parenteral heroin abusers (H), 20 long-term methadone-maintained former opiate abusers (M) and 20 healthy controls (C). Chemotaxis to N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), casein and activated plasma were markedly and similarly reduced (approx. 50%) in both H and M groups, as was true for superoxide production after fMLP and PMA stimulation, 47% decrease of C values. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) of H and M subjects also exhibited a very marked and similar reduction in the expression of CD11b/CD18 integrin receptors after fMLP treatment, with values that were less than 10% of those in controls, as observed by flow cytometry. In parallel, PMN of H and M individuals presented an approximately four-fold increase in opioid receptors numbers compared to controls, a significant inverse correlation existing between the increase in opiate receptors and defective chemotaxis. The possible mechanism underlying the observed changes in PMN of H and M individuals is discussed.

  16. κ-opioid receptors are not necessary for the antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Megat, Salim; Bohren, Yohann; Doridot, Stephane; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Freund-Mercier, Marie-José; Yalcin, Ipek; Barrot, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tricyclic antidepressants are used clinically as first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Opioid receptors participate in this pain-relieving action, and preclinical studies in receptor-deficient mice have highlighted a critical role for δ-, but not μ-opioid receptors. In this study, we investigated whether κ-opioid (KOP) receptors have a role in the antiallodynic action of tricyclic antidepressants. Experimental Approach We used a model of neuropathic pain induced by unilateral sciatic nerve cuffing. In this model, the mechanical allodynia was evaluated using von Frey filaments. Experiments were conducted in C57BL/6J mice, and in KOP receptor-deficient mice and their wild-type littermates. The tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline (5 mg·kg−1) was delivered twice a day for over 2 weeks. Agonists and antagonists of opioid receptors were used to test the selectivity of the KOP receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) in mice with neuropathic pain. Key Results After 12 days of treatment, nortriptyline relieved neuropathic allodynia in both wild-type and KOP receptor-deficient mice. Surprisingly, acute nor-BNI reversed the effect of nortriptyline in both wild-type and KOP receptor-deficient mice. Further experiments showed that nor-BNI action was selective for KOP receptors at a late time-point after its administration (8 h), but not at an early time-point, when it may also interact with δ-opioid (DOP) receptors. Conclusions and Implications KOP receptors are not necessary for the effect of a tricyclic antidepressant against neuropathic allodynia. These findings together with previous data indicate that the DOP receptor is the only opioid receptor that is necessary for the antiallodynic action of antidepressants. PMID:25297905

  17. Novel approaches for the treatment of psychostimulant and opioid abuse – focus on opioid receptor-based therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Chris P.; Husbands, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psychostimulant and opioid addiction are poorly treated. The majority of abstinent users relapse back to drug-taking within a year of abstinence, making ‘anti-relapse’ therapies the focus of much current research. There are two fundamental challenges to developing novel treatments for drug addiction. Firstly, there are 3 key stimuli that precipitate relapse back to drug-taking: stress, presentation of drug-conditioned cue, taking a small dose of drug. The most successful novel treatment would be effective against all 3 stimuli. Secondly, a large number of drug users are poly-drug users: taking more than one drug of abuse at a time. The ideal anti-addiction treatment would therefore be effective against all classes of drugs of abuse. Areas Covered In this review, the authors discuss the clinical need and animal models used to uncover potential novel treatments. There is a very broad range of potential treatment approaches and targets currently being examined as potential anti-relapse therapies. These broadly fit into 2 categories: ‘memory-based’ and ‘receptor-based’ and the authors discuss the key targets here within. Expert opinion Opioid receptors and ligands have been widely studied, and research into how different opioid subtypes affect behaviours related to addiction (reward, dysphoria, motivation) suggests that they are tractable targets as anti-relapse treatments. Regarding opioid ligands as novel ‘anti-relapse’ medications targets - research suggests that a ‘non-selective’ approach to targeting opioid receptors will be the most effective. PMID:25253272

  18. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonist reverses naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Pais, Gwendolyn; Tapia, Melissa; Gulati, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Long-term use of opioids for pain management results in rapid development of tolerance and dependence leading to severe withdrawal symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate analgesic tolerance. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of central ET mechanisms in opioid withdrawal. The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 on morphine and oxycodone withdrawal was determined in male Swiss Webster mice. Opioid tolerance was induced and withdrawal was precipitated by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Expression of ETA and ETB receptors, nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor was determined in the brain using Western blotting. BQ123 pretreatment reversed hypothermia and weight loss during withdrawal. BQ123 also reduced wet shakes, rearing behavior, and jumping behavior. No changes in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, ETA receptors, and ETB receptors were observed during withdrawal. NGF expression was unaffected in morphine withdrawal but significantly decreased during oxycodone withdrawal. A decrease in NGF expression in oxycodone- but not in morphine-treated mice could be due to mechanistic differences in oxycodone and morphine. It is concluded that ETA receptor antagonists attenuate opioid-induced withdrawal symptoms.

  19. μ Opioid Receptor Expression after Morphine Administration Is Regulated by miR-212/132 Cluster.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Concejo, Adrian; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Ada; Rodríguez, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, miRNAs have emerged as a promising therapeutical approach in the treatment of several diseases, as demonstrated by miR-212 and its relation to addiction. Here we prove that the miR-212/132 cluster can be regulated by morphine, through the activation of mu opioid receptor (Oprm1). The molecular pathways triggered after morphine administration also induce changes in the levels of expression of oprm1. In addition, miR-212/132 cluster is actively repressing the expression of mu opioid receptor by targeting a sequence in the 3' UTR of its mRNA. These findings suggest that this cluster is closely related to opioid signaling, and function as a post-transcriptional regulator, modulating morphine response in a dose dependent manner. The regulation of miR-212/132 cluster expression is mediated by MAP kinase pathway, CaMKII-CaMKIV and PKA, through the phosphorylation of CREB. Moreover, the regulation of both oprm1 and of the cluster promoter is mediated by MeCP2, acting as a transcriptional repressor on methylated DNA after prolonged morphine administration. This mechanism explains the molecular signaling triggered by morphine as well as the regulation of the expression of the mu opioid receptor mediated by morphine and the implication of miR-212/132 in these processes. PMID:27380026

  20. μ Opioid Receptor Expression after Morphine Administration Is Regulated by miR-212/132 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Concejo, Adrian; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Ada; Rodríguez, Raquel E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, miRNAs have emerged as a promising therapeutical approach in the treatment of several diseases, as demonstrated by miR-212 and its relation to addiction. Here we prove that the miR-212/132 cluster can be regulated by morphine, through the activation of mu opioid receptor (Oprm1). The molecular pathways triggered after morphine administration also induce changes in the levels of expression of oprm1. In addition, miR-212/132 cluster is actively repressing the expression of mu opioid receptor by targeting a sequence in the 3’ UTR of its mRNA. These findings suggest that this cluster is closely related to opioid signaling, and function as a post-transcriptional regulator, modulating morphine response in a dose dependent manner. The regulation of miR-212/132 cluster expression is mediated by MAP kinase pathway, CaMKII-CaMKIV and PKA, through the phosphorylation of CREB. Moreover, the regulation of both oprm1 and of the cluster promoter is mediated by MeCP2, acting as a transcriptional repressor on methylated DNA after prolonged morphine administration. This mechanism explains the molecular signaling triggered by morphine as well as the regulation of the expression of the mu opioid receptor mediated by morphine and the implication of miR-212/132 in these processes. PMID:27380026

  1. Distinct mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor mechanisms underlie low sociability and depressive-like behaviors during heroin abstinence.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-10-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  2. Distinct Mu, Delta, and Kappa Opioid Receptor Mechanisms Underlie Low Sociability and Depressive-Like Behaviors During Heroin Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  3. Formation pathways and opioid activity data for 3-hydroxypyridinium compounds derived from glucuronic acid and opioid peptides by Maillard processes.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Stefica; Roscić, Maja; Lemieux, Carole; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Schiller, Peter W

    2007-07-01

    The kinetics of formation and identity of the reaction products of the glucuronic acid with three representative opioid peptides were investigated in vitro. Peptides were conjugated with glucuronic acid either in solution or under dry-heating conditions. From the incubations performed in solution N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranos-1-yluronic acid)-peptide derivatives (Amadori compounds) were isolated, whereas from the dry-heated reactions products containing the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety at the N-terminal of the peptide chain were obtained. Experiments performed under mild dry-heating conditions (40 degrees C) in model systems based on Leu-enkephalin and glucuronic acid, and in environment of either 40% or 75% relative humidity, revealed that the higher level of humidity promoted a process that enhanced 3-hydroxypyridinium compound generation. The mechanism of 3-hydroxypyridinium formation is discussed. In comparison with their respective parent peptides, the N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranosyl-uronic acid) derivatives of the opioid peptides showed three- to 11-fold lower mu- and delta-receptor-binding affinities and agonist potencies in the functional assays, likely as a consequence of the steric bulk introduced at the N-terminal amino group. The further decrease in opioid activity observed with the 3-hydroxypyridinium-containing peptides may be due to the lower pK(a) of the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety and to delocalization of the positive charge in the pyridinium ring system. PMID:17630992

  4. kappa opioid receptors in human microglia downregulate human immunodeficiency virus 1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, C C; Gekker, G; Hu, S; Sheng, W S; Shark, K B; Bu, D F; Archer, S; Bidlack, J M; Peterson, P K

    1996-01-01

    Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the brain, play an important role in the neuropathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and recent studies suggest that opioid peptides regulate the function of macrophages from somatic tissues. We report herein the presence of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in human fetal microglia and inhibition of HIV-1 expression in acutely infected microglial cell cultures treated with KOR ligands. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses, we found that mRNA for the KOR was constitutively expressed in microglia and determined that the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame was identical to that of the human brain KOR gene. The expression of KOR in microglial cells was confirmed by membrane binding of [3H]U69,593, a kappa-selective ligand, and by indirect immunofluorescence. Treatment of microglial cell cultures with U50,488 or U69,593 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of expression of the monocytotropic HIV-1 SF162 strain. This antiviral effect of the kappa ligands was blocked by the specific KOR antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine. These findings suggest that kappa opioid agonists have immunomodulatory activity in the brain, and that these compounds could have potential in the treatment of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8755601

  5. Pavlovian conditioning of morphine-induced alterations of immune status: evidence for opioid receptor involvement.

    PubMed

    Coussons-Read, M E; Dykstra, L A; Lysle, D T

    1994-12-01

    Prior work in our laboratory has shown that morphine's immunomodulatory effects can become conditioned to environmental stimuli that predict drug administration. These immune alterations include conditioned changes in natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 production, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. The present study examined the involvement of opioid receptor activity in the establishment and expression of conditioned morphine-induced alterations of immune status. During the training phase of the experiment, Lewis rats received two conditioning sessions during which a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg/kg morphine sulfate was paired with exposure to a distinctive environment. On the test day, animals were re-exposed to the distinctive environment alone prior to sacrifice. Saline or naltrexone (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) was administered during either the training or the test session. Administration of naltrexone prior to training antagonized the development of all of the conditioned alterations of immune status including changes in the mitogenic responsiveness of splenocytes, suppression of natural killer cell activity, and interleukin-2 production by splenocytes. Naltrexone administration prior to testing also was effective in antagonizing the expression of a subset of morphine-induced conditioned alterations in immune status. Taken together, these studies indicate that opioid receptor activity is involved in the establishment of conditioned morphine-induced immune alterations, as well as in the expression of a subset of these conditioned alterations of immune status.

  6. Prolonged central mu-opioid receptor occupancy after single and repeated nalmefene dosing.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Kimmo; Hagelberg, Nora; Aalto, Sargo; Någren, Kjell; Juhakoski, Auni; Karhuvaara, Sakari; Kallio, Antero; Oikonen, Vesa; Hietala, Jarmo; Scheinin, Harry

    2005-12-01

    The opioid antagonist nalmefene offers an alternative to traditional pharmacological treatments for alcoholism. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between nalmefene plasma concentration and central mu-opioid receptor occupancy after a clinically effective dose (20 mg, orally). Pharmacokinetics and mu-opioid receptor occupancy of nalmefene after single and repeated dosing over 7 days was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Serial blood samples were obtained after both dosings, and pharmacokinetic parameters for nalmefene and main metabolites were determined. Central mu-opioid receptor occupancy of nalmefene was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and [(11)C]carfentanil at four time points (3, 26, 50, 74 h) after both dosings. Nalmefene was rapidly absorbed in all subjects. The mean t(1/2) of nalmefene was 13.4 h after single and repeated dosing. The accumulation of nalmefene and its main metabolites in plasma during the repeated dosing period was as expected for a drug with linear pharmacokinetics, and steady-state was reached for all analytes. Both nalmefene dosings resulted in a very high occupancy at mu-opioid receptors (87-100%), and the decline in the occupancy was similar after both dosings but clearly slower than the decline in the plasma concentration of nalmefene or metabolites. High nalmefene occupancy (83-100%) persisted at 26 h after the dosings. The prolonged mu-opioid receptor occupancy by nalmefene indicates slow dissociation of the drug from mu-opioid receptors. These results support the rational of administering nalmefene when needed before alcohol drinking, and they additionally suggest that a high mu-opioid receptor occupancy can be maintained when nalmefene is taken once daily.

  7. Epigenetics of μ-Opioid receptors: Intersection with HIV-1 infection of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Patrick M.; Dave, Rajnish S.; Datta, Prasun K.; Khalili, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of intravenous drugs, such as heroin, has become a major public health concern due to the increased risk of HIV-1 infection. Opioids such as heroin were originally identified and subsequently abused for their analgesic effects. However, many investigations have found additional effects of opioids, including regulation of the immune system. As such, chronic opioid abuse has been shown to promote HIV-1 pathogenesis and facilitate HIV-1-associated neurocognitive dysfunction. Clinical opioids, such as morphine and methadone, as well as illicit opioids, such as heroin, exert their effects primarily through interactions with the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). However, the mechanisms by which opioids enhance neurocognitive dysfunction through MOR-mediated signaling pathways are not completely understood. New findings in the regulation of MOR expression, particularly epigenetic and transcriptional regulation as well as alternative splicing, sheds new insights into possible mechanisms of HIV-1 and opiate synergy. In this review, we identify mechanisms regulating MOR expression and propose novel mechanisms by which opioids and HIV-1 may modulate this regulation. Additionally, we suggest that differential regulation of newly identified MOR isoforms by opioids and HIV-1 has functional consequence in enhancing HIV-1 neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:22034138

  8. Mu-Opioid (MOP) receptor mediated G-protein signaling is impaired in specific brain regions in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Edina; Büki, Alexandra; Kékesi, Gabriella; Horváth, Gyöngyi; Benyhe, Sándor

    2016-04-21

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder. Clinical reports suggest that many patients with schizophrenia are less sensitive to pain than other individuals. Animal models do not interpret schizophrenia completely, but they can model a number of symptoms of the disease, including decreased pain sensitivities and increased pain thresholds of various modalities. Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides have a substantial role in analgesia. In this biochemical study we investigated changes in the signaling properties of the mu-opioid (MOP) receptor in different brain regions, which are involved in the pain transmission, i.e., thalamus, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our goal was to compare the transmembrane signaling mediated by MOP receptors in control rats and in a recently developed rat model of schizophrenia. Regulatory G-protein activation via MOP receptors were measured in [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays in the presence of a highly selective MOP receptor peptide agonist, DAMGO. It was found that the MOP receptor mediated activation of G-proteins was substantially lower in membranes prepared from the 'schizophrenic' model rats than in control animals. The potency of DAMGO to activate MOP receptor was also decreased in all brain regions studied. Taken together in our rat model of schizophrenia, MOP receptor mediated G-proteins have a reduced stimulatory activity compared to membrane preparations taken from control animals. The observed distinct changes of opioid receptor functions in different areas of the brain do not explain the augmented nociceptive threshold described in these animals.

