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Sample records for activated coir pith

  1. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  2. Removal of molybdate from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-01

    Removal and recovery of molybdate from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl2 activated carbon developed from coir pith. Studies were conducted to delineate the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, molybdate concentration, pH and temperature. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 18.9 mg molybdate/g of the adsorbent. Adsorption followed second order kinetics. Studies were performed at different pH values to find out the pH at which maximum adsorption occurred. The pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange and chemisorption mechanism were involved in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption were evaluated. Effect of foreign ions on adsorption of molybdate has been examined. The results showed that ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon was effective for the removal and recovery of molybdate from water.

  3. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Santhy, K; Selvapathy, P

    2006-07-01

    The removal efficiency of activated carbon prepared from coir pith towards three highly used reactive dyes in textile industry was investigated. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption of dyes increased with an increase in contact time and carbon dose. Maximum de-colorisation of all the dyes was observed at acidic pH. Adsorption of dyes was found to follow the Freundlich model. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed first order and the values of the Lagergren rate constants of the dyes were in the range of 1.77 x 10(-2)-2.69 x 10(-2)min(-1). The column experiments using granular form of the carbon (obtained by agglomeration with polyvinyl acetate) showed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in bed depth and decrease of flow rate. The bed depth service time (BDST) analysis carried out for the dyes indicated a linear relationship between bed depth and service time. The exhausted carbon could be completely regenerated and put to repeated use by elution with 1.0M NaOH. The coir pith activated carbon was not only effective in removal of colour but also significantly reduced COD levels of the textile wastewater.

  4. Chromium removal from electroplating wastewater by coir pith.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Chayabutra, Supanee

    2007-03-22

    Coir pith is a by-product from padding used in mattress factories. It contains a high amount of lignin. Therefore, this study investigated the use of coir pith in the removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater by varying the parameters, such as the system pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The maximum removal (99.99%) was obtained at 2% (w/v) dosage, particle size <75microm, at initial Cr(VI) 1647mgl(-1), system pH 2, and an equilibrium time of 18h. The adsorption isotherm of coir pith fitted reasonably well with the Langmuir model. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of coir pith at 15, 30, 45 and 60 degrees C was 138.04, 197.23, 262.89 and 317.65mgCr(VI)g(-1) coir pith, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters indicated an endothermic process and the adsorption process was favored at high temperature. Desorption studies of Cr(VI) on coir pith and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) suggested that most of the chromium bound on the coir pith was in Cr(III) form due to the fact that the toxic Cr(VI) adsorbed on the coir pith by electrostatic attraction was easily reduced to less toxic Cr(III). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry analysis indicated that the carbonyl (CO) groups and methoxy (O-CH(3)) groups from the lignin structure in coir pith may be involved in the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The reduced Cr(III) on the coir pith surface may be bound with CO groups and O-CH(3) groups through coordinate covalent bonding in which a lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atoms of the methoxy and carbonyl groups can be donated to form a shared bond with Cr(III).

  5. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption of phosphate onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2004-12-15

    Phosphate removal from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl(2)-activated carbon developed from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Studies were conducted to delineate the effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, phosphate concentration, pH, and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.1 mg/g. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The removal was maximum in the pH range 3-10. pH effect and desorption studies showed that adsorption occurred by both ion exchange and chemisorption mechanisms. Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of foreign ions on adsorption shows that perchlorate, sulfate, and selenite decreased the percent removal of phosphate.

  6. Use of coir pith particles in composites with Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Gisela Azevedo Menezes; Vieira, Jhonatas Augusto Rocha; Barreto, Ledjane Silva

    2013-12-15

    Brazil is the fourth largest world's producer of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Coconut crops generate several wastes, including, coir pith. Coir pith and short fibers are the byproducts of extracting the long fibers and account for approximately 70% of the mature coconut husk. The main use of coir pith is as an agricultural substrate. Due to its shape and small size (0.075-1.2 mm), this material can be considered as a particulate material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of coir pith as an aggregate in cementitious composites and to evaluate the effect of the presence of sand in the performance of these composites. Some composites were produced exclusively with coir pith particles and other composites with coir pith partially substituting the natural sand. The cementitious composites developed were tested for their physical and mechanical properties and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of coir pith particles addition in cement paste and sand-cement-mortar. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by multiple comparisons of the means by Tukey's test that showed that the composites with coir pith particles, with or without natural sand, had similar mechanical results, i.e., means were not statistically different at 5% significance level. There was a reduction in bulk density and an improved post-cracking behavior in the composites with coir pith particles compared to conventional mortar and to cement paste. These composites can be used for the production of lightweight, nonstructural building materials, according to the values of compressive strength (3.97-4.35 MPa) and low bulk density (0.99-1.26 g/cm(3)).

  7. Kinetic studies of adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2005-09-01

    The adsorption of thiocyanate onto ZnCl2 activated carbon developed from coir pith was investigated to assess the possible use of this adsorbent. The influence of various parameters such as agitation time, thiocyanate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature has been studied. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms, namely, Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 16.2 mg g(-1) of the adsorbent. The per cent adsorption was maximum in the pH range 3.0-7.0. pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange and chemisorption mechanism are involved in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG0, DeltaH0 and DeltaS0 for the adsorption were evaluated. The negative values of DeltaH0 confirm the exothermic nature of adsorption. Effects of foreign ions on the adsorption of thiocyanate have been investigated. Removal of thiocyanate from ground water was also tested.

  8. Mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption by coir pith studied by ESR and adsorption kinetic.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Nakajima, Akira; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Baba, Yoshinari; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2009-01-30

    The oxidation state of chromium in coir pith after Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution was investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). To elucidate the mechanism of chromium adsorption on coir pith, the adsorption studies of Cr(VI) onto lignin, alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith were also studied. ESR signals of Cr(V) and Cr(III) were observed in coir pith adsorbed Cr(VI) at solution pH 2, while ESR spectra of lignin extracted from coir pith revealed only the Cr(III) signal. In addition, ESR signal of Cr(V) was observed in alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith adsorbed Cr(VI). These results confirmed that lignin in coir pith reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) while alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(V). The Cr(V) signal exhibited in ESR of alpha-cellulose and holocellulose might be bound with glucose in cellulose part of coir pith. In addition, xylose which is main in pentosan part of coir pith, indicated that it is involved in form complex with Cr(V) on coir pith. The adsorption kinetic of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution on coir pith was also investigated and described well with pseudo second order model. ESR and desorption experiments confirmed that Cr(VI), Cr(V) and Cr(III), exist in coir pith after Cr(VI) adsorption. The desorption data indicated that the percentage of Cr(VI), Cr(V) and Cr(III) in coir pith were 15.63%, 12.89% and 71.48%, respectively.

  9. Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, D; Namasivayam, C

    2007-01-01

    Varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature carried out the potential feasibility of thermally activated coir pith carbon prepared from coconut husk for removal of methylene blue. Greater percentage of dye was removed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent used. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye on coir pith carbon was a gradual process. Lagergren first-order, second-order, intra particle diffusion model and Bangham were used to fit the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich, and Tempkin isotherm. The adsorption capacity was found to be 5.87 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm for the particle size 250-500 microm. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 and 60 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30, 40 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. A maximum removal of 97% was obtained at natural pH 6.9 for an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/50 mL and 100% removal was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 600 mg/50 mL of 10 mg/L dye concentration. The pH effect and desorption studies suggest that chemisorption might be the major mode of the adsorption process. The change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of coir pith carbon was estimated as 117.20 J/mol/K and 30.88 kJ/mol, respectively. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of methylene blue on coir pith carbon.

  10. Esterified coir pith as an adsorbent for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, U S; Sudersanan, M

    2008-04-01

    Coir pith was chemically modified for the adsorption of cobalt(II) ions from aqueous solution. Chemical modification was done by esterification using succinic anhydride followed by activation with NaHCO(3) in order to improve the adsorption of Co(II). Adsorptive removal of Co(II) from aqueous solution onto modified coir pith was evaluated in batch studies under varying conditions of agitation time and metal ion concentration to assess the kinetic and equilibrium parameters. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well for the sorption of Co(II) onto modified coir pith. Sorption kinetics showed that the loading of Co(II) by this material was quite fast under ambient conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models provided excellent fits for the adsorption data, with R(2) of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. After esterification, the maximum Co(II) sorption loading Q(0); was greatly improved. It is evident that chemically modified adsorbent exhibits better Co(II) removal capability than raw adsorbent suggesting that surface modification of the adsorbent generates more adsorption sites on its solid surface for metal adsorption. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 1.0N HCl.

  11. Cr(VI) adsorption from electroplating plating wastewater by chemically modified coir pith.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-07-15

    Coir pith samples were chemically modified by grafting with acrylic acid for the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater. The presence of acrylic acid on the coir pith surface was verified by a scanning electron microscope with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The carbonyl groups (C==O) from the carboxylic acids (COOH) increased on the coir pith surface after grafting with acrylic acid. In addition, the thermal stability of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith also improved. The optimum conditions for grafting the acrylic acid on the coir pith consisted of 2 M acrylic acid and 0.00125 M ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN, as an initiator). The maximum Cr(VI) removal (99.99 ± 0.07%) was obtained with the following conditions: a 1.3% (w/v) dosage of acrylic acid-grafted coir pith, a system pH of 2, a contact time of 22 h, a temperature of 30 °C, a particle size of <150 μm and an initial Cr(VI) of 1,171 mg l(-1). At system pH of 2, Cr(VI) in the HCrO(4)(-) form can be adsorbed with acrylic acid-grafted coir pith via an electrostatic attraction. The adsorption isotherm of 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith exhibited a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was 196.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent, whereas for coir pith without grafting, the maximum Cr(VI) removal was 165.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent. The adsorption capacity of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith for Cr(VI) was higher compared to the original coir pith. This result was due to the enhancement of the carbonyl groups on the coir pith surface that may have involved the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The X-ray absorption near edged structure (XANES) and desorption studies suggested that most of the Cr(III) that presented on the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was due to the Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III) on the adsorbent surface. FTIR

  12. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  13. Mechanistic studies on the binding of Acid Yellow 99 on coir pith.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Motiar R; Ray, Manju; Guha, Arun K

    2011-02-01

    The interaction of Acid Yellow 99 (AY 99) with coir pith has been investigated in aqueous medium to understand the mechanism of adsorption and explore the potentiality of this biomass towards controlling pollution resulting from textile dyes. The obtained results establish that one gram of coir pith can adsorb 442.13 mg of AY 99. The adsorption process is found to be a function of pH of the solution, the optimum pH value being 2.0. The process follows Langmuir-Freundlich dual isotherm model. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrates that on dye adsorption the biomass develops uneven and irregular surface. X-ray diffraction study indicates incorporation of the dye into the micropores and macropores of the adsorbent and thereby enhancing its degree of crystallinity. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemical modification of the functional groups establish that binding of AY 99 on coir pith occurs through electrostatic and complexation reaction.

  14. Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakbanpote, Woranan

    2008-12-15

    The removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater by coir pith was investigated in a fixed-bed column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important parameters such as bed depth (40-60cm) and flow rate (10-30ml min(-1)). At 0.05 C(t)/C(0), the breakthrough volume increased as flow rate decreased or a bed depth increased due to an increase in empty bed contact time (EBCT). The bed depth service time model (BDST) fit well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve, while the simulation of the whole curve using non-linear regression analysis was effective using the Thomas model. The adsorption capacity estimated from the BDST model was reduced with increasing flow rate, which was 16.40mg cm(-3) or 137.91mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 10ml min(-1) and 14.05mg cm(-3) or 118.20mg Cr(VI)g(-1) coir pith for the flow rates of 30ml min(-1). At the highest bed depth (60cm) and the lowest flow rate (10mlmin(-1)), the maximum adsorption reached 201.47mg Cr(VI)g(-1) adsorbent according to the Thomas model. The column was regenerated by eluting chromium using 2M HNO(3) after adsorption studies. The desorption of Cr(III) in each of three cycles was about 67-70%. The desorption of Cr(III) in each cycle did not reach 100% due to the fact that Cr(V) was present through the reduction of Cr(VI), and was still in coir pith, possibly bound to glucose in the cellulose part of coir pith. Therefore, the Cr(V) complex cannot be desorbed in solution. The evidence of Cr(V) signal was observed in coir pith, alpha-cellulose and holocellulose extracted from coir pith using electron spin resonance (ESR).

  15. Uranium removal from aqueous solution by coir pith: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Shenoy, Niyoti; Verma, Rakesh; Lali, Arvind; Sudersanan, M

    2005-07-01

    Basic aspects of uranium adsorption by coir pith have been investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of different experimental parameters such as final solution pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption time, temperature and various concentrations of uranium on uptake were evaluated. Maximum uranium adsorption was observed in the pH range 4.0-6.0. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. The equilibrium data fitted well to both the equilibrium models in the studied concentration range of uranium (200-800 mg/l) and temperatures (305-336 K). The coir pith exhibited the highest uptake capacity for uranium at 317 K, at the final solution pH value of 4.3 and at the initial uranium concentration of 800 mg/l. The kinetics of the adsorption process followed a second-order adsorption. The adsorbent used proved to be suitable for removal of uranium from aqueous solutions. 0.2 N HCl was effective in uranium desorption. The results indicated that the naturally abundant coir pith of otherwise nuisance value exhibited considerable potential for application in removal of uranium from aqueous solution.

  16. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using natural and surface modified coir pith.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K Anoop; Haridas, Ajit

    2008-04-01

    Iron impregnated coir pith (CP-Fe-I) can be effectively used for the removal of phosphate from aqueous streams and sewage. Iron impregnation on natural coir pith was carried out by drop by drop addition method. The effect of various factors such as pH, initial concentration of phosphate, contact time and adsorbent dose on phosphate adsorption was studied by batch technique. The pH at 3.0 favored the maximum adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions. The effect of pH on phosphate adsorption was explained by pH(zpc), phosphate speciation in solution and affinity of anions towards the adsorbent sites. A comparative study of the adsorption of phosphate using CP-Fe-I and CP (coir pith) was made and results show that the former one is five to six times more effective than the latter. Kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm model. Column studies were conducted to examine the utility of the investigated adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from continuously flowing aqueous solutions.

  17. Removal and recovery of cobalt from aqueous solutions by adsorption using low cost lignocellulosic biomass--coir pith.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Sudersanan, M; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, Umashankar

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of low-cost lignocellulosic biosorbent-coir pith, for removal of cobalt (II) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption studies has been explored herein. Adsorption characteristics of coir pith were investigated systematically by varying the experimental parameters such as, solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature. The studies revealed that optimum adsorption of cobalt onto coir pith occurred in the pH range of 4.0 - 7.0. Sorption kinetics of cobalt was found to be quite rapid under ambient conditions and the process followed second-order kinetics. The experimental data have been analyzed using non-linearized forms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherms for mathematical description of the process. Desