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Sample records for activated adenovirus proteinases

  1. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  2. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  3. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  4. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  5. Interaction of the Human Adenovirus Proteinase with Its 11-Amino Acid Cofactor pVIc†

    PubMed Central

    Baniecki, Mary Lynn; McGrath, William J.; McWhirter, Sarah M.; Li, Caroline; Toledo, Diana L.; Pellicena, Patricia; Barnard, Dale L.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Mangel, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the human adenovirus proteinase (AVP) and AVP–NA complexes with the 11-amino acid cofactor pVIc was characterized. The equilibrium dissociation constant for the binding of pVIc to AVP was 4.4 μM. The binding of AVP to 12-mer single-stranded DNA decreased the Kd for the binding of pVIc to AVP to 0.09 μM. The pVIc–AVP complex hydrolyzed the substrate with a Michaelis constant (Km) of 3.7 μM and a catalytic rate constant (kcat) of 1.1 s−1 In the presence of DNA, the Km increased less than 2-fold, and the kcat increased 3-fold. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was performed to determine the contribution of individual pVIc side chains in the binding and stimulation of AVP. Two amino acid residues, Gly1′ and Phe11′, were the major determinants in the binding of pVIc to AVP, while Val2′ and Phe11′ were the major determinants in stimulating enzyme activity. Binding of AVP to DNA greatly suppressed the effects of the alanine substitutions on the binding of mutant pVIcs to AVP. Binding of either or both of the cofactors, pVIc or the viral DNA, to AVP did not dramatically alter its secondary structure as determined by vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism. pVIc, when added to Hep-2 cells infected with adenovirus serotype 5, inhibited the synthesis of infectious virus, presumably by prematurely activating the proteinase so that it cleaved virion precursor proteins before virion assembly, thereby aborting the infection. PMID:11591154

  6. [Character of changes in indicators of proteinase and proteinase inhibitor activity in gastroenterological pathology in children].

    PubMed

    Dovgun, O B; Tebloeva, L T; Shumeĭko, N K; Rudenskaia, G N

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine trypsin-lake proteinase activity, chymotrypsin-like proteinase activity, trypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in blood serum at the children with gastroenterological pathology. These parameters did not chang at the children with functional disorder of stomach and duodenum. The stable balance between proteinases and inhibitors was determined only at the duration of the disease not more 5 years. The absence of normal levels these enzymes after traditional treatment was explain the necessity to continue the therapy at home with control of enzymes' levels. PMID:9703629

  7. [Effect of adrenal stress on activity of proteinase and alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in rats].

    PubMed

    Samokhina, L M; Kaliman, P A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of adrenal stress on the proteinase and alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor activities in blood serum and cytosols of the rat organs were investigated. The reliable change was marked only in the alpha-1-PI level research of lung tissue cytosol. The proteolysis suppression was revealed in the heart and kidney tissue, while the proteolysis activation was revealed in serum and less in the lung tissue cytosol. Changes in proteinase level in the myocardium and kidney tissue play the primary role in respect to those of the other research liquids under study. PMID:7747353

  8. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent

  9. Two wound-inducible soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors have greater insect digestive proteinase inhibitory activities than a constitutive homolog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Botella, M A; Subramanian, L; Niu, X; Nielsen, S S; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1996-08-01

    Diverse functions for three soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CysPIs) are inferred from unique characteristics of differential regulation of gene expression and inhibitory activities against specific Cys proteinases. Based on northern blot analyses, we found that the expression in leaves of one soybean CysPI gene (L1) was constitutive and the other two (N2 and R1) were induced by wounding or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of N2 and R1 transcript levels in leaves occurred coincidentally with increased papain inhibitory activity. Analyses of kinetic data from bacterial recombinant CysPI proteins indicated that soybean CysPIs are noncompetitive inhibitors of papain. The inhibition constants against papain of the CysPIs encoded by the wound and methyl jasmonate-inducible genes (57 and 21 nM for N2 and R1, respectively) were 500 to 1000 times lower than the inhibition constant of L1 (19,000 nM). N2 and R1 had substantially greater inhibitory activities than L1 against gut cysteine proteinases of the third-instar larvae of western corn rootworm and Colorado potato beetle. Cysteine proteinases were the predominant digestive proteolytic enzymes in the guts of these insects at this developmental stage. N2 and R1 were more inhibitory than the epoxide trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamide-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) against western corn rootworm gut proteinases (50% inhibition concentration = 50, 200, and 7000 nM for N2, R1, and E-64, respectively). However, N2 and R1 were less effective than E-64 against the gut proteinases of Colorado potato beetle. These results indicate that the wound-inducible soybean CysPIs, N2 and R1, function in host plant defense against insect predation, and that substantial variation in CysPI activity against insect digestive proteinases exists among plant CysPI proteins. PMID:8756506

  10. Two wound-inducible soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors have greater insect digestive proteinase inhibitory activities than a constitutive homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Botella, M A; Subramanian, L; Niu, X; Nielsen, S S; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1996-01-01

    Diverse functions for three soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CysPIs) are inferred from unique characteristics of differential regulation of gene expression and inhibitory activities against specific Cys proteinases. Based on northern blot analyses, we found that the expression in leaves of one soybean CysPI gene (L1) was constitutive and the other two (N2 and R1) were induced by wounding or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of N2 and R1 transcript levels in leaves occurred coincidentally with increased papain inhibitory activity. Analyses of kinetic data from bacterial recombinant CysPI proteins indicated that soybean CysPIs are noncompetitive inhibitors of papain. The inhibition constants against papain of the CysPIs encoded by the wound and methyl jasmonate-inducible genes (57 and 21 nM for N2 and R1, respectively) were 500 to 1000 times lower than the inhibition constant of L1 (19,000 nM). N2 and R1 had substantially greater inhibitory activities than L1 against gut cysteine proteinases of the third-instar larvae of western corn rootworm and Colorado potato beetle. Cysteine proteinases were the predominant digestive proteolytic enzymes in the guts of these insects at this developmental stage. N2 and R1 were more inhibitory than the epoxide trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamide-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) against western corn rootworm gut proteinases (50% inhibition concentration = 50, 200, and 7000 nM for N2, R1, and E-64, respectively). However, N2 and R1 were less effective than E-64 against the gut proteinases of Colorado potato beetle. These results indicate that the wound-inducible soybean CysPIs, N2 and R1, function in host plant defense against insect predation, and that substantial variation in CysPI activity against insect digestive proteinases exists among plant CysPI proteins. PMID:8756506

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteinase activities were compared in soluble and membrane fractions of gut tissues of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. The soluble trypsin-like proteinase activity of the resistant strain was reduced 56%, significantly lower than that of the susceptibl...

  12. [Activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rat organs under cobalt and mercury chloride injection].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rats under cobalt and mercury chloride injection was investigated. The calpains activity increase in the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys was revealed after 2 h cobalt chloride action. The mercury chloride gives a reliable increase of calcium-dependent neutral proteinases only in the kidneys. PMID:14574747

  13. Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation requires proPO-activating proteinase (PAP) and serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Snehalata; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2005-03-01

    In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is mediated by three proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs) and two serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95 (1998) 12220-12225; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003a) 3552-3561; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003b) 1049-1060). While our current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the SPHs serve as a cofactor/anchor for PAPs (Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 (2003) 197-208; Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (2004) 731-742), roles of these clip-domain proteins (i.e. PAPs and SPHs) in proPO activation are poorly defined. To better understand this process, we further characterized the activation reaction using proPO, PAP-1 and SPHs. PAP-1 itself cleaved nearly 1/3 of proPO at Arg51 without generating much phenoloxidase (PO) activity. In the presence of SPHs, the cleavage of proPO became more complete while the increase in PO activity was over 20-fold, indicating that the extent of cleavage does not directly correlate with PO activity. Since SPHs and p-amidinophenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride (APMSF)-treated PAP-1 did not generate active PO by interacting with proPO, proteolytic cleavage is critical for proPO activation. After 1/5 of proPO was processed by PAP-1 alone which was then inactivated by M. sexta serpin-1J or APMSF, further incubation of the reaction mixture with SPHs failed to generate active PO either. Thus, SPHs cannot generate PO activity by simply binding to cleaved proPO. M. sexta proPO activation requires active PAP-1 and SPHs at the same time-one for limited proteolysis and the other as a cofactor, perhaps. Gel filtration chromatography and native gel electrophoresis revealed the PAP-SPH, proPO-PAP, and SPH-proPO associations, essential for generating high Mr, active PO at the site of infection. PMID:15705503

  14. Activation of Proteinase 3 Contributes to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Erik JM; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine TN; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo AB

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human α-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin-resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3-deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after being fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high–fat–diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1–/– mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with α-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 d of a 16-wk high-fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential. PMID:27261776

  15. Characterization of a Cell Envelope-Associated Proteinase Activity from Streptococcus thermophilus H-Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shahbal, Samaha; Hemme, Denis; Renault, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The production and biochemical properties of cell envelope-associated proteinases from two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus (strains CNRZ 385 and CNRZ 703) were compared. No significant difference in proteinase activity was found for strain CNRZ 385 when cells were grown in skim milk medium and M17 broth. Strain CNRZ 703 exhibited a threefold-higher proteinase activity when cells were grown in low-heat skim milk medium than when grown in M17 broth. Forty-one percent of the total activity of CNRZ 385 was localized on the cell wall. The optimum pH for enzymatic activity at 37°C was around 7.0. Serine proteinase inhibitors, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, inhibited the enzyme activity in both strains. The divalents cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ were activators, while Zn2+ and Cu2+ were inhibitors. β-Casein was hydrolyzed more rapidly than αs1-casein. The results of DNA hybridization and immunoblot studies suggested that the S. thermophilus cell wall proteinase and the lactococcal proteinase are not closely related. Images PMID:16348841

  16. Altered Expression of Brain Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2, Trypsin-2 and Serpin Proteinase Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael J; Durrenberger, Pascal F; Gentleman, Steve M; Walls, Andrew F; Dexter, David T

    2015-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, but the factors involved in the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in brain is increased in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but the status of PAR2 in Parkinson's disease is unknown. This study examined expression of PAR2 and endogenous proteinase activators (trypsin-2, mast cell tryptase) and proteinase inhibitors (serpin-A5, serpin-A13) in areas vulnerable and resistant to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease at different Braak α-synuclein stages of the disease in post-mortem brain. In normal aged brain, expression of PAR-2, trypsin-2, and serpin-A5 and serpin-A13 was found in neurons and microglia, and alterations in the amount of immunoreactivity for these proteins were found in some brain regions. Namely, there was a decrease in neurons positive for serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus, and serpin-A13 expression was reduced in the locus coeruleus and primary motor cortex, while expression of PAR2, trypsin-2 and both serpins was reduced in neurons within the substantia nigra. There was an increased number of microglia that expressed serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and elevated numbers of microglia that expressed serpin-A13 in the substantia nigra of late Parkinson's disease cases. The number of microglia that expressed trypsin-2 increased in primary motor cortex of incidental Lewy body disease cases. Analysis of Parkinson's disease cases alone indicated that serpin-A5 and serpin-A13, and trypsin-2 expression in midbrain and cerebral cortex was different in cases with a high incidence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis compared to those with low levels of these treatment-induced side effects. This study showed that there was altered expression in brain of PAR2 and some proteins that can control its function in Parkinson's disease. Given the role of PAR2 in

  17. Thiol-activated serine proteinases from nymphal hemolymph of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    PubMed

    Hanzon, Jacob; Smirnoff, Patricia; Applebaum, Shalom W; Mattoo, Autar K; Birk, Yehudith

    2003-02-01

    Two unique serine proteinase isoenzymes (LmHP-1 and LmHP-2) were isolated from the hemolymph of African migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) nymphs. Both have a molecular mass of about 23 kDa and are activated by thiol-reducing agents. PMSF abolishes enzymes activity only after thiol activation, while the cysteine proteinase inhibitors E-64, iodoacetamide, and heavy metals fail to inhibit the thiol-activated enzymes. The N-terminal sequence was determined for the more-abundant LmHP-2 isoenzyme. It exhibits partial homology to that of other insect serine proteinases and similar substrate specificity and inhibition by the synthetic and protein trypsin inhibitors pABA, TLCK, BBI, and STI. The locust trypsins LmHP-1 and LmHP-2 constitute a new category of serine proteases wherein the active site of the enzyme is exposed by thiol activation without cleavage of peptide bonds. PMID:12559979

  18. When activity requires breaking up: LEKTI proteolytic activation cascade for specific proteinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Furio, Laetitia; Hovnanian, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Lymphoepithelial Kazal-type related inhibitor (LEKTI) is a multidomain proteinase inhibitor whose defective expression causes Netherton syndrome (NS). LEKTI is encoded by SPINK5, which is also a susceptibility gene for atopic disease. In this issue, Fortugno et al. report an elegant and thorough study of the LEKTI proteolytic activation process in which they identify the precise nature of the cleavage sites used and the bioactive fragments generated. They propose a proteolytic activation model in human skin and confirm differential inhibition of kallikrein (KLK) 5, 7, and 14 by the major physiological LEKTI fragments. They show that these bioactive fragments inhibit KLK-mediated proteolysis of desmoglein 1 (DSG1) and suggest a fine-tuned inhibition process controlling target serine proteinase (SP) activity. PMID:21997416

  19. Gamma irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of rats increases the proteinase activity associated with histones of thymus nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsyi, M.P.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1994-11-01

    An increase in the activity of histone-associated rat thymus nucleus proteinases specific for histones H2A, H2B and H1 was shown after {gamma} irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of animals. Histone H1-specific proteinase activity is dependent on DNA and increases in the presence of denatured DNA, whereas proteinases specific for core histones are inhibited in the presence of denatured DNA. The increase in the activity of histone-associated proteinases depends on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation or hydrocortisone injection. In the presence of dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, these proteinases dissociate from histones. It was found by gel electrophoresis that several proteinases of various molecular masses are closely associated with histones obtained from thymus nuclei of irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Digestive proteinase activity of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Naveh, V Hosseini; Bandani, A R; Azmayeshfard, P; Hosseinkhani, S

    2005-01-01

    The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is one of the most important stored product pests worldwide. A study of digestive proteinases in T. granarium was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as proteinase inhibitors. The pH of guts was determined by addition of pH indicator solutions to broken open gut regions. The last instar larvae were dissected in cold distilled water and the whole guts were cleaned from adhering unwanted tissues. The pooled gut homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatants were used in the subsequent enzyme assay. Total proteinases activity of the gut homogenates was determined using the protein substrate azocasein. Optimal azocasein hydrolysis by luminal proteinases of the larvae of T. granarium was highly alkaline in pH 10-10.5, although the pH of luminal contents was slightly acidic (pH 6.5). The extract showed the highest activity at 55 degrees C (pH 6.5), 45 degrees C (pH 8) and 30 degrees C (pH 10). The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited in the presence of phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (82.33+/-4.37% inhibition). This inhibition was decreased with increasing of the pH of assay incubating medium. N-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (51.6+/-3.3% inhibition) and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (27.23+/-4.37 % inhibition) showed inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Addition of thiol activators dithiothreitol and L-cysteine had not enhanced azocaseinolytic activity. The data suggest that protein digestion in the larvae of T. granarium is primarily dependent on serine proteinases; trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases. PMID:16628932

  1. Activities of amylase, proteinase, and lipase enzymes from Lactococcus chungangensis and its application in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Konkit, Maytiya; Kim, Wonyong

    2016-07-01

    Several enzymes are involved in the process of converting milk to lactic acid and coagulated milk to curd and, therefore, are important in dairy fermented products. Amylase, proteinase, and lipase are enzymes that play an important role in degrading milk into monomeric molecules such as oligosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids, which are the main molecules responsible for flavors in cheese. In the current study, we determined the amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T), a bacterial strain of nondairy origin, and compared them with those of the reference strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), which is commonly used in the dairy industry. Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 28(T) and L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T) were both found to have amylase, proteinase, and lipase activities in broth culture, cream cheese, and yogurt. Notably, the proteinase and lipase activities of L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) were higher than those of L. lactis ssp. lactis KCTC 3769(T), with proteinase activity of 10.50 U/mL in tryptic soy broth and 8.64 U/mL in cream cheese, and lipase activity of 100 U/mL of tryptic soy broth, and 100 U/mL of cream cheese. In contrast, the amylase activity was low, with 5.28 U/mL in tryptic soy broth and 8.86 U/mL in cream cheese. These enzyme activities in L. chungangensis CAU 28(T) suggest that this strain has potential to be used for manufacturing dairy fermented products, even though the strain is of nondairy origin. PMID:27108177

  2. Nutritional requirements and nitrogen-dependent regulation of proteinase activity of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062.

    PubMed

    Hebert, E M; Raya, R R; De Giori, G S

    2000-12-01

    The nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062 were determined with a simplified chemically defined medium (SCDM) and compared with those of L. helveticus CRL 974 (ATCC 15009). Both strains were found to be prototrophic for alanine, glycine, asparagine, glutamine, and cysteine. In addition, CRL 1062 also showed prototrophy for lysine and serine. The microorganisms also required riboflavin, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxal, nicotinic acid, and uracil for growth in liquid SCDM. The growth rate and the synthesis of their cell membrane-bound serine proteinases, but not of their intracellular leucyl-aminopeptidases, were influenced by the peptide content of the medium. The highest proteinase levels were found during cell growth in basal SCDM, while the synthesis of this enzyme was inhibited in SCDM supplemented with Casitone, Casamino Acids, or beta-casein. Low-molecular-mass peptides (<3,000 Da), extracted from Casitone, and the dipeptide leucylproline (final concentration, 5 mM) play important roles in the medium-dependent regulation of proteinase activity. The addition of the dipeptide leucylproline (5 mM) to SCDM reduced proteinase activity by 25%. PMID:11097908

  3. Activation of intracellular serine proteinase in Bacillus subtilis cells during sporulation.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T J; Shankweiler, G W; Hageman, J H

    1986-01-01

    Cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) growing and sporulating in a single chemically defined medium carried out intracellular protein degradation and increased their levels of intracellular serine protease-1 in a manner very similar to what had previously been reported for cells sporulating in nutrient broth. The results were interpreted to mean that these processes are intrinsic to sporulation rather than medium dependent. To determine the cause of these increases in specific activity of proteinases, we purified the protease, prepared rabbit immunoglobulins directed against it, and monitored changes in protease antigen levels by performing rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In cells sporulating in nutrient broth, the protease antigen levels increased about 7-fold, whereas the specific activity increased about 150-fold, for an activation of about 20-fold. In cells sporulating in the single chemically defined sporulation medium, the protease antigen increased about 10-fold, whereas the specific activity increased at least 400-fold, for an activation of about 40-fold. These results were interpreted to mean that a posttranslational event activated the protease in vivo; a previously described endogenous proteinase inhibitor was confirmed to be present in the strain used. Chloramphenicol added to the cultures inhibited both the increases in antigen levels and in the specific activity of the proteinase. PMID:3079745

  4. Modification of cystatin C activity by bacterial proteinases and neutrophil elastase in periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, M; Wikström, M; Potempa, J; Renvert, S; Hall, A

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the interaction between the human cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, and proteinases of periodontitis associated bacteria. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from discrete periodontitis sites and their cystatin C content was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between cystatin C and proteolytic enzymes from cultured strains of the gingival bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was studied by measuring inhibition of enzyme activity against peptidyl substrates, by detection of break down patterns of solid phase coupled and soluble cystatin C, and by N-terminal sequence analysis of cystatin C products resulting from the interactions. RESULTS: Gingival crevicular fluid contained cystatin C at a concentration of approximately 15 nM. Cystatin C did not inhibit the principal thiol stimulated proteinase activity of P gingivalis. Instead, strains of P gingivalis and P intermedia, but not A actinomycetemcomitans, released cystatin C modifying proteinases. Extracts of five P gingivalis and five P intermedia strains all hydrolysed bonds in the N-terminal region of cystatin C at physiological pH values. The modified cystatin C resulting from incubation with one P gingivalis strain was isolated and found to lack the eight most N-terminal residues. The affinity of the modified inhibitor for cathepsin B was 20-fold lower (Ki 5 nM) than that of full length cystatin C. A 50 kDa thiol stimulated proteinase, gingipain R, was isolated from P gingivalis and shown to be responsible for the Arg8-bond hydrolysis in cystatin C. The cathepsin B inhibitory activity of cystatin C incubated with gingival crevicular fluid was rapidly abolished after Val10-bond cleavage by elastase from exudate neutrophils, but cleavage at the gingipain specific Arg8-bond was also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological control of cathepsin B activity is impeded in

  5. Streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases biologically active fragments of streptococcal surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Berge, A; Björck, L

    1995-04-28

    Streptococcus pyogenes are important pathogenic bacteria which produce an extracellular cysteine proteinase contributing to their virulence and pathogenicity. S. pyogenes also express surface molecules, M proteins, that are major virulence determinants due to their antiphagocytic property. In the present work live S. pyogenes bacteria of the M1 serotype were incubated with purified cysteine proteinase. Several peptides were solubilized, and analysis of their protein-binding properties and amino acid sequences revealed two internal fibrinogen-binding fragments of M1 protein (17 and 21 kDa, respectively), and a 36-kDa IgG-binding NH2-terminal fragment of protein H, an IgGFc-binding surface molecule. M protein also plays a role in streptococcal adherence, and removal of this and other surface proteins could promote bacterial dissemination, whereas the generation of soluble complexes between immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin-binding streptococcal surface proteins could be an etiological factor in the development of glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Thus, in these serious complications to S. pyogenes infections immune complexes are found in affected organs. The cysteine proteinase also solubilized a 116-kDa internal fragment of C5a peptidase, another streptococcal surface protein. Activation of the complement system generates C5a, a peptide stimulating leukocyte chemotaxis. C5a-mediated granulocyte migration was blocked by the 116-kDa fragment. This mechanism, by which phagocytes could be prevented from reaching the site of infection, may also contribute to the pathogenicity and virulence of S. pyogenes. PMID:7730368

  6. Diabetic state-induced activation of calcium-activated neutral proteinase in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Fujihara, M; Hoshino, N; Kimura, I; Kimura, M

    1989-12-01

    The effect of a diabetic state in the diabetic KK-CAy mouse on calcium activated neutral proteinase (CANP) of hind-limb skeletal muscles was investigated. In the diabetic state, there was an increased sensitivity to activation of CANP by calcium (Ca). In addition, there was an enhancement of maximal activity of the enzyme. The effect was induced by secondary modification of the diabetic state, but not genetical factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that the CANP is responsible for 92 K dalton protein in diabetic skeletal muscles. Among the evidence are the following: a) The 92 K band in the diabetic muscles was lower than in the prediabetic mouse and restored by the addition of 2 mM EDTA and 2 mM EGTA. b) The band was reduced by increasing the Ca content and neutral pH in the non-diabetic normal muscles. c) E-64-C, a CANP inhibitor, restored the 92 K component reduced by the diabetic state. Since the band in denervated muscles was not changed by the Ca chelating agents, the reduction of the band in the diabetic muscles is related with musculotrophic factors, not diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that diabetic amyotrophy may be regarded as a phenomenon linked to an increase in intracellular Ca ions and an increase in CANP activity. PMID:2561275

  7. Structure of the SARS coronavirus main proteinase as an active C{sub 2} crystallographic dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ting; Ooi, Amy; Lee, Hooi Chen; Wilmouth, Rupert; Liu, Ding Xiang; Lescar, Julien

    2005-11-01

    An orthorhombic crystal form of the SARS CoV main proteinase diffracting to a resolution of 1.9 Å is reported. The conformation of residues in the catalytic site indicates an active enzyme. The 34 kDa main proteinase (M{sup pro}) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an important role in the virus life cycle through the specific processing of viral polyproteins. As such, SARS-CoV M{sup pro} is a key target for the identification of specific inhibitors directed against the SARS virus. With a view to facilitating the development of such compounds, crystals were obtained of the enzyme at pH 6.5 in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 that diffract to a resolution of 1.9 Å. These crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit and the biologically active dimer is generated via the crystallographic twofold axis. The conformation of the catalytic site indicates that the enzyme is active in the crystalline form and thus suitable for structure-based inhibition studies.

  8. Age-dependent changes in extracellular proteins, aminopeptidase and proteinase activities in Frankia isolate BR.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Benoist, P; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1991-12-01

    To investigate protein secretion by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia isolate BR, we designed a rapid DEAE adsorption, salt elution and Biogel P6DG desalination method to concentrate protein from the growth medium. Secreted proteins reached a maximum concentration (5.6 gm l-1) in the medium at growth arrest. Analysis by SDS-PAGE detected up to 63 extracellular polypeptides when Frankia cells were grown under stirred conditions in BAP medium supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and MES buffer and 65 proteins in stirred BAP media alone. The pattern of extracellular polypeptides changed during growth. Several extracellular proteolytic activities were detected and compared with intracellular ones. The substrate specificity of the extracellular and intracellular aminopeptidase activities were the same. Also, the electrophoretic migration patterns of secreted and intracellular aminopeptidases could not be distinguished. Secretion of the proline-specific aminopeptidase FAP proteinase (PF) were secreted: 10 had the same electrophoretic mobility as their intracellular counterparts after SDS-gelatine-PAGE while five (PF - 39.5, PF - 38.5, PF - 36.5, PF - 25.5 and PF - 20.5 kDa) had a different electrophoretic mobility and, therefore, appeared to be exclusively extracellular. At least seven extracellular proteinases appeared to increase coordinately in activity shortly before growth arrest. PMID:15101385

  9. Effects of a potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor on midgut proteolytic enzyme activity and growth of the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Fabrick, J; Behnke, C; Czapla, T; Bala, K; Rao, A G; Kramer, K J; Reeck, G R

    2002-04-01

    The major proteinase activity in extracts of larval midguts from the southern corn rootworm (SCR), Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, was identified as a cysteine proteinase that prefers substrates containing an arginine residue in the P1 position. Gelatin-zymogram analysis of the midgut proteinases indicated that the artificial diet-fed SCR, corn root-fed SCR, and root-fed western corn rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) possess a single major proteinase with an apparent molecular mass of 25kDa and several minor proteinases. Similar proteinase activity pH profiles were exhibited by root-fed and diet-fed rootworms with the optimal activity being slightly acidic. Rootworm larvae reared on corn roots exhibited significantly less caseinolytic activity than those reared on the artificial diet. Midgut proteolytic activity from SCR was most sensitive to inhibition by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Furthermore, rootworm proteinase activity was particularly sensitive to inhibition by a commercial protein preparation from potato tubers (PIN-II). One of the proteins, potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor-10', PCPI-10', obtained from PIN-II by ion-exchange chromatography, was the major source of inhibitory activity against rootworm proteinase activity. PCPI-10' and E-64 were of comparable potency as inhibitors of southern corn rootworm proteinase activity (IC(50) =31 and 35nM, respectively) and substantially more effective than chicken egg white cystatin (IC(50) =121nM). Incorporation of PCPI-10' into the diet of SCR larvae in feeding trials resulted in a significant increase in mortality and growth inhibition. We suggest that expression of inhibitors such as PCPI-10' by transgenic corn plants in the field is a potentially attractive method of host plant resistance to these Diabrotica species. PMID:11886775

  10. Anti-epidermal-cell-surface pemphigus antibody detaches viable epidermal cells from culture plates by activation of proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Farb, R M; Dykes, R; Lazarus, G S

    1978-01-01

    Immunoglobulin from pemphigus patients binds to the surface of mouse epidermal cells in culture. Cells incubated with the pemphigus antibody are easily detached from culture plates whereas cells incubated with serum from normal patients remain on the plate. Pemphigus antibody-mediated cell detachment is blocked by the addition of the proteinase inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and alpha2-macroglobulin to the culture media. Detachable cells are viable, and activation of the complement cascade is not necessary for cell detachment. The anti-cell-surface antibody of pemphigus appears to disrupt adhesion between viable epidermal cells by activation of proteinase. Images PMID:272663

  11. [Anti-adenovirus activity of a substance and medical form of ribamydil in cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ribamydil on adenovirus reproduction was studied under the determination of the number of cells with virus- induced DNA-containing intranucleus inclusion bodies and hexone antigen, the synthesis of adenovirus proteins and the infection virus by t he investigation. EC50 of ribamydil substance is 4-8 microg/ml, but complete suppression of adenovirus genome expression was found when adding ribamydil after the virus adsorption, in concentrations of 125-500 microg/ml. The original effect of ribamydil on the expression of adenovirus genome was found under its effect in concentration of 31 microg/ml. Intranucleus virus-induced inclusion bodies of the early type only were found under these conditions. Synthesis of the structural virus polypeptides, including hexone polypeptide (II) and non-structural polypeptide 100K, taking part in hexone trimerization, proceed intensively but without formation of immunologically active hexone. The inhibiting effect of officinal form of ribamydil was less expressed as compared with the substance (EC50: 62 microg/ml). The work results prove that the therapeutic effect of ribamydil (ribavirin) under treatment of adenovirus infections may be achieved in case when it is used in a dose excluding the expression of the adenovirus genome. PMID:20458939

  12. Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Biomass, Metabolic Activity and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Production.

    PubMed

    Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sónia; Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    According to epidemiological data, Candida tropicalis has been related to urinary tract infections and haematological malignancy. Several virulence factors seem to be responsible for C. tropicalis infections, for example: their ability to adhere and to form biofilms onto different indwelling medical devices; their capacity to adhere, invade and damage host human tissues due to enzymes production such as proteinases. The main aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis biofilms of different ages (24-120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their ability to express aspartyl proteinase (SAPT) genes. The reference strain C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and two C. tropicalis isolates from urine were used. Biofilms were evaluated in terms of culturable cells by colony-forming units enumeration; total biofilm biomass was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method; metabolic activity was evaluated by XTT assay; and SAPT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. All strains of C. tropicalis were able to form biofilms in AU, although with differences between strains. Candida tropicalis biofilms showed a decrease in terms of the number of culturable cells from 48 to 72 h. Generally, SAPT3 was highly expressed. C. tropicalis strains assayed were able to form biofilms in the presence of AU although in a strain- and time-dependent way, and SAPT genes are expressed during C. tropicalis biofilm formation. PMID:26572148

  13. [Proteinase-proteinase inhibitor complex in rats under oxidative stress caused by administration of cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms of proteinase-inhibitor proteinase system response was estimated following of cobalt chloride injection. The increase proteinase activity, which led to significant decrease of alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha-2-MG) level was established that indicated to the removal of the proteinase in complex with alpha-2-MG from the organism. Increase of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) trypsin-inhibitory activity in the kidneys testify about removal of oxidative alpha-1-PI. PMID:10979565

  14. Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR → A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  15. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  16. Trypsin-like proteinase and its endogenous inhibitor from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Biological activity.

    PubMed

    Burtseva, T I; Loenko, Y N

    1999-09-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase (YPTP) and its endogenous inhibitor (ITYP) were isolated from the culture filtrate of the pathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and their biological activities were studied. YPTP was found to be highly toxic for random-bred white mice. Under in vitro conditions the proteolytic enzyme destroyed protective proteins of the immune system of the animals--IgG, IgA, and proteins of the complement system (CIq, C3, and C5)--and, consequently, was a pathogenetic factor in yersinioses. The inhibitor ITYP was shown to manifest antibacterial activity against virulent forms of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. The ITYP preparation was harmless and nontoxic. PMID:10521713

  17. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-01

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections. PMID:25881537

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rossana; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  19. Stimulation of proteinase and amidase activities in Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis by amino acids and dipeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z X; Potempa, J; Polanowski, A; Renvert, S; Wikström, M; Travis, J

    1991-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes from the organism Porphyromonas gingivalis are believed to be involved in the development of periodontitis. Studies on both crude extracts and purified trypsinlike enzymes from this organism indicate that substantial stimulation of both amidase and proteinase activities can be obtained during incubation with glycine-containing compounds. We postulate that P. gingivalis may have developed this unusual property to take advantage of the glycine-rich environment which occurs during the periodontitis-associated degradation of gingival collagen. The finding of such a stimulation in crevicular fluids from discrete periodontal sites has been correlated with the presence of P. gingivalis and could be utilized for the early detection of infection by this organism during the onset of periodontitis. PMID:1855999

  20. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  1. An unequivocal example of cysteine proteinase activity affected by multiple electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Harris, G W; Henderson, I M; Jones, S T; Pickersgill, R W; Sumner, I G; Warwicker, J

    1994-10-01

    The role of electrostatic interactions between the ionizable Asp158 and the active site thiolate-imidazolium ion pair of some cysteine proteinases has been the subject of controversy for some time. This study reports the expression of wild type procaricain and Asp158Glu, Asp158Asn and Asp158Ala mutants from Escherichia coli. Purification of autocatalytically matured enzymes yielded sufficient fully active material for pH (kcat/Km) profiles to be obtained. Use of both uncharged and charged substrates allowed the effects of different reactive enzyme species to be separated from the complications of electrostatic effects between enzyme and substrate. At least three ionizations are detectable in the acid limb of wild type caricain and the Glu and Asn mutants. Only two pKa values, however, are detectable in the acid limb using the Ala mutant. Comparison of pH activity profiles shows that whilst an ionizable residue at position 158 is not essential for the formation of the thiolate-imidazolium ion pair, it does form a substantial part of the electrostatic field responsible for increased catalytic competence. Changing the position of this ionizable group in any way reduces activity. Complete removal of the charged group reduces catalytic competence even further. This work indicates that hydronations distant to the active site are contributing to the electrostatic effects leading to multiple active ionization states of the enzyme. PMID:7855143

  2. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  3. [The anti-adenovirus activity of larifan in a cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L; Butenko, S I

    1998-01-01

    Larifan, belonging to the number of highly active interferon inducers with a broad antivirus spectrum of action, did not manifest any antivirus effect in vitro in respect to human adenovirus of serotype 2 when it was used to treat the cells before and after the infection. PMID:9785803

  4. Purification and some physico-chemical and enzymic properties of a calcium ion-activated neutral proteinase from rabbit skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Azanza, Jean-Louis; Raymond, Jacques; Robin, Jean-Michel; Cottin, Patrick; Ducastaing, André

    1979-01-01

    Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle by a method involving DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, affinity chromatography on organomercurial–Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-150. The SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis data show that the purified enzyme contains only one polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 73000. The purification procedure used allowed us to eliminate a contaminant containing two components of mol.wt. about 30000 each. Whole casein or α1-casein were hydrolysed with a maximum rate at 30°C, pH7.5, and with 5mm-CaCl2, but myofibrils were found to be a very susceptible substrate for this proteinase. This activity is associated with the destruction of the Z-discs, which is caused by the solubilization of the Z-line proteins. The activity of the proteinase in vitro is not limited to the removal of Z-line. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis on larger plates showed the ability of the proteinase to degrade myofibrils more extensively than previously supposed. This proteolysis resulted in the production of a 30000-dalton component as well as in various other higher- and lower-molecular-weight peptide fragments. Troponin T, troponin I, α-tropomyosin, some high-molecular-weight proteins (M protein, heavy chain of myosin) and three unidentified proteins are degraded. Thus the number of proteinase-sensitive regions in the myofibrils is greater than as previously reported by Dayton, Goll, Zeece, Robson & Reville [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 2150–2158]. The Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase is not a chymotrypsin- or trypsin-like enzyme, but it reacted with all the classic thiol-proteinase inhibitors for cathepsin B, papain, bromelain and ficin. Thus the proteinase was proved to have an essential thiol group. Antipain and leupeptin are also inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:534501

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and potential functions of the human proteinase-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed Central

    Bohm, S K; Kong, W; Bromme, D; Smeekens, S P; Anderson, D C; Connolly, A; Kahn, M; Nelken, N A; Coughlin, S R; Payan, D G; Bunnett, N W

    1996-01-01

    We used PCR to amplify proteinase activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) from human kidney cDNA. The open reading frame comprised 1191 bp and encoded a protein of 397 residues with 83% identity with mouse PAR-2. In KNRK cells (a line of kirsten murine sarcoma virus-transformed rat kidney epithelial cells) transfected with this cDNA, trypsin and activating peptide (AP) corresponding to the tethered ligand exposed by trypsin cleavage (SLIGKV-NH2) induced a prompt increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i). Human PAR-2 (hPAR-2) resided both on the plasma membrane and in the Golgi apparatus. hPAR-2 mRNA was highly expressed in human pancreas, kidney, colon, liver and small intestine, and by A549 lung and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Hybridization in situ revealed high expression in intestinal epithelial cells throughout the gut. Trypsin and AP stimulated an increase in [Ca2+]i in a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (hBRIE 380) and stimulated amylase secretion in isolated pancreatic acini. In A549 cells, which also responded to trypsin and AP with mobilization of cytosolic Ca2+, AP inhibited colony formation. Thus PAR-2 may serve as a trypsin sensor in the gut. Its expression by cells and tissues not normally exposed to pancreatic trypsin suggests that other proteases could serve as physiological activators. PMID:8615752

  6. Lipoprotein(a) binds to fibronectin and has serine proteinase activity capable of cleaving it.

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, E M; Jauhiainen, M; Zardi, L; Vaheri, A; Ehnholm, C

    1989-01-01

    The plasma concentration of human lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is correlated with the risk of heart disease. A distinct feature of the Lp(a) particle is the apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)], which is associated with apoB-100, the main protein component of low-density lipoprotein. We now report that apo(a), which has extensive homology to plasminogen, binds to immobilized fibronectin. The binding of Lp(a) was localized to the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. Incubation of Lp(a) with fibronectin resulted in fragmentation of fibronectin. The cleavage pattern, as visualized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, was reproducibly obtained with Lp(a) purified from five different individuals and was distinct from that obtained upon proteolysis of fibronectin by plasmin or kallikrein. The use of synthetic peptide substrates demonstrated that the amino acid specificity for Lp(a) was arginine rather than lysine. The proteolytic activity of Lp(a) was localized to apo(a) and experiments with inhibitors indicated that the proteolytic activity was of serine proteinase-type. Images PMID:2531657

  7. [Downregulation of proteinase activated receptor 4 inhibits migration of SW620 human colorectal cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihong; Li, Chunchun; Xie, Yuqiong; Ye, Jingjia; Cao, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Objective To establish the human colorectal cancer cell model SW620/PAR4D with inducible suppression of proteinase activated receptor 4 (PAR4) expression, and investigate the role PAR4 plays in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Methods A human colorectal cancer cell line with tetracycline-inducible expression regulatory system, namely SW620/Tet-on, was established; inducible expression lentiviral vector with artificial microRNA targeting PAR4, pLVX-Tight-Puro-PAR4-miR, was constructed and transfected into SW620/Tet-on to make an inducible PAR4-suppressed cell model SW620/PAR4D. Western blotting was used to confirm the suppression of PAR4 expression after the doxycycline (DOX) treatment. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the impact of suppressed PAR4 expression on cell proliferation, and wound-healing assay was used to analyze the migration of the cells. Results The SW620/PAR4D cell model was established successfully. Suppression of PAR4 expression by DOX treatment had no significant impact on the growth/proliferation of SW620/PAR4D cells, but markedly inhibited the cell migration. Conclusion Suppression of PAR4 expression has no significant effect on the proliferation of SW620 cells, but can inhibit the migration of the cells. PMID:27126938

  8. Molt cycle-associated changes in calcium-dependent proteinase activity that degrades actin and myosin in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The role of calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) in the proecdysial atrophy of crustacean claw muscle has been investigated. During atrophy the molar ratio of actin to myosin heavy chain decreased 31%, confirming earlier ultrastructural observations that the ratio of thin:thick myofilaments declined from 9:1 to 6:1 (D.L. Mykles and D.M. Skinner, 1981, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 75, 314 to 325). The release of TCA-soluble material in muscle homogenates at neutral pH was stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and completely inhibited by EGTA. The specific degradation of the major myofibrillar proteins (actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, troponin-T, and troponin-I) was demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteolytic activity was more than twofold greater in proecdysial muscle homogenates. Degradation of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited by EGTA, and the two inhibitors of crysteine proteinases, leupeptin, and antipain, but not pepstatin, an inhibitor of aspartic proteinases. Unlike CDPs from vertebrate muscle, the CDP(s) in crab claw muscle degrades actin and myosin in addition to other myofibrillar proteins.

  9. Trypsin stimulates proteinase-activated receptor-2-dependent and -independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Belham, C M; Tate, R J; Scott, P H; Pemberton, A D; Miller, H R; Wadsworth, R M; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1996-01-01

    We have examined protease-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in rat aortic smooth-muscle cells and bovine pulmonary arterial fibroblasts. Exposure of smooth-muscle cells to trypsin evoked rapid and transient activation of c-Raf-1, MAP kinase kinase 1 and 2 and MAP kinase that was sensitive to inhibition by soybean trypsin inhibitor. The actions of trypsin were closely mimicked by the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2)-activating peptide sequence SLIGRL but not LSIGRL. Peak MAP kinase activation in response to both trypsin and SLIGRL was also dependent on concentration, with EC50 values of 12.1 +/- 3.4 nM and 62.5 +/- 4.5 microM respectively. Under conditions where MAP kinase activation by SLIGRL was completely desensitized by prior exposure of smooth-muscle cells to the peptide, trypsin-stimulated MAP kinase activity was markedly attenuated (78.9 +/- 15.1% desensitization), whereas the response to thrombin was only marginally affected (16.6 +/- 12.1% desensitization). Trypsin and SLIGRL also weakly stimulated the activation of the MAP kinase homologue p38 in smooth-muscle cells without any detectable activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Strong activation of the MAP kinase cascade and modest activation of p38 by trypsin were also observed in fibroblasts, although in this cell type these effects were not mimicked by SLIGRL nor by the thrombin receptor-activating peptide SFLLRNPNDKYEPF. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of PAR-2 mRNA in smooth-muscle cells but not fibroblasts. Our results suggest that in vascular smooth-muscle cells, trypsin stimulates the activation of the MAP kinase cascade relatively selectively, in a manner consistent with an interaction with the recently described PAR-2. Activation of MAP kinase by trypsin in vascular fibroblasts, however, seems to be independent of PAR-2 and occurs by an undefined mechanism possibly involving novel receptor species. PMID:9003384

  10. Membrane lipid peroxidation in neurodegeneration: Role of thrombin and proteinase-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Citron, Bruce A; Ameenuddin, Syed; Uchida, K; Suo, William Z; SantaCruz, Karen; Festoff, Barry W

    2016-07-15

    Thrombin and membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP) have been implicated in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders from CNS trauma to stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Because thrombin also induces MLP in platelets and its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases we hypothesized that its deleterious effects might, in part, involve formation of MLP in neuronal cells. We previously showed that thrombin induced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in motor neurons, via a proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1). We have now investigated thrombin's influence on the oxidative state of neurons leading to induction of MLP-protein adducts. Translational relevance of thrombin-induced MLP is supported by increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts (HNEPA) in AD and PD brains. We now report for the first time that thrombin dose-dependently induces formation of HNEPA in NSC34 mouse motor neuron cells using anti-HNE and anti-acrolein monoclonal antibodies. The most prominent immunoreactive band, in SDS-PAGE, was at ∼54kDa. Membrane fractions displayed higher amounts of the protein-adduct than cytosolic fractions. Thrombin induced MLP was mediated, at least in part, through PAR1 since a PAR1 active peptide, PAR1AP, also elevated HNEPA levels. Of interest, glutamate and Fe2SO4 also increased the ∼54kDa HNEPA band in these cells but to a lesser extent. Taken together our results implicate the involvement of thrombin and MLP in neuronal cell loss observed in various CNS degenerative and traumatic pathologies. PMID:27138068

  11. OZONE EFFECTS ON ALPHA-1-PROTEINASE INHIBITOR IN VIVO: BLOOD PLASMA INHIBITORY ACTIVITY IS UNCHANGED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possible oxidative inactivation of human blood plasma alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (PI) by inhaled ozone was assessed. Eleven male volunteers (non-smokers) were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for four hours on two consecutive days and ten control subjects were exposed to air under ...

  12. A Monoclonal Antibody (MCPR3-7) Interfering with the Activity of Proteinase 3 by an Allosteric Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Hinkofer, Lisa C.; Seidel, Susanne A. I.; Korkmaz, Brice; Silva, Francisco; Hummel, Amber M.; Braun, Dieter; Jenne, Dieter E.; Specks, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is an abundant serine protease of neutrophil granules and a major target of autoantibodies (PR3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Some of the PR3 synthesized by promyelocytes in the bone marrow escapes the targeting to granules and occurs on the plasma membrane of naive and primed neutrophils. This membrane-associated PR3 antigen may represent pro-PR3, mature PR3, or both forms. To discriminate between mature PR3 and its inactive zymogen, which have different conformations, we generated and identified a monoclonal antibody called MCPR3-7. It bound much better to pro-PR3 than to mature PR3. This monoclonal antibody greatly reduced the catalytic activity of mature PR3 toward extended peptide substrates. Using diverse techniques and multiple recombinant PR3 variants, we characterized its binding properties and found that MCPR3-7 preferentially bound to the so-called activation domain of the zymogen and changed the conformation of mature PR3, resulting in impaired catalysis and inactivation by α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-antitrypsin). Noncovalent as well as covalent complexation between PR3 and α1-proteinase inhibitor was delayed in the presence of MCPR3-7, but cleavage of certain thioester and paranitroanilide substrates with small residues in the P1 position was not inhibited. We conclude that MCPR3-7 reduces PR3 activity by an allosteric mechanism affecting the S1′ pocket and further prime side interactions with substrates. In addition, MCPR3-7 prevents binding of PR3 to cellular membranes. Inhibitory antibodies targeting the activation domain of PR3 could be exploited as highly selective inhibitors of PR3, scavengers, and clearers of the PR3 autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. PMID:23902773

  13. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 is required for normal osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation during skeletal growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Georgy, S R; Pagel, C N; Ghasem-Zadeh, A; Zebaze, R M D; Pike, R N; Sims, N A; Mackie, E J

    2012-03-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed by osteoblasts and monocytes. PAR(2) is activated by a number of proteinases including coagulation factors and proteinases released by inflammatory cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of PAR(2) in skeletal growth and repair using wild type (WT) and PAR(2) knockout (KO) mice. Micro computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to examine the structure of tibias isolated from uninjured mice at 50 and 90 days of age, and from 98-day-old mice in a bone repair model in which a hole had been drilled through the tibias. Bone marrow was cultured and investigated for the presence of osteoblast precursors (alkaline phosphatase-positive fibroblastic colonies), and osteoclasts were counted in cultures treated with M-CSF and RANKL. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine which proteinases that activate PAR(2) are expressed in bone marrow. Regulation of PAR(2) expression in primary calvarial osteoblasts from WT mice was investigated by quantitative PCR. Cortical and trabecular bone volumes were significantly greater in the tibias of PAR(2) KO mice than in those of WT mice at 50 days of age. In trabecular bone, osteoclast surface, osteoblast surface and osteoid volume were significantly lower in KO than in WT mice. Bone marrow cultures from KO mice showed significantly fewer alkaline phosphatase-positive colony-forming units and osteoclasts compared to cultures from WT mice. Significantly less new bone and significantly fewer osteoclasts were observed in the drill sites of PAR(2) KO mice compared to WT mice 7 days post-surgery. A number of activators of PAR(2), including matriptase and kallikrein 4, were found to be expressed by normal bone marrow. Parathyroid hormone, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3), or interleukin-6 in combination with its soluble receptor down-regulated PAR(2) mRNA expression, and fibroblast growth factor-2 or thrombin stimulated PAR(2

  14. RAD51 and BRCA2 enhance oncolytic adenovirus type 5 activity in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tookman, Laura A.; Browne, Ashley K.; Connell, Claire M.; Bridge, Gemma; Ingemarsdotter, Carin K.; Dowson, Suzanne; Shibata, Atsushi; Lockley, Michelle; Martin, Sarah A.; McNeish, Iain A.

    2015-01-01

    Homologous Recombination (HR) function is critically important in High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC). HGSOC with intact HR has a worse prognosis and is less likely to respond to platinum chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors. Oncolytic adenovirus, a novel therapy for human malignancies, stimulates a potent DNA damage response that influences overall anti-tumor activity. Here, the importance of HR was investigated by determining the efficacy of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors in ovarian cancer. Using matched BRCA2 mutant and wild-type HGSOC cells, it was demonstrated that intact HR function promotes viral DNA replication and augments overall efficacy, without influencing viral DNA processing. These data were confirmed in a wider panel of HR competent and defective ovarian cancer lines. Mechanistically, both BRCA2 and RAD51 localize to viral replication centers within the infected cell nucleus and that RAD51 localization occurs independently of BRCA2. In addition, a direct interaction was identified between RAD51 and adenovirus E2 DNA binding protein. Finally, using functional assays of HR competence, despite inducing degradation of MRE11, Ad5 infection does not alter cellular ability to repair DNA double strand break damage via HR. These data reveal that Ad5 redistributes critical HR components to viral replication centers and enhances cytotoxicity. Implications Oncolytic adenoviral therapy may be most clinically relevant in tumors with intact HR function. PMID:26452665

  15. Proteinase PrtP impairs lactococcin LcnB activity in Lactococcus lactis BGMN1-501: new insights into bacteriocin regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vukotic, Goran; Mirkovic, Nemanja; Jovcic, Branko; Miljkovic, Marija; Strahinic, Ivana; Fira, Djordje; Radulovic, Zorica; Kojic, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Proteinases and bacteriocins are of great importance to the dairy industry, but their interactions have not been studied so far. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGMN1-5 is a natural isolate from homemade semi-hard cheese which produces two bacteriocins (Lactococcin B and LsbB), as well as proteinase PrtP. A medium-dependent increase in the bacteriocin LcnB activity of L. lactis BGMN1-501, a derivate of L. lactis subsp. lactis BGMN1-5, was shown to be accompanied by a decrease in its promoter activity. A similar effect of media components on gene expression was reported for proteinase PrtP, whose gene is co-localized on the same plasmid as the lcnB gene. Thus, the PrtP-LcnB interplay was investigated. Single gene knockout mutants were constructed with disrupted prtP or lcnB genes. PrtP- mutants showed higher bacteriocin activity that had lost its growth medium dependence, which was in contrast to the original strain. When LcnB from this mutant was combined with proteinase from the LcnB- mutant in vitro, its activity was rendered to the original level, suggesting that proteinase reduces bacteriocin activity. We propose a new model of medium dependent expression of these genes with regard to the effects of their interaction in vivo. PMID:25713574

  16. Expression of serine proteinase P186 of Arthrobotrys oligospora and analysis of its nematode-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailong; Qiao, Jun; Meng, Qingling; Gong, Shasha; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Tianli; Tian, Lulu; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-12-01

    The nematode-trapping fungi possess a unique capability of predating and invading nematodes. As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora has been widely used to study the interactions between nematode-trapping fungi and their hosts. Serine proteinase is one of the important virulence factors during process of invasion of the nematode-trapping fungi into nematodes. In this study, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the gene sequence of serine proteinase 186 from A. oligospora, cloned it into pPIC9K vector and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed recombinant serine proteinase186 (reP186) was purified via Ni-affinity chromatography. The in vitro nematode-degrading activity of reP186 was analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed that reP186 with molecular weight of 33 kDa was successfully obtained. ReP186 was capable of degrading a series of protein substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, denatured collagen and nematode cortical layer. The reP186 exhibited the maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was highly sensitive to the inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. Treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus with reP186 for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively, resulted in 62, 88 and 100 % of killing rates for C. elegans, and 52, 65 and 84 % of killing rates for H. contortus, respectively, indicating a relatively strong nematode-degrading bioactivity of reP186. PMID:26419902

  17. Activation of progelatinase A (MMP-2) by neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3: a role for inflammatory cells in tumor invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shamamian, P; Schwartz, J D; Pocock, B J; Monea, S; Whiting, D; Marcus, S G; Mignatti, P

    2001-11-01

    Gelatinase A (MMP-2), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) involved in tumor invasion and angiogenesis, is secreted as an inactive zymogen (proMMP-2) and activated by proteolytic cleavage. Here we report that polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-derived elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 activate proMMP-2 through a mechanism that requires membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression. Immunoprecipitation of human PMN-conditioned medium with a mixture of antibodies to elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 abolished proMMP-2 activation, whereas individual antibodies were ineffective. Incubation of HT1080 cells with either purified PMN elastase or cathepsin G or proteinase-3 resulted in dose-and time-dependent proMMP-2 activation. Addition of PMN-conditioned medium to MT1-MMP expressing cells resulted in increased proMMP-2 activation and in vitro invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM), but had no effect with cells that express no MT1-MMP. MMP-2 activation by PMN-conditioned medium or purified elastase was blocked by the elastase inhibitor alpha(1)-antitrypsin but not by Batimastat, an MMP inhibitor, showing that elastase activation of MMP-2 is not mediated by MMP activities. The PMN-conditioned medium-induced increase in cell invasion was blocked by Batimastat as well as by alpha(1)-antitrypsin, showing that PMN serine proteinases trigger a proteinase cascade that entails proMMP-2 activation: this gelatinase is the downstream effector of the proinvasive activity of PMN proteinases. These findings indicate a novel role for PMN-mediated inflammation in a variety of tissue remodeling processes including tumor invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:11598905

  18. The simultaneous release by bone explants in culture and the parallel activation of procollagenase and of a latent neutral proteinase that degrades cartilage proteoglycans and denatured collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Vaes, G; Eeckhout, Y; Lenaers-Claeys, G; François-Gillet, C; Druetz, J E

    1978-01-01

    1. A latent neutral proteinase was found in culture media of mouse bone explants. Its accumulation during the cultures is closely parallel to that of procollagenase; both require the presence of heparin in the media. 2. Latent neutral proteinase was activated by several treatments of the media known to activate procollagenase, such as limited proteolysis by trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin or kallikrein, dialysis against 3 M-NaSCN at 4 degrees C and prolonged preincubation at 25 degrees C. Its activation often followed that of the procollagenase present in the same media. 3. Activation of neutral proteinase (as does that of procollagenase) by trypsin or plasmin involved two successive steps: the activation of a latent endogenous activator present in the media followed by the activation of neutral proteinase itself by that activator. 4. The proteinase degrades cartilage proteoglycans, denatured collagen (Azocoll) and casein at neutral pH; it is inhibited by EDTA, cysteine or serum. Collagenase is not inhibited by casein or Azocoll and is less resistant to heat or to trypsin than is the proteinase. Partial separation of the two enzymes was achieved by gel filtration of the media but not by fractional (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, by ion exchange or by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-collagen. These fractionations did not activate latent enzymes. 5. Trypsin activation decreases the molecular weight of both latent enzymes (60 000-70 000) by 20 000-30 000, as determined by gel filtration of media after removal of heparin. 6. The latency of both enzymes could be due either to a zymogen or to an enzyme-inhibitor complex. A thermostable inhibitor of both enzymes was found in some media. However, combinations of either enzyme with that inhibitor were not reactivated by trypsin, indicating that this inhibitor is unlikely to be the cause of the latency. PMID:208518

  19. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  20. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  1. The adenovirus e3 promoter is sensitive to activation signals in human T cells.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Jeffrey A; Boss, Jeremy M; Gooding, Linda R

    2003-01-01

    The group C adenoviruses typically cause acute respiratory disease in young children. In addition, a persistent phase of infection has been observed in which virus may be shed for years without producing overt pathology. Our laboratory recently reported that group C adenovirus DNA can be found in tonsil and adenoid T lymphocytes from the majority of pediatric donors (C. T. Garnett, D. Erdman, W. Xu, and L. R. Gooding, J. Virol. 76:10608-10616, 2002). This finding suggests that immune evasion strategies of human adenoviruses may be directed, in part, toward protection of persistently or latently infected T lymphocytes. Many of the adenoviral gene products implicated in prevention of immune destruction of virus-infected cells are encoded within the E3 transcription unit. In this study, the E3 promoter was evaluated for sensitivity to T-cell activation signals by using a promoter reporter plasmid. Indeed, this promoter is extremely sensitive to T-cell activation, with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin increasing E3-directed transcription 100-fold. By comparison, in the same cells E1A expression leads to a 5.5-fold increase in transcription from the E3 promoter. In contrast to induction by E1A, activation by PMA plus ionomycin requires the two E3 NF-kappaB binding sites. Interestingly, expression of E1A inhibits induction of the E3 promoter in response to T-cell activation while increasing E3 promoter activity in unactivated cells. Collectively, these data suggest that the E3 promoter may have evolved the capacity to respond to T-cell activation in the absence of E1A expression and may act to upregulate antiapoptotic gene expression in order to promote survival of persistently infected T lymphocytes. PMID:12502827

  2. High expression of pulmonary proteinase-activated receptor 2 in acute and chronic lung injury in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Cederqvist, Katariina; Haglund, Caj; Heikkilä, Päivi; Hollenberg, Morley D; Karikoski, Riitta; Andersson, Sture

    2005-06-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)), a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by serine proteinases such as trypsin, has been suggested to play an important role in inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes. In preterm infants, the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by early pulmonary inflammation and subsequent interstitial fibrosis. High pulmonary trypsin-2 has been shown to be associated with the development of BPD. We studied the expression and distribution of PAR(2) and trypsin-2 by immunohistochemistry in autopsy lung specimens of fetuses (n = 10), of preterm infants who died of acute or prolonged respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (n = 8 and n = 7, respectively) or BPD (n = 6), and of newborn infants without lung disease (n = 5) who served as controls. In prolonged RDS and BPD, PAR(2) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in bronchial epithelium when compared with infants without pulmonary pathology (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively). In alveolar epithelium, expression of PAR(2) was elevated in prolonged RDS when compared with newborn infants without pulmonary pathology (p < 0.05). Moreover, strong expression of PAR(2) was detected in myofibroblasts of thickened and fibrotic alveolar walls in prolonged RDS or BPD. Trypsin-2 was co-localized with PAR(2) in bronchoalveolar epithelium. These findings suggest that PAR(2), possibly activated by trypsin-2, may participate in inflammation and fibroproliferation associated with progression of RDS toward BPD in preterm infants. PMID:15879299

  3. Etoposide enhances antitumor efficacy of MDR1-driven oncolytic adenovirus through autoupregulation of the MDR1 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Bing-Hua; Shieh, Gia-Shing; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2015-11-10

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds), or oncolytic adenoviruses, such as E1B55K-deleted adenovirus, are attractive anticancer agents. However, the therapeutic efficacy of E1B55K-deleted adenovirus for refractory solid tumors has been limited. Environmental stress conditions may induce nuclear accumulation of YB-1, which occurs in multidrug-resistant and adenovirus-infected cancer cells. Overexpression and nuclear localization of YB-1 are associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence in various cancers. Nuclear YB-1 transactivates the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) genes through the Y-box. Here, we developed a novel E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the MDR1 promoter, designed Ad5GS3. We tested the feasibility of using YB-1 to transcriptionally regulate Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells and thereby to enhance antitumor efficacy. We evaluated synergistic antitumor effects of oncolytic virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. Our results show that adenovirus E1A induced E2F-1 activity to augment YB-1 expression, which shut down host protein synthesis in cancer cells during adenovirus replication. In cancer cells infected with Ad5WS1, an E1B55K-deleted adenovirus driven by the E1 promoter, E1A enhanced YB-1 expression, and then further phosphorylated Akt, which, in turn, triggered nuclear translocation of YB-1. Ad5GS3 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents facilitated nuclear localization of YB-1 and, in turn, upregulated the MDR1 promoter activity and enhanced Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells. Thus, E1A, YB-1, and the MDR1 promoter form a positive feedback loop to promote Ad5GS3 replication in cancer cells, and this regulation can be further augmented when chemotherapeutic agents are added. In the in vivo study, Ad5GS3 in combination with etoposide synergistically suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice bearing human lung tumor xenografts. More importantly, Ad5GS3 exerted potent oncolytic activity against clinical

  4. Binding of protein kinase C to neutrophil membranes in the presence of Ca2+ and its activation by a Ca2+-requiring proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, E; Pontremoli, S; Michetti, M; Sacco, O; Sparatore, B; Salamino, F; Horecker, B L

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of micromolar concentrations of Ca2+, both protein kinase C and a cytosolic Ca2+-requiring neutral proteinase of human neutrophils become associated with the neutrophil membrane. Binding to the membrane results in activation of the proteinase, which then catalyzes limited proteolysis of the kinase to produce a form that is fully active in the absence of Ca2+ and phospholipid. This irreversibly activated protein kinase is released from the membrane and may thus have access, in the intact cell, to intracellular protein substrates. In the absence of the proteinase, Ca2+ promotes the binding of protein kinase C, but conversion to the Ca2+/phospholipid-independent form does not occur and the kinase remains associated with the membrane fraction. PMID:2995965

  5. AN INACTIVE PRECURSOR OF STREPTOCOCCAL PROTEINASE

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Stuart D.; Dole, Vincent P.

    1947-01-01

    1. Streptococcal proteinase is derived from an inactive precursor found in culture filtrates of proteinase-producing streptococci. 2. The precursor can be converted into the proteinase by low concentrations of trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. 3. In cultures grown in suitable media the conversion of precursor to proteinase is effected autocatalytically. This reaction occurs under reducing conditions and is initiated by active proteinase present in low concentrations with the precursor. 4. The autocatalytic reaction is suppressed or retarded by conditions which decrease the activity of the proteinase, e.g. by growing cultures at 22°C. instead of at 37°C. or by growing them under markedly aerobic conditions. It is also retarded in the presence of casein. PMID:19871616

  6. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A V; Rucavado, A; Sanz, L; Calvete, J J; Gutiérrez, J M

    2008-01-01

    A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence shows high identity with snake venom serine proteinases and a complete identity with a cDNA clone previously sequenced from this species. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is VIGGDECNINEHRSLVVLFXSSGFL CAGTLVQDEWVLTAANCDSKNFQ. The enzyme induces clotting of plasma (minimum coagulant dose = 4.1 microg) and fibrinogen (minimum coagulant dose = 4.2 microg) in vitro, and promotes defibrin(ogen)ation in vivo (minimum defibrin(ogen)ating dose = 1.0 microg). In addition, when injected intravenously in mice at doses of 5 and 10 microg, it induces a series of behavioral changes, i.e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the ;gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. PMID:17994164

  7. Coordinate activation of lysosomal, Ca 2+-activated and ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteinases in the unweighted rat soleus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Taillandier, D; Aurousseau, E; Meynial-Denis, D; Bechet, D; Ferrara, M; Cottin, P; Ducastaing, A; Bigard, X; Guezennec, C Y; Schmid, H P

    1996-01-01

    Nine days of hindlimb suspension resulted in atrophy (55%) and loss of protein (53%) in rat soleus muscle due to a marked elevation in protein breakdown (66%, P < 0.005). To define which proteolytic system(s) contributed to this increase, soleus muscles from unweighted rats were incubated in the presence of proteolytic inhibitors. An increase in lysosomal and Ca 2+-activated proteolysis (254%, P < 0.05) occurred in the atrophying incubated muscles. In agreement with the measurements in vitro, cathepsin B, cathepsins B + L and m-calpain enzyme activities increased by 111%, 92% and 180% (P < 0.005) respectively in the atrophying muscles. Enhanced mRNA levels for these proteinases (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) paralleled the increased enzyme activities, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of these enzymes. However, the lysosomal and Ca 2+-dependent proteolytic pathways accounted for a minor part of total proteolysis in both control (9%) and unweighted rats (18%). Furthermore the inhibition of these pathways failed to suppress increased protein breakdown in unweighted muscle. Thus a non-lysosomal Ca 2+-independent proteolytic process essentially accounted for the increased proteolysis and subsequent muscle wasting. Increased mRNA levels for ubiquitin, the 14 kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (involved in the ubiquitylation of protein substrates) and the C2 and C9 subunits of the 20 S proteasome (i.e. the proteolytic core of the 26 S proteasome that degrades ubiquitin conjugates) were observed in the atrophying muscles (P < 0.02 to P < 0.001). Analysis of C9 mRNA in polyribosomes showed equal distribution into both translationally active and inactive mRNA pools, in either unweighted or control rats. These results suggest that increased ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is most probably responsible for muscle wasting in the unweighted soleus muscle. PMID:8645234

  8. Oncolytic Adenovirus Loaded with L-carnosine as Novel Strategy to Enhance the Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Mariangela; Iovine, Barbara; Kuryk, Lukasz; Capasso, Cristian; Hirvinen, Mari; Vitale, Andrea; Yliperttula, Marjo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Oncolytic viruses are able to specifically replicate, infect, and kill only cancer cells. Their combination with chemotherapeutic drugs has shown promising results due to the synergistic action of virus and drugs; the combinatorial therapy is considered a potential clinically relevant approach for cancer. In this study, we optimized a strategy to absorb peptides on the viral capsid, based on electrostatic interaction, and used this strategy to deliver an active antitumor drug. We used L-carnosine, a naturally occurring histidine dipeptide with a significant antiproliferative activity. An ad hoc modified, positively charged L-carnosine was combined with the capsid of an oncolytic adenovirus to generate an electrostatic virus-carnosine complex. This complex showed enhanced antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo in different tumor models. In HCT-116 colorectal and A549 lung cancer cell lines, the complex showed higher transduction ratio and infectious titer compared with an uncoated oncolytic adenovirus. The in vivo efficacy of the complex was tested in lung and colon cancer xenograft models, showing a significant reduction in tumor growth. Importantly, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of complex on tumor growth reduction. We found that complex induces apoptosis in both cell lines, by using two different mechanisms, enhancing viral replication and affecting the expression of Hsp27. Our system could be used in future studies also for delivery of other bioactive drugs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 651-60. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26861248

  9. Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and β-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19μmol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the β-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that β-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h β-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

  10. X-ray crystal structure of CMS1MS2: a high proteolytic activity cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marco T R; Teixeira, Raphael D; Lopes, Míriam T P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; Salas, Carlos E

    2012-12-01

    CMS1MS2 (CC-Ib) from Carica candamarcensis (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis) is a cysteine proteinase found as a single polypeptide containing 213 residues of 22,991 Da. The enzyme was purified by three chromatographic steps, two of them involving cationic exchange. Crystals of CMS1MS2 complexed with E-64 were obtained by the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method at 291 K using ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 4000/8000 as precipitant. The complex CMS1MS2-E-64 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2 with unit-cell parameters; a = b = 73.64, c = 118.79 Å. The structure was determined by Molecular Replacement and refined at 1.87 Å resolution to a final R factor of 16.2 % (R (free) = 19.3 %). Based on the model, the structure of CMS1MS2 (PDB 3IOQ) ranks as one of the least basic cysteine isoforms from C. candamarcensis, is structurally closer to papain, caricain, chymopapain and mexicain than to the other cysteine proteinases, while its activity is twice the activity of papain towards BAPNA substrate. Two differences, one in the S2 subsite and another in the S3 subsite of CMS1MS2 may contribute to the enhanced activity relative to papain. In addition, the model provides a structural basis for the sensitivity of CMS1MS2 to inhibition by cystatin, not shown by other enzymes of the group, e.g., glycyl endopeptidase and CMS2MS2. PMID:22610687

  11. MOLECULAR CLONING OF TRYPSIN-LIKE CDNAS AND COMPARISON OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS AND GUT OF THE TARNISHED PLANT BUG LYGUS LINEOLARIS (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using specific proteinase inhibitors, we demonstrated that serine proteinases in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, are major proteinases in both salivary glands and gut tissues. Gut proteinases were less sensitive to inhibition than proteinases from the salivary glands. Up to 80% azocaseina...

  12. Adenovirus preterminal protein synthesized in COS cells from cloned DNA is active in DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, S C; Horwitz, M S; Engler, J A

    1988-01-01

    Replication of the DNA genome of human adenovirus serotype 2 requires three virus-encoded proteins. Two of these proteins, the preterminal protein (pTP) and the adenovirus DNA polymerase, are transcribed from a single promoter at early times after virus infection. The mRNAs for these proteins share several exons, including one encoded near adenovirus genome coordinate 39. By using plasmids containing DNA fragments postulated to encode the various exons of pTP mRNA, the contributions of each exon to the synthesis of an active pTP have been measured. Only plasmids that contain both the open reading frame for pTP (genome coordinates 29.4 to 23.9) and the HindIII J fragment that contains the exon at genome coordinate 39 can express functional pTP. Images PMID:3336069

  13. Influence of pH upon the activity of glycosidases and proteinases of intestinal mucosa, chyme and microbiota in fish.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Skvortsova, E G; Zolotareva, G V; Sheptitskiy, V A

    2011-09-01

    It is shown that amylolytic and proteolytic activity of the intestinal mucosa, the chyme and the intestinal flora in the fishes, zander Zander lucioperca (L.), perch Perca fluviatilis L., bream Abramis brama (L.) and roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), belonging according to their feeding habits to different ecological groups at the same pH values as well as in the pH range from 5.0 to 10.0 considerably varies. The glycosidase pH optimum of the mucosa and intestinal microbiota is 7.0, whereas that of the chyme varies from 6.0 (in roach) to 8.0 (in bream). pH optimum of the mucosa proteinases in all fish species is 10.0, whereas that of the chyme and the bacterial flora can be observed in all the range of pH values. PMID:21082240

  14. Chronic Activation of Innate Immunity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Cancer Patients Treated With Oncolytic Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Kristian; Liikanen, Ilkka; Juhila, Juuso; Turkki, Riku; Tähtinen, Siri; Kankainen, Matti; Vassilev, Lotta; Ristimäki, Ari; Koski, Anniina; Kanerva, Anna; Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Oksanen, Minna; Linder, Nina; Joensuu, Timo; Lundin, Johan; Hemminki, Akseli

    2016-02-01

    Despite many clinical trials conducted with oncolytic viruses, the exact tumor-level mechanisms affecting therapeutic efficacy have not been established. Currently there are no biomarkers available that would predict the clinical outcome to any oncolytic virus. To assess the baseline immunological phenotype and find potential prognostic biomarkers, we monitored mRNA expression levels in 31 tumor biopsy or fluid samples from 27 patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Additionally, protein expression was studied from 19 biopsies using immunohistochemical staining. We found highly significant changes in several signaling pathways and genes associated with immune responses, such as B-cell receptor signaling (P < 0.001), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling (P < 0.001), and leukocyte extravasation signaling (P < 0.001), in patients surviving a shorter time than their controls. In immunohistochemical analysis, markers CD4 and CD163 were significantly elevated (P = 0.020 and P = 0.016 respectively), in patients with shorter than expected survival. Interestingly, T-cell exhaustion marker TIM-3 was also found to be significantly upregulated (P = 0.006) in patients with poor prognosis. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of several functions of the innate immunity before treatment is associated with inferior survival in patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Conversely, lack of chronic innate inflammation at baseline may predict improved treatment outcome, as suggested by good overall prognosis. PMID:26310629

  15. [Functional activity of lymphoblastoid cells infected by human adenovirus type 2 and Epstein-Barr virus].

    PubMed

    Povnitsa, O Iu; Diachenko, N S; Nosach, L N; Olevinskaia, Z M; Zhovnovataia, V L; Polishchuk, V N; Spivak, N Ia

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of the adenovirus (Ad) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on functional activity of lymphocytes, in particular, the production of alpha- and gamma-interferons, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in conditions of mono- or double infection of B- and T-phenotype (CEM) lymphoblastoid cells. It is shown, that Ad, EBV or both viruses induce high enough levels of interferon on both lines of cells and in control epithelial cells. The lymphoblastoid cells infected by viruses deep ability to synthesize alpha- and gamma-interferons under the influence of the corresponding inducers (Newcastle disease virus and hemagglutinine). Nevertheless, the levels of their formation are not high. Rather high parameters of activity of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were revealed during a day in the initial B95-8 cells and superinfected Ad after the effect of LPS of E. coli. Their activity in CEM cells also did not depend on the infection type. PMID:16018208

  16. Unabated Adenovirus Replication following Activation of the cGAS/STING-Dependent Antiviral Response in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cGAS/STING DNA sensing complex has recently been established as a predominant pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for DNA-directed type I interferon (IFN) innate immune activation. Using replication-defective adenovirus vectors and replication-competent wild-type adenovirus, we have modeled the influence of the cGAS/STING cascade in permissive human cell lines (A549, HeLa, ARPE19, and THP1). Wild-type adenovirus induced efficient early activation of the cGAS/STING cascade in a cell-specific manner. In all responsive cell lines, cGAS/STING short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown resulted in a loss of TBK1 and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) activation, a lack of beta interferon transcript induction, loss of interferon-dependent STAT1 activation, and diminished induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Adenoviruses that infect through the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad2 and Ad5) and the CD46 (Ad35) and desmoglein-2 (Ad7) viral receptors all induce the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. The magnitude of the IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response was strongly influenced by serotype, with Ad35>Ad7>Ad2. For each serotype, no enhancement of viral DNA replication or virus production occurred in cGAS or STING shRNA-targeted cell line pools. We found no replication advantage in permissive cell lines that do not trigger the cGAS/STING cascade following infection. The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and we found no evidence that Ad stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency. IMPORTANCE This study shows for the first time that the cGAS DNA sensor directs a dominant IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response to adenovirus in human cell lines. Activation of cGAS occurs with viruses that infect through different high-affinity receptors (CAR, CD46, and desmoglein-2), and the magnitude of the cGAS/STING DNA response cascade is influenced by serotype-specific functions

  17. Coagulation Factor X Activates Innate Immunity to Human Species C Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Doronin, Konstantin; Flatt, Justin W.; Di Paolo, Nelson C.; Khare, Reeti; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Acchione, Mauro; Sumida, John P.; Ohto, Umeharu; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko; Miyake, Kensuke; MacDonald, James W.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; Farin, Frederico M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although coagulation factors play a role in host defense for “living fossils” such as horseshoe crabs, the role of the coagulation system in immunity in higher organisms remains unclear. We modeled the interface of human species C adenovirus (HAdv) interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) and introduced a mutation that abrogated formation of the HAdv-FX complex. In vivo genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that FX-binding–ablated virus failed to activate a distinct network of nuclear factor κB–dependent early-response genes that are activated by HAdv-FX complex downstream of TLR4/MyD88/TRIF/TRAF6 signaling. Our study implicates host factor “decoration” of the virus as a mechanism to trigger an innate immune sensor that responds to a misplacement of coagulation FX from the blood into intracellular macrophage compartments upon virus entry into the cell. PMID:23019612

  18. Coagulation factor X activates innate immunity to human species C adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Doronin, Konstantin; Flatt, Justin W; Di Paolo, Nelson C; Khare, Reeti; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Acchione, Mauro; Sumida, John P; Ohto, Umeharu; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko; Miyake, Kensuke; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Farin, Frederico M; Stewart, Phoebe L; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M

    2012-11-01

    Although coagulation factors play a role in host defense for "living fossils" such as horseshoe crabs, the role of the coagulation system in immunity in higher organisms remains unclear. We modeled the interface of human species C adenovirus (HAdv) interaction with coagulation factor X (FX) and introduced a mutation that abrogated formation of the HAdv-FX complex. In vivo genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that FX-binding-ablated virus failed to activate a distinct network of nuclear factor κB-dependent early-response genes that are activated by HAdv-FX complex downstream of TLR4/MyD88/TRIF/TRAF6 signaling. Our study implicates host factor "decoration" of the virus as a mechanism to trigger an innate immune sensor that responds to a misplacement of coagulation FX from the blood into intracellular macrophage compartments upon virus entry into the cell. PMID:23019612

  19. Estimation of plasma esterolytic activity and it's in vitro inhibition by proteinase inhibitors during acute pancreatitis in the human.

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, K. J.; Cuschieri, A.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma esterolytic activity was measured using benzyol arginine ethyl ester (BAEe) in the peripheral venous blood of patients with acute pancreatitis, normal healthy volunteers and a contrast group of patients with acute intrabdominal inflammations other than acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity was significantly elevated in the pancreatitis group. This activity was maximal during the first 48 hours of the illness and remained elevated for a further 8 days thereafter. Aprotinin in a dose of 2000 K.I. u/0-3 ml plasma did not completely inhibit this esterolytic activity, although it resulted in a more substantial inhibition than either ovomucoid or soy bean inhibitor. It is concluded that pancreatic enzymes are released into the circulation during acute pancreatitis and that Aprotinin does not completely inhibit this proteolytic activity. This polyvalent proteinase inhibitor should therefore be administered in much higher dosage than that used hitherto in acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity seems to be of diagnostic value in acute pancreatitis. PMID:1083738

  20. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-01-01

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2327970

  1. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. PMID:2327970

  2. Processing of the yellow fever virus nonstructural polyprotein: a catalytically active NS3 proteinase domain and NS2B are required for cleavages at dibasic sites.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, T J; Grakoui, A; Rice, C M

    1991-01-01

    The vaccinia virus-T7 transient expression system was used to further examine the role of the NS3 proteinase in processing of the yellow fever (YF) virus nonstructural polyprotein in BHK cells. YF virus-specific polyproteins and cleavage products were identified by immunoprecipitation with region-specific antisera, by size, and by comparison with authentic YF virus polypeptides. A YF virus polyprotein initiating with a signal sequence derived from the E protein fused to the N terminus of NS2A and extending through the N-terminal 356 amino acids of NS5 exhibited processing at the 2A-2B, 2B-3, 3-4A, 4A-4B, and 4B-5 cleavage sites. Similar results were obtained with polyproteins whose N termini began within NS2A (position 110) or with NS2B. When the NS3 proteinase domain was inactivated by replacing the proposed catalytic Ser-138 with Ala, processing at all sites was abolished. The results suggest that an active NS3 proteinase domain is necessary for cleavage at the diabasic nonstructural cleavage sites and that cleavage at the proposed 4A-4B signalase site requires prior cleavage at the 4B-5 site. Cleavages were not observed with a polyprotein whose N terminus began with NS3, but cleavage at the 4B-5 site could be restored by supplying the the NS2B protein in trans. Several experimental results suggested that trans cleavage at the 4B-5 site requires association of NS2B and the NS3 proteinase domain. Coexpression of different proteinases and catalytically inactive polyprotein substrates revealed that trans cleavage at the 2B-3 and 4B-5 sites was relatively efficient when compared with trans cleavage at the 2A-2B and 3-4A sites. Images PMID:1833562

  3. Molecular mechanisms of antithrombin-heparin regulation of blood clotting proteinases. a paradigm for understanding proteinase regulation by serpin family protein proteinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Steven T.; Richard, Benjamin; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Gettins, Peter G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Serpin family protein proteinase inhibitors regulate the activity of serine and cysteine proteinases by a novel conformational trapping mechanism that may itself be regulated by cofactors to provide a finely-tuned time and location-dependent control of proteinase activity. The serpin, antithrombin, together with its cofactors, heparin and heparan sulfate, perform a critical anticoagulant function by preventing the activation of blood clotting proteinases except when needed at the site of a vascular injury. Here, we review the detailed molecular understanding of this regulatory mechanism that has emerged from numerous X-ray crystal structures of antithrombin and its complexes with heparin and target proteinases together with mutagenesis and functional studies of heparin-antithrombin-proteinase interactions in solution. Like other serpins, antithrombin achieves specificity for its target blood clotting proteinases by presenting recognition determinants in an exposed reactive center loop as well as in exosites outside the loop. Antithrombin reactivity is repressed in the absence of its activator because of unfavorable interactions that diminish the favorable RCL and exosite interactions with proteinases. Binding of a specific heparin or heparan sulfate pentasaccharide to antithrombin induces allosteric activating changes that mitigate the unfavorable interactions and promote template bridging of the serpin and proteinase. Antithrombin has thus evolved a sophisticated means of regulating the activity of blood clotting proteinases in a time and location-dependent manner that exploits the multiple conformational states of the serpin and their differential stabilization by glycosaminoglycan cofactors. PMID:20685328

  4. Characterization of proteinases in trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Branquinha, M H; Vermelho, A B; Goldenberg, S; Bonaldo, M C

    1994-02-01

    Proteinases are important factors in the pathogenicity of many parasitic diseases. In this study, the proteolytic activities of 10 trypanosomatids from five different genera (Crithidia, Phytomonas, Endotrypanum, Trypanosoma and Leishmania) were determined by SDS-PAGE containing copolymerized gelatin as substrate. In almost all species we could detect two proteolytic classes, cysteine- and metalloproteinases, based on the inhibition of their activities by E-64 and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively. In all cases, the metalloproteinase activities did not change over a broad pH range (from 5.5 to 10). E. schaudinni, T. mega, T. dionisii, C. luciliae, C. fasciculata, C. oncopelti and C. guilhermei expressed one or two metalloproteinases of 45-66 kDa, whereas in P. serpens and P. hyssopifolia a double band of this endopeptidase was detected at 94 kDa. In contrast, no metalloproteinase activity was observed in L. tarentolae. The optimal pH for the cysteine-proteinase activities was acidic (about 5.5). In E. schaudinni, T. mega and in Crithidia sp., these proteinases had an apparent molecular weight of 66-94 kDa, while L. tarentolae expressed a broad band from 29 to 45 kDa. In Phytomonas sp., this class of endopeptidase showed a unique feature, in that major cysteine-proteinases were found at 29-66 kDa, but multiple, low-activity bands were detected from 116 to 200 kDa. The most striking characteristic, however, was the very intense cysteine-proteinase activity expressed by T. dionisii (29-66 kDa). We conclude that these differences in the proteolytic profiles could be useful markers to characterize and compare trypanosomatids. PMID:8081271

  5. Adenovirus type 35, but not type 5, stimulates NK cell activation via plasmacytoid dendritic cells and TLR9 signaling.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Jens H W; Verhoeven, Dirk H J; Kwappenberg, Kitty M C; Vellinga, Jort; Lankester, Arjan C; van Tol, Maarten J D; Schilham, Marco W

    2012-05-01

    In hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, disseminated adenoviral infections during the first two months after HSCT can lead to severe complications and fatal outcome. Since NK cells are usually the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and have been implicated in the clearance of adenovirus-infected cells, it was investigated whether NK cells are activated by adenovirus in vitro. Exposure of PBMC to human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) or HAdV35 resulted in the up-regulation of the activation marker CD69 on NK cells and enhanced the cytolytic activity of NK cells. HAdV5-induced NK cell activation relied on the contribution of T cells as the depletion of T cells from PBMC abolished NK cell activation. In contrast, NK cell activation in response to HAdV35 occurred in the absence of T cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were necessary and sufficient to mediate NK cell activation. HAdV35 induced significantly more interferon-α (IFN-α) production by pDC than HAdV5. The increased IFN-α production and NK cell activation correlated with a higher infection efficiency of viruses with the type 35 fiber. The IFN-α response of pDC was enhanced by the presence of NK cells, suggesting a reciprocal interaction between pDC and NK cells. Incubation with a TLR9 antagonist impaired the IFN-α production by pDC as well as NK cell activation, implying that TLR9 signaling is critically involved in the IFN-α response of pDC and NK cell activation after HAdV35 exposure. In conclusion, two human adenovirus serotypes from two different species differ considerably in their capacity to stimulate pDC and NK cells. PMID:22424784

  6. Mechanisms of liver fibrosis associated with experimental Fasciola hepatica infection: roles of Fas2 proteinase and hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Luis A; Terashima, Angélica; Yi, Pedro; Andrade, Roy; Cubero, Francisco J; Albanis, Efsevia; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Espinoza, Jose R; Friedman, Scott L

    2011-02-01

    We have evaluated the possible mechanisms of liver fibrosis caused by Fasciola hepatica in an animal model and in culture using immortalized human stellate cells. Liver biopsies of F. hepatica-infected rats were performed at wk 8 and 16. Serum-starved LX-2 cells, a human stellate cell line, were exposed to increasing concentrations of Fas2 antigen. The expression of key fibrosis-related genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR. There was a significant correlation between fibrogenic gene expression and both intensity and duration of infection. LX-2 cells exposed to Fas2 showed progressively increased expression of mRNAs for Collagen I, alpha-smooth muscle-actin, platelet-derived growth factor beta receptor, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase II; inhibition of Fas2 cysteine proteinase activity by E-64 abrogated these increases, suggesting that the protease activity of Fas2 is involved in fibrogenic stimulation. In summary, F. hepatica infection is associated with up-regulation of mRNAs associated with hepatic fibrogenesis in vivo and in activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID:21348611

  7. Involvement of mast cells and proteinase-activated receptor 2 in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ayumi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2016-03-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin induces neuropathic pain, a dose-limiting side effect, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show the potential involvement of cutaneous mast cells in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin induced mechanical allodynia, which peaked on day 10 after injection. Oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia was almost completely prevented by congenital mast cell deficiency. The numbers of total and degranulated mast cells was significantly increased in the skin after oxaliplatin administration. Repetitive topical application of the mast cell stabilizer azelastine hydrochloride inhibited mechanical allodynia and the degranulation of mast cells without affecting the number of mast cells in oxaliplatin-treated mice. The serine protease inhibitor camostat mesilate and the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) antagonist FSLLRY-NH2 significantly inhibited oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it was not inhibited by the H1 histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine. Single oxaliplatin administration increased the activity of cutaneous serine proteases, which was attenuated by camostat and mast cell deficiency. Depletion of the capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents by neonatal capsaicin treatment almost completely prevented oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, the increase in the number of mast cells, and the activity of cutaneous serine proteases. These results suggest that serine protease(s) released from mast cells and PAR2 are involved in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Therefore, oxaliplatin may indirectly affect the functions of mast cells through its action on capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents. PMID:26804251

  8. CAP37-derived antimicrobial peptides have in vitro antiviral activity against adenovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Y. Jerold; Romanowski, Eric G.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Hinsley, Heather; Pereira, H. Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The antiviral activity of an established antibacterial CAP37 domain and its extracellular mechanism of action were investigated. Methods CAP37-derived peptides modified to assess the importance of disulfide bonds were evaluated in cytotoxicity, and antiviral assays (direct time kill, dose-dependency and TOTO-1) for adenovirus (Ad) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Results Variable virus, adenovirus serotype-dependant, and dose-dependent inhibition were demonstrated without cytotoxicity. For Peptide A (CAP3720-44), TOTO-1 dye uptake was demonstrated for Ad5 and HSV-1. Conclusions Unlike the antibacterial activity of this CAP37 domain, its antiviral activity is not fully dependent upon disulfide bond formation. Viral inhibition appears to result, in part, from disruption of the envelope and/or capsid. PMID:19274533

  9. Leukocyte Cell Surface Proteinases: Regulation of Expression, Functions, and Mechanisms of Surface Localization

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of proteinases are expressed on the surface of leukocytes including members of the serine, metallo-, and cysteine proteinase superfamilies. Some proteinases are anchored to the plasma membrane of leukocytes by a transmembrane domain or a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor. Other proteinases bind with high affinity to classical receptors, or with lower affinity to integrins, proteoglycans, or other leukocyte surface molecules. Leukocyte surface levels of proteinases are regulated by: 1) cytokines, chemokines, bacterial products, and growth factors which stimulate synthesis and/or release of proteinase by cells; 2) the availability of surface binding sites for proteinases; and/or 3) internalization or shedding of surface-bound proteinases. The binding of proteinases to leukocyte surfaces serves many functions including: 1) concentrating the activity of proteinases to the immediate pericellular environment; 2) facilitating pro-enzyme activation; 3) increasing proteinase stability and retention in the extracellular space; 4) regulating leukocyte function by proteinases signaling through cell surface binding sites or other surface proteins; and 5) protecting proteinases from inhibition by extracellular proteinase inhibitors. There is strong evidence that membrane-associated proteinases on leukocytes play critical roles in wound healing, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrinolysis, and coagulation. This review will outline the biology of membrane-associated proteinases expressed by leukocytes and their roles in physiologic and pathologic processes. PMID:18329945

  10. Partial purification and characterization of an inhibitor from newborn-rat epidermis with activity against the proteinase of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, S; McKerrow, J H; Jeong, K; Fukuyama, K; Epstein, W L

    1982-01-01

    The penetration of cercariae through the skin initiates infection of the host with the human trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Many larvae fail to migrate into the living epidermal cell layer. In order to determine if chemical as well as mechanical barriers to cercarial skin penetration exist, inhibitory activity of epidermal cell extracts against the proteinase obtained from cercarial secretions was assayed. An inhibitor was purified 50-fold by gel filtration on Sephadex G 75 and cation exchange chromatography at pH 5.8 and 4.9. The inhibitor has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of approx. 40 000-53 000. Oxidation of the inhibitor with N-chlorosuccinimide eliminated its inhibitory activity and thus indicated a critical methionine residue. The inhibitor was active against a wide spectrum of serine proteinases: porcine pancreatic elastase, human granulocyte elastase, bovine trypsin, and bovine alpha-chymotrypsin. However, no inhibition was detected against papain or clostridial collagenase. The inhibitor did not cross react with antiserum to human or rat serum alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. Images Fig. 3. PMID:7165704

  11. Mechanism of adenovirus-mediated endosome lysis: role of the intact adenovirus capsid structure.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1994-12-15

    Adenoviruses have been previously shown to enhance the delivery of many ligands including proteins and plasmid DNAs to the cells. The key biochemical step during this process is the ability of adenovirus to disrupt (lyse) the endosome membrane releasing the co-internalized virus and the other ligands into the cytosol (Seth et al, 1986, In: Adenovirus attachment and entry into cells, pp 191-195, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.). To understand the role of the adenovirus proteins involved in the endosome lysis, it is further shown here that empty capsids of adenovirus also possess this membrane vesicle lytic activity; though the activity is about 5-times lower than the adenovirus. Incubation of adenovirus with low concentration of ionic detergent or brief exposure to 45 degrees C destroyed this lytic activity without affecting the adenovirus binding to cell surface receptor, suggesting the lytic activity of adenovirus to be of enzymatic nature. However, exposing adenovirus to conditions that can disrupt adenovirus capsid structure such as heating at 65 degrees C, treating with 0.5% SDS, treating with different proteases, dialyzing against no glycerol buffer, treating with 6 M urea or with 10% pyridine, and sonication destroyed the adenovirus-associated lytic activity. Results suggest the requirement of an intact capsid structure for adenovirus-mediated lysis of the endosome. PMID:7802664

  12. A Double WAP Domain-Containing Protein Es-DWD1 from Eriocheir sinensis Exhibits Antimicrobial and Proteinase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiao-Nv; Yu, Ai-Qing; Wu, Min-Hao; Tan, Shang-Jian; Zhu, You-Ting; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Whey acidic proteins (WAP) belong to a large gene family of antibacterial peptides, which are critical in the host immune response against microbial invasion. The common feature of these proteins is a single WAP domain maintained by at least one four-disulfide core (4-DSC) structure rich in cysteine residues. In this study, a double WAP domain (DWD)-containing protein, Es-DWD1, was first cloned from the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheirsinensis). The full-length Es-DWD1cDNA was 1193 bp, including a 411 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids in the N-terminus. A comparison with other reported invertebrate and vertebrate sequences revealed the presence of WAP domains characteristic of WAP superfamilies. As determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Es-DWD1 transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it was up-regulated in hemocytes post-challenge with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The mature recombinant Es-DWD1 (rEs-DWD1) protein exhibited different binding activities to bacteria and fungus. Moreover, rEs-DWD1 could exert agglutination activities against Bacillus subtilis and Pichiapastoris and demonstrated inhibitory activities against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and P. pastoris. Furthermore, rEs-DWD1 showed a specific protease inhibitory activity in B. subtilis. Coating of rEs-DWD1 onto agarose beads enhanced encapsulation of the beads by crab hemocytes. Collectively, the results suggest that Es-DWD1 is a double WAP domain containing protein with antimicrobial and proteinase inhibitory activities, which play significant roles in the immunity of crustaceans. PMID:23967346

  13. Bicalutamide-activated oncolytic adenovirus for the adjuvant therapy of high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T J; Höti, N; Liu, C; Chowdhury, W H; Li, Y; Zhang, Y; Lupold, S E; Deweese, T; Rodriguez, R

    2013-07-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) utilize tissue-specific promoters to control the expression of the early genes, E1A and E1B, to preferentially replicate and lyse tumor cells (oncolysis). Previous CRAds used in prostate cancer (PCa) gene therapy require androgens to activate prostate-specific promoters and induce viral replication. Unfortunately, these CRAds have reduced activity in patients on androgen-suppressive therapy. We describe a novel prostate-specific CRAd generated by fusing the E1A gene to the androgen receptor (AR) cDNA with a point mutation in codon 685 (C685Y). The E1A-AR fusion neutralizes the previously described mutual inhibition of E1A and AR, and the C685Y point mutation alters specificity of steroid ligand binding to the AR, such that both androgens and nonsteroidal anti-androgens can activate viral replication. We demonstrate that the mutated E1A-AR retained the ability to function in regulating AR-responsive genes and E1A-responsive viral genes. In combination therapy of virus, bicalutamide (anti-androgen) and radiation, a profound impact on cell death by viral oncolysis was seen both in vitro and tumor xenografts. To our knowledge, this is the first gene therapy engineered to be enhanced by anti-androgens and a particularly attractive adjuvant strategy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of high-risk PCas. PMID:23764901

  14. Bicalutamide Activated Oncolytic Adenovirus for the Adjuvant Therapy of High Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tamara Jane; Hoti, Naser Uddin; Liu, Chunyan; Chowdhury, Wasim H.; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yonggang; Lupold, Shawn E.; DeWeese, Theodore; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) utilize tissue specific promoters to control the expression of the early genes, E1A and E1B, to preferentially replicate and lyse tumor cells (oncolysis). Previous CRAds used in prostate cancer gene therapy require androgens to activate prostate specific promoters and induce viral replication. Unfortunately, these CRAds have reduced activity in patients on androgen suppressive therapy. We describe a novel prostate specific CRAd generated by fusing the E1A gene to the androgen receptor (AR) cDNA with a point mutation in codon 685 (C685Y). The E1A-AR fusion neutralizes the previously described mutual inhibition of E1A & AR, and the C685Y point mutation alters specificity of steroid ligand binding to the AR, such that both androgens and non-steroidal anti-androgens can activate viral replication. We demonstrate that the mutated E1A-AR retained the ability to function in regulating AR responsive genes and E1A responsive viral genes. In combination therapy of virus, bicalutamide (anti-androgen) and radiation, a profound impact on cell death by viral oncolysis was seen both in vitro and tumor xenografts. To our knowledge, this is the first gene therapy engineered to be enhanced by anti-androgens, and a particularly attractive adjuvant strategy for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of high-risk prostate cancers. PMID:23764901

  15. Complexes between tissue-type plasminogen activator and proteinase inhibitors in human plasma, identified with an immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Rijken, D.C.; Juhan-Vague, I.; Collen, D.

    1983-02-01

    Extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator antigen in human plasma, as measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay, is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and a nonadsorbable fraction. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 44 in 1.6M KSCN of the fibrin-adsorbable fraction showed a peak with M/sub r/ approx. =70,000, which contained plasminogen activator activity and was assumed to represent free extrinsic plasminogen activator. The nonadsorbable fraction showed a broad peak with M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 without plasminogen activator activity. Overnight incubation at 37/sup 0/C of postexercise plasma revealed a shift of the M/sub r/ approx. =70,000 peak to the M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 position, suggesting that the M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 peak consists of extrinsic plasminogen activator-protease inhibitor complex(es). ..cap alpha../sub 2/-Antiplasmin is the main inhibitor of extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma and is probably responsible for the generation of the M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 component. A possible involvement of other plasma proteinase inhibitors was explored by incubation of /sup 125/I-labeled extrinsic plasminogen activator in ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin-depleted plasma. A complex was formed with a t1/2 of about 1 hr, which was identified by immunoprecipitation as extrinsic plasminogen activator-..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin complex. Additional evidence for the presence of extrinsic plasminogen activator complexes with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin in plasma was obtained from two-site immunoradiometric assays. It was concluded that plasma contains both free extrinsic plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator complexes with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin. These complexes are also present in plasma collected on the active site inhibitor, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH/sub 2/Cl, at rest and after exercise and are therefore assumed to circulate in vivo. (JMT)

  16. [Effect of pentoxyphylline on certain indicators of the proteinase-proteinase inhibitor system in rats upon administration of cycloheximide].

    PubMed

    Samokhin, A A; Kaliman, P A; Samokhinka, L M

    2001-01-01

    The pentoxifylline influence on neutral proteinase, alpha-2-macroglobulin, trypsin-alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and elastaseinhibitory activity under cycloheximide injection has been investigated. Two hours after cycloheximide injection the activity of neutral proteinases increases in rats serum, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys. The preliminary injection of pentoxifylline prevents increase of neutral proteinases activity. Cycloheximide also decreases alpha-2-macroglobulin activity in serum and liver and trypsin-, elastaseinhibitory activity of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in all investigated organs. At using pentoxifylline the alpha-2-macroglobulin activity doesn't change in liver and increases in serum in comparison with only cycloheximide and there are no observed any alpha-1 inhibitor proteinase activity changes in rats serum and organs. PMID:12035527

  17. Serine proteinase inhibition by the active site titrant N alpha-(N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azaornithine p-nitrophenyl ester. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, P; Balliano, G; Gallina, C; Polticelli, F; Bolognesi, M

    2000-02-01

    Kinetics for the hydrolysis of the chromogenic active-site titrant N alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azaornithine p-nitrophenyl ester (Dmc-azaOrn-ONp) catalysed by bovine beta-trypsin, bovine alpha-thrombin, bovine Factor Xa, human alpha-thrombin, human Factor Xa, human Lys77-plasmin, human urinary kallikrein, Mr 33 000 and Mr 54 000 species of human urokinase, porcine pancreatic beta-kallikrein-A and -B and Ancrod (the coagulating serine proteinase from the Malayan pit viper Agkistrodon rhodostoma venom) have been obtained between pH 6.0 and 8.0, at 21.0 degrees C, and analysed in parallel with those for the enzymatic cleavage of N alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azalysine p-nitrophenyl ester (Dmc-azaLys-ONp). The enzyme kinetics are consistent with the minimum three-step catalytic mechanism of serine proteinases, the rate-limiting step being represented by the deacylation process. Bovine beta-trypsin kinetics are modulated by the acid-base equilibrium of the His57 catalytic residue (pKa approximately 6.9). Dmc-azaOrn-ONp and Dmc-azaLys-ONp bind stoichiometrically to the serine proteinase active site, and allow the reliable determination of the active enzyme concentration between 1.0 x 10-6 M and 3.0 x 10-4 M. The affinity and the reactivity for Dmc-azaOrn-ONp (expressed by Ks and k+2/Ks, respectively) of the serine proteinases considered are much lower than those for Dmc-azaLys-ONp. The very different affinity and reactivity properties for Dmc-azaOrn-ONp and Dmc-azaLys-ONp have been related to the different size of the ornithine/lysine side chains, and to the ensuing different positioning of the active-site titrants upon binding to the enzyme catalytic centre (i.e. to P1-S1 recognition). These data represent the first detailed comparative investigation on the catalytic properties of serine proteinases towards an ornithine derivative (i. e. Dmc-azaOrn-ONp). PMID:10672036

  18. The Use of Adenovirus Dodecahedron in the Delivery of an Enzymatic Activity in the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Sumarheni; Gallet, Benoit; Fender, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Penton-dodecahedron (Pt-Dd) derived from adenovirus type 3 is a symmetric complex of pentameric penton base plus fiber which can be produced in the baculovirus system at a high concentration. The size of Pt-Dd is smaller than the virus, but this virus-like particle (VLP) has the major proteins recognized by specific receptors on the surface of almost all types of cell. In this study, by direct observation with fluorescence microscopy on a fixed and living cell, the intracellular trafficking and localization of Pt-Dd labeled with fluorescence dyes in the cytoplasm of HeLa Tub-GFP showed a rapid internalization characteristic. Subsequently, the linkage of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with Pt-Dd as the vector demonstrated an efficient system to deliver this enzyme into the cell without interfering its enzymatic activity as shown by biochemical and cellular experiments. These results were supported by additional studies using Bs-Dd or free form of the HRP used as the control. Overall, this study strengthens the potential role of Pt-Dd as an alternative vector for delivering therapeutic agents. PMID:27242929

  19. Diversity between mammalian tolloid proteinases: Oligomerisation and non-catalytic domains influence activity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, Christopher P.; Ruiz Nivia, Hilda D.; Dajani, Rana; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Collins, Richard F.; Rada, Heather; Bird, Louise E.; Baldock, Clair

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian tolloid family of metalloproteinases is essential for tissue patterning and extracellular matrix assembly. The four members of the family: bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1), mammalian tolloid (mTLD), tolloid-like (TLL)-1 and TLL-2 differ in their substrate specificity and activity levels, despite sharing similar domain organization. We have previously described a model of substrate exclusion by dimerisation to explain differences in the activities of monomeric BMP-1 and dimers of mTLD and TLL-1. Here we show that TLL-2, the least active member of the tolloid family, is predominantly monomeric in solution, therefore it appears unlikely that substrate exclusion via dimerisation is a mechanism for regulating TLL-2 activity. X-ray scattering and electron microscopy structural and biophysical analyses reveal an elongated shape for the monomer and flexibility in the absence of calcium. Furthermore, we show that TLL-2 can cleave chordin in vitro, similar to other mammalian tolloids, but truncated forms of TLL-2 mimicking BMP-1 are unable to cleave chordin. However, both the N- and C-terminal non-catalytic domains from all mammalian tolloids bind chordin with high affinity. The mechanisms underlying substrate specificity and activity in the tolloid family are complex with variation between family members and depend on both multimerisation and substrate interaction. PMID:26902455

  20. [Effect of quercetin on some indicators of the proteinase-proteinase inhibitor system in rats upon administration of cobalt chloride to them].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2001-01-01

    The results of quercetin effect on some changes of proteinase--proteinase inhibitor system parameters in rats under cobalt chloride injection are shown. It was established that preliminary quercetin administration prevened neutral proteinase activation and alpha-2-macroglobulin activity decreasing after 2 h of cobalt chloride influence. PMID:12199071

  1. Cystatins may confer viral resistance in plants by inhibition of a virus-induced cell death phenomenon in which cysteine proteinases are active: cloning and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding cysteine-proteinase inhibitor (celostatin) from Celosia cristata (crested cock's comb).

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Santha, Ittiaparambu Mana; Kohnehrouz, Bahram Baghban; Lodha, Madan Lal; Kapoor, Harish Chander

    2005-12-01

    Cystatins (cysteine proteinase inhibitors) have been recently used in plants as antiviral strategy against those viruses whose replication involves cysteine proteinase activity. We proposed an idea that cystatins may confer resistance by inhibition of a virus-induced cell-death phenomenon in which cysteine proteinases are active. To test this idea, a full-length cDNA library was constructed from the preflowering stage of Celosia cristata (crested cock's comb) leaves, and a cDNA clone with cystatin domain was isolated using an oligonucleotide probe designed on the basis of the conserved peptide of plant cystatins. It was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system as a fusion protein. The purified recombinant product, termed 'celostatin' (Celosia cystatin), inhibited the enzymatic activity of papain indicating its cystatin activity and prevented TMV (tobacco mosaic virus)-induced hypersensitive-response cell death in Nicotiana glutinosa (a wild species of tobacco) leaves by 65-70% at the concentration of approx. 50 ng/ml. It also offered resistance against TMV and caused normal growth of the test plant. Since the activity of cysteine proteinases is not involved in the TMV replication process, we speculated that inhibition of the hypersensitive response by celostatin may be due to the inactivation of proteolysis involved in the plant cell death programme, a phenomenon that has already been reported in animal systems. PMID:15842197

  2. The hTERT Promoter Enhances the Antitumor Activity of an Oncolytic Adenovirus under a Hypoxic Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yuuri; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Teraishi, Fuminori; Kojima, Toru; Watanabe, Yuichi; Uno, Futoshi; Yano, Shuya; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor that contributes to the invasion, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. Hypoxic tumor cells often show more resistance to conventional chemoradiotherapy than normoxic tumor cells, suggesting the requirement of novel antitumor therapies to efficiently eliminate the hypoxic tumor cells. We previously generated a tumor-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-301: Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter drives viral E1 expression. Since the promoter activity of the hTERT gene has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia, we hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, the antitumor effect of OBP-301 with the hTERT promoter would be more efficient than that of the wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5). In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of OBP-301 and Ad5 against human cancer cells under a normoxic (20% oxygen) or a hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition. Hypoxic condition induced nuclear accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and upregulation of hTERT promoter activity in human cancer cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under hypoxic condition. Consistent with their cytopathic activity, the replication of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under the hypoxic condition. OBP-301-mediated E1A was expressed within hypoxic areas of human xenograft tumors in mice. These results suggest that the cytopathic activity of OBP-301 against hypoxic tumor cells is mediated through hypoxia-mediated activation of the hTERT promoter. Regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses by the hTERT promoter is a promising antitumor strategy, not only for induction of tumor-specific oncolysis, but also for efficient elimination of hypoxic tumor cells. PMID:22720091

  3. Rapid kinetic studies and structural determination of a cysteine proteinase mutant imply that residue 158 in caricain has a major effect upon the ability of the active site histidine to protonate a dipyridyl probe.

    PubMed

    Katerelos, N A; Goodenough, P W

    1996-11-26

    Cysteine proteinases are endopeptidases whose catalytic activity depends upon the nucleophilicity of the active site cysteine thiol group. An ion pair forms with an active site histidine. The presence in some cysteine proteinases of an aspartic acid close to the ion pair has been used as evidence of a "catalytic triad" as found in the serine proteinases. In these enzymes, the correct alignment of serine, histidine, and aspartate residues controls catalysis. However, the absence of the homologous aspartate residue in the mammalian cysteine proteinases cathepsins B and H argues against this pivotal role for aspartic acid. Instead, an Asn, physically close to the histidine in cysteine proteinases, has been proposed as a member of the catalytic triad. Protein engineering is being used to investigate these questions. In this study, the Asp158Glu mutant of the plant cysteine proteinase caricain was analyzed by stopped-flow rapid kinetics. The probe that was used was 2,2'-dipyridyl disulfide (2 PDS), and the profile of k versus pH gave results more closely allied to a small molecule active site model than the normal profile with cysteine proteinases. Multiple pKa's identified in the profile are as follows: pK1 = 3.4 (Cys 25), pK2 = 3.6, pK3 = 7.0, and pK4 = 8.6 (His 158). The structure of the enzyme with the bound inhibitor E64 was solved (R factor of 19.3%). Although the distance between the imadazolium and the surrounding charged amino acids is only slightly changed in the mutant, the reduced steady state activity and narrower pH range can be related to changes in the hydrogen-bonding capacity of the imadazolium. PMID:8942638

  4. A monoclonal antibody that distinguishes latent and active forms of the proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase complex)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitman, D.; Etlinger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated to proteasome purified from human erythrocytes. Five of six proteasome-specific mAbs reacted with three subunits in the molecular mass range of 25-28 kDa, indicating a common epitope. The other mAb (AP5C10) exhibited a more restricted reactivity, recognizing a 32-kDa subunit of the proteasome purified in its latent state. However, when the proteasome is isolated in its active state, AP5C10 reacts with a 28-kDa subunit, evidence for processing of the proteasome subunits during purification. Purified proteasome preparations which exhibited partial latency have both AP5C10 reactive subunits. Although the 32-kDa subunit appears required for latency, loss of this component and generation of the 28-kDa component are not obligatory for activation. The 32- and 28-kDa subunits can each be further resolved into three components by isoelectric focusing. The apparent loss of 4 kDa during the conversion of the 32- to 28-kDa subunit is accompanied by a shift to a more basic pI for each polypeptide. Western blots of the early steps of proteasome purification reveal an AP5C10-reactive protein at 41 kDa. This protein was separated from proteasomes by sizing chromatography and may represent a pool of precursor subunits. Since the 32-kDa subunit appears necessary for latency, it is speculated to play a regulatory role in ATP-dependent proteolytic activity.

  5. Role for different cell proteinases in cancer invasion and cytolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, S.; Beck, G.; DiStefano, J. F.; Lysik, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The crucial role of non-plasminogen dependent serine proteinases is tissue invasive and cytolytic functions of Walker 256 cancer cells has been documented using a rat urinary bladder invasion and a 125I-labelled fibroblast cytolysis assay. The invasive capacity of these cancer cells was abrogated by non toxic concentrations of the serine proteinase inhibitors, diisopropylfluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, but not by metallo or cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Although tumour cell collagenase activity and plasminogen activator were demonstrated, these proteolytic enzymes were not essential in these in vitro assays. These results suggest that different categories of proteinases play specific roles in the complicated process of cancer invasion. PMID:2992566

  6. Distinctive proteolytic activity of cell envelope proteinase of Lactobacillus helveticus isolated from airag, a traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mari; Ueno, Hiroshi M; Watanabe, Masayuki; Tatsuma, Yumi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Taku; Nakajima, Hadjime

    2015-03-16

    Airag is a traditional fermented milk of Mongolia that is usually made from raw mare's milk. Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the lactic acid bacteria most frequently isolated from airag. In this study, we investigated the genetic and physiological characteristics of L. helveticus strains isolated from airag and clarified their significance in airag by comparing them with strains from different sources. Six strains of L. helveticus were isolated from five home-made airag samples collected from different regions of Mongolia. The optimal temperature for acidification in skim milk was 30 to 35°C for all the Mongolian strains, which is lower than those for the reference strains (JCM 1554 and JCM 1120(T)) isolated from European cheeses. All of the strains had a prtH1-like gene encoding a variant type of cell envelope proteinase (CEP). The CEP amino acid sequence in Snow Brand Typeculture (SBT) 11087 isolated from airag shared 71% identity with PrtH of L. helveticus CNRZ32 (AAD50643.1) but 98% identity with PrtH of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 (AEG40278.1) isolated from a traditional fermented milk in Tibet. The proteolytic activities of the CEP from SBT11087 on artificial substrate (N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide) and pure casein were measured using an intact-cell degradation assay. The activity of the CEP from SBT11087 was observed to be weak and exhibited a lower optimal temperature (40°C) than those from the reference strains (45-50°C). The specificity of the SBT11087 CEP for αS1-casein was typical of the CEPs previously reported in L. helveticus, as determined through the degradation profiles obtained through gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses. In contrast, the degradation profile of β-casein revealed that the CEP of SBT11087 primarily hydrolyzes its C-terminal domain and hydrolyzed nine of the 16 cleavage sites shared among the CEPs of other L. helveticus strains. Thus, the CEP of SBT11087 is distinct from those from

  7. Shrimp single WAP domain (SWD)-containing protein exhibits proteinase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Amparyup, Piti; Donpudsa, Suchao; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2008-01-01

    Single WAP domain (SWD)-containing proteins are small proteins with a C-terminal region containing a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain. In the present study, the cDNAs representing three isoforms of SWD proteins (SWDPm1, SWDPm2 and SWDPm3) were identified from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The deduced peptides revealed that they contain a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and encode for a mature peptide of 69, 68 and 56 amino acids, respectively, which contain typical characters similar to those of the shrimp SWD proteins (type III crustin) with a Pro-Arg region and a WAP domain towards the C-terminus. Tissue distribution analysis by RT-PCR showed that all three SWDPm transcripts were primarily found in hemocytes. Transcript expression of SWDPm1 was down-regulated upon injection with Staphylococcus aureus whilst there was no change of SWDPm2 and SWDPm3 expression. In contrast, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) injection resulted in a biphasic response with up-regulation of SWDPm1 and SWDPm2 transcripts at 6h followed by significant down-regulation by 24h after infection. Genomic organization of the SWDPm2 gene revealed the presence of three exons interrupted by two introns. To characterize the biological functions of the SWD protein, the mature SWDPm2 protein encoding cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant (r)SWDPm2 exhibits antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive, but not Gram-negative, bacteria and is a competitive inhibitor of subtilisin A with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 1.98nM. Thus, rSWDPm2 may contribute to the inhibitory regulation of subtilisin A from bacterial infection and P. monodon SWD protein likely function as immune effectors in defense against invasion of shrimp pathogens. PMID:18602420

  8. [Ammonia release and binding processes and the activity of acid proteinase and glycolysis enzymes in the dynamics of experimental toxic adrenal encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, V M; Trapezontseva, R A; Vilkov, G A

    1988-01-01

    The content of ammonium, glutamine, glutamate, aspartate and GABA, glutamine synthetase activity, acid proteinase, hexonase, phosphohexoisomerase and dehydrogenase glucose-6-phosphate were studied in dog brain homogenates after individual injections of Bacillus coli endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg) and adrenaline (75 micrograms/kg) into veins and their combined injections into the carotid artery. Isolated injections of endotoxin and adrenaline were shown to cause transient metabolic compensatory changes. Combined injections caused stable progressing brain metabolic disorders. It is suggested that neurochemical changes influence endogenous development of toxic adrenal encephalopathy. PMID:3276357

  9. Biotin-labelled peptidyl diazomethane inhibitors derived from the substrate-like sequence of cystatin: targeting of the active site of cruzipain, the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Lalmanach, G; Mayer, R; Serveau, C; Scharfstein, J; Gauthier, F

    1996-01-01

    Biotin-labelled peptidyl diazomethane inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, based on the N-terminal substrate-like segment of human cystatin C, a natural inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, were synthesized. These synthetic derivatives were tested as irreversible inhibitors of cruzipain, the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi, to compare the kinetics of the inhibition of the parasite proteinase with that of the mammalian cathepsins B and L. The accessibility of the active sites of these proteinases to these probes was also investigated. The inhibition of cruzipain by Biot-LVG-CHN2 (where Biot represents biotinyl and L,V and G are single-letter amino acid residue abbreviations) and Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2 (where Ahx represents 6-aminohexanoic acid) was similar to that of unlabelled inhibitor. Biotin labelling of the inhibitor slowed the inhibition of both cathepsin B and cathepsin L. Adding a spacer arm (Ahx) between the biotin and the peptide moiety of the derivative increased the inhibition of cathepsin B but not that of cathepsin L. The discrimination provided by this spacer is probably due to differences in the topologies of the binding sites of proteinases, a feature that can be exploited to improve targeting of individual cysteine proteinases. Analysis of the blotted proteinases revealed marked differences in the accessibility of extravidin-peroxidase conjugate to the proteinase-bound biotinylated inhibitor. Cruzipain molecules exposed to Biot-LVG-CHN2 or Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2 were readily identified, but the reaction was much stronger when the enzyme was treated with the spacer-containing inhibitor. In contrast with the parasite enzyme, rat cathepsin B and cathepsin L treated with either Biot-LVG-CHN2 or Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2 produced no detectable bands. Papain, the archetype of this family of proteinases, was poorly labelled with Biot-LVG-CHN2, but strong staining was obtained with Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2. These findings suggest that optimized biotinylated

  10. Isolation and characterization of selective and potent human Fab inhibitors directed to the active-site region of the two-component NS2B-NS3 proteinase of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, Sergey A; Radichev, Ilian A; Ratnikov, Boris I; Aleshin, Alexander E; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Stec, Boguslaw; Frisch, Christian; Knappik, Achim; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-05-01

    There is a need to develop inhibitors of mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including WNV (West Nile virus). In the present paper, we describe a novel and efficient recombinant-antibody technology that led us to the isolation of inhibitory high-affinity human antibodies to the active-site region of a viral proteinase. As a proof-of-principal, we have successfully used this technology and the synthetic naive human combinatorial antibody library HuCAL GOLD(R) to isolate selective and potent function-blocking active-site-targeting antibodies to the two-component WNV NS (non-structural protein) 2B-NS3 serine proteinase, the only proteinase encoded by the flaviviral genome. First, we used the wild-type enzyme in antibody screens. Next, the positive antibody clones were counter-screened using an NS2B-NS3 mutant with a single mutation of the catalytically essential active-site histidine residue. The specificity of the antibodies to the active site was confirmed by substrate-cleavage reactions and also by using proteinase mutants with additional single amino-acid substitutions in the active-site region. The selected WNV antibodies did not recognize the structurally similar viral proteinases from Dengue virus type 2 and hepatitis C virus, and human serine proteinases. Because of their high selectivity and affinity, the identified human antibodies are attractive reagents for both further mutagenesis and structure-based optimization and, in addition, for studies of NS2B-NS3 activity. Conceptually, it is likely that the generic technology reported in the present paper will be useful for the generation of active-site-specific antibody probes for multiple enzymes. PMID:20156198

  11. The enhancing of a cysteine proteinase activity at acidic pH by protein engineering, the role of glutamic 50 in the enzyme mechanism of caricain.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Y; Katerelos, N A; Goodenough, P W

    1998-10-16

    Carica papaya produces four cysteine proteinases. Calculations show that the Cys25, His159 essential ion pair is fully ionised at pH 2.99, where activity cannot be detected, but apparently an additional ionisation with a pKa of 4 is essential for activity (an electrostatic switch). Caricain (EC 3.4.22.30) wt and D158E genetic backgrounds were used to study the contribution of E50A to activity. E50 or E135 are candidates for the switch, E50A would be expected to reduce activity. However, activity increased at pH 5.0 in both backgrounds and at the pH optimum in D158E E50A but decreased slightly in the wt background. This challenges the hypothesis of an electrostatic switch. PMID:9804178

  12. Potent antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus expressing Beclin-1 via induction of autophagic cell death in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Li, Lu; Meng, Haitao; Qian, Qijun

    2013-01-01

    An attractive strategy among adenovirus-based oncolytic systems is to design adenoviral vectors to express pro-apoptotic genes, in which this gene-virotherapy approach significantly enhances tumor cell death by activating apoptotic pathways. However, the existence of cancer cells with apoptotic defects is one of the major obstacles in gene-virotherapy. Here, we investigated whether a strategy that combines the oncolytic effects of an adenoviral vector with simultaneous expression of Beclin-1, an autophagy gene, offers a therapeutic advantage for leukemia. A Beclin-1 cDNA was cloned in an oncolytic adenovirus with chimeric Ad5/11 fiber (SG511-BECN). SG511-BECN treatment induced significant autophagic cell death, and resulted in enhanced cell killing in a variety of leukemic cell lines and primary leukemic blasts. SG511-BECN effects were seen in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with resistance to imatinib or chemotherapy, but exhibited much less cytotoxicity on normal cells. The SG511-BECN-induced autophagic cell death could be partially reversed by RNA interference knockdown of UVRAG, ATG5, and ATG7. We also showed that SG511-BECN strongly inhibited the growth of leukemic progenitors in vitro. In murine leukemia models, SG511-BECN prolonged the survival and decreased the xenograft tumor size by inducing autophagic cell death. Our results suggest that infection of leukemia cells with an oncolytic adenovirus overexpressing Beclin-1 can induce significant autophagic cell death and provide a new strategy for the elimination of leukemic cells via a unique mechanism of action distinct from apoptosis. PMID:23765161

  13. Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Purification by affinity chromatography, characterization and isolation of an active fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris, A D; Brown, M A; Barrett, A J

    1984-01-01

    Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor (alpha CPI) was purified by a two-stage method: affinity chromatography on S-carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose, and high-resolution anion-exchange chromatography. The protein was obtained as a form of Mr about 64 000 and material of higher Mr (about 100 000). In sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with reduction, both forms showed a major component of Mr 64 000. An antiserum was raised against alpha CPI, and 'rocket' immunoassays showed the mean concentration in sera from 19 individuals to be 35.9 mg/dl. Both low-Mr and high-Mr forms of alpha CPI were confirmed to be sialoglycoproteins by the decrease in electrophoretic mobility after treatment with neuraminidase. alpha CPI was shown immunologically to be distinct from antithrombin III and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, two serine proteinase inhibitors from plasma with somewhat similar Mr values. alpha CPI was also distinct from cystatins A and B, the two intracellular low-Mr cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human liver. Complexes of alpha CPI with papain were detectable in immunoelectrophoresis, but dissociated to free enzyme and intact inhibitor in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The stoichiometry of binding of papain was close to 1:1 for both low-Mr and high-Mr forms. alpha CPI was found to be a tight-binding inhibitor of papain and human cathepsins H and L (Ki 34 pM, 1.1 nM and 62 pM respectively). By contrast, inhibition of cathepsin B was much weaker, Ki being about 35 microM. Dipeptidyl peptidase I also was weakly inhibited. Digestion of alpha CPI with bromelain gave rise to an inhibitory fragment of Mr about 22 000, which was isolated. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6548132

  14. An Infection-enhanced Oncolytic Adenovirus Secreting H. pylori Neutrophil-activating Protein with Therapeutic Effects on Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Yu, Di; Wanders, Alkwin; Essand, Magnus; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a major virulence factor involved in H. pylori infection. HP-NAP can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting neutrophils and inducing Th1-type differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. It therefore holds strong potential as a therapeutic gene. Here, we armed a replication-selective, infection-enhanced adenovirus with secretory HP-NAP, Ad5PTDf35-[Δ24-sNAP], and evaluated its therapeutic efficacy against neuroendocrine tumors. We observed that it could specifically infect and eradicate a wide range of tumor cells lines from different origin in vitro. Insertion of secretory HP-NAP did not affect the stability or replicative capacity of the virus and infected tumor cells could efficiently secrete HP-NAP. Intratumoral administration of the virus in nude mice xenografted with neuroendocrine tumors improved median survival. Evidence of biological HP-NAP activity was observed 24 hours after treatment with neutrophil infiltration in tumors and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and MIP2-α in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, evidence of Th1-type immune polarization was observed as a result of increase in IL-12/23 p40 cytokine concentrations 72 hours postvirus administration. Our observations suggest that HP-NAP can serve as a potent immunomodulator in promoting antitumor immune response in the tumor microenvironment and enhance the therapeutic effect of oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:23817216

  15. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops. PMID:23813339

  16. An electroblotting, two-step procedure for the detection of proteinases and the study of proteinase/inhibitor complexes in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Visal-Shah, S; Vrain, T C; Yelle, T C; Nguyen-Quoc, B; Michaud, D

    2001-08-01

    A two-step gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin/PAGE) procedure was devised for the detection of proteinases and the study of proteinase/inhibitor interactions in complex biological extracts. The proteins are first resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE under reducing or nonreducing conditions, and electrotransferred into a 0.75 mm-thick accompanying polyacrylamide slab gel containing 0.1% w/v porcine gelatin. The active proteinase bands are developed by a gelatin proteolysis step in the accompanying gel in the presence or absence of diagnostic proteinase inhibitors, allowing the assessment of proteinase classes and the visual discrimination of inhibitor-'sensitive' and -'insensitive' proteinases in complex extracts. Alternatively, protein extracts are preincubated with specific reversible inhibitors before electrophoresis, allowing a rapid discrimination of strong and weak interactions implicating proteinases and reversible inhibitors. In comparison with the standard gelatin/PAGE procedure, that involves copolymerization of gelatin with acrylamide in the resolving gel, this new procedure simplifies proteinase patterns, avoids overestimation of proteinase numbers in complex extracts, and allows in certain conditions the estimation of proteinase molecular weights. Stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32), bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4), papain (EC 3.4.22.2), and the extracellular (digestive) cysteine proteinases of five herbivorous pests are used as model enzymes to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in detecting proteinases and in studying their interactions with specific proteinaceous inhibitors potentially useful in biotechnology. PMID:11545387

  17. Shrimp Serine Proteinase Homologues PmMasSPH-1 and -2 Play a Role in the Activation of the Prophenoloxidase System

    PubMed Central

    Jearaphunt, Miti; Amparyup, Piti; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    Melanization mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is a rapid immune response used by invertebrates against intruding pathogens. Several masquerade-like and serine proteinase homologues (SPHs) have been demonstrated to play an essential role in proPO activation in insects and crustaceans. In a previous study, we characterized the masquerade-like SPH, PmMasSPH1, in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon as a multifunctional immune protein based on its recognition and antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio harveyi. In the present study, we identify a novel SPH, known as PmMasSPH2, composed of an N-terminal clip domain and a C-terminal SP-like domain that share high similarity to those of other insect and crustacean SPHs. We demonstrate that gene silencing of PmMasSPH1 and PmMasSPH2 significantly reduces PO activity, resulting in a high number of V. harveyi in the hemolymph. Interestingly, knockdown of PmMasSPH1 suppressed not only its gene transcript but also other immune-related genes in the proPO system (e.g., PmPPAE2) and antimicrobial peptides (e.g., PenmonPEN3, PenmonPEN5, crustinPm1 and Crus-likePm). The PmMasSPH1 and PmMasSPH2 also show binding activity to peptidoglycan (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria. Using a yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that PmMasSPH1 specifically interacted with the final proteinase of the proPO cascade, PmPPAE2. Furthermore, the presence of both PmMasSPH1 and PmPPAE2 enhances PGN-induced PO activity in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest the importance of PmMasSPHs in the activation of the shrimp proPO system. PMID:25803442

  18. Phosphorylation at the carboxy terminus of the 55-kilodalton adenovirus type 5 E1B protein regulates transforming activity.

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, J G; Halliday, T; Whalen, S G; Takayesu, D; Graham, F L; Branton, P E

    1994-01-01

    The 55-kDa product of early region 1B (E1B) of human adenoviruses is required for viral replication and participates in cell transformation through complex formation with and inactivation of the cellular tumor suppressor p53. We have used both biochemical and genetic approaches to show that this 496-residue (496R) protein of adenovirus type 5 is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues near the carboxy terminus within sequences characteristic of substrates of casein kinase II. Mutations which converted serines 490 and 491 to alanine residues decreased viral replication and greatly reduced the efficiency of transformation of primary baby rat kidney cells. Such mutant 496R proteins interacted with p53 at efficiencies similar to those of wild-type 496R but only partially inhibited p53 transactivation activity. These results indicated that phosphorylation at these carboxy-terminal sites either regulates the inhibition of p53 or regulates some other 496R function required for cell transformation. Images PMID:8289381

  19. Proteinase activated receptor-2-mediated dual oxidase-2 up-regulation is involved in enhanced airway reactivity and inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Alharbi, Naif O; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Tyagi, Manoj; Ahmad, Sheikh F; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2015-07-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) express a variety of receptors, which sense danger signals from various aeroallergens/pathogens being inhaled constantly. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is one such receptor and is activated by cockroach allergens, which have intrinsic serine proteinase activity. Recently, dual oxidases (DUOX), especially DUOX-2, have been shown to be involved in airway inflammation in response to Toll-like receptor activation. However, the association between PAR-2 and DUOX-2 has not been explored in airways of allergic mice. Therefore, this study investigated the contribution of DUOX-2/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling in airway reactivity and inflammation after PAR-2 activation. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with intact cockroach allergen extract (CE) in the presence of aluminium hydroxide followed by intranasal challenge with CE. Mice were then assessed for airway reactivity, inflammation, oxidative stress (DUOX-2, ROS, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrite, nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyls) and apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3). Challenge with CE led to up-regulation of DUOX-2 and ROS in AECs with concomitant increases in airway reactivity/inflammation and parameters of oxidative stress, and apoptosis. All of these changes were significantly inhibited by intranasal administration of ENMD-1068, a small molecule antagonist of PAR-2 in allergic mice. Administration of diphenyliodonium to allergic mice also led to improvement of allergic airway responses via inhibition of the DUOX-2/ROS pathway; however, these effects were less pronounced than PAR-2 antagonism. The current study suggests that PAR-2 activation leads to up-regulation of the DUOX-2/ROS pathway in AECs, which is involved in regulation of airway reactivity and inflammation via oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:25684443

  20. Modulation of the electrostatic charge at the active site of foot-and-mouth-disease-virus leader proteinase, an unusual papain-like enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Schlick, Petra; Kronovetr, Jakub; Hampoelz, Bernhard; Skern, Tim

    2002-01-01

    The leader proteinase (L(pro)) of foot-and-mouth-disease virus is an unusual papain-like cysteine proteinase. Synthesized without an N-terminal pro precursor region, it frees itself from the growing polypeptide chain by cleavage at its own C-terminus. It also possesses a unique electrostatic environment around the active site, essentially due to Asp(163), which orients the catalytic histidine residue, and Asp(164); the equivalent residues in papain are Asn(175) and Ser(176). The importance of these residues for L(pro) activity was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Asp(163) with asparagine reduced activity by five-fold towards a hexapeptide substrate and slightly delayed self-processing when expressed in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. However, no effect on the cleavage of the only known cellular substrate of L(pro), eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), was observed. In contrast, replacement of Asp(164) by either alanine, asparagine or lysine abrogated activity towards the hexapeptide. Furthermore, in all cases, the onset of both self-processing and eIF4GI cleavage were significantly delayed; the reaction rates were also diminished compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. The alanine-substituted enzyme was least affected, followed by those substituted with asparagine and lysine. The double mutant protein in which both aspartate residues were replaced by asparagine was most severely affected; it failed to complete either self-processing or eIF4GI cleavage within 3 h, compared with the 8 min required by the wild-type enzyme. Hence, we propose that the electrostatic charge of Asp(164), and to a lesser extent that of Asp(163), is extremely important for L(pro) to attain full activity upon synthesis. PMID:11964149

  1. Immune Response to Recombinant Capsid Proteins of Adenovirus in Humans: Antifiber and Anti-Penton Base Antibodies Have a Synergistic Effect on Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gahéry-Ségard, Hanne; Farace, Françoise; Godfrin, Dominique; Gaston, Jesintha; Lengagne, Renée; Tursz, Thomas; Boulanger, Pierre; Guillet, Jean-Gérard

    1998-01-01

    Replication-deficient adenovirus used in humans for gene therapy induces a strong immune response to the vector, resulting in transient recombinant protein expression and the blocking of gene transfer upon a second administration. Therefore, in this study we examined in detail the capsid-specific humoral immune response in sera of patients with lung cancer who had been given one dose of a replication-defective adenovirus. We analyzed the immune response to the three major components of the viral capsid, hexon (Hx), penton base (Pb), and fiber (Fi). A longitudinal study of the humoral response assayed on adenovirus particle-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates showed that patients had preexisting immunity to adenovirus prior to the administration of adenovirus–β-gal. The level of the response increased in three patients after adenovirus administration and remained at a maximum after three months. One patient had a strong immune response to adenovirus prior to treatment, and this response was unaffected by adenovirus administration. Sera collected from the patients were assayed for recognition of each individual viral capsid protein to determine more precisely the molecular basis of the humoral immune response. Clear differences existed in the humoral response to the three major components of the viral capsid in serum from humans. Sequential appearance of these antibodies was observed: anti-Fi antibodies appeared first, followed by anti-Pb antibodies and then by anti-Hx antibodies. Moreover, anti-Fi antibodies preferentially recognized the native trimeric form of Fi protein, suggesting that they recognized conformational epitopes. Our results showed that sera with no neutralizing activity contained only anti-Fi antibodies. In contrast, neutralizing activity was only obtained with sera containing anti-Fi and anti-Pb antibodies. More importantly, we showed that anti-native Fi and anti-Pb antibodies had a synergistic effect on neutralization. The

  2. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  3. An Osteoblast-Derived Proteinase Controls Tumor Cell Survival via TGF-beta Activation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Thiolloy, Sophie; Edwards, James R.; Fingleton, Barbara; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Lynch, Conor C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast to bone metastases frequently induce a “vicious cycle” in which osteoclast mediated bone resorption and proteolysis results in the release of bone matrix sequestered factors that drive tumor growth. While osteoclasts express numerous proteinases, analysis of human breast to bone metastases unexpectedly revealed that bone forming osteoblasts were consistently positive for the proteinase, MMP-2. Given the role of MMP-2 in extracellular matrix degradation and growth factor/cytokine processing, we tested whether osteoblast derived MMP-2 contributed to the vicious cycle of tumor progression in the bone microenvironment. Methodology/Principal Findings To test our hypothesis, we utilized murine models of the osteolytic tumor-bone microenvironment in immunocompetent wild type and MMP-2 null mice. In longitudinal studies, we found that host MMP-2 significantly contributed to tumor progression in bone by protecting against apoptosis and promoting cancer cell survival (caspase-3; immunohistochemistry). Our data also indicate that host MMP-2 contributes to tumor induced osteolysis (μCT, histomorphometry). Further ex vivo/in vitro experiments with wild type and MMP-2 null osteoclast and osteoblast cultures identified that 1) the absence of MMP-2 did not have a deleterious effect on osteoclast function (cd11B isolation, osteoclast differentiation, transwell migration and dentin resorption assay); and 2) that osteoblast derived MMP-2 promoted tumor survival by regulating the bioavailability of TGFβ, a factor critical for cell-cell communication in the bone (ELISA, immunoblot assay, clonal and soft agar assays). Conclusion/Significance Collectively, these studies identify a novel “mini-vicious cycle” between the osteoblast and metastatic cancer cells that is key for initial tumor survival in the bone microenvironment. In conclusion, the findings of our study suggest that the targeted inhibition of MMP-2 and/or TGFβ would be beneficial for the treatment

  4. Adenovirus Improves the Efficacy of Adoptive T-cell Therapy by Recruiting Immune Cells to and Promoting Their Activity at the Tumor.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, Siri; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Lumen, Dave; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Siurala, Mikko; Airaksinen, Anu J; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-08-01

    Despite the rapid progress in the development of novel adoptive T-cell therapies, the clinical benefits in treatment of established tumors have remained modest. Several immune evasion mechanisms hinder T-cell entry into tumors and their activity within the tumor. Of note, oncolytic adenoviruses are intrinsically immunogenic due to inherent pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here, we studied the capacity of adenovirus to overcome resistance of chicken ovalbumin-expressing B16.OVA murine melanoma tumors to adoptive ovalbumin-specific CD8(+) T-cell (OT-I) therapy. Following intraperitoneal transfer of polyclonally activated OT-I lymphocytes, control of tumor growth was superior in mice given intratumoral adenovirus compared with control mice, even in the absence of oncolytic virus replication. Preexisting antiviral immunity against serotype 5 did not hinder the therapeutic efficacy of the combination treatment. Intratumoral adenovirus injection was associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, CD45(+) leukocytes, CD8(+) lymphocytes, and F4/80(+) macrophages, suggesting enhanced tumor immunogenicity. The proinflammatory effects of adenovirus on the tumor microenvironment led to expression of costimulatory signals on CD11c(+) antigen-presenting cells and subsequent activation of T cells, thus breaking the tumor-induced peripheral tolerance. An increased number of CD8(+) T cells specific for endogenous tumor antigens TRP-2 and gp100 was detected in combination-treated mice, indicating epitope spreading. Moreover, the majority of virus/T-cell-treated mice rejected the challenge of parental B16.F10 tumors, suggesting that systemic antitumor immunity was induced. In summary, we provide proof-of-mechanism data on combining adoptive T-cell therapy and adenovirotherapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25977260

  5. Multiple forms of calcium-dependent proteinase in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) activities in lobster muscles have been resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. These activities differ in molecular weight and net charge. Though optimum activity occurred at high (5 and 10 mM) calcium at pH 6.8, the enzymes differ in activation at lower calcium concentrations. Only one of the CDPs is active at 100 ..mu..M calcium; none are active at 10 ..mu..M and below. Although all four CDPs are inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide, they show a differential response to the aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin and the serine proteinase inhibitor PMSF. In contrast to CDPs from vertebrate tissues, crustacean muscles contain multiple forms that require calcium at millimolar levels. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  6. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G. Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new

  7. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for

  8. Structure-function relationships in the cysteine proteinases actinidin, papain and papaya proteinase omega. Three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega deduced by knowledge-based modelling and active-centre characteristics determined by two-hydronic-state reactivity probe kinetics and kinetics of catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Topham, C M; Salih, E; Frazao, C; Kowlessur, D; Overington, J P; Thomas, M; Brocklehurst, S M; Patel, M; Thomas, E W; Brocklehurst, K

    1991-01-01

    1. A model of the three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega, the most basic cysteine proteinase component of the latex of papaya (Carica papaya), was built from its amino acid sequence and the two currently known high-resolution crystal structures of the homologous enzymes papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14). The method used a knowledge-based approach incorporated in the COMPOSER suite of programs and refinement by using the interactive graphics program FRODO on an Evans and Sutherland PS 390 and by energy minimization using the GROMOS program library. 2. Functional similarities and differences between the three cysteine proteinases revealed by analysis of pH-dependent kinetics of the acylation process of the catalytic act and of the reactions of the enzyme catalytic sites with substrate-derived 2-pyridyl disulphides as two-hydronic-state reactivity probes are reported and discussed in terms of the knowledge-based model. 3. To facilitate analysis of complex pH-dependent kinetic data, a multitasking application program (SKETCHER) for parameter estimation by interactive manipulation of calculated curves and a simple method of writing down pH-dependent kinetic equations for reactions involving any number of reactive hydronic states by using information matrices were developed. 4. Papaya proteinase omega differs from the other two enzymes in the ionization characteristics of the common (Cys)-SH/(His)-Im+H catalytic-site system and of the other acid/base groups that modulate thiol reactivity towards substrate-derived inhibitors and the acylation process of the catalytic act. The most marked difference in the Cys/His system is that the pKa for the loss of the ion-pair state to form -S-/-Im is 8.1-8.3 for papaya proteinase omega, whereas it is 9.5 for both actinidin and papain. Papaya proteinase omega is similar to actinidin in that it lacks the second catalytically influential group with pKa approx. 4 present in papain and possesses a

  9. Structure-function relationships in the cysteine proteinases actinidin, papain and papaya proteinase omega. Three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega deduced by knowledge-based modelling and active-centre characteristics determined by two-hydronic-state reactivity probe kinetics and kinetics of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Topham, C M; Salih, E; Frazao, C; Kowlessur, D; Overington, J P; Thomas, M; Brocklehurst, S M; Patel, M; Thomas, E W; Brocklehurst, K

    1991-11-15

    1. A model of the three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega, the most basic cysteine proteinase component of the latex of papaya (Carica papaya), was built from its amino acid sequence and the two currently known high-resolution crystal structures of the homologous enzymes papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14). The method used a knowledge-based approach incorporated in the COMPOSER suite of programs and refinement by using the interactive graphics program FRODO on an Evans and Sutherland PS 390 and by energy minimization using the GROMOS program library. 2. Functional similarities and differences between the three cysteine proteinases revealed by analysis of pH-dependent kinetics of the acylation process of the catalytic act and of the reactions of the enzyme catalytic sites with substrate-derived 2-pyridyl disulphides as two-hydronic-state reactivity probes are reported and discussed in terms of the knowledge-based model. 3. To facilitate analysis of complex pH-dependent kinetic data, a multitasking application program (SKETCHER) for parameter estimation by interactive manipulation of calculated curves and a simple method of writing down pH-dependent kinetic equations for reactions involving any number of reactive hydronic states by using information matrices were developed. 4. Papaya proteinase omega differs from the other two enzymes in the ionization characteristics of the common (Cys)-SH/(His)-Im+H catalytic-site system and of the other acid/base groups that modulate thiol reactivity towards substrate-derived inhibitors and the acylation process of the catalytic act. The most marked difference in the Cys/His system is that the pKa for the loss of the ion-pair state to form -S-/-Im is 8.1-8.3 for papaya proteinase omega, whereas it is 9.5 for both actinidin and papain. Papaya proteinase omega is similar to actinidin in that it lacks the second catalytically influential group with pKa approx. 4 present in papain and possesses a

  10. Cloning, expression and characterization of the proteinase from human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Tigue, N J; Matharu, P J; Roberts, N A; Mills, J S; Kay, J; Jupp, R

    1996-01-01

    After the U53 gene encoding the proteinase from human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was sequenced, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the activity of the purified, recombinant HHV-6 proteinase was characterized quantitatively by using synthetic peptide substrates mimicking the release and maturation cleavage sites in the polyprotein precursors of HHV-6, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), murine CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus. Despite sharing 40% identity with other betaherpesvirus proteinases such as human CMV proteinase, the one-chain HHV-6 enzyme was distinguished from these two-chain proteinases by the absence of an internal autocatalytic cleavage site. PMID:8648756

  11. The effect of metal ions on the activity and thermostability of the extracellular proteinase from a thermophilic Bacillus, strain EA.1.

    PubMed Central

    Coolbear, T; Whittaker, J M; Daniel, R M

    1992-01-01

    The proteinase from the extremely thermophilic Bacillus strain EA.1 exhibits maximum stability at a pH of approx. 6.5. In the presence of calcium ions the half-life at 95 degrees C of the enzyme at this pH was 17 min, and loss of activity followed first-order decay kinetics. The role of metal ions in the activity and stability of the enzyme was studied using the holoenzyme, the metal-depleted apoenzyme, and a zinc-enriched apoenzyme preparation. Zinc and calcium ions were the preferred bivalent cations for the active site and stabilization site(s) respectively. Stabilization by metal ions was not in itself a highly stringent process, but ions other than calcium which stabilized the enzyme generally had a concomitant inhibitory effect on activity. Inhibition and stabilization of the enzyme by cations were concentration-dependent effects and certain ions activated the apoenzyme but not the holoenzyme. Manganese(II) ions conferred some stability and also activated the enzyme, but in the latter case were not as effective as zinc ions. The results are discussed with reference to the ionic radii, co-ordination number and preferred ligand donors of the ions. Mercury(II) ions severely compromised enzyme activity and stability, and the effects of thiol-reactive agents suggest that thiol groups also have a role in enzyme integrity. PMID:1445196

  12. The dual effect of adenovirus type 5 E1A 13S protein on NF-kappaB activation is antagonized by E1B 19K.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, M L; Indorf, A; Limbourg, F P; Städtler, H; Traenckner, E B; Baeuerle, P A

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of human adenoviruses encode several regulatory proteins, including the two differentially spliced gene products E1A and E1B. Here, we show that the 13S but not the 12S splice variant of E1A of adenovirus type 5 can activate the human transcription factor NF-kappaB in a bimodal fashion. One mode is the activation of NF-kappaB containing the p65 subunit from the cytoplasmic NF-kappaB-IkappaB complex. This activation required reactive oxygen intermediates and the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at serines 32 and 36, followed by IkappaBalpha degradation and the nuclear uptake of NF-kappaB. In addition, 13S E1A stimulated the transcriptional activity of the C-terminal 80 amino acids of p65 at a core promoter with either a TATA box or an initiator (INR) element. The C-terminal 80 amino acids of p65 were found to associate with E1A in vitro. The activation of NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription by E1A was potently suppressed upon coexpression of the E1B 19-kDa protein (19K). E1B 19K prevented both the activation of NF-kappaB and the E1A-mediated transcriptional enhancement of p65. These inhibitory effects were not found for the 55-kDa splice variant of the E1B protein. We suggest that the inductive effect of E1A 13S on the host factor NF-kappaB, whose activation is important for the transcription of various adenovirus genes, must be counteracted by the suppressive effect of E1B 19K so that the adenovirus-infected cell can escape the immune-stimulatory and apoptotic effects of NF-kappaB. PMID:8754803

  13. The active Zot domain (aa 288–293) increases ZO-1 and myosin 1C serine/threonine phosphorylation, alters interaction between ZO-1 and its binding partners, and induces tight junction disassembly through proteinase activated receptor 2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Goldblum, Simeon E.; Rai, Usha; Tripathi, Amit; Thakar, Manjusha; De Leo, Luigina; Di Toro, Nicola; Not, Tarcisio; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Puche, Adam C.; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Fasano, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae-derived zonula occludins toxin (Zot) is a multifunctional protein that reversibly disassembles intestinal tight junctions (tjs). Zot structure-function analysis has mapped this activity to aa 288–293, named AT1002. AT1002 reduced transepithelial electrical resistance across rat small intestine, ex vivo, as did Zot and its processed mature form, ΔG. AT1002 increased in vivo permeability to sugar tracers, whereas scrambled control peptides did not. Binding and barrier assays in proteinase activated receptor (PAR)2-expressing and PAR2-null cells established AT1002 activity to be PAR2 dependent. Coincident with the increased intestinal permeability, confocal microscopy of AT1002-exposed rat intestinal IEC6 cells revealed displacement of ZO-1 and occludin from intercellular boundaries. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, AT1002 decreased ZO-1-occludin and ZO-1-claudin 1 interactions coincident with PKCα-dependent ZO-1 serine/threonine phosphorylation. Further, AT1002 increased serine phosphorylation of myosin 1C and, at the same time, transiently diminished its association with ZO-1. The COOH-terminal domain of ZO-1 was required for its association with myosin 1C. These data indicate that the NH2-terminal portion of active Zot contains a PAR2-activating motif, FCIGRL, that increases PKCα-dependent ZO-1 and myosin 1C serine/threonine phosphorylation. These modifications provoke selective disengagement of ZO-1 from its binding partners, occludin, claudin 1, and myosin 1C, coincident with opening of tjs.—Goldblum, S. E., Rai, U., Tripathi, A., Thakar, M., De Leo, L., Di Toro, N., Not, T., Ramachandran, R., Puche, A. C., Hollenberg, M. D., Fasano, A. The active Zot domain (aa 288–293) increases ZO-1 and myosin 1C serine/threonine phosphorylation, alters interaction between ZO-1 and its binding partners, and induces tight junction disassembly through proteinase activated receptor 2 activation. PMID:20852064

  14. Fractionation and purification of the thiol proteinases from papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Dekeyser, P M; De Smedt, S; Demeester, J; Lauwers, A

    1994-06-01

    Three cysteine proteinases, i.e. chymopapain, papaya proteinase IV and proteinase III, were purified to homogeneity from papaya latex using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. During the purification procedure, the thiol-groups of the active center were reversibly blocked as mixed disulfides with 2-thiopyridone. Homogeneity was proved electrophoretically by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and rechromatography on a Mono S 5/5 column at pH 5.0. PMID:7952030

  15. [The construction of recombinant adenovirus expressing bifunctional fusion protein sCAR-EGF and the detection of its activity].

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng-Kang; Wang, Feng; Li, Hui-Ming; Li, Zong-Hai; Huang, Qian

    2006-09-01

    To improve the targeting of adenovirus vector for gene therapy, a fusion gene sCAR-EGF, in which epidermal growth factor gene was fused to the 3' end of extracellular Coxsackie virus-adenovirus receptor gene, was constructed and cloned into shuttle plasmid pDC315 to obtain a recombinant plasmid pDC315-sCAR-EGF. With the AdMax system, AD-293 cells were co-transfected with pDC315-sCAR-EGF and adenovirus genomic plasmid pBHGloxdeltaE13cre. Through high efficiency site specific recombination, a replication-defective adenovirus Ad5-CMV-sCAR-EGF was constructed. The recombinant adenovirus was analyzed by PCR and Western blotting, the results indicated that Ad5-CMV-sCAR-EGF contained the fusion gene sCAR-EGF, and the adenovirus infected cells was induced to produce and secrete the fusion protein into the supernatant. We have demonstrated that the fusion protein sCAR-EGF is helpful for elevating the infection efficiency of Ad5-CMV-luc with the reporter gene in vitro, which providing a new approach to the gene therapy for tumors overexpressing EGFR. PMID:17037191

  16. Isolation and characterization of recombinant Drosophila Copia aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Senarath B P; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    The wild type Copia Gag precursor protein of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be processed autocatalytically to generate two daughter proteins with molecular masses of 33 and 23 kDa on SDS/PAGE. The active-site motif of aspartic proteinases, Asp-Ser-Gly, was present in the 23 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal half of the precursor protein. The coding region of this daughter protein (152 residues) in the copia gag gene was expressed in E. coli to produce the recombinant enzyme protein as inclusion bodies, which was then purified and refolded to create the active enzyme. Using the peptide substrate His-Gly-Ile-Ala-Phe-Met-Val-Lys-Glu-Val-Asn (cleavage site: Phe-Met) designed on the basis of the sequence of the cleavage-site region of the precursor protein, the enzymatic properties of the proteinase were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the proteinase toward the synthetic peptide were 4.0 and 70 degrees C respectively. The proteolytic activity was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the reaction mixture, the optimum concentration being 2 M. Pepstatin A strongly inhibited the enzyme, with a Ki value of 15 nM at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the active-site residue mutant, in which the putative catalytic aspartic acid residue was mutated to an alanine residue, had no activity. These results show that the Copia proteinase belongs to the family of aspartic proteinases including HIV proteinase. The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15-Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects. PMID:16813567

  17. Cross-talk between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is involved in vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, M; Vellecco, V; Harrington, L; Brancaleone, V; Roviezzo, F; Mattace Raso, G; Ianaro, A; Lungarella, G; De Palma, R; Meli, R; Cirino, G

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cross-talk between PAR2 and TLR4 in vessels in physiological condition and how it varies following stimulation of TLR4 by using in vivo and ex vivo models. Experimental Approach Thoracic aortas were harvested from both naïve and endotoxaemic rats for in vitro studies. Arterial blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized rats in vivo. LPS was used as a TLR4 agonist while PAR2 activating peptide (AP) was used as a PAR2 agonist. Aortas harvested from TLR4–/– mice were also used to characterize the PAR2 response. Key Results PAR2, but not TLR4, expression was enhanced in aortas of endotoxaemic rats. PAR2AP-induced vasorelaxation was increased in aortic rings of LPS-treated rats. TLR4 inhibitors, curcumine and resveratrol, reduced PAR2AP-induced vasorelaxation and PAR2AP-induced hypotension in both naïve and endotoxaemic rats. Finally, in aortic rings from TLR4–/– mice, the expression of PAR2 was reduced and the PAR2AP-induced vasodilatation impaired compared with those from wild-type mice and both resveratrol and curcumine were ineffective. Conclusions and Implications Cross-talk between PAR2 and TLR4 contributes to vascular homeostasis. PMID:22957757

  18. Adenovirus vectors lacking virus-associated RNA expression enhance shRNA activity to suppress hepatitis C virus replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zheng; Shi, Guoli; Kondo, Saki; Ito, Masahiko; Maekawa, Aya; Suzuki, Mariko; Saito, Izumu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Kanegae, Yumi

    2013-12-01

    First-generation adenovirus vectors (FG AdVs) expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) effectively downregulate the expressions of target genes. However, this vector, in fact, expresses not only the transgene product, but also virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs) that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. We have established a production method for VA-deleted AdVs lacking expression of VA RNAs. Here, we showed that the highest shRNA activity was obtained when the shRNA was inserted not at the popularly used E1 site, but at the E4 site. We then compared the activities of shRNAs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) expressed from VA-deleted AdVs or conventional AdVs. The VA-deleted AdVs inhibited HCV production much more efficiently. Therefore, VA-deleted AdVs were more effective than the currently used AdVs for shRNA downregulation, probably because of the lack of competition between VA RNAs and the shRNAs. These VA-deleted AdVs might enable more effective gene therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  19. Activation of adenovirus 5 E1A transcription by region E1B in transformed primary rat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jochemsen, A G; Peltenburg, L T; te Pas, M F; de Wit, C M; Bos, J L; van der Eb, A J

    1987-01-01

    The human adenovirus 5 E1A region can immortalize primary cultures of baby rat kidney cells, but requires the presence of the E1B region for complete oncogenic transformation. One of the effects of the E1B region in the transformation process is the activation of E1A expression. We have investigated the mechanism of this stimulation of E1A expression using nuclear run-on assays with nuclei from Ad5 E1A- and Ad5 E1-transformed cells. It was found that E1B enhances E1A at the level of transcription-initiation. This activation is mainly observed when the E1A and E1B regions are integrated simultaneously into the cellular genome and only minimally when these genes are integrated separately, strongly suggesting that a close physical linkage of these regions is essential for the observed effect. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2962857

  20. Development of Dual-Activity Vectors by Co-Envelopment of Adenovirus and SiRNA in Artificial Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Yilmazer, Açelya; Tian, Bowen; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy with human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) has been extensively explored for the treatment of diseases resistant to traditional therapies. Intravenous administration leads to rapid clearance from blood circulation and high liver accumulation, which restrict the use of Ad-based vectors in clinical gene therapy protocols that involve systemic administration. We have previously proposed that such limitations can be improved by engineering artificial lipid envelopes around Ad and designed a variety of artificial lipid bilayer envelopes around the viral capsid. In this study, we sought to explore further opportunities that the artificially enveloped virus constructs could offer, by designing a previously unreported gene therapy vector by simultaneous envelopment of Ad and siRNA within the same lipid bilayer. Such a dual-activity vector can offer efficacious therapy for different genetic disorders where both turning on and switching off genes would be needed. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize these vectors. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Ribo green and dot blot assays showed that siRNA and Ad virions can be enveloped together within lipid bilayers at high envelopment efficiency. Cellular uptake and in vitro transfection experiments were carried out to show the feasibility of combining siRNA-mediated gene silencing with viral gene transfer using these newly designed dual-activity vectors. PMID:25501573

  1. Combined Use of the Canine Adenovirus-2 and DREADD-Technology to Activate Specific Neural Pathways In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boender, Arjen J.; de Jong, Johannes W.; Boekhoudt, Linde; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a technique to transiently activate specific neural pathways in vivo. It comprises the combined use of a CRE-recombinase expressing canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) and an adeno-associated virus (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry) that contains the floxed inverted sequence of the designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) hM3D(Gq)-mCherry. CAV-2 retrogradely infects projection neurons, which allowed us to specifically express hM3D(Gq)-mCherry in neurons that project from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (Acb), the majority of which were dopaminergic. Activation of hM3D(Gq)-mCherry by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) leads to increases in neuronal activity, which enabled us to specifically activate VTA to Acb projection neurons. The VTA to Acb pathway is part of the mesolimbic dopamine system and has been implicated in behavioral activation and the exertion of effort. Injections of all doses of CNO led to increases in progressive ratio (PR) performance. The effect of the lowest dose of CNO was suppressed by administration of a DRD1-antagonist, suggesting that CNO-induced increases in PR-performance are at least in part mediated by DRD1-signaling. We hereby validate the combined use of CAV-2 and DREADD-technology to activate specific neural pathways and determine consequent changes in behaviorally relevant paradigms. PMID:24736748

  2. Pathogenesis of periodontitis: a major arginine-specific cysteine proteinase from Porphyromonas gingivalis induces vascular permeability enhancement through activation of the kallikrein/kinin pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, T; Pike, R N; Potempa, J; Travis, J

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of production of an inflammatory exudate, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), from periodontal pockets in periodontitis, we examined the vascular permeability enhancement (VPE) activity induced by an arginine-specific cysteine proteinase, Arg-gingipain-1 (RGP-1), produced by a major periopathogenic bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Intradermal injections into guinea pigs of RGP-1 (> 10(-8) M), or human plasma incubated with RGP-1 (> 10(-9) M), induced VPE in a dose- and activity-dependent manner but with different time courses for the two routes of production. VPE activity induced by RGP-1 was augmented by kininase inhibitors, inhibited by a kallikrein inhibitor and unaffected by an antihistamine drug. The VPE activity in human plasma incubated with RGP-1 also correlated closely with generation of bradykinin (BK). RGP-1 induced 30-40% less VPE activity in Hageman factor-deficient plasma and no VPE in plasma deficient in either prekallikrein (PK) or high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK). After incubation with RGP-1, plasma deficient in PK or HMWK, reconstituted with each missing protein, caused VPE, as did a mixture of purified PK and HMWK, but RGP-1 induced no VPE from HMWK. The VPE of extracts of clinically isolated P. gingivalis were reduced to about 10% by anti-RGP-1-IgG, leupeptin, or tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, which paralleled effects observed with RGP-1. These results indicate that RGP-1 is the major VPE factor of P. gingivalis, inducing this activity through PK activation and subsequent BK release, resulting in GCF production at sites of periodontitis caused by infection with this organism. Images PMID:8040277

  3. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying )

    1989-04-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with {sup 3}H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia.

  4. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in the proteinase-activated receptor 2-mediated vasodilatation in the rat dura mater.

    PubMed

    Dux, M; Rosta, J; Sántha, P; Jancsó, G

    2009-07-01

    Neurogenic inflammation of the dura mater encephali has been suggested to contribute to the mechanisms of meningeal nociception and blood flow regulation. Recent findings demonstrated that the rat dura mater is innervated by trigeminal capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic nociceptive afferent nerves which mediate meningeal vascular responses through activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. The present work explored the functional significance of the capsaicin-sensitive subpopulation of dural afferent nerves via their contribution to the meningeal vascular responses evoked through activation of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). The vascular responses of the dura mater were studied by laser Doppler flowmetry in a rat open cranial window preparation. Topical applications of trypsin, a PAR-2-activator, or Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-amide (SLIGRL-NH(2)), a selective PAR-2 agonist peptide, resulted in dose-dependent increases in meningeal blood flow. The SLIGRL-NH(2)-induced vasodilatation was significantly reduced following capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve defunctionalization by prior systemic capsaicin treatment and by pretreatment of the dura mater with the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) an unspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production, but not 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM), a neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, also inhibited the vasodilator response to SLIGRL-NH(2). The vasodilator responses elicited by very low concentrations of capsaicin (10 nM) were significantly enhanced by prior application of SLIGRL-NH(2). The present findings demonstrate that activation of the PAR-2 localized on capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal nociceptive afferent nerves induces vasodilatation in the dural vascular bed by mechanisms involving NO and CGRP release. The results indicate that the PAR-2-mediated activation and

  5. The NS3 proteinase domain of hepatitis C virus is a zinc-containing enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Stempniak, M; Hostomska, Z; Nodes, B R; Hostomsky, Z

    1997-01-01

    NS3 proteinase of hepatitis C virus (HCV), contained within the N-terminal domain of the NS3 protein, is a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase responsible for processing of the nonstructural region of the HCV polyprotein. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the NS3 proteinase to divalent metal ions, which is unusual behavior for this proteinase class. By using a cell-free coupled transcription-translation system, we found that HCV polyprotein processing can be activated by Zn2+ (and, to a lesser degree, by Cd2+, Pb2+, and Co2+) and inhibited by Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions. Elemental analysis of the purified NS3 proteinase domain revealed the presence of zinc in an equimolar ratio. The zinc content was unchanged in a mutated NS3 proteinase in which active-site residues His-57 and Ser-139 were replaced with Ala, suggesting that the zinc atom is not directly involved in catalysis but rather may have a structural role. Based on data from site-directed mutagenesis combined with zinc content determination, we propose that Cys-97, Cys-99, Cys-145, and His-149 coordinate the structural zinc in the HCV NS3 proteinase. A similar metal binding motif is found in 2A proteinases of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, suggesting that these 2A proteinases and HCV NS3 proteinase are structurally related. PMID:9060645

  6. Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C

    1992-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the many pathogens and opportunistic agents that cause serious infection in the congenitally immunocompromised, in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for organ and tissue transplants and for cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Adenovirus infections in these patients tend to become disseminated and severe, and the serotypes involved are clustered according to the age of the patient and the nature of the immunosuppression. Over 300 adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients, with an overall case fatality rate of 48%, are reviewed in this paper. Children with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and other primary immunodeficiencies are exposed to the serotypes of subgroups B and C that commonly infect young children, and thus their infections are due to types 1 to 7 and 31 of subgenus A. Children with bone marrow and liver transplants often have lung and liver adenovirus infections that are due to an expanded set of subgenus A, B, C, and E serotypes. Adults with kidney transplants have viruses of subgenus B, mostly types 11, 34, and 35, which cause cystitis. This review indicates that 11% of transplant recipients become infected with adenoviruses, with case fatality rates from 60% for bone marrow transplant patients to 18% for renal transplant patients. Patients with AIDS become infected with a diversity of serotypes of all subgenera because their adult age and life-style expose them to many adenoviruses, possibly resulting in antigenically intermediate strains that are not found elsewhere. Interestingly, isolates from the urine of AIDS patients are generally of subgenus B and comprise types 11, 21, 34, 35, and intermediate strains of these types, whereas isolates from stool are of subgenus D and comprise many rare, new, and intermediate strains that are untypeable for practical purposes. It has been estimated that adenoviruses cause active infection in 12% of AIDS patients and that 45% of

  7. Functional significance of Asn-linked glycosylation of proteinase 3 for enzymatic activity, processing, targeting, and recognition by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Specks, Ulrich; Fass, David N; Finkielman, Javier D; Hummel, Amber M; Viss, Margaret A; Litwiller, Robert D; McDonald, Cari J

    2007-01-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is a neutral serine protease stored in neutrophil granules. It has substantial sequence homology with elastase, cathepsin G and azurocidin. PR3 is the target antigen for autoantibodies (ANCA) in Wegener's granulomatosis, a necrotizing vasculitis syndrome. ANCA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. PR3 has two potential Asn-linked glycosylation sites. This study was designed to determine the occupancy of these glycosylation sites, and to evaluate their effect on enzymatic function, intracellular processing, targeting to granules and recognition by ANCA. We found that glycosylation occurs at both sites in native neutrophil PR3 and in wild type recombinant PR3 (rPR3) expressed in HMC-1 cells. Using glycosylation deficient rPR3 mutants we found that glycosylation at Asn-147, but not at Asn-102, is critical for thermal stability, and for optimal hydrolytic activity of PR3. Efficient amino-terminal proteolytic processing of rPR3 is dependent on glycosylation at Asn-102. Targeting to granules is not dependent on glycosylation, but unglycosylated rPR3 gets secreted preferentially into media supernatants. Finally, a capture ELISA for ANCA detection, using rPR3 glycosylation variants as target antigens, reveals that in about 20% of patients, epitope recognition by ANCA is affected by the glycosylation status of PR3. PMID:17158864

  8. Neutrophil-derived Oxidants and Proteinases as Immunomodulatory Mediators in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Witko-Sarsat, V.

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophils generate potent microbicidal molecules via the oxygen-dependent pathway, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and via the non-oxygen dependent pathway, consisting in the release of serine proteinases and metalloproteinases stored in granules. Over the past years, the concept has emerged that both ROI and proteinases can be viewed as mediators able to modulate neutrophil responses as well as the whole inflammatory process. This is well illustrated by the oxidative regulation of proteinase activity showing that oxidants and proteinases acts is concert to optimize the microbicidal activity and to damage host tissues. ROI and proteinases can modify the activity of several proteins involved in the control of inflammatory process. Among them, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8, are elective targets for such a modulation. Moreover, ROI and proteinases are also able to modulate the adhesion process of neutrophils to endothelial cells, which is a critical step in the inflammatory process. PMID:18472951

  9. A fiber-modified adenovirus co-expressing HSV-TK and Coli.NTR enhances antitumor activities in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wu, Hao; Feng, Xiao; Geng, Ran-Shen; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers especially in late and metastatic stages remain refractory to treatment despite advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy. Suicide gene therapy based on adenoviral technology will be promising strategies for such advanced diseases. We previously showed that co-expression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Coli.NTR) by an hTERT-driven adenovirus vector resulted in additive anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. As many tumor tissue and cancer cells express low level of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is the functional receptor for the fiber protein of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), novel Ad5 vectors containing genetically modifi ed fiber are attractive vehicles for achieving targeted gene transfer and improving suicide gene expression in these cancer cells. In the present study, we first built a simplified Ad5 vector platform for fiber modification and quick detection for gene transfer. Then a fiber-modified adenovirus vector containing an RGD motif in the HI loop of the fiber knob was constructed. After recombined with HSV-TK and Coli.NTR gene, this fiber-modified Ad5 vector (Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR) was compared with that of our previously constructed Ad5 vector (Ad-hT-TK/NTR) for its therapeutic effects in human breast cancer cell lines. The anti-tumor activity of Ad-RGD-hT-TK/NTR was significantly enhanced compared with Ad-hT-TK/NTR both in vitro and in vivo. This new vector platform provided a robust and simplified approach for capsid modification, and the fiber-modified Ad5 with double suicide genes under the control of hTERT promoter would be a useful gene therapy strategy for breast cancer. PMID:25031704

  10. Adenovirus E1A gene induction of susceptibility to lysis by natural killer cells and activated macrophages in infected rodent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J L; May, D L; Lewis, A M; Walker, T A

    1987-01-01

    Rodent cells immortalized by the E1A gene of nononcogenic adenoviruses are susceptible to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells and activated macrophages. This cytolysis-susceptible phenotype may contribute to the rejection of adenovirus-transformed cells by immunocompetent animals. Such increased cytolytic susceptibility has also been observed with infected rodent cells. This infection model provided a means to study the role of E1A gene products in induction of cytolytic susceptibility without cell selection during transformation. Deletion mutations outside of the E1A gene had no effect on adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) or Ad5 induction of cytolytic susceptibility in infected hamster cells, while E1A-minus mutant viruses could not induce this phenotype. E1A mutant viruses that induced expression of either E1A 12S or 13S mRNA in infected cells were competent to induce cytolytic susceptibility. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the accumulation of E1A gene products in Ad5-infected cells and the level of susceptibility of such target cells to lysis by NK cells. The results of coinfection studies indicated that the E1A gene products of highly oncogenic Ad12 could not complement the lack of induction of cytolytic susceptibility by E1A-minus Ad5 virus in infected cells and also could not block induction of this infected-cell phenotype by Ad5. These data suggest that expression of the E1A gene of nononcogenic adenoviruses may cause the elimination of infected cells by the immunologically nonspecific host inflammatory cell response prior to cellular transformation. The lack of induction of this cytolysis-susceptible phenotype by Ad12 E1A may result in an increased persistence of Ad12-infected cells in vivo and may lead to an increased Ad12-transformed cell burden for the host. Images PMID:2959793

  11. In vitro transcription of adenovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Fire, A; Baker, C C; Manley, J L; Ziff, E B; Sharp, P A

    1981-01-01

    A series of recombinants of adenovirus DNA fragments and pBR322 was used to test the transcriptional activity of the nine known adenovirus promoters in a cell-free extract. Specific initiation was seen at all five early promoters as well as at the major late promotor and at the intermediate promoter for polypeptide IX. The system failed to recognize the two other adenovirus promoters, which were prominent in vivo only at intermediate and late stages in infection. Microheterogeneity of 5' termini at several adenovirus promoters, previously shown in vivo, was reproduced in the in vitro reaction and indeed appeared to result from heterogeneous initiation rather than 5' processing. To test for the presence of soluble factors involved in regulation of nRNA synthesis, the activity of extracts prepared from early and late stages of infection was compared on an assortment of viral promoter sites. Although mock and early extracts showed identical transcription patterns, extracts prepared from late stages gave 5- to 10-fold relative enhancement of the late and polypeptide IX promoters as compared with early promoters. Images PMID:7321101

  12. Digestive Duet: Midgut Digestive Proteinases of Manduca sexta Ingesting Nicotiana attenuata with Manipulated Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jorge A.; Giri, Ashok P.; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2008-01-01

    Background The defensive effect of endogenous trypsin proteinase inhibitors (NaTPIs) on the herbivore Manduca sexta was demonstrated by genetically altering NaTPI production in M. sexta's host plant, Nicotiana attenuata. To understand how this defense works, we studied the effects of NaTPI on M. sexta gut proteinase activity levels in different larval instars of caterpillars feeding freely on untransformed and transformed plants. Methodology/ Principal Findings Second and third instars larvae that fed on NaTPI-producing (WT) genotypes were lighter and had less gut proteinase activity compared to those that fed on genotypes with either little or no NaTPI activity. Unexpectedly, NaTPI activity in vitro assays not only inhibited the trypsin sensitive fraction of gut proteinase activity but also halved the NaTPI-insensitive fraction in third-instar larvae. Unable to degrade NaTPI, larvae apparently lacked the means to adapt to NaTPI in their diet. However, caterpillars recovered at least part of their gut proteinase activity when they were transferred from NaTPI-producing host plants to NaTPI-free host plants. In addition extracts of basal leaves inhibited more gut proteinase activity than did extracts of middle stem leaves with the same protein content. Conclusions/ Significance Although larvae can minimize the effects of high NaTPI levels by feeding on leaves with high protein and low NaTPI activity, the host plant's endogenous NaTPIs remain an effective defense against M. sexta, inhibiting gut proteinase and affecting larval performance. PMID:18431489

  13. A low molecular weight proteinase inhibitor produced by T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, D; Teodorescu, M; Dray, S

    1986-01-01

    A low molecular weight (MW) proteinase inhibitor, between 6500 and 21,500 MW, appeared in the supernatant of rabbit spleen cells cultured at high density for 24 hr. The inhibitor inhibited the enzymatic activity of trypsin for both a high MW natural substrate, fibrinogen, and for a low MW artificial substrate, Chromozym TRY. The low MW proteinase inhibitor is protein in nature and is different, in terms of specificity for enzymes, MW and sensitivity to different physical or chemical treatments, from aprotinin, a low MW proteinase inhibitor (6500 MW) of bovine origin, and from the soybean trypsin inhibitor, a relatively high MW proteinase inhibitor (21,500 MW). The inhibitor was found in the supernatant of purified T cells but not B cells, and its production was increased in the presence of an optimal concentration of Con A. The possibility that this proteinase inhibitor has a role in the regulation of trypsin-like proteinases involved to the immune response remains to be investigated. Images Figure 4 PMID:2417942

  14. Adenovirus 36 Attenuates Weight Loss from Exercise but Improves Glycemic Control by Increasing Mitochondrial Activity in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Michael B.; Park, Sooho; Kim, In-Beom; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 36 (Ad36) as an obesity agent induces adiposity by increasing glucose uptake and promoting chronic inflammation in fat tissues; in contrast, exercise reduces total body fat and inflammation. Our objective was to determine the association between Ad36 and the effects of exercise on inflammation and glycemic control. In the human trials (n = 54), Korean children (aged 12–14 years) exercised for 60 min on three occasions each week for 2 months. We compared the body mass index (BMI) Z-scores before and after exercise. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Ad36 and Ad2 as a control, and these mice exercised for 12 weeks postinfection. After the exercise period, we determined the serum parameters and assessed the presence of inflammation and the mitochondrial function in the organs. Ad36-seropositive children who were subjected to a supervised exercise regimen had high BMI Z-scores whereas Ad36-seronegative children had lower scores. Similarly, Ad36-infected mice were resistant to weight loss and exhibited chronic inflammation of their adipose tissues despite frequent exercise. However, Ad36 combined with exercise reduced the levels of serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, and insulin in virus-infected mice. Interestingly, virus infection increased the mitochondrial function in the liver, as demonstrated by the numbers of mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and transcription of key mitochondrial genes. Therefore Ad36 counteracts the weight-loss effect of exercise and maintains the chronic inflammatory state, but glycemic control is improved by exercise synergistically because of increased mitochondrial activity in the liver. PMID:25479564

  15. Autocrine regulation of growth stimulation in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma by serine-proteinase-catalysed release of the urinary-type-plasminogen-activator N-terminal fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, D A; Kearns, A; Larsh, S; Enghild, J J; Stack, M S

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas secrete single-chain urinary-type plasminogen activator (scuPA) and expression of uPA is up-regulated relative to normal ovarian epithelium, leading to an enhanced proteolytic capacity which may facilitate invasion. Furthermore, the uPA receptor (uPAR) is present on ovarian carcinoma cells and is occupied in tumour tissues. In the present study, incubation of scuPA with serum-free conditioned medium from ovarian carcinoma cells resulted in release of a 14 kDa polypeptide. N-terminal sequence analysis identified this fragment as the uPA N-terminal fragment (NTF), which contains a growth-factor and a kringle domain. NTF generation was abolished by serine-proteinase inhibitors, but not inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, and was not enhanced by the addition of plasminogen or plasmin. To determine whether ovarian carcinoma-cell growth is altered by uPA, the effect of exogenous scuPA or NTF on proliferation was analysed. Both NTF and scuPA induced a dose-dependent increase in proliferation, with maximal stimulation obtained at 10-20 nM. Furthermore, blocking the interaction of endogenous uPA with uPAR using anti-NTF antibodies significantly inhibited proliferation. Together these data indicate that, in addition to enhancing the invasive activity of ovarian carcinoma cells via increased pericellular proteolysis, uPA also acts as a mitogen for ovarian carcinoma cells, suggesting a biochemical mechanism whereby uPA may contribute to ovarian carcinoma progression by modulating both cell invasion and proliferation. PMID:10417342

  16. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  17. Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.

    PubMed

    Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

    2006-03-10

    Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

  18. Verapamil Enhances the Antitumoral Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Alena; Puig, Cristina; Guedan, Sonia; Rojas, Juan José; Alemany, Ramon; Cascallo, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of oncolytic adenoviruses is limited by the rate of adenovirus release. Based on the observation that several viruses induce cell death and progeny release by disrupting intracellular calcium homeostasis, we hypothesized that the alteration in intracellular calcium concentration induced by verapamil could improve the rate of virus release and spread, eventually enhancing the antitumoral activity of oncolytic adenoviruses. Our results indicate that verapamil substantially enhanced the release of adenovirus from a variety of cell types resulting in an improved cell-to-cell spread and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the combination of the systemic administration of an oncolytic adenovirus (ICOVIR-5) with verapamil in vivo greatly improved its antitumoral activity in two different tumor xenograft models without affecting the selectivity of this virus. Overall, our findings indicate that verapamil provides a new, safe, and versatile way to improve the antitumoral potency of oncolytic adenoviruses in the clinical setting. PMID:20179683

  19. Topical treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste alleviates bone cancer pain by inhibiting proteinase-activated receptor 2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yanju; Wang, Gaimei; Gao, Yebo; Du, Maobo; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Zheng, Honggang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Baojin

    2015-09-01

    Herbal analgesic Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) and related modifications are often used in traditional Chinese medicine to manage cancer pain. However, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the effects and mechanism of XZP on bone cancer pain in a rat model of breast cancer-induced bone pain, a bone cancer pain model was established by inoculating Walker 256 cells into Wistar rats. Bone cancer-bearing rats were topically treated with different doses of XZP or injected with 5 mg/kg of osteoprotegerin (OPG) as positive control. Bone destruction, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were analyzed by radiology. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were examined to determine pain levels. Trypsin, TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Central sensitization markers such as c-Fos, GFAP, IBA1 and CGRP, as well as proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling pathway mediators such as PAR2, PKC-γ, PKA and TRPV1, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting assay. XZP treatment significantly mitigated bone cancer-related nociceptive behavior, bone damage, BMC and BMD; and decreased radiological scores in rats. XZP treatment significantly inhibited IBA1, GFAP, c-Fos and CGRP expressions in the spinal cord; and significantly mitigated trypsin, TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels. Furthermore, PAR2, PKC-γ, PKA and TRPV1 relative mRNA levels and protein expression in bone lesions were significantly reduced in rats treated with XZP. XZP significantly alleviates breast cancer-induced bone pain by inhibiting the PAR2 signaling pathway. PMID:26133236

  20. Differential subcellular targeting of recombinant human α₁-proteinase inhibitor influences yield, biological activity and in planta stability of the protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Jain, G K; Amla, D V

    2012-11-01

    The response of protein accumulation site on yield, biological activity and in planta stability of therapeutic recombinant human proteinase inhibitor (α₁-PI) was analyzed via targeting to different subcellular locations, like endoplasmic reticulum (ER), apoplast, vacuole and cytosol in leaves of transgenic tomato plants. In situ localization of the recombinant α₁-PI protein in transgenic plant cells was monitored by immunohistochemical staining. Maximum accumulation of recombinant α₁-PI in T₀ and T₁ transgenic tomato plants was achieved from 1.5 to 3.2% of total soluble protein (TSP) by retention in ER lumen, followed by vacuole and apoplast, whereas cytosolic targeting resulted into degradation of the protein. The plant-derived recombinant α₁-PI showed biological activity for elastase inhibition, as monitored by residual porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity assay and band-shift assay. Recombinant α₁-PI was purified from transgenic tomato plants with high yield, homogeneity and biological activity. Purified protein appeared as a single band of ∼48-50 kDa on SDS-PAGE with pI value ranging between 5.1 and 5.3. Results of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy of purified recombinant α₁-PI revealed the structural integrity of the recombinant protein comparable to native serum α₁-PI. Enzymatic deglycosylation and lectin-binding assays with the purified recombinant α₁-PI showed compartment-specific N-glycosylation of the protein targeted to ER, apoplast and vacuole. Conformational studies based on urea-induced denaturation and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed relatively lower stability of the recombinant α₁-PI protein, compared to its serum counterpart. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of plant derived recombinant and human plasma-purified α₁-PI in rat, by intravenous route, revealed significantly faster plasma clearance and lower area under curve (AUC) of recombinant protein. Our data suggested significance of

  1. EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes is hydrolyzed by the cysteine proteinase SpeB and requires glutamic acid 235 and tryptophans for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity

    PubMed Central

    Allhorn, Maria; Olsén, Arne; Collin, Mattias

    2008-01-01

    Background The endoglycosidase EndoS and the cysteine proteinase SpeB from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are functionally related in that they both hydrolyze IgG leading to impairment of opsonizing antibodies and thus enhance bacterial survival in human blood. In this study, we further investigated the relationship between EndoS and SpeB by examining their in vitro temporal production and stability and activity of EndoS. Furthermore, theoretical structure modeling of EndoS combined with site-directed mutagenesis and chemical blocking of amino acids was used to identify amino acids required for the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of EndoS. Results We could show that during growth in vitro S. pyogenes secretes the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing endoglycosidase EndoS prior to the cysteine proteinase SpeB. Upon maturation SpeB hydrolyzes EndoS that then loses its IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity. Sequence analysis and structural homology modeling of EndoS provided a basis for further analysis of the prerequisites for IgG glycan-hydrolysis. Site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification of amino acids revealed that glutamic acid 235 is an essential catalytic residue, and that tryptophan residues, but not the abundant lysine or the single cysteine residues, are important for EndoS activity. Conclusion We present novel information about the amino acid requirements for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of the immunomodulating enzyme EndoS. Furthermore, we show that the cysteine proteinase SpeB processes/degrades EndoS and thus emphasize the importance of the SpeB as a degrading/processing enzyme of proteins from the bacterium itself. PMID:18182097

  2. A single mutation Gln142Lys doubles the catalytic activity of VPR, a cold adapted subtilisin-like serine proteinase.

    PubMed

    Óskarsson, Kristinn R; Nygaard, Mads; Ellertsson, Brynjar Ö; Thorbjarnardottir, Sigríður H; Papaleo, Elena; Kristjánsson, Magnús M

    2016-10-01

    Structural comparisons of the cold adapted subtilase VPR and its thermophilic homologue, aqualysin I (AQUI) indicated the presence of additional salt bridges in the latter. Few of those appear to contribute significantly to thermal stability of AQUI. This includes a putative salt bridge between residues Lys142 and Glu172 as its deletion did not have any significant effect on its stability or activity (Jónsdóttir et al. (2014)). Insertion of this putative salt bridge into the structure of VPR, in a double mutant (VPRΔC_Q142K/S172E), however was detrimental to the stability of the enzyme. Incorporation of either the Q142K or S172E mutations into VPR, were found to significantly affect the catalytic properties of the enzyme. The single mutation Q142K was highly effective, as it increased the kcat and kcat/Km more than twofold. When the Q142K mutation was inserted into a thermostabilized, but a low activity mutant of VPR (VPRΔC_N3P/I5P), the activity increased about tenfold in terms of kcat and kcat/Km, while retaining the stability of the mutant. Molecular dynamics simulations of the single mutants were carried out to provide structural rationale for these experimental observations. Based on root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) profiles, the two mutants were more flexible in certain regions of the structure and the Q142K mutant had the highest overall flexibility of the three enzymes. The results suggest that weakening of specific H-bonds resulting from the mutations may be propagated over some distance giving rise to higher flexibility in the active site regions of the enzyme, causing higher catalytic activity in the mutants. PMID:27456266

  3. Expression of human. alpha. sub 2 -macroglobulin cDNA in baby hamster kidney fibroblasts: Secretion of high levels of active. alpha. sub 2 -macroglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Boel, E.; Mortensen, S.B. ); Kristensen, T.; Sottrup-Jensen, L. ); Petersen, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Human {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin ({alpha}{sub 2}M) is a unique 720-kDa proteinase inhibitor with a broad specificity. Unlike most other proteinase inhibitors, it does not inhibit proteolytic activity by blocking the active site of the proteinase. During complex formation with a proteinase {alpha}{sub 2}M entraps the proteinase molecule in a reaction that involves large conformational changes in {alpha}{sub 2}M. The authors describe the molecular cloning of {alpha}{sub 2}M cDNA from the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. The cDNA was subcloned under control of the adenovirus major late promoter in a mammalian expression vector and introduced into the baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell line. Transformed clones were isolated and tested for production of human {alpha}{sub 2}M with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Human recombinant {alpha}{sub 2}M (r{alpha}{sub 2}M), secreted and purified form isolated transfected BHK cell lines, was structurally and functionally compared to {alpha}{sub 2}M purified from human serum. The results show that r{alpha}{sub 2}M was secreted from the BHK cells as an active proteinase-binding tetramer with functional thiol esters. Cleavage reactions of r{alpha}{sub 2}M with methylamine and trypsin showed that the recombinant product, which was correctly processed at the N-terminus, exhibited molecular characteristics similar to those of the human serum derived reference.

  4. Link between allergic asthma and airway mucosal infection suggested by proteinase-secreting household fungi.

    PubMed

    Porter, P; Susarla, S C; Polikepahad, S; Qian, Y; Hampton, J; Kiss, A; Vaidya, S; Sur, S; Ongeri, V; Yang, T; Delclos, G L; Abramson, S; Kheradmand, F; Corry, D B

    2009-11-01

    Active fungal proteinases are powerful allergens that induce experimental allergic lung disease strongly resembling atopic asthma, but the precise relationship between proteinases and asthma remains unknown. Here, we analyzed dust collected from the homes of asthmatic children for the presence and sources of active proteinases to further explore the relationship between active proteinases, atopy, and asthma. Active proteinases were present in all houses and many were derived from fungi, especially Aspergillus niger. Proteinase-active dust extracts were alone insufficient to initiate asthma-like disease in mice, but conidia of A. niger readily established a contained airway mucosal infection, allergic lung disease, and atopy to an innocuous bystander antigen. Proteinase produced by A. niger enhanced fungal clearance from lung and was required for robust allergic disease. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) and IL-5 were required for optimal clearance of lung fungal infection and eosinophils showed potent anti-fungal activity in vitro. Thus, asthma and atopy may both represent a protective response against contained airway infection due to ubiquitous proteinase-producing fungi. PMID:19710638

  5. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  6. An Emerging Role of Degrading Proteinases in Hypertension and the Metabolic Syndrome: Autodigestion and Receptor Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges for hypertension research is to identify the mechanisms that cause the comorbidities encountered in many hypertensive patients, as seen in the metabolic syndrome. An emerging body of evidence suggests that human and experimental hypertensives may exhibit uncontrolled activity of proteinases, including the family of matrix metalloproteinases, recognized for their ability to restructure the extracellular matrix proteins and to play a role in hypertrophy. We propose a new hypothesis that provides a molecular framework for the comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, capillary rarefaction, immune suppression, and other cell and organ dysfunctions due to early and uncontrolled extracellular receptor cleavage by active proteinases. The proteinase and signaling activity in hypertensives requires further detailed analysis of the proteinase expression, the mechanisms causing proenzyme activation, and identification of the proteinase substrate. This work may open the opportunity for reassessment of old interventions and development of new interventions to manage hypertension and its comorbidities. PMID:22081429

  7. Repression in vitro, by human adenovirus E1A protein domains, of basal or Tat-activated transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Song, C Z; Loewenstein, P M; Green, M

    1995-01-01

    Human adenovirus E1A proteins can repress the expression of several viral and cellular genes. By using a cell-free transcription system, we demonstrated that the gene product of the E1A 12S mRNA, the 243-residue protein E1A243R, inhibits basal transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat greatly stimulates transcription from the viral promoter in vitro. However, E1A243R can repress Tat-activated transcription in vitro. Strong repression of both basal and Tat-activated transcriptions requires only E1A N-terminal amino acid residues 1 to 80. Deletion analysis showed that E1A N-terminal amino acids 4 to 25 are essential for repression, whereas amino acid residues 30 to 49 and 70 to 80 are dispensable. Transcriptional repression by E1A in the cell-free transcription system is promoter specific, since under identical conditions, transcription of the adenovirus major late promoter and the Rous sarcoma virus LTR promoter was unaffected. The repression of transcription by small E1A peptides in vitro provides an assay for investigation of molecular mechanisms governing E1A-mediated repression of both basal and Tat-activated transcriptions of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. PMID:7707515

  8. Pharmacological inhibition of β3 integrin reduces the inflammatory toxicities caused by oncolytic adenovirus without compromising anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Ashley; Tookman, Laura A.; Ingemarsdotter, Carin K.; Bouwman, Russell D.; Pirlo, Katrina; Wang, Yaohe; McNeish, Iain A.; Lockley, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses have been clinically tested as anti-cancer therapies but their utility has been severely limited by rapid, systemic cytokine release and consequent inflammatory toxicity. Here we describe a new approach to tackling these dangerous side effects. Using human ovarian cancer cell lines as well as malignant epithelial cells harvested from the ascites of women with ovarian cancer, we show that tumour cells do not produce cytokines in the first 24 hours following in vitro infection with the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947. In contrast, dl922-947 does induce inflammatory cytokines at early time points following intraperitoneal (IP) delivery in mice with human ovarian cancer IP xenografts. In these animals, cytokines originate predominantly in murine tissues, especially in macrophage-rich organs such as the spleen. We use a non-replicating adenovirus to confirm that early cytokine production is independent of adenoviral replication. Using β3 integrin knockout mice injected intraperitoneally with dl922-947 and β3 null murine peritoneal macrophages we confirm a role for macrophage cell surface β3 integrin in this dl922-947-induced inflammation. We present new evidence that co-administration of a cyclic RGD-mimetic specific inhibitor of β3 integrin significantly attenuates the cytokine release and inflammatory hepatic toxicity induced by dl922-947 in an IP murine model of ovarian cancer. Importantly, we find no evidence that β3 inhibition compromises viral infectivity and oncolysis in vitro or anticancer efficacy in vivo. By enabling safe, systemic delivery of replicating adenoviruses, this novel approach could have a major impact on the future development of these effective anti-cancer agents. PMID:25977332

  9. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry. PMID:15236611

  10. ANALYSIS OF MIDGUT PROTEINASES FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS-SUSCEPTIBLE AND -RESISTANT HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects with altered proteinases can avoid intoxication by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Therefore, proteinase activities from gut extracts of Bt-susceptible (YDK) and -resistant (YHD2-B, CXC and KCBhyb) H. virescens strains were compared. The overall pH of gut extracts from YDK and CXC were...

  11. Activation of the E2F transcription factor in adenovirus-infected cells involves E1A-dependent stimulation of DNA-binding activity and induction of cooperative binding mediated by an E4 gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, P; Bagchi, S; Neill, S D; Nevins, J R

    1990-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the DNA-binding activity of the E2F transcription factor is increased upon adenovirus infection and that both the E1A and E4 genes are required for activation. In this study, we demonstrated that this enhanced binding of E2F to the E2 promoter is the result of two events. (i) There is stimulation of the DNA-binding activity of the E2F factor; this stimulation is E1A dependent but independent of E4. (ii) There is also induction of a stabilized interaction between E2F molecules bound to adjacent promoter sites; induction of stable E2F binding requires E4 gene function. This two-step activation process was also demonstrated in vitro. A heat-stable fraction from extracts of adenovirus-infected cells, which contains the 19-kilodalton E4 protein, was capable of stimulating stable E2F binding in an ATP-independent manner and appeared to involve direct interaction of the E4 protein with E2F. An extract from virus-infected cells devoid of the E4 19-kilodalton protein stimulated E2F DNA binding without forming the stable complex. This reaction required ATP. We conclude that activation of E2F during adenovirus infection is a two-step process involving a change in both the DNA-binding activity of the factor and the capacity to stabilize the interaction through protein-protein contacts. Images PMID:2139893

  12. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  13. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein complements adenovirus type 5 E1A amino-terminus-dependent transactivation of adenovirus type 5 early genes and increases ATF and Oct-1 DNA binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H K; Ziff, E B

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that conserved region 1 (CR1) of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1A protein synergizes with CR3 in the transactivation of Ad5 early genes (H.K. Wong and E. B. Ziff, J. Virol. 68:4910-4920, 1994). CR1 lies within the E1A amino terminus and binds host regulatory proteins such as the RB protein, p107, p130, and p300. Since simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 protein also bind host regulatory factors, we investigated whether these viral proteins can complement E1A mutants which are defective in early gene activation. We show that the HPV16 E7 protein but not SV40 T antigen can complement mutations in the Ad5 E1A CR1 in the transactivation of viral early promoters. The inability of SV40 T antigen to complement suggests that RB binding on its own is not sufficient for early promoter transactivation by the E1A amino terminus. Nuclear runoff assays show that complementation by HPV16 E7 restores the ability of the E1A mutants to stimulate early gene expression at the level of transcription. Furthermore, nuclear extracts from the E7-transformed cells show increased binding activity of ATF and Oct-1, factors that can recognize the elements of Ad5 early genes, consistent with gene activation by E1A and E7 at the transcriptional level. PMID:8523545

  14. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  15. The synthesis of inhibitors for processing proteinases and their action on the Kex2 proteinase of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Angliker, H; Wikstrom, P; Shaw, E; Brenner, C; Fuller, R S

    1993-01-01

    Peptidyl chloromethane and sulphonium salts containing multiple Arg and Lys residues were synthesized as potential inhibitors of prohormone and pro-protein processing proteinases. The potencies of these compounds were assayed by measuring the kinetics of inactivation of the yeast Kex2 proteinase, the prototype of a growing family of eukaryotic precursor processing proteinases. The most potent inhibitor, Pro-Nvl-Tyr-Lys-Arg-chloromethane, was based on cleavage sites in the natural Kex2 substrate pro-alpha-factor. This inhibitor exhibited a Ki of 3.7 nM and a second-order inactivation rate constant (k2/Ki) of 1.3 x 10(7) M-1.s-1 comparable with the value of kcat./Km obtained with Kex2 for the corresponding peptidyl methylcoumarinylamide substrate. The enzyme exhibited sensitivity to the other peptidyl chloromethanes over a range of concentrations, depending on peptide sequence and alpha-amino decanoylation, but was completely resistant to peptidyl sulphonium salts. Kinetics of inactivation by these new inhibitors of a set of 'control' proteinases, including members of both the trypsin and subtilisin families, underscored the apparent specificity of the compounds most active against Kex2 proteinase. PMID:8328974

  16. Control of adenovirus E1B mRNA synthesis by a shift in the activities of RNA splice sites.

    PubMed Central

    Montell, C; Fisher, E F; Caruthers, M H; Berk, A J

    1984-01-01

    The primary transcript from adenovirus 2 early region 1B (E1B) is processed by differential RNA splicing into two overlapping mRNAs, 13S and 22S. The 22S mRNA is the major E1B mRNA during the early phase of infection, whereas the 13S mRNA predominates during the late phase. In previous work, it has been shown that this shift in proportions of the E1B mRNAs is influenced by increased cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA at late times in infection. Two observations presented here demonstrate that the increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA at late times is also regulated by a change in the specificity of RNA splicing. First, the relative concentrations of the 13S to 22S nuclear RNAs were not constant throughout infection but increased at late times. Secondly, studies with the mutant, adenovirus 2 pm2250 , provided evidence that there was an increased propensity to utilize a 5' splice in the region of the 13S 5' splice site at late times in infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 has a G----C transversion in the first base of E1B 13S mRNA intron preventing splicing of the 13S mRNA but not of the 22S mRNA. During the early phase of a pm2250 infection, the E1B primary transcripts were processed into the 22S mRNA only. However, during the late phase, when the 13S mRNA normally predominates, E1B primary transcripts were also processed by RNA splicing at two formerly unused or cryptic 5' splice sites. Both cryptic splice sites were located much closer to the disrupted 13S 5' splice site than to the 22S 5' splice site. Thus, the temporal increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA to the 22S mRNA is regulated by two processes, an increase in cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA and an increased propensity to utilize the 13S 5' splice site during the late phase of infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 was not defective for productive infection of HeLa cells or for transformation of rat cells. Images PMID:6727875

  17. The synthesis of peptidylfluoromethanes and their properties as inhibitors of serine proteinases and cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Rauber, P; Angliker, H; Walker, B; Shaw, E

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of peptidylfluoromethanes is described that utilizes the conversion of phthaloyl amino acids into their fluoromethane derivatives. These can be deblocked and elongated. The inactivation of chymotrypsin by Cbz-Phe-CH2F (benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylfluoromethane) was found to be considerably slower than that of the analogous chloromethane. The fluoromethane analogue inactivates chymotrypsin with an overall rate constant that is 2% of that observed for the inactivation of the enzyme with the chloromethane. However, the result is the same. The reagent complexes in a substrate-like manner, with Ki = 1.4 X 10(-4) M, and alkylates the active-centre histidine residue. Cbz-Phe-Phe-CH2F and Cbz-Phe-Ala-CH2F were investigated as inactivators of the cysteine proteinase cathepsin B. The difference in reactivity between fluoromethyl ketones and chloromethyl ketones is less pronounced in the case of the cysteine proteinase than for the serine proteinase. Covalent bond formation takes place in this case also, as demonstrated by the use of a radiolabelled reagent. PMID:3827817

  18. human adenoviruses role in ophthalmic pterygium formation

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Mishar; Kelishadi, Mandana; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Javid, Naeme; Bazouri, Masoud; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ophthalmic pterygium is a common benign lesion of unknown origin and the pathogenesis might be vision-threatening. This problem is often associated with exposure to solar light. Recent evidence suggests that potentially oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of pterygia. Expression of specific adenovirus genes such as E1A and E1B, which potentially have many functions, may contribute to their oncogenic activity as well as relevance to cellular immortalization. Objectives: For the first time, we aimed to investigate involvement of adenoviruses in pterygium formation. Patients and Methods: Fifty tissue specimens of pterygium from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (as cases), 50 conjunctival swab samples from the same patients and 10 conjunctival biopsy specimens from individuals without pterygium such as patients undergoing cataract surgery (as controls) were analyzed for evidence of adenovirus infection with polymerase chain reaction using specific primers chosen from the moderately conserved region of the hexon gene. Furthermore, β-globin primers were used to access the quality of extracted DNA. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 16) software. Results: Of 50 patients, 20 were men and 30 women with mean age of 61.1 ± 16.9 years ranged between 22 and 85 years. All samples of pterygia had positive results for adenoviruses DNA with polymerase chain reaction, but none of the negative control groups displayed adenoviruses. The pterygium group and the control groups were β-globin positive. Direct sequencing of PCR products confirmed Adenovirus infection. Conclusions: Adenoviruses might act as a possible cause of pterygium formation and other factors could play a synergistic role in the development. However, further larger studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26034543

  19. The thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L. II. The primary structure of proteinase omega.

    PubMed

    Dubois, T; Kleinschmidt, T; Schnek, A G; Looze, Y; Braunitzer, G

    1988-08-01

    The complete primary structure of the proteinase omega isolated from the latex of the Carica papaya fruits is given. The polypeptide chain contains 216 amino-acid residues, the alignment of which was deduced from sequence analyses of the native enzyme, the tryptic, chymotryptic, peptic and thermolysinolytic peptides and facilitated due to the considerable degree of homology with papain and actinidin. The location of the three disulfide bridges could be established with the help of peptic and thermolysinolytic fragments. Proteinase omega shares 148 identical amino-acid residues (68.5%) with papain and 108 ones (50%) with actinidin, including the three disulfide bridges and the free cysteine residue required for activity, as well as most of the other amino-acid residues involved in the catalytic mechanism and two thirds of the glycine residues which are of structural significance. The homology with other cysteine proteinases of different origin is discussed. PMID:3063283

  20. Actin-resistant DNAse I Expression From Oncolytic Adenovirus Enadenotucirev Enhances Its Intratumoral Spread and Reduces Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Tedcastle, Alison; Illingworth, Sam; Brown, Alice; Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2016-04-01

    Spread of oncolytic viruses through tumor tissue is essential to effective virotherapy. Interstitial matrix is thought to be a significant barrier to virus particle convection between "islands" of tumor cells. One way to address this is to encode matrix-degrading enzymes within oncolytic viruses, for secretion from infected cells. To test the hypothesis that extracellular DNA provides an important barrier, we assessed the ability of DNase to promote virus spread. Nonreplicating Ad5 vectors expressing actin-resistant DNase (aDNAse I), proteinase K (PK), hyaluronidase (rhPH20), and chondroitinase ABC (CABC) were injected into established DLD human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts, transcomplemented with a replicating Ad5 virus. Each enzyme improved oncolysis by the replicating adenovirus, with no evidence of tumor cells being shed into the bloodstream. aDNAse I and rhPH20 hyaluronidase were then cloned into conditionally-replicating group B adenovirus, Enadenotucirev (EnAd). EnAd encoding each enzyme showed significantly better antitumor efficacy than the parental virus, with the aDNAse I-expressing virus showing improved spread. Both DNase and hyaluronidase activity was still measurable 32 days postinfection. This is the first time that extracellular DNA has been implicated as a barrier for interstitial virus spread, and suggests that oncolytic viruses expressing aDNAse I may be promising candidates for clinical translation. PMID:26708004

  1. Characterization of cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) in eggs and larvae stages of hookworm Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Qin, Weiwen; Wei, Hua; Ying, Jianxi; Zhen, Jing

    2011-11-01

    Cathepsin B proteinase constitutes a large multigenes family in parasitic and non-parasitic nematodes. The localization of cathepsin B proteinases (AcCP-1 and AcCP-2) in adult worm of Ancylostoma caninum has been characterized (Harrop et al., 1995), but the localization and function in eggs and larval stages remained undiscovered. Here we described the expressing of cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) in Escherichia coli, and immuno-localization of cathepsin B proteinase in eggs and larvae stages of A. caninum. A cDNA fragment encoding a cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) was cloned from A. caninum and expressed in E. coli. Gelatin digestion showed that recombinant cathepsin B proteinase (AcCP-2) has protease activity. The protein level of cathepsin B proteinase in larval and adult worm was detected by western blot. The immuno-localization of cathepsin B proteinase in eggs and larval stages was characterized. The expression of cathepsin B proteinase was more abundant in eggs and larvae stages of A. caninum. It implied that cathepsin B proteinase might play roles in the early development of A. caninum. PMID:21925175

  2. The thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L. I. Fractionation, purification and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Dubois, T; Jacquet, A; Schnek, A G; Looze, Y

    1988-08-01

    Three thiol proteinases, namely papain, chymopapain and proteinase omega were purified to homogeneity from the latex of Carica papaya L. During the purification procedure, the thiol function of the cysteinyl residues were protected either as mixed disulfides with cysteamine or 2-thiopyridone or as S-sulphenylthiosulfate derivative or after blocking with p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. In marked contrast with earlier publications, chymopapain also was found to be a monothiol proteinase as papain and proteinase omega. The active sites of chymopapain and proteinase omega could not be distinguished from that of papain neither by the analysis of the pH dependence of kcat/Km nor by the examination of the pH dependence of the fluorescence emission spectra. PMID:3214554

  3. Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, W G; Semler, B L

    1993-01-01

    Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that permit them to function in a cellular environment. In this article, the current status of plant and animal virus proteinases is described along with their role in the viral replication cycle. The reactions catalyzed by viral proteinases are not simple enzyme-substrate interactions; rather, the processing steps are highly regulated, are coordinated with other viral processes, and frequently involve the participation of other factors. Images PMID:8302216

  4. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase specific to human C3b from human erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Charriaut, C.; Krikorian, L.; Barel, M.; Frade, R.

    1986-03-05

    In a previous report, they have shown that human C3b bound through CR1 to human erythrocytes is cleaved by a membrane proteinase activity. Following the molecular analysis of this proteinase activity, they have purified it by a four step procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, biogel filtration, fluid phase electrophoresis and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The highly purified proteinase was labeled by /sup 125/I iodine or /sup 3/H-DFP and analyzed by gel electrophoresis: a single band membrane component was characterized by its apparent molecular weight of 57 K or 60 K, under non reducing or reducing conditions respectively and was called p 57. Its reactivity with /sup 3/H-DFP and the inhibition by PMSF of the proteinase activity indicate that p 57 is a serine proteinase. Moreover, it is sensitive to aprotinin and ..gamma..1-antitrypsin. This membrane proteinase presents a higher activity in the presence of detergent and cleaves both alpha and beta chains of human C3b. Polyclonal antibody prepared against this purified proteinase inhibits its activity. On the basis of its structure and its functions, i.e. molecular weight, antigenic properties, proteinase properties and proteinases inhibitors sensitivity, p57 is not related to CR1 or DAF, two others membrane components which react with human C3b and identified by others on human erythrocytes. These specific antibodies allow to analyze the presence of p57 on human cells.

  5. Characteristics of Noncultivable Adenoviruses Associated with Diarrhea in Infants: A New Subgroup of Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gary, G. William; Hierholzer, John C.; Black, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Virus particles morphologically resembling adenovirus were found in fecal specimens from infants and were examined for cultivability with standard cell culture techniques and for characteristics of human adenoviruses. Specimens from 13 of 15 infants could not be cultivated in cell cultures. The two adenoviruses that were cultivated, types 1 and 31, reacted in the expected manner in all tests. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis with group-specific anti-hexon serum confirmed that the observed particles in the 15 specimens were human adenoviruses. The buoyant density in sucrose of five of the noncultivable adenoviruses in original stool suspensions averaged 1.335 g/cm3 and that of the two cultivable ones averaged 1.332 g/cm3; both groups had typical adenovirus morphology by electron microscopy. Treatment of the specimens and of a variety of tissue culture cells with proteolytic and other enzymes did not improve cultivability. Examination of partially purified virus by immunoelectron microscopy did not reveal evidence of immunoglobulin A, G, or M coating on the particles, an indication that coproantibody inhibition was not the cause of noncultivability. Fluorescent-antibody studies with an antihexon conjugate and counterimmunoelectrophoresis studies of serially passaged noncultivable viruses indicated that the viruses are infecting cells but are not undergoing effective replication. Antisera to three of the noncultivable viruses demonstrated homologous reactions in counterimmunoelectrophoresis with the respective immunizing antigens but showed only low levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing activity to a few of the known human adenoviruses. We concluded that the noncultivable viruses in these infant diarrhea cases were indeed human adenoviruses, were not defective particles, were not bound to coproantibody, were infectious but incapable of effective relication in conventional cell cultures, were serologically related to types 11, 17, 32, and 33, and should be

  6. Properties of the adenovirus IVa2 gene product, an effector of late-phase-dependent activation of the major late promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, P; Kedinger, C

    1996-01-01

    The adenovirus major late promoter is strongly activated after the onset of viral DNA replication. Sequence elements located downstream of the major later promoter start site have previously been shown to be essential for this activation. Two proteins (DEF-A and DEF-B) bind to these elements in a late-phase-dependent manner. DEF-B has been identified as the product of adenovirus intermediate gene IVa2 (pIVa2) (C. Tribouley, P. Lutz, A. Staub, and C. Kedinger, J. Virol. 68:4450-4457, 1994). Here we show that pIVa2, while monomeric in solution, binds to its recognition sequence as a dimer and that two 20-residue amphipathic alpha helices play an essential role in this DNA-binding activity. Attempts to purify DEF-A have failed, but its chromatographic behavior, together with its immunological properties, established that pIVa2 is also a component of this heteromeric protein. In addition, the time course of pIVa2 synthesis during infection correlated with simultaneous detection of the binding of both DEF-A and DEF-B complexes to the downstream elements. Finally, as revealed by immunomicroscopy, pIVa2 is targeted to the nucleus, where it distributes to restricted locations in the nucleoplasm, as well as to the nucleoli. Altogether, these results demonstrate that pIVa2 plays a critical role in the transition from the early to the late phase of the lytic cycle. Furthermore, pIVa2 may serve additional functions yet to be uncovered, as suggested by its presence within the cell nucleolus. PMID:8627656

  7. Characterization of the hepatitis C virus-encoded serine proteinase: determination of proteinase-dependent polyprotein cleavage sites.

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, A; McCourt, D W; Wychowski, C; Feinstone, S M; Rice, C M

    1993-01-01

    Processing of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) H strain polyprotein yields at least nine distinct cleavage products: NH2-C-E1-E2-NS2-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-CO OH. As described in this report, site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression analyses were used to study the role of a putative serine proteinase domain, located in the N-terminal one-third of the NS3 protein, in proteolytic processing of HCV polyproteins. All four cleavages which occur C terminal to the proteinase domain (3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B) were abolished by substitution of alanine for either of two predicted residues (His-1083 and Ser-1165) in the proteinase catalytic triad. However, such substitutions have no observable effect on cleavages in the structural region or at the 2/3 site. Deletion analyses suggest that the structural and NS2 regions of the polyprotein are not required for the HCV NS3 proteinase activity. NS3 proteinase-dependent cleavage sites were localized by N-terminal sequence analysis of NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B. Sequence comparison of the residues flanking these cleavage sites for all sequenced HCV strains reveals conserved residues which may play a role in determining HCV NS3 proteinase substrate specificity. These features include an acidic residue (Asp or Glu) at the P6 position, a Cys or Thr residue at the P1 position, and a Ser or Ala residue at the P1' position. Images PMID:8386278

  8. Secreted Aspartic Proteinase Family of Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Zaugg, Christophe; Borg-von Zepelin, Margarete; Reichard, Utz; Sanglard, Dominique; Monod, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Medically important yeasts of the genus Candida secrete aspartic proteinases (Saps), which are of particular interest as virulence factors. Like Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis secretes in vitro one dominant Sap (Sapt1p) in a medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole source of nitrogen. Using the gene SAPT1 as a probe and under low-stringency hybridization conditions, three new closely related gene sequences, SAPT2 to SAPT4, encoding secreted proteinases were cloned from a C. tropicalis λEMBL3 genomic library. All bands identified by Southern blotting of EcoRI-digested C. tropicalis genomic DNA with SAPT1 could be assigned to a specific SAP gene. Therefore, the SAPT gene family of C. tropicalis is likely to contain only four members. Interestingly, the SAPT2 and SAPT3 gene products, Sapt2p and Sapt3p, which have not yet been detected in C. tropicalis cultures in vitro, were produced as active recombinant enzymes with the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression system. As expected, reverse transcriptase PCR experiments revealed a strong SAPT1 signal with RNA extracted from cells grown in BSA medium. However, a weak signal was obtained with all other SAPT genes under several conditions tested, showing that these SAPT genes could be expressed at a basic level. Together, these experiments suggest that the gene products Sapt2p, Sapt3p, and Sapt4p could be produced under conditions yet to be described in vitro or during infection. PMID:11119531

  9. Identification and characterization of cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S C; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Tatu, U; Singh, R K; Gupta, A K

    2011-09-01

    Trypanosoma evansi is a causative agent of 'surra', a common haemoprotozoan disease of livestock in India causing high morbidity and mortality in disease endemic areas. The proteinases released by live and dead trypanosomes entail immunosuppression in the infected host, which immensely contribute in disease pathogenesis. Cysteine proteinases are identified in the infectious cycle of trypanosomes such as cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi, rhodesain or brucipain from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and congopain from Trypanosoma congelense. These enzymes localised in lysosome-like organelles, flagellar pocket and on cell surface, which play a critical role in the life cycle of protozoan parasites, viz. in host invasion, nutrition and alteration of the host immune response. The paper describes the identification of cysteine proteinases of T. evansi lysate, activity profile at different pH optima and inhibition pattern using a specific inhibitor, besides the polypeptide profile of an antigen. Eight proteinases of T. evansi were identified in the molecular weight (MW) ranges of 28-170 kDa using gelatin substrate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (GS-PAGE), and of these proteinases, six were cysteine proteinases, as they were inhibited by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-lecuylamido (4-guanidino)-butane (E-64), a specific inhibitor. These proteolytic enzymes were most reactive in acidic pH between 3.0 and 5.5 in the presence of dithiothreitol and completely inactive at alkaline pH 10.0. Similarly, the GS-PAGE profile of the serum samples of rats infected with T. evansi revealed strong proteolytic activity only at the 28-kDa zone at pH 5.5, while no proteolytic activity was observed in serum samples of uninfected rats. Further, the other zones of clearance, which were evident in T. evansi antigen zymogram, could not be observed in the serum samples of rats infected with T. evansi. The polypeptide pattern of the whole cell lysate antigen revealed 12-15 polypeptide bands

  10. α-1-Antitrypsin variants and the proteinase/antiproteinase imbalance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Sinden, Nicola J.; Baker, Michael J.; Smith, David J.; Kreft, Jan-Ulrich; Dafforn, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The excessive activities of the serine proteinases neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 are associated with tissue damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduced concentrations and/or inhibitory efficiency of the main circulating serine proteinase inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin result from point mutations in its gene. In addition, α-2-macroglobulin competes with α-1-antitrypsin for proteinases, and the α-2-macroglobulin-sequestered enzyme can retain its catalytic activity. We have studied how serine proteinases partition between these inhibitors and the effects of α-1-antitrypsin mutations on this partitioning. Subsequently, we have developed a three-dimensional reaction-diffusion model to describe events occurring in the lung interstitium when serine proteinases diffuse from the neutrophil azurophil granule following degranulation and subsequently bind to either α-1-antitrypsin or α-2-macroglobulin. We found that the proteinases remained uninhibited on the order of 0.1 s after release and diffused on the order of 10 μm into the tissue before becoming sequestered. We have shown that proteinases sequestered to α-2-macroglobulin retain their proteolytic activity and that neutrophil elastase complexes with α-2-macroglobulin are able to degrade elastin. Although neutrophil elastase is implicated in the pathophysiology of emphysema, our results highlight a potentially important role for proteinase 3 because of its greater concentration in azurophil granules, its reduced association rate constant with all α-1-antitrypsin variants studied here, its greater diffusion distance, time spent uninhibited following degranulation, and its greater propensity to partition to α-2-macroglobulin where it retains proteolytic activity. PMID:25416382

  11. Short-term variability of biomarkers of proteinase activity in patients with emphysema associated with type Z alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Jan; Veldhuisen, Barbara; Annovazzi, Laura; Zanone, Chiara; Versteeg, Elly M; van Kuppevelt, Toine H; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem; Iadarola, Paolo; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The burden of proteinases from inflammatory cells in the lung of subjects with type Pi ZZ of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is higher than in those without the deficiency. Cross-sectional studies have shown increased levels of biomarkers of extracellular matrix degradation in vivo. Longitudinal variability of these biomarkers is unknown but desirable for clinical studies with proteinase inhibitors. Methods We measured three different types of biomarkers, including desmosines, elastase-formed fibrinogen fragments and heparan sulfate epitope JM403, in plasma and urine for a period of 7 weeks in a group of 12 patients who participated in a placebo-controlled study to assess the safety of a single inhalation of hyaluronic acid. Results Effect of study medication on any of the biomarkers was not seen. Baseline desmosines in plasma and urine correlated with baseline CO diffusion capacity (R = 0.81, p = 0.01 and R = 0.65, p = 0.05). Mean coefficient of variation within patients (CVi) for plasma and urine desmosines was 18.7 to 13.5%, respectively. Change in urinary desmosine levels correlated significantly with change in plasma desmosine levels (R = 0.84, p < 0.01). Mean CVi for fibrinogen fragments in plasma was 20.5% and for JM403 in urine was 27.8%. No correlations were found between fibrinogen fragments or JM403 epitope and desmosines. Conclusion We found acceptable variability in our study parameters, indicating the feasibility of their use in an evaluation of biochemical efficacy of alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in Pi Z subjects. PMID:15927063

  12. Basis for the Specificity and Activation of the Serpin Protein Z-dependent Proteinase Inhibitor (ZPI) as an Inhibitor of Membrane-associated Factor Xa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Dementiev, Alexey; Olson, Steven T.; Gettins, Peter G.W.

    2012-12-13

    The serpin ZPI is a protein Z (PZ)-dependent specific inhibitor of membrane-associated factor Xa (fXa) despite having an unfavorable P1 Tyr. PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction {approx}2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca{sup 2+}. To elucidate the role of PZ, we determined the x-ray structure of Gla-domainless PZ (PZ{sub {Delta}GD}) complexed with protein Z-dependent proteinase inhibitor (ZPI). The PZ pseudocatalytic domain bound ZPI at a novel site through ionic and polar interactions. Mutation of four ZPI contact residues eliminated PZ binding and membrane-dependent PZ acceleration of fXa inhibition. Modeling of the ternary Michaelis complex implicated ZPI residues Glu-313 and Glu-383 in fXa binding. Mutagenesis established that only Glu-313 is important, contributing {approx}5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. Limited conformational change in ZPI resulted from PZ binding, which contributed only {approx}2-fold to rate enhancement. Instead, template bridging from membrane association, together with previously demonstrated interaction of the fXa and ZPI Gla domains, resulted in an additional {approx}1000-fold rate enhancement. To understand why ZPI has P1 tyrosine, we examined a P1 Arg variant. This reacted at a diffusion-limited rate with fXa, even without PZ, and predominantly as substrate, reflecting both rapid acylation and deacylation. P1 tyrosine thus ensures that reaction with fXa or most other arginine-specific proteinases is insignificant unless PZ binds and localizes ZPI and fXa on the membrane, where the combined effects of Gla-Gla interaction, template bridging, and interaction of fXa with Glu-313 overcome the unfavorability of P1 Tyr and ensure a high rate of reaction as an inhibitor.

  13. Sensitive, hydrosoluble, macromolecular fluorogenic substrates for human immunodeficiency virus 1 proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Anjuère, F; Monsigny, M; Lelièvre, Y; Mayer, R

    1993-01-01

    Hydrosoluble macromolecular fluorogenic substrates specific for the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) proteinase have been prepared. The fluoresceinyl peptide Ftc-epsilon-Ahx-Ser-Phe-Asn-Phe-Pro-Gln-Ile-Thr-(Gly)n, corresponding to the first cleavage site of HIV-1 gag-pol native precursor was linked to a water-soluble neutral (Lys)n derivative. The epsilon-aminohexanoyl residue (epsilon-Ahx) and the glycyl sequence were added in order to improve the stability of the substrate and the accessibility of the cleavage site to the HIV-1 proteinase respectively. This macro-molecular peptidic-substrate conjugate is significantly more water-soluble than the free peptide itself on a substrate molar concentration basis. The assay is based on the quantitative precipitation of the polymeric material by adding propan-2-ol whereas the fluorescent peptide moiety released upon proteolysis remains soluble in the supernatant. The proteinase activity is assessed by measuring the fluorescence of the supernatant. This assay allows the detection of a few fmol of HIV-1 proteinase, even in the presence of cell culture media, plasma or cell lysate and it gives accurate results within a large proteinase concentration range. The hydrosoluble macromolecular substrate is also suitable for determining the HIV-1 proteinase activity using 96-well microplates, allowing us to test accurately and rapidly numerous enzyme samples and/or the potency of new proteinase inhibitors. PMID:8489513

  14. Structure of human adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S.

    2012-07-11

    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  15. Limited proteolysis by macrophage elastase inactivities human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, M.J.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Ever since the initial description of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor (..cap alpha../sub 1/PI), the role of this plasma glycoprotein and its allelic polymorphism in disease and in healthy physiology has been the subject of much investigation, ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI inactivates a number of serine proteinases, including granulocyte elastase, and thus affords protection from the connective tissue degradation mediated by this class of proteinases. Because an imbalance in the ratio between ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI and proteinase may contribute to the development of destructive lung diseases, proteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been implicated in disruption of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance. In this report, a new mechanism for alteration of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance is demonstrated. It was found that the purified form of macrophage elastase catalytically degrades and inactivates ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI so that it no longer inhibits the elastinolytic activity of granulocyte elastase.

  16. Reactive oxygen species and anti-proteinases.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Tooba; Zia, Mohammad Khalid; Ali, Syed Saqib; Rehman, Ahmed Abdur; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Fahim Halim

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause damage to macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and DNA and alters their structure and function. When generated outside the cell, ROS can induce damage to anti-proteinases. Anti-proteinases are proteins that are involved in the control and regulation of proteolytic enzymes. The damage caused to anti-proteinase barrier disturbs the proteinase-anti-proteinases balance and uncontrolled proteolysis at the site of injury promotes tissue damage. Studies have shown that ROS damages anti-proteinase shield of the body by inactivating key members such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-antitrypsin. Hypochlorous acid inactivates α-1-antitrypsin by oxidizing a critical reactive methionine residue. Superoxide and hypochlorous acid are physiological inactivators of alpha-2-macroglobulin. The damage to anti-proteinase barrier induced by ROS is a hallmark of diseases such as atherosclerosis, emphysema and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, understanding the behaviour of ROS-induced damage to anti-proteinases may helps us in development of strategies that could control these inflammatory reactions and diseases. PMID:26699123

  17. Kinetic analysis of papaya proteinase omega.

    PubMed

    Sumner, I G; Vaughan, A; Eisenthal, R; Pickersgill, R W; Owen, A J; Goodenough, P W

    1993-08-01

    Papaya proteinase omega (pp omega) has been purified from dried latex both by immunoaffinity and traditional methods. Kinetic analysis revealed that (1), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide (BApNA) has a lower specificity (kcat/Km) than the same reaction catalysed by papain; (2), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of a tripeptide substrate having phenylalanine at the second position (S2-site) showed a more similar specificity to that catalysed by papain; (3), the significant difference between the two enzymes is that steady state kinetics with both L-BApNA and a tripeptide enables the identification in pp omega of other ionizations affecting binding. The active sites of papain and pp omega can therefore be distinguished by pH-dependence of kcat/Km. PMID:8393709

  18. Oncolytic adenovirus and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy results in synergistic antitumor activity against soft-tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Siurala, Mikko; Bramante, Simona; Vassilev, Lotta; Hirvinen, Mari; Parviainen, Suvi; Tähtinen, Siri; Guse, Kilian; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Kanerva, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-02-15

    Despite originating from several different tissues, soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are often grouped together as they share mesenchymal origin and treatment guidelines. Also, with some exceptions, a common denominator is that when the tumor cannot be cured with surgery, the efficacy of current therapies is poor and new treatment modalities are thus needed. We have studied the combination of a capsid-modified oncolytic adenovirus CGTG-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF) with doxorubicin, with or without ifosfamide, the preferred first-line chemotherapeutic options for most types of STS. We show that CGTG-102 and doxorubicin plus ifosfamide together are able to increase cell killing of Syrian hamster STS cells over single agents, as well as upregulate immunogenic cell death markers. When tested in vivo against established STS tumors in fully immunocompetent Syrian hamsters, the combination was highly effective. CGTG-102 and doxorubicin (without ifosfamide) resulted in synergistic antitumor efficacy against human STS xenografts in comparison with single agent treatments. Doxorubicin increased adenoviral replication in human and hamster STS cells, potentially contributing to the observed therapeutic synergy. In conclusion, the preclinical data generated here support clinical translation of the combination of CGTG-102 and doxorubicin, or doxorubicin plus ifosfamide, for the treatment of STS, and provide clues on the mechanisms of synergy. PMID:24975392

  19. The oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD in combination with cisplatin exerts a potent anti-osteosarcoma activity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velez, Naiara; Xipell, Enric; Jauregui, Patricia; Zalacain, Marta; Marrodan, Lucía; Zandueta, Carolina; Vera, Beatriz; Urquiza, Leire; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Julián, Mikel San; Toledo, Gemma; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Torre, Wensceslao; Lecanda, Fernando; Patiño-García, Ana; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The presence of metastases and the lack of response to conventional treatment are the major adverse prognostic factors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatment strategies that overcome both of these problems. Our purpose was to elucidate whether the use of the oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy would be effective, in vitro and in vivo, against osteosarcoma. Our results showed that Δ24-RGD exerted a potent antitumor effect against osteosarcoma cell lines that was increased by the addition of cisplatin. Δ24-RGD osteosarcoma treatment resulted in autophagy in vitro that was further enhanced when combined with cisplatin. Of importance, administration of Δ24-RGD and/or cisplatin, in novel orthotopic and two lung metastatic models in vivo resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden meanwhile maintaining a safe toxicity profile. Together, our data underscore the potential of Δ24-RGD to become a realistic therapeutic option for primary and metastatic pediatric osteosarcoma. Moreover, this study warrants a future clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Δ24-RGD for this devastating disease. PMID:24737304

  20. Synergistic antitumor activity of triple-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with VSTM1 and daunorubicin in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Yao, Qiu-Mei; Li, Jin-Lan; Chang, Yan; Li, Ting; Han, Wen-Ling; Wu, Hong-Ping; Li, Lin-Fang; Qian, Qi-Jun; Ruan, Guo-Rui

    2016-10-01

    V-set and transmembrane domain-containing 1 (VSTM1), which is downregulated in bone marrow cells from leukemia patients, may provide a diagnostic and treatment target. Here, a triple-regulated oncolytic adenovirus was constructed to carry a VSTM1 gene expression cassette, SG611-VSTM1, and contained the E1a gene with a 24-nucleotide deletion within the CR2 region under control of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, E1b gene directed by the hypoxia response element, and VSTM1 gene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses showed that SG611-VSTM1 expressed VSTM1 highly efficiently in the human leukemic cell line K562 compared with SG611. In Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometric assays, SG611-VSTM1 exhibited more potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in leukemic cells compared with SG611 and exerted synergistic cytotoxicity with low-dose daunorubicin (DNR) in vitro. In xenograft models, SG611-VSTM1 intratumorally injected at a dose of 1 × 10(9) plaque forming units combined with intraperitoneally injected low-dose DNR displayed significantly stronger antitumor effects than either treatment alone. Histopathologic examination revealed that SG611-VSTM1 induced apoptosis of leukemic cells. These results implicate an important role for VSTM1 in the pathogenesis of leukemia, and SG611-VSTM1 may be a promising agent for enhancing chemosensitivity in leukemia therapy. PMID:27472927

  1. Differential activation of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes by the polyomavirus enhancer and the adenovirus E1A gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, S L; Folk, W R

    1985-01-01

    We have compared the effect of the polyomavirus cis-acting transcriptional enhancer and the adenovirus trans-acting E1A gene on expression of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes (the adenovirus VAI gene and a bacterial tRNA gene) using DNA transfection and transient expression assays. The polyomavirus enhancer has little effect upon transcription of the VAI gene by RNA polymerase III in any cell type tested (murine, hamster, or human). In contrast, expression of the E1A gene within adenovirus infected cells stimulates transcription of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes from co-transfected DNAs. Human 293 cells, which constitutively produce adenovirus E1A gene products, also express high levels of RNA polymerase III transcripts from transfected DNAs. Images PMID:2987823

  2. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated inhibition of TNFα-stimulated JNK activation — A novel paradigm for Gq/11 linked GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Kathryn; Cunningham, Margaret R.; Cadalbert, Laurence; Lockhart, John; Boyd, Gary; Ferrell, W.R.; Plevin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the potential for PAR2 and TNFα to synergise at the level of MAP kinase signalling in PAR2 expressing NCTC2544 cells. However, to our surprise we found that activation of PAR2 by trypsin or the specific activating peptide SLIGKV-OH strongly inhibited both the phosphorylation and activity of JNK. In contrast neither p38 MAP kinase nor ERK activation was affected although TNFα stimulated IκBα loss was partially reversed. The inhibitory effect was not observed in parental cells nor in cells expressing PAR4, however inhibition was reversed by pre-incubation with the novel PAR2 antagonist K14585, suggesting that the effect is specific for PAR2 activation. SLIGKV-OH was found to be more potent in inhibiting TNFα-induced JNK activation than in stimulating JNK alone, suggesting agonist-directed signalling. The PKC activator PMA, also mimicked the inhibitory effect of SLIGKV-OH, and the effects of both agents were reversed by pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Furthermore, incubation with the novel Gq/11 inhibitor YM25480 also reversed PAR2 mediated inhibition. Activation of PAR2 was found to disrupt TNFR1 binding to RIP and TRADD and this was reversed by both GF109203X and YM25480. A similar mode of inhibition observed in HUVECs through PAR2 or P2Y2 receptors demonstrates the potential of a novel paradigm for GPCRs linked to Gq/11, in mediating inhibition of TNFα-stimulated JNK activation. This has important implications in assessing the role of GPCRs in inflammation and other conditions. PMID:19781631

  3. The CR1 and CR3 domains of the adenovirus type 5 E1A proteins can independently mediate activation of ATF-2.

    PubMed Central

    Duyndam, M C; van Dam, H; van der Eb, A J; Zantema, A

    1996-01-01

    The adenovirus 12S E1A protein can stimulate the activity of the c-jun promoter through a conserved region 1 (CR1)-dependent mechanism. The effect is mediated by two AP-1/ATF-like elements, jun1 and jun2, that preferentially bind c-Jun-ATF-2 heterodimers. In this study, we show that the ATF-2 component of the c-Jun-ATF-2 heterodimer is the primary target for 12S E1A: 12S E1A can enhance the transactivating activity of the N terminus of ATF-2 when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, whereas the transactivating activity of the c-Jun N terminus is not significantly affected. Activation of the ATF-2 N terminus by 12S E1A is dependent on CR1. In the context of the 13S E1A protein, CR1 and CR3 can both contribute to activation of ATF-2, and their relative contributions are dependent on the cell type. In contrast to activation of ATF-2 by stress-inducing agents, CR1-dependent activation of ATF-2 was found not to depend strictly on the presence of threonines 69 and 71 in the N terminus of ATF-2, which are targets for phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs). In agreement with this observation, we did not observe phosphorylation of threonines 69 and 71 or constitutively enhanced SAPK activity in E1A- plus E1B-transformed cell lines. These data suggest that CR1-dependent activation of ATF-2 by 12S E1A does not require phosphorylation of threonines 69 and 71 by SAPK. PMID:8709204

  4. Insect cell production of a secreted form of human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor as a bifunctional protein which inhibits neutrophil elastase and has growth factor-like activities.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Heather; Sandoval, Carolyn; Oblin, Colette; Difalco, Marcos R; Congote, L Fernando

    2002-01-31

    alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (API) is a potential therapeutic agent in all diseases in which elastase released by neutrophils has to be effectively neutralized. We ligated the cDNA of human API to the C-terminal section of an insulin-like growth factor II analogue (BOMIGF), known to be properly folded and secreted in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The BOMIGF-API chimera was recovered from the incubation medium of the infected cells. It shared the properties of both IGFs and API. It inhibited neutrophil elastase and formed SDS-stable complexes with the enzyme. The attachment of the large API protein to the C-terminal end of the 10 kDa IGF analogue did not destroy the IGF-mediated stimulation of thymidine incorporation into bovine fetal erythroid cells. We tested the capacity of the chimera to affect fibronectin-dependent TF-1 cell migration. BOMIGF-API significantly restored TF-1 cell migration in the presence of elastase, which is the enzyme of burn wound fluid most probably involved in fibronectin degradation. Some of the beneficial uses for this chimera may include all instances for which inhibition of elastase-mediated extracellular matrix destruction as well as stimulation of cell migration and proliferation are required for tissue repair. PMID:11690693

  5. Gel Electrophoretic Profiles of Proteinases in Dark-Germinated Flax Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Shahid; Reddy, V. Manoranjan; Rhodes, W. Gale; McFadden, Bruce A.

    1984-01-01

    The proteinases present in dark-germinated flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) were studied as a function of germination at 25°C. A majority of activity was present in basic proteinases with an acidic pH optimum and a temperature optimum of 45°C in the digestion of hemoglobin. Electrophoresis in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide mixture which had been polymerized with gelatin was used to separate proteins in extracts of seedlings. Subsequent activation of proteinases with Triton X-100 and resultant digestion of gelatin proved to be very reproducible and afforded detection and good quantification of various proteinase zones. An ethylenediaminetetraacetate-sensitive proteinase zone, P4 (about 60,000 daltons), appeared at day 3 after imbibition and attained maximum activity at day 4. This correlates with a rapid loss in vivo of the glyoxysomal enzyme, isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1). Ethylenediaminetetraacetate also slowed the loss of isocitrate lyase activity in extracts of 4-day seedlings in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of leupeptin, α-tolylsulfonyl fluoride, Pepstatin A, p-chloromercuribenzoate, or 1,10-phenanthroline prior to, during, or after exchange of Triton X-100 for sodium dodecyl sulfate had almost no inhibitory effect upon proteinases in 4-day seedlings. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16663914

  6. Successive Use of Non-Host Plant Proteinase Inhibitors Required for Effective Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Gut Proteinases and Larval Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Harsulkar, Abhay M.; Giri, Ashok P.; Patankar, Aparna G.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Sainani, Mohini N.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  7. New human adenovirus isolated from a renal transplant recipient: description and characterization of candiate adenovirus type 34.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Atuk, N O; Gwaltney, J M

    1975-01-01

    An antigenically distinct adenovirus is described which was isolated in March 1972 from the urine of a 17-year-old Caucasian male who was experiencing fever after receiving a kidney transplant from a cadaver in February. The adenovirus could not be isolated in April from a pharyngeal swab which yielded cytomegalovirus. Complement-fixation, hemagglutination-inhibition, and/or serum-neutralization tests on sequential serum specimens from the patient confirmed that the adenovirus infection occurred during March and showed that infections with cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus also occurred during late March and April. The patient's persistent fever, for which other causes could not be found, may have been associated with one or more of these infections. Upper respiratory symptoms and lung involvement were not found during this period. Mild liver dysfunction during this time could not be clearly related to adenovirus infection because of the presence of multiple other causes. The adenovirus may have been latent in the donor kidney and become active in the new host as a consequence of immunological impairment. The adenovirus, purified by terminal dilution and plaque procedures, has antigenic, morphological, biophysical, host susceptibility, and hemagglutinating properties characteristic of adenovirus group IA. Buoyant densities in CsCl are 1.340 g/ml for the virion, 1.304 g/ml for the group CF antigen (hexon), 1.295 g/ml for the major soluble complete hemagglutinin (dodecon), and 1.206 g/ml for the minor soluble complete hemagglutinin (tentatively, fiber dimer). The virus does not cross-react in reciprocal hemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralization tests with antisera to adenovirus types 1 to 33. We propose this virus as candidate adenovirus type 34 (Compton). Images PMID:170313

  8. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen). PMID:17205798

  9. Ozone inactivation of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1980-06-01

    Ozone decreased the trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activities of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor both in plasma and in solutions of the pure inhibitor. The total loss of porcine elastase inhibitory activity required 18 mol of ozone/mol of pure alpha 1-PI and approximately 850 mol of ozone/mol of alpha 1-PI in plasma. A corresponding loss of the ability to inhibit human leukocyte elastase was observed. Inactivated alpha 1-PI contains four residues of methionine sulfoxide, in addition to oxidized tryosine and tryptophan. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated that the ozone-inactivated alpha 1-PI did not form normal complexes with serine proteinases. These findings suggest that the inhalation of ozone could inactivate alpha 1-PI on the airspace side of the lung to create a localized alpha 1-PI deficiency, which might contribute to the development of emphysema.

  10. Isolation of two plant proteinases in latex from Carica candamarcensis acting as mitogens for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Mello, Vanessa J; Rodrigues, Kelly C; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Lopes, Miriam T P; Faça, Vitor M; Salas, Carlos E

    2005-03-01

    In a prior study we showed evidence that latex from Carica candamarcensis contains a protein fraction that stimulates mammalian cell proliferation. In this report we describe the isolation of two proteinases responsible for this effect. Both proteinases (P1, P2) display a relative mass of 23 kDa and following chromatographic purification stimulate proliferation of fibroblastic and epithelial cells. P2 added to L929 fibroblasts at 2.5 nM enhances proliferation by 60 %. We further demonstrate that its cellular effect is linked to an increase in activity of Erk2, a component of the MAP kinase pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first known plant proteinase to exert a proliferative effect in mammalian cells. This novel mitogenic property attributed to a purified cysteine proteinase may explain some of the therapeutic actions attributed to these enzymes. PMID:15770545

  11. Adenovirus-mediated FIR demonstrated TP53-independent cell-killing effect and enhanced antitumor activity of carbon-ion beams.

    PubMed

    Kano, M; Matsushita, K; Rahmutulla, B; Yamada, S; Shimada, H; Kubo, S; Hiwasa, T; Matsubara, H; Nomura, F

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy of carbon-ion beam with the far upstream element-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor, FIR, which interferes with DNA damage repair proteins, was proposed as an approach for esophageal cancer treatment with low side effects regardless of TP53 status. In vivo therapeutic antitumor efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus (E1 and E3 deleted adenovirus serotype 5) encoding human FIR cDNA (Ad-FIR) was demonstrated in the tumor xenograft model of human esophageal squamous cancer cells, TE-2. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer agent that introduces DNA breaks. The authors reported that Ad-FIR involved in the BLM-induced DNA damage repair response and thus applicable for other DNA damaging agents. To examine the effect of Ad-FIR on DNA damage repair, BLM, X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation were used as DNA damaging agents. The biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy used with carbon-ion irradiation are more expansive than low-LET conventional radiotherapy, such as X-rays or γ rays. High LET radiotherapy is suitable for the local control of tumors because of its high relative biological effectiveness. Ad-FIR enhanced BLM-induced DNA damage indicated by γH2AX in vitro. BLM treatment increased endogenous nuclear FIR expression in TE-2 cells, and P27Kip1 expression was suppressed by TP53 siRNA and BLM treatment. Further, Ad-FIRΔexon2, a dominant-negative form of FIR that lacks exon2 transcriptional repression domain, decreased Ku86 expression. The combination of Ad-FIR and BLM in TP53 siRNA increased DNA damage. Additionally, Ad-FIR showed synergistic cell toxicity with X-ray in vitro and significantly increased the antitumor efficacy of carbon-ion irradiation in the xenograft mouse model of TE-2 cells (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney's U-test) and was synergistic with the sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) value of 1.15. Therefore, Ad-FIR increased the cell-killing activity of the carbon-ion beam that avoids late

  12. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  13. Labeling of Adenovirus Particles with PARACEST Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vasalatiy, Olga; Gerard, Robert D; Zhao, Piyu; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus type 5 particles (AdCMVLuc) were labeled with two different bifunctional ligands capable of forming stable complexes with paramagnetic lanthanide ions. The number of covalently attached ligands varied between 630 and 1960 per adenovirus particle depending upon the chemical reactivity of the bifunctional ligand (NHS ester versus isothiocyanide), the amount of excess ligand added, and the reaction time. The bioactivity of each labeled adenovirus derivative, as measured by the ability of the virus to infect cells and express luciferase, was shown to be highly dependent upon the number of covalently attached ligands. This indicates that certain amino groups, likely on the surface of the adenovirus fiber protein where cell binding is known to occur, are critical for viral attachment and infection. Addition of 177Lu3+ to chemically modified versus control viruses demonstrated a significant amount of nonspecific binding of 177Lu3+ to the virus particles that could not be sequestered by addition of excess DTPA. Thus, it became necessary to implement a prelabeling strategy for conjugation of preformed lanthanide ligand chelates to adenovirus particles. Using preformed Tm3+-L2, a large number of chelates having chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties were attached to the surface residues of AdCMVLuc without nonspecific binding of metal ions elsewhere on the virus particle. The potential of such conjugates to act as PARACEST imaging agents was tested using an on-resonance WALTZ sequence for CEST activation. A 12% decrease in bulk water signal intensity was observed relative to controls. This demonstrates that viral particles labeled with PARACEST-type imaging agents can potentially serve as targeted agents for molecular imaging. PMID:18254605

  14. Monoclonal antibodies to the two most basic papaya proteinases.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, P W; Kilshaw, P J; McEwan, F; Owen, A J

    1986-08-01

    The proteinases from Carica papaya include papain, isoenzymes of chymopapain and two proteinases A and B distinguished by their unusually high pI. The identity of one of the most basic proteinases has been questioned. The present report describes the preparation and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies that react specifically with papaya proteinases A and B respectively and a third that identifies a common structural feature found in papain and proteinase A. PMID:3545314

  15. Phosphorylation within the transactivation domain of adenovirus E1A protein by mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates expression of early region 4.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, S G; Marcellus, R C; Whalen, A; Ahn, N G; Ricciardi, R P; Branton, P E

    1997-01-01

    A critical role of the 289-residue (289R) E1A protein of human adenovirus type 5 during productive infection is to transactivate expression of all early viral transcription. Sequences within and proximal to conserved region 3 (CR3) promote expression of these viral genes through interactions with a variety of transcription factors requiring the zinc binding motif in CR3 and in some cases a region at the carboxy-terminal end of CR3, including residues 183 to 188. It is known that 3',5' cyclic AMP (cAMP) reduces the level of phosphorylation of the 289R E1A protein through the activation of protein phosphatase 2A by the E4orf4 protein. This study was designed to identify the E1A phosphorylation sites affected by E4orf4 expression and to determine their importance in regulation of E1A activity. We report here that two previously unidentified sites at Ser-185 and Ser-188 are the targets for decreased phosphorylation in response to cAMP. At least one of these sites, presumably Ser-185, is phosphorylated in vitro by purified mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and both are hyperphosphorylated in cells which express a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase. Analysis of E1A-mediated transactivation activity indicated that elevated phosphorylation at these sites increased expression of the E4 promoter but not that of E3. We have recently shown that one or more E4 products induce cell death due to p53-independent apoptosis, and thus it seems likely that one role of the E4orf4 protein is to limit production of toxic E4 products by limiting expression of the E4 promoter. PMID:9094626

  16. Multiple cysteine proteinase forms during the life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum revealed by electrophoretic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    North, M J; Scott, K I; Lockwood, B C

    1988-01-01

    Proteinases of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum have been analysed using electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing gelatin (gelatin/PAGE). Multiple proteinase forms were apparent in vegetative myxamoebae, but the presence of individual enzyme forms depended on the manner in which the cells were grown. Axenic cells had a characteristic A-pattern of proteinases consisting of six bands, the most active enzymes having apparent Mr values of 51,000 and 45,000 (these have been named ddCP51 and ddCP45, respectively). Some of the proteinases were also present in the medium, the major extracellular form was ddCP42, a 42,000-Mr enzyme. Cells grown in association with bacteria had a distinct B-pattern with three main enzymes that had apparent Mr values of 48,000, 43,000 and 38,000. All of the A- and B-pattern proteinases were most active at acid pH in the presence of dithiothreitol and were inhibited by various agents such as trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E64), leupeptin and chymostatin, which inactivate cysteine proteinases. One of the enzymes, ddCP30, was identified as cysteine proteinase B which had been purified and characterized previously [North, M.J. & Whyte, A. (1984) J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 123-134]. During starvation of axenic cells in shaken suspensions some of the vegetative proteinases disappeared, ddCP42 was released from the cells and one new enzyme with an apparent Mr of 48,000 appeared. Addition of cyclic AMP had little effect on these changes. When the axenically grown myxamoebae underwent development on filters, similar changes in band pattern were observed and the aggregation stage was characterized by the presence of three cysteine proteinase bands (apparent Mr values of 48,000, 45,000 and 43,000). Proteinases, especially ddCP42, were released from the cells and could be collected from the buffer-saturated pads which supported the filters. The results demonstrate that cysteine proteinases are present

  17. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-Modified E1A/E1B Double Mutant Adenovirus Enhances Antitumor Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Cai, Zhi-Jian; Xu, Yi-Peng; Zhao, An; Su, Ying; Zhang, Gu; Zhu, Shao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    CAR is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in various epithelial and endothelial cells. CAR mediates adenoviral infection, as well as adenovirus-mediated oncolysis of AxdAdB-3, an E1A/E1B double-restricted oncolytic adenovirus, in prostate cancer cells. This study further assessed the therapeutic efficacy of AxdAdB-3 with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-fiber modification (AxdAdB3-F/RGD), which enables integrin-dependent infection, in prostate cancer. Susceptibility of prostate cancer cells LNCaP, PC3, and DU145 to adenovirus infection was associated with CAR expression. All of the prostate cancer cell lines expressed integrin αvβ3 and αvβ5. AxdAdB-3 was more cytopathic in CAR-positive prostate cancer cells than in CAR-negative cells, whereas AxdAdB3-F/RGD caused potent oncolysis in both CAR-positive and CAR-negative prostate cancer cells. In contrast, AxdAdB3-F/RGD was not cytopathic against normal prostate epithelial cells, RWPE-1. Intratumoral injection of AxdAdB3-F/RGD into CAR-negative prostate cancer cell xenografts in nude mice inhibited tumor growth. The current study demonstrates that E1A/E1B double-restricted oncolytic adenovirus with an RGD-fiber modification enhances infection efficiency and anti-tumor activity in CAR-deficient prostate cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic potential of AxdAdB3-F/RGD in prostate cancer. PMID:26799485

  18. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Holmes, Andrew; Ma, Li; Van de Kar, Louis D; Garcia, Francisca; Murphy, Dennis L

    2004-12-01

    Our previous studies found that serotonin transporter (SERT) knock-out mice showed increased sensitivity to minor stress and increased anxiety-like behavior but reduced locomotor activity. These mice also showed decreased density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe. To evaluate the contribution of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors to these phenotypes of SERT knock-out mice, two studies were conducted. Recombinant adenoviruses containing 5-HT1A sense and antisense sequences (Ad-1AP-sense and Ad-1AP-antisense) were used to manipulate 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus. The expression of the 5-HT1A genes is controlled by the 5-HT1A promoter, so that they are only expressed in 5-HT1A receptor-containing cells. (1) Injection of Ad-1AP-sense into the hypothalamus of SERT knock-out mice restored 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus; this effect was accompanied by elimination of the exaggerated adrenocorticotropin responses to a saline injection (minor stress) and reduced locomotor activity but not by a change in increased exploratory anxiety-like behavior. (2) To further confirm the observation in SERT-/- mice, Ad-1AP-antisense was injected into the hypothalamus of normal mice. The density and the function of 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus were significantly reduced in Ad-1AP-antisense-treated mice. Compared with the control group (injected with Ad-track), Ad-1A-antisense-treated mice showed a significant reduction in locomotor activity, but again no changes in exploratory anxiety-like behaviors, tested by elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Thus, the present results demonstrate that medial hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors regulate stress responses and locomotor activity but may not regulate exploratory anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:15574737

  19. Comparative cleavage sites within the reactive-site loop of native and oxidized alpha1-proteinase inhibitor by selected bacterial proteinases.

    PubMed

    Rapala-Kozik, M; Potempa, J; Nelson, D; Kozik, A; Travis, J

    1999-10-01

    Human alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) is responsible for the tight control of neutrophil elastase activity which, if down regulated, may cause local excessive tissue degradation. Many bacterial proteinases can inactivate alpha1-PI by hydrolytic cleavage within its reactive site, resulting in the down regulation of elastase, and this mechanism is likely to contribute to the connective tissue damage often associated with bacterial infections. Another pathway of the inactivation of alpha1-PI is reversible and involves oxidation of a critical active-site methionine residue that may influence inhibitor susceptibility to proteolytic inactivation. Hence, the aim of this work was to determine whether this oxidation event might affectthe rate and pattern of the cleavage of the alpha1-PI reactive-site loop by selected bacterial proteinases, including thermolysin, aureolysin, serralysin, pseudolysin, Staphylococcus aureus serine proteinase, streptopain, and periodontain. A shift of cleavage specificity was observed after alpha1-PI oxidation, with a preference for the Glu354-Ala355 bond by most of the proteinases tested. Only aureolysin and serralysin cleave the oxidized form of alpha1-PI faster than the native inhibitor, suggesting that bacteria which secrete these metalloproteinases may specifically take advantage of the host defense oxidative mechanism to accelerate elimination of alpha1-PI and, consequently, tissue degradation by neutrophil elastase. PMID:10595584

  20. THE CRYSTALLIZATION AND SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF A STREPTOCOCCAL PROTEINASE AND ITS PRECURSOR

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S. D.

    1950-01-01

    Grown in dialysate broth at a pH between 5.5 and 6.5, some strains of group A streptococci elaborate the precursor of a proteolytic enzyme. Within this range of hydrogen concentration the precursor is also produced when the streptococci are suspended in a peptone dialysate containing glucose and incubated at 37°C. The precursor does not appear to be produced at a neutral or alkaline reaction. Methods are described whereby the precursor and proteinase have been isolated in crystalline form. The precursor crystallizes from half-saturated ammonium sulfate at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 22°C. or higher; the proteinase crystallizes from 0.15 saturated ammonium sulfate at pH 8.0 but does so most readily at refrigerator temperature. The degree of purification achieved by these procedures is discussed. The activity of purified preparations of the precursor and of proteinase has been tested against α-benzoyl-l-arginineamide and, with this as a substrate, the conversion of precursor to proteinase by autocatalysis or by trypsin has been confirmed. Immunological experiments are described, the results of which provide evidence of the distinct antigenic specificity of the precursor and proteinase; the conversion of precursor to proteinase has been followed by means of serological tests. PMID:15436931

  1. Specific inhibition of mature fungal serine proteinases and metalloproteinases by their propeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Markaryan, A; Lee, J D; Sirakova, T D; Kolattukudy, P E

    1996-01-01

    The function of the long propeptides of fungal proteinases is not known. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a 33-kDa serine proteinase of the subtilisin family and a 42-kDa metalloproteinase of the thermolysin family. These extracellular enzymes are synthesized as preproenzymes containing large amino-terminal propeptides. Recombinant propeptides were produced in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase or thioredoxin and purified by affinity chromatography. A. fumigatus serine proteinase propeptide competitively inhibited serine proteinase, with a Ki of 5.3 x 10(-6) M, whereas a homologous serine proteinase from A. flavus was less strongly inhibited and subtilisin was not inhibited. Binding of metalloproteinase propeptide from A. fumigatus to the mature metalloenzyme was demonstrated. This propeptide strongly inhibited its mature enzyme, with a Ki of 3 x 10(-9) M, whereas thermolysin and a metalloproteinase from A. flavus were not inhibited by this propeptide. Enzymatically inactive metalloproteinase propeptide complex could be completely activated by trypsin treatment. These results demonstrate that the propeptides of the fungal proteinases bind specifically and inhibit the respective mature enzymes, probably reflecting a biological role of keeping these extracellular enzymes inactive until secretion. PMID:8636020

  2. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  3. Adenovirus-associated health risks for recreational activities in a multi-use coastal watershed based on site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Arti; McBride, Graham; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-10-15

    We used site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess the probability of adenovirus illness for three groups of swimmers: adults with primary contact, children with primary contact, and secondary contact regardless of age. Human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were monitored by qPCR in a multi-use watershed and Adenovirus type 40/41 was detected in 11% of 73 samples, ranging from 147 to 4117 genomes per liter. Enterovirus was detected only once (32 genomes per liter). Seven of eight virus detections occurred when E. coli concentrations were below the single sample maximum water quality criterion for contact recreation, and five of eight virus detections occurred when fecal coliforms were below the corresponding criterion. We employed dose-harmonization to convert viral genome measurements to TCID50 values needed for dose-response curves. The three scenarios considered different amounts of water ingestion and Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for the variability associated with the doses. The mean illness risk in children based on adenovirus measurements obtained over 11 months was estimated to be 3.5%, which is below the 3.6% risk considered tolerable by the current United States EPA recreational criteria for gastrointestinal illnesses (GI). The mean risks of GI illness for adults and secondary contact were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. These risks changed appreciably when different distributions were fitted to the data as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In general, risk was at a maximum for the log-logistic distribution and lowest for the hockey stick distribution in all three selected scenarios. Also, under default assumptions, the risk was lowered considerably when assuming that only a small proportion of Adenovirus 40/41 (3%) was as infectious as Adenovirus type 4, compared to the assumption that all genomes were Adenovirus 4. In conclusion, site-specific QMRA on water-borne adenoviruses in this watershed provided a similar

  4. New perspectives on basic mechanisms in lung disease. 6. Proteinase imbalance: its role in lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, T D

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis, some 30 years ago, that NE was the sole proteolytic agent responsible for the development of emphysema seems naive in retrospect. The availability of technology to measure NE facilitated the early research into the relationship between NE and lung disease. Despite an abundance of information on the activity of NE in the lung, it will probably require prospective studies in man with specific NE inhibitors or control at the gene level to establish a causal relationship between NE and lung disease. Parallel research has resulted in the isolation and characterisation of NE inhibitors other than PI and, indeed, alternative proteolytic enzymes that might contribute to lung disease. It is perhaps impossible now to think that a single proteinase, however omnipotent it may be, causes lung diseases as diverse as emphysema and fibrosis. An important aspect that is emerging is the interrelationship between proteolytic enzymes produced by different, or sometimes the same, cells that could potentiate tissue proteolysis. The evidence suggests that there is likely to be coordinated action between neutrophils, macrophages, and possibly mesenchymal proteinases which can activate or inactivate each other. In addition, one class of proteinases often appears able to proteolytically inactivate inhibitors of the opposite class, which presumably could amplify proteolysis if it occurred in vivo. Although the work on this aspect of proteinase activity is in its infancy, one suspects that part of the normal regulation of proteinase activity might include compartmentalisation. For example, the neutrophil stores proteinases before appropriate release and can inactivate PI to enable proteolytic action pericellularly, whereas degradation of extracellular matrix by macrophages requires interaction between the cell and matrix which is facilitated by cell receptor bound uPA. Disintegration of these "compartments" due to oedema, proteolysis, or for mechanical reasons could, firstly

  5. Characterization of papaya peptidase A as a cysteine proteinase of Carica papaya L. with active-centre properties that differ from those of papain by using 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. Use of two-protonic-state electrophiles in the identification of catalytic-site thiol groups.

    PubMed Central

    Baines, B S; Brocklehurst, K

    1982-01-01

    1. The proteinase papaya peptidase A, one of the major components of the latex of Carica papaya L., was shown to contain 1 thiol group per molecule; this thiol group is essential for catalytic activity and is part of the catalytic site. 2. The usefulness of two-protonic-state reactivity probes coupled with modification/activity-loss data in assigning a thiol group as an integral part of the catalytic site as against merely 'essential' for activity is discussed. 3. The active centre of papaya peptidase A was investigated by using 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as reactivity probes. The presence in the enzyme in weakly acidic media of an interactive system containing a nucleophile S atom (pKI3.9,pKII7.9) was demonstrated. 5. Papaya peptidase A resembles ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) and actinidin (the cysteine proteinase from Actinidin chinenis) in that it does not appear to possess a carboxy group able to influence the reactivity of the thiol group by change of ionization state at pH values of about 4, a situation that contrasts markedly with that which obtains in papain. 6. Implications of the results for possible variations in cysteine proteinase mechanism are discussed. PMID:6751321

  6. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  7. Enzymatic response of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to a bis-benzamidine proteinase Inhibitor. i.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A

    2012-10-01

    Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition. PMID:23950094

  8. Purification and characterization of a digestive cysteine proteinase from the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Laycock, M V; Hirama, T; Hasnain, S; Watson, D; Storer, A C

    1989-10-15

    A new cysteine proteinase was isolated from the digestive juice of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The enzyme was purified by a combination of affinity and ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The cysteine proteinase accounted for 80% of the proteolytic activity in the lumen of the hepatopancreas. The most potent heavy-metal inhibitors were Hg, Cu, and Ag ions. Inhibition by organic proteinase inhibitors, including E-64 [L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] and activation of the enzyme by 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are characteristic of cysteine proteinases. Several similarities to papain are noted and include the N-terminal sequence, of which 22 of the first 28 amino acids are identical. Some notable differences are the higher Mr of 28,000 compared with 23,350 for papain, and the low isoelectric point (pI 4.5) of the lobster enzyme. The effects of pH and temperature on catalytic activity of the lobster proteinase were studied with benzyloxycarbonylalanine p-nitrophenyl ester as the substrate. The kcat./Km value was effectively temperature-independent between 10 and 60 degrees C. The pH-activity profile for the lobster enzyme revealed four apparent protonation states, of which only two are active. PMID:2597115

  9. High-molecular-mass multicatalytic proteinase complexes produced by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia strain BR.

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, P; Müller, A; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1992-01-01

    A major-high-molecular mass proteinase and seven latent minor proteinases were found in cell extracts and in concentrates of culture medium from Frankia sp. strain BR after nondenaturing electrophoresis in mixed gelatin-polyacrylamide gels. All of these complexes showed multicatalytic properties. Their molecular masses and their sedimentation coefficients varied from 1,300 kDa (28S) to 270 kDa (12S). The electroeluted 1,300-kDa proteinase complex dissociated into 11 low-molecular-mass proteinases (40 to 19 kDa) after sodium dodecyl sulfate activation at 30 degrees C and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. All of these electroeluted proteinases hydrolyzed N-carbobenzoxy-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-4-methoxy-beta- naphthylamide, D-Val-Leu-Arg-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide, and Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide, whereas Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide was cleaved only by the six lower-molecular-mass proteinases (27.5 to 19 kDa). Examination by electron microscopy of uranyl acetate-stained, electroeluted 1,300- and 650-kDa intracellular and extracellular proteinase complexes showed ring-shaped and cylindrical particles (10 to 11 nm in diameter, 15 to 16 nm long) similar to those of eukaryotic prosomes and proteasomes. Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat skeletal muscle proteasomes cross-reacted with all of the high-molecular-mass proteinase complexes and, after denaturation of the electroeluted 1,300-kDa band, with polypeptides of 35 to 38, 65, and 90 kDa. Electrophoresis of the activated cell extracts under denaturing conditions revealed 11 to 17 gelatinases from 40 to 19 kDa, including the 11 proteinases of the 1,300-kDa proteinase complex. The inhibition pattern of these proteinases is complex. Thiol-reactive compounds and 1-10-phenanthroline strongly inhibited all of the proteinases, but inhibitors against serine-type proteinases were also effective for most of them. Images PMID:1537794

  10. Reactivation of a methylation-silenced gene in adenovirus-transformed cells by 5-azacytidine or by E1A trans activation.

    PubMed Central

    Knust, B; Brüggemann, U; Doerfler, W

    1989-01-01

    In the adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-transformed hamster cell line HE3, the integrated late E2A promoter of Ad2 DNA is inactive, is methylated at all three 5'-CCGG-3' sequences, and can be reactivated by growing the cells in the presence of 50 microM 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The three 5'-CCGG-3' sequences then become demethylated. Demethylation and reactivation are stable over 30 passages even after the removal of 5-azaC. The dormant late E2A promoter in cell line HE3 can also be reactivated by transfecting the cells with recombinant plasmids that carry the left terminal E1A and part of the E1B region of Ad2 DNA or the E1A 13S cDNA, but not with plasmids containing the E1A 12S cDNA. The E1A 13S cDNA encodes the 289-amino-acid trans-activating protein of Ad2. The E1A-mediated reactivation of the late E2A promoter is not accompanied by its demethylation in both DNA complements. Cell line HE3 produces constitutively E1A-encoded mRNAs and reactivates the methylated late E2A promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene construct after transfection into HE3 cells. Constitutive levels of the endogenous E1A gene products in HE3 cells are detectable but, paradoxically, appear insufficient to reactivate the endogenous, chromosomally integrated E2A gene. Images PMID:2473219

  11. Enhancement of fibroblast activation protein α-based vaccines and adenovirus boost immunity by cyclophosphamide through inhibiting IL-10 expression in 4T1 tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiu; Geng, Fei; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Chen-Lu; Xu, Ping; Lu, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2016-08-31

    Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of more than 90% of malignant epithelia carcinomas. CAFs are the main type of cells in the tumor microenvironment which offer nutrition and protection to the tumor and regulate immunosuppression. To eliminate CAFs, a vaccine targeting FAPα may be used with a heterologous prime-boost strategy to enhance the FAPα-specific cellular immunity. Here, a FAP vaccine using a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vector was constructed as well as a DNA vaccine reported in our previous work. Although the DNA prime-rAd boost strategy enhanced FAPα-specific immune responses, improvement of anti-tumor immunity effects was not observed. Examination of immunosuppressive factors revealed that high expression of the IL-10 cytokine was considered the main cause of the failure of the prime-boost strategy. However, heterologous vaccination in combination with a low-dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), which was reported to reduce IL-10 production and promote a shift from immunosuppression to immunopotentiation, resulted in enhanced effects in terms of numbers of effector T cells and tumor growth inhibition rates, compared to the CY alone or DNA alone group. Tumor growth was inhibited markedly when the prime-boost strategy was combined with CY in both the prophylactic and therapeutic settings and the survival time of 4T1 tumor bearing mice was also prolonged significantly. With the reduction of IL-10, enhancement of the anti-tumor effect by the prime-boost strategy was observed. These results suggest that FAPα-targeted rAd boosting in combination with CY is an attractive approach to overcoming immunosuppression in cancer vaccines. PMID:27498213

  12. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against Hymenolepis microstoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections in vivo. Hymenolepis microstoma is a natural parasite of house mice, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of novel drugs for anthelmintic activity against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of H. microstoma infections in mice with the supernatant of papaya latex (PLS), containing active cysteine proteinases, is only minimally efficacious. The statistically significant effects seen on worm burden and biomass showed little evidence of dose dependency, were temporary and the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in PLS was not confirmed by specific inhibition with E-64. Worm fecundity was not affected by treatment at the doses used. We conclude also that this in vivo host-parasite system is not sensitive enough to be used reliably for the detection of cestocidal activity of compounds being screened as potential, novel anthelmintics. PMID:25226116

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Proteolytic Activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Human Skin Is Controlled by Down-regulating Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 and Mediated by Tissue-associated Chymotrypsin-like Proteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuan-Ping; Nien, Yih-Dar; Garner, Warren L.

    2008-01-01

    The proteolytic activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by conversion of the 92-kDa precursor into an 82-kDa active form has been observed in chronic wounds, tumor metastasis, and many inflammation-associated diseases, yet the mechanistic pathway to control this process has not been identified. In this report, we show that the massive expression and activation of MMP-9 in skin tissue from patients with chronically unhealed wounds could be reconstituted in vitro with cultured normal human skin by stimulation with transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We dissected the mechanistic pathway for TNF-α induced activation of pro-MMP-9 in human skin. We found that proteolytic activation of pro-MMP-9 was mediated by a tissue-associated chymotrypsin-like proteinase, designated here as pro-MMP-9 activator (pM9A). This unidentified activator specifically converted pro-MMP-9 but not pro-MMP-2, another member of the gelatinase family. The tissue-bound pM9A was steadily expressed and not regulated by TNF-α, which indicated that the cytokine-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 might be regulated at the inhibitor level. Indeed, the skin constantly secreted tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at the basal state. TNF-α, but not transforming growth factor-β, down-regulated this inhibitor. The TNF-α-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 was tightly associated with down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in a dose-dependent manner. To establish this linkage, we demonstrate that the recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 could block the activation of pro-MMP-9 by either the intact skin or skin fractions. Thus, these studies suggest a novel regulation for the proteolytic activation of MMP-9 in human tissue, which is mediated by tissue-bound activator and controlled by down-regulation of a specific inhibitor. PMID:12004062

  14. Helper component-proteinase enhances the activity of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and promotes the biosynthesis of plastidic isoprenoids in Potato virus Y-infected tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Ma, Dongyuan; Jin, Yongsheng; Tu, Yayi; Liu, Liping; Leng, Chunxu; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Virus-infected plants show strong morphological and physiological alterations. Many physiological processes in chloroplast are affected, including the plastidic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway [the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway]; indeed, isoprenoid contents have been demonstrated to be altered in virus-infected plants. In this study, we found that the levels of photosynthetic pigments and abscisic acid (ABA) were altered in Potato virus Y (PVY)-infected tobacco. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we demonstrated an interaction between virus protein PVY helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and tobacco chloroplast protein 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (NtDXS). This interaction was confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays and pull-down assays. The Transket_pyr domain (residues 394-561) of NtDXS was required for interaction with HC-Pro, while the N-terminal region of HC-Pro (residues 1-97) was necessary for interaction with NtDXS. Using in vitro enzyme activity assays, PVY HC-Pro was found to promote the synthase activity of NtDXS. We observed increases in photosynthetic pigment contents and ABA levels in transgenic plants with HC-Pro accumulating in the chloroplasts. During virus infection, the enhancement of plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis was attributed to the enhancement of DXS activity by HC-Pro. Our study reveals a new role of HC-Pro in the host plant metabolic system and will contribute to the study of host-virus relationships. PMID:25736930

  15. Purification of a native membrane-associated adenovirus tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, H; Katze, M G; Philipson, L

    1982-01-01

    A 15,000-dalton protein was purified from HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 2. Proteins solubilized from a membrane fraction of lytically infected cells was used as the starting material for purification. Subsequent purification steps involved lentil-lectin, phosphocellulose, hydroxyapatite, DEAE-cellulose, and aminohexyl-Sepharose chromatographies. A monospecific antiserum, raised against the purified protein, immunoprecipitated a 15,000-dalton protein encoded in early-region E1B (E1B/15K protein) of the adenovirus type 2 DNA. Tryptic finger print analysis revealed that the purified protein was identical to the E1B/15K protein encoded in the transforming part of the viral genome. The antiserum immunoprecipitated the E1B/15K protein from a variety of viral transformed cell lines isolated from humans, rats, or hamsters. The E1B/15K protein was associated with the membrane fraction of both lytically and virus-transformed cell lines and could only be released by detergent treatment. Furthermore, a 11,000- to 12,000-dalton protein that could be precipitated with the anti-E1B/15K serum was recovered from membranes treated with trypsin or proteinase K, suggesting that a major part of the E1B/15K protein is protected in membrane vesicles. Translation of early viral mRNA in a cell-free system, supplemented with rough microsomes, showed that this protein was associated with the membrane fraction also in vitro. Images PMID:7097863

  16. An alkaline serine-proteinase from a bacterium isolated from bat feces: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tanskul, Somporn; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takada, Katsumi; Rungratchote, Suchart; Suntinanalert, Prasert; Oda, Kohei

    2009-11-01

    An alkaline serine-proteinase from Bacillus sp. PN51 isolated from bat feces collected in Phang Nga, Thailand, was purified and characterized. The molecular mass was estimated to be 35.0 kDa. The N-terminal 25 amino acid sequence was about 70% identical with that of Natrialba magadii halolysin-like extracellular serine protease. The enzyme showed the highest proteinase activity at 60 degrees C at pH 10.0. The activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin. The proteinase activity was not affected by the presence of 2% urea, 2% H(2)O(2), 12% SDS, 15% triton X-100, or 15% tween 80. The proteinase preferred Met, Leu, Phe, and Tyr residues at the P(1) position, in descending order. The k(cat), K(m) and k(cat)/K(m) values for Z-Val-Lys-Met-MCA were 16.8+/-0.14 min(-1), 5.1+/-0.28 microM, and 3.3+/-0.28 microM(-1) min(-1) respectively. This is the first report of an alkaline serine-proteinase with extremely high stability against detergents such as SDS. PMID:19897920

  17. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  18. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  19. Characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530.

    PubMed Central

    Böckle, B; Galunsky, B; Müller, R

    1995-01-01

    A serine protease from the keratin-degrading Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530 was purified by casein agarose affinity chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 30,000 and an isoelectric point of 8.5. The proteinase was optimally active in the pH range from 7 to 10 and at temperatures from 40 to 75 degrees C. The enzyme was specific for arginine and lysine at the P1 site and for phenylalanine and arginine at the P1' site. It showed a high stereoselectivity and secondary specificity with different synthetic substrates. The keratinolytic activity of the purified proteinase was examined by incubation with the insoluble substrates keratin azure, feather meal, and native and autoclaved chicken feather downs. The S. pactum proteinase was significantly more active than the various commercially available proteinases. After incubation with the purified proteinase, a rapid disintegration of whole feathers was observed. But even after several days of incubation with repeated addition of enzymes, less than 10% of the native keratin substrate was solubilized. In the presence of dithiothreitol, degradation was more than 70%. PMID:7487006

  20. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  1. Cleavage of fibrinogen by proteinases elicits allergic responses through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Millien, Valentine Ongeri; Lu, Wen; Shaw, Joanne; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Mak, Garbo; Roberts, Luz; Song, Li-Zhen; Knight, J Morgan; Creighton, Chad J; Luong, Amber; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2013-08-16

    Proteinases and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are essential for expression of allergic inflammation and diseases such as asthma. A mechanism that links these inflammatory mediators is essential for explaining the fundamental basis of allergic disease but has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that TLR4 is activated by airway proteinase activity to initiate both allergic airway disease and antifungal immunity. These outcomes were induced by proteinase cleavage of the clotting protein fibrinogen, yielding fibrinogen cleavage products that acted as TLR4 ligands on airway epithelial cells and macrophages. Thus, allergic airway inflammation represents an antifungal defensive strategy that is driven by fibrinogen cleavage and TLR4 activation. These findings clarify the molecular basis of allergic disease and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23950537

  2. Heterogeneity of adenovirus type 5 E1A proteins: multiple serine phosphorylations induce slow-migrating electrophoretic variants but do not affect E1A-induced transcriptional activation or transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, J D; Slavicek, J M; Schneider, J F; Jones, N C

    1988-01-01

    The 289-amino-acid product encoded by the adenovirus E1A 13S mRNA has several pleiotropic activities, including transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression, and when acting in concert with certain oncogene products, cell transformation. In all cell types in which E1A has been introduced (except bacteria), E1A protein is extensively posttranslationally modified to yield several isoelectric and molecular weight variants. The most striking variant is one that has a retarded mobility, by about Mr = 2,000, in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. We have investigated the nature of this modification and have assessed its importance for E1A activity. Phosphorylation is responsible for the altered mobility of E1A, since acid phosphatase treatment eliminates the higher apparent molecular weight products. By using several E1A deletion mutants, we show that at least two seryl residues, residing between residues 86 and 120 and 224 and 289, are the sites of phosphorylation and that each phosphorylation can independently induce the mobility shift. However, E1A mutants lacking these seryl residues transcriptionally activate the adenovirus E3 and E2A promoters and transform baby rat kidney cells to near wild-type levels. Images PMID:2835499

  3. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Wildner, Oliver; Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C.; Ramanan, Vijay; Prince, Gregory A.; Morris, John C.

    2007-12-05

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

  4. The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease) as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M

    2000-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from secretions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. This suggested that they might be important in controlling excessive neutrophil elastase release in these pathologies. They are upregulated by 'alarm signals' such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and have been shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, so that they have joined the growing list of antimicrobial 'defensin-like' peptides produced by the lung. Their site of synthesis and presumed functions make them very attractive candidates as potential therapeutic agents under conditions in which the excessive release of elastase by neutrophils might be detrimental. Because of its natural tropism for the lung, the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is extremely promising in such applications. PMID:11667971

  5. The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease) as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2000-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from secretions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. This suggested that they might be important in controlling excessive neutrophil elastase release in these pathologies. They are upregulated by 'alarm signals' such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and have been shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, so that they have joined the growing list of antimicrobial 'defensin-like' peptides produced by the lung. Their site of synthesis and presumed functions make them very attractive candidates as potential therapeutic agents under conditions in which the excessive release of elastase by neutrophils might be detrimental. Because of its natural tropism for the lung, the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is extremely promising in such applications. PMID:11667971

  6. Inhibition of proteinase K by phosphorylated sugars.

    PubMed

    Orstan, A; Gafni, A

    1991-11-01

    Proteolysis of lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase and the synthetic substrate N-succinylalanylalanylalanyl-p-nitroanilide by proteinase K is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-biphosphate. Analysis of the kinetic data obtained with the synthetic substrate indicates that the inhibition is a mixed-type and that more than one inhibitor molecule binds to proteinase K. Glucose and fructose are ineffective as inhibitors. In the presence of 0.2-4 mM fructose-1,6-biphosphate, aldolase becomes more susceptible to proteolysis, probably as a result of a conformational change induced by the substrate. PMID:1815500

  7. Cloning eleven midgut trypsin cDNAs and evaluating the interaction of proteinase inhibitors with Cry1Ac against the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Midgut trypsins are associated with Bt protoxin activation and toxin degradation. Proteinase inhibitors have potential insecticidal toxicity against a wide range of insect species. Proactive action to examine trypsin gene profiles and proteinase inhibitors for interaction with Bt toxin is necessary ...

  8. Potential Use of Proteinase Inhibitors, Avidin, and Other Bio-reagents for Synergizing Bt Performance and Delaying Resistance Development to Bt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After being ingested by target insects, the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) need to go through a proteolytic process by insect midgut proteinases to become activated. At the same time, Bt can be hydrolyzed and degraded by midgut proteinases to become non-toxic to target insect...

  9. Cooperative binding of two E2F molecules to an Ela-responsive promoter is triggered by the adenovirus Ela, but not by a cellular Ela-like activity.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen-Durr, P; Boeuf, H; Kédinger, C

    1989-01-01

    The binding of the cellular E2F transcription factor to the central EIa-responsive element of the adenovirus EIIa early promoter (EIIaE) was compared in extracts of HeLa cells which had been infected with either wild-type adenovirus or the EIa-deficient mutant dl312. No quantitative differences in the E2F-binding activity were detected as a function of EIa gene expression. However, complexes formed by the E2F factor in the presence of EIa were qualitatively different from those formed on the same sequence element in the absence of EIa. Specifically, the formation of complexes containing two E2F molecules is favoured by EIa, probably through the induction of protein-protein interactions. Protein binding to EIIaE promoter in extracts from non-infected F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, prepared before and after in vitro differentiation of these cells was also analysed. The higher expression of EIIaE in undifferentiated cells, which was originally attributed to a cellular EIa-like function, may be correlated with the increased binding activity of a murine E2F-like protein which does not, however, result in the simultaneous occupation of both E2F sites on the EIIaE promoter, suggesting that the viral EIa and the presumptive cellular EIa-like functions trans-activate the EIIaE promoter through different pathways. Images PMID:2531078

  10. AN ELECTROPHORETIC STUDY OF A STREPTOCOCCAL PROTEINASE AND ITS PRECURSOR

    PubMed Central

    Shedlovsky, Theodore; Elliott, S. D.

    1951-01-01

    An electrophoretic study of crystalline preparations of a streptococcal proteinase and its precursor established their isoelectric points at pH values of 8.42 and 7.35 respectively (ionic strength 0.10). Preparations of the proteinase appeared to be electrophoretically homogeneous over a pH range of 5 to 8.5. Precursor preparations contained a relatively low concentration of the active enzyme visible as a separate peak in electrophoretic patterns of sufficiently concentrated solutions. Autocatalytic conversion of precursor to active enzyme was complete and resulted in a corresponding change in the electrophoretic pattern. Treatment of precursor preparations with trypsin produced incomplete conversion to the active enzyme and resulted in the formation of a modified precursor protein. This differed from the parent substance in electrophoretic mobility and in susceptibility to trypsin, but resembled it in immunological specificity and, as previously shown, in susceptibility to conversion to active enzyme by autocatalysis. Serological reactions of precursor and active enzyme components withdrawn from the cell after electrophoresis are described. It appears that the precursor protein may have two antigenic groups, one specific, the other shared by the active enzyme which behaves as a single antigen. PMID:14888818

  11. The Evaluation of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) as a Disinfectant for Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; O’Connor, Katherine E.; Mah, Francis S.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Kowalski, Regis P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs. The current study determined whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs. Methods The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating nine human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with 50 and 0 PPM (µg/ml) of PHMB for 24 hours at room temperature, to simulate swimming pool temperatures, or 40°C, to simulate hot tub temperatures. Plaque assays determined adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were Log10 converted and mean ± standard deviation Log10 reductions from controls were calculated. Virucidal (greater than 99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. Results At room temperature, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for two adenovirus types and greater than 1 Log10, but less than 3 Log10, for seven of nine adenovirus types. Conclusions 50 PPM of PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Clinical Relevance Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB has the potential to serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections. PMID:23450376

  12. Hexon Modification to Improve the Activity of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors against Neoplastic and Stromal Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Tanja; Benihoud, Karim; Vigant, Frédéric; Schmidt, Christoph Q. Andreas; Simmet, Thomas; Kochanek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Primary pancreatic carcinoma has an unfavourable prognosis and standard treatment strategies mostly fail in advanced cases. Virotherapy might overcome this resistance to current treatment modalities. However, data from clinical studies with oncolytic viruses, including replicating adenoviral (Ad) vectors, have shown only limited activity against pancreatic cancer and other carcinomas. Since pancreatic carcinomas have a complex tumor architecture and frequently a strong stromal compartment consisting of non-neoplastic cell types (mainly pancreatic stellate cells = hPSCs) and extracellular matrix, it is not surprising that Ad vectors replicating in neoplastic cells will likely fail to eradicate this aggressive tumor type. Because the TGFβ receptor (TGFBR) is expressed on both neoplastic cells and hPSCs we inserted the TGFBR targeting peptide CKS17 into the hypervariable region 5 (HVR5) of the capsid protein hexon with the aim to generate a replicating Ad vector with improved activity in complex tumors. We demonstrated increased transduction of both pancreatic cancer cell lines and of hPSCs and enhanced cytotoxicity in co-cultures of both cell types. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated decreased binding of coagulation factor X to CKS17-modified Ad particles and in vivo biodistribution studies performed in mice indicated decreased transduction of hepatocytes. Thus, to increase activity of replicating Ad vectors we propose to relax tumor cell selectivity by genetic hexon-mediated targeting to the TGFBR (or other receptors present on both neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells within the tumor) to enable replication also in the stromal cell compartment of tumors, while abolishing hepatocyte transduction, and thereby increasing safety. PMID:25692292

  13. Internal cleavages of the autoinhibitory prodomain are required for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activation, although furin cleavage alone generates inactive proteinase.

    PubMed

    Golubkov, Vladislav S; Cieplak, Piotr; Chekanov, Alexei V; Ratnikov, Boris I; Aleshin, Alexander E; Golubkova, Natalya V; Postnova, Tatiana I; Radichev, Ilian A; Rozanov, Dmitri V; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-09-01

    The functional activity of invasion-promoting membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is elevated in cancer. This elevated activity promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. MT1-MMP is synthesized as a zymogen, the latency of which is maintained by its prodomain. Excision by furin was considered sufficient for the prodomain release and MT1-MMP activation. We determined, however, that the full-length intact prodomain released by furin alone is a potent autoinhibitor of MT1-MMP. Additional MMP cleavages within the prodomain sequence are required to release the MT1-MMP enzyme activity. Using mutagenesis of the prodomain sequence and mass spectrometry analysis of the prodomain fragments, we demonstrated that the intradomain cleavage of the PGD/L(50) site initiates the MT1-MMP activation, whereas the (108)RRKR(111)/Y(112) cleavage by furin completes the removal and the degradation of the autoinhibitory prodomain and the liberation of the functional activity of the emerging enzyme of MT1-MMP. PMID:20605791

  14. Internal Cleavages of the Autoinhibitory Prodomain Are Required for Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation, although Furin Cleavage Alone Generates Inactive Proteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Cieplak, Piotr; Chekanov, Alexei V.; Ratnikov, Boris I.; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Golubkova, Natalya V.; Postnova, Tatiana I.; Radichev, Ilian A.; Rozanov, Dmitri V.; Zhu, Wenhong; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2010-01-01

    The functional activity of invasion-promoting membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is elevated in cancer. This elevated activity promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. MT1-MMP is synthesized as a zymogen, the latency of which is maintained by its prodomain. Excision by furin was considered sufficient for the prodomain release and MT1-MMP activation. We determined, however, that the full-length intact prodomain released by furin alone is a potent autoinhibitor of MT1-MMP. Additional MMP cleavages within the prodomain sequence are required to release the MT1-MMP enzyme activity. Using mutagenesis of the prodomain sequence and mass spectrometry analysis of the prodomain fragments, we demonstrated that the intradomain cleavage of the PGD↓L50 site initiates the MT1-MMP activation, whereas the 108RRKR111↓Y112 cleavage by furin completes the removal and the degradation of the autoinhibitory prodomain and the liberation of the functional activity of the emerging enzyme of MT1-MMP. PMID:20605791

  15. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  16. Construction and characterization of a recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Guoxian; Li, Chen; Liu, Danping

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct and characterize a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The BMP2 gene in the plasmid pcDNA3-BMP2 was sequenced and the restriction enzyme recognition sites were analyzed. Following mutagenesis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the gene sequence after the translation termination codon was removed and new restriction sites were added. The mutated BMP2 gene (BMP2(+) gene) was cloned into an adenovirus shuttle vector to obtain pShuttle cytomegalovirus (CMV)-BMP2(+)-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-hrGFP-1. The adenovirus plasmid pAd CMV-BMP2(+)-IRES-hrGFP-1 was constructed by homologous recombination and was transfected into HEK293A cells, followed by adenovirus packaging. pAd CMV-BMP2 was used as the control. The two types of adenovirus were transfected into marrow stromal cells (MSCs). The expression of BMP2 and GFP, as well as the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of expressed BMP2 were detected. Following mutagenesis, the BMP2 gene sequence and recombinant adenovirus vector were as predicted. The novel adenovirus vector expressed both BMP2 and GFP, indicating that a novel recombinant human adenovirus vector expressing BMP2 had been successfully constructed. PMID:24137184

  17. [Proteolytic enzymes from Streptomyces fradiae: a metalloendopeptidase, subtilisin-like, and trypsin-like proteinases].

    PubMed

    Bormatova, M E; Ivanova, N M; Iusupova, M P; Voiushina, T L; Surova, I A; Chestukhina, G G; Stepanov, V M

    1996-02-01

    Three proteolytic enzymes-the metalloproteinase, SFMP, and two serine proteinases, SFSP and SFTP-have been isolated and purified from the culture fluid of Streptomyces fradiae using chromatography on bacitracin-silochrome, bacitracin-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose and fractionation by ammonium sulfate. Study of physico-chemical and functional properties of the enzymes and structural analysis revealed that SFMP is a cysteine-containing metalloendopeptidase with M(r) of 36 kDa, has a peak activity for synthetic substrates at pH 7.0-7.5 and at 60-65 degrees C and is stable at pH 7.0-9.0. The serine proteinase SFSP is related to subtilisin-like enzymes, has a M(r) of 29 kDa and a pH optimum at 7.5-8.5 at temperature up to 50 degrees C. The proteinase is stable at pH 4.0-9.0 and retains 30% of its activity at 70 degrees C. The other serine proteinase, SFTP, has a M(r) of 26 kDa and is related to trypsin-like enzymes. Its activity for synthetic substrates of trypsin is maximal at pH 6.8-8.8 at 50 degrees C. The enzyme is stable at pH 4.5-8.5 and at temperature below 50 degrees C. It has been shown that Streptomyces fradiae, like Streptomyces griseus and other Streptomycetes, possesses an ability to secrete serine proteinases (SFSP and SFTP) related to two evolutionally distinct families of serine proteinases, i.e., subtilisin and chymotrypsin families. SFMP and SFSP have been isolated and characterized for the first time. PMID:8717499

  18. Identification of stable plant cystatin/nematode proteinase complexes using mildly denaturing gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Bonadé-Bottino, M; Jouanin, L; Vrain, T C

    1996-08-01

    The biochemical interactions between two cystatins from rice seeds, oryzacystatin I (OCI) and oryzacystatin II (OCII), and the cysteine proteinases from three plant parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita and M. javanica, were assessed using standard protease assays and mildly denaturing gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin/PAGE). Activity detected in extracts of preparasitic second-stage larvae (J2) from M. hapla was optimal at pH 5.5 and was inhibited in vitro by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane, hen egg cystatin, OCI, and OCII. As demonstrated by class-specific activity staining, all the activity measured between pH 3.5 and pH 7.5 was accounted for by a major proteinase form, Mhp1, and two minor forms, Mhp2 and Mhp3. Mhps were also detected in extracts and excretions of parasitic J2 and adult females, indicating their continuous expression throughout development of M. hapla, and their possible involvement in the extracellular degradation of proteins. Interestingly, the two plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors OCI and OCII showed different degrees of affinity for the major proteinase form, Mhp1. Both inhibitors almost completely inactivated this proteinase in native conditions but, unlike OCII, OCI conserved a high affinity for Mhp1 during mildly denaturing gelatin/PAGE, showing the differential stabilities of the OCI/Mhp1 and OCII/Mhp1 complexes. In contrast to Mhp1, the major cysteine proteinases detected in the two closely related species M. incognita and M. javanica were strongly inhibited by OCII, while the inhibition of OCI was partly prevented during electrophoresis. This species-related efficiency of plant cystatins against nematode cysteine proteinases could have practical implications when planning their use to control nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. PMID:8874065

  19. Dependence of vascular permeability enhancement on cysteine proteinases in vesicles of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, T; Potempa, J; Pike, R N; Travis, J

    1995-01-01

    Infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with adult periodontitis, and proteinases are considered to be important virulent factors of the bacterium. In order to investigate the function of proteinases in disease development we examined vesicles, a biological carrier of these enzymes, for the generation of vascular permeability enhancement (VPE) activity, believed to correlate with the exudation of gingival crevicular fluid. The vesicles generated VPE activity from human plasma in a dose-dependent manner which could be inhibited 90% by antipain, a specific inhibitor of the Arg-specific cysteine proteinases (Arg-gingipains [RGPs] from P. gingivalis. Incubation of vesicles with high-molecular-weight-kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma did not result in VPE activity. On this basis, RGPs associated with vesicles were assumed to be responsible for most of the VPE activity generation via plasma prekallikrein activation and subsequent bradykinin production. The secondary pathway for VPE activity production was dependent on the direct release of bradykinin from HMWK by the concerted action of RGP and a Lys-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-gingipain [KGP]), also associated with vesicles. These results indicate that RGP and KGP are biologically important VPE factors acting either via prekallikrein activation (RGP) and/or HMWK cleavage (RGP and KGP) to release BK and, thereby, contributing to the production of gingival crevicular fluid at periodontal sites infected with P. gingivalis. PMID:7729914

  20. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vectors are engineered to replicate preferentially in cancer cells and to destroy cancer cells through the natural process of lytic virus replication. Many clinical trials indicate that replication-defective and replication-competent adenovirus vectors are safe and have therapeutic activity. PMID:24279313

  1. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  2. An aspartic proteinase gene family in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea contains members with novel features.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Arjen; Dekkers, Ester; Kay, John; Phylip, Lowri H; van Kan, Jan A L

    2004-07-01

    Botrytis cinerea, an important fungal plant pathogen, secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity in axenic cultures. No cysteine, serine or metalloproteinase activity could be detected. Proteinase activity was higher in culture medium containing BSA or wheat germ extract, as compared to minimal medium. A proportion of the enzyme activity remained in the extracellular glucan sheath. AP was also the only type of proteinase activity in fluid obtained from B. cinerea-infected tissue of apple, pepper, tomato and zucchini. Five B. cinerea genes encoding an AP were cloned and denoted Bcap1-5. Features of the encoded proteins are discussed. BcAP1, especially, has novel characteristics. A phylogenetic analysis was performed comprising sequences originating from different kingdoms. BcAP1 and BcAP5 did not cluster in a bootstrap-supported clade. BcAP2 clusters with vacuolar APs. BcAP3 and BcAP4 cluster with secreted APs in a clade that also contains glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteinases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. All five Bcap genes are expressed in liquid cultures. Transcript levels of Bcap1, Bcap2, Bcap3 and Bcap4 are subject to glucose and peptone repression. Transcripts from all five Bcap genes were detected in infected plant tissue, indicating that at least part of the AP activity in planta originates from the pathogen. PMID:15256589

  3. Carboxy-terminal truncation of oryzacystatin II by oryzacystatin-insensitive insect digestive proteinases.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Vrain, T C

    1995-10-01

    The biochemical interactions between digestive proteinases of the Coleoptera pest black vine weevil (Otiorynchus sulcatus) and two plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors, oryzacystatin I (OCI) and oryzacystatin II (OCII), were assessed using gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, OCI-affinity chromatography, and recombinant forms of the two plant inhibitors. The insect proteinases were resolved in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels as five major bands, only three of them being totally or partially inactivated by OCI and OCII. The maximal inhibitory effect of both OCs at pH 5.0 was estimated at 40% and the inhibition was stable with time despite the presence of OC-insensitive proteases, indicating the stability of the OCI and OCII effects. After removing OC-sensitive proteinases from the insect crude extract by OCI-affinity chromatography, the effects of the insect cystatin-insensitive proteases on the structural integrity of the free OCs were analyzed. While OCI remained stable, OCII was subjected to limited proteolysis leading to its gradual transformation into a approximately 10.5-kDa unstable intermediate, OCIIi. As shown by the degradation pattern of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)/OCII fusion protein, the appearance of OCIIi resulted from the C-terminal truncation of OCII. Either free or linked to GST, OCIIi was as active against papain and human cathepsin H as OCII, and the initial specificities of the inhibitor for these two cysteine proteinases were conserved after cleavage. Although these observations indicate the high conformational stability of OCII near its active (inhibitory) site, they also suggest a general conformational destabilization of this inhibitor following its initial cleavage, subsequently leading to its complete hydrolysis. This apparent susceptibility of OCII to proteolytic cleavage by the insect proteinases could have major implications when planning the use of this plant cystatin for insect pest control. PMID:7574723

  4. A proportion of proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) only react with PR3 after cleavage of its N-terminal activation dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Fass, D N; Viss, M A; Hummel, A M; Tang, H; Homburger, H A; Specks, U

    1998-01-01

    ANCA directed against PR3 are highly specific for Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis, and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of small vessel vasculitis. Most PR3-ANCA are directed against conformational epitopes on PR3. This study was designed to determine whether the cleavage of the N-terminal activation dipeptide of PR3 is required for the binding of PR3-ANCA. Recombinant PR3 (rPR3) variants were expressed in the epithelial cell line, 293. As confirmed by radiosequencing, the rPR3 secreted into the 293 cell culture supernatant is N-terminally unprocessed. Two enzymatically inactive rPR3 mutants were expressed in 293 cells: rPR3-S176A and δ-rPR3-S176A. rPR3-S176A contains the N-propetide Ala-2-Glu-1, δ-rPR3-S176A does not. Culture supernatants of rPR3-S176A and δ-rPR3-S176A expressing 293 cells were used as sources of target antigen for PR3-ANCA testing by capture ELISA. Forty unselected consecutive PR3-ANCA+ sera were tested. With δ-rPR3-S176A as antigen all 40 were recognized, compared with only 34 of 40 when rPR3-S176A served as target antigen. The majority of the serum samples contained a mixture of antibodies reacting with epitopes accessible on the mature and on the proform of PR3. In conclusion, the cleavage of the N-terminal activation dipeptide of PR3 is not an absolute requirement for recognition by all PR3-ANCA. However, a substantial proportion of PR3-ANCA recognize (a) target antigen(s) exposed only after the conformational change of PR3 associated with the N-terminal processing. In 15% of sera this PR3-ANCA subset occurred exclusively. PR3-ANCA subtypes can be differentiated using specifically designed rPR3 variants as target antigens, and non-haematopoietic mammalian cells without regulated secretory pathway can be used for their expression. PMID:9822293

  5. Serine proteinase of Renibacterium salmoninarum digests a major autologous extracellular and cell-surface protein.

    PubMed

    Rockey, D D; Turaga, P S; Wiens, G D; Cook, B A; Kaattari, S L

    1991-10-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a pathogen of salmonid fish that produces large amounts of extracellular protein (ECP) during growth. A proteolytic activity present in ECP at elevated temperatures digested the majority of the proteins in ECP. This digestion was also associated with the loss of ECP immunosuppressive function. In vitro activity of the proteinase in ECP was temperature dependent: it was not detected in an 18-h digest at 4 and 17 degrees C but became readily apparent at 37 degrees C. Proteinase activity was detected at bacterial physiological temperatures (17 degrees C) in reactions incubated for several days. Under these conditions, digestion of partially purified p57, a major constituent of ECP and a major cell-surface protein, yielded a spectrum of breakdown products similar in molecular weight and antigenicity to those in ECP. This pattern of digestion suggests that most of the immunologically related constituents of ECP are p57 and its breakdown products. The proteolytic activity was sensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, methanol, and ethanol and to 10-min incubation at temperatures above 65 degrees C. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteinase on polyacrylamide gels containing proteinase substrates indicated the native form to be 100 kDa or greater. The enzyme was active against selected unrelated substrates only when coincubated with a denaturant (0.1% lauryl sulfate) and (or) a reducing agent (20 mM dithiothreitol). PMID:1777853

  6. Recombinant human proteinase 3, the Wegener's autoantigen, expressed in HMC-1 cells is enzymatically active and recognized by c-ANCA.

    PubMed

    Specks, U; Fass, D N; Fautsch, M P; Hummel, A M; Viss, M A

    1996-07-29

    We developed a stable expression system for conformationally intact recombinant human PR3 (rPR3) using the human mast cell line HMC-1. Like in U937 cells, the rPR3 is processed from a 34 kDa precursor to the 29 kDa mature form, primarily as the result of oligosaccharide trimming. The rPR3 binds [3H]DFP and hydrolyzes the substrate N-methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-pNA. The enzymatic activity is inhibited by greater than 95% by alpha 1-PI. The rPR3 and the enzymatically inactive mutant rPR3-S176A are both packaged in granules. Thus, proteolytic autoprocessing is not required for PR3's targeting to granules. This rPR3 is the first to be recognized by most c-ANCA from WG patients and all anti-PR3 ANCA that were detected by standard anti-PR3 specific ELISA. This expression system for rPR3 represents a versatile tool for the analysis of its intracellular processing, structure-function relationships and interaction with autoantibodies. PMID:8706874

  7. Probing the specificity of cysteine proteinases at subsites remote from the active site: analysis of P4, P3, P2' and P3' variations in extended substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Portaro, F C; Santos, A B; Cezari, M H; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L; Carmona, E

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis by papain, cathepsin B and cathepsin L of internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from the lead peptides Abz-AAFRSAQ-EDDnp [in which Abz and EDDnp stand for o-aminobenzoic acid and N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine respectively], to map the specificity of S(4) and S(3) subsites, and Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, to identify the specificity of S(2)' and S(3)'. Abz and EDDnp were the fluorescent quencher pair. These two series of peptides were cleaved at the Arg-Ser bond and systematic modifications at P(4), P(3), P(2)' and P(3)' were made. The S(4) to S(2)' subsites had a significant influence on the hydrolytic efficiencies of the three enzymes. Only papain activity was observed to be dependent on S(3)', indicating that its binding site is larger than those of cathepsins B and L. Hydrophobic amino acids were accepted at S(4), S(3), S(2)' and S(3)' of the three enzymes. The best substrates for cathepsins L and B had Trp and Asn at P(2)' respectively; variations at this position were less accepted by these enzymes. The best substrates for papain were peptides containing Trp, Tyr or Asn at P(3)'. Basic residues at P(3) and P(4) were well accepted by cathepsin L and papain. We also explored the susceptibility of substrates Abz-AFRSXAQ-EDDnp, modified at P(2)' (X), to human cathepsin B mutants from which one or two occluding loop contacts had been removed. The modifications at His(111) (H111A) and His(110) (H110A) of cathepsin B led to an increase in k(cat) values of one or two orders of magnitude. The hydrolytic efficiencies of these cathepsin B mutants became closer to those of papain or cathepsin L. PMID:10727410

  8. Salicylic Acid Inhibits Synthesis of Proteinase Inhibitors in Tomato Leaves Induced by Systemin and Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Doares, S. H.; Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Conconi, A.; Ryan, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), previously shown to inhibit proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by wounding, oligouronides (H.M. Doherty, R.R. Selvendran, D.J. Bowles [1988] Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33: 377-384), and linolenic acid (H. Pena-Cortes, T. Albrecht, S. Prat, E.W. Weiler, L. Willmitzer [1993] Planta 191: 123-128), are shown here to be potent inhibitors of systemin-induced and jasmonic acid (JA)-induced synthesis of proteinase inhibitor mRNAs and proteins. The inhibition by SA and ASA of proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by systemin and JA, as well as by wounding and oligosaccharide elicitors, provides further evidence that both oligosaccharide and polypeptide inducer molecules utilize the octadecanoid pathway to signal the activation of proteinase inhibitor genes. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves were pulse labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the inhibitory effects of SA are shown to be specific for the synthesis of a small number of JA-inducible proteins that includes the proteinase inhibitors. Previous results have shown that SA inhibits the conversion of 13S-hydroperoxy linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway by blocking synthesis of JA. Here we report that the inhibition of synthesis of proteinase inhibitor proteins and mRNAs by SA in both light and darkness also occurs at a step in the signal transduction pathway, after JA synthesis but preceding transcription of the inhibitor genes. PMID:12228577

  9. Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-02-15

    The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

  10. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  11. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

  12. Nitric oxide inhibits cruzipain, the major papain-like cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G; Salvati, L; Muolo, M; Colasanti, M; Gradoni, L; Ascenzi, P

    2000-04-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pluripotent regulatory molecule showing, among others, an antiparasitic activity. Moreover, NO inhibits cysteine proteinase action by nitrosylating the Cys catalytic residue. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of the substrate N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin) and of NO on the catalytic activity of cruzipain, the major papain-like cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi (the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite which causes the American trypanosomiasis), is reported. In particular, NO-donors S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), (+/-)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (NOR-3), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) dose-dependently inhibited cruzipain, this effect being likely attributable to the S-nitrosylation of the Cys25 catalytic residue. These results were analyzed in parallel with those concerning the inhibitory effect of the substrate and of NO on the catalytic activity of falcipain, the cruzipain-homologous cysteine proteinase from Plasmodium falciparum. The modulation of the cruzipain and falcipain activity by NO may be relevant in developing new strategies against T. cruzi and P. falciparum in human host. As a whole, the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of pathogenic viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cysteine proteinases may represent a general mechanism of antimicrobial and antiparasitic host defences. PMID:10753643

  13. A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

    2014-01-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 μmol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties. PMID:24338707

  14. Predicting proteinase specificities from free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Seble Merid; Olufsen, Magne; Smalås, Arne O; Brandsdal, Bjørn O

    2006-10-01

    The role of the primary binding residue (P1) in complexes between three different subtilases (subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and proteinase K) and their canonical protein inhibitor eglin c have been studied by free energy calculations. Based on the crystal structures of eglin c in complex with subtilisin Carlsberg and thermitase, and a homology model of the eglin c-proteinase K complex, a total of 57 mutants have been constructed and docked into their host proteins. The binding free energy was then calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the linear interaction energy (LIE) method for all complexes differing only in the nature of the amino acid at the P1 position. LIE calculations for 19 different complexes for each subtilase were thus carried out excluding proline. The effects of substitutions at the P1 position on the binding free energies are found to be very large, and positively charged residues (Arg, Lys and His) are particularly deleterious for all three enzymes. The charged variants of the acidic side chains are found to bind more favorably as compared to their protonated states in all three subtilases. Furthermore, hydrophobic amino acids are accommodated most favorably at the S1-site in all three enzymes. Comparison of the three series of binding free energies shows only minor differences in the 19 computed relative binding free energies among these subtilases. This is further reflected in the correlation coefficient between the 23 relative binding free energies obtained, including the possible protonation states of ionizable side chains, but excluding the P1 Pro, for subtilisin Carlsberg versus thermitase (0.95), subtilisin versus proteinase K (0.94) and thermitase versus proteinase K (0.96). PMID:16386933

  15. Proteinase from germinating bean cotyledons. Evidence for involvement of a thiol group in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Csoma, C; Polgár, L

    1984-09-15

    To degrade storage proteins germinating seeds synthesize proteinases de novo that can be inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents [Baumgartner & Chrispeels (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 77, 223-233]. We have elaborated a procedure for isolation of such a proteinase from the cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. The purification procedure involved fractionation of the cotyledon homogenate with acetone and with (NH4)2SO4 and successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, activated thiol-Sepharose Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme has an Mr of 23,400, proved to be highly specific for the asparagine side chain and blocking of its thiol group resulted in loss of the catalytic activity. The chemical properties of the thiol group of the bean enzyme were investigated by acylation with t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-asparagine p-nitro-phenyl ester and by alkylations with iodoacetamide and iodoacetate. Deviations from normal pH-rate profile were observed, which indicated that the thiol group is not a simple functional group, but constitutes a part of an interactive system at the active site. The pKa value for acylation and the magnitude of the rate constant for alkylation with iodoacetate revealed that the bean proteinase possesses some properties not shared by papain and the other cysteine proteinases studied to date. PMID:6385962

  16. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  17. A role for trigger factor and an rgg-like regulator in the transcription, secretion and processing of the cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, W R; Gibson, C M; Caparon, M G

    1998-01-01

    The ability of numerous microorganisms to cause disease relies upon the highly regulated expression of secreted proteinases. In this study, mutagenesis with a novel derivative of Tn4001 was used to identify genes required for the expression of the secreted cysteine proteinase (SCP) of the pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. Designated as Rop loci (regulation of proteinase), ropB is a rgg-like transcriptional activator required for transcription of the gene which encodes the proteinase. In contrast, ropA contributes post-transcriptionally to the secretion and processing of SCP and encodes a homologue of Trigger Factor, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and putative chaparone which is highly conserved in most bacterial species, but of unknown function. Analysis of additional ropA mutants demonstrated that RopA acts both to assist in targeting SCP to the secretory pathway and to promote the ability of the proprotein to establish an active conformation upon secretion. This latter function was dependent upon the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain of RopA and mutants that lacked this domain exhibited a bipartite deficiency manifested as a kinetic defect in autologous processing of the proprotein to the mature proteinase, and as a catalytic defect in the mature proteinase. These results provide insight into the function of Trigger Factor, the regulation of proteinase activity and the mechanism of secretion in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9799235

  18. A role for trigger factor and an rgg-like regulator in the transcription, secretion and processing of the cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Lyon, W R; Gibson, C M; Caparon, M G

    1998-11-01

    The ability of numerous microorganisms to cause disease relies upon the highly regulated expression of secreted proteinases. In this study, mutagenesis with a novel derivative of Tn4001 was used to identify genes required for the expression of the secreted cysteine proteinase (SCP) of the pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. Designated as Rop loci (regulation of proteinase), ropB is a rgg-like transcriptional activator required for transcription of the gene which encodes the proteinase. In contrast, ropA contributes post-transcriptionally to the secretion and processing of SCP and encodes a homologue of Trigger Factor, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and putative chaparone which is highly conserved in most bacterial species, but of unknown function. Analysis of additional ropA mutants demonstrated that RopA acts both to assist in targeting SCP to the secretory pathway and to promote the ability of the proprotein to establish an active conformation upon secretion. This latter function was dependent upon the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain of RopA and mutants that lacked this domain exhibited a bipartite deficiency manifested as a kinetic defect in autologous processing of the proprotein to the mature proteinase, and as a catalytic defect in the mature proteinase. These results provide insight into the function of Trigger Factor, the regulation of proteinase activity and the mechanism of secretion in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9799235

  19. Isolation and characterization of human plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and a conformational study of its interaction with proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Saklatvala, J; Wood, G C; White, D D

    1976-01-01

    1. alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor was isolated from human plasma by a five-step procedure. Isoelectric focusing showed that six components focused between pH4.85 and 4.95. 2. The mol.wt. of the inhibitor was 52000 by sedimentation equilibrium and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the inhibitor were also determined. 3. The far-u.v.c.d. (circular-dichroism) spectrum indicated that the inhibitor had about 36% alpha-helical content. 4. The loss of proteinase-inhibitory activity when the inhibitor was exposed to pH values less than 5.0 or greater than 10.5 was accompanied by small changes in the far-u.v.c.d. spectrum and large changes in the near-u.v.c.d. spectrum. The change at alkaline pH was associated with ionization of tyrosine residues. 5. Interaction of inhibitor with chymotrypsin caused perturbation of the c.d. spectrum and this was used to follow the interaction and show a 1:1 stoicheiometry. 6. C.d., electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing showed that the inhibitor-enzyme complex is degraded by free enzyme. 7. Parallel studies with trypsin indicated that it too forms a 1:1 complex with inhibitor and is degraded by excess of enzyme. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PLATE 5 PLATE 6 PLATE 1 PMID:9069

  20. The drug 5-aminosalicylic acid rescues alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from the neutrophil oxidative inactivation. A possible contribution to its therapeutic action in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Pastorino, G; Vitale, E; Dallegri, F

    1992-01-01

    The glycoprotein alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor is the specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, a major tissue-damaging protease. When incubated with activated neutrophils, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor lost its pancreatic porcine elastase inhibitory capacity and became incapable of forming a sodium dodecyl sulphate-stable complex with pancreatic porcine elastase. Inhibitors and scavengers of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species outlined the crucial role of hypochlorous acid in the alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor inactivation. Moreover, the drug 5-aminosalicylic acid prevented the inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, when the capacity of 5-aminosalicylic acid to rescue alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from the neutrophil-derived attack was plotted as a function of the 5-aminosalicylic acid ability to scavenge neutrophil-derived hypochlorous acid, a positive linear relationship was found. Thus, our results provide a direct evidence that 5-aminosalicylic acid is able to prevent the oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by neutrophils. Therefore, we suggest that the drug has the potential to limit the elastase-mediated damage of colonic connective tissue by creating a microenvironment of active alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor around the neutrophils. PMID:1521714

  1. A plant defensive cystatin (soyacystatin) targets cathepsin L-like digestive cysteine proteinases (DvCALs) in the larval midgut of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Koiwa, H; Shade, R E; Zhu-Salzman, K; D'Urzo, M P; Murdock, L L; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    2000-04-01

    Feeding bioassay results established that the soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitor N (soyacystatin N, scN) substantially inhibits growth and development of western corn rootworm (WCR), by attenuating digestive proteolysis [Zhao, Y. et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 111, 1299-1306]. Recombinant scN was more inhibitory than the potent and broad specificity cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64. WCR digestive proteolytic activity was separated by mildly denaturing SDS-PAGE into two fractions and in-gel assays confirmed that the proteinase activities of each were largely scN-sensitive. Since binding affinity to the target proteinase [Koiwa, H. et al. (1998) Plant J. 14, 371-380] governs the effectiveness of scN as a proteinase inhibitor and an insecticide, five peptides (28-33 kDa) were isolated from WCR gut extracts by scN affinity chromatographic separation. Analysis of the N-terminal sequence of these peptides revealed similarity to a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase (DvCAL1, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera cathepsin L) encoded by a WCR cDNA. Our results indicate that cathepsin L orthologs are pivotal digestive proteinases of WCR larvae, and are targets of plant defensive cystatins (phytocystatins), like scN. PMID:10760514

  2. The SV40 large T antigen and adenovirus E1a oncoproteins interact with distinct isoforms of the transcriptional co-activator, p300.

    PubMed Central

    Avantaggiati, M L; Carbone, M; Graessmann, A; Nakatani, Y; Howard, B; Levine, A S

    1996-01-01

    p300 is a nuclear phosphoprotein likely to be involved in the control of cell growth. Here we show that SV40 large T antigen (Tag) forms a specific complex with p300. In various Tag-expressing cell lines, the affinity of Tag for p300 was restricted to a newly identified unphosphorylated but ubiquitinated form of the protein. Further, Tag did not associate with p300 in an SV40 Tag-producing cell line (REV2) in which the original transformed phenotype (SV52) is reverted. Biochemical studies demonstrate that both the phosphorylation and the ubiquitination profile of p300 are altered in REV2 with respect to the wild-type fully transformed SV52 parental cells, wherein Tag-p300 complexes are readily detected. In contrast to Tag, the adenovirus early expression product E1a interacts with both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of p300. In addition, when REV2 cells were infected with adenovirus, E1a-p300 complexes were detected, suggesting that the p300 expressed in REV2 has lost the affinity for Tag, but not for E1a. We then compared the ability of Tag and E1a to affect the transcription levels of the cAMP-responsive promoter (CRE), which is modulated in vivo by p300, in REV2 cells. We found that Tag repressed the CRE promoter in all of the cell lines in which Tag-p300 complexes were detected, but not in REV2 cells. In contrast, E1a efficiently inhibited CRE-directed transcription in this cell line. The data thus indicate that the different specificities exhibited by Tag and E1a towards the various forms of p300 are reflected in vivo as a difference in the ability of these viral oncoproteins to modulate the expression of CRE-containing genes. Images PMID:8641289

  3. Structural and functional aspects of papain-like cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Turk, B; Turk, V; Turk, D

    1997-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are widely distributed among living organisms. According to the most recent classifications (Rawlings and Barrett, 1993, 1994), they can be subdivided on the basis of sequence homology into 14 or even 20 different families, the most important being the papain and the calpain families. The papain-like cysteine proteinases are the most abundant among the cysteine proteinases. The family consists of papain and related plant proteinases such as chymopapain, caricain, bromelain, actinidin, ficin, and aleurain, and the lysosomal cathepsins B, H, L, S, C and K. Most of these enzymes are relatively small proteins with Mr values in the range 20000-35000 (reviewed in Brocklehurst et al., 1987; Polgar, 1989; Rawlings and Barrett, 1994; Berti and Storer, 1995), with the exception of cathepsin C, which is an oligomeric enzyme with Mr approximately 200000 (Metrione et al., 1970; Dolenc et al., 1995). A number of cysteine proteinases are located within lysosomes. Four of them, cathepsins B, C, H and L, are ubiquitous in lysosomes of animals, whereas cathepsin S has a more restricted localisation (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981; Kirschke and Wiederanders, 1994). The enzymes, except cathepsin C, are endopeptidases (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995), although cathepsin B was found also to be a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (Aronson and Barrett, 1978) and cathepsin H also an aminopeptidase (Koga et al., 1992). Cathepsin C is a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, but at higher pH it exhibits also dipeptidyl transferase activity (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995). Among the lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsin L was found to be the most active in degradation of protein substrates, such as collagen, elastin and azocasein (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981; Maciewicz et al., 1987; Mason et al., 1989), arid cathepsin B the most abundant (Kirschke and Barrett, 1981). All the enzymes are optimally active at slightly acidic pH, although their pH optima for degradation of synthetic

  4. Proteolytic inactivation of the leukocyte C5a receptor by proteinases derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Jagels, M A; Travis, J; Potempa, J; Pike, R; Hugli, T E

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a primary causative agent in adult periodontitis. Several proteinases are produced by this bacterium, and it is suggested that they contribute to virulence and to local tissue injury resulting from infection by P. gingivalis. Cysteine proteinases with specificities to cleave either Arg-X or Lys-X peptide bonds (i.e., gingipains) have been characterized as predominant enzymes associated with vesicles shed from the surface of this bacterium. It has recently been demonstrated that these proteinases are capable of degrading the blood complement component C5, resulting in the generation of biologically active C5a. By using an affinity-purified rabbit antibody raised against residues 9 to 29 of the C5a receptor (C5aR; CD88), we demonstrate that noncysteinyl proteinases associated with vesicles obtained from P. gingivalis cleave the C5aR on human neutrophils. Proteolytic attack of the C5aR by enzymes from the P. gingivalis vesicles was inhibited by TPCK (tolylsullonyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone), PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), and dichloroisocoumarin, suggesting that serine proteinases are primarily responsible for this degradative activity. The purified vesicle proteinase Lys-gingipain but not Arg-gingipain also cleaved the N-terminal region of the C5aR on the human neutrophils. Lys-gingipain activity was essentially resistant to these inhibitors but was inhibited by TLCK (Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone) and iodoacetamide. A synthetic peptide that mimics the N-terminal region of C5aR (residues 9 to 29; PDYGHY DDKDTLDLNTPVDKT) was readily cleaved by chymotrypsin but not by trypsin, despite the presence of two potential trypsin (i.e., lysyl-X) cleavage sites. The specific sites of cleavage in the C5aR 9-29 peptide were determined by mass spectroscopy for both chymotrypsin and Lys-gingipain digests. This analysis demonstrated that the C5aR peptide is susceptible to cleavage at

  5. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  6. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  7. Low seroprevalent species D adenovirus vectors as influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Barry, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza remains a constant threat. While standard influenza vaccines have great utility, the need for improved vaccine technologies have been brought to light by the 2009 swine flu pandemic, highly pathogenic avian influenza infections, and the most recent early and widespread influenza activity. Species C adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (AD5) are potent vehicles for gene-based vaccination. While potent, most humans are already immune to this virus. In this study, low seroprevalent species D adenoviruses Ad26, 28, and 48 were cloned and modified to express the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin gene for vaccine studies. When studied in vivo, these species D Ad vectors performed quite differently as compared to species C Ad vectors depending on the route of immunization. By intramuscular injection, species D vaccines were markedly weaker than species C vaccines. In contrast, the species D vaccines were equally efficient as species C when delivered mucosally by the intranasal route. Intranasal adenovirus vaccine doses as low as 10(8) virus particles per mouse induced complete protection against a stringent lethal challenge dose of influenza. These data support translation of species D adenoviruses as mucosal vaccines and highlight the fundamental effects of differences in virus tropism on vaccine applications. PMID:23991187

  8. Characterization and cloning of metallo-proteinase in the excretory/secretory products of the infective-stage larva of Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Lun, H M; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2003-05-01

    Inhibitor sensitivity assays using azocaesin and FTC-caesin as substrates showed that the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis contained serine, metallo-, cysteine and aspartic proteinases. The activity of the metallo-proteinase was zinc ion dependent (within a range of ZnSO(4) concentrations). Gelatin-substrate gel electrophoresis revealed two bands of molecular mass 48 and 58 kDa which were sensitive to the metallo-proteinase inhibitor EDTA. The former peptide was probably a cleavage product of the latter. The authenticity of the 58 kDa metallo-proteinase as an E/S product was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Using PCR and RACE reactions, a complete nucleotide sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene was obtained. It comprised 2,223 bp with an open reading frame encoding 604 amino acid residues. The 3' untranslated region consisted of 352 bp, including a polyadenylation signal AATAA. A consensus catalytic zinc-binding motif was present. The conserved domains suggest that the cloned metallo-proteinase belongs to the astacin family and occurs as a single copy gene with 11 introns and 10 exons. Cluster analysis showed that the sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene of T. spiralis resembles those of Caenorhabdites elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:12743801

  9. Antisense Inhibition of Expression of Cysteine Proteinases Affects Entamoeba histolytica-Induced Formation of Liver Abscess in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Ankri, Serge; Stolarsky, Tamara; Bracha, Rivka; Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Mirelman, David

    1999-01-01

    Trophozoites of virulent Entamoeba histolytica transfected with the antisense gene encoding cysteine proteinase 5 (CP5) have only 10% of the CP activity but retain their cytopathic activity on mammalian monolayers. In the present study we found that the transfected trophozoites with low levels of CP activity were incapable of inducing the formation of liver lesions in hamsters. PMID:9864246

  10. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

  11. [Preparation of Recombinant Human Adenoviruses Labeled with miniSOG].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Xiao, Rong; Guo, Xiaojuan; Qu, Jianguo; Lu, Zhuozhuang; Hong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We wished to study the intracellular transport of adenoviruses. We constructed a novel recombinant adenovirus in which the structural protein IX was labeled with a mini-singlet oxygen generator (miniSOG). The miniSOG gene was synthesized by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned to the pcDNA3 vector, and expressed in 293 cells. Activation of miniSOG generated sufficient numbers of singlet oxygen molecules to catalyze polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To construct miniSOG-labelled recombinant adenoviruses, the miniSOG gene was subcloned downstream of the IX gene in a pShuttle plasmid. Adenoviral plasmid pAd5-IXSOG was generated by homologous recombination of the modified shuttle plasmid (pShuttle-IXSOG) with the backbone plasmid (pAdeasy-1) in the BJ5183 strain of Eschericia coli. Adenovirus HAdV-5-IXSOG was rescued by transfection of 293 cells with the linearized pAd5-IXSOG. After propagation, virions were purified using the CsC1 ultracentrifugation method. Finally, HAdV-5-IXSOG in 2.0 mL with a particle titer of 6 x 1011 vp/mL was obtained. Morphology of HAdV-5-IXSOG was verified by TEM. Fusion of IX with the miniSOG gene was confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, miniSOG-labeled recombinant adenoviruses were constructed, which could be valuable tools for virus tracking by TEM. PMID:27295881

  12. Conserved Sequences at the Origin of Adenovirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Bruce W.; Topp, William C.; Engler, Jeffrey A.

    1982-01-01

    The origin of adenovirus DNA replication lies within an inverted sequence repetition at either end of the linear, double-stranded viral DNA. Initiation of DNA replication is primed by a deoxynucleoside that is covalently linked to a protein, which remains bound to the newly synthesized DNA. We demonstrate that virion-derived DNA-protein complexes from five human adenovirus serological subgroups (A to E) can act as a template for both the initiation and the elongation of DNA replication in vitro, using nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-infected HeLa cells. The heterologous template DNA-protein complexes were not as active as the homologous Ad2 DNA, most probably due to inefficient initiation by Ad2 replication factors. In an attempt to identify common features which may permit this replication, we have also sequenced the inverted terminal repeated DNA from human adenovirus serotypes Ad4 (group E), Ad9 and Ad10 (group D), and Ad31 (group A), and we have compared these to previously determined sequences from Ad2 and Ad5 (group C), Ad7 (group B), and Ad12 and Ad18 (group A) DNA. In all cases, the sequence around the origin of DNA replication can be divided into two structural domains: a proximal A · T-rich region which is partially conserved among these serotypes, and a distal G · C-rich region which is less well conserved. The G · C-rich region contains sequences similar to sequences present in papovavirus replication origins. The two domains may reflect a dual mechanism for initiation of DNA replication: adenovirus-specific protein priming of replication, and subsequent utilization of this primer by host replication factors for completion of DNA synthesis. Images PMID:7143575

  13. Synthesis and proteinase inhibitory properties of diphenyl phosphonate analogues of aspartic and glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R; Walker, B; Walker, B J

    1998-07-01

    The synthesis of diphenyl phosphonate analogues of aspartic and glutamic acid, and their inhibitory activity against S. aureus V8 protease and granzyme B, is described. The study has revealed difficulties with protecting group compatibility in the synthesis of these analogues. Two analogues, Acetyl. AspP (OPh)2 and Acetyl.GluP (OPh)2 were found to function as irreversible inactivators of V8 proteinase, yet exhibit no activity against granzyme B. PMID:9873408

  14. Host cell autophagy modulates early stages of adenovirus infections in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xuehuo; Carlin, Cathleen R

    2013-02-01

    Human adenoviruses typically cause mild infections in the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or ocular epithelium. However, adenoviruses may be life-threatening in patients with impaired immunity and some serotypes cause epidemic outbreaks. Attachment to host cell receptors activates cell signaling and virus uptake by endocytosis. At present, it is unclear how vital cellular homeostatic mechanisms affect these early steps in the adenovirus life cycle. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway for recycling intracellular components that is upregulated during periods of cell stress. Autophagic cargo is sequestered in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes that fuse with endosomes to form amphisomes which then deliver their content to lysosomes. Autophagy is an important adaptive response in airway epithelial cells targeted by many common adenovirus serotypes. Using two established tissue culture models, we demonstrate here that adaptive autophagy enhances expression of the early region 1 adenovirus protein, induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and production of new viral progeny in airway epithelial cells infected with adenovirus type 2. We have also discovered that adenovirus infections are tightly regulated by endosome maturation, a process characterized by abrupt exchange of Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases, associated with early and late endosomes, respectively. Moreover, endosome maturation appears to control a pool of early endosomes capable of fusing with autophagosomes which enhance adenovirus infection. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to induce autophagy in order to aid their own replication. Our studies reveal a novel role for host cell autophagy that could have a significant impact on the outcome of respiratory infections. PMID:23236070

  15. Mechanism of action of cysteine proteinases: oxyanion binding site is not essential in the hydrolysis of specific substrates.

    PubMed

    Asbóth, B; Stokum, E; Khan, I U; Polgár, L

    1985-01-29

    To study the possible stabilization of the oxyanion of the tetrahedral intermediate formed in the course of the catalyses by cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, papaya peptidase A, and ficin, we synthesized N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)phenylalanylthioglycine O-ethyl ester and compared its hydrolysis with that of the corresponding oxygen ester, a highly specific substrate of the above enzymes. It was found that the substitution of sulfur for the carbonyl oxygen hardly affected the second-order rate constant of acylation and diminished catalytic activity by about 1 order of magnitude in deacylation. These results contrast with those obtained with serine proteinases [Asbóth, B., & Polgár, L. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 117-122], where the hydrolysis of thiono esters could not be detected. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn. Stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate at an oxyanion binding site is not essential with cysteine proteinases. Therefore, and because of the lack of general base catalysis, cysteine proteinases have a less constrained transition-state structure than serine proteinases. PMID:3888259

  16. Pathobiochemical significance of granulocyte elastase complexed with proteinase inhibitors: effect on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in cultured synovial cells.

    PubMed

    Kleesiek, K; van de Leur, E; Reinards, R; Greiling, H

    1987-03-01

    Interactions between elastase inhibitor complexes and synovial cells are of special interest, since, in chronic joint diseases, granulocytes release large amounts of elastase into the synovial fluid and connective tissue, where the proteinase is bound to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin. To study the effect of elastase-alpha 2-macroglobulin and elastase-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complexes on the glycosaminoglycan metabolism of cultured synovial cells, we determined the distribution of [3H]glucosamine-labelled hyaluronate, which represents the main synthesized glycosaminoglycan, and of 35SO4(2-)-labelled chondroitin sulphate into the intracellular, pericellular and extracellular compartments of the cell culture. Exposure of the synovial cells to elastase-alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes leads to an enhanced synthesis and secretion of hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulphate, and also induces a rise of the fibronectin concentration in the medium. Analogous but less pronounced effects are observed in the presence of elastase-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complexes. Native uncomplexed elastase, however, causes no significant changes in hyaluronate metabolism. An increase of prostaglandin E2 in the culture medium during incubation with elastase inhibitor complexes occurs in parallel to the stimulatory effect on glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Our results demonstrate that elastase, whose enzymic activity is inactivated by the formation of complexes with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 2-macroglobulin, nevertheless acts as an inflammatory mediator, which in vitro induces metabolic changes closely resembling the in vivo findings in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:2439645

  17. The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1: purification and characterization of a proteinase, a dipeptidase, and an aminopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Gobbetti, M; Smacchi, E; Corsetti, A

    1996-01-01

    A cell envelope 57-kDa proteinase, a cytoplasmic 65-kDa dipeptidase, and a 75-kDa aminopeptidase were purified from Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1 sourdough lactic acid bacterium by sequential fast protein liquid chromatography steps. All of the enzymes are monomers. The proteinase was most active at pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidase had optima at pH 7.5 and 30 to 35 degrees C. Relatively high activities were observed at the pH and temperature of the sourdough fermentation. The proteinase is a serine enzyme. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digest of alpha s1- and beta-caseins showed differences in the pattern of peptides released by the purified proteinase and those produced by crude preparations of the cell envelope proteinases of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SK11. Reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography of gliadin digests showed a more-complex peptide pattern produced by the proteinase of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1. The dipeptidase is a metalloenzyme with high affinity for dipeptides containing hydrophobic amino acids but had no activity on tripeptides or larger peptides. The aminopeptidase was also inhibited by metal-chelating agents, and showed a broad N-terminal hydrolytic activity including di- and tripeptides. Km values of 0.70 and 0.44 mM were determined for the dipeptidase on Leu-Leu and the aminopeptidase on Leu-p-nitroanilide, respectively. PMID:8795211

  18. High-level expression of Proteinase K from Tritirachium album Limber in Pichia pastoris using multi-copy expression strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Xianhong; Li, Zhezhe; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yunyun; Ma, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xing; Li, Guolong; Wu, Di; Ma, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Proteinase K is widely used in scientific research and industries. This report was aimed to achieve high-level expression of proteinase K using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain. The coding sequence of a variant of proteinase K that has higher activity than the wild type protein was chosen and optimized based on the codon usage preference of P. pastoris. The novel open reading frame was synthesized and a series of multi-copy expression vectors were constructed based on the pHBM905BDM plasmid, allowing for the tandem integration of multiple copies of the target gene into the genome of P. pastoris with a single recombination. These strains were used to study the correlation between the gene copy number and the expression level of proteinase K. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the tandem expression cassettes were integrated into the host genome stably. Meanwhile, the results of qPCR and enzyme activity assays indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the target gene increased as the gene copy number increased. Moreover, the effect of gene dosage on the expression level of the recombinant protein was more obvious using high-density fermentation. The maximum expression level and enzyme activity of proteinase K, which were obtained from the recombinant yeast strain bearing 5 copies of the target gene after an 84-h induction, were approximately 8.069 mg/mL and 108,295 U/mL, respectively. The recombinant proteinase was purified and characterized. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of this protease were approximately pH 11 and 55 °C, respectively. PMID:26892536

  19. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Gregory, R.E.; Cole, D.J.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a /sup 14/C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O/sub 3/ at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/ resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O/sub 3/ exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema.

  20. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, J A; Gregory, R E; Cole, D J; Hahn, F F; Henderson, R F

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a 14C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O3 at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O3 resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O3, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O3, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O3 exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema. PMID:3549351

  1. [Characteristics of proteinase digestive function in invertebrates--inhabitants of cold seas].

    PubMed

    Mukhin, V A; Smirnova, E B; Novikov, V Iu

    2007-01-01

    Digestive proteinases of various taxa of invertebrates of the Northern seas have been studied: crustaceans Paralithodes camtchaticus, Pandalus borealis; molluscs Chlamys islandicus, Buccinum undatum, Serripes groenlandicus, and echinoderms Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Cucumaria frondosa, Asterias rubens, and Grossaster papposus. The presence of two proteolytic activity peaks in the acid (pH 2.5-3.5) and low alkaline zones (pH 7.5-8.5) and a similar proteinase spectrum have been revealed in digestive organs of the studied animals. The proteolytic activity in digestive organs of the Barents Sea invertebrates exceeds significantly that of terrestrial homoiothermal animals, which seems to be an extensive compensation for poor differentiation of the digestive system and for low substrate specificity of the enzymes as well as for cold conditions of the habitat. The principal qualitative difference between vertebrates and invertebrates consists in that the latter have no pepsin activity, but do have the cathepsin activity that is absent in vertebrate digestive organs. Contribution to the acid proteolysis is made by lysosomal cathepsins, rather than by pepsins. Activity in the alkaline and neutral pH zones is provided by serine proteinases. In digestive cavities of invertebrates, hydrolysis of proteins and mechanical processing of food occur only in the low alkaline zone, whereas acid proteolysis has intracellular lysosomal localization. PMID:18038635

  2. The Challenge for Gene Therapy: Innate Immune Response to Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Thaci, Bart; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Wainwright, Derek A.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy. Despite the promising safety profile demonstrated in clinical trials, the efficacy of using adenoviruses for gene therapy is poor. A major hurdle to adenoviral-mediated gene therapy is the innate immune system. Cell-mediated recognition of viruses via capsid components or nucleic acids has received significant attention, principally thought to be regulated by the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Antiviral innate immune responses are initiated by the infected cell, which activates the interferon (IFN) response to block viral replication, while simultaneously releasing chemokines to attract neutrophils, mononuclear- and natural killer-cells. While the IFN and cellular recruitment pathways are activated and regulated independently of each other, both are required to overcome immune escape mechanisms by adenoviruses. Recent work has shown that the generation of adenoviral vectors lacking specific transcriptionally-active regions decreases immune system activation and increases the chance for immune escape. In this review, we elucidate how adenoviral vector modifications alter the IFN and innate inflammatory pathway response and propose future targets with clinically-translational relevance. PMID:21399236

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    PubMed Central

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K. PMID:10347045

  4. Fibrinogen degradation by two neutral granulocyte proteinases. Influence of calcium on the generation of fibrinogen degradation products with anticlotting properties.

    PubMed

    Bingenhkeimer, C; Gramse, M; Egbring, R; Havemann, K

    1981-07-01

    Degradation of human fibrinogen by elastase-like proteinase, chymotrypsin-like proteinase and plasmin, was done in the presence and absence of calcium ions, respectively. The resulting fibrinogen degradation products were tested for their coagulant and anti-coagulant properties. The results show that 1. fibrinogenolysis is delayed in the presence of calcium ions. Higher enzyme concentrations are required to get unclottable split products when calcium ions are present. 2. The fibrinogen fragments obtained in the presence of calcium are different in their molecular weights and anticoagulant activities compared to those obtained in the absence of calcium ions. This effect of calcium is most striking during fibrinogen cleavage by chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Elastase and plasmin-induced fibrinogenolysis was substantially influenced by calcium only at a late degradation stage. PMID:6456216

  5. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; et al

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  6. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  7. Adenovirus type 5 interactions with human blood cells may compromise systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Mark; Onion, David; Green, Nicky K; Aslan, Kriss; Rajaratnam, Ratna; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; Phipps, Sue; Hale, Sarah; Mautner, Vivien; Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2006-07-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenovirus vectors requires that the virus is not inactivated in the bloodstream. Serum neutralizing activity is well documented, but we show here that type 5 adenovirus also interacts with human blood cells. Over 90% of a typical virus dose binds to human (but not murine) erythrocytes ex vivo, and samples from a patient administered adenovirus in a clinical trial showed that over 98% of viral DNA in the blood was cell associated. In contrast, nearly all viral genomes in the murine bloodstream are free in the plasma. Adenovirus bound to human blood cells fails to infect A549 lung carcinoma cells, although dilution to below 1.7 x 10(7) blood cells/ml relieves this inhibition. Addition of blood cells can prevent infection by adenovirus that has been prebound to A549 cells. Adenovirus also associates with human neutrophils and monocytes ex vivo, particularly in the presence of autologous plasma, giving dose-dependent transgene expression in CD14-positive monocytes. Finally, although plasma with a high neutralizing titer (defined on A549 cells) inhibits monocyte infection, weakly neutralizing plasma can actually enhance monocyte transduction. This may increase antigen presentation following intravenous injection, while blood cell binding may both decrease access of the virus to extravascular targets and inhibit infection of cells to which the virus does gain access. PMID:16580883

  8. Gene Delivery by Subconjunctival Injection of Adenovirus in Rats: A Study of Local Distribution, Transgene Duration and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jia Hui; Tsai, Pei-Jhen; Tsai, Han-En; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Dusting, Gregory J.; Tai, Ming-Hong; Bee, Youn-Shen

    2015-01-01

    -term ocular transgene expression, without causing hepatic injury and immune activation. Therefore, subconjunctivally administered adenovirus may be a promising gene delivery approach for managing anterior and posterior segment eye diseases requiring short-term therapy. PMID:26642208

  9. Snake venoms. The amino acid sequences of two proteinase inhibitor homologues from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Taljaard, N

    1980-05-01

    Toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Whereas C13S1C3 contains 57 amino acids, C13S2C3 contains 59 but each include six half-cystine residues. The complete primary structure of the low toxicity proteins have been elucidated. The sequences and the invariant residues of toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom resemble, respectively, those of the proteinase inhibitor homologues K and I from D. polylepis polylepis venom and they are also homologous to the active proteinase inhibitors from various sources. In C13S1C3 and K the active site lysyl residue of active bovine pancreatic proteinase inhibitor is conserved but the site residue alanine, is replaced by lysine. In C13S2C3 and I the active site residue is replaced by tyrosine. PMID:7429422

  10. Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Gauthier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

  11. Evidence that the potyvirus P1 proteinase functions in trans as an accessory factor for genome amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Verchot, J; Carrington, J C

    1995-01-01

    The tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) polyprotein is proteolytically processed by three viral proteinases (NIa, HC-Pro, and P1). While the NIa and HC-Pro proteinases each provide multiple functions essential for viral infectivity, the role of the P1 proteinase beyond its autoproteolytic activity is understood poorly. To determine if P1 is necessary for genome amplification and/or virus movement from cell to cell, a mutant lacking the entire P1 coding region (delta P1 mutant) was produced with a modified TEV strain (TEV-GUS) expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter, and its replication and movement phenotypes were assayed in tobacco protoplasts and plants. The delta P1 mutant accumulated in protoplasts to approximately 2 to 3% the level of parental TEV-GUS, indicating that the P1 protein may contribute to but is not strictly required for viral RNA amplification. The delta P1 mutant was capable of cell-to-cell and systemic (leaf-to-leaf) movement in plants but at reduced rates compared with parental virus. This is in contrast to the S256A mutant, which encodes a processing-defective P1 proteinase and which was nonviable in plants. Both delta P1 and S256A mutants were complemented by P1 proteinase expressed in a transgenic host. In transgenic protoplasts, genome amplification of the delta P1 mutant relative to parental virus was stimulated five- to sixfold. In transgenic plants, the level of accumulation of the delta P1 mutant was stimulated, although the rate of cell-to-cell movement was the same as in nontransgenic plants. Also, the S256A mutant was capable of replication and systemic infection in P1-expressing transgenic plants. These data suggest that, in addition to providing essential processing activity, the P1 proteinase functions in trans to stimulate genome amplification. PMID:7745715

  12. A STUDY OF THE INHIBITION OF STREPTOCOCCAL PROTEINASE BY SERA OF NORMAL AND IMMUNE ANIMALS AND OF PATIENTS INFECTED WITH GROUP A HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Edgar W.

    1947-01-01

    Antiproteinase sera were prepared by immunizing horses with filtrates from a selected strain of group A streptococcus. This strain, which produced high titred proteinase but no erythrogenic toxin, was selected from forty-two strains of group A streptococci which produced varying amounts of proteinase. A few strains belonging to groups B, C, and G were also tested; they were all proteinase-negative. Methods are described for titrating streptococcal proteinase in crude culture filtrates and for measuring the antiproteinase activity of serum. The antiproteinase titres of sera from immunized horses ranged from 125 units to 1,000 units per cc. in contrast to the low titres of normal horse sera, only 5 per cent of which had titres as high as 10 to 30 units per cc. The available evidence suggests that the antiproteinase activity of immune sera is dependent on the action of specific antibody for streptococcal proteinase. Patients infected with group A streptococci do not develop high anti-proteinase titres. There appears to be no correlation between the occurrence of rheumatic fever and the antiproteinase titre of the patient's serum. PMID:19871638

  13. Three low molecular weight cysteine proteinase inhibitors of human seminal fluid: purification and enzyme kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Chhikara, Nirmal; Gill, Kamaldeep; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2013-08-01

    The cystatins form a superfamily of structurally related proteins with highly conserved structural folds. They are all potent, reversible, competitive inhibitors of cysteine proteinases (CPs). Proteins from this group present differences in proteinase inhibition despite their high level of structural similarities. In this study, three cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) of low molecular weight were isolated from human seminal fluid (HSF) by affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-papain-Sepharose column, purified using various chromatographic procedures and checked for purity on sodium-dodecyl PAGE (SDS-PAGE). Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified these proteins as cystatin 9, cystatin SN, and SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S). All three CPIs suppressed the activity of papain potentially and showed remarkable heat stability. Interestingly SAP-1 also inhibits the activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and PSA (prostate specific antigen) and acts as a cross-class protease inhibitor in in vitro studies. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we have also observed that SAP-1 shows a significant binding with all these proteases. These studies suggest that SAP-1 is a cross-class inhibitor that may regulate activity of various classes of proteases within the reproductive systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about purification of CPIs from HSF; the identification of such proteins could provide better insights into the physiological processes and offer intimation for further research. PMID:23619703

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided. PMID:17656792

  15. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides ‘self-adjuvanting’ activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  16. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  17. Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor: partnering alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor to combat pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L.; Tetley, T. D.

    1996-01-01

    Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is a low molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitor, notably of neutrophil elastase (NE), which is synthesised and secreted by the pulmonary epithelium. SLPI plays an important role in limiting NE-induced pulmonary inflammation and, significantly, it also possesses anti-HIV activity. SLPI is a significant component of the anti-NE shield in the lung which has different reactivity from, and is therefore complementary to, the anti-NE action of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI). Inhaled recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) could prove beneficial in partnership with alpha 1-PI in the treatment of a number of inflammatory lung disorders including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:8994529

  18. Key features determining the specificity of aspartic proteinase inhibition by the helix-forming IA3 polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Harrison, Rebecca J; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-03-01

    The 68-residue IA(3) polypeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially unstructured. It inhibits its target aspartic proteinase through an unprecedented mechanism whereby residues 2-32 of the polypeptide adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation upon contact with the active site of the enzyme. This potent inhibitor (K(i) < 0.1 nm) appears to be specific for a single target proteinase, saccharopepsin. Mutagenesis of IA(3) from S. cerevisiae and its ortholog from Saccharomyces castellii was coupled with quantitation of the interaction for each mutant polypeptide with saccharopepsin and closely related aspartic proteinases from Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus fumigatus. This identified the charged K18/D22 residues on the otherwise hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix as key selectivity-determining residues within the inhibitor and implicated certain residues within saccharopepsin as being potentially crucial. Mutation of these amino acids established Ala-213 as the dominant specificity-governing feature in the proteinase. The side chain of Ala-213 in conjunction with valine 26 of the inhibitor marshals Tyr-189 of the enzyme precisely into a position in which its side-chain hydroxyl is interconnected via a series of water-mediated contacts to the key K18/D22 residues of the inhibitor. This extensive hydrogen bond network also connects K18/D22 directly to the catalytic Asp-32 and Tyr-75 residues of the enzyme, thus deadlocking the inhibitor in position. In most other aspartic proteinases, the amino acid at position 213 is a larger hydrophobic residue that prohibits this precise juxtaposition of residues and eliminates these enzymes as targets of IA(3). The exquisite specificity exhibited by this inhibitor in its interaction with its cognate folding partner proteinase can thus be readily explained. PMID:17145748

  19. A Functional Complex of Adenovirus Proteins E1B-55kDa and E4orf6 Is Necessary To Modulate the Expression Level of p53 but Not Its Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cathomen, Toni; Weitzman, Matthew D.

    2000-01-01

    In adenovirus-infected cells, binding of E1B-55kDa and E4orf6 to the tumor suppressor protein p53 inhibits its transcriptional activity and causes rapid turnover of the protein. To investigate the requirements of the E1B-E4orf6 complex to modulate p53 function, we generated an E4orf6 mutant that failed to associate functionally and physically with E1B-55kDa but still interacted with p53. We confirm that E4orf6 and E1B-55kDa reduce p53 transactivation individually and show that their combined inhibition is additive rather than synergistic. Furthermore, we found that downregulation of p53's expression level, but not transcriptional inhibition of p53, depends on a functional E1B-E4 complex. A functional interaction of E1B-55kDa with p53, on the other hand, is a prerequisite for both transcriptional repression and downregulation of p53. The separation of these two functions will enable further dissection of the requirements for oncogenicity by the E4orf6 protein. PMID:11070042

  20. Anti-Viral Drugs for Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Mary Miu Yee; Sing, Chor Wing

    2010-01-01

    There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A–F), with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.

  1. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2016-05-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a natural parasite of the common brown rat Rattus norvegicus, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of the anthelmintic activity of novel drugs against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of rats infected with H. diminuta with a supernatant extract of papaya latex, containing a mixture of four cysteine proteinases, was moderately efficacious, resulting in a significant, but relatively small, reduction in worm burden and biomass. However, faecal egg output was not affected by treatment. In our experiments these effects were only partially dose-dependent, although specific inhibition by E-64 confirmed the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in papaya latex affecting worm growth but not statistically reducing worm burden. Data collected for a further 7 days after treatment indicated that the effects of papaya latex supernatant on worm loss and on worm growth were not enhanced. Our findings provide a starting point for further refinement in formulation and delivery, or assessment of alternative natural plant-derived cysteine proteinases in efforts to develop these naturally occurring enzymes into broad-spectrum anthelmintics, with efficacy against cestodes as well as nematodes. PMID:25761568

  2. Protein Degradation, Meiosis and Sporulation in Proteinase-Deficient Mutants of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Zubenko, George S.; Jones, Elizabeth W.

    1981-01-01

    During the process of sporulation, a/α diploids degrade about 50% of their vegetative proteins. This degradation is not sporulation specific, for asporogenous diploids of a/a mating type degrade their vegetative proteins in a fashion similar to that of their a/α counterparts. Diploids lacking carboxypeptidase Y activity, prc1/prc1, show about 80% of wild-type levels of protein degradation, but are unimpaired in the production of normal asci. Diploids lacking proteinase B activity, prb1/prb1, show about 50% of wild-type levels of protein degradation. The effect on degradation of the proteinase B deficiency is epistatic to the degradation deficit attributable to the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency. The prb1 homozygotes undergo meiosis and produce spores, but the asci and, possibly, the spores are abnormal. Diploids homozygous for the pleiotropic pep4–3 mutation show only 30% of the wild-type levels of degradation when exposed to a sporulation regimen, and do not undergo meiosis or sporulation. Neither proteinase B nor carboxypeptidase Y is necessary for germination of spores.——Approximately half of the colonies arising from a/a or α/α diploids exposed to the sporulation regiment that express an initially heterozygous drug-resistance marker (can1) appear to arise from mating-type switches followed by meiosis and sporulation. PMID:7021321

  3. Structure of equine infectious anemia virus proteinase complexed with an inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Gustchina, A.; Kervinen, J.; Powell, D. J.; Zdanov, A.; Kay, J.; Wlodawer, A.

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the causative agent of infectious anemia in horses, is a member of the lentiviral family. The virus-encoded proteinase (PR) processes viral polyproteins into functional molecules during replication and it also cleaves viral nucleocapsid protein during infection. The X-ray structure of a complex of the 154G mutant of EIAV PR with the inhibitor HBY-793 was solved at 1.8 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 0.136. The molecule is a dimer in which the monomers are related by a crystallographic twofold axis. Although both the enzyme and the inhibitor are symmetric, the interactions between the central part of the inhibitor and the active site aspartates are asymmetric, and the inhibitor and the two flaps are partially disordered. The overall fold of EIAV PR is very similar to that of other retroviral proteinases. However, a novel feature of the EIAV PR structure is the appearance of the second alpha-helix in the monomer in a position predicted by the structural template for the family of aspartic proteinases. The parts of the EIAV PR with the highest resemblance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PR include the substrate-binding sites; thus, the differences in the specificity of both enzymes have to be explained by enzyme-ligand interactions at the periphery of the active site as well. PMID:8844837

  4. SARS CoV Main Proteinase: The Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium Dissociation Constant

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano,V.; McGrath, W.; Yang, L.; Mangel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (SARS CoV main proteinase) is required for the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), the virus that causes SARS. One function of the enzyme is to process viral polyproteins. The active form of the SARS CoV main proteinase is a homodimer. In the literature, estimates of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant, K{sub D}, have varied more than 650000-fold, from <1 nM to more than 200 {mu}M. Because of these discrepancies and because compounds that interfere with activation of the enzyme by dimerization may be potential antiviral agents, we investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium by three different techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical cross-linking, and enzyme kinetics. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data from a series of measurements at different SARS CoV main proteinase concentrations yielded K{sub D} values of 5.8 {+-} 0.8 {mu}M (obtained from the entire scattering curve), 6.5 {+-} 2.2 {mu}M (obtained from the radii of gyration), and 6.8 {+-} 1.5 {mu}M (obtained from the forward scattering). The K{sub D} from chemical cross-linking was 12.7 {+-} 1.1 {mu}M, and from enzyme kinetics, it was 5.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M. While each of these three techniques can present different, potential limitations, they all yielded similar K{sub D} values.

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 serine proteinase: polyprotein cleavage sites, cofactor requirements, and molecular model of an enzyme essential for pestivirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Mendez, E; Caron, P R; Lin, C; Murcko, M A; Collett, M S; Rice, C M

    1997-01-01

    Members of the Flaviviridae encode a serine proteinase termed NS3 that is responsible for processing at several sites in the viral polyproteins. In this report, we show that the NS3 proteinase of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) is required for processing at nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B but not for cleavage at the junction between NS2 and NS3. Cleavage sites of the proteinase were determined by amino-terminal sequence analysis of the NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B proteins. A conserved leucine residue is found at the P1 position of all four cleavage sites, followed by either serine (3/4A, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites) or alanine (4A/4B site) at the P1' position. Consistent with this cleavage site preference, a structural model of the pestivirus NS3 proteinase predicts a highly hydrophobic P1 specificity pocket. trans-Processing experiments implicate the 64-residue NS4A protein as an NS3 proteinase cofactor required for cleavage at the 4B/5A and 5A/5B sites. Finally, using a full-length functional BVDV cDNA clone, we demonstrate that a catalytically active NS3 serine proteinase is essential for pestivirus replication. PMID:9188600

  6. An N-terminal region of a Myb-like protein is involved in its intracellular localization and activation of a gibberellin-inducible proteinase gene in germinated rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Sutoh, Keita; Washio, Kenji; Imai, Ryozo; Wada, Masamitsu; Nakai, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the gene for a proteinase (Rep1) is upregulated by gibberellins. The CAACTC regulatory element (CARE) of the Rep1 promoter is involved in the gibberellin response. We isolated a cDNA for a CARE-binding protein containing a Myb domain in its carboxyl-terminal region and designated the gene Carboxyl-terminal Myb1 (CTMyb1). This gene encodes two polypeptides of two distinctive lengths, CTMyb1L and CTMyb1S, which include or exclude 213 N-terminal amino acid residues, respectively. CTMyb1S transactivated the Rep1 promoter in the presence of OsGAMyb, but not CTMyb1L. We observed an interaction between CTMyb1S and the rice prolamin box-binding factor (RPBF). A bimolecular fluorescence complex analysis detected the CTMyb1S and RPBF complex in the nucleus, but not the CTMyb1L and RPBF complex. The results suggest that the arrangement of the transfactors is involved in gibberellin-inducible expression of Rep1. PMID:25559339

  7. A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Fook, J M S L L; Macedo, L L P; Moura, G E D D; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Queiroz, A F S; Sales, M P

    2005-05-01

    Proteinaceous inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were found in seeds of the Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). A serine proteinase inhibitor denoted PG50 was purified using ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatographies. Inhibitor PG50 showed a Mr of 14.9 K on Sephadex G-50 calibrated column and a Mr of 11.6 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PG50 had selective activity while cysteine proteinases (papain and bromelain) and serine proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin) were not inhibited, it was strongly effective against serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin and isolated human neutrophil elastase. The IC50 value was determined to be 55.96 microg.mL-1. PG50 showed neither cytotoxic nor haemolytic activity on human blood cells. After pre-incubation of PG50 with cytochalasin B, the exocytosis of elastase was initiated using PAF and fMLP. PG50 exhibited different inhibition on elastase release by PAF, at 44.6% and on release by fMLP, at 28.4%. These results showed that PG50 preferentially affected elastase release by PAF stimuli and this may indicate selective inhibition on PAF receptors. PMID:15820500

  8. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Katrina; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy. In spite of the recent development of more effective inhibitors of androgen-androgen receptor signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, patient survival benefits are still limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have proven efficacy in prostate cancer cells and cause regression of tumors in preclinical models of numerous drug-resistant cancers. Data from clinical trials demonstrate that adenoviral mutants have limited toxicity to normal tissues and are safe when administered to patients with various solid cancers, including prostate cancer. While efficacy in response to adenovirus administration alone is marginal, findings from early-phase trials targeting local-ized and metastatic prostate cancer suggest improved efficacy in combination with cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy. Here, we review recent progress in the development of multimodal oncolytic adenoviruses as biological therapeutics to improve on tumor elimination in prostate cancer patients. These optimized mutants target cancer cells by several mechanisms including viral lysis and by expression of cytotoxic transgenes and immune-stimulatory factors that activate the host immune system to destroy both infected and noninfected prostate cancer cells. Additional modifications of the viral capsid proteins may support future systemic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:27579296

  9. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Katrina; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy. In spite of the recent development of more effective inhibitors of androgen–androgen receptor signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, patient survival benefits are still limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have proven efficacy in prostate cancer cells and cause regression of tumors in preclinical models of numerous drug-resistant cancers. Data from clinical trials demonstrate that adenoviral mutants have limited toxicity to normal tissues and are safe when administered to patients with various solid cancers, including prostate cancer. While efficacy in response to adenovirus administration alone is marginal, findings from early-phase trials targeting local-ized and metastatic prostate cancer suggest improved efficacy in combination with cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy. Here, we review recent progress in the development of multimodal oncolytic adenoviruses as biological therapeutics to improve on tumor elimination in prostate cancer patients. These optimized mutants target cancer cells by several mechanisms including viral lysis and by expression of cytotoxic transgenes and immune-stimulatory factors that activate the host immune system to destroy both infected and noninfected prostate cancer cells. Additional modifications of the viral capsid proteins may support future systemic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:27579296

  10. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species. PMID:23643878

  11. Hyaluronidase Expression by an Oncolytic Adenovirus Enhances Its Intratumoral Spread and Suppresses Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Guedan, Sonia; Rojas, Juan José; Gros, Alena; Mercade, Elena; Cascallo, Manel; Alemany, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Successful virotherapy requires efficient virus spread within tumors. We tested whether the expression of hyaluronidase, an enzyme which dissociates the extracellular matrix (ECM), could enhance the intratumoral distribution of an oncolytic adenovirus and improve its therapeutic activity. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that intratumoral coadministration of hyaluronidase in mice-bearing tumor xenografts improves the antitumor activity of an oncolytic adenovirus. Next, we constructed a replication-competent adenovirus expressing a soluble form of the human sperm hyaluronidase (PH20) under the control of the major late promoter (MLP) (AdwtRGD-PH20). Intratumoral treatment of human melanoma xenografts with AdwtRGD-PH20 resulted in degradation of hyaluronan (HA), enhanced viral distribution, and induced tumor regression in all treated tumors. Finally, the PH20 cDNA was inserted in an oncolytic adenovirus that selectively kills pRb pathway-defective tumor cells. The antitumoral activity of the novel oncolytic adenovirus expressing PH20 (ICOVIR17) was compared to that of the parental virus ICOVIR15. ICOVIR17 showed more antitumor efficacy following intratumoral and systemic administration in mice with prestablished tumors, along with an improved spread of the virus within the tumor. Importantly, a single intravenous dose of ICOVIR17 induced tumor regression in 60% of treated tumors. These results indicate that ICOVIR17 is a promising candidate for clinical testing. PMID:20442708

  12. Proteinases in the joint: clinical relevance of proteinases in joint destruction

    PubMed Central

    Rengel, Yvonne; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in essential steps in cartilage and bone homeostasis. Consequently, efforts have been made to establish their potential role in the pathology of rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and spondyloarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are sensitive markers of disease severity and response to treatment, and therefore they have potential in the assessment of rheumatic diseases. Despite disappointing early results with synthetic inhibitors of MMPs, there is still much scope for developing effective and safe MMPs inhibitors, and consequently to deliver new options to inhibit joint destruction. PMID:18001502

  13. In vitro anthelmintic effects of cysteine proteinases from plants against intestinal helminths of rodents.

    PubMed

    Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann E; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2007-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are amongst the most prevalent worldwide, especially in tropical climates. Control of these infections is primarily through treatment with anthelmintic drugs, but the rapid development of resistance to all the currently available classes of anthelmintic means that alternative treatments are urgently required. Cysteine proteinases from plants such as papaya, pineapple and fig are known to be substantially effective against three rodent GI nematodes, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Trichuris muris and Protospirura muricola, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, based on in vitro motility assays and scanning electron microscopy, we extend these earlier reports, demonstrating the potency of this anthelmintic effect of plant cysteine proteinases against two GI helminths from different taxonomic groups - the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and the rodent cestode, Rodentolepis microstoma. In the case of hookworms, a mechanism of action targeting the surface layers of the cuticle indistinguishable from that reported earlier appears to be involved, and in the case of cestodes, the surface of the tegumental layers was also the principal location of damage. Hence, plant cysteine proteinases have a broad spectrum of activity against intestinal helminths (both nematodes and cestodes), a quality that reinforces their suitability for development as a much-needed novel treatment against GI helminths of humans and livestock. PMID:18005461

  14. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized. PMID:26999188

  15. Phage display selection of P1 mutants of BPTI directed against five different serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Kiczak, L; Koscielska, K; Otlewski, J; Czerwinski, M; Dadlez, M

    1999-01-01

    The P1 position of protein inhibitors and oligopeptide substrates determines, to a large extent, association energy with many serine proteinases. To test the agreement of phage display selection with the existing thermodynamic data, a small library of all 20 P1 mutants of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was created, fused to protein III, and displayed on the surface of M13 phage. The wild type of displayed inhibitor monovalently and strongly inhibited trypsin with an association constant of Ka = 3 x 10(11) M(-1). The library was applied to select BPTI variants active against five serine proteinases of different specificity (bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, human leukocyte and porcine pancreatic elastases, human azurocidin). The results of enrichment with four proteinases agreed well with the available thermodynamic data. In the case of azurocidin, the phage display selection allowed determination of the P1 specificity of this protein with the following frequencies for selected P1 variants: 43% Lys, 36% Leu, 7% Met, 7% Thr, 7% Gln. PMID:10064144

  16. Growth of an extracellular proteinase-deficient strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens on milk and milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Torrie, J P; Cholette, H; Froehlich, D A; McKellar, R C

    1983-08-01

    An extracellular proteinase-and lipase-deficient mutant of a psychrotroph, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 32A, has been isolated and the absence of the proteinase enzyme confirmed by growth on differential media, enzyme assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Competition between the parent and the mutant was observed when equal numbers of the 2 strains were inoculated together into raw skim-milk at 6 degrees C. Bitterness was detected at 6 degrees C in pasteurized skim-milk inoculated with the parent cells concurrent with the detection of proteolytic activity. In the case of the mutant, slight bitterness which did not increase with increasing cell numbers was detected in the absence of proteolysis. Mutant cells failed to grow on Na caseinate as the sole source of carbon. It was concluded that the extracellular proteinase, while not essential for growth in milk, does provide a selective advantage to the producer organism. This enzyme is, however, essential for growth on milk proteins and contributes to the development of bitterness in pasteurized milk. PMID:6413562

  17. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3C(pro)s) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3C(pro) plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3C(pro) are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3C(pro) can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3C(pro) and these essential factors, 3C(pro) is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3C(pro) are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3C(pro) may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3C(pro) is summarized. PMID:26999188

  18. An outbreak of adenovirus keratoconjunctivitis in bristol.

    PubMed Central

    Tullo, A B; Higgins, P G

    1979-01-01

    Nineteen cases of keratoconjunctivitis caused by an adenovirus serologically related to types 10 and 19 are described. Seventeen of the patients presented over a period of 7 weeks and included 4 who were involved in a minor outbreak at a factory. The presentation and clinical features closely resembled those caused by adenoviruses types 8 and 19. Mild to severe follicular conjunctivitis, superficial punctate keratitis, discrete subepithelial opacities, membrane formation, and conjunctival scarring were all observed. Images PMID:226115

  19. Proteinase-antiproteinase balance in tracheal aspirates from neonates.

    PubMed

    Sluis, K B; Darlow, B A; Vissers, M C; Winterbourn, C C

    1994-02-01

    We wanted to identify the inhibitors of neutrophil elastase, quantify their activities in the upper airways of neonates, and relate these to the presence of active elastase and the likelihood of elastolytic injury occurring due to inhibitory capacity being overwhelmed. Activities of neutrophil elastase and its inhibitors were measured in tracheal aspirates from 17 infants, 10 of whom subsequently developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. All aspirates contained immunologically detectable alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), but their inhibitory capacity against neutrophil elastase ranged from being undetectable to being in excess of the amount of alpha 1-PI detected immunologically. When the alpha 1-PI was removed from each of the aspirates, using a specific antibody, from 0-50% of the original activity remained, indicating the presence of another elastase inhibitor. Its properties were consistent with it being the low molecular mass, secretory leucoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI), also known as bronchial antileucoproteinase. The alpha 1-PI was from 0-100% active. Most of the inactive inhibitor was shown by western blotting to be complexed with elastase, with a small amount of cleaved material. There was no evidence of major oxidative inactivation. Free elastase was detected in only three of the aspirates; these had little or no detectable elastase inhibitory capacity, and most of their alpha 1-PI was complexed. Elastase load, comprising the sum of free and complexed elastase, correlated closely with myeloperoxidase activity, a recognized marker of inflammatory activity. Active SLPI levels showed a positive correlation with gestational age (r = 0.66). We conclude that most neutrophil elastase in the upper airways of ventilated infants is complexed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7909297

  20. Functional dissection of adenovirus VAI RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, M R; Subramanian, S; Bhat, R A; Fowlkes, D M; Safer, B; Thimmappaya, B

    1989-01-01

    During the course of adenovirus infection, the VAI RNA protects the translation apparatus of host cells by preventing the activation of host double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, which phosphorylates and thereby inactivates the protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2. In the absence of VAI RNA, protein synthesis is drastically inhibited at late times in infected cells. The experimentally derived secondary structure of VAI RNA consists of two extended base-paired regions, stems I and III, which are joined by a short base-paired region, stem II, at the center. Stems I and II are joined by a small loop, A, and stem III contains a hairpin loop, B. At the center of the molecule and at the 3' side, stems II and III are connected by a short stem-loop (stem IV and hairpin loop C). A fourth, minor loop, D, exists between stems II and IV. To determine sequences and domains critical for function within this VAI RNA structure, we have constructed adenovirus mutants with linker-scan substitution mutations in defined regions of the molecule. Cells infected with these mutants were analyzed for polypeptide synthesis, virus yield, and eIF-2 alpha kinase activity. Our results showed that disruption of base-paired regions in the distal parts of the longest stems, I and III, did not affect function, whereas mutations causing structural perturbations in the central part of the molecule containing stem II, the proximal part of stem III, and the central short stem-loop led to loss of function. Surprisingly, one substitution mutant, sub742, although dramatically perturbing the integrity of the structure of this central portion, showed a wild-type phenotype, suggesting that an RNA with an alternate secondary structure is functional. On the basis of sensitivity to single-strand-specific RNases, we can derive a novel secondary structure for the mutant RNA in which a portion of the sequences may fold to form a structure that resembles the central part of the wild-type molecule

  1. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M; Buttle, David J; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists) that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock. PMID:18761736

  2. Adenovirus type 2 terminal protein: purification and comparison of tryptic peptides with known adenovirus-coded proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Harter, M L; Lewis, J B; Anderson, C W

    1979-01-01

    The protein covalently bound to the 5' termini of adenovirus type 2 DNA has been purified from virus labeled with [35S]methionine, using exclusion chromatography of disrupted virions to isolate the DNA-protein complex, which is then digested with DNase. The terminal protein isolated from mature virus is most effectively labeled if the cells are exposed to [35S]methionine during the "intermediate" period of 13 to 21 h postinfection, suggesting that the protein is synthesized during this interval. The tryptic peptides of the terminal protein were compared with those of several known adenovirus-coded proteins and found to be unrelated. In particular, the terminal protein is not related to the 38-50K early proteins encoded by the leftmost 4.4% of the adenovirus genome, one region essential for the transforming activity of the virus. Neither is it related to the 72K single-strand-specific DNA binding protein, the minor virion component IVa2, or the major capsid component hexon. Images PMID:513195

  3. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. PMID:26226218

  4. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T. . E-mail: curiel@uab.edu

    2006-08-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology.

  5. Inhibition of IgA1 proteinases from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Hemophilus influenzae by peptide prolyl boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, W W; Plaut, A G; Flentke, G R; Lynch, M; Kettner, C A

    1990-03-01

    The alpha-aminoboronic acid analog of proline has been synthesized and incorporated into a number of peptides as the COOH-terminal residue. These peptide prolyl boronic acids are potent inhibitors of both the type 1 and type 2 IgA proteinases from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Hemophilus influenzae, but not of the functionally similar IgA proteinase from Streptococcus sanguis. The best inhibitors synthesized thus far have Ki values in the nanomolar range (4.0 to 60 nM). These results indicate that the N. gonorrhoeae and the H. influenzae enzymes belong to the serine protease family of proteolytic enzymes while that from S. sanguis does not. As a group, the IgA proteinases have been noted for their remarkable specificity; thus, the peptide prolyl boronic acids reported here are the first small synthetic molecules to exhibit a relatively high affinity for the active site of an IgA proteinase and are therefore the first to yield some insight into the active site structure and specificity requirements of these enzymes. PMID:2105953

  6. Proteinases inhibit H(+)-ATPase and Na+/H+ exchange but not water transport in apical and endosomal membranes from rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Sabolić, I; Shi, L B; Brown, D; Ausiello, D A; Verkman, A S

    1992-01-10

    A marked increase in water permeability can be induced in Xenopus oocytes by injection of mRNA from tissues that express water channels, suggesting that the water channel is a protein. In view of this and previous reports which showed that proteinases may interfere with mercurial inhibition of water transport in red blood cells (RBC), we examined the influence of trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, pronase, subtilisin and thermolysin on water permeability as well as on ATPase activity, H(+)-pump, passive H+ conductance, and Na+/H+ exchange in apical brush-border vesicles (BBMV) and endosomal (EV) vesicles from rat renal cortex. H+ transport was measured by Acridine orange fluorescence quenching and water transport by stopped-flow light scattering. As measured by potential-driven H+ accumulation in BBMV and EV, proteinase treatment had little effect on vesicle integrity. In BBMV, ecto-ATPase activity was inhibited by 15-30%, Na+/H+ exchange by 20-55%, and H+ conductance was unchanged. Osmotic water permeability (Pf) was 570 microns/s and was inhibited 85-90% by 0.6 mM HgCl2; proteinase treatment did not affect Pf or the HgCl2 inhibition. In EV, NEM-sensitive H+ accumulation and ATPase activity were inhibited by greater than 95%. Pf (140 microns/s) and HgCl2 inhibition (75-85%) were not influenced by proteinase treatment. SDS-PAGE showed selective digestion of multiple polypeptides by proteinases. These results confirm the presence of water channels in BBMV and EV and demonstrate selective inhibition of ATPase function and Na+/H+ exchange by proteinase digestion. The lack of effect of proteinases on water transport by mercurials. We conclude that the water channel may be a small integral membrane protein which, unlike the H(+)-ATPase and Na+/H+ exchanger, has no functionally important membrane domains that are sensitive to proteolysis. PMID:1309658

  7. Surface Zn-proteinase as a molecule for defense of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis promastigotes against cytolysis inside macrophage phagolysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Seay, M B; Heard, P L; Chaudhuri, G

    1996-01-01

    The role of the surface membrane Zn-proteinase in protecting the cellular integrity of the macrophage parasite Leishmania mexicana amazonensis from intraphagolysosomal cytolysis was studied. These cells lose their infectivity to host macrophages after prolonged cultivation in axenic growth medium. The virulent and attenuated variants of the parasite cells were cloned. Failure of these attenuated parasite cells to survive inside macrophage phagolysosomes is associated with 20- to 50-fold reduction in the expression of surface gp63 protein. In situ inhibition of gp63 proteinase activity inside Leishmania-infected macrophage phagolysosomes with targeted delivery of an inhibitor of gp63 proteinase activity, 1,10-phenanthroline, selectively eliminated intracellular Leishmania amastigotes, further suggesting the importance of this proteinase in phagolysosomal survival of the parasite. An upstream sequence (US) of the gp63 gene was cloned in front of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in plasmid pCATbasic. Transfection of L. mexicana amazonensis cells with this recombinant plasmid showed that expression of the CAT gene from this US is 15- to 20-fold higher in virulent clones than in avirulent clones of the parasite. Band shift analysis with the cloned US also showed that binding of protein(s) was 15- to 20-fold higher in virulent cell extract than in avirulent cell extract. Coating of attenuated cells or liposomes with proteolytically active gp63 protects them from degradation inside macrophage phagolysosomes. These results suggest a novel mechanism of survival of this phagolysosomal parasite with the help of its surface Zn-proteinase. PMID:8945556

  8. Tissue-specific expression of mast cell granule serine proteinases and their role in inflammation in the lung and gut

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hugh R P; Pemberton, Alan D

    2002-01-01

    Serine proteinases with trypsin-like (tryptase) and chymotrypsin-like (chymase) properties are major constituents of mast cell granules. Several tetrameric tryptases with differing specificities have been characterized in humans, but only a single chymase. In other species there are larger families of chymases with distinct and narrow proteolytic specificities. Expression of chymases and tryptases varies between tissues. Human pulmonary and gastrointestinal mast cells express chymase at lower levels than tryptase, whereas rodent and ruminant gastrointestinal mast cells express uniquely mucosa-specific chymases. Local and systemic release of chymases and tryptases can be quantified by immunoassay, providing highly specific markers of mast cell activation. The expression and constitutive extracellular secretion of the mucosa-specific chymase, mouse mast cell proteinase-1 (mMCP-1), is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in vitro, but it is not clear how the differential expression of chymases and tryptases is regulated in other species. Few native inhibitors have been identified for tryptases but the tetramers dissociate into inactive subunits in the absence of heparin. Chymases are variably inhibited by plasma proteinase inhibitors and by secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) that is expressed in the airways. Tryptases and chymases promote vascular permeability via indirect and possibly direct mechanisms. They contribute to tissue remodelling through selective proteolysis of matrix proteins and through activation of proteinase-activated receptors and of matrix metalloproteinases. Chymase may modulate vascular tissues through its ability to process angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II. Mucosa-specific chymases promote epithelial permeability and are involved in the immune expulsion of intestinal nematodes. Importantly, granule proteinases released extracellularly contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells and may thus be involved in

  9. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  10. Potent and selective nonpeptidic inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase.

    PubMed

    Fish, Paul V; Allan, Gillian A; Bailey, Simon; Blagg, Julian; Butt, Richard; Collis, Michael G; Greiling, Doris; James, Kim; Kendall, Jackie; McElroy, Andrew; McCleverty, Dawn; Reed, Charlotte; Webster, Robert; Whitlock, Gavin A

    2007-07-26

    6-Cyclohexyl-N-hydroxy-3-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)hexanamides were previously disclosed as inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) culminating in the identification of amide 1. Our objective was to discover a second inhibitor that would have improved affinity for PCP and to optimize properties for transepidermal delivery (TED) to intact skin. Further investigation of this template identified a number of potent PCP inhibitors (IC50 values of 2-6 nM) with improved TED flux. Sulfonamide 56 had excellent PCP enzyme activity when measured with a peptide substrate (Ki 8.7 nM) or with the endogenous substrate procollagen (IC50 3.4 nM) and demonstrates excellent selectivity over MMPs involved in wound healing (>10 000-fold). In the fibroplasia model, 56 inhibited deposition of insoluble collagen by 76 +/- 2% at 10 microM and was very effective at penetrating human skin in vitro with a TED flux of 1.5 microg/cm2/h, which compares favorably with values for agents that are known to penetrate skin well in vivo. Based on this profile, 56 (UK-421,045) was selected as a candidate for further preclinical evaluation as a topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agent. PMID:17591762

  11. Inhibition of serine proteinases plasmin, trypsin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, and elastase by LEKTI: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Henderson, Ying; Frederick, Mitchell J; Kang, Ya'an; Wang, Mary; El-Naggar, Adel K; Clayman, Gary L

    2003-04-01

    The human LEKTI gene encodes a putative 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor and has been linked to the inherited disorder known as Netherton syndrome. In this study, human recombinant LEKTI (rLEKTI) was purified using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system, and the inhibitory profile of the full-length rLEKTI protein was examined. Expression of LEKTI in Sf9 cells showed the presence of disulfide bonds, suggesting the maintenance of the tertiary protein structure. rLEKTI inhibited the serine proteinases plasmin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, human neutrophil elastase, and trypsin, but not chymotrypsin. Moreover, rLEKTI did not inhibit the cysteine proteinase papain or cathepsin K, L, or S. Further, rLEKTI inhibitory activity was inactivated by treatment with 20 mM DTT, suggesting that disulfide bonds are important to LEKTI function. The inhibition of plasmin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, elastase, and trypsin by rLEKTI occurred through a noncompetitive-type mechanism, with inhibitory constants (K(i)) of 27 +/- 5, 49 +/- 3, 67 +/- 6, 317 +/-36, and 849 +/- 55 nM, respectively. Thus, LEKTI is likely to be a major physiological inhibitor of multiple serine proteinases. PMID:12667078

  12. The Fragment 1 Region of Prothrombin Facilitates the Favored Binding of Fragment 12 to Zymogen and Enforces Zymogen-like Character in the Proteinase.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Harlan N; Krishnaswamy, Sriram

    2016-05-20

    Thrombin is produced from the C-terminal half of prothrombin following its proteolytic activation. The N-terminal half, released as the propiece Fragment 12 (F12), is composed of an N-terminal γ-carboxyglutamate domain (Gla) followed by two kringles (K1 and K2). The propiece plays essential roles in regulating prothrombin activation and proteinase function. The latter results from the ability of F12 to reversibly bind to the (pro)catalytic domain through K2 with high affinity and highly favorable thermodynamic constants when it is a zymogen in comparison to proteinase. Such discrimination is lost for K2 binding after proteolytic removal of the N-terminal Gla-K1 region of F12. The Ca(2+)-stabilized structure of the Gla domain is not required for F12 to bind the zymogen form more favorably. Enhanced binding to zymogen versus proteinase correlates with the ability of the propiece to enforce zymogen-like character in the proteinase. This is evident in variants of meizothrombin, an intermediate of prothrombin activation that contains the propiece covalently attached. This phenomenon is also independent of the Gla domain. Thus, the presence of K1 in covalent linkage with K2 in the propiece governs the ability of K2 to bind the (pro)catalytic domain in favor of zymogen, thereby enforcing zymogen-like character in the proteinase. PMID:27013660

  13. Synthetic analogues of chymostatin. Inhibition of chymotrypsin and Streptomyces griseus proteinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, N P; Galpin, I J; Beynon, R J

    1992-01-01

    A series of analogues of chymostatin, including Z-Arg-Leu-Phe-aldehyde (Z-Arg-Leu-Phe-H), have been synthesized. Analysis of the inhibitory potential of these analogues permits identification of residues and interactions that are important for inhibitory activity. Moreover, the structure-function relationship for Z-Arg-Leu-Phe-H and chymostatin inhibition of chymotrypsin and Streptomyces griseus proteinase A (SGPA) was probed further with the aid of molecular mechanics. This analysis identified interactions that provide an explanation for the enhanced activity of the natural product, chymostatin, over the synthetic analogues in the inhibition of chymotrypsin but not SGPA. PMID:1530579

  14. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  15. Modification of the proteinase/anti-proteinase balance in the respiratory tract of Sprague-Dawley rats after single intratracheal instillation of benzo[A]pyrene-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles.

    PubMed

    Garçon, G; Campion, J; Hannothiaux, M H; Boutin, A C; Venembre, P; Balduyck, M; Haguenoer, J M; Shirali, P

    2000-01-01

    Available data suggest that repeated concurrent exposure to haematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and benzo[A]pyrene (B[A]P) results in a decreased latency and an increased incidence of lung tumours in rodents compared to exposure to B[A]P alone. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by the lung cells themselves and/or by activated inflammatory cells may possibly contribute to the development of pulmonary disorders such as cancer formation. In order to investigate the precise role of iron in the injury induced by B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles, we tend to address the hypothesis that Fe(2)O(3) and B[A]P, alone or in association, can induce oxidative stress conditions (malondialdehyde) and/or inflammatory reactions (interleukin-6) and thereby disrupt the proteinase/anti-proteinase balance (cathepsins B and L, polynuclear neutrophil (PNN) elastase, alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (alpha(1)PI) and its inhibitory capacity) in the rat respiratory tract. Thus, Fe(2)O(3) or B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles produce oxidative stress conditions through not only iron-catalysed oxidative reactions but also inflammatory processes. However, B[A]P initiates only inflammatory responses. These pollutants generate increased levels of proteases and decrease the concentrations of free alpha(1)PI. There is also a clear relationship between the partial inactivation of alpha(1)PI and the occurrence of ROS after exposure to Fe(2)O(3), alone or as a carrier of B[A]P. Hence, the proteinase/anti-proteinase balance might be more disrupted by Fe(2)O(3) or B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles than by B[A]P alone. These results suggest a mechanism that can explain why B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles are more injurious than B[A]P alone. PMID:10942902

  16. Cleavage of type I procollagen by C- and N-proteinases is more rapid if the substrate is aggregated with dextran sulfate or polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hojima, Y; Behta, B; Romanic, A M; Prockop, D J

    1994-12-01

    The enzymes procollagen C- and N-proteinases specifically cleave carboxyl- and amino-terminal propeptides of procollagens. After cleavage of the propeptides, the resulting collagens self-assemble into fibrils. In most previous experiments with the enzymes, the substrate was monomeric type I procollagen. Here we have prepared aggregates of type I procollagen from chick embryo tendons by using 1 to 100 micrograms/ml of 500-kDa dextran sulfate or 3 to 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (M(r) 3350). Aggregation of the substrate with dextran sulfate increased its rate of cleavage by purified or crude C-proteinase from chick embryo tendons 10- to 15-fold. Aggregation of the substrate with 25 to 100 microgram/ml of dextran sulfate increased the rate of cleavage by purified N-proteinase about 4-fold. The rate of cleavage by crude N-proteinase was enhanced only about 2-fold, apparently because of partial precipitation of the enzyme by dextran sulfate. Using polyethylene glycol to aggregate the substrate increased the rate of cleavage by procollagen C-proteinases 5- to 20-fold. Aggregation with polyethylene glycol also increased the rate of cleavage by purified procollagen N-proteinases 2- to 5-fold. With crude N-proteinase, the rate of cleavage was increased only 1.5-fold. The results suggest that the rate of cleavage of the substrate by both enzymes is increased by the aggregation of the substrate itself by dextran sulfate or polyethylene glycol. The increased rates of cleavage seen after aggregation of substrate can be used to develop more sensitive assays for the enzymic activities. PMID:7887459

  17. Identification and characterization of a serine-like proteinase of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Lu, X; Denison, M R

    1995-01-01

    Gene 1 of the murine coronavirus, MHV-A59, encodes approximately 800 kDa of protein products within two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs 1a and 1b). The gene is expressed as a polyprotein that is processed into individual proteins, presumably by virus-encoded proteinases. ORF 1a has been predicted to encode proteins with similarity to viral and cellular proteinases, such as papain, and to the 3C proteinases of the picornaviruses (A. E. Gorbalenya, A. P. Donchenko, V. M. Blinov, and E. V. Koonin, FEBS Lett. 243:103-114, 1989; A. E. Gorbalenya, E. V. Koonin, A. P. Donchenko, and V. M. Blinov, Nucleic Acids Res. 17:4847-4861, 1989). We have cloned into a T7 transcription vector a cDNA fragment containing the putative 3C-like proteinase domain of MHV-A59, along with portions of the flanking hydrophobic domains. The construct was used to express a polypeptide in a combined in vitro transcription-translation system. Major polypeptides with molecular masses of 38 and 33 kDa were detected at early times, whereas polypeptides with molecular masses of 32 and 27 kDa were predominant after 30 to 45 min and appeared to be products of specific proteolysis of larger precursors. Mutations at the putative catalytic histidine and cysteine residues abolished the processing of the 27-kDa protein. Translation products of the pGpro construct were able to cleave the 27-kDa protein in trans from polypeptides expressed from the noncleaving histidine or cysteine mutants. The amino-terminal cleavage of the 27-kDa protein occurred at a glutamine-serine dipeptide as previously predicted. This study provides experimental confirmation that the coronaviruses express an active proteinase within the 3C-like proteinase domain of gene 1 ORF 1a and that this proteinase utilizes at least one canonical QS dipeptide as a cleavage site in vitro. PMID:7745703

  18. Phase diagram of crystallization of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Norio; Ataka, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Katsura, Tatsuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    1996-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase with an extremely low isoelectric point (pI 3.3). The protein is crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions of pH lower than 4. The crystallization is affected by the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We have studied the phase diagram of the crystallization of proteinase A in the absence and presence of DMSO, to clarify crystallization at such an extremely low pH and to study the effects of DMSO. The results indicate that the logarithm of protein solubility is a rectilinear function of ammonium sulfate concentration in both the absence and presence of DMSO. DMSO definitely lowers the solubility at relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulfate, but had little effect on protein solubility at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate.

  19. Characterisation of the Equine adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Giles, Carla; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Barton, Mary; Mahony, Timothy J

    2015-09-30

    Equine adenovirus 2 (EAdV-2) is one of two serotypes of adenoviruses known to infect equines. Initial studies did not associate EAdV-2 infections with any specific clinical syndromes, although more recent evidence suggests that EAdV-2 may be associated with clinical and subclinical gastrointestinal infections of foals and adults respectively. In contrast, Equine adenovirus 1 is well recognised as a pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections of horses. In this study the complete genome sequence of EAdV-2 is reported. As expected, genes common to the adenoviruses were identified. Phylogenetic reconstructions using selected EAdV-2 genes confirmed the classification of this virus within the Mastadenovirus genus, and supported the hypothesis that EAdV-2 and EAdV-1 have evolved from separate lineages within the adenoviruses. One spliced open reading frame was identified that encoded for a polypeptide with high similarity to the pIX and E1b_55K adenovirus homologues and was designated pIX_E1b_55K. In addition to this fused version of E1b_55K, a separate E1b_55K encoding gene was also identified. These polypeptides do not appear to have evolved from a gene duplication event as the fused and unfused E1b_55K were most similar to E1b_55K homologues from the Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus genera respectively. The results of this study suggest that EAdV-2 has an unusual evolutionary history that warrants further investigation. PMID:26220513

  20. Development of replication-competent adenovirus for bladder cancer by controlling adenovirus E1a and E4 gene expression with the survivin promoter

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ho Kyung; Seo, Jeong Bin; Nam, Jae-Kook; Jeong, Kyung-Chae; Shin, Seung-Pil; Kim, In-Hoo; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family. Here, we examined survivin expression and confirmed abundant survivin expression in bladder cancer cells. This expression pattern indicated that the transcriptional regulatory elements that control survivin expression could be utilized to discriminate cancer from normal cells. We therefore generated a novel adenovirus termed Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 with the following characteristics: 1) E1A and E4 protein expression was dependent on survivin promoter activity; 2) the green fluorescence protein gene was inserted into the genome under the control of the CMV promoter; 3) most of the E3 sequences were deleted, but the construct was still capable of expressing the adenovirus death protein with potent cytotoxic effects; and 4) the fiber knob was from serotype 35 adenovirus. As expected from the abundant survivin expression observed in bladder cancer cells, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 replicated better in cancer cells than in normal cells by a factor of 106 to 102. Likewise, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 exerted greater cytotoxic effects on all bladder cancer cell lines tested. Importantly, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 inhibited the growth of Ku7-Luc orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Taken together, Ad5/35E1apsurvivinE4 indicates that the survivin promoter may be utilized for the development of a replication-competent adenovirus to target bladder cancers. PMID:25015402

  1. Purification and characterization of a new serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis with specificity for amino acids at P1 and P2 positions.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, A; Yoshida, N; Noda, K; Ito, A

    1995-12-01

    A proteinase was purified 230-fold to apparent homogeneity from culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis by a series of column chromatographies on DE52, DEAE-Toyopearl, Cellulofine GC200M, and Mono-Q, using Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ser-pNA as a substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was estimated to be 42,000 by SDS-PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Studies on the substrate specificity with peptide p-nitroanilides and natural peptides revealed that this proteinase preferentially hydrolyzed the peptide bond on the carboxyl-terminal side of either serine or alanine residues at the P1 position and hydrophobic bulky amino acids at P2. It was most active at pH 9.5 for the hydrolysis of Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ser-pNA. The enzyme was inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), but not by tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) or by EDTA. Based on the reactivity toward substrates and inhibitors, this enzyme differs from elastase- or subtilisin-like proteinase, hence it is a new type of proteinase with specificity for amino acids at P1 and P2 positions. PMID:8519806

  2. Antimicrobial activity of antiproteinases.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M

    2002-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass neutrophil elastase inhibitors have been shown to be important in the control of lung inflammation. In addition to inhibiting the enzyme neutrophil elastase, these low-molecular-mass compounds (10 kDa) have been shown to have other activities. For example, secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor/SKALP (skin-derived antileucoproteinase)/elafin have also been shown to have "defensin"-like antimicrobial activities. Indeed, these inhibitors have antimicrobial properties in vitro against bacteria, fungi and, potentially, HIV. In addition, we have shown, using an adenovirus-mediated gene transfer overexpression strategy, that elafin is also active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice in vivo. The mechanism of action is currently under investigation. In addition to these direct or indirect effects on microbes, it has been shown that lipopolysaccharide is able to up-regulate SPLI production in macrophages in vitro, and that the addition of recombinant SLPI to human monocytes or the transfection of macrophages with SPLI can down-regulate pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, presumably to limit self-damaging excessive inflammation. Using viral gene transfer vectors, we are currently investigating the potential of these inhibitors in various models of inflammation in vivo. PMID:12023836

  3. Biochemical features, molecular biology and clinical relevance of the human 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI.

    PubMed

    Walden, Michael; Kreutzmann, Peter; Drögemüller, Katrin; John, Harald; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Hans-Jürgen, Mägert

    2002-01-01

    Based on the isolation of a 55 amino acid peptide from human hemofiltrate, we cloned the cDNA for a novel human 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor termed LEKTI. A trypsin-inhibiting activity was demonstrated for three different domains. High levels of expression of the corresponding gene were detected in oral mucosa, followed by the tonsils, parathyroid glands, thymus, and trachea. Hovnanian and coworkers recently found that certain mutations within the LEKTI gene are linked to the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome and atopic manifestations (including asthma). Thus, a future therapeutic use of LEKTI is conceivable. PMID:12437098

  4. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  5. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  6. Exposure to tobacco-derived materials induces overproduction of secreted proteinases in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Small-Howard, Andrea; Turner, Helen . E-mail: hturner@queens.org

    2005-04-15

    Mast cells reside at interfaces with the environment, including the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. This localization exposes mast cells to inhaled, or ingested, environmental challenges. In the airways of smokers, resident immune cells will be in contact with the condensed components of cigarette smoke. Mast cells are of particular interest due to their ability to promote airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell-secreted tryptase and increased numbers of degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers. Since mast cell-secreted proteinases (MCPTs), including tryptases, contribute to pathological airway remodeling, we investigated the relationship between mast cell proteinases and smoke exposure. We exposed a mast cell line to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We show that CSC exposure increases MCPT levels in mast cells using an assay for tryptase-type MCPT activity. We hypothesized that this increase in MCPT activity reflects a CSC-induced increase in the cytosolic pool of proteinase molecules, via stimulation of MCPT transcription. Transcript array data suggested that mRNA changes in response to CSC were limited in number and peaked after 3 h of CSC exposure. However, we noted marked transcriptional regulation of several MCPT genes. CSC-induced changes in the mRNA levels for MCPTs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke up-regulates MCPT levels in mast cells at both the protein and the mRNA level. We suggest that the pathological airway remodeling that has been described in clinical studies of smoke inhalation may be attributable to MCPT overproduction in vivo.

  7. Purification and characterization of a novel cysteine proteinase (periodontain) from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Evidence for a role in the inactivation of human alpha1-proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D; Potempa, J; Kordula, T; Travis, J

    1999-04-30

    Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation of the periodontium manifested by recruitment of neutrophils, which can degranulate, releasing powerful proteinases responsible for destruction of connective tissues, and eventual loss of tooth attachment. Although the presence of host proteinase inhibitors (serpins) should minimize tissue damage by endogenous proteinases, this is not seen clinically, and it has been speculated that proteolytic inactivation of serpins may contribute to progression of the disease. A major pathogen associated with periodontal disease is the Gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis, and in this report, we describe a novel proteinase that has been isolated from culture supernatants of this organism that is capable of inactivating the human serpin, alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, the primary endogenous regulator of human neutrophil elastase. This new enzyme, referred to as periodontain, belongs to the cysteine proteinase family based on inhibition studies and exists as a 75-kDa heterodimer. Furthermore, periodontain shares significant homology to streptopain, a proteinase from Streptococcus pyogenes, and prtT, a putative proteinase from P. gingivalis. Clearly, the presence of this enzyme, which rapidly inactivates alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, could result in elevated levels of human neutrophil elastase clinically detected in periodontal disease and should be considered as a potential virulence factor for P. gingivalis. PMID:10212191

  8. Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    1994-01-01

    N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

  9. Purification and N-terminal sequence of a serine proteinase-like protein (BMK-CBP) from the venom of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch).

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Zhang, Yong; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam

    2008-08-01

    A serine proteinase-like protein was isolated from the venom of Chinese red scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch) by combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange and reveres-phase chromatography and named BMK-CBP. The apparent molecular weight of BMK-CBP was identified as 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing condition. The sequence of N-terminal 40 amino acids was obtained by Edman degradation. The sequence shows highest similarity to proteinase from insect source. When tested with commonly used substrates of proteinase, no significant hydrolytic activity was observed for BMK-CBP. The purified BMK-CBP was found to bind to the cancer cell line MCF-7 and the cell binding ability was dose-dependent. PMID:18625260

  10. Platelet-adenovirus vs. inert particles interaction: effect on aggregation and the role of platelet membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Gupalo, Elena; Kuk, Cynthia; Qadura, Mohammad; Buriachkovskaia, Liudmila; Othman, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are involved in host defense via clearance of bacteria from the circulation, interaction with virus particles, and uptake of various size particulates. There is a growing interest in micro- and nanoparticles for drug delivery and there is evidence that the properties of these particles critically influence their interaction and uptake by various tissues and cells including platelets. Virus mediated gene therapy applications are still challenged by the resultant thrombocytopenia and the mechanism(s) of platelet-foreign particles interaction remains unclear. We studied the specifics of platelet interaction with an active biological agent (adenovirus) and inert latex microspheres (MS) and investigated the role of platelet proteins in this interaction. We show that activated and not resting platelets internalize MS, without influencing platelet aggregation. In contrast, adenovirus induces and potentiates ADP-induced platelet aggregation and results in rapid expression of P-selectin. Platelets then internalize adenovirus and viral particles appear inside the open canalicular system. Inhibition of platelet αIIbβ3, GPIbα, and P-selectin decreases both platelet aggregation and internalization of MS. Inhibition of αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 does not abolish adenovirus platelet internalization and adenovirus-induced platelet activation is maintained. Our study demonstrates that platelets react differentially with foreign particles and that αIIbβ3 is a key player in platelet engulfing of foreign particles but not in mediating adenovirus internalization. Other platelet candidate molecules remain to be investigated as potential targets for management of adenovirus-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:22812520

  11. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  12. Rapid generation of fowl adenovirus 9 vectors.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Griffin, Bryan; de Jong, Jondavid; Krell, Peter J; Nagy, Éva

    2015-10-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdV) have the largest genomes of any fully sequenced adenovirus genome, and are widely considered as excellent platforms for vaccine development and gene therapy. As such, there is a strong need for stream-lined protocols/strategies for the generation of recombinant adenovirus genomes. Current genome engineering strategies rely upon plasmid based homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ5183. This process is time-consuming, involves multiple cloning steps, and low efficiency recombination. This report describes a novel system for the more rapid generation of recombinant fowl adenovirus genomes using the lambda Red recombinase system in E. coli DH10B. In this strategy, PCR based amplicons with around 50 nt long homologous arms, a unique SwaI site and a chloramphenicol resistance gene fragment (CAT cassette), are introduced into the FAdV-9 genome in a highly efficient and site-specific manner. To demonstrate the efficacy of this system we generated FAdV-9 ORF2, and FAdV-9 ORF11 deleted, CAT marked and unmarked FAdV-9 infectious clones (FAdmids), and replaced either ORF2 or ORF11, with an EGFP expression cassette or replaced ORF2 with an EGFP coding sequence via the unique SwaI sites, in approximately one month. All recombinant FAdmids expressed EGFP and were fully infectious in CH-SAH cells. PMID:26238923

  13. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin

  14. Purification and Developmental Analysis of an Extracellular Proteinase from Young Leaves of Soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Huangpu, J.; Graham, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    A proteinase present in intercellular wash fluids from leaves of Glycine max has been purified 600-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. The native protein is monomeric with a molecular mass of 60 kD, as estimated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, and has an isoelectric point of 7.7. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 9.5 when assayed with Azocoll as a substrate. The proteolytic activity is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid and mercuric chloride and requires the presence of reducing agents. The enzyme activity is refractory to other classical sulfhydryl proteinases. The soybean leaf endoproteinase is present within the extracellular space of young leaves, and a portion is bound to the cell wall. Western blot analysis and activity measurements show that the enzyme is present only during the first 15 d postemergence of the leaf and is therefore under strict developmental control. We suggest that the enzyme may play a critical role in the extracellular milieu during rapid cell growth and leaf expansion. PMID:12228520

  15. Fluorescent antibody responses to adenoviruses in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ariyawansa, J P; Tobin, J O

    1976-01-01

    Specific IgG, IgA, and IgM immunoglobulin antibody responses to adenovirus infections were studied by the indirect immunofluorescent technique in six pairs of human sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases of the illness. In addition, 70 single specimens of sera showing adenovirus IgG antibody from different age groups from birth to the 60th year of life were titrated for the same antibody to adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7, and 170 serum specimens from the same age groups were screened for specific immunoglobulin antibodies against types 1 and 5. Specific immunoglobulin antibodies lacked type specificity and in acute infections measured heterologous antibody response as well. On the other hand, IgG antibodies detected in single specimens of sera by immunofluorescence correlate with surveys of the isolation of virus from patients and neutralizing antibody studies by other workers. Fluorescent antibodies appeared in all three fractions of the immunoglobulins in acute adenovirus infections. Although this technique may be used in the diagnosis of adenovirus infections there is no advantage compared to complement-fixation testing. However, the use of sera absorbed with group antigen may have a more useful place in serological epidemiology than in diagnostic work. In five pairs of sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases of adenoviral illness and in 70 random single specimens from different age groups, "T" antibodies were detected only in the IgG fraction. The paired sera did not show a significant rise to indicate the usefulness of "T" antibody study in diagnosis. PMID:180061

  16. Fluorescent antibody responses to adenoviruses in humans.

    PubMed

    Ariyawansa, J P; Tobin, J O

    1976-05-01

    Specific IgG, IgA, and IgM immunoglobulin antibody responses to adenovirus infections were studied by the indirect immunofluorescent technique in six pairs of human sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases of the illness. In addition, 70 single specimens of sera showing adenovirus IgG antibody from different age groups from birth to the 60th year of life were titrated for the same antibody to adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7, and 170 serum specimens from the same age groups were screened for specific immunoglobulin antibodies against types 1 and 5. Specific immunoglobulin antibodies lacked type specificity and in acute infections measured heterologous antibody response as well. On the other hand, IgG antibodies detected in single specimens of sera by immunofluorescence correlate with surveys of the isolation of virus from patients and neutralizing antibody studies by other workers. Fluorescent antibodies appeared in all three fractions of the immunoglobulins in acute adenovirus infections. Although this technique may be used in the diagnosis of adenovirus infections there is no advantage compared to complement-fixation testing. However, the use of sera absorbed with group antigen may have a more useful place in serological epidemiology than in diagnostic work. In five pairs of sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases of adenoviral illness and in 70 random single specimens from different age groups, "T" antibodies were detected only in the IgG fraction. The paired sera did not show a significant rise to indicate the usefulness of "T" antibody study in diagnosis. PMID:180061

  17. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5–FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad–FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy. PMID:27014840

  18. Adaptation of the behaviour of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor by relocation of a lysine residue by one helical turn.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Berry, Colin; Bur, Daniel; Kay, John

    2006-08-01

    In addition to self-inhibition of aspartic proteinase zymogens by their intrinsic proparts, the activity of certain members of this enzyme family can be modulated through active-site occupation by extrinsic polypeptides such as the small IA3 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The unprecedented mechanism by which IA3 helicates to inhibit its sole target aspartic proteinase locates an i, i+4 pair of charged residues (Lys18+Asp22) on an otherwise-hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix. The nature of these residues is not crucial for effective inhibition, but re-location of the lysine residue by one turn (+4 residues) in the helical IA3 positions its side chain in the mutant IA3-proteinase complex in an orientation essentially identical to that of the key lysine residue in zymogen proparts. The binding of the extrinsic mutant IA3 shows pH dependence reminiscent of that required for the release of intrinsic zymogen proparts so that activation can occur. PMID:16895485

  19. Adenovirus vaccine vectors expressing hepatitis B surface antigen: importance of regulatory elements in the adenovirus major late intron.

    PubMed

    Mason, B B; Davis, A R; Bhat, B M; Chengalvala, M; Lubeck, M D; Zandle, G; Kostek, B; Cholodofsky, S; Dheer, S; Molnar-Kimber, K

    1990-08-01

    Adenovirus types 4 and 7 are currently used as live oral vaccines for prevention of acute respiratory disease caused by these adenovirus serotypes. To investigate the concept of producing live recombinant vaccines using these serotypes, adenovirus types 4 (Ad4) and 7 (Ad7) were constructed that produce HBsAg upon infection of cell cultures. Ad4 recombinants were constructed that express HBsAg from a cassette inserted 135 bp from the right-hand terminus of the viral genome. The cassette contained the Ad4 major late promoter followed by leader 1 of the tripartite leader, the first intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2, leaders 2 and 3, the HBsAg gene, and tandem polyadenylation signals from the Ad4 E3B and hexon genes. Using this same cassette, a series of Ad4 recombinants expressing HBsAg were constructed with deletions in the intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2 to evaluate the contribution of the downstream control elements more precisely. Inclusion of regions located between +82 and +148 as well as +148 and +232 resulted in increases in expression levels of HBsAg in A549-infected cells by 22-fold and 44-fold, respectively, over the levels attained by an adenovirus recombinant retaining only sequences from +1 to +82, showing the importance of these elements in the activation of the major late promoter during the course of a natural Ad4 viral infection. Parallel increases were also observed in steady-state levels of cytoplasmic HBsAg-specific mRNA. When similar Ad7 recombinant viruses were constructed, these viruses also expressed 20-fold more HBsAg due to the presence of the intron. All Ad4 and Ad7 recombinants produced HBsAg particles containing gp27 and p24 which were secreted in the medium. When dogs were immunized intratracheally with one of these Ad7 recombinants, they seroconverted to both Ad7 and HBsAg to a high level. PMID:2371766

  20. Isolation and preliminary characterization of the cysteine-proteinases from the latex of Carica candamarcensis Hook.

    PubMed

    Walreavens, V; Jaziri, M; van Beeumen, J; Schnek, A G; Kleinschmidt, T; Looze, Y

    1993-07-01

    The cysteine-proteinase chymopapain from Carica papaya L. is used for chemonucleolysis of damaged human intervertebral spinal discs. The purification of this enzyme is difficult. To overcome these problems, we were looking for a substitute among the cysteine-proteinases of Carica candamarcensis Hook. The latex from unripe fruits was collected in an aqueous solution of methylethanethiolsulfonate to prevent proteolytic activities. The soluble fraction of the lypophilized product provided four enzymatically active peaks (CC-I-CC-IV) during chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 in sodium acetate buffer, pH5.0. They could be further purified by rechromatography under similar conditions. The isolated enzymes have been characterized by PAGE, analysis of the Fourier transform infrared spectra, preliminary studies of their specificities as well as a comparison of the N-terminal amino-acid sequences up to position 43. CC-III proved to be glycosylated. CC-I and CC-III from Carica candamarcensis Hook are suggested to correspond to papain and chymopapain from Carica papaya L., respectively. PMID:8216902

  1. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of cDNAs encoding papaya proteinase omega from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Revell, D F; Cummings, N J; Baker, K C; Collins, M E; Taylor, M A; Sumner, I G; Pickersgill, R W; Connerton, I F; Goodenough, P W

    1993-05-30

    We have cloned and sequenced two similar, but distinct, cDNAs from both fruit and leaf tissues of Carica papaya. The C-terminal portion of the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of one of the clones has complete identity with the mature enzyme sequence of the cysteine proteinase papaya proteinase omega (Pp omega). The second clone contains ten individual bp changes compared with the first and encodes a protein with three single-aa substitutions, only one of which is located in the mature sequence, but most noticeably carries an additional 19-aa C-terminal extension. The clones encode pre-pro precursor isoforms of Pp omega. The former of these clones has been expressed in Escherichia coli using a T7 polymerase expression system to produce insoluble pro-enzyme which has been solubilized and refolded to yield auto-activable pro-Pp omega. PMID:7684720

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 Å, β = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution. PMID:18540057

  3. Inhibition of antigen- and lectin-induced proliferation of rat spleen cells by a Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Leid, R W; Suquet, C M; Perryman, L E

    1984-01-01

    Rat splenic lymphocytes, cultured in vitro for 3 days in the presence of a larval cestode proteinase inhibitor, exhibited a marked suppression of proliferation when stimulated with Con A, PHA, PWM and ovalbumin. Reduced responsiveness was observed over a full range of concentrations of Con A (16-fold), PHA (50-fold), PWM (four-fold) and ovalbumin (16-fold). These results indicated that the inhibitory action could not be overcome by increasing the mitogen or antigen doses beyond optimal levels. This suppressive effect disappeared when the Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor was added 20 h after the initiation of culture, suggesting that the inhibitor affects lymphocyte blastogenesis during the early stages of lymphocyte activation. PMID:6744668

  4. Expression of human α1-proteinase inhibitor in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Karnaukhova, Elena; Ophir, Yakir; Trinh, Loc; Dalal, Nimish; Punt, Peter J; Golding, Basil; Shiloach, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background Human α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), also known as antitrypsin, is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor (serpin) in plasma. Its deficiency is associated with development of progressive, ultimately fatal emphysema. Currently in the United States, α1-PI is available for replacement therapy as an FDA licensed plasma-derived (pd) product. However, the plasma source itself is limited; moreover, even with efficient viral inactivation steps used in manufacture of plasma products, the risk of contamination from emerging viruses may still exist. Therefore, recombinant α1-PI (r-α1-PI) could provide an attractive alternative. Although r-α1-PI has been produced in several hosts, protein stability in vitro and rapid clearance from the circulation have been major issues, primarily due to absent or altered glycosylation. Results We have explored the possibility of expressing the gene for human α1-PI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger), a system reported to be capable of providing more "mammalian-like" glycosylation patterns to secretable proteins than commonly used yeast hosts. Our expression strategy was based on fusion of α1-PI with a strongly expressed, secreted leader protein (glucoamylase G2), separated by dibasic processing site (N-V-I-S-K-R) that provides in vivo cleavage. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, and α1-PI activity assays enabled us to select the transformant(s) secreting a biologically active glycosylated r-α1-PI with yields of up to 12 mg/L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis further confirmed that molecular mass of the r-α1-PI was similar to that of the pd-α1-PI. In vitro stability of the r-α1-PI from A. niger was tested in comparison with pd-α1-PI reference and non-glycosylated human r-α1-PI from E. coli. Conclusion We examined the suitability of the filamentous fungus A. niger for the expression of the human gene for α1-PI, a medium size glycoprotein of high

  5. Characterisation of functional and insecticidal properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from flesh fly (Sacrophaga peregrina) involved in differentiation of imaginal discs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Sacrophaga peregrina (flesh fly), which is involved in differentiation of imaginal discs. The protein has a potential insecticidal activity, since recombinant baculoviruses engineered to express ScathL have an enhanced ability to kill lepidoptera...

  6. Efficient gene delivery to the inflamed colon by local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, S; Galle, P; Neurath, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Replication deficient recombinant adenoviruses represent an efficient means of transferring genes in vivo into a wide variety of dividing and quiescent cells from many different organs. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially attractive target for gene therapy approaches, only a few studies on the use of viral gene transfer vehicles in the gut have been reported. The prospects of using recombinant adenoviruses for gene delivery into epithelial and subepithelial cells of the normal and inflamed colon are here analysed.
METHODS—An E1/E3 deleted recombinant adenovirus (denoted AdCMVβGal) and an adenovirus with modified fibre structure (denoted AdZ.F(pk7)) both expressing the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter were used for reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. β-Galactosidase activity was determined by specific chemiluminescent reporter gene assay.
RESULTS—Intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AdCMVβGal into healthy Balb/c mice caused strong reporter gene expression in the liver and spleen but not in the colon. In contrast, local administration of AdCMVβGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVβGal caused a higher β-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. Furthermore, isolated lamina propria cells from mice with colitis infected in vitro showed a significant increase in reporter gene activity compared with controls. Finally, AdZ.F(pk7) adenoviruses with modified fibre structure produced 10- to 40-fold higher reporter gene activity in spleen T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells of colitic mice compared with

  7. Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 2 is a procollagen C proteinase enhancer with a role in myocardial infarction-associated fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Luo, Min; Zhang, Yue; Wilkes, David C.; Ge, Gaoxiang; Grieskamp, Thomas; Yamada, Chikaomi; Liu, Ting-Chun; Huang, Guorui; Basson, Craig T.; Kispert, Andreas; Greenspan, Daniel S.; Sato, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted frizzled related proteins (sFRPs) have emerged as key regulators of a wide range of developmental and disease processes, with virtually all known functions of mammalian sFRPs attributed to their ability to antagonize Wnt signaling. Recently however, the Xenopus and zebrafish sFRP, Sizzled, was shown to function as an antagonist of Chordin processing by Tolloid-like metalloproteinases, leading to the proposal that sFRPs may function as evolutionarily-conserved antagonists of the chordinase activities of this class of proteinases. Herein, in contrast to this proposal, we show that the mammalian sFRP, sFRP2, does not affect Chordin processing, but instead can serve as a direct enhancer of the procollagen C-proteinase activity of Tolloid-like metalloproteinases. We further show that the level of fibrosis, in which procollagen processing by Tolloid-like proteinases plays a rate-limiting role, is markedly reduced in sFRP2-null mice subjected to myocardial infarction. Importantly, this reduced level of fibrosis is accompanied by significantly improved cardiac function. This study thus uncovers a novel function for sFRP2 and a potential therapeutic application for sFRP2 antagonism in controlling fibrosis in the infarcted heart. PMID:19079247

  8. Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field

    PubMed Central

    Dunse, K. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Lay, F. T.; Gaspar, Y. M.; Heath, R. L.; Anderson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

  9. The death enzyme CP14 is a unique papain-like cysteine proteinase with a pronounced S2 subsite selectivity.

    PubMed

    Paireder, Melanie; Mehofer, Ulrich; Tholen, Stefan; Porodko, Andreas; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Biniossek, Martin L; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Lenarcic, Brigita; Novinec, Marko; Schilling, Oliver; Mach, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    The cysteine protease CP14 has been identified as a central component of a molecular module regulating programmed cell death in plant embryos. CP14 belongs to a distinct subfamily of papain-like cysteine proteinases of which no representative has been characterized thoroughly to date. However, it has been proposed that CP14 is a cathepsin H-like protease. We have now produced recombinant Nicotiana benthamiana CP14 (NbCP14) lacking the C-terminal granulin domain. As typical for papain-like cysteine proteinases, NbCP14 undergoes rapid autocatalytic activation when incubated at low pH. The mature protease is capable of hydrolysing several synthetic endopeptidase substrates, but cathepsin H-like aminopeptidase activity could not be detected. NbCP14 displays a strong preference for aliphatic over aromatic amino acids in the specificity-determining P2 position. This subsite selectivity was also observed upon digestion of proteome-derived peptide libraries. Notably, the specificity profile of NbCP14 differs from that of aleurain-like protease, the N. benthamiana orthologue of cathepsin H. We conclude that CP14 is a papain-like cysteine proteinase with unusual enzymatic properties which may prove of central importance for the execution of programmed cell death during plant development. PMID:27246477

  10. Isolation and complete amino acid sequence of two fibrinolytic proteinases from the toxic Saturnid caterpillar Lonomia achelous.

    PubMed

    Amarant, T; Burkhart, W; LeVine, H; Arocha-Pinango, C L; Parikh, I

    1991-08-30

    The major toxic and fibrinolytic activity of the saliva and hemolymph of the larval form of Lonomia achelous was purified to homogeneity by a combination of metal chelate and affinity chromatography. Two apparent isozymes, Achelase I (213 amino acids, pIcalc = 10.55) and Achelase II (214 amino acids, pIcalc = 8.51), were sequenced by automated Edman degradation, and their C-termini confirmed by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. The calculated molecular weights (22,473 and 22,727) correspond well to Mr estimates of 24,000 by SDS-PAGE. No carbohydrate was detected during sequencing. The enzymes degraded all three chains of fibrin, alpha greater than beta much greater than gamma, yielding a fragmentation pattern indistinguishable from that produced by trypsin. Chromogenic peptides S-2222 (Factor Xa and trypsin), S-2251 (plasmin), S-2302 (kallikrein) and S-2444 (urokinase) were substrates while S-2288 (broad range of serine proteinases including thrombin) was not hydrolyzed. Among a range of inhibitors Hg+2, aminophenylmercuriacetate, leupeptin, antipain and E-64 but not N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetate abolished the activity of the purified isozymes against S-2444. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, soybean trypsin inhibitor and aprotinin were less effective. The presence of the classic catalytic triad (histidine-41, aspartate-86 and serine-189) suggests that Achelases I and II may be serine proteinases, but with a potentially free cysteine-185 which could react with thiol proteinase-directed reagents. PMID:1911844

  11. Role for a secreted cysteine proteinase in the establishment of host tissue tropism by group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    Svensson, M D; Scaramuzzino, D A; Sjöbring, U; Olsén, A; Frank, C; Bessen, D E

    2000-10-01

    Primary infection of the human host by group A streptococci (GAS) most often involves either the epidermis of the skin or the oropharyngeal mucosa. A humanized in vivo model for impetigo was used to investigate the basis for host tissue tropism among GAS. Disruption of the speB gene (encoding for a secreted cysteine proteinase) led to a loss of virulence for two impetigo-derived strains (M-types 33 and 53), as evidenced by a diminution in tissue damage and a lack of reproductive growth. The level of cysteine proteinase activity in overnight cultures was associated with the extent of gross pathological changes induced by strains displaying varied degrees of virulence in the impetigo model. Moreover, high levels of secreted cysteine proteinase activity correlated with a genetic marker for preferred tissue site of infection at the skin (emm pattern D). The addition of exogenous SpeB to a speB mutant (emm pattern D) or to an avirulent throat-like strain (emm pattern A) led to increased bacterial reproduction at the skin. The data provide both experimental and epidemiological evidence for a critical role of a secreted bacterial protease in promoting host tissue-specific infection. PMID:11069651

  12. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a mammalian cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Acanthamoeba healyi.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeon-Chul; Hwang, Mi-Yul; Yun, Ho-Cheol; Yu, Hak-Sun; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chung, Dong-Il

    2002-03-01

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase of the Acanthamoeba healyi OC-3A strain isolated from the brain of a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis patient. A DNA probe for an A. healyi cDNA library screening was amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of conserved amino acids franking the active sites of cysteine and asparagine residues that are conserved in the eukaryotic cysteine proteinases. Cysteine proteinase gene of A. healyi (AhCP1) was composed of 330 amino acids with signal sequence, a proposed pro-domain and a predicted active site made up of the catalytic residues. Cys25, His159, and Asn175. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis indicates that AhCP1 belong to ERFNIN subfamily of C1 peptidases. By Northern blot analysis, no direct correlation was observed between AhCP1 mRNA expression and virulence of Acanthamoeba, but the gene was expressed at higher level in amoebae isolated from soil than amoeba from clinical samples. These findings raise the possibility that Ahcp1 protein may play a role in protein metabolism and digestion of phagocytosed bacteria or host tissue debris rather than in invasion of amoebae into host tissue. PMID:11949209

  13. Isolation, Cloning and Structural Characterisation of Boophilin, a Multifunctional Kunitz-Type Proteinase Inhibitor from the Cattle Tick

    PubMed Central

    Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Almeida, Carla; Calisto, Bárbara M.; Friedrich, Thomas; Mentele, Reinhard; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitors of coagulation factors from blood-feeding animals display a wide variety of structural motifs and inhibition mechanisms. We have isolated a novel inhibitor from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, one of the most widespread parasites of farm animals. The inhibitor, which we have termed boophilin, has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Mature boophilin is composed of two canonical Kunitz-type domains, and inhibits not only the major procoagulant enzyme, thrombin, but in addition, and by contrast to all other previously characterised natural thrombin inhibitors, significantly interferes with the proteolytic activity of other serine proteinases such as trypsin and plasmin. The crystal structure of the bovine α-thrombin·boophilin complex, refined at 2.35 Å resolution reveals a non-canonical binding mode to the proteinase. The N-terminal region of the mature inhibitor, Q16-R17-N18, binds in a parallel manner across the active site of the proteinase, with the guanidinium group of R17 anchored in the S1 pocket, while the C-terminal Kunitz domain is negatively charged and docks into the basic exosite I of thrombin. This binding mode resembles the previously characterised thrombin inhibitor, ornithodorin which, unlike boophilin, is composed of two distorted Kunitz modules. Unexpectedly, both boophilin domains adopt markedly different orientations when compared to those of ornithodorin, in its complex with thrombin. The N-terminal boophilin domain rotates 9° and is displaced by 6 Å, while the C-terminal domain rotates almost 6° accompanied by a 3 Å displacement. The reactive-site loop of the N-terminal Kunitz domain of boophilin with its P1 residue, K31, is fully solvent exposed and could thus bind a second trypsin-like proteinase without sterical restraints. This finding explains the formation of a ternary thrombin·boophilin·trypsin complex, and suggests a mechanism for prothrombinase inhibition in vivo. PMID:18286181

  14. Adenovirus serotype 5 hexon mediates liver gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Simon N; McVey, John H; Bhella, David; Parker, Alan L; Barker, Kristeen; Atoda, Hideko; Pink, Rebecca; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Greig, Jenny A; Denby, Laura; Custers, Jerome; Morita, Takashi; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Monteiro, Robson Q; Barouch, Dan H; van Rooijen, Nico; Napoli, Claudio; Havenga, Menzo J E; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2008-02-01

    Adenoviruses are used extensively as gene transfer agents, both experimentally and clinically. However, targeting of liver cells by adenoviruses compromises their potential efficacy. In cell culture, the adenovirus serotype 5 fiber protein engages the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) to bind cells. Paradoxically, following intravascular delivery, CAR is not used for liver transduction, implicating alternate pathways. Recently, we demonstrated that coagulation factor (F)X directly binds adenovirus leading to liver infection. Here, we show that FX binds to the Ad5 hexon, not fiber, via an interaction between the FX Gla domain and hypervariable regions of the hexon surface. Binding occurs in multiple human adenovirus serotypes. Liver infection by the FX-Ad5 complex is mediated through a heparin-binding exosite in the FX serine protease domain. This study reveals an unanticipated function for hexon in mediating liver gene transfer in vivo. PMID:18267072

  15. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  16. Critical Role of Autophagy in the Processing of Adenovirus Capsid-Incorporated Cancer-Specific Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Sarah R.; Jiang, Hong; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Dong, Andrew; Alonso, Marta M.; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Fueyo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses are highly immunogenic and are being examined as potential vectors for immunotherapy. Infection by oncolytic adenovirus is followed by massive autophagy in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesize that autophagy regulates the processing of adenoviral proteins for antigen presentation. To test this hypothesis, we first examined the presentation of viral antigens by infected cells using an antibody cocktail of viral capsid proteins. We found that viral antigens were processed by JNK-mediated autophagy, and that autophagy was required for their presentation. Consistent with these results, splenocytes isolated from virus-immunized mice were activated by infected cells in an MHC II-dependent manner. We then hypothesize that this mechanism can be utilized to generate an efficient cancer vaccine. To this end, we constructed an oncolytic virus encompassing an EGFRvIII cancer-specific epitope in the adenoviral fiber. Infection of cancer cells with this fiber-modified adenovirus resulted in recognition of infected cancer cells by a specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody. However, inhibition of autophagy drastically decreased the capability of the specific antibody to detect the cancer-related epitope in infected cells. Our data suggest that combination of adenoviruses with autophagy inducers may enhance the processing and presentation of cancer-specific antigens incorporated into capsid proteins. PMID:27093696

  17. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, Jutta; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  18. Evidence for the role of a human intestinal adenovirus in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kagnoff, M F; Paterson, Y J; Kumar, P J; Kasarda, D D; Carbone, F R; Unsworth, D J; Austin, R K

    1987-01-01

    We previously noted a region of amino acid sequence homology between A-gliadin, a major alpha-gliadin component known to activate coeliac disease, and the early region E1b protein of human adenovirus serotype 12 (Ad12), an adenovirus isolated from the human intestinal tract. In the present study sera from coeliac disease patients from the United Kingdom and the United States were assayed for neutralising antibody to Ad12 as evidence of past exposure to that virus and for antibody to synthetic peptides of A-gliadin from the region of shared sequence with the Ad12 E1b protein. Eighty nine per cent of untreated coeliac disease patients had evidence of previous Ad12 infection. There was also a significant increase in the prevalence of neutralising antibody to Ad12 among treated adults (33.3%) and children (30.8%) with coeliac disease compared with controls (0-12.8%) in the western USA and in London. There was no evidence for an increased prevalence of infection with a closely related adenovirus, adenovirus 18, or another enteric virus, Echovirus 11, among coeliac disease subjects. Additional studies documented that a region of A-gliadin that shares amino acid sequence homology with the adenovirus 12 E1b protein could be recognised as an antigenic determinant in active coeliac disease patients. Taken together, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that a viral protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, perhaps by virtue of immunological cross reactivity between antigenic determinants shared by the viral protein and alpha-gliadins. PMID:2822550

  19. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor is a major leukocyte elastase inhibitor in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Si Tahar, M; Cox, G; Chignard, M; Gauldie, J

    1997-06-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main neutrophil elastase (HLE) inhibitor found in the upper airways during pulmonary inflammation. It has been shown to be synthesized and secreted in vitro by epithelial cells and has been localized in tracheal glands and bronchiolar epithelial cells by immunocytochemistry. In this study, using immunodetection and immunopurification techniques with specific anti-SLPI immunoglobulin G (IgG), we show that SLPI is present as a native 14-kDa molecule in neutrophil cytosol. In addition, we demonstrate that SLPI is the major inhibitor of HLE present in neutrophil cytosol because pre-incubation with specific anti-SLPI IgG was able to inhibit completely the anti-HLE activity of the cytosol. SLPI can be secreted (probably in an inactive form) by neutrophils and its secretion is enhanced when the cells are stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Elafin, an elastase-specific inhibitor, is also present in minute amounts in neutrophil cytosol and its secretion can be up-regulated. The presence of SLPI in the cytosol of neutrophils may serve as a protective screen against proteinases spilling from azurophilic granules. An alternative or supplementary role may be the maintenance of a differentiated phenotype. PMID:9201260

  20. [Purification and properties of serine proteinases from European catfish Silurus glanis L. pancreas].

    PubMed

    Ulitina, N N; Khabliuk, V V; Proskuriakov, M T

    2005-01-01

    Three trypsin isoforms (designated as T1, T2, and T3), three chymotrypsin isoforms (Kh1, Kh2, and Kh3), and two elastase isoforms (E1 and E2) were isolated from the pancreas of European catfish Silurus glanis L. by salting out with (NH4)2SO4, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Isoelectric points of the enzymes, determined by isoelectric focusing, amounted to 4.42 for T1, 5.64 for T2, 6.90 for T3, 4.93 for Khl, 5.23 for Kh2, 6.18 for Kh3, 6.17 for E1, and 8.48 for E2. Molecular weights of proteinases within each group were close and amounted to 30100 Da for trypsins, 39800 Da for chymotrypsins, and 24000 Da for elastases. The enzymes isolated displayed maximal activities at alkaline pH values. Inhibitor analysis demonstrated that all the proteinases isolated from European catfish pancreas belonged to the serine type. PMID:15859457

  1. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  2. [Conformational stability of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa].

    PubMed

    Vakorina, T I; Gladkikh, I N; Monastyrnaia, M M; Kozlovskaia, E P

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different environmental values of the pH and temperature on the spatial organization of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa (=Radianthus macrodactylus) on the level of tertiary and secondary structure was studied by CD spectroscopy. The molecule InhVJ was shown to possess a high conformational thermo- and pH-stability. We determined the point of conformational thermotransition of polypeptide (70 degrees C) after which the molecule gets denaturational stable state with conservation of 80% proteinase inhibitory activity. The significant partial reversible changes of molecule spatial organization were established to occur at the level of tertiary structure in the process of acid-base titration in the range of pH 11.0-13.0. This can be explained by of ionization of tyrosine residues. The molecule InhVJ is conformationally stable at the low pH values (2.0). The quenching of tyrosine residues by acrylamide showed that two of these residues are accessible to the quencher in full, while the third part is available. PMID:21899045

  3. Kinetic constants for the hydrolysis of aggrecan by the papaya proteinases and their relevance for chemonucleolysis.

    PubMed

    Dekeyser, P M; Buttle, D J; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J; Demeester, J; Lauwers, A

    1995-07-10

    The four known proteinases from papaya latex, namely papain (EC 3.4.22.2), chymopapain (EC 3.4.22.6), caricain (EC 3.4.22.30), and glycyl endopeptidase (EC 3.4.22.25), were purified to homogeneity and fully characterized by single radial immunodiffusion and active-site titration. A modified HPLC gel permeation assay was used to determine the kinetic constants for aggrecan hydrolysis by the papaya proteinases. The disappearance of intact aggrecan monomer was first-order, indicating that for the four enzymes studied the Km was much larger than 0.5 microM and that kcat/Km = 1.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for chymopapain, 1.20 +/- 0.08 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for caricain, 0.90 +/- 0.02 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for papain, and 0.120 +/- 0.005 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for glycyl endopeptidase. Chymodiactin, the chymopapain preparation used for chemonucleolysis, consists of a mixture of chymopapain (70%), caricain (20%), and glycyl endopeptidase (4%). The rate constant for the aggrecan hydrolysis by such a mixture was not significantly different from the rate constant for pure chymopapain. As a result of these observations, we predict that pure chymopapain could replace partially purified chymopapain preparations for chemonucleolysis. PMID:7625846

  4. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of a serine proteinase inhibitor gene from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, V; Angel, S O; Duschak, V G; Paulino, M; Ledesma, B; Yabo, M I; Guarnera, E; Ruiz, A M; Bontempi, E J

    2000-04-15

    A cDNA clone from a Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite cDNA library encoding a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) was isolated. The 1376 bp cDNA sequence encodes a 294 amino acid protein with a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids resulting in a mature protein with a predicted mass of 30,190 Da and a pI of 4.86. This protein has internal sequence similarity of residues 30-66, 114-150, 181-217 and 247-283 indicating a four-domain structure. The four domains exhibit high identity to serine proteinase inhibitors belonging to the non-classical Kazal-type family. The gene is single copy in the tachyzoite haploid genome of RH strain and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Several introns were identified. The sequence encoding the mature protein was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific antiserum generated against the recombinant protein was used in immunoblot assay and two bands of 38 and 42 kDa were detected in a whole parasite homogenate. The recombinant protein showed trypsin-inhibitory activity, one of the two potential specificities. We discuss the possible roles that T. gondii serpin(s) may play in the survival of the tachyzoites in the host. PMID:10779600

  5. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  6. SPRi-based adenovirus detection using a surrogate antibody method.

    PubMed

    Abadian, Pegah N; Yildirim, Nimet; Gu, April Z; Goluch, Edgar D

    2015-12-15

    Adenovirus infection, which is a waterborne viral disease, is one of the most prevelant causes of human morbidity in the world. Thus, methods for rapid detection of this infectious virus in the environment are urgently needed for public health protection. In this study, we developed a rapid, real-time, sensitive, and label-free SPRi-based biosensor for rapid, sensitive and highly selective detection of adenoviruses. The sensing protocol consists of mixing the sample containing adenovirus with a predetermined concentration of adenovirus antibody. The mixture was filtered to remove the free antibodies from the sample. A secondary antibody, which was specific to the adenovirus antibody, was immobilized onto the SPRi chip surface covalently and the filtrate was flowed over the sensor surface. When the free adenovirus antibodies bound to the surface-immobilized secondary antibodies, we observed this binding via changes in reflectivity. In this approach, a higher amount of adenoviruses resulted in fewer free adenovirus antibodies and thus smaller reflectivity changes. A dose-response curve was generated, and the linear detection range was determined to be from 10 PFU/mL to 5000 PFU/mL with an R(2) value greater than 0.9. The results also showed that the developed biosensing system had a high specificity towards adenovirus (less than 20% signal change when tested in a sample matrix containing rotavirus and lentivirus). PMID:26232675

  7. [Inhibition of adenovirus reproduction in cell culture by specific antibodies].

    PubMed

    Povnytsia, O Iu; Nosach, L M; Zhovnovata, V L; Zahorodnia, S D; Vantsak, N P; Tokarchuk, L V; Polishchuk, O M; Diachenko, N S

    2009-01-01

    The capacity of specific antibodies to inhibit the reproduction of homo- and heterologous adenoviruses in Hela cell added to culture medium after virus adsorption was studied. The inhibiting effect of polyclonal antivirus and monospecific antihexone antibodies to homo- and heterologous adenoviruses was shown. The effect was more expressed when using antibodies to homologous antibodies. The intensity of inhibition depended on antibodies concentration in the medium and infecting dose of the virus. Essential reduction of the quantity of infected cells and a decrease of the titer of adenovirus synthesized in the presence of homo- and heterologous antibodies was shown but adenovirus reproduction was not inhibited completely. PMID:19663330

  8. Aerosol stability of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed Central

    Elazhary, M A; Derbyshire, J B

    1979-01-01

    The WBR-1 strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 was suspended in Eagle's medium or bovine nasal secretion and atomized into a rotating drum at temperatures of 6 degrees C or 32 degrees C and relative humidities of 30% or 90%. Impinger samples of the aerosols were collected seven minutes, one, two and three hours postgeneration, and titrated for infectivity in embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures. Under certain conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the virus was more stable in aerosols of Eagle's medium than in nasal secretion. The bovine adenovirus was usually inactivated more rapidly at 30% relative humidity than at 90% relative humidity and during aging of the aerosols the virus was inactivated more rapidly at 32 degrees C than at 6 degrees C. PMID:226247

  9. A novel psittacine adenovirus identified during an outbreak of avian chlamydiosis and human psittacosis: zoonosis associated with virus-bacterium coinfection in birds.

    PubMed

    To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Chan, Wan-Mui; Choi, Garnet K Y; Zhang, Anna J X; Sridhar, Siddharth; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Chan, Andy S F; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lo, Janice Y C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydophila psittaci is found worldwide, but is particularly common among psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. While investigating a human psittacosis outbreak that was associated with avian chlamydiosis in Hong Kong, we identified a novel adenovirus in epidemiologically linked Mealy Parrots, which was not present in healthy birds unrelated to the outbreak or in other animals. The novel adenovirus (tentatively named Psittacine adenovirus HKU1) was most closely related to Duck adenovirus A in the Atadenovirus genus. Sequencing showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome consists of 31,735 nucleotides. Comparative genome analysis showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome contains 23 open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence similarity to known adenoviral genes, and six additional ORFs at the 3' end of the genome. Similar to Duck adenovirus A, the novel adenovirus lacks LH1, LH2 and LH3, which distinguishes it from other viruses in the Atadenovirus genus. Notably, fiber-2 protein, which is present in Aviadenovirus but not Atadenovirus, is also present in Psittacine adenovirus HKU1. Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 had pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 50.3-54.0% for the DNA polymerase, 64.6-70.7% for the penton protein, and 66.1-74.0% for the hexon protein with other Atadenovirus. The C. psittaci bacterial load was positively correlated with adenovirus viral load in the lung. Immunostaining for fiber protein expression was positive in lung and liver tissue cells of affected parrots, confirming active viral replication. No other viruses were found. This is the first documentation of an adenovirus-C. psittaci co-infection in an avian species that was associated with a human outbreak of psittacosis. Viral-bacterial co-infection often increases disease severity in both humans and animals. The role of viral-bacterial co-infection in animal-to-human transmission of infectious agents has not received sufficient attention and should be

  10. A Novel Psittacine Adenovirus Identified During an Outbreak of Avian Chlamydiosis and Human Psittacosis: Zoonosis Associated with Virus-Bacterium Coinfection in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wan-Mui; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Zhang, Anna J. X.; Sridhar, Siddharth; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Chan, Andy S. F.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lo, Janice Y. C.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydophila psittaci is found worldwide, but is particularly common among psittacine birds in tropical and subtropical regions. While investigating a human psittacosis outbreak that was associated with avian chlamydiosis in Hong Kong, we identified a novel adenovirus in epidemiologically linked Mealy Parrots, which was not present in healthy birds unrelated to the outbreak or in other animals. The novel adenovirus (tentatively named Psittacine adenovirus HKU1) was most closely related to Duck adenovirus A in the Atadenovirus genus. Sequencing showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome consists of 31,735 nucleotides. Comparative genome analysis showed that the Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 genome contains 23 open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence similarity to known adenoviral genes, and six additional ORFs at the 3′ end of the genome. Similar to Duck adenovirus A, the novel adenovirus lacks LH1, LH2 and LH3, which distinguishes it from other viruses in the Atadenovirus genus. Notably, fiber-2 protein, which is present in Aviadenovirus but not Atadenovirus, is also present in Psittacine adenovirus HKU1. Psittacine adenovirus HKU1 had pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 50.3–54.0% for the DNA polymerase, 64.6–70.7% for the penton protein, and 66.1–74.0% for the hexon protein with other Atadenovirus. The C. psittaci bacterial load was positively correlated with adenovirus viral load in the lung. Immunostaining for fiber protein expression was positive in lung and liver tissue cells of affected parrots, confirming active viral replication. No other viruses were found. This is the first documentation of an adenovirus-C. psittaci co-infection in an avian species that was associated with a human outbreak of psittacosis. Viral-bacterial co-infection often increases disease severity in both humans and animals. The role of viral-bacterial co-infection in animal-to-human transmission of infectious agents has not received sufficient attention and should

  11. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein. PMID:17608726

  12. Purification and characterization of an intracellular heat-stable proteinase (pernilase) from the marine hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1.

    PubMed

    Chavez Croocker, P; Sako, Y; Uchida, A

    1999-01-01

    A novel intracellular serine proteinase from the marine aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 (JCM 9820) that we designated pernilase was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anionic-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme was composed of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 50 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The proteinase had a broad pH profile (pH 5-10) with an optimum pH of 9.0 for peptide hydrolysis. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 90 degrees C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF), suggesting that it corresponds to a serine proteinase. The enzyme was highly resistant to the reducing agents dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol but sensitive to the denaturing reagents guanidine-HCl and urea and also to the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Pernilase showed high substrate specificity for Boc-Leu-Gly-Arg-MCA peptide. Thermostability of this enzyme showed half-lives of 85min at 100 degrees C and 12 min at 110 degrees C. PMID:10086839

  13. Structure, Function and Dynamics in Adenovirus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. Finally, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed. PMID:25421887

  14. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  15. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  16. Transforming Potential of the Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nevels, Michael; Täuber, Birgitt; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Spruss, Thilo; Wolf, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Previous observations that the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E4orf6 and E4orf3 gene products have redundant effects in viral lytic infection together with the recent findings that E4orf6 possesses transforming potential prompted us to investigate the effect of E4orf3 expression on the transformation of primary rat cells in combination with adenovirus E1 oncogene products. Our results demonstrate for the first time that E4orf3 can cooperate with adenovirus E1A and E1A plus E1B proteins to transform primary baby rat kidney cells, acting synergistically with E4orf6 in the presence of E1B gene products. Transformed rat cells expressing E4orf3 exhibit morphological alterations, higher growth rates and saturation densities, and increased tumorigenicity compared with transformants expressing E1 proteins only. Consistent with previous results for adenovirus-infected cells, the E4orf3 protein is immunologically restricted to discrete nuclear structures known as PML oncogenic domains (PODs) in transformed rat cells. As opposed to E4orf6, the ability of E4orf3 to promote oncogenic cell growth is probably not linked to a modulation of p53 functions and stability. Instead, our results indicate that the transforming activities of E4orf3 are due to combinatorial effects that involve the binding to the adenovirus 55-kDa E1B protein and the colocalization with PODs independent from interactions with the PML gene product. These data fit well with a model in which the reorganization of PODs may trigger a cascade of processes that cause uncontrolled cell proliferation and neoplastic growth. In sum, our results provide strong evidence for the idea that interactions with PODs by viral proteins are linked to oncogenic transformation. PMID:9882365

  17. Use of macrophages to target therapeutic adenovirus to human prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Munitta; Giannoudis, Athina; Scott, Simon D; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Coffelt, Seth B; Morrow, Fiona J; Murdoch, Craig; Burton, Julian; Cross, Neil; Burke, Bernard; Mistry, Roshna; Hamdy, Freddie; Brown, Nicola J; Georgopoulos, Lindsay; Hoskin, Peter; Essand, Magnus; Lewis, Claire E; Maitland, Norman J

    2011-03-01

    New therapies are required to target hypoxic areas of tumors as these sites are highly resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Monocytes continuously extravasate from the bloodstream into tumors where they differentiate into macrophages and accumulate in hypoxic areas, thereby opening up the possibility of using these cells as vehicles to deliver gene therapy to these otherwise inaccessible sites. We describe a new cell-based method that selectively targets an oncolytic adenovirus to hypoxic areas of prostate tumors. In this approach, macrophages were cotransduced with a hypoxia-regulated E1A/B construct and an E1A-dependent oncolytic adenovirus, whose proliferation is restricted to prostate tumor cells using prostate-specific promoter elements from the TARP, PSA, and PMSA genes. When such cotransduced cells reach an area of extreme hypoxia, the E1A/B proteins are expressed, thereby activating replication of the adenovirus. The virus is subsequently released by the host macrophage and infects neighboring tumor cells. Following systemic injection into mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate tumors, cotransduced macrophages migrated into hypoxic tumor areas, upregulated E1A protein, and released multiple copies of adenovirus. The virus then infected neighboring cells but only proliferated and was cytotoxic in prostate tumor cells, resulting in the marked inhibition of tumor growth and reduction of pulmonary metastases. This novel delivery system employs 3 levels of tumor specificity: the natural "homing" of macrophages to hypoxic tumor areas, hypoxia-induced proliferation of the therapeutic adenovirus in host macrophages, and targeted replication of oncolytic virus in prostate tumor cells. PMID:21233334

  18. [Occurrence and function of a proteinase inhibitor in the hemolymph of insects].

    PubMed

    Hanschke, R; Hanschke, M

    1975-01-01

    The presence of proteinase inhibitor has been proved in the hemolymph of a number of insect species from seven different insect orders. The amount of proteinase inhibitor in the hemolymph significantly increases after injection of inactivated bacteria into the hemocoelom of Galleria mellonella-larvae. Moreover the larvae show an increased resistance against normally lethal concentrations of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pronase P and extracellular proteinase produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is discussed that the proteinase inhibitor is one of the factors acting in the antibacterial defense system in the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella-larvae. PMID:811027

  19. Incorporation of adenovirus in calcium phosphate precipitates enhances gene transfer to airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Fasbender, A; Lee, J H; Walters, R W; Moninger, T O; Zabner, J; Welsh, M J

    1998-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia is inefficient because the apical membrane lacks the receptor activity to bind adenovirus fiber protein. Calcium phosphate (CaPi) precipitates have been used to deliver plasmid DNA to cultured cell lines. However, such precipitates are not effective in many primary cultures or in vivo. Here we show that incorporating recombinant adenovirus into a CaPi coprecipitate markedly enhances transgene expression in cells that are resistant to adenovirus infection. Enhancement requires that the virus be contained in the precipitate and viral proteins are required to increase expression. Ad: CaPi coprecipitates increase gene transfer by increasing fiber-independent binding of virus to cells. With differentiated cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia in vitro, a 20-min application of Ad:CaPi coprecipitates that encode CF transmembrane conductance regulator produced as much CF transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- current as a 24-h application of adenovirus alone. We found that Ad:CaPi coprecipitates also increased transgene expression in mouse lung in vivo; importantly, expression was particularly prominent in airway epithelia. These results suggest a new mechanism for gene transfer that may be applicable to a number of different gene transfer applications and could be of value in gene transfer to CF airway epithelia in vivo. PMID:9649572

  20. Alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor is more sensitive to inactivation by cigarette smoke than is leukocyte elastase

    SciTech Connect

    Janoff, A.; Dearing, R.

    1982-10-01

    Aqueous solutions of gas phase cigarette smoke were incubated with pure human leukocyte elastase or with crude human leukocyte granule extract, and the effects on enzyme activity were determined using a synthetic amide substrate. Simultaneously, the same smoke solutions were incubated with 10% human serum under identical conditions, and the effects on serum inhibition of purified or crude leukocyte elastase were similarly measured. In addition, aqueous solutions of unfractionated cigarette smoke were incubated with leukocyte elastase or serum, and the abilities of the smoke-treated enzyme to digest elastin and of the smoke-treated serum to inhibit elastin digestion were determined. Both experimental protocols showed that serum elastase-inhibiting capacity (primarily caused by alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor) is more susceptible to inactivation by aqueous solutions of cigarette smoke than is leukocyte elastase, suggesting that elastase inhibition (rather than elastase activity) may be predominantly suppressed by cigarette smoke inhalation in vivo.

  1. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the equine tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A E; Behnke, J M

    2016-09-01

    Papaya latex has been demonstrated to be an efficacious anthelmintic against murine, porcine, ovine and canine nematode parasites, and even those infecting poultry, and it has some efficacy against rodent cestodes. The active ingredients of papaya latex are known to be cysteine proteinases (CPs). The experiments described in this paper indicate that CPs in papaya latex, and also those in pineapples, are highly efficacious against the equine cestode Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro, by causing a significant reduction in motility leading to death of the worms. The susceptibility of A. perfoliata to damage by CPs was considerably greater than that of the rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma. Our results are the first to report anthelmintic efficacy of CPs against an economically important equine helminth. Moreover, they provide further evidence that the spectrum of activity of CPs is not restricted to nematodes and support the idea that these plant-derived enzymes can be developed into useful broad-spectrum anthelmintics. PMID:26343287

  2. Adenovirus-mediated expression of BmK CT suppresses growth and invasion of rat C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Wang, Jianing; Liang, Aihua

    2013-06-01

    BmK CT, one of the key toxins in the venom of the scorpion, Buthus martensii Karsch, can interact specifically with glioma cells as a chloride channel blocker and inhibit the invasion and migration of those cells via MMP-2. A recombinant adenovirus, Ad-BmK CT, was constructed and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies, using MTT cytotoxicity assay and the glioma C6/RFP (red fluorescence protein)/BALB/c allogeneic athymic nude mice model, respectively. The adenovirus-mediated expression of BmK CT displayed a high activity in suppressing rat C6 glioma cells growth and invasion thereby suggesting that this recombinant adenovirus may be a powerful method for treating glioblastoma. PMID:23443213

  3. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Roberta L.; Wilkinson, John C.; Ornelles, David A.

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: • E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. • Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. • Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. • E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.

  4. Enhanced inactivation of adenovirus under polychromatic UV lamps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adenovirus is recognized as the most UV-resistant waterborne pathogen of concern to public health microbiologists. The US EPA has stipulated that a UV fluence (dose) of 186 mJ cm-2 is required for 4-log inactivation credit in water treatment. However, all adenovirus inactivation data to date publi...

  5. Capturing and concentrating adenovirus using magnetic anionic nanobeads.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated how various enveloped viruses can be efficiently concentrated using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the virus particles and anionic beads remains unclear. To further investigate whether these magnetic anionic beads specifically bind to the viral envelope, we examined their potential interaction with a nonenveloped virus (adenovirus). The beads were incubated with either adenovirus-infected cell culture medium or nasal aspirates from adenovirus-infected individuals and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thoroughly washing the beads, adsorption of adenovirus was confirmed by a variety of techniques, including immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and cell culture infection assays. These detection methods positively identified the hexon and penton capsid proteins of adenovirus along with the viral genome on the magnetic beads. Furthermore, various types of adenovirus including Types 5, 6, 11, 19, and 41 were captured using the magnetic bead procedure. Our bead capture method was also found to increase the sensitivity of viral detection. Adenovirus below the detectable limit for immunochromatography was efficiently concentrated using the magnetic bead procedure, allowing the virus to be successfully detected using this methodology. Moreover, these findings clearly demonstrate that a viral envelope is not required for binding to the anionic magnetic beads. Taken together, our results show that this capture procedure increases the sensitivity of detection of adenovirus and would, therefore, be a valuable tool for analyzing both clinical and experimental samples. PMID:27274228

  6. Capturing and concentrating adenovirus using magnetic anionic nanobeads

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated how various enveloped viruses can be efficiently concentrated using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the virus particles and anionic beads remains unclear. To further investigate whether these magnetic anionic beads specifically bind to the viral envelope, we examined their potential interaction with a nonenveloped virus (adenovirus). The beads were incubated with either adenovirus-infected cell culture medium or nasal aspirates from adenovirus-infected individuals and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thoroughly washing the beads, adsorption of adenovirus was confirmed by a variety of techniques, including immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and cell culture infection assays. These detection methods positively identified the hexon and penton capsid proteins of adenovirus along with the viral genome on the magnetic beads. Furthermore, various types of adenovirus including Types 5, 6, 11, 19, and 41 were captured using the magnetic bead procedure. Our bead capture method was also found to increase the sensitivity of viral detection. Adenovirus below the detectable limit for immunochromatography was efficiently concentrated using the magnetic bead procedure, allowing the virus to be successfully detected using this methodology. Moreover, these findings clearly demonstrate that a viral envelope is not required for binding to the anionic magnetic beads. Taken together, our results show that this capture procedure increases the sensitivity of detection of adenovirus and would, therefore, be a valuable tool for analyzing both clinical and experimental samples. PMID:27274228

  7. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a novel extracellular neutral proteinase from Streptomyces sp. strain C5 and expression of the gene in Streptomyces lividans 1326.

    PubMed Central

    Lampel, J S; Aphale, J S; Lampel, K A; Strohl, W R

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding a novel milk protein-hydrolyzing proteinase was cloned on a 6.56-kb SstI fragment from Streptomyces sp. strain C5 genomic DNA into Streptomyces lividans 1326 by using the plasmid vector pIJ702. The gene encoding the small neutral proteinase (snpA) was located within a 2.6-kb BamHI-SstI restriction fragment that was partially sequenced. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein was determined to be 15,740, which corresponds very closely with the relative molecular mass of the purified protein (15,500) determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified neutral proteinase was determined, and the DNA encoding this sequence was found to be located within the sequenced DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a conserved zinc binding site, although secondary ligand binding and active sites typical of thermolysinlike metalloproteinases are absent. The combination of its small size, deduced amino acid sequence, and substrate and inhibition profile indicate that snpA encodes a novel neutral proteinase. Images PMID:1569011

  8. Gelatinase A (MMP-2) and cysteine proteinases are essential for the degradation of collagen in soft connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Creemers, L B; Jansen, I D; Docherty, A J; Reynolds, J J; Beertsen, W; Everts, V

    1998-04-01

    The degradation of soft connective tissue collagen is considered to depend on the activity of various proteolytic enzymes, particularly those belonging to the group of matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine proteinases. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of these enzymes to this process. Using a general inhibitor of MMPs (SC44463), collagen degradation was strongly inhibited, by about 40% after 24 h and up to 80% after 72 h of culturing. Blockage of cysteine proteinase activity (with leupeptin or E-64) reduced breakdown at these time intervals by 50% and 20%, respectively. Given the abundant presence of gelatinases--in particular gelatinase A (MMP-2)--in the tissue, the effect of an inhibitor selective for gelatinases (CT1166) was studied. Gelatinase inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of collagen breakdown up to 90% after 48 h. The ability of gelatinase A to degrade collagens was demonstrated by the induction of breakdown in devitalized explants by addition of activated gelatinase A, or by activation of endogenous enzyme with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate. This latter effect was not found with plasmin, an activator of MMPs other than gelatinase A. Finally, the relevance of gelatinase A to the in vivo degradation of soft connective tissue collagen was implicated by the significant correlation found between its activity and the collagen turnover rates of four soft connective tissues (tooth pulp, periodontal ligament, molar gingiva and skin). We conclude that collagen degradation in soft connective tissue is mediated by MMPs and to a lesser extent by cysteine proteinases. Our data are the first to attach a key role to gelatinase A in this process. PMID:9628251

  9. Characterisation of cysteine proteinases responsible for digestive proteolysis in guts of larval western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) by expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Bown, David P; Wilkinson, Hillary S; Jongsma, Maarten A; Gatehouse, John A

    2004-04-01

    Cysteine proteinases are the major class of enzymes responsible for digestive proteolysis in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), a serious pest of maize. A larval gut extract hydrolysed typical cathepsin substrates, such as Z-phe-arg-AMC and Z-arg-arg-AMC, and hydrolysis was inhibited by Z-phe-tyr-DMK, specific for cathepsin L. A cDNA library representing larval gut tissue mRNA contained cysteine proteinase-encoding clones at high frequency. Sequence analysis of 11 cysteine proteinase cDNAs showed that 9 encoded cathepsin L-like enzymes, and 2 encoded cathepsin B-like enzymes. Three enzymes (two cathepsin L-like, DvRS5 and DvRS30, and one cathepsin B-like, DvRS40) were expressed as recombinant proteins in culture supernatants of the yeast Pichia pastoris. The cathepsin L-like enzymes were active proteinases, whereas the cathepsin B-like enzyme was inactive until treated with bovine trypsin. The amino acid residue in the S2 binding pocket, the major determinant of substrate specificity in cathepsin cysteine proteinases, predicted that the two cathepsin L-like enzymes, DvRS5 and DvRS30, should differ in substrate specificity, with the latter resembling cathepsin B in hydrolysing substrates with a positively charged residue at P2. This prediction was confirmed; DvRS5 only hydrolysed Z-phe-arg-AMC and not Z-arg-arg-AMC, whereas DvRS30 hydrolysed both substrates. The enzymes showed similar proteolytic activity towards peptide substrates. PMID:15041015

  10. Roles for proteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, a compelling body of evidence has accumulated to show that proteinases play critical roles in airspace enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, until recently the causative enzymes and their exact roles in pathologic processes in COPD have not been clear. Recent studies of gene-targeted mice in murine models of COPD have confirmed roles for proteinases not only in airspace enlargement, but also in airway pathologies in COPD. These studies have also shed light on the specific proteinases involved in COPD pathogenesis, and the mechanisms by which these proteinases injure the lung. They have also identified important interactions between different classes of proteinases, and between proteinases and other molecules that amplify lung inflammation and injury. This review will discuss the biology of proteinases and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. In addition, I will discuss the potential of proteinase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs as new treatment strategies for COPD patients. PMID:18686734

  11. Quick and low cost immobilization of proteinases on polyesters: Comparison of lactobacilli cell-envelope proteinase and trypsin for protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Agyei, Dominic; Tambimuttu, Shaun; Kasargod, Bhuvana; Gao, Yuan; He, Lizhong

    2014-10-20

    Cell-envelope proteinases (CEPs) are a class of proteolytic enzymes produced by lactic acid bacteria and have several industrially relevant applications. However, soluble CEPs are economically unfavorable for such applications due to their poor stability and lack of reusability. In a quest to prepare stable biocatalysts with improved performance, CEP from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis 313 and trypsin (as a model enzyme) were immobilized onto nonwoven polyester fabrics in a three-step protocol including ethylenediamine activation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Immobilization gave protein loading yields of 21.9% (CEP) and 67.7% (trypsin) while residual activity yields were 85.6% (CEP) and 4.1% (trypsin). The activity of the immobilized enzymes was dependent on pH, but was retained at elevated temperatures (40-70 °C). An increase in Km values was observed for both enzymes after immobilization. After 70 days of storage, the immobilized CEP retained ca. 62% and 96% of initial activity when the samples were stored in a lyophilized form at -20 °C or in a buffer at 4 °C, respectively. Both immobilized CEP and trypsin were able to hydrolyze proteins such as casein, skimmed milk proteins and bovine serum albumin. This immobilization protocol can be used to prepare immobilized biocatalyst for various protein degradation processes. PMID:25128611

  12. Role of calcium-dependent proteinase in molt-induced claw muscle atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each intermolt cycle. Muscle protein decreases 40% during proecdysis and is restored following ecdysis. Amino acid incorporation into protein of postecdysial muscle is five times greater than that in anecdysial muscle. Since the rates of protein synthesis in anecdysial and proecdysial muscle are the same it appears that proecdysial muscle atrophy is caused primarily by an increase in protein degradation. A calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) active at neutral pH has been implicated in the nonlysosomal hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins. We have examined the role of a CDP in atrophy of the claw closer muscle. The many similarities between crustacean and vertebrate CDPs have established this crustacean system as a simple and convenient model for the role of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent proteolysis in myofibrillar protein turnover and its manifestation in the structure of the sarcomere. 16 references, 8 figures. (ACR)

  13. PEGylated Adenoviruses: From Mice to Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wonganan, Piyanuch; Croyle, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Covalent modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a non-toxic polymer used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for over 60 years, can profoundly influence the pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and toxciologic profile of protein and peptide-based therapeutics. This review summarizes the history of PEGylation and PEG chemistry and highlights the value of this technology in the context of the design and development of recombinant viruses for gene transfer, vaccination and diagnostic purposes. Specific emphasis is placed on the application of this technology to the adenovirus, the most potent viral vector with the most highly characterized toxicity profile to date, in several animal models. PMID:21994645

  14. Inhibitory effect of recombinant adenovirus carrying immunocaspase-3 on hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohua; Fan, Rui; Zou, Xue; Gao, Lin; Jin, Haifeng; Du, Rui; Xia, Lin; Fan, Daiming . E-mail: fandaim@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-06-29

    Previously, Srinivasula devised a contiguous molecule (C-cp-3 or immunocaspase-3) containing the small and large subunits similar to that in the active form of caspas-3 and found C-cp-3 had similar cleavage activity to the active form of caspase-3. To search for a new clinical application of C-cp-3 to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, recombinant adenoviruses carrying the C-cp-3 and a-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter (Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3) were constructed through a bacterial homologous recombinant system. The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and the inhibitory effect of Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 on the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells were determined by X-gal stain and MTT assay, respectively. The tumorigenicity of hepatocarcinoma cells transfected by Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 and the antitumor effect of Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 on transplanted tumor in nude mice were detected in vivo. The results suggested that Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 can inhibit specifically proliferation of AFP-producing human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo and adenovirus-mediated C-cp-3 transfer could be used as a new method to treat human hepatocarcinoma.

  15. Combination of oncolytic adenovirus and endostatin inhibits human retinoblastoma in an in vivo mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiping; Wei, Fang; Li, Huiming; Ji, Xunda; Li, Shuxia; Chen, Xiafang

    2013-02-01

    There is a critical need for new paradigms in retinoblastoma (RB) treatment that would more efficiently inhibit tumor growth while sparing the vision of patients. Oncolytic adenoviruses with the ability to selectively replicate and kill tumor cells are a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy. Exploration of a novel targeting strategy for RB utilizing combined oncolytic adenovirus and anti-angiogenesis therapy was applied over the course of the current study with positive results. The oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-E2F1 p-E1A and Ad-TERT p-E1 were constructed. The E1 region was regulated by the E2F-1 promoter or the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter, respectively. Effects on both replication and promotion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression were observed in the replication-defective adenovirus Ad-EGFP in diverse cancer cell lines, HXO-RB44, Y79, Hep3B, NCIH460, MCF-7 and HLF. The cancer cell death induced by these agents was also explored. The in situ RB model demonstrated that mice with tumors treated with the oncolytic adenovirus and replication-defective adenovirus Ad-endostatin exhibited notable cancer cell death. This anticancer effect was further examined by stereo microscope, and the survival rate of experimental mice was determined. Both Ad-E2F1 p-E1A and Ad-TERT p-E1 replicated specifically in cancer cells in vitro and promoted EGFP expression in Ad-EGFP, although Ad-E2F1 p-E1A demonstrated superior EGFP promotion activity than Ad-TERT p-E1. In Hep3B, NCIH460 and MCF-7 cells, the number of Ad-TERT p-E1 copies was observed to exceed of the number of Ad-E2F1 p-E1A copies by a minimum of 10-fold. Furthermore, Ad-TERT p-E1 demonstrated significantly superior oncolytic effects in the RB mouse model, and Ad-endostatin effectively suppressed tumor growth and extended the overall lifespan of subjects; however, the Ad-E2F1 p-E1A was clearly less effective in attaining these goals. Most notably, the antitumor effect and

  16. Multiple proteins bind to VA RNA genes of adenovirus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, M W; Roeder, R G

    1987-01-01

    Using fractionated HeLa cell nuclear extracts and both nuclease (DNase I) cleavage and chemical cleavage (methidiumpropyl-EDTA X Fe(II) protection methodologies, we demonstrated the presence of three proteins which interacted specifically, yet differentially, with the two VA genes of adenovirus type 2. One, previously identified as transcription initiation factor TFIIIC, bound to a site centered on the transcriptionally essential B-block concensus element of the VAI gene and, with a lower affinity, to the analogous site in the VAII gene. Another, identified as the cellular protein involved in adenovirus replication, nuclear factor I, bound to sites immediately downstream from the two VAI terminators (at approximately +160 and +200). The third, a previously unrecognized VA gene binding protein termed VBP, bound immediately upstream of the B-block element in the VAI gene but showed no binding to VAII. Possible roles for these proteins in VA gene transcription were investigated in in vitro assay systems reconstituted with partially purified transcription factors (RNA polymerase III, TFIIIB, and TFIIIC). Although TFIIIC activity was present predominantly in fractions containing B-block binding activity, there was not complete correspondence between functional and DNA binding activities. The nuclear factor I-like protein had no effect when added to a complete transcription reaction. The presence of VBP appeared to depress the intrinsic ratio of VAI-VAII synthesis, thereby simulating the relative transcription levels observed early in adenovirus infection of HeLa cells. These observations suggest a model, involving both intragenic binding factors (VBP and TFIIIC) and variable template concentrations, for the differential regulation of VA transcription during the course of adenovirus infection. Images PMID:3561405

  17. Adenovirus DNA template for late transcription is not a replicative intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Brison, O; Kédinger, C; Chambon, P

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between adenovirus replication and late transcription has been investigated using viral replication and transcription complexes isolated from infected HeLa cell nuclei. These two types of complexes extracted from adenovirus type 2-infected cell nuclei did not sediment at the same rate on sucrose gradients. Viral replicative intermediates were quantitatively precipitated by immunoglobulins raised against purified 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein, whereas viral transcription complexes remained in the supernatant. These results show that late transcription does not occur on active replication complexes or on 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein-containing replicative intermediates inactive in DNA synthesis. Additional evidence is presented indicating that it is very unlikely that replicative intermediates lacking the 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein could be the template for late transcription. PMID:232191

  18. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2004-05-18

    Disclosed is a mutant adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have significantly weakened binding affinity for CARD1 relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type. In the method, residues of the adenovirus fiber protein knob domain which are predicted to alter D1 binding when mutated, are identified from the crystal structure coordinates of the AD12knob:CAR-D1 complex. A mutation which alters one or more of the identified residues is introduced into the genome of the adenovirus to generate a mutant adenovirus. Whether or not the mutant produced exhibits altered adenovirus-CAR binding properties is then determined.

  19. Induction of caspase-11 by aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans and implication in promoting inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Roselletti, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that the secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), Sap2 and Sap6, of Candida albicans have the potential to induce the canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 via caspase-1 activation. We also observed that the activation of caspase-1 is partially independent from the NLRP3 activation pathway. In this study, we examined whether Sap2 and Sap6 are also able to activate the noncanonical inflammasome pathway in murine macrophages. Our data show that both Sap2 and Sap6 can activate caspase-11 through type I interferon (IFN) production. Caspase-11 cooperates to activate caspase-1, with a subsequent increase of IL-1β secretion. Endocytosis and internalization of Saps are required for the induction of type I IFN production, which is essential for induction of noncanonical inflammasome activation. Our study indicates a sophisticated interplay between caspase-1 and caspase-11 that connects the canonical and noncanonical pathways of inflammasome activation in response to C. albicans Saps. PMID:25712931

  20. Induction of Caspase-11 by Aspartyl Proteinases of Candida albicans and Implication in Promoting Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Roselletti, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), Sap2 and Sap6, of Candida albicans have the potential to induce the canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 via caspase-1 activation. We also observed that the activation of caspase-1 is partially independent from the NLRP3 activation pathway. In this study, we examined whether Sap2 and Sap6 are also able to activate the noncanonical inflammasome pathway in murine macrophages. Our data show that both Sap2 and Sap6 can activate caspase-11 through type I interferon (IFN) production. Caspase-11 cooperates to activate caspase-1, with a subsequent increase of IL-1β secretion. Endocytosis and internalization of Saps are required for the induction of type I IFN production, which is essential for induction of noncanonical inflammasome activation. Our study indicates a sophisticated interplay between caspase-1 and caspase-11 that connects the canonical and noncanonical pathways of inflammasome activation in response to C. albicans Saps. PMID:25712931

  1. Oncolytic Adenoviruses Armed with Thymidine Kinase Can Be Traced by PET Imaging and Show Potent Antitumoural Effects by Ganciclovir Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Andreu, Nuria; Camacho-Sánchez, Juan; Alemany, Ramon; Herance, Raúl; Millán, Olga; Fillat, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses armed with thymidine kinase (TK) combine the concepts of virotherapy and suicide gene therapy. Moreover TK-activity can be detected by noninvasive positron emission-computed tomography (PET) imaging, what could potentially facilitate virus monitoring in vivo. Here, we report the generation of a novel oncolytic adenovirus that incorporates the Tat8-TK gene under the control of the Major Late Promoter in a highly selective backbone thus providing selectivity by targeting the retinoblastoma pathway. The selective oncolytic TK virus, termed ICOVIR5-TK-L, showed reduced potency compared to a non-selective counterpart. However the combination of ICOVIR5-TK-L with ganciclovir (GCV) induced a potent antitumoural effect similar to that of wild type adenovirus in a preclinical model of pancreatic cancer. Although the treatment with GCV provoked a reduction in the viral yield, both in vitro and in vivo, a two-cycle treatment of virus and GCV resulted in an enhanced antitumoral response that correlated with high TK-activity, based on microPET measurements. Thus, TK-expressing oncolytic adenoviruses can be traced by PET imaging providing real time information on the activity of the virus and its antitumoral potency can be optimized by GCV dosing. PMID:22028820

  2. Proteinase treatment of intact hepatic mitochondria has differential effects on inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by different inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, K; Cook, G A

    1992-01-01

    Proteolysis of intact mitochondria by Nagarse (subtilisin BPN') and papain resulted in limited loss of activity of the outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase, but much greater loss of sensitivity to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. In contrast with a previous report [Murthy & Pande (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 378-382], we found that trypsin had no effect on malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Even when 80% of activity was destroyed by trypsin, there was no difference in the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of the enzyme remaining. Trypsin caused release of the intermembrane-space enzyme adenylate kinase, indicating loss of integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane, whereas Nagarse and papain caused no release of that enzyme. Citrate synthase was not released by any of the three proteinases, indicating no damage to the mitochondrial inner membrane. When we examined the effects of proteolysis on the inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by a wide variety of inhibitors having different mechanisms of inhibition, we found differential proteolytic effects that were specific for those inhibitors (malonyl-CoA and hydroxyphenylglyoxylate) that have their inhibitory potencies diminished by changes in physiological state. Both of those inhibitors protected carnitine palmitoyltransferase from the effects of proteolysis, but did not inhibit the proteinases directly. Inhibition by two other inhibitors (DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA and N-benzyladriamycin 14-valerate) was not altered by proteinase treatment, even when most of the enzyme activity had been destroyed. Inhibition by glyburide, which is minimally affected by physiological state, was affected only to a slight extent at the highest concentration of trypsin tested. Proteolysis by Nagarse appeared to produce loss of co-operativity in malonyl-CoA inhibition. The effects of proteolysis are discussed and compared with changes in Ki occurring with changing physiological states. PMID:1554374

  3. Isolation and Epidemiology of Falcon Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Schrenzel, Mark; Rideout, Bruce; Sandfort, Cal

    2005-01-01

    An adenovirus was detected by electron microscopy in tissues from falcons that died during an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis and enteritis that affected neonatal Northern aplomado (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) and peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum) falcons. Molecular characterization has identified the falcon virus as a new member of the aviadenovirus group (M. Schrenzel, J. L. Oaks, D. Rotstein, G. Maalouf, E. Snook, C. Sandfort, and B. Rideout, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:3402-3413, 2005). In this study, the virus was successfully isolated and propagated in peregrine falcon embryo fibroblasts, in which it caused visible and reproducible cytopathology. Testing for serum neutralizing antibodies found that infection with this virus was limited almost exclusively to falcons. Serology also found that wild and captive peregrine falcons had high seropositivity rates of 80% and 100%, respectively, although clinical disease was rarely reported in this species. These data implicate peregrine falcons as the natural host and primary reservoir for the virus. Other species of North American falcons, including aplomado falcons, had lower seropositivity rates of 43 to 57%. Falcon species of tropical and/or island origin were uniformly seronegative, although deaths among adults of these species have been described, suggesting they are highly susceptible. Chickens and quail were uniformly seronegative and not susceptible to infection, indicating that fowl were not the source of infection. Based on the information from this study, the primary control of falcon adenovirus infections should be based on segregation of carrier and susceptible falcon species. PMID:16000467

  4. High expression of functional adenovirus DNA polymerase and precursor terminal protein using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Stunnenberg, H G; Lange, H; Philipson, L; van Miltenburg, R T; van der Vliet, P C

    1988-01-01

    Initiation of Adenovirus (Ad) DNA replication occurs by a protein-priming mechanism in which the viral precursor terminal protein (pTP) and DNA polymerase (pol) as well as two nuclear DNA-binding proteins from uninfected HeLa cells are required. Biochemical studies on the pTP and DNA polymerase proteins separately have been hampered due to their low abundance and their presence as a pTP-pol complex in Ad infected cells. We have constructed a genomic sequence containing the large open reading frame from the Ad5 pol gene to which 9 basepairs from a putative exon were ligated. When inserted behind a modified late promoter of vaccinia virus the resulting recombinant virus produced enzymatically active 140 kDa Ad DNA polymerase. The same strategy was applied to express the 80 kDa pTP gene in a functional form. Both proteins were overexpressed at least 30-fold compared to extracts from Adenovirus infected cells and, when combined, were fully active for initiation in an in vitro Adenovirus DNA replication system. Images PMID:3362670

  5. The leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus: structure-function relationships in a proteolytic virulence factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, Jutta; Skern, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inhibits the host innate immune response by at least three different mechanisms. The most well characterised is the prevention of the synthesis of cytokines such as interferons immediately after infection, brought about by specific proteolytic cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G. This prevents the recruitment of capped cellular mRNA; the viral RNA can however be translated under these conditions. The two other mechanisms are the induction of NF-κB cleavage and the deubiquitination of immune signalling molecules. This review focuses on the structure-function relationships in Lpro responsible for these widely divergent activities. PMID:24670358

  6. Synthesis of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI domain 6 by the fragment condensation method and regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Adermann, Knut; Deraison, Celine; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are of high pharmaceutical interest and are drug candidates for a variety of indications. Specific kallikrein inhibitors are important for their antitumor activity and their potential application to the treatment of skin diseases. In this study we describe the synthesis of domain 6 of the kallikrein inhibitor Lympho-Epithilial Kazal-Type Inhibitor (LEKTI) by the fragment condensation method and site-directed cystine bridge formation. To obtain the linear LEKTI precursor, the condensation was best performed in solution, coupling the protected fragment 1-22 to 23-68. This method yielded LEKTI domain 6 of high purity and equipotent to the recombinantly produced peptide. PMID:20069636

  7. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a mutant CAR-DI-binding adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have a significantly weakened binding affinity for CAR-DI relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type.

  8. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-08-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [(3) H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8(+) cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  9. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-01-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8+ cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  10. Secretion of mucus proteinase inhibitor and elafin by Clara cell and type II pneumocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A; Marsden, M E; Ryle, A P

    1993-02-01

    The regulation of proteinases secreted by neutrophils is very important for the prevention of tissue injury. We recently described the isolation of elafin from bronchial secretions, a new elastase-specific inhibitor that is also found in the skin of patients with psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the secretion of elafin and mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), another inhibitor showing sequence similarity with elafin, in two lung carcinoma cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. The results presented show that the two inhibitors are produced when the cells are cultured either in serum-free or in serum-containing media. MPI was detected immunologically as a unique molecule of M(r) 14 kD, in accordance with previous studies. Conversely, one or two elafin-immunoreactive species were detected depending on the cell line: a 12- to 14-kD species was observed in the A549 cell line, regardless of the culture conditions, whereas in the NCI-H322 cell line we detected a 6-kD species in serum-containing (10% fetal calf serum) conditions and a 12- to 14-kD species in serum-free conditions. The 12- to 14-kD molecule probably represents an active precursor of elafin. Whether the cleavage of the 12- to 14-kD precursor giving rise to the elafin molecule is of any physiologic significance is not known. In showing for the first time that MPI and elafin (and its precursor) are secreted by the A549 cell line, this report implicates the type II alveolar cell in the defense of the peripheral lung against the neutrophil elastase secreted during inflammation. PMID:8427705

  11. Antifeedant effects of proteinase inhibitors on feeding behaviors of adult western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hak; Mullin, Christopher A

    2003-04-01

    Low-molecular-weight peptidyl proteinase inhibitors (PIs) including leupeptin, calpain inhibitor I, and calpeptin were found to be potent antifeedants for adult western corn rootworm (WCR) against the phagostimulation of cucurbitacin B (Cuc B) or a corn pollen extract (CPE). Leupeptin was the strongest (ED50 = 0.36 and 0.55 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively) among PIs tested with an antifeedant potency much stronger than the steroid progesterone (ED50 = 2.29 and 5.05 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively), but slightly less than the reference alkaloid, strychnine (ED50 = 0.17 and 0.37 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively). All active PIs contain a di- or tripeptidyl aldehyde moiety, indicating that PIs exert their antifeedant effects by covalent interaction with putative sulfhydryl (SH) groups on taste receptors as do these PIs with cysteine proteinases. However, opposite inhibition potency against Cuc B versus CPE by two thiol-group reducing agents, DTT and L-cysteine, and the results with other cysteine-modifying reagents obscure the net functional role of SH groups at WCR taste chemoreceptors. Surprisingly, the model phagostimulant for diabroticites, Cuc B, was more easily counteracted by these feeding deterrents than the stimulants present in CPE. Three-dimensional structure-antifeedant relationships for the PIs suggest that a novel taste chemoreception mechanism exists for these peptidyl aldehydes or that they fit partially into a strychnine binding pocket on protein chemoreceptors. Favorable economic benefit may be achieved if PIs are discovered to be useful in adult WCR control, since both pre- and postingestive sites would be targeted. PMID:12775144

  12. Selective killing of B-cell hybridomas targeting proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Reiners, Katrin S; Hansen, Hinrich P; Krüssmann, Anne; Schön, Gisela; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Engert, Andreas; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

    2004-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare disease characterized by granulomatous lesions, small vessel vasculitis and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCAs) in the sera of affected patients. Their main target antigen is proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophil and monocyte-derived neutral serine protease. Since the standard treatment of this severe autoimmune disease, with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids, is associated with potential side-effects, the development of a more specific immunotherapeutic agent is warranted. The key role of ANCA in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and the effectiveness of anti-CD20 antibodies in patients with refractory WG points towards the importance of B cells in WG. We thus evaluated a new approach to selectively eliminate PR3-specific autoreactive B cells by targeting the B-cell receptor. For this purpose we used a bifunctional recombinant fusion protein consisting of the antigen PR3 and a toxin. The cytotoxic component of this novel fusion protein was the ribonuclease angiogenin, a human toxin with low immunogenicity. The toxin was stabilized by exchanging the catalytically relevant histidine in position 44 with glutamine to eliminate the autoproteolytic activity. PR3H44Q was fused either to the N terminus or to the C terminus of angiogenin. The recombinant proteins were expressed in 293T cells. Binding assays demonstrated the appropriate size and recognition by anti-PR3 antibodies. Using TUNEL technology, we demonstrated that these autoantigen toxins kill proteinase 3-specific B-cell hybridomas selectively by inducing apoptosis. The data indicate that autoantigen-toxins are promising tools in the treatment or co-treatment of autoimmune diseases in which the antigen is known. PMID:15147566

  13. Differential expression of soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes during development and in response to wounding and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed Central

    Botella, M A; Xu, Y; Prabha, T N; Zhao, Y; Narasimhan, M L; Wilson, K A; Nielsen, S S; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1996-01-01

    Three cysteine proteinase inhibitor cDNA clones (pL1, pR1, and pN2) have been isolated from a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) embryo library. The proteins encoded by the clones are between 60 and 70% identical and contain the consensus QxVxG motif and W residue in the appropriate spatial context for interaction with the cysteine proteinase papain. L1, R1, and N2 mRNAs were differentially expressed in different organs of plants (juvenile and mature) and seedlings, although N2 mRNA was constitutive only in flowers. R1 and N2 transcripts were induced by wounding or methyl jasmonate (M-JA) treatment in local and systemic leaves coincident with increased papain inhibitory activity, indicating a role for R1 and N2 in plant defense. The L1 transcript was constitutively expressed in leaves and was induced slightly by M-JA treatment in roots. Unlike the chymotrypsin/trypsin proteinase inhibitor II gene (H. Peña-Cortés, J. Fisahn, L. Willmitzer [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 4106-4113), expression of the soybean genes was only marginally induced by abscisic acid and only in certain tissues. Norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding, abolished the wounding or M-JA induction of R1 and N2 mRNAs but not the accumulation of the wound-inducible vspA transcript. Presumably, ethylene binding to its receptor is involved in the wound inducibility of R1 and N2 but not vspA mRNAs. Bacterial recombinant L1 and R1 proteins, expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, exhibited substantial inhibitory activities against vicilin peptidohydrolase, the major thiol endopeptidase in mung bean seedlings. Recombinant R1 protein had much greater cysteine proteinase inhibitor activity than recombinant L1 protein, consistent with the wound inducibility of the R1 gene and its presumed role in plant defense. PMID:8938418

  14. The Intracellular Domain of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Differentially Influences Adenovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Loustalot, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule used as a docking molecule by some adenoviruses (AdVs) and group B coxsackieviruses. We previously proposed that the preferential transduction of neurons by canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) is due to CAR-mediated internalization. Our proposed pathway of CAV-2 entry is in contrast to that of human AdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) in nonneuronal cells, where internalization is mediated by auxiliary receptors such as integrins. We therefore asked if in fibroblast-like cells the intracellular domain (ICD) of CAR plays a role in the internalization of the CAV-2 fiber knob (FKCAV), CAV-2, or HAdV-C5 when the capsid cannot engage integrins. Here, we show that in fibroblast-like cells, the CAR ICD is needed for FKCAV entry and efficient CAV-2 transduction but dispensable for HAdV-C5 and an HAdV-C5 capsid lacking the RGD sequence (an integrin-interacting motif) in the penton. Moreover, the deletion of the CAR ICD further impacts CAV-2 intracellular trafficking, highlighting the crucial role of CAR in CAV-2 intracellular dynamics. These data demonstrate that the CAR ICD contains sequences important for the recruitment of the endocytic machinery that differentially influences AdV cell entry. IMPORTANCE Understanding how viruses interact with the host cell surface and reach the intracellular space is of crucial importance for applied and fundamental virology. Here, we compare the role of a cell adhesion molecule (CAR) in the internalization of adenoviruses that naturally infect humans and Canidae. We show that the intracellular domain of CAR differentially regulates AdV entry and trafficking. Our study highlights the mechanistic differences that a receptor can have for two viruses from the same family. PMID:26136571

  15. Magnesium-Dependent Interaction of PKR with Adenovirus VAI

    SciTech Connect

    K Launer -Felty; C Wong; A Wahid; G Conn; J Cole

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase R (PKR) is an interferon-induced kinase that plays a pivotal role in the innate immunity pathway for defense against viral infection. PKR is activated to undergo autophosphorylation upon binding to RNAs that contain duplex regions. Activated PKR phosphorylates the {alpha}-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis in virus-infected cells. Viruses have evolved diverse PKR-inhibitory strategies to evade the antiviral response. Adenovirus encodes virus-associated RNA I (VAI), a highly structured RNA inhibitor that binds PKR but fails to activate. We have characterized the stoichiometry and affinity of PKR binding to define the mechanism of PKR inhibition by VAI. Sedimentation velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements indicate that PKR interactions with VAI are modulated by Mg{sup 2+}. Two PKR monomers bind in the absence of Mg{sup 2+}, but a single monomer binds in the presence of divalent ion. Known RNA activators of PKR are capable of binding multiple PKR monomers to allow the kinase domains to come into close proximity and thus enhance dimerization. We propose that VAI acts as an inhibitor of PKR because it binds and sequesters a single PKR in the presence of divalent cation.

  16. Evaluation of the concentration and bioactivity of adenovirus vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mittereder, N; March, K L; Trapnell, B C

    1996-01-01

    Development of adenovirus vectors as potential therapeutic agents for multiple applications of in vivo human gene therapy has resulted in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. However, lack of standardization of the methods for quantifying the physical concentration and functionally active fraction of virions in these studies has often made comparison between various studies difficult or impossible. This study was therefore carried out to define the variables for quantification of the concentration of adenovirus vectors. The methods for evaluation of total virion concentration included electron microscopy and optical absorbance. The methods for evaluation of the concentration of functional virions included detection of gene transfer (transgene transfer and expression) and the plaque assay on 293 cells. Enumeration of total virion concentration by optical absorbance was found to be a precise procedure, but accuracy was dependent on physical disruption of the virion to eliminate artifacts from light scattering and also on a correct value for the extinction coefficient. Both biological assays for enumerating functional virions were highly dependent on the assay conditions and in particular the time of virion adsorption and adsorption volume. Under optimal conditions, the bioactivity of the vector, defined as the fraction of total virions which leads to detected target cell infection, was determined to be 0.10 in the plaque assay and 0.29 in the gene transfer assay. This difference is most likely due to the fact that detection by gene transfer requires only measurement of levels of transgene expression in the infected cell whereas plaque formation is dependent on a series of biological events of much greater complexity. These results show that the exact conditions for determination of infectious virion concentration and bioactivity of recombinant adenovirus vectors are critical and must be standardized for comparability. These observations may be very useful in

  17. Enhanced Transduction and Replication of RGD-Fiber Modified Adenovirus in Primary T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sadhak; Ulasov, Ilya V.; Thaci, Bart; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoviruses are often used as vehicles to mediate gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, but their research scope in hematological cells remains limited due to a narrow choice of host cells that express the adenoviral receptor (CAR). T cells, which are attractive targets for gene therapy of numerous diseases, remain resistant to adenoviral infection because of the absence of CAR expression. Here, we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome when murine or human T cells are transduced with an adenovirus incorporating the RGD-fiber modification (Ad-RGD). Methodology/Principal Finding A luciferase-expressing replication-deficient Ad-RGD infected 3-fold higher number of activated primary T cells than an adenovirus lacking the RGD-fiber modification in vitro. Infection with replication-competent Ad-RGD virus also caused increased cell cycling, higher E1A copy number and enriched hexon antigen expression in both human and murine T cells. Transduction with oncolytic Ad-RGD also resulted in higher titers of progeny virus and enhanced the killing of T cells. In vivo, 35–45% of splenic T cells were transduced by Ad-RGD. Conclusions Collectively, our results prove that a fiber modified Ad-RGD successfully transduces and replicates in primary T cells of both murine and human origin. PMID:21464908

  18. Viral Capsid Is a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern in Adenovirus Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James

    2010-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection of the human eye, in particular serotypes 8, 19 and 37, induces the formation of corneal subepithelial leukocytic infiltrates. Using a unique mouse model of adenovirus keratitis, we studied the role of various virus-associated molecular patterns in subsequent innate immune responses of resident corneal cells to HAdV-37 infection. We found that neither viral DNA, viral gene expression, or viral replication was necessary for the development of keratitis. In contrast, empty viral capsid induced keratitis and a chemokine profile similar to intact virus. Transfected viral DNA did not induce leukocyte infiltration despite CCL2 expression similar to levels in virus infected corneas. Mice without toll-like receptor 9 (Tlr9) signaling developed clinical keratitis upon HAdV-37 infection similar to wild type mice, although the absolute numbers of activated monocytes in the cornea were less in Tlr9−/− mice. Virus induced leukocytic infiltrates and chemokine expression in mouse cornea could be blocked by treatment with a peptide containing arginine glycine aspartic acid (RGD). These results demonstrate that adenovirus infection of the cornea induces chemokine expression and subsequent infiltration by leukocytes principally through RGD contact between viral capsid and the host cell, possibly through direct interaction between the viral capsid penton base and host cell integrins. PMID:20419141

  19. Inactivation of Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus with PAXgene tissue fixative and formalin.

    PubMed

    Kap, Marcel; Arron, Georgina I; Loibner, M; Hausleitner, Anja; Siaulyte, Gintare; Zatloukal, Kurt; Murk, Jean-Luc; Riegman, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Formalin fixation is known to inactivate most viruses in a vaccine production context, but nothing is published about virus activity in tissues treated with alternative, non-crosslinking fixatives. We used a model assay based on cell culture to test formalin and PAXgene Tissue fixative for their virus-inactivating abilities. MDCK, A549, and MRC-5 cells were infected with Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus, respectively. When 75% of the cells showed a cytopathic effect (CPE), the cells were harvested and incubated for 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, or 24 hours, with PBS (positive control), 4% formalin, or PAXgene Tissue Fix. The cells were disrupted and the released virus was used to infect fresh MDCK, A549, and MRC-5 cells cultured on cover slips in 24-well plates. The viral cultures were monitored for CPE and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) to record viral replication and infectivity. Inactivation of Adenovirus by formalin occurred after 3 h, while Influenza A virus as well as Cytomegalovirus were inactivated by formalin after 15 min. All three virus strains were inactivated by PAXgene Tissue fixative after 15 min. We conclude that PAXgene Tissue fixative is at least as effective as formalin in inactivating infectivity of Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus. PMID:24845590

  20. Treatment of Cancer Patients With a Serotype 5/3 Chimeric Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing GMCSF

    PubMed Central

    Koski, Anniina; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Escutenaire, Sophie; Pesonen, Sari; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Nokisalmi, Petri; Raki, Mari; Rajecki, Maria; Guse, Kilian; Ranki, Tuuli; Oksanen, Minna; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Haavisto, Elina; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Ugolini, Matteo; Helminen, Andreas; Karli, Eerika; Hannuksela, Päivi; Pesonen, Saila; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2010-01-01

    Augmenting antitumor immunity is a promising way to enhance the potency of oncolytic adenoviral therapy. Granulocyte–macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Serotype 5 adenoviruses (Ad5) are commonly used in cancer gene therapy. However, expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor is variable in many advanced tumors and preclinical data have demonstrated an advantage for replacing the Ad5 knob with the Ad3 knob. Here, a 5/3 capsid chimeric and p16-Rb pathway selective oncolytic adenovirus coding for GMCSF was engineered and tested preclinically. A total of 21 patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapies were then treated intratumorally and intravenously with Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF, which was combined with low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide to reduce regulatory T cells. No severe adverse events occurred. Analysis of pretreatment samples of malignant pleural effusion and ascites confirmed the efficacy of Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF in transduction and cell killing. Evidence of biological activity of the virus was seen in 13/21 patients and 8/12 showed objective clinical benefit as evaluated by radiology with Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Antiadenoviral and antitumoral immune responses were elicited after treatment. Thus, Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF seems safe in treating cancer patients and promising signs of efficacy were seen. PMID:20664527

  1. Construction of an adenovirus type 7a E1A- vector.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, K; Kong, H L; Mastrangeli, A; Brough, D; Lizonova, A; Crystal, R G; Falck-Pedersen, E

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for constructing replication-defective adenovirus vectors from non-subgroup C viruses has been successfully demonstrated with adenovirus type 7 strain a (Ad7a) as the prototype. An E1A-deleted Ad7a reporter virus expressing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene from the cytomegalovirus promoter enhancer was constructed with DNA fragments isolated from Ad7a, an Ad7a recombination reporter plasmid, and the 293 cell line. The Ad7a-CAT virus particle transduces A549 cells as efficiently as Ad5-based vectors. Intravenous infections in a murine model indicate that the Ad7a-CAT virus infects a variety of tissues, with maximal levels of CAT gene expression found in the liver. The duration of Ad7a-CAT transgene expression in the liver was maximally maintained 2 weeks postinfection, with a decline to baseline activity by the week 4 postinfection. Ad7a-CAT represents the first example of a non-subgroup C E1A- adenovirus gene transfer vector. PMID:9343264

  2. Replication of origin containing adenovirus DNA fragments that do not carry the terminal protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, B G; van der Ley, P A; van Driel, W; van Mansfeld, A D; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infected HeLa cells were used to study the template requirements for adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. When XbaI digested Ad5 DNA, containing the parental terminal protein (TP), was used as a template preferential synthesis of the terminal fragments was observed. The newly synthesized DNA was covalently bound to the 82 kD preterminal protein (pTP). Plasmid DNAs containing the Ad2 origin sequence or the Ad12 origin sequence with small deletions were analyzed for their capacity to support pTP-primed DNA replication. Circular plasmid DNAs were inactive. When plasmids were linearized to expose the adenovirus origin, b