  9. Design, Syntheses, and Biological Evaluation of 14-Heteroaromatic Substituted Naltrexone Derivatives: Pharmacological Profile Switch from Mu Opioid Receptor Selectivity to Mu/Kappa Opioid Receptor Dual Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yunyun; Zaidi, Saheem A.; Elbegdorj, Orgil; Aschenbach, Lindsey C. K.; Li, Guo; Stevens, David L.; Scoggins, Krista L.; Dewey, William L.; Selley, Dana E.; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Based on a mu opioid receptor (MOR) homology model and the “isosterism” concept, three generations of 14-heteroaromatically substituted naltrexone derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential MOR selective ligands. The first generation ligands appeared to be MOR selective, whereas the second and the third generation ones showed MOR/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) dual selectivity. Docking of ligands 2 (MOR selective) and 10 (MOR/KOR dual selective) to the three opioid receptor crystal structures revealed a non-conserved residue facilitated “hydrogen bonding network” that could be responsible for their distinctive selectivity profiles. The MOR/KOR dual selective ligand 10 showed no agonism and acted as a potent antagonist in the tail flick assay. It also produced less severe opioid withdrawal symptoms than naloxone in morphine dependent mice. In conclusion, ligand 10 may serve as a novel lead compound to develop MOR/KOR dual selective ligands, which might possess unique therapeutic value for opioid addiction treatment. PMID:24144240

  10. Opioid-mediated regulation of A11 diencephalospinal dopamine neurons: pharmacological evidence of activation by morphine

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S.; Kennedy, Tom; Goudreau, John L.; Lookingland, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons of the A11 diencephalospinal system represent the sole source of DA innervation to the spinal cord in mice, serving neuromodulatory roles in the processing of nociceptive input and movement. These neurons originate in the dorsocaudal diencephalon and project axons unilaterally throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord, terminating predominantly in the dorsal horn. The density of A11 DA axon terminals in the lumbar region is greater in males compared to females, while in both sexes the activity of neurons terminating in the thoracic spinal cord is greater than those terminating in the lumbar region. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that A11 DA neurons are activated by opioids. To test this hypothesis, male and female mice were systemically treated with agonists or antagonists acting at the μ-opioid receptor, and spinal cord concentrations of DA and its metabolite DOPAC were determined in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Systemic administration of the μ-opioid agonist morphine led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in spinal cord DOPAC/DA ratio (an estimate of DA neuronal activity) in both male and female mice, with greater changes occurring in the lumbar segment. Blockade of opioid receptors with the opioid antagonist naloxone reversed the stimulatory effects of morphine on A11 DA neurons in both male and female mice, but had little to no effect on the activity of these neurons when administered alone. Present findings are consistent with the conclusion that spinal cord- projecting axon terminals of A11 DA neurons are activated by opioids in both male and female mice, most likely through a disinhibitory mechanism. PMID:21605572

  11. Effects of β-endorphin on functional activity of mouse splenocytes under conditions of in vivo blockade of μ,δ-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A; Nebogatikov, V O

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of δ-receptors with naltrindole under conditions of systemic immunization abolished the stimulatory effect of β-endorphin (0.0005 μg/kg) on the counts of antibody-producing cells and the titer of antierythrocyte antibodies. Injection of β-endorphin to mice led to stimulation of concanavalin A-induced proliferative activity of splenocytes and IL-4 secretion by the naloxone-dependent mechanism. The peptide did not modify the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. PMID:25573369

  12. Pleasure-related analgesia activates opioid-insensitive circuits.

    PubMed

    Kut, Elvan; Candia, Victor; von Overbeck, Jan; Pok, Judit; Fink, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd

    2011-03-16

    Recent findings suggest that pain and pleasure share common neurochemical circuits, and studies in animals and humans show that opioid-mediated descending pathways can inhibit or facilitate pain. We explored the role of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in pleasure-related analgesia. μ-Opioidergic activity was blocked with 0.2 mg/kg naloxone to assess its effects on hedonic responses to pleasant emotional pictures (International Affective Picture System) and its modulating effects on heat pain tolerance. Naloxone did not alter subjective and autonomous reactions to pleasure induction or overall mood of participants. In addition, pleasure-related increases in pain tolerance persisted after reversal of endogenous μ-opioidergic neurotransmission. Subjective pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings increased after naloxone administration. These findings suggest that, in addition to opioid-sensitive circuits, mainly opioid-insensitive pain-modulating circuits are activated during pleasure-related analgesia. PMID:21411655

  13. The analgesic efficacy of fentanyl: relationship to tolerance and mu-opioid receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Dighe, Shveta V; Walker, Ellen A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2008-11-01

    This study determined if fentanyl analgesic efficacy predicts the magnitude of tolerance and mu-opioid receptor regulation. To estimate efficacy, mice were injected i.p. with saline or clocinnamox (CCAM), an irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist, (0.32-25.6 mg/kg) and 24 h later fentanyl cumulative dose-response studies were conducted. CCAM dose dependently shifted the fentanyl dose-response function to the right. The apparent efficacy (tau) of fentanyl, based on the operational model of agonism, was estimated as 58, indicating that fentanyl is a high analgesic efficacy agonist. Next, mice were infused with fentanyl (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Controls were implanted with placebo pellets. At the end of 7 days, morphine cumulative dose-response studies or mu-opioid receptor saturation binding studies were conducted. Fentanyl infusions dose dependently decreased morphine potency with the highest fentanyl dose reducing morphine potency by approximately 6 fold. Chronic infusion with fentanyl (4 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced mu-opioid receptor density by 28% without altering affinity, whereas lower infusion doses had no effect. Taken together, the present results strengthen the proposal that opioid analgesic efficacy predicts mu-opioid receptor regulation and the magnitude of tolerance.

  14. Central HIV-1 Tat exposure elevates anxiety and fear conditioned responses of male mice concurrent with altered mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation and β-arrestin 2 activity in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Yun K; Paris, Jason J; Lichtman, Aron H; Hauser, Kurt F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Selley, Dana E; Knapp, Pamela E

    2016-08-01

    Co-exposure to opiates and HIV/HIV proteins results in enhanced CNS morphological and behavioral deficits in HIV(+) individuals and in animal models. Opiates with abuse liability, such as heroin and morphine, bind preferentially to and have pharmacological actions through μ-opioid-receptors (MORs). The mechanisms underlying opiate-HIV interactions are not understood. Exposure to the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein causes neurodegenerative outcomes that parallel many aspects of the human disease. We have also observed that in vivo exposure to Tat results in apparent changes in morphine efficacy, and thus have hypothesized that HIV proteins might alter MOR activation. To test our hypothesis, MOR-mediated G-protein activation was determined in neuroAIDS-relevant forebrain regions of transgenic mice with inducible CNS expression of HIV-1 Tat. G-protein activation was assessed by MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) autoradiography in brain sections, and in concentration-effect curves of MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in membranes isolated from specific brain regions. Comparative studies were done using the MOR-selective agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin) and a more clinically relevant agonist, morphine. Tat exposure reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation in an agonist, time, and regionally dependent manner. Levels of the GPCR regulatory protein β-arrestin-2, which is involved in MOR desensitization, were found to be elevated in only one affected brain region, the amygdala; amygdalar β-arrestin-2 also showed a significantly increased association with MOR by co-immunoprecipitation, suggesting decreased availability of MOR. Interestingly, this correlated with changes in anxiety and fear-conditioned extinction, behaviors that have substantial amygdalar input. We propose that HIV-1 Tat alters the intrinsic capacity of MOR to signal in response to agonist binding

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-11-18

    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  16. Dynamic mass redistribution as a means to measure and differentiate signaling via opioid and cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Codd, Ellen E; Mabus, John R; Murray, Brian S; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M

    2011-08-01

    Classically, G protein-coupled receptor activation by a ligand has been viewed as producing a defined response such as activation of a G protein, activation or inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, or stimulation of phospholipase C and/or alteration in calcium flux. Newer concepts of ligand-directed signaling recognize that different ligands, ostensibly acting at the same receptors, may induce different downstream effects, complicating the selection of a screening assay. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR), a label-free technology that uses light to measure ligand-induced changes in the mass of cells proximate to the biosensor, provides an integrated cellular response comprising multiple pathways and cellular events. Using DMR, signals induced by opioid or cannabinoid agonists in cells transfected with these receptors were blocked by pharmacologically appropriate receptor antagonists as well as by pertussis toxin. Differences among compounds in relative potencies at DMR versus ligand-stimulated GTPγS or receptor binding endpoints, suggesting functional selectivity, were observed. Preliminary evidence indicates that inhibitors of intermediate steps in the cell signaling cascade, such as receptor recycling inhibitors, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, or cytoskeletal disruptors, altered or attenuated the cannabinoid-induced response. Notable is the finding that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitors attenuated signaling induced by the cannabinoid type 2 receptor inverse agonist AM630 but not that stimulated by the agonist CP 55,940. Thus, DMR has the potential to not only identify ligands that activate a given G protein-coupled receptor, but also ascertain the signaling pathways engaged by a specific ligand, making DMR a useful tool in the identification of biased ligands, which may ultimately exhibit improved therapeutic profiles. PMID:21323580

  17. Discovery, synthesis, and molecular pharmacology of selective positive allosteric modulators of the δ-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Burford, Neil T; Livingston, Kathryn E; Canals, Meritxell; Ryan, Molly R; Budenholzer, Lauren M L; Han, Ying; Shang, Yi; Herbst, John J; O'Connell, Jonathan; Banks, Martyn; Zhang, Litao; Filizola, Marta; Bassoni, Daniel L; Wehrman, Tom S; Christopoulos, Arthur; Traynor, John R; Gerritz, Samuel W; Alt, Andrew

    2015-05-28

    Allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have a number of potential advantages compared to agonists or antagonists that bind to the orthosteric site of the receptor. These include the potential for receptor selectivity, maintenance of the temporal and spatial fidelity of signaling in vivo, the ceiling effect of the allosteric cooperativity which may prevent overdose issues, and engendering bias by differentially modulating distinct signaling pathways. Here we describe the discovery, synthesis, and molecular pharmacology of δ-opioid receptor-selective positive allosteric modulators (δ PAMs). These δ PAMs increase the affinity and/or efficacy of the orthosteric agonists leu-enkephalin, SNC80 and TAN67, as measured by receptor binding, G protein activation, β-arrestin recruitment, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activation. As such, these compounds are useful pharmacological tools to probe the molecular pharmacology of the δ receptor and to explore the therapeutic potential of δ PAMs in diseases such as chronic pain and depression.

  18. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Milon, Nicolas; Heghinian, Mari D; Fishback, James; Schürer, Stephan C; Garamszegi, Nandor; Mash, Deborah C

    2015-12-01

    Noribogaine is the long-lived human metabolite of the anti-addictive substance ibogaine. Noribogaine efficaciously reaches the brain with concentrations up to 20 μM after acute therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg ibogaine in animals. Noribogaine displays atypical opioid-like components in vivo, anti-addictive effects and potent modulatory properties of the tolerance to opiates for which the mode of action remained uncharacterized thus far. Our binding experiments and computational simulations indicate that noribogaine may bind to the orthosteric morphinan binding site of the opioid receptors. Functional activities of noribogaine at G-protein and non G-protein pathways of the mu and kappa opioid receptors were characterized. Noribogaine was a weak mu antagonist with a functional inhibition constants (Ke) of 20 μM at the G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways. Conversely, noribogaine was a G-protein biased kappa agonist 75% as efficacious as dynorphin A at stimulating GDP-GTP exchange (EC50=9 μM) but only 12% as efficacious at recruiting β-arrestin, which could contribute to the lack of dysphoric effects of noribogaine. In turn, noribogaine functionally inhibited dynorphin-induced kappa β-arrestin recruitment and was more potent than its G-protein agonistic activity with an IC50 of 1 μM. This biased agonist/antagonist pharmacology is unique to noribogaine in comparison to various other ligands including ibogaine, 18-MC, nalmefene, and 6'-GNTI. We predict noribogaine to promote certain analgesic effects as well as anti-addictive effects at effective concentrations>1 μM in the brain. Because elevated levels of dynorphins are commonly observed and correlated with anxiety, dysphoric effects, and decreased dopaminergic tone, a therapeutically relevant functional inhibition bias to endogenously released dynorphins by noribogaine might be worthy of consideration for treating anxiety and substance related disorders. PMID:26302653

  19. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Milon, Nicolas; Heghinian, Mari D; Fishback, James; Schürer, Stephan C; Garamszegi, Nandor; Mash, Deborah C

    2015-12-01

    Noribogaine is the long-lived human metabolite of the anti-addictive substance ibogaine. Noribogaine efficaciously reaches the brain with concentrations up to 20 μM after acute therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg ibogaine in animals. Noribogaine displays atypical opioid-like components in vivo, anti-addictive effects and potent modulatory properties of the tolerance to opiates for which the mode of action remained uncharacterized thus far. Our binding experiments and computational simulations indicate that noribogaine may bind to the orthosteric morphinan binding site of the opioid receptors. Functional activities of noribogaine at G-protein and non G-protein pathways of the mu and kappa opioid receptors were characterized. Noribogaine was a weak mu antagonist with a functional inhibition constants (Ke) of 20 μM at the G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways. Conversely, noribogaine was a G-protein biased kappa agonist 75% as efficacious as dynorphin A at stimulating GDP-GTP exchange (EC50=9 μM) but only 12% as efficacious at recruiting β-arrestin, which could contribute to the lack of dysphoric effects of noribogaine. In turn, noribogaine functionally inhibited dynorphin-induced kappa β-arrestin recruitment and was more potent than its G-protein agonistic activity with an IC50 of 1 μM. This biased agonist/antagonist pharmacology is unique to noribogaine in comparison to various other ligands including ibogaine, 18-MC, nalmefene, and 6'-GNTI. We predict noribogaine to promote certain analgesic effects as well as anti-addictive effects at effective concentrations>1 μM in the brain. Because elevated levels of dynorphins are commonly observed and correlated with anxiety, dysphoric effects, and decreased dopaminergic tone, a therapeutically relevant functional inhibition bias to endogenously released dynorphins by noribogaine might be worthy of consideration for treating anxiety and substance related disorders.

  20. Antagonist-induced micro-opioid receptor up-regulation decreases G-protein receptor kinase-2 and dynamin-2 abundance in mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Gomes, Benedict; Patel, Chintan; Yoburn, Byron C

    2002-06-20

    Chronic treatment with opioid receptor antagonists has been shown to increase the density of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in cell culture and in the intact animal. Although opioid receptor antagonist-induced up-regulation is a robust phenomenon, the mechanisms responsible for the increase in receptor density remain unclear. In the present study, changes in a kinase and a GTPase that have been implicated in G-protein-coupled receptor regulation were examined following opioid receptor antagonist treatment. Mice were implanted s.c. with a naltrexone pellet or placebo pellet. On the eighth day following implantation, spinal cord was removed and G-protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK-2) and dynamin-2 abundance were determined using a quantitative immunoblot approach. Changes in micro-opioid receptor density were also determined. Naltrexone treatment produced a significant (145%) increase in micro-opioid receptor density. Naltrexone treatment was associated with a significant 36% decrease in GRK-2 and 30% decrease in dynamin-2 abundance in spinal cord. These data raise the possibility that opioid receptor antagonist-induced micro-opioid receptor up-regulation in the intact animal may be due to a reduction in constitutive internalization of opioid receptors.

  1. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  2. Interaction of 3,8-diazabicyclo (3.2.1) octanes with mu and delta opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Cignarella, G; Barlocco, D; Tranquillini, M E; Volterra, A; Brunello, N; Racagni, G

    1988-05-01

    A series of 3,8-diazabicyclo (3.2.1) octanes (DBO) (1) substituted at the nitrogen atoms by acyl and aralkenyl groups, were tested in in vitro binding assays towards mu and delta opioid receptors. The most representative terms (1a, 1d, 1g, 1j,) were also evaluated for the analgesic potency in vivo by the hot plate method. Among the compounds tested the most potent was the p.nitrocinnamyl DBO (1d) which displayed a mu/delta selectivity and an analgesic activity respectively 25 and 17 fold those of morphine. On the contrary, the m.hydroxycinnamyl DBO (1g) was markedly less active as agonist than the parent 1a, thus suggesting that structure 1 interacts with opioid receptors in a different fashion than morphine. Compound 1j isomer of 1a which is provided with high mu affinity, but lower analgesic potency, was found to possess a mixed agonist-antagonist activity.

  3. Identification of kappa opioid receptors in the immune system by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, D M; el-Hamouly, W; Archer, S; Leary, J F; Bidlack, J M

    1995-01-01

    A method to visualize the kappa opioid receptor is described that uses a high-affinity fluorescein-conjugated opioid ligand and indirect immunofluorescence with the phycoerythrin fluorophore to amplify the signal. The mouse thymoma cell line R1E/TL8x.1.G1.OUAr.1 (R1EGO), which expresses the kappa 1 but not mu or delta opioid receptors, was used as a positive control for fluorescence labeling. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated arylacetamide (FITC-AA) compound displaying high affinity for the kappa opioid receptor was synthesized. R1EGO cells were incubated with FITC-AA, in the absence or presence of the kappa-selective opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) as a competitor. By using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, incubation of R1EGO cells with FITC-AA alone was not sufficient for the detection of specific staining of the kappa opioid receptor. To amplify the FITC-AA fluorescence, the fluorescein served as a hapten for subsequent antibody detection. R1EGO cells were incubated with FITC-AA, followed by biotinylated rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG and extravidin-conjugated R-phycoerythrin. By using this approach, R1EGO cells were stained with phycoerythrin-amplified FITC-AA, and the staining was displaced with nor-BNI. Flow cytometry showed that titrations of both FITC-AA and nor-BNI produced saturable concentration-dependent changes in the median phycoerythrin fluorescence intensity, with optimal staining at 30 microM FITC-AA. Up to 80% of the fluorescence above background was inhibited by nor-BNI. Freshly isolated thymocytes from C57BL/6ByJ mice also showed nor-BNI-sensitive staining with the FITC-AA amplification. This sensitive method of indirect phycoerythrin immunofluorescence can be used to amplify any fluorescein-conjugated opioid ligand for the detection of opioid receptors. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7862634

  4. [Opioid μ receptors mediate the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lan-Qin; Wen, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-04-25

    Learning/memory impairment is one of the most serious problems induced by stress, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Opiates and opioid receptors are implicated in multiple physiological functions including learning and memory. However, there is no clear evidence whether the endogenous opioid system is involved in the formation of the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of μ opioid receptor in the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment by means of Morris water maze (MWM) test in a mouse elevated platform stress model. The mice were trained in the MWM for four trials a session for 4 consecutive days after receiving the elevated platform stress, and intracerebroventricular injection of μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO, antagonist CTAP or saline. Retention of the spatial training was assessed 24 h after the last training session with a 60-s free-swim probe trial using a new starting position. The results showed that intracerebroventricular injection of μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO but not antagonist CTAP before MWM training impaired the memory retrieval of mice. Elevated platform stress before MWM training also impaired memory retrieval, which could be reversed by pre-injection of CTAP, and aggravated by DAMGO. These results suggest that endogenous opioid system may play a crucial role in the formation of the stress-induced memory impairment.

  5. Methylnaltrexone, a new peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist being evaluated for the treatment of postoperative ileus.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI), a transient impairment of bowel function, is considered an inevitable response after open abdominal surgery. It leads to significant patient morbidity and increased hospital costs and length of stay. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, involving neurogenic, hormonal, inflammatory and pharmacologic mediators. Several treatments have been shown to reduce the duration of POI, and a multimodal approach combining several of these interventions seems to be the most effective treatment option. Various drug therapies have been evaluated for the treatment of POI, although most have not shown any benefit. Peripherally active mu-opioid receptor antagonists are a new class of compounds that selectively block the peripheral (i.e., gastrointestinal [GI]) effects of opioids while preserving centrally mediated analgesia. Recently, alvimopan was approved in the US for the treatment of POI after abdominal surgery with bowel resection. Methylnaltrexone is a peripherally active mu-opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to antagonize the inhibitory effects of opioids on GI transit without impairing analgesia. Phase II data indicated that methylnaltrexone was effective for improving GI recovery, reducing POI and shortening the time to discharge readiness in patients who underwent segmental colectomy. Two Phase III trials have been completed, and one is underway at present. Preliminary results from the two completed trials indicate that methylnaltrexone was not better than placebo for the primary or secondary outcomes. Further analyses of these data, clinical trial designs and the various dosage forms are necessary to determine the potential role of methylnaltrexone in the treatment of POI.

  6. Role of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors in ethanol-reinforced operant responding in infant rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Spear, Norman E.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Abate, Paula

    2012-01-01

    We recently observed that naloxone, a non-specific opioid antagonist, attenuated operant responding to ethanol in infant rats. Through the use of an operant conditioning technique, we aimed to analyze the specific participation of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors on ethanol reinforcement during the second postnatal week. In Experiment 1, infant rats (PDs 14–17) were trained to obtain 5, 7.5, 10, or 15% ethanol, by operant nose-poking. Experiment 2 tested blood ethanol levels (BELs) attained by operant behavior. In Experiment 3, at PDs16–18, rats received CTOP (mu antagonist: 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg), naltrindole (delta antagonist: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg) or saline before training. In Experiment 4, rats received nor-binaltorphimine (kappa antagonist: 10.0 or 30.0 mg/kg, a single injection after completion of PD15 operant training), spiradoline mesylate (kappa agonist: 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg; at PDs16–18) or saline (PDs16–18), before the conditioning. Experiment 5 and 6 assessed possible side effects of opioid drugs in locomotor activity (LA) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Ethanol at 7.5 and 10% promoted the highest levels of operant responding. BELs were 12–15 mg/dl. In Experiment 3 naltrindole (dose response effect) and CTOP (the lowest dose) were effective in decreasing operant responding. Nor-binaltorphimine at 10.0 mg/kg and spiradoline at 5.0 mg/kg also blocked ethanol responding. The effects of opioid drugs on ethanol reinforcement cannot be explained by effects on LA or CTA. Even though particular aspects of each opioid receptor require further testing, a fully functional opioid system seems to be necessary for ethanol reinforcement, during early ontogeny. PMID:22789403

  7. Peripheral endothelin B receptor agonist-induced antinociception involves endogenous opioids in mice.

    PubMed

    Quang, Phuong N; Schmidt, Brian L

    2010-05-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced by various cancers is known to be responsible for inducing pain. While ET-1 binding to ETAR on peripheral nerves clearly mediates nociception, effects from binding to ETBR are less clear. The present study assessed the effects of ETBR activation and the role of endogenous opioid analgesia in carcinoma pain using an orthotopic cancer pain mouse model. mRNA expression analysis showed that ET-1 was nearly doubled while ETBR was significantly down-regulated in a human oral SCC cell line compared to normal oral keratinocytes (NOK). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell culture treated with an ETBR agonist (10(-4)M, 10(-5)M, and 10(-6) M BQ-3020) significantly increased the production of beta-endorphin without any effects on leu-enkephalin or dynorphin. Cancer inoculated in the hind paw of athymic mice with SCC induced significant pain, as indicated by reduction of paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimulation, compared to sham-injected and NOK-injected groups. Intratumor administration of 3mg/kg BQ-3020 attenuated cancer pain by approximately 50% up to 3h post-injection compared to PBS-vehicle and contralateral injection, while intratumor ETBR antagonist BQ-788 treatment (100 and 300microg/kg and 3mg/kg) had no effects. Local naloxone methiodide (500microg/kg) or selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist (CTOP, 500microg/kg) injection reversed ETBR agonist-induced antinociception in cancer animals. We propose that these results demonstrate that peripheral ETBR agonism attenuates carcinoma pain by modulating beta-endorphins released from the SCC to act on peripheral opioid receptors found in the cancer microenvironment.

  8. The presence of the mu-opioid receptor in the isthmus of mare oviduct.

    PubMed

    Desantis, S; Albrizio, M; Ventriglia, G; Deflorio, M; Guaricci, A C; Minoia, R; De Metrio, G

    2008-05-01

    The presence of the mu-opioid receptor and the type of glycosylation in the third extra-cellular loop of this receptor was investigated in the isthmus of mare oviduct during oestrus by means of immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry combined with enzymatic (N-glycosidase F and O-glycosidase) and chemical (beta-elimination) treatments. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the mu-opioid receptor consists of two peptides with molecular weights of around 65 and 50 kDa. After N-deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F an additional immunoreactive peptide was observed at around 30 KDa. The cleavage of O-glycans by O-glycosidase failed in immunoblotting as well as in immunohistochemistry investigations, revealing that the third extra-cellular loop of the mu-opioid receptor expressed in mare isthmus oviduct contains some modifications of the Galbeta(1-3)GalNAc core binding to serine or threonine. Immunohistochemistry revealed the mu-opioid receptor in the mucosal epithelium, some stromal cells, muscle cells and blood vessels. In ciliated cells the mu-opioid receptor showed N-linked glycans, since the immunoreactivity was abolished after N-glycosidase F treatment, whereas it was preserved in the apical region after beta-elimination. Most non-ciliated cells expressed the mu-opioid receptor with both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides, as revealed by the abolition of immunostaining after N-glycosidase F and beta-elimination. Stromal cells, endothelial and muscle cells of blood vessels expressed the mu-opioid receptor containing both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. Myosalpinx myocytes expressed the mu-opioid receptor with O-linked oligosaccharides. The immunopositive myocytes formed a circular coat in the intrinsic musculature, whereas they were arranged in some isolated, oblique bundles in the extrinsic musculature. In conclusion, the mu-opioid receptor could have a role in the production and the movement of isthmus lumen content that contributes to ensuring the effective

  9. NMR structure and dynamics of the agonist dynorphin peptide bound to the human kappa opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Casey; White, Kate L.; Doncescu, Nathalie; Didenko, Tatiana; Roth, Bryan L.; Czaplicki, Georges; Stevens, Raymond C.; Wüthrich, Kurt; Milon, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the dynorphin (1–13) peptide (dynorphin) bound to the human kappa opioid receptor (KOR) has been determined by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. 1H and 15N chemical shift variations indicated that free and bound peptide is in fast exchange in solutions containing 1 mM dynorphin and 0.01 mM KOR. Radioligand binding indicated an intermediate-affinity interaction, with a Kd of ∼200 nM. Transferred nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of bound dynorphin. The N-terminal opioid signature, YGGF, was observed to be flexibly disordered, the central part of the peptide from L5 to R9 to form a helical turn, and the C-terminal segment from P10 to K13 to be flexibly disordered in this intermediate-affinity bound state. Combining molecular modeling with NMR provided an initial framework for understanding multistep activation of a G protein-coupled receptor by its cognate peptide ligand. PMID:26372966

  10. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphins are micro-opioid receptor antagonists lacking inverse agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Li, Tingyou; Bryant, Sharon D; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) binding assays and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cell membranes obtained from vehicle, morphine, and ethanol-treated SK-N-SH cells and brain membranes isolated from naive and morphine-dependent mice; their mode of action was compared with naloxone or naltrexone, which both are standard nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonists. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2 were neutral antagonists under all of the experimental conditions examined, in contrast to naloxone and naltrexone, which behave as neutral antagonists only in membranes from vehicle-treated cells and mice but act as inverse agonists in membranes from morphine- and ethanol-treated cells as well as morphine-treated mice. Both endomorphin analogs inhibited the naloxone- and naltrexone-elicited withdrawal syndromes from acute morphine dependence in mice. This suggests their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse without the adverse effects observed with inverse agonist alkaloid-derived compounds that produce severe withdrawal symptoms.

  11. Featured Article: Nuclear export of opioid growth factor receptor is CRM1 dependent.

    PubMed

    Kren, Nancy P; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2016-02-01

    Opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) facilitates growth inhibition in the presence of its specific ligand opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin. The function of the OGF-OGFr axis requires the receptor to translocate to the nucleus. However, the mechanism of nuclear export of OGFr is unknown. In this study, endogenous OGFr, as well as exogenously expressed OGFr-EGFP, demonstrated significant nuclear accumulation in response to leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export, suggesting that OGFr is exported in a CRM1-dependent manner. One consensus sequence for a nuclear export signal (NES) was identified. Mutation of the associated leucines, L217 L220 L223 and L225, to alanine resulted in decreased nuclear accumulation. NES-EGFP responded to LMB, indicating that this sequence is capable of functioning as an export signal in isolation. To determine why the sequence functions differently in isolation than as a full length protein, the localization of subNES was evaluated in the presence and absence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteosomal degradation. MG132 had no effect of subNES localization. The role of tandem repeats located at the C-terminus of OGFr was examined for their role in nuclear trafficking. Six of seven tandem repeats were removed to form deltaTR. DeltaTR localized exclusively to the nucleus indicating that the tandem repeats may contribute to the localization of the receptor. Similar to the loss of cellular proliferation activity (i.e. inhibition) recorded with subNES, deltaTR also demonstrated a significant loss of inhibitory activity indicating that the repeats may be integral to receptor function. These experiments reveal that OGFr contains one functional NES, L217 L220 L223 and L225 and can be exported from the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner.

  12. Featured Article: Nuclear export of opioid growth factor receptor is CRM1 dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kren, Nancy P; Zagon, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) facilitates growth inhibition in the presence of its specific ligand opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met5]-enkephalin. The function of the OGF-OGFr axis requires the receptor to translocate to the nucleus. However, the mechanism of nuclear export of OGFr is unknown. In this study, endogenous OGFr, as well as exogenously expressed OGFr-EGFP, demonstrated significant nuclear accumulation in response to leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export, suggesting that OGFr is exported in a CRM1-dependent manner. One consensus sequence for a nuclear export signal (NES) was identified. Mutation of the associated leucines, L217 L220 L223 and L225, to alanine resulted in decreased nuclear accumulation. NES-EGFP responded to LMB, indicating that this sequence is capable of functioning as an export signal in isolation. To determine why the sequence functions differently in isolation than as a full length protein, the localization of subNES was evaluated in the presence and absence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteosomal degradation. MG132 had no effect of subNES localization. The role of tandem repeats located at the C-terminus of OGFr was examined for their role in nuclear trafficking. Six of seven tandem repeats were removed to form deltaTR. DeltaTR localized exclusively to the nucleus indicating that the tandem repeats may contribute to the localization of the receptor. Similar to the loss of cellular proliferation activity (i.e. inhibition) recorded with subNES, deltaTR also demonstrated a significant loss of inhibitory activity indicating that the repeats may be integral to receptor function. These experiments reveal that OGFr contains one functional NES, L217 L220 L223 and L225 and can be exported from the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner. PMID:26429201

  13. Mu Opioid Receptor Modulation of Dopamine Neurons in the Periaqueductal Gray/Dorsal Raphe: A Role in Regulation of Pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia; Sugam, Jonathan A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; McElligott, Zoe A; McCall, Nora M; Lopez, Alberto J; McKlveen, Jessica M; Pleil, Kristen E; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a brain region involved in nociception modulation, and an important relay center for the descending nociceptive pathway through the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Given the dense expression of mu opioid receptors and the role of dopamine in pain, the recently characterized dopamine neurons in the ventral PAG (vPAG)/dorsal raphe (DR) region are a potentially critical site for the antinociceptive actions of opioids. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate synaptic modulation of the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons by mu opioid receptors and to (2) dissect the anatomy and neurochemistry of these neurons, in order to assess the downstream loci and functions of their activation. Using a mouse line that expresses eGFP under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we found that mu opioid receptor activation led to a decrease in inhibitory inputs onto the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons. Furthermore, combining immunohistochemistry, optogenetics, electrophysiology, and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a TH-cre mouse line, we demonstrated that these neurons also express the vesicular glutamate type 2 transporter and co-release dopamine and glutamate in a major downstream projection structure-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Finally, activation of TH-positive neurons in the vPAG/DR using Gq designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs displayed a supraspinal, but not spinal, antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that vPAG/DR dopamine neurons likely play a key role in opiate antinociception, potentially via the activation of downstream structures through dopamine and glutamate release.

  14. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  15. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  16. Synthesis and Opioid Receptor Binding Affinities of 2-Substituted and 3-Aminomorphinans: Ligands for mu, kappa and delta Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael; Si, Yu-Gui; Knapp, Brian I.; Bidlack, Jean M.; Neumeyer, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The phenolic group of the potent μ and κ opioid morphinan agonist/antagonists cyclorphan and butorphan was replaced by phenylamino and benzylamino groups including compounds with p-substituents in the benzene ring. These compounds are highly potent μ and κ ligands, e. g. p-methoxyphenylaminocyclorphan showing a Ki of 0.026 nM at the mu and a Ki of 0.03 nM at the kappa receptor. Phenyl carbamates and phenylureas were synthesized and investigated. Selective o-formylation of butorphan and levorphanol was achieved. This reaction opened the way to a large set of 2-substituted 3-hydroxymorphinans, including 2-hydroxymethyl-, 2-aminomethyl-, and N-substituted 2-aminomethyl-3-hydroxymorphinans. Bivalent ligands bridged in the 2-position were also synthesized and connected with secondary and tertiary aminomethyl groups, amide bonds or hydroxymethylene groups, respectively. Although most of the 2-substituted morphinans showed considerably lower affinities compared to their parent compounds, the bivalent ligand approach led to significantly higher affinities compared to the univalent aminomethylmorphinans. PMID:19928862

  17. Autoradiographic localization of opioid receptor types in the rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Dashwood, M.R.; Sykes, R.M.; Thompson, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The selective mu and delta ligands (/sup 3/H)DAGO and (/sup 3/H)DPDPE have been used to investigate the distribution of specific opioid subtypes in the rat small intestine by in vitro autoradiography. There was a greater density of (/sup 3/H)DPDPE binding at regions of the villi and crypts than (/sup 3/H)DAGO binding. These results suggest that the opioid receptors located in these regions are predominantly of the delta subtype.

  18. Potent μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists from Cyclic Peptides Tyr-c[D-Lys-Xxx-Tyr-Gly]: Synthesis, Biological, and Structural Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangmei; Cazares, Margret; Wu, Jinhua; Houghten, Richard A; Toll, Laurence; Dooley, Colette

    2016-02-11

    To optimize the structure of a μ-opioid receptor ligand, analogs H-Tyr-c[D-Lys-Xxx-Tyr-Gly] were synthesized and their biological activity was tested. The analog containing a Phe(3) was identified as not only exhibiting binding affinity 14-fold higher than the original hit but also producing agonist activity 3-fold more potent than morphine. NMR study suggested that a trans conformation at D-Lys(2)-Xxx(3) is crucial for these cyclic peptides to maintain high affinity, selectivity, and functional activity toward the μ-opioid receptor. PMID:26789491

  19. Potent μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists from Cyclic Peptides Tyr-c[D-Lys-Xxx-Tyr-Gly]: Synthesis, Biological, and Structural Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangmei; Cazares, Margret; Wu, Jinhua; Houghten, Richard A; Toll, Laurence; Dooley, Colette

    2016-02-11

    To optimize the structure of a μ-opioid receptor ligand, analogs H-Tyr-c[D-Lys-Xxx-Tyr-Gly] were synthesized and their biological activity was tested. The analog containing a Phe(3) was identified as not only exhibiting binding affinity 14-fold higher than the original hit but also producing agonist activity 3-fold more potent than morphine. NMR study suggested that a trans conformation at D-Lys(2)-Xxx(3) is crucial for these cyclic peptides to maintain high affinity, selectivity, and functional activity toward the μ-opioid receptor.

  20. Synthesis, opioid receptor binding, and bioassay of naltrindole analogues substituted in the indolic benzene moiety.

    PubMed

    Ananthan, S; Johnson, C A; Carter, R L; Clayton, S D; Rice, K C; Xu, H; Davis, P; Porreca, F; Rothman, R B

    1998-07-16

    A series of analogues of the delta opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (1) possessing a phenyl, phenoxy, or benzyloxy group at the 4'-, 5'-, 6'-, or - 7'-positions (4-15) and a 2-(2-pyridinyl)ethenyl group at the 5'-position (16) on the indolic benzene ring were synthesized through Fischer indolization of naltrexone. Compounds 4-16 were evaluated for their affinities in opioid receptor binding assays in rat or guinea pig brain membranes and for their opioid antagonist and agonist activities in vitro on the guinea pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) preparations. All of the compounds displayed delta selectivity in binding to the delta, mu, and kappa opioid receptors. The binding potencies of most of the compounds at the delta, mu, and kappa sites, however, were lower than that of 1. Among positional isomers, the 7'-substituted compounds in general had higher affinities than 6'-, 5'-, or 4'-substituted analogues, indicating that bulky groups are tolerated better at the 7'-position than at other positions. The affinity of the compounds were also determined at putative subtypes of the delta and kappa receptors: deltacx-1 (mu-like), deltacx-2 (delta-like), and the kappa2b site in an attempt to identify subtype selective agents. Although none were identified, the data revealed a different rank-order of potency beteween mu vs deltacx-1, deltacx-2 vs delta, and the kappa2b vs mu, delta, and kappa1. The antagonist potencies of the compounds in the MVD were in agreement with their binding affinities at the delta site in rat brain membrane. The most potent member of the series, the 7'-phenoxy compound 14, binds to the delta site with a Ki of 0.71 nM, shows >40-fold delta over mu and delta over kappa binding selectivity, and exhibits delta receptor antagonist potency in the MVD with a Ke of 0.25 nM, properties which are comparable to the delta receptor affinity and antagonist potency of naltrindole (Ki = 0.29 nM, Ke = 0. 49 nM). Interestingly, many members of the

  1. Peripherally acting opioids and clinical implications for pain control.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nalini; Smith, Howard S; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2011-01-01

    Opioid receptors are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the non-neuronal tissues. Data from animal and human clinical studies support the involvement of peripheral opioid receptors in analgesia, especially in the presence of inflammation. Inflammation has been shown to increase the synthesis of opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglion neurons and enhance transport and accumulation of opioid receptors in the peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. Under the influence of chemokines and adhesion molecules, opioid peptide-containing immune cells extravasate and accumulate in the injured tissues. Stress, chemokines, cytokines, and other releasing factors in inflamed tissues stimulate these granulocytes to release opioid peptides. Once secreted, opioid peptides bind to and activate peripheral opioid receptors on sensory nerve fibers and produce analgesia by decreasing the excitability of sensory nerves and/or inhibiting release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides. Research has revealed that local application of exogenous opioid agonists produces a potent analgesic effect by activating peripheral opioid receptors in inflamed tissues. The analgesic activity occurs without activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS), and therefore centrally mediated side effects, such as respiratory depression, mental clouding, altered consciousness, or addiction, are not associated with peripheral opioid activity. This discovery has stimulated research on developing peripherally restricted opioid agonists that lack CNS effects. In addition, it has been recognized that opioid receptors modulate inflammation, and that opioids have anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory actions of opioids are not well known or understood. Conflicting reports on mu-opioids suggest both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory effects. This article will present the basis for peripheral opioid analgesia and describe current research directed at

  2. [Development of physical dependence on nicotine and endogenous opioid system--participation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor].

    PubMed

    Kishioka, Shiroh; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro; Yamamoto, Chizuko

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine (NIC) regulates various cellular functions acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). And nAChR consists of ligand-gated cation channels with pentameric structure and composed of α and β subunits. In the central nervous system, α 4 β 2 and α 7 nAChRs are the most abundantly expressed as nAChR subtypes. There are several lines of evidence indicating that systemic administration of NIC elicits the release of endogenous opioids, such as, endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins, in the brain. NIC exerts numerous acute effects, for example, antinociceptive effects and the activating effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In these effects, NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation, was inhibited by opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (NLX), and was also suppressed in morphine tolerated mice, indicating the participation of the endogenous opioid system in NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation. Moreover, NIC-induced antinociception was antagonized by both α 4 β 2 and α 7 nAChR antagonists, while NIC-induced HPA axis activation was antagonized by α 4 β 2 nAChR antagonist, but not by α 7 nAChR antagonist. These results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may not be located on the downstream of α 4 β 2 nAChR. On the other hand, NIC has substantial physical dependence liability. NLX elicits NIC withdrawal after repeated NIC administration evaluated by corticosterone increase as a withdrawal sign, and NLX-precipitated NIC withdrawal is inhibited by concomitant administration of other opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, indicating the participation of endogenous opioid system in the development of physical dependence on NIC. NLX-precipitated NIC withdrawal was also inhibited by concomitant administration of an α 7 nAChR antagonist, but not an α 4 β 2 nAChR antagonist. Taken together, these findings suggest that the endogenous opioid system may be located on the downstream of α 7

  3. [Development of physical dependence on nicotine and endogenous opioid system--participation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor].

    PubMed

    Kishioka, Shiroh; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro; Yamamoto, Chizuko

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine (NIC) regulates various cellular functions acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). And nAChR consists of ligand-gated cation channels with pentameric structure and composed of α and β subunits. In the central nervous system, α 4 β 2 and α 7 nAChRs are the most abundantly expressed as nAChR subtypes. There are several lines of evidence indicating that systemic administration of NIC elicits the release of endogenous opioids, such as, endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins, in the brain. NIC exerts numerous acute effects, for example, antinociceptive effects and the activating effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In these effects, NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation, was inhibited by opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone (NLX), and was also suppressed in morphine tolerated mice, indicating the participation of the endogenous opioid system in NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation. Moreover, NIC-induced antinociception was antagonized by both α 4 β 2 and α 7 nAChR antagonists, while NIC-induced HPA axis activation was antagonized by α 4 β 2 nAChR antagonist, but not by α 7 nAChR antagonist. These results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may not be located on the downstream of α 4 β 2 nAChR. On the other hand, NIC has substantial physical dependence liability. NLX elicits NIC withdrawal after repeated NIC administration evaluated by corticosterone increase as a withdrawal sign, and NLX-precipitated NIC withdrawal is inhibited by concomitant administration of other opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, indicating the participation of endogenous opioid system in the development of physical dependence on NIC. NLX-precipitated NIC withdrawal was also inhibited by concomitant administration of an α 7 nAChR antagonist, but not an α 4 β 2 nAChR antagonist. Taken together, these findings suggest that the endogenous opioid system may be located on the downstream of α 7

  4. Antinociception induced by acute oral administration of sweet substance in young and adult rodents: the role of endogenous opioid peptides chemical mediators and μ(1)-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Kübler, João Marcus Lopes; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-04-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the effects of acute sucrose treatment on the perception of painful stimuli. Specifically, we sought to determine the involvement of the endogenous opioid peptide-mediated system as well as the role of the μ(1)-opioid receptor in antinociception organisation induced by acute sucrose intake. Nociception was assessed with the tail-flick test in rats (75, 150 and 250 g) of different ages acutely pre-treated with 500 μL of a sucrose solution (25, 50, 150 and 250 g/L) or tap water. Young and Adult rats (250 g) showed antinociception after treatment with 50 g/L (during 5 min) and 150 g/L and 250 g/L (during 20 min) sucrose solutions. Surprisingly, this antinociception was more consistent in mature adult rodents than in pups. To evaluate the role of opioid systems, mature adult rodents were pre-treated with different doses (0.25, 1 or 4 mg/kg) of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, the selective μ(1)-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine or vehicle followed by 250 g/L sucrose solution treatment. Sucrose-induced antinociception was reduced by pre-treatment with both naloxone and naloxonazine. The present findings suggest that sweet substance-induced hypo-analgesia is augmented by increasing sucrose concentrations in young and adult rodents. Acute oral sucrose treatment inhibits pain in laboratory animal by mediating endogenous opioid peptide and μ(1)-opioid receptor actions.

  5. κ-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function via Akt-stimulated NO Production in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Zheng, Xu-Yang; Li, Juan; Zhang, Shu-Miao; Feng, Na; Guo, Hai-Tao; Jia, Min; Wang, Yue-Min; Fan, Rong; Pei, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of U50,488H (a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist) on endothelial function impaired by hyperlipidemia and to determine the role of Akt-stimulated NO production in it. Hyperlipidemic model was established by feeding rats with a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. U50,488H and nor-BNI (a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist) were administered intraperitoneally. In vitro, the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in the effect of U50,488H was studied using cultured endothelial cells subjected to artificial hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations dramatically increased after high-fat diet feeding. Administration of U50,488H significantly alleviated endothelial ultrastructural destruction and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation impairment caused by hyperlipidemia. U50,488H also increased Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and serum/medium NO level both in vivo and in vitro. U50,488H increased eNOS activity and suppressed iNOS activity in vivo. The effects of U50,488H were abolished in vitro by siRNAs targeting κ-opioid receptor and Akt or PI3K/Akt/eNOS inhibitors. All effects of U50,488H were blocked by nor-BNI. These results demonstrate that κ-opioid receptor stimulation normalizes endothelial ultrastructure and function under hyperlipidemic condition. Its mechanism is related to the preservation of eNOS phosphorylation through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and downregulation of iNOS expression/activity. PMID:27226238

  6. Different molecular weight forms of opioid receptors revealed by polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Zhu, Y X; Lee, N M; Loh, H H

    1988-01-15

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against a purified opioid receptor from bovine brain (Cho, et. al., 1986), and shown to inhibit 3H-diprenorphine binding to this receptor in a dose-dependent fashion. These antibodies were then used to characterize opioid-binding material present in rat brain and in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibodies reacted with a single species of 58,000 molecular weight in rat brain membranes; this closely corresponds in size to the bovine opioid receptor used to raise the antibodies. In contrast, the polyclonal antibodies reacted with a 45,000 molecular weight species in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells; moreover, this band was specifically reduced in NG108-15 cells in which opioid receptors had been down-regulated by incubation with D-ala2-D-leu5-enkephalin for 24 hours. Thus at least two distinct opioid receptor molecules have been identified, which have antigenic similarities.

  7. Dextrorphan binds to opioid receptors in guinea-pig brain membranes and is an antagonist at opioid receptors in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, A; Naidu, A

    1990-01-01

    Dextrorphan (+)-tartrate, purified by repeated crystallization to remove all traces of the enantiomer levorphanol, binds to mu, delta, and kappa sites on guinea-pig brain membranes with lower affinities (by a factor of 400-3200) than levorphanol. In the guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus longitudinal muscle preparation (GPI), dextrorphan, at 100-200 microM, inhibits the electrically stimulated twitch, but this action is not blocked or reversed by naloxone; both (+)- and (-)-naloxone produce similar non-opioid twitch inhibition at comparable concentrations. At 10-20 microM, dextrorphan blocks and reverses the twitch inhibition due to mu and kappa agonists, but the blockade can be overcome only partially by increasing the agonist concentration. We conclude that dextrorphan is an opioid ligand with low affinity and with antagonist effect on opioid receptors in the GPI. PMID:2155421

  8. Opioid binding properties of the purified kappa receptor from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.S.; Zhou, D.; Cavinato, A.G.; Maulik, D.

    1989-01-01

    A glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 63,000 has been purified, in an active form, from human placental villus tissue membranes. The binding properties of this glycoprotein to opioid alkaloids and peptides indicates that it is the kappa opiate receptor of human placenta. The receptor binds the tritiated ligands etorphine, bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine and naloxone specifically and reversibly with Kd values of 3.3, 4.4, 5.1 and 7.0nM, respectively. The binding of /sup 3/H-Bremazocine to the purified receptor is inhibited by the following compounds with the corresponding Ki values EKC, 1.3 x 10/sup -8/M; Dynorphin 1-8, 3.03 x 10/sup -7/; U50,488H, 4.48 x 10/sup -9/; U69-593,2.28 x 10/sup -8/, morphine, 4.05 x 10/sup -6/ DADLE, 6.47 x 10/sup -6/ and naloxone, 2.64 x 10/sup -8/. The purified receptor binds 8 nmole of /sup 3/H-Etorphine and 1.7 nmole /sup 3/H-BZC per mg protein. The theoretical binding capacity of a protein of this molecular weight is 15.8. Although the iodinated purified receptor appears by autoradiography as one band on SDS-PAGE, yet homogeneity of the preparation is not claimed.

  9. Hormonal regulation of delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tanya J.; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Chapleau, Jeanette D.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that women and men differ in relapse vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior during abstinence periods. As relapse is frequently triggered by exposure of the recovered addict to objects previously associated with drug use and the formation of these associations requires memory systems engaged by the hippocampal formation (HF), studies exploring ovarian hormone modulation of hippocampal function are warranted. Previous studies revealed that ovarian steroids alter endogenous opioid peptide levels and trafficking of mu opioid receptors in the HF, suggesting cooperative interaction between opioids and estrogens in modulating hippocampal excitability. However, whether ovarian steroids affect the levels or trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) in the HF is unknown. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for quantitative immunoperoxidase light microscopy and dual label fluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy using antisera directed against the DOR and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Consistent with previous studies in males, DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) localized to select interneurons and principal cells in the female HF. In comparison to males, females, regardless of estrous cycle phase, show reduced DOR-ir in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and proestrus (high estrogen) females, in particular, display reduced DOR-ir in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Ultrastructural analysis of DOR-labeled profiles in CA1 revealed that while females generally show fewer DORs in the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, proestrus females, in particular, exhibit DOR internalization and trafficking towards the soma. Dual label studies revealed that DORs are found in NPY-labeled interneurons in the hilus, CA3, and CA1. While DOR colocalization frequency in NPY-labeled neuron somata was similar between animals in the hilus, proestrus females had fewer NPY-labeled neurons that

  10. Hormonal regulation of delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that women and men differ in relapse vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior during abstinence periods. As relapse is frequently triggered by exposure of the recovered addict to objects previously associated with drug use and the formation of these associations requires memory systems engaged by the hippocampal formation (HF), studies exploring ovarian hormone modulation of hippocampal function are warranted. Previous studies revealed that ovarian steroids alter endogenous opioid peptide levels and trafficking of mu opioid receptors in the HF, suggesting cooperative interaction between opioids and estrogens in modulating hippocampal excitability. However, whether ovarian steroids affect the levels or trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) in the HF is unknown. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for quantitative immunoperoxidase light microscopy and dual label fluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy using antisera directed against the DOR and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Consistent with previous studies in males, DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) localized to select interneurons and principal cells in the female HF. In comparison to males, females, regardless of estrous cycle phase, show reduced DOR-ir in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and proestrus (high estrogen) females, in particular, display reduced DOR-ir in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Ultrastructural analysis of DOR-labeled profiles in CA1 revealed that while females generally show fewer DORs in the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, proestrus females, in particular, exhibit DOR internalization and trafficking towards the soma. Dual label studies revealed that DORs are found in NPY-labeled interneurons in the hilus, CA3, and CA1. While DOR colocalization frequency in NPY-labeled neuron somata was similar between animals in the hilus, proestrus females had fewer NPY-labeled neurons that

  11. Targeted Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone to treat alcohol dependence. However, treatments requiring daily administration, such as naltrexone, are inconsistently adhered to in substance abusing populations, and constant medication exposure can increase risk of adverse outcomes, e.g., hepatotoxicity. This has fostered a ‘targeted’ or ‘as needed’ approach to opioid receptor antagonist treatment, in which medications are used only in anticipation of or during high-risk situations, including times of intense cravings. Initial studies of the ability of targeted naltrexone to reduce drinking-related outcomes were conducted in problem drinkers and have been extended into larger, multi-site, placebo-controlled investigations with positive results. Another μ-opioid receptor antagonist, nalmefene, has been studied on an ‘as-needed’ basis to reduce heavy drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. These studies include three large multi-site trials in Europe of up to 1 year in duration, and serve as the basis for the recent approval of nalmefene by the European Medicines Agency as an ‘as-needed’ adjunctive treatment for alcohol dependence. We review potential moderators of opioid receptor antagonist treatment response including subjective assessments, objective clinical measures and genetic variants. In sum, the targeted or ‘as-needed’ approach to treatment with opioid antagonists is an efficacious harmreduction strategy for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23881605

  12. Effects of morphine glucuronides on the function of opioid receptors in human SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, L; Dye, A; Ratka, A

    2000-03-01

    Morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) are active metabolites of morphine. The effects of M3G and M6G on the opioid receptor transduction system has not yet been fully elucidated. Formation of cAMP after treatment with various doses of morphine, M3G, and M6G was studied. M6G and morphine, but not M3G, showed a dose dependent inhibition of cAMP accumulation. Naloxone blocked the inhibitory effect of M6G, M3G, and morphine. Pretreatment with M3G did not change the effects of morphine and M6G. The G-protein inhibitor PTX, prevented morphine, M3G, and M6G effects on cAMP. M3G and M6G vary in their ability to interact with the opioid receptor effector system. Inhibition of cAMP evoked by activation of opioid receptors and inhibitory G-proteins may play a role in the actions of M6G and M3G.

  13. TGF-β and opioid receptor signaling crosstalk results in improvement of endogenous and exogenous opioid analgesia under pathological pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Lantero, Aquilino; Tramullas, Mónica; Pílar-Cuellar, Fuencisla; Valdizán, Elsa; Santillán, Rosa; Roques, Bernard P; Hurlé, María A

    2014-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protects against neuroinflammatory events underlying neuropathic pain. TGF-β signaling enhancement is a phenotypic characteristic of mice lacking the TGF-β pseudoreceptor BAMBI (BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor), which leads to an increased synaptic release of opioid peptides and to a naloxone-reversible hypoalgesic/antiallodynic phenotype. Herein, we investigated the following: (1) the effects of BAMBI deficiency on opioid receptor expression, functional efficacy, and analgesic responses to endogenous and exogenous opioids; and (2) the involvement of the opioid system in the antiallodynic effect of TGF-β1. BAMBI-KO mice were subjected to neuropathic pain by sciatic nerve crash injury (SNI). Gene (PCR) and protein (Western blot) expressions of μ- and δ-opioid receptors were determined in the spinal cord. The inhibitory effects of agonists on the adenylyl cyclase pathway were investigated. Two weeks after SNI, wild-type mice developed mechanical allodynia and the functionality of μ-opioid receptors was reduced. By this time, BAMBI-KO mice were protected against allodynia and exhibited increased expression and function of opioid receptors. Four weeks after SNI, when mice of both genotypes had developed neuropathic pain, the analgesic responses induced by morphine and RB101 (an inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes, which increases the synaptic levels of enkephalins) were enhanced in BAMBI-KO mice. Similar results were obtained in the formalin-induced chemical-inflammatory pain model. Subcutaneous TGF-β1 infusion prevented pain development after SNI. The antiallodynic effect of TGF-β1 was naloxone-sensitive. In conclusion, modulation of the endogenous opioid system by TGF-β signaling improves the analgesic effectiveness of exogenous and endogenous opioids under pathological pain conditions. PMID:24719115

  14. Heteromerization of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors produces ligand-biased antagonism and alters μ-receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Milan-Lobo, Laura; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-06-01

    Heteromerization of opioid receptors has been shown to alter opioid receptor pharmacology. However, how receptor heteromerization affects the processes of endocytosis and postendocytic sorting has not been closely examined. This question is of particular relevance for heteromers of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR), because the MOR is recycled primarily after endocytosis and the DOR is degraded in the lysosome. Here, we examined the endocytic and postendocytic fate of MORs, DORs, and DOR/MOR heteromers in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing each receptor alone or coexpressing both receptors. We found that the clinically relevant MOR agonist methadone promotes endocytosis of MOR but also the DOR/MOR heteromer. Furthermore, we show that DOR/MOR heteromers that are endocytosed in response to methadone are targeted for degradation, whereas MORs in the same cell are significantly more stable. It is noteworthy that we found that the DOR-selective antagonist naltriben mesylate could block both methadone- and [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin-induced endocytosis of the DOR/MOR heteromers but did not block signaling from this heteromer. Together, our results suggest that the MOR adopts novel trafficking properties in the context of the DOR/MOR heteromer. In addition, they suggest that the heteromer shows "biased antagonism," whereby DOR antagonist can inhibit trafficking but not signaling of the DOR/MOR heteromer.

  15. Opioid activity of beta-endorphin-like proteins from Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Enrique; Lazaro, Maria I; Renaud, Fernando L; Marino, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Morphine and other opioids have been reported to modulate phagocytosis in the ciliate Tetrahymena. However, the endogenous signaling molecule responsible for these effects remains uncharacterized. In this work we present evidence for the presence of beta-endorphin-like protein(s) in Tetrahymena thermophila. Subcellular extracts and cell-free culture supernatants were fractionated by hydrophobic chromatography on Sep Pack C18 columns and by affinity chromatography on polyclonal anti-beta-endorphin columns. Both preparations exhibited opioid-like effects in two different systems: 1) they inhibited phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophages, and 2) they blocked the response to mechanical stimuli in the ciliate Stentor. Both of these effects were reversed by naloxone, consistent with an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Chromatographic (HPLC) fractionation of the subcellular extracts resolved a component with beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity, whose retention time was similar to that of the human beta-endorphin standard. Fractions were also analyzed by immunoblots using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the N-terminus of human beta-endorphin. This antibody detected two antigenic components (corresponding to Mr 9,000 and Mr 12,000 polypeptides) in subcellular extracts, but only a single antigen (corresponding to a Mr 7,000 polypeptide) in culture supernatants. These results indicate that Tetrahymena produces one or more proteins that share some properties with beta-endorphin and that these may form part of an opioid mechanism that originated early in evolution. PMID:15068266

  16. Opioid activity of beta-endorphin-like proteins from Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Enrique; Lazaro, Maria I; Renaud, Fernando L; Marino, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Morphine and other opioids have been reported to modulate phagocytosis in the ciliate Tetrahymena. However, the endogenous signaling molecule responsible for these effects remains uncharacterized. In this work we present evidence for the presence of beta-endorphin-like protein(s) in Tetrahymena thermophila. Subcellular extracts and cell-free culture supernatants were fractionated by hydrophobic chromatography on Sep Pack C18 columns and by affinity chromatography on polyclonal anti-beta-endorphin columns. Both preparations exhibited opioid-like effects in two different systems: 1) they inhibited phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophages, and 2) they blocked the response to mechanical stimuli in the ciliate Stentor. Both of these effects were reversed by naloxone, consistent with an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Chromatographic (HPLC) fractionation of the subcellular extracts resolved a component with beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity, whose retention time was similar to that of the human beta-endorphin standard. Fractions were also analyzed by immunoblots using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the N-terminus of human beta-endorphin. This antibody detected two antigenic components (corresponding to Mr 9,000 and Mr 12,000 polypeptides) in subcellular extracts, but only a single antigen (corresponding to a Mr 7,000 polypeptide) in culture supernatants. These results indicate that Tetrahymena produces one or more proteins that share some properties with beta-endorphin and that these may form part of an opioid mechanism that originated early in evolution.

  17. [Mode of action of trimebutine: involvement if opioid receptors].

    PubMed

    Pascaud, X; Petoux, F; Roman, F; Vauche, D; Junien, J L

    1989-02-15

    Several studies in dogs, cats, rabbits and humans have suggested that the motility-stimulating properties of trimebutine (TMB) are mediated by peripheral opiate receptors. The present work deals with the capacity of the drug and its N-desmethyl metabolite (NDTMB) to displace mu, delta and kappa specific ligands from their receptors using guinea-pig whole brain membranes and ileum myenteric plexus synaptosomes membranes. The activity of both compounds on the twitch response induced by transmural stimulation of the guinea-pig ileum and of the mouse and rabbit vas deferens was also investigated. These preparations have been claimed to be specific for the mu, delta and kappa receptor subtypes respectively. TMB (0.2 to 1.8 microM) and NDTMB (0.3 to 6 microM) displayed a good affinity for all receptor subtypes in brain and myenteric plexus preparations. The decreasing order of IC50 (50 per cent inhibitory concentration)'S of TMB ranged from 0.75 microM in the guinea-pig ileum to 7.1 and 39 microM in the vas deferens of the rabbit and the mouse respectively. These results indicate that TMB and NDTMB possess mu, delta as well as kappa agonistic properties without true specificity for one or the other of these subtypes. They also confirm that activation of peripheral mu, delta and kappa opiate receptors mediate the gastrointestinal motility effect of TMB. PMID:2537972

  18. Structural basis for bifunctional peptide recognition at human δ-opioid receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Betti, Cecilia; Giguere, Patrick; Han, Gye Won; Ishchenko, Andrii; Liu, Wei; Guillemyn, Karel; Zhang, Haitao; James, Daniel; et al

    2015-02-16

    Bi-functional μ- and δ- opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives to alkaloid opiate analgesics with diminished side effects. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bi-functional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt and Tic. In summary, the observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical to understand the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides, and to develop improved analgesics.

  19. Mu receptor binding of some commonly used opioids and their metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhaorong; Irvine, R.J. ); Somogyi, A.A.; Bochner, F. Royal Adelaide Hospital )

    1991-01-01

    The binding affinity to the {mu} receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with {sup 3}H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding. Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at position 3 decreased the K{sub i} values (morphine < codeine < ethylmorphine < pholcodine). Analgesics with high clinical potency containing a methoxyl group at position 3 had relatively weak receptor binding, while their O-demethylated metabolites had much stronger binding. Many opioids may exert their pharmacological actions predominantly through metabolites.

  20. Structural basis for bifunctional peptide recognition at human δ-opioid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Betti, Cecilia; Giguere, Patrick; Han, Gye Won; Ishchenko, Andrii; Liu, Wei; Guillemyn, Karel; Zhang, Haitao; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C. H.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr M.; White, Thomas A.; Oberthuer, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Yoon, Chun Hong; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Basu, Shibom; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Fromme, Raimund; Fromme, Petra; Tourwé, Dirk; Schiller, Peter W.; Roth, Bryan L.; Ballet, Steven; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    Bi-functional μ- and δ- opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives to alkaloid opiate analgesics with diminished side effects. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bi-functional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt and Tic. In summary, the observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical to understand the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides, and to develop improved analgesics.

  1. Structural basis for bifunctional peptide recognition at human δ-Opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Betti, Cecilia; Giguere, Patrick; Han, Gye Won; Ishchenko, Andrii; Liu, Wei; Guillemyn, Karel; Zhang, Haitao; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C.H.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr M.; White, Thomas A.; Oberthuer, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Yoon, Chun Hong; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Basu, Shibom; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Fromme, Raimund; Fromme, Petra; Tourwé, Dirk; Schiller, Peter W.; Roth, Bryan L.; Ballet, Steven; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C.; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Bi-functional μ- and δ- opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives to alkaloid opiate analgesics with diminished side effects. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bi-functional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt(1)-Tic(2)-Phe(3)-Phe(4)-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt(1) and Tic(2). The observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical to understand the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides, and to develop improved analgesics. PMID:25686086

  2. Structural basis for bifunctional peptide recognition at human δ-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Betti, Cecilia; Giguere, Patrick; Han, Gye Won; Ishchenko, Andrii; Liu, Wei; Guillemyn, Karel; Zhang, Haitao; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C H; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; White, Thomas A; Oberthuer, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Yoon, Chun Hong; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Basu, Shibom; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Fromme, Raimund; Fromme, Petra; Tourwé, Dirk; Schiller, Peter W; Roth, Bryan L; Ballet, Steven; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Bifunctional μ- and δ-opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives, with diminished side effects, to alkaloid opiate analgesics. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bifunctional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt and Tic. The observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical for understanding of the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides and for development of improved analgesics.

  3. Structural basis for bifunctional peptide recognition at human δ-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Betti, Cecilia; Giguere, Patrick; Han, Gye Won; Ishchenko, Andrii; Liu, Wei; Guillemyn, Karel; Zhang, Haitao; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C H; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; White, Thomas A; Oberthuer, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Yoon, Chun Hong; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Basu, Shibom; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Fromme, Raimund; Fromme, Petra; Tourwé, Dirk; Schiller, Peter W; Roth, Bryan L; Ballet, Steven; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Bifunctional μ- and δ-opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives, with diminished side effects, to alkaloid opiate analgesics. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bifunctional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt and Tic. The observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical for understanding of the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides and for development of improved analgesics. PMID:25686086

  4. Potent cyclic enkephalin analogues for delta opioid receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, G.; Kao, J.; Hruby, V.; Morelli, M.; Gulya, K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/,D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPDPE) and (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/, L-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPLPE) characterization studies showed high affinity binding of these radioligands to rat brain membranes with dissociation constants of 1.8 and 1.0 nM, respectively, while a similar number of receptor density was found with both radiolabeled ligands (77 fmoles/mg protein). Unlabeled DPDPE inhibited both radioligands with high affinity (IC50 = 7 nM0 while morphine (IC50 = 80 nM), DAGO (IC50 = 250 nM) and PLO17 (no inhibition at 1000 nM) were less effective in inhibiting the binding, thus, illustrating the selective action of these radiolabeled ligands at the delta opioid receptor. A series of conformationally restricted D-penicillamine containing cyclic enkephalin analogues were synthesized using standard solid phase methods and their ability to inhibit (/sup 3/H)DPDPE and (/sup 3/H)DPLPE were examined in rat brain radioreceptor assays. Substitutions in the DPDPE molecule were made in phe/sup 4/. These substitutions were pNO/sub 2/-phe/sup 4/, beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sub 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/ (three isomeric forms: A,B,D). The IC50 values for the above enkephalin analogues were 3.7, 16, 7, 7, 200 nM, respectively. Thus, these potent analogues of DPDPE should be useful in determining the structure activity relationships of the delta opioid receptor in rat brain.

  5. Mu opioid receptor up-regulation and participation in excitability of hippocampal pyramidal cell electrophysiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moudy, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic administration of opiate antagonists to rats results in up-regulation of their brain opioid receptors. Using subcellular fractionation techniques, brain opioid receptors were resolved into two membrane populations, one associated with synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and the other enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi (microsomes). This study addressed in part the question of whether an antagonist induces up-regulation uniformly in these two populations. Rats were administered naltrexone by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Forebrain mu receptor levels were determined by homologous displacement of ({sup 3}H)D-ala{sup 2}-mePhe{sup 4}-gly-ol{sup 5}-enkephalin (DAGO) followed by computer estimation of binding parameters. Receptor levels in crude membranes rose 77% after treatment. Microsomes displayed a 92% increase, a two-fold greater change than in SPMs (51%). These results establish that naltrexone induces up-regulation of both membrane populations; and that microsomal and SPM receptors represent discrete populations of intracellular and cell surface sites, respectively. Binding experiments on isolated hippocampi also demonstrated up-regulation (71%) of mu receptors. To demonstrate up-regulation of opioid receptors electrophysiologically, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats which had been chronically treated with naltrexone. After superfusion with DAGO, these slices showed a 42% greater population spike output than controls in response to the same EPSP input. Hippocampi from animals treated for two weeks showed an additional increase in sensitivity. The results support a disinhibitory role for opioids in pyramidal cell hyper-excitability. More importantly, they demonstrate a significant physiological correlate to opioid receptor up-regulation.

  6. κ-opioid receptors are implicated in the increased potency of intra-accumbens nalmefene in ethanol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Nealey, Kathryn A; Smith, Alexander W; Davis, Seth M; Smith, Daniel G; Walker, Brendan M

    2011-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that ethanol-dependent animals display increased sensitivity to the general opioid receptor antagonist nalmefene compared to naltrexone. It was hypothesized that the dissociable effects of the two antagonists were attributable to a κ-opioid receptor mechanism. Nucleus accumbens dynorphin is upregulated following chronic ethanol exposure and such neuroadaptations could contribute to nalmefene's increased potency in ethanol-dependent animals. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol using an operant conditioning procedure. Animals were then implanted with bilateral intra-accumbens shell guide cannulae and assigned to either a chronic intermittent ethanol vapor-exposure condition (to induce dependence) or an air-exposed control group. Following a one-month exposure period, nalmefene, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; selective for κ-opioid receptors) or a combination of the selective opioid receptor antagonists CTOP and naltrindole (selective for the μ- and δ-opioid receptors, respectively) were site-specifically infused into the nucleus accumbens shell prior to ethanol self-administration sessions during acute withdrawal. Nalmefene and CTOP/naltrindole dose-dependently reduced ethanol self-administration in nondependent and dependent animals, whereas nor-BNI selectively attenuated ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent animals without affecting the self-administration of nondependent animals. Further analysis indentified that intra-accumbens shell nalmefene was more potent in ethanol-dependent animals and that the increased potency was attributable to a κ-opioid receptor mechanism. These data support the concept that dysregulation of DYN/κ-opioid receptor systems contributes to the excessive self-administration observed in dependent animals and suggest that pharmacotherapeutics for ethanol dependence that target κ-opioid receptors, in addition to μ- and δ-opioid receptors, are preferable

  7. The σ1 Receptor Engages the Redox-Regulated HINT1 Protein to Bring Opioid Analgesia Under NMDA Receptor Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Merlos, Manuel; Vela, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The in vivo pharmacology of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is certainly complex; however, σ1R antagonists are of therapeutic interest, because they enhance mu-opioid receptor (MOR)-mediated antinociception and reduce neuropathic pain. Thus, we investigated whether the σ1R is involved in the negative control that glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) exert on opioid antinociception. Results: The MOR C terminus carries the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) coupled to the regulator of G-protein signaling RGSZ2-neural nitric oxide synthase assembly. Activated MORs stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the redox zinc switch RGSZ2 converts this signal into free zinc ions that are required to recruit the redox sensor PKCγ to HINT1 proteins. Then, PKCγ impairs HINT1-RGSZ2 association and enables σ1R-NR1 interaction with MOR-HINT1 complexes to restrain opioid signaling. The inhibition of NOS or the absence of σ1Rs prevents HINT1-PKCγ interaction, and MOR-NMDAR cross-regulation fails. The σ1R antagonists transitorily remove the binding of σ1Rs to NR1 subunits, facilitate the entrance of negative regulators of NMDARs, likely Ca2+-CaM, and prevent NR1 interaction with HINT1, thereby impairing the negative feedback of glutamate on opioid analgesia. Innovation: A redox-regulated process situates MOR signaling under NMDAR control, and in this context, the σ1R binds to the cytosolic C terminal region of the NMDAR NR1 subunit. Conclusion: The σ1R antagonists enhance opioid analgesia in naïve mice by releasing MORs from the negative influence of NMDARs, and they also reset antinociception in morphine tolerant animals. Moreover, σ1R antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain, probably by driving the inhibition of up-regulated NMDARs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 799–818. PMID:25557043

  8. Discovery of Potent and Selective Agonists of δ Opioid Receptor by Revisiting the "Message-Address" Concept.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Qian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xuejun; Li, Wei; Liu, Jinggen; Fu, Wei

    2016-04-14

    The classic "message-address" concept was proposed to address the binding of endogenous peptides to the opioid receptors and was later successfully applied in the discovery of the first nonpeptide δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist naltrindole. By revisiting this concept, and based on the structure of tramadol, we designed a series of novel compounds that act as highly potent and selective agonists of DOR among which (-)-6j showed the highest affinity (K i = 2.7 nM), best agonistic activity (EC50 = 2.6 nM), and DOR selectivity (more than 1000-fold over the other two subtype opioid receptors). Molecular docking studies suggest that the "message" part of (-)-6j interacts with residue Asp128(3.32) and a neighboring water molecule, and the "address" part of (-)-6j packs with hydrophobic residues Leu300(7.35), Val281(6.55), and Trp284(6.58), rendering DOR selectivity. The discovery of novel compound (-)-6j, and the obtained insights into DOR-agonist binding will help us design more potent and selective DOR agonists.

  9. Fourteen. beta. -(bromoacetamido)morphine irreversibly labels. mu. opioid receptors in rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bidlack, J.M.; Frey, D.K.; Seyed-Mozaffari, A.; Archer, S. )

    1989-05-16

    The binding properties of 14{beta}-(bromoacetamido)morphine (BAM) and the ability of BAM to irreversibly inhibit opioid binding to rat brain membranes were examined to characterize the affinity and selectivity of BAM as an irreversible affinity ligand for opioid receptors. BAM had the same receptor selectivity as morphine, with a 3-5-fold decrease in affinity for the different types of opioid receptors. When brain membranes were incubated with BAM, followed by extensive washing, opioid binding was restored to control levels. However, when membranes were incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT), followed by BAM, and subsequently washed, 90% of the 0.25 nM ({sup 3}H)(D-Ala{sup 2},(Me)Phe{sup 4},Gly(ol){sup 5})enkephalin (DAGO) binding was irreversibly inhibited as a result of the specific alkylation of a sulfhydryl group at the {mu} binding site. This inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of both DTT and BAM. The {mu} receptor specificity of BAM alkylation was demonstrated by the ability of BAM alkylated membranes to still bind the {delta}-selective peptide ({sup 3}H)(D-penicillamine{sup 2},D-penicillamine{sup 5})enkephalin (DPDPE) and (-)-({sup 3}H)bremazocine in the presence of {mu} and {delta} blockers, selective for {kappa} binding sites. Morphine and naloxone partially protected the binding site from alkylation with BAM, while ligands that did not bind to the {mu}s site did not afford protection. These studies have demonstrated that when a disulfide bond at or near {mu} opioid binding sites was reduced, BAM could then alkylate this site, resulting in the specific irreversible labeling of {mu} opioid receptors.

  10. Nitric oxide and zinc-mediated protein assemblies involved in mu opioid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Garzón, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are among the most effective analgesics in controlling the perception of intense pain, although their continuous use decreases their potency due to the development of tolerance. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system is currently considered to be the most relevant functional antagonist of morphine analgesia. In the postsynapse of different brain regions the C terminus of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) associates with NR1 subunits of NMDARs, as well as with a series of signaling proteins, such as neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), protein kinase C (PKC), calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). NO is implicated in redox signaling and PKC falls under the regulation of zinc metabolism, suggesting that these signaling elements might participate in the regulation of MOR activity by the NMDAR. In this review, we discuss the influence of redox signaling in the mechanisms whose plasticity triggers opioid tolerance. Thus, the MOR C terminus assembles a series of signaling proteins around the homodimeric histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). The NMDAR NR1 subunit and the regulator of G protein signaling RGSZ2 bind HINT1 in a zinc-independent manner, with RGSZ2 associating with nNOS and regulating MOR-induced production of NO. This NO acts on the RGSZ2 zinc finger, providing the zinc ions that are required for PKC/Raf-1 cysteine-rich domains to simultaneously bind to the histidines present in the HINT1 homodimer. The MOR-induced activation of phospholipase β (PLCβ) regulates PKC, which increases the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by acting on NOX/NADPH, consolidating the long-term PKC activation required to regulate the Raf-1/MAPK cascade and enhancing NMDAR function. Thus, RGSZ2 serves as a Redox Zinc Switch that converts NO signals into Zinc signals, thereby modulating Redox Sensor Proteins like PKCγ and Raf-1. Accordingly, redox-dependent and

  11. Possible involvement of endogenous opioid system located downstream of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mice with physical dependence on nicotine.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Keiko; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro; Wakida, Naoki; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Maeda, Takehiko; Ozaki, Masanobu; Kishioka, Shiroh

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that nicotine (NIC)-induced analgesia was elicited in part by activation of the endogenous opioid system. Moreover, it is well known that NIC has physical-dependence liability, but its mechanism is unclear. Therefore, we examined whether physical dependence on NIC was mediated by activation of the endogenous opioid system in ICR mice. We evaluated increased serum corticosterone (SCS) as an indicator of NIC withdrawal, as it is a quantitative indicator of naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist, NLX)-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice. In this study, NLX precipitated an SCS increase in mice receiving repeated NIC, by a dose-dependent mechanism, and correlated with the dose and number of days of repeated NIC administration. When an opioid receptor antagonist (naltrexone) was concomitantly administered with repeated NIC, the NLX-precipitated SCS increase was not elicited. Concomitant administration of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist (methyllycaconitine) with repeated NIC, but not the α4β2 nAChR antagonist (dihydro-β-erythroidine), did not elicit an SCS increase by NLX. Thus, a physical dependence on NIC was in part mediated by the activation of the endogenous opioid system, located downstream of α7 nAChR.

  12. Further Optimization and Evaluation of Bioavailable, Mixed-Efficacy µ-Opioid Receptor (MOR) Agonists/δ-Opioid Receptor (DOR) Antagonists: Balancing MOR and DOR Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Harland, Aubrie A.; Yeomans, Larisa; Griggs, Nicholas W.; Anand, Jessica P.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    2016-01-01

    In a previously described peptidomimetic series, we reported the development of bifunctional µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist ligands with a lead compound that produced antinociception for 1 h after intraperitoneal administration in mice. In this paper, we expand on our original series by presenting two modifications, both of which were designed with the following objectives: 1) probing bioavailability and improving metabolic stability, 2) balancing affinities between MOR and DOR while reducing affinity and efficacy at the Κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and 3) improving in vivo efficacy. Here we establish that through N-acetylation of our original peptidomimetic series, we are able to improve DOR affinity and increase selectivity relative to KOR while maintaining the desired MOR agonist/DOR antagonist profile. From initial in vivo studies, one compound (14a) was found to produce dose-dependent antinociception after peripheral administration with an improved duration of action of longer than 3 h. PMID:26524472

  13. Primary structure and functional expression of a guinea pig kappa opioid (dynorphin) receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, G X; Meng, F; Mansour, A; Thompson, R C; Hoversten, M T; Goldstein, A; Watson, S J; Akil, H

    1994-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the guinea pig kappa opioid (dynorphin) receptor has been isolated. The deduced protein contains 380 aa and seven hydrophobic alpha-helices characteristic of the G protein-coupled receptors. This receptor is 90% identical to the mouse and rat kappa receptors, with the greatest level of divergence in the N-terminal region. When expressed in COS-7 cells, the receptor displays high affinity and stereospecificity toward dynorphin peptides and other kappa-selective opioid ligands such as U50, 488. It does not bind the mu- and delta-selective opioid ligands. The expressed receptor is functionally coupled to G protein(s) to inhibit adenylyl cyclase and Ca2+ channels. The guinea pig kappa receptor mRNA is expressed in many brain areas, including the cerebellum, a pattern that agrees well with autoradiographic maps of classical guinea pig kappa binding sites. Species differences in the pharmacology and mRNA distribution between the cloned guinea pig and rat kappa receptors may be worthy of further examination. Images PMID:8170987

  14. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids.

    PubMed

    Gear, R W; Bogen, O; Ferrari, L F; Green, P G; Levine, J D

    2014-01-17

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ∼90min after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J-113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  15. Opioids inhibit visceral afferent activation of catecholamine neurons in the solitary tract nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ran Ji; Roberts, Brandon L.; Zhao, Huan; Andresen, Michael C.; Appleyard, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem A2/C2 catecholamine (CA) neurons within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) influence many homeostatic functions, including food intake, stress, respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes. They also play a role in both opioid reward and withdrawal. Injections of opioids into the NTS modulate many autonomic functions influenced by catecholamine neurons including food intake and cardiac function. We recently showed that NTS-CA neurons are directly activated by incoming visceral afferent inputs. Here we determined whether opioid agonists modulate afferent activation of NTS-CA neurons using transgenic mice with EGFP expressed under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-EGFP) to identify catecholamine neurons. The opioid agonist Met-enkephalin (Met-Enk) significantly attenuated solitary tract evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSCs) in NTS TH-EGFP neurons by 80%, an effect reversed by wash or the mu opioid receptor specific antagonist, CTOP. Met-Enk had a significantly greater effect to inhibit afferent inputs onto TH-EGFP positive neurons than EGFP negative neurons, which were only inhibited by 50%. The mu agonist, DAMGO, also inhibited the ST-EPSC in TH-EGFP neurons in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, neither the delta agonist DPDPE, nor the kappa agonist, U69,593, consistently inhibited the ST-EPSC amplitude. Met-Enk and DAMGO increased the paired pulse ratio, decreased the frequency, but not amplitude, of mini-EPSCs and had no effect on holding current, input resistance or current-voltage relationships in TH-EGFP neurons, suggesting a presynaptic mechanism of action on afferent terminals. Met-Enk significantly reduced both the basal firing rate of NTS TH-EGFP neurons and the ability of afferent stimulation to evoke an action potential. These results suggest that opioids inhibit NTS-CA neurons by reducing an excitatory afferent drive onto these neurons through presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release and elucidate one potential mechanism by which opioids

  16. Spinally administered dynorphin A produces long-lasting allodynia: involvement of NMDA but not opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, T M; Vanderah, T W; Lashbrook, J; Nichols, M L; Ossipov, M; Porreca, F; Wilcox, G L

    1997-08-01

    The endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin A has non-opioid effects that can damage the spinal cord when given in high doses. Dynorphin has been shown to increase the receptive field size of spinal cord neurons and facilitate C-fiber-evoked reflexes. Furthermore, endogenous dynorphin levels increase following damage to the spinal cord, injury to peripheral nerves, or inflammation. In this study, sensory processing was characterized following a single, intrathecal injection of dynorphin A (1-17) in mice. A single intrathecal injection of dynorphin A (1-17) (3 nmol, i.t.) induced mechanical allodynia (hind paw, von Frey filaments) lasting 70 days, tactile allodynia (paint brush applied to flank) lasting 14 days, and cold allodynia (acetone applied to the dorsal hind paw) lasting 7 days. Similarly, dynorphin A (2-17) (3 nmol, i.t.), a non-opioid peptide, induced cold and tactile allodynia analogous to that induced by dynorphin A (1-17), indicating the importance of non-opioid receptors. Pretreatment with the NMDA antagonists, MK-801 and LY235959, but not the opioid antagonist, naloxone, blocked the induction of allodynia. Post-treatment with MK-801 only transiently blocked the dynorphin-induced allodynia, suggesting the NMDA receptors may be involved in the maintenance of allodynia as well as its induction. We have induced a long-lasting state of allodynia and hyperalgesia by a single intrathecal injection of dynorphin A (1-17) in mice. The allodynia induced by dynorphin required NMDA receptors rather than opioid receptors. This result is consistent with results in rats and with signs of clinically observed neuropathic pain. This effect of exogenously administered dynorphin raises the possibility that increased levels of endogenous dynorphins associated with spinal cord injuries may participate in the genesis and maintenance of neuropathic pain. PMID:9272810

  17. Effects of the Mu opioid receptor polymorphism (OPRM1 A118G) on pain regulation, placebo effects and associated personality trait measures.

    PubMed

    Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2015-03-01

    Mu-opioid receptors (MOPRs) are critically involved in the modulation of pain and analgesia, and represent a candidate mechanism for the development of biomarkers of pain conditions and their responses to treatment. To further understand the human implications of genetic variation within the opioid system in pain and opioid-mediated placebo responses, we investigated the association between the functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), A118G, and psychophysical responses, personality traits, and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine (DA), opioid) related to pain and placebo analgesia. OPRM1 G carriers, compared with AA homozygotes, showed an overall reduction of baseline μ-opioid receptor availability in regions implicated in pain and affective regulation. In response to a sustained painful stimulus, we found no effect of A118G on pain-induced endogenous opioid release. Instead, AA homozygotes showed a blunted DA response in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to the pain challenge. After placebo administration, G carriers showed more pronounced mood disturbances and lower placebo-induced μ-opioid system activation in the anterior insula (aINS), the amygdala (AMY), the NAc, the thalamus (THA), and the brainstem, as well as lower levels of DA D2/3 activation in the NAc. At a trait level, G carriers reported higher NEO-Neuroticism scores; a personality trait previously associated with increased pain and lower placebo responses, which were negatively correlated with baseline μ-opioid receptor availability in the aINS and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Our results demonstrate that the A118G OPRM1 polymorphism contributes to interindividual variations in the function of neurotransmitters responsive to pain (endogenous opioid and dopamine), as well as their regulation through cognitive-emotional influences in the context of therapeutic expectations, the so-called placebo effect. These effects are relevant to

  18. Effects of the Mu Opioid Receptor Polymorphism (OPRM1 A118G) on Pain Regulation, Placebo Effects and Associated Personality Trait Measures

    PubMed Central

    Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2015-01-01

    Mu-opioid receptors (MOPRs) are critically involved in the modulation of pain and analgesia, and represent a candidate mechanism for the development of biomarkers of pain conditions and their responses to treatment. To further understand the human implications of genetic variation within the opioid system in pain and opioid-mediated placebo responses, we investigated the association between the functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), A118G, and psychophysical responses, personality traits, and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine (DA), opioid) related to pain and placebo analgesia. OPRM1 G carriers, compared with AA homozygotes, showed an overall reduction of baseline μ-opioid receptor availability in regions implicated in pain and affective regulation. In response to a sustained painful stimulus, we found no effect of A118G on pain-induced endogenous opioid release. Instead, AA homozygotes showed a blunted DA response in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to the pain challenge. After placebo administration, G carriers showed more pronounced mood disturbances and lower placebo-induced μ-opioid system activation in the anterior insula (aINS), the amygdala (AMY), the NAc, the thalamus (THA), and the brainstem, as well as lower levels of DA D2/3 activation in the NAc. At a trait level, G carriers reported higher NEO-Neuroticism scores; a personality trait previously associated with increased pain and lower placebo responses, which were negatively correlated with baseline μ-opioid receptor availability in the aINS and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Our results demonstrate that the A118G OPRM1 polymorphism contributes to interindividual variations in the function of neurotransmitters responsive to pain (endogenous opioid and dopamine), as well as their regulation through cognitive-emotional influences in the context of therapeutic expectations, the so-called placebo effect. These effects are relevant to

  19. Structural determinants of diphenethylamines for interaction with the κ opioid receptor: Synthesis, pharmacology and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Elena; Bermudez, Marcel; Wolber, Gerhard; Berzetei-Gurske, Ilona P; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The κ opioid (KOP) receptor crystal structure in an inactive state offers nowadays a valuable platform for inquiry into receptor function. We describe the synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and docking calculations of KOP receptor ligands from the class of diphenethylamines using an active-like structure of the KOP receptor attained by molecular dynamics simulations. The structure-activity relationships derived from computational studies was in accordance with pharmacological activities of targeted diphenethylamines at the KOP receptor established by competition binding and G protein activation in vitro assays. Our analysis identified that agonist binding results in breaking of the Arg156-Thr273 hydrogen bond, which stabilizes the inactive receptor conformation, and a crucial hydrogen bond with His291 is formed. Compounds with a phenolic 4-hydroxy group do not form the hydrogen bond with His291, an important residue for KOP affinity and agonist activity. The size of the N-substituent hosted by the hydrophobic pocket formed by Val108, Ile316 and Tyr320 considerably influences binding and selectivity, with the n-alkyl size limit being five carbon atoms, while bulky substituents turn KOP agonists in antagonists. Thus, combination of experimental and molecular modeling strategies provides an initial framework for understanding the structural features of diphenethylamines that are essential to promote binding affinity and selectivity for the KOP receptor, and may be involved in transduction of the ligand binding event into molecular changes, ultimately leading to receptor activation. PMID:27567368

  20. Structural determinants of diphenethylamines for interaction with the κ opioid receptor: Synthesis, pharmacology and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Elena; Bermudez, Marcel; Wolber, Gerhard; Berzetei-Gurske, Ilona P; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The κ opioid (KOP) receptor crystal structure in an inactive state offers nowadays a valuable platform for inquiry into receptor function. We describe the synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and docking calculations of KOP receptor ligands from the class of diphenethylamines using an active-like structure of the KOP receptor attained by molecular dynamics simulations. The structure-activity relationships derived from computational studies was in accordance with pharmacological activities of targeted diphenethylamines at the KOP receptor established by competition binding and G protein activation in vitro assays. Our analysis identified that agonist binding results in breaking of the Arg156-Thr273 hydrogen bond, which stabilizes the inactive receptor conformation, and a crucial hydrogen bond with His291 is formed. Compounds with a phenolic 4-hydroxy group do not form the hydrogen bond with His291, an important residue for KOP affinity and agonist activity. The size of the N-substituent hosted by the hydrophobic pocket formed by Val108, Ile316 and Tyr320 considerably influences binding and selectivity, with the n-alkyl size limit being five carbon atoms, while bulky substituents turn KOP agonists in antagonists. Thus, combination of experimental and molecular modeling strategies provides an initial framework for understanding the structural features of diphenethylamines that are essential to promote binding affinity and selectivity for the KOP receptor, and may be involved in transduction of the ligand binding event into molecular changes, ultimately leading to receptor activation.

  1. A pharmacological profile of the novel, peripherally-selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753

    PubMed Central

    Barber, A.; Bartoszyk, G.D.; Bender, H.M.; Gottschlich, R.; Greiner, H.E.; Harting, J.; Mauler, F.; Minck, K.-O.; Murray, R.D.; Simon, M.; Seyfried, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    1 The pharmacological properties of the novel diarylacetamide κ-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753, have been compared with those of ICI 197067 (a centrally-acting κ agonist) and ICI 204448 (a peripherally-selective κ agonist). 2 EMD 61753 binds with high affinity (IC50 5.6 nM) and selectivity (κ:μ:δ:σ binding ratio 1:536:125:>1,786) to κ-opioid receptors and is a full and potent (IC50 54.5 nM) agonist in an in vitro assay for κ-opioid receptors (rabbit vas deferens preparation). 3 Systemically-applied [14C]-EMD 61753 is found in high concentrations in the lungs, liver, adrenal glands and kidneys. Considerably less radioactivity is detected in the whole brain, and this radioactivity is concentrated in the region of the cerebral ventricles in the choroid plexuses. EMD 61753 penetrates only poorly into the CNS. 4 EMD 61753 was weakly effective in pharmacological tests of central activity. This compound reversed haloperidolol-induced DOPA accumulation in the nucleus accumbens of the rat only at a dose of 30 mg kg-1, s.c., (doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg kg-1, s.c., and 1.0, 10 and 100 mg kg-1, p.o., were inactive). Hexobarbitone-induced sleeping in mice was prolonged by EMD 61753 at threshold doses of 10 mg kg-1, s.c., and 100 mg kg-1, p.o., whereas the motor performance of rats in the rotarod test was impaired by EMD 61753 with an ID50 value of 453 mg kg-1, s.c. 5 EMD 61753 produced dose-dependent, naloxone-reversible antinociception in the mouse formalin test (1st phase ID50 1.9 mg kg-1, s.c., and 10.4 mg kg-1, p.o.; 2nd phase ID50 0.26 mg kg-1, s.c., and 3.5 mg kg-1, p.o.) and rodent abdominal constriction test (ID50 mouse 1.75 mg kg-1, s.c., and 8.4 mg kg-1, p.o.; ID50 rat 3.2 mg kg-1, s.c., and 250 mg kg-1, p.o.). EMD 61753 was inactive, or only weakly effective, in the rat pressure test under normalgesic conditions. After the induction of hyperalgesia with carrageenin, however, this compound elicited potent, dose-dependent (ID50 0.08 mg kg-1, s.c., and 6

  2. Kappa Opioid Receptors Mediate where Fear Is Expressed Following Extinction Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sindy; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P.

    2011-01-01

    Six experiments used a within-subjects renewal design to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in regulating the expression and recovery of extinguished fear. Rats were trained to fear a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) via pairings with foot shock in a distinctive context (A). This was followed by extinction training of the CS in…

  3. Potent delta-opioid receptor agonists containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2002-12-01

    Conversion of delta-opioid receptor antagonists containing the 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) pharmacophore into potent delta-agonists required a third heteroaromatic nucleus, such as 1H-benzimidazole-2-yl (Bid) and a linker of specified length both located C-terminally to Tic in the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R'. The distance between Tic and Bid is a determining factor responsible for the acquisition of delta agonism (2, 2', 3, 4, 6) or delta antagonism (8). Compounds containing a C-terminal Ala (1, 1'), Asp (5), or Asn (7) with an amide (1, 1', 5) or free acid group (7) served as delta-antagonist controls lacking the third heteroaromatic ring. A change in chirality of the spacer (2, 2') or inclusion of a negative charge via derivatives of Asp (4, 6) resulted in potent delta agonism and moderate mu agonism, although delta-receptor affinity decreased about 10-fold for 4 while mu affinity fell by over 2 orders of magnitude. Repositioning of the negative charge in the linker altered activity: H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(CH(2)-Bid)COOH (6) maintained high delta affinity (K(i) = 0.042 nM) and delta agonism (IC(50) = 0.015 nM), but attachment of the free acid group to Bid [H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid(CH(2)-COOH) (9)] reconstituted delta antagonism (K(e) = 0.27 nM). The data demonstrate that a linker separating the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore and Bid, regardless of the presence of a negative charge, is important in the acquisition of opioids exhibiting potent delta agonism and weak mu agonism from a parent delta antagonist.

  4. Ligand-Specific Regulation of the Endogenous Mu-Opioid Receptor by Chronic Treatment with Mu-Opioid Peptide Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Murányi, Marianna; Cinar, Resat; Kékesi, Orsolya; Birkás, Erika; Fábián, Gabriella; Bozó, Beáta; Zentai, András; Tóth, Géza; Kicsi, Emese Gabriella; Mácsai, Mónika; Szabó, Gyula; Szücs, Mária

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the endomorphins (EM), the postulated endogenous peptide agonists of the mu-opioid receptors, several analogues have been synthesized to improve their binding and pharmacological profiles. We have shown previously that a new analogue, cis-1S,2R-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid2-endomorphin-2 (ACHC-EM2), had elevated mu-receptor affinity, selectivity, and proteolytic stability over the parent compound. In the present work, we have studied its antinociceptive effects and receptor regulatory processes. ACHC-EM2 displayed a somewhat higher (60%) acute antinociceptive response than the parent peptide, EM2 (45%), which peaked at 10 min after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration in the rat tail-flick test. Analgesic tolerance developed to the antinociceptive effect of ACHC-EM2 upon its repeated icv injection that was complete by a 10-day treatment. This was accompanied by attenuated coupling of mu-sites to G-proteins in subcellular fractions of rat brain. Also, the density of mu-receptors was upregulated by about 40% in the light membrane fraction, with no detectable changes in surface binding. Distinct receptor regulatory processes were noted in subcellular fractions of rat brains made tolerant by the prototypic full mu-agonist peptide, DAMGO, and its chloromethyl ketone derivative, DAMCK. These results are discussed in light of the recently discovered phenomenon, that is, the “so-called biased agonism” or “functional selectivity”. PMID:24350273

  5. Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, A; Samways, D S; Fowler, C E; Gunn-Moore, F; Henderson, G

    2001-03-01

    In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished when the carbachol-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store was emptied. There was a marked difference between the concentration-response relationship for the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) by carbachol (EC(50) 13 microM, Hill slope 1) and the concentration-response relationship for carbachol's permissive action in revealing the delta-opioid receptor-mediated elevation of [Ca(2+)] (EC(50) 0.7 mM; Hill slope 1.8). Sequestration of free G protein beta gamma dimers by transient transfection of cells with a beta gamma binding protein (residues 495-689 of the C terminal tail of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) reduced the ability of delta opioid receptor activation to elevate [Ca(2+)](i). However, DPDPE did not elevate either basal or oxotremorine-M-evoked inositol phosphate production indicating that delta-opioid receptor activation did not stimulate phospholipase C. Furthermore, delta-opioid receptor activation did not result in the reversal of muscarinic receptor desensitization, membrane hyperpolarization or stimulation of sphingosine kinase. There was no coincident signalling between the delta-opioid receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor which couples to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in SH-SY5Y cells by a PLC-independent mechanism. In SH-SY5Y cells the coincident signalling between the endogenously expressed delta-opioid and m3 muscarinic receptors appears to occur in the receptor activation-Ca(2+) release signalling pathway at a step after the activation of phospholipase C. PMID:11259487

  6. [Cys(O2NH2)2]enkephalin analogues and dalargin: selectivity for delta-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Bocheva, A; Dimitrov, E; Ivancheva, C; Radomirov, R

    1996-05-23

    To investigate the structure-activity relationships for potent and selective action of enkephalins at the delta-opioid receptors, two newly synthesized analogues, [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin and [Cys(O2NH2)2, Met5] enkephalin and the hexapeptide [D-Ala2,Leu5]enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin) were tested and compared with [Leu5]enkephalin and [Met5]enkephalin, for their effectiveness to inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens (predominantly enkephalin-selective delta-opioid receptors) and the guinea pig ileum (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors). The mouse vas deferens assays included evaluation of the effects of opioid agonists on the first, purinergic, and the second, adrenergic, components of electrically evoked biphasic responses (10 Hz and 20 Hz) and on ATP- or noradrenaline-evoked, tetrodotoxin-resistant responses. The opioids tested inhibited in a similar manner: (i) the purinergic and the adrenergic components of the electrically evoked contractions; and (ii) the ATP- and noradrenaline-induced postjunctional responses of the mouse vas deferens. Extremely low IC50 values (of 2-5 orders) were found for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5] enkephalin, whose relative potency was between 239 and 1316 times higher than that of [Leu5]enkephalin. The order of potency for the other peptides in this tissue was: [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin > [Leu5]enkephalin > dalargin > [Met5]enkephalin. The highest IC50 values in the guinea pig ileum assays, indicating the lowest affinity for mu-/kappa-opioid receptors, were obtained for the cysteine sulfonamide analogues, while dalargin showed a potency four times higher than that of [Met5]enkephalin. The order of potency in this tissue was: dalargin > [Met5]enkephalin > [Leu5]enkephalin > [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin > [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin. The ratio, IC50 in guinea pig ileum: IC50 in mouse vas deferens, indicating selectivity of the respective peptide for delta-opioid receptors, was extremely high for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5

  7. Mu opioid receptor expression is increased in inflammatory bowel diseases: implications for homeostatic intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, D; Chakass, D; Thuru, X; Zerbib, P; Tsicopoulos, A; Geboes, K; Bulois, P; Breisse, M; Vorng, H; Gay, J; Colombel, J‐F; Desreumaux, P; Chamaillard, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies with μ opioid receptor (MOR) deficient mice support a physiological anti‐inflammatory effect of MOR at the colon interface. To better understand the potential pharmacological effect of certain opiates in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), we (1) evaluated the regulation in vivo and in vitro of human MOR expression by inflammation; and (2) tested the potential anti‐inflammatory function of a specific opiate (DALDA) in inflamed and resting human mucosa. Patients and methods Expression of MOR mRNA and protein was evaluated in healthy and inflamed small bowel and colonic tissues, isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified monocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and IBD patients. The effect of cytokines and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation on MOR expression in lymphocyte T and monocytic human cell lines was assessed. Finally, DALDA induced anti‐inflammatory effect was investigated in mucosal explants from controls and IBD patients. Results MOR was expressed in ileal and colonic enteric neurones as well as in immunocytes such as myeloid cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Overexpressed in active IBD mucosa, MOR was significantly enhanced by cytokines and repressed by NFκB inhibitor in myeloid and lymphocytic cell lines. Furthermore, ex vivo DALDA treatment dampened tumour necrosis factor α mRNA expression in the colon of active IBD patients. Conclusions Given the increased expression of MOR and the ex vivo beneficial effect of DALDA in active IBD, natural and/or synthetic opioid agonists could help to prevent overt pathological intestinal inflammation. PMID:16299031

  8. Anti-opioid effects of neuropeptide FF receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Kersanté, Flavie; Wang, Jin-Ya; Chen, Jin-Chung; Mollereau, Catherine; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-25

    The present study investigates the modulatory effects of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors on the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway controlled by opioid receptors. A stable NPFF(2) receptor agonist, dNPA, was injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the release of dopamine and serotonin within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), induced by intraperitoneal injection of morphine, was monitored using the brain microdialysis, in non-constrained rat. dNPA decreased systemic morphine-induced elevation of dopamine and serotonin metabolites within the NAc. Furthermore, co-injected with morphine into the VTA, NPFF inhibited morphine-induced stereotypy 60-120min after the injection. This neurochemical and behavioural anti-opioid effect mediated by NPFF(2) receptors at the level of VTA suggests the involvement of NPFF in the rewarding effects of opiates on the mesolimbic dopamine system.

  9. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaojing; Campomanes, Pablo; Kless, Achim; Schapitz, Inga; Wagener, Markus; Koch, Thomas; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP) and hydromorphone (HMP), are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor's activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation. PMID:26280453

  10. Evaluation of radioiodinated C6-O- and N-iodoallyl analogues of diprenorphine as ligands for cerebral opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lever, J.R.; Scheffel, U.; Stathis, M.

    1994-05-01

    Analogues of diprenorphine (DPN) having C6-O-iodoallyl (O-IA-DPN) and N-iodoallyl (N-IA-DPN) substituents can be I-125 labeled in good yield with high specific activity by radioiododestannylation. When tested in vitro against [H-3]-DPN in rat brain membranes, the apparent affinity (Ki) of O-IA-DPN (1.35 nM) proved 17-fold stronger than that of N-IA-DPN (23.4 nM). Against selective [H-3]-ligands, O-IA-DPN showed high apparent affinities for {mu}(1.9 nM), {gamma}(1.1 nM) and {kappa}(0.9 nM) sites. Consistent with the low apparent affinity in vitro, [I-125]-N-IA- DPN did not allow localization of cerebral opioid receptors after i.v. administration to mice. By contrast, [I-125]-O-IA-DPN exhibited a regional brain distribution which reflects binding to multiple opioid receptors. The highest radioactivity concentrations were in superior colliculi, hypothalamus, olfactory tubercles, thalamus and striatum. Peak levels (2.5-3.5 %ID/g) were maintained over the first 60 min. At all times, the lowest levels of radioactivity were in the cerebellum. Binding in vivo was saturable by O-IA-DPN, was blocked by (-)- but not by (+)-naloxone, and was inhibited by naltrexone in dose-dependent fashion. Specific binding was 83-93% for all tissues except cerebellum, where 50% blockade was noted with naltrexone (5.0 mg/kg). Using naltrexone blockade to define non-specific binding, the highest ratio of specific to non-specific binding (> 14 to 1) was noted for superior colliculi at 60 min. Inhibition studies with drugs selective for {mu}, {gamma} or {kappa} sites established that multiple opioid receptors are labeled. [123I]-O-IA-DPN has been prepared (84%, >2400 mCi/{mu}mol), and allows visualization of opioid receptors in mouse brain by ex vivo autoradiography. Together, these results suggest that [123I]-O-IA-DPN is suitable for SPECT studies of multiple opioid receptors.

  11. Opioids in Preclinical and Clinical Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideaki

    Since 1952, when Gates determined the stereo structure of morphine, numerous groups have focused on discovering a nonnarcotic opioid drug [1]. Although several natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic opioid ligands (alkaloids and peptides) have been developed in clinical studies, very few were nonnarcotic opioid drugs [2]. One of the most important studies in the opioid field appeared in 1976, when Martin and colleagues [3] established types of opioid receptors (these are now classified into μ, δ, and κ types). Later, Portoghese discovered a highly selective μ type opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine [4]. This led to the finding that the μ type opioid receptor was correlated to drug dependence [5]. Consequently, δ, and particularly κ, opioid agonists were expected to lead to ideal opioid drugs. Moreover, opioid antagonists were evaluated for the treatment of symptoms related to undesirable opioid system activation. In this chapter, we provide a short survey of opioid ligands in development and describe the discovery of the two most promising drugs, TRK-851 [6] and TRK-820 (nalfurafine hydrochloride) [7].

  12. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  13. Kappa-opioid receptor from human placenta: hydrodynamic characteristics and evidence for its association with a G protein

    SciTech Connect

    Porthe, G.; Frances, B.; Verrier, B.; Cros, J.; Meunier J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The kappa nature of opioid binding sites in a brush border membrane (BBM) fraction from human placenta has been confirmed: these sites display considerably higher apparent affinity for the kappa selective ligand U-50488 than they do for the ..mu.. and delta selective ligands enkephalin and enkephalyl-Thr, respectively. Two lines of evidence indicated that the placental kappa opioid receptor is capable of interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory (G) protein: (i) equilibrium binding of the angonist /sup 3/H-etorphine in the BBM fraction was clearly inhibited by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p), especially in the presence of Na/sup +/ ions while binding of the antagonist /sup 3/H-diprenorphine was significantly less so and (ii) the sedimentation velocity of the kappa opioid receptor was decreased down to about 10 S when the BBM fraction was prelabeled with radioligand in the presence of Gpp(NH)p prior to its solubilization with digitonin. The G protein that mediates the effect of Gpp(NH)p might be neither G/sub s/ nor G/sub i/ since no adenylate cyclase activity could be demonstrated in the BBM fraction from human placenta.

  14. 3-(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-alkyl-N-arylbenzamides: potent, non-peptidic agonists of both the micro and delta opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Michael J; Garrido, Dulce M; Boswell, G Evan; Collins, Mark A; Harris, Philip A; McNutt, Robert W; O'Neill, Scott J; Wei, Ke; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2003-02-13

    Opioid analgesics with both micro and delta opioid receptor activation represent a new approach to the treatment of severe pain with an improved safety profile. Compounds with this profile may exhibit strong analgesic properties due to micro agonism, with a reduced side effect profile resulting from delta agonism. Replacing the p-diethylamide of the known potent delta opioid receptor selective agonist BW373U86 with a m-diethylamide resulted in a compound with agonist activity at both the micro and delta opioid receptors. Modifying the amide to an N-methyl-N-phenylamide increased agonist potency at both receptors. A series of 3-(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-alkyl-N-arylbenzamides have been made to explore the structure-activity relationship (SAR) around the N-methyl-N-phenylamide. Several potent agonists of both the micro and delta opioid receptors have been identified, including (+)-3-((alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzamide (23), which has EC50 values of 0.67 and 1.1 nM at the micro (guinea pig ileum assay) and delta (mouse vas deferens assay) opioid receptors, respectively.

  15. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the delta- and mu-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 microm) of the medial septal area and of the diagonal band of Broca, as well as (for comparison) of the hippocampus, were prepared from adult male Wistar rats. The slices were incubated with [3H]choline, superfused in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (10 microM) and stimulated twice (S1, S2) by electrical fields (360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA); opioid receptor agonists were present during S2. The preferential mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the evoked ACh release by maximally about 40% in hippocampal slices and acted even more strongly in the medial septal area, or the diagonal band of Broca (about 60% or 75% maximal inhibition, respectively). These effects were reduced or abolished by the preferential mu-antagonist naloxone, which showed no effects when given alone. Using naloxone in the presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, no evidence for an endogenous tone of opioid peptides was found in the medial septal area, diagonal band of Broca or the hippocampus. Using the preferential delta-agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and the delta-antagonist naltrindole, a delta-opioid receptor inhibiting evoked ACh release was clearly detectable both in the medial septal area and the diagonal band of Broca, but not in the hippocampus, whereas the preferential kappa-agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) had only weak or no effects. In addition to the functional experiments, double in-situ hybridization studies were performed, in which cells containing mRNA for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were labeled by an

  16. Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Luu, Lillian; Lee, Sang-Hun; Varga, Csaba; Soltesz, Ivan

    2011-10-19

    μ-Opioid receptors (μORs) are selectively expressed on interneurons in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing, basket cells express μORs, but circumstantial evidence suggests that another major, unidentified, GABAergic cell class must also be modulated by μORs. Here we report that the abundant, dendritically targeting, neurogliaform family of cells (Ivy and neurogliaform cells) is a previously unrecognized target of direct modulation by μORs. Ivy and neurogliaform cells are not only numerous but also have unique properties, including promiscuous gap junctions formed with various interneuronal subtypes, volume transmission, and the ability to produce a postsynaptic GABA(B) response after a single presynaptic spike. Using a mouse line expressing green fluorescent protein under the neuropeptide Y promoter, we find that, across all layers of CA1, activation of μORs hyperpolarizes Ivy and neurogliaform cells. Furthermore, paired recordings between synaptically coupled Ivy and pyramidal cells show that Ivy cell terminals are dramatically inhibited by μOR activation. Effects in Ivy and neurogliaform cells are seen at similar concentrations of agonist as those producing inhibition in fast-spiking parvalbumin basket cells. We also report that Ivy cells display the recently described phenomenon of persistent firing, a state of continued firing in the absence of continued input, and that induction of persistent firing is inhibited by μOR activation. Together, these findings identify a major, previously unrecognized, target of μOR modulation. Given the prominence of this cell type in and beyond CA1, as well as its unique role in microcircuitry, opioid modulation of neurogliaform cells has wide implications. PMID:22016519

  17. Differential regulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation by opioid receptor antagonists in running and non-running spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders I; Naylor, Andrew S; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Nyberg, Fred; Eriksson, Peter S; Thorlin, Thorleif

    2004-04-01

    Voluntary running in mice and forced treadmill running in rats have been shown to increase the amount of proliferating cells in the hippocampus. Little is known as yet about the mechanisms involved in these processes. It is well known that the endogenous opioid system is affected during running and other forms of physical exercise. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running and voluntary running rats. Nine days of wheel running was compared with non-running in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a rat strain known to run voluntarily. On the last 2 days of the experimental period all rats received two daily injections of the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone or naltrindole together with injections of bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. Brain sections from the running rats showed approximately a five-fold increase in newly generated cells in the hippocampus, and this increase was partly reduced by naltrexone but not by naltrindole. By contrast, both naltrexone and naltrindole increased hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats. In non-running rats the administration of naltrexone decreased corticosterone levels and adrenal gland weights, whereas no significant effects on these parameters could be detected for naltrindole. However, adrenal gland weights were increased in naltrexone- but not in naltrindole-administered running rats. In addition, in voluntary running rats there was a three-fold increase in the hippocampal levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe compared with non-runners, indicating an increase in opioid activity in the hippocampus during running. These data suggest an involvement of endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats, probably through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. During voluntary running in SHR naltrexone altered hippocampal proliferation via as yet unknown mechanisms. PMID:15078558

  18. Argon prevents the development of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine and amphetamine-induced changes in mu opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Dhilly, Martine; Poisnel, Géraldine; Degoulet, Mickael; Meckler, Cédric; Vallée, Nicolas; Blatteau, Jean-Éric; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Lemaire, Marc; Debruyne, Danièle; Abraini, Jacques H

    2014-01-01

    Systemic administration of γ-amino-butyric acid type A (GABA-A) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists has been reported to block the development of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine. Here, we investigated whether the non-anesthetic noble gas argon, shown to possess agonistic properties at these receptors, may block the acquisition of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and mu opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were pretreated with saline solution or amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from day 1 to day 3 and then exposed, immediately after injection of amphetamine, to medicinal air or argon at 75 vol% (with the remainder being oxygen). After a 3-day period of withdrawal, rats were challenged with amphetamine on day 7. Rats pretreated with amphetamine and argon had lower locomotor activity (U = 5, P < 0.005) and mu opioid receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens (U = 0, P < 0.001) than rats pretreated with amphetamine and air. In contrast, argon had effect on locomotor and mu receptor activity neither in rats pretreated with saline and challenged with amphetamine (acute amphetamine) nor in rats pretreated and challenged with saline solution (controls). These results indicate that argon inhibits the development of both locomotor sensitization and mu opioid receptor activation induced by repeated administration of amphetamine.

  19. Interface of physical and emotional stress regulation through the endogenous opioid system and mu-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Saulo C; Kennedy, Susan E; Smith, Yolanda R; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2005-12-01

    Unraveling the pathways and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the regulation of physical and emotional stress responses in humans is of critical importance to understand vulnerability and resiliency factors to the development of a number of complex physical and psychopathological states. Dysregulation of central stress response circuits have been implicated in the establishment of conditions as diverse as persistent pain, mood and personality disorders and substance abuse and dependence. The present review examines the contribution of the endogenous opioid system and mu-opioid receptors to the modulation and adaptation of the organism to challenges, such as sustained pain and negative emotional states, which threaten its internal homeostasis. Data accumulated in animal models, and more recently in humans, point to this neurotransmitter system as a critical modulator of the transition from acute (warning signals) to sustained (stressor) environmental adversity. The existence of pathways and regulatory mechanisms common to the regulation of both physical and emotional states transcend classical categorical disease classifications, and point to the need to utilize dimensional, "symptom"-related approximations to their study. Possible future areas of study at the interface of "mind" (cognitive-emotional) and "body" (physical) functions are delineated in this context.

  20. PET imaging reveals sex differences in kappa opioid receptor availability in humans, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Wang, Shuo; Worhunsky, Patrick; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, Jim; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Huang, Yiyun; Morris, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women. Twenty-seven subjects-18 males (M) and 9 females (F)-underwent PET scans with [(11)C] LY2795050, a selective kappa antagonist tracer. Partial volume correction was applied to all PET data. Volume of distribution (V T) of the tracer was estimated regionally as well as at the voxel level. V T values of males versus females were compared for 19 defined ROIs. Results at the regional and voxel levels were consistent. Males had significantly higher V T and thus a higher KOR availability than women in multiple brain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex differences in the KOR system in humans, in vivo. These findings could have implications for the treatment of pain with kappa opioid analgesics. The results may also have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of addictive and other disorders. PMID:27648372

  1. PET imaging reveals sex differences in kappa opioid receptor availability in humans, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Wang, Shuo; Worhunsky, Patrick; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, Jim; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Huang, Yiyun; Morris, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women. Twenty-seven subjects-18 males (M) and 9 females (F)-underwent PET scans with [11C] LY2795050, a selective kappa antagonist tracer. Partial volume correction was applied to all PET data. Volume of distribution (V T) of the tracer was estimated regionally as well as at the voxel level. V T values of males versus females were compared for 19 defined ROIs. Results at the regional and voxel levels were consistent. Males had significantly higher V T and thus a higher KOR availability than women in multiple brain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex differences in the KOR system in humans, in vivo. These findings could have implications for the treatment of pain with kappa opioid analgesics. The results may also have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of addictive and other disorders. PMID:27648372

  2. PET imaging reveals sex differences in kappa opioid receptor availability in humans, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Aishwarya; Wang, Shuo; Worhunsky, Patrick; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Ropchan, Jim; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Huang, Yiyun; Morris, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women. Twenty-seven subjects-18 males (M) and 9 females (F)-underwent PET scans with [11C] LY2795050, a selective kappa antagonist tracer. Partial volume correction was applied to all PET data. Volume of distribution (V T) of the tracer was estimated regionally as well as at the voxel level. V T values of males versus females were compared for 19 defined ROIs. Results at the regional and voxel levels were consistent. Males had significantly higher V T and thus a higher KOR availability than women in multiple brain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex differences in the KOR system in humans, in vivo. These findings could have implications for the treatment of pain with kappa opioid analgesics. The results may also have an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of addictive and other disorders.

  3. Determining Pharmacological Selectivity of the Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist LY2456302 Using Pupillometry as a Translational Biomarker in Rat and Human

    PubMed Central

    Witcher, Jennifer W.; Lowe, Stephen L.; Gonzales, Celedon R.; Weller, Mary Ann; Bell, Robert L.; Hart, John C.; Need, Anne B.; McKinzie, Jamie H.; Statnick, Michael A.; Suico, Jeffrey G.; McKinzie, David L.; Tauscher-Wisniewski, Sitra; Mitch, Charles H.; Stoltz, Randall R.; Wong, Conrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective kappa opioid receptor antagonism is a promising experimental strategy for the treatment of depression. The kappa opioid receptor antagonist, LY2456302, exhibits ~30-fold higher affinity for kappa opioid receptors over mu opioid receptors, which is the next closest identified pharmacology. Methods: Here, we determined kappa opioid receptor pharmacological selectivity of LY2456302 by assessing mu opioid receptor antagonism using translational pupillometry in rats and humans. Results: In rats, morphine-induced mydriasis was completely blocked by the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3mg/kg, which produced 90% mu opioid receptor occupancy), while 100 and 300mg/kg LY2456302 (which produced 56% and 87% mu opioid receptor occupancy, respectively) only partially blocked morphine-induced mydriasis. In humans, fentanyl-induced miosis was completely blocked by 50mg naltrexone, and LY2456302 dose-dependently blocked miosis at 25 and 60mg (minimal-to-no blockade at 4–10mg). Conclusions: We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of translational pupillometry in the context of receptor occupancy to identify a clinical dose of LY2456302 achieving maximal kappa opioid receptor occupancy without evidence of significant mu receptor antagonism. PMID:25637376

  4. Delta opioid receptors colocalize with corticotropin releasing factor in hippocampal interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tanya J.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is an important site at which stress circuits and endogenous opioid systems intersect, likely playing a critical role in the interaction between stress and drug addiction. Prior study findings suggest that the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) may localize to similar neuronal populations within HF lamina. Here, hippocampal sections of male and cycling female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for immunolabeling using antisera directed against the DOR and CRF peptide, as well as interneuron subtype markers somatostatin or parvalbumin, and analyzed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Both DOR- and CRF-labeling was observed in interneurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus. Males and normal cycling females displayed a similar number of CRF immunoreactive neurons co-labeled with DOR and a similar average number of CRF-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus and stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3. In addition, 70% of DOR/CRF dual-labeled neurons in the hilar region co-labeled with somatostatin, suggesting a role for these interneurons in regulating perforant path input to dentate granule cells. Ultrastructural analysis of CRF-labeled axon terminals within the hilar region revealed that proestrus females have a similar number of CRF-labeled axon terminals that contain DORs compared to males but an increased number of CRF-labeled axon terminals without DORs. Taken together, these findings suggest that while DORs are anatomically positioned to modulate CRF immunoreactive interneuron activity and CRF peptide release, their ability to exert such regulatory activity may be compromised in females when estrogen levels are high. PMID:21277946

  5. Distinct roles of exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides in the peripheral control of neuropathy-triggered heat pain.

    PubMed

    Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain often results from peripheral nerve damage, which can involve immune response. Local leukocyte-derived opioid peptides or exogenous opioid agonists inhibit neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models. Since neuropathic pain can also be augmented by heat, in this study we investigated the role of opioids in the modulation of neuropathy-evoked heat hypersensitivity. We used a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, and tested opioid effects in heat and mechanical hypersensitivity using Hargreaves and von Frey tests, respectively. We found that although perineural exogenous opioid agonists, including peptidergic ligands, were effective, the endogenous opioid peptides β-endorphin, Met-enkephalin and dynorphin A did not alleviate heat hypersensitivity. Specifically, corticotropin-releasing factor, an agent triggering opioid peptide secretion from leukocytes, applied perineurally did not attenuate heat hypersensitivity in wild-type mice. Exogenous opioids, also shown to release opioid peptides via activation of leukocyte opioid receptors, were equally analgesic in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, indicating that endogenous opioids do not contribute to exogenous opioid analgesia in heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, exogenously applied opioid peptides were ineffective as well. Conversely, opioid peptides relieved mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, both opioid type and sensory modality may determine the outcome of neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27605249

  6. Distinct roles of exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides in the peripheral control of neuropathy-triggered heat pain

    PubMed Central

    Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö.; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain often results from peripheral nerve damage, which can involve immune response. Local leukocyte-derived opioid peptides or exogenous opioid agonists inhibit neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models. Since neuropathic pain can also be augmented by heat, in this study we investigated the role of opioids in the modulation of neuropathy-evoked heat hypersensitivity. We used a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, and tested opioid effects in heat and mechanical hypersensitivity using Hargreaves and von Frey tests, respectively. We found that although perineural exogenous opioid agonists, including peptidergic ligands, were effective, the endogenous opioid peptides β-endorphin, Met-enkephalin and dynorphin A did not alleviate heat hypersensitivity. Specifically, corticotropin-releasing factor, an agent triggering opioid peptide secretion from leukocytes, applied perineurally did not attenuate heat hypersensitivity in wild-type mice. Exogenous opioids, also shown to release opioid peptides via activation of leukocyte opioid receptors, were equally analgesic in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, indicating that endogenous opioids do not contribute to exogenous opioid analgesia in heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, exogenously applied opioid peptides were ineffective as well. Conversely, opioid peptides relieved mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, both opioid type and sensory modality may determine the outcome of neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27605249

  7. Tuned-Affinity Bivalent Ligands for the Characterization of Opioid Receptor Heteromers.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jessica H; Long, Darcie H; England, Pamela M; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    Opioid receptors, including the mu and delta opioid receptors (MOR and DOR) are important targets for the treatment of pain. Although there is mounting evidence that these receptors form heteromers, the functional role of the MOR/DOR heteromer remains unresolved. We have designed and synthesized bivalent ligands as tools to elucidate the functional role of the MOR/DOR heteromer. Our ligands (L2 and L4) are comprised of a compound with low affinity at the DOR tethered to a compound with high affinity at the MOR, with the goal of producing ligands with "tuned affinity" at MOR/DOR heteromers compared to DOR homomers. Here we show that both L2 and L4 demonstrate enhanced affinity at MOR/DOR heteromers compared to DOR homomers, thereby providing unique pharmacological tools to dissect the role of the MOR/DOR heteromer in pain.

  8. Visualization of multiple opioid-receptor types in rat striatum after specific mesencephalic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Santoro, C.; Paredes, W.; Gardner, E.L.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    In order to gain insight into a possible modulatory role for ..mu.., delta, and kappa opioid receptors of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the authors investigated the topographical organization of the receptors with respect to pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Dopaminergic terminals projecting from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum were destroyed by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the susbstantia nigra. Quantitative receptor assays using highly specific radioligands were used to measure the density of striatal ..mu.., delta, and kappa receptors before and after denervation. Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of receptors on lesioned and nonlesioned sides of the brain under the light microscope. Loss of ..mu.. receptors in striatal patches was striking in the ventro-lateral areas of the striatum, whereas the most notable loss of delta receptors was found in the central striatum. Other brain areas did not differ significantly in ..mu.. receptor density between the lesioned and nonlesioned sides, as determined by autoradiography. These findings suggest that a high percentage of ..mu.. and delta receptors in the striatum are located on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals and support the concept of a modulatory role for ..mu.. and delta opioid peptides in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  9. CRF alters the infundibular LHRH secretory system from the medial preoptic area of female rats: possible involvement of opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Rivest, S; Plotsky, P M; Rivier, C

    1993-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a potent factor involved in the antireproductive effects of various stressors. However, the central mechanisms by which CRF modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are not well understood. In order to verify whether CRF is able to directly influence luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretory activity at the level of the medial preoptic area (MPOA), CRF was chronically or acutely injected bilaterally into this hypothalamic area. Ten days before the experiments, female rats were implanted with a permanent double-guide cannula which was stereotaxically positioned close to the MPOA. Chronic administration of rat CRF (rCRF) was accomplished by means of two miniosmotic pumps connected to double internal cannula. Acute bilateral infusion of rCRF into the MPOA was performed in unrestrained ovariectomized (OVX) rats and during the afternoon of proestrus. Ten minutes before rCRF treatment, antagonists of opioid receptors (mu, mu 1, or kappa) were infused bilaterally into the MPOA. Hypothalamic LHRH release as well as circulating gonadotropins were determined using a push-pull cannula implanted into the median eminence (ME), and a catheter connected to the jugular vein, respectively. Chronic rCRF treatment in the MPOA decreased (p < 0.05) plasma LH levels but did not modify follicle-stimulating hormone release in OVX rats. A significant inhibition of LH secretion was first observed 80 min after the acute rCRF infusion into the MPOA; pretreatment with nor-Binaltorphimine (antagonist of kappa-receptors) did not measurably attenuate this effect. In contrast, bilateral administration of beta-Funaltrexamine (antagonist of mu-opioid receptors) or naloxonazine (mu 1-antagonist) partially attenuated the inhibitory effect of rCRF on plasma LH levels. Similarly, injections of rCRF bilaterally into the MPOA suppressed hypothalamic LHRH release into the ME and this effect was partially reversed by a previous

  10. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 5-pyrrolidinylquinoxalines as a novel class of peripherally restricted κ-opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Christian; Werfel, Elena; Galla, Fabian; Lehmkuhl, Kirstin; Torres-Gómez, Héctor; Schepmann, Dirk; Kögel, Babette; Christoph, Thomas; Straßburger, Wolfgang; Englberger, Werner; Soeberdt, Michael; Hüwel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2014-08-14

    5-Pyrrolidinyl substituted perhydroquinoxalines were designed as conformationally restricted κ-opioid receptor agonists restricted to the periphery. The additional N atom of the quinoxaline system located outside the ethylenediamine κ pharmacophore allows the fine-tuning of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. The perhydroquinoxalines were synthesized stereoselectively using the concept of late stage diversification of the central building blocks 14. In addition to high κ-opioid receptor affinity they demonstrate high selectivity over μ, δ, σ1, σ2, and NMDA receptors. In the [35S]GTPγS assay full agonism was observed. Because of their high polarity, the secondary amines 14a (log D7.4=0.26) and 14b (log D7.4=0.21) did not penetrate an artificial blood-brain barrier. 14b was able to inhibit the spontaneous pain reaction after rectal mustard oil application to mice (ED50=2.35 mg/kg). This analgesic effect is attributed to activation of peripherally located κ receptors, since 14b did not affect centrally mediated referred allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  11. Buprenorphine for opioid addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Torrington, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist of the µ-receptor, and is used as a daily dose sublingual tablet or filmstrip for managing opioid addiction. In the USA, the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 made buprenorphine the only opioid medication for opioid addiction that can be prescribed in an office-based setting. Owing to its high affinity for the µ-receptor, buprenorphine inhibits the reinforcing effect of exogenous opioids. The ceiling effect of buprenorphine's µ-agonist activity reduces the potential for drug overdose and confers low toxicity even at high doses. Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has proven to be a treatment approach that supports recovery from addiction while reducing or curtailing the use of opioids. This article examines buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction, focusing on the situation in the USA, and is based on a review of pertinent literature, and the authors’ research and clinical experience. The references in this paper were chosen according to the authors’ judgment of quality and relevance, and with respect to their familiarity and involvement in related research. PMID:24654720

  12. Mu-opioid receptor densities are depleted in regions implicated in agonistic and sexual behavior in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) defending nest sites and courting females

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, Cynthia A.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.; Auger, Catherine J.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2010-01-01

    Social status and resource availability can strongly influence individual behavioral responses to conspecifics. In European starlings, males that acquire nest sites sing in response to females and dominate other males. Males without nest sites sing, but not to females, and they do not interact agonistically with other males. Little is known about the neural regulation of status- or resource-appropriate behavioral responses to conspecifics. Opioid neuropeptides are implicated in birdsong and agonistic behavior, suggesting that opioids may underlie differences in the production of these behaviors in males with and without nest sites. Here, we examined densities of immunolabeled mu-opioid receptors in groups of male starlings. Males that defended nest boxes dominated other males and sang at higher rates when presented with a female than males without nest boxes, independent of testosterone concentrations. Multiple regression analyses showed nest box ownership (not agonistic behavior or singing) predicted the optical density of receptor labeling in the medial bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, ventral tegmental area and the medial preoptic nucleus. Compared to males without nest boxes, males with nest boxes had lower densities of immunolabeled mu-opioid receptors in these regions. Singing additionally predicted the area covered by labeling in the ventral tegmental area. The results suggest that elevated opioid activity in these regions suppresses courtship and agonistic behavioral responses to conspecifics in males without nest boxes. The findings are consistent with a dynamic role for opioid receptors in adjusting social behavior so that it is appropriate given the resources available to an individual. PMID:21147175

  13. Mu-opioid receptor densities are depleted in regions implicated in agonistic and sexual behavior in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) defending nest sites and courting females.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Cynthia A; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Auger, Catherine J; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-05-16

    Social status and resource availability can strongly influence individual behavioral responses to conspecifics. In European starlings, males that acquire nest sites sing in response to females and dominate other males. Males without nest sites sing, but not to females, and they do not interact agonistically with other males. Little is known about the neural regulation of status- or resource-appropriate behavioral responses to conspecifics. Opioid neuropeptides are implicated in birdsong and agonistic behavior, suggesting that opioids may underlie differences in the production of these behaviors in males with and without nest sites. Here, we examined densities of immunolabeled mu-opioid receptors in groups of male starlings. Males that defended nest boxes dominated other males and sang at higher rates when presented with a female than males without nest boxes, independent of testosterone concentrations. Multiple regression analyses showed nest box ownership (not agonistic behavior or singing) predicted the optical density of receptor labeling in the medial bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, ventral tegmental area and the medial preoptic nucleus. Compared to males without nest boxes, males with nest boxes had lower densities of immunolabeled mu-opioid receptors in these regions. Singing additionally predicted the area covered by labeling in the ventral tegmental area. The results suggest that elevated opioid activity in these regions suppresses courtship and agonistic behavioral responses to conspecifics in males without nest boxes. The findings are consistent with a dynamic role for opioid receptors in adjusting social behavior so that it is appropriate given the resources available to an individual. PMID:21147175

  14. Contribution of opioid and metabotropic glutamate receptor mechanisms to inhibition of bladder overactivity by tibial nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Matsuta, Yosuke; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2013-07-15

    The contribution of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and opioid receptors to inhibition of bladder overactivity by tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) was investigated in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia using LY341495 (a group II mGluR antagonist) and naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist). Slow infusion cystometry was used to measure the volume threshold (i.e., bladder capacity) for inducing a large bladder contraction. After measuring the bladder capacity during saline infusion, 0.25% acetic acid (AA) was infused to irritate the bladder, activate the nociceptive C-fiber bladder afferents, and induce bladder overactivity. AA significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced bladder capacity to 26.6 ± 4.7% of saline control capacity. TNS (5 Hz, 0.2 ms) at 2 and 4 times the threshold (T) intensity for inducing an observable toe movement significantly increased bladder capacity to 62.2 ± 8.3% at 2T (P < 0.01) and 80.8 ± 9.2% at 4T (P = 0.0001) of saline control capacity. LY341495 (0.1-5 mg/kg iv) did not change bladder overactivity, but completely suppressed the inhibition induced by TNS at a low stimulus intensity (2T) and partially suppressed the inhibition at high intensity (4T). Following administration of LY341495, naloxone (0.01 mg/kg iv) completely eliminated the high-intensity TNS-induced inhibition. However, without LY341495 treatment a 10 times higher dose (0.1 mg/kg) of naloxone was required to completely block TNS inhibition. These results indicate that interactions between group II mGluR and opioid receptor mechanisms contribute to TNS inhibition of AA-induced bladder overactivity. Understanding neurotransmitter mechanisms underlying TNS inhibition of bladder overactivity is important for the development of new treatments for bladder disorders. PMID:23576608

  15. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kless, Achim; Schapitz, Inga; Wagener, Markus; Koch, Thomas; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP) and hydromorphone (HMP), are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor’s activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation. PMID:26280453

  16. Major Depressive Disorder and Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Sun, Huijiao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Xicheng; Xiao, Li; Liu, Renyu; Shao, Liming; Qiu, Zhuibai

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disease worldwide. The clinical use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs) for this condition have been widely accepted, but they were challenged by unacceptable side-effects, potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) or slow onset/lack of efficacy. The endogenous opioid system is involved in stress and emotion regulatory processes and its role in MDD has been implicated. Although several KOR antagonists including JDTic and PF-04455242 were discontinued in early clinical trials, ALKS 5461 and CERC-501(LY-2456302) survived and entered into Phase-III and Phase-II trials, respectively. Considering the efficacy and safety of early off-label use of buprenorphine in the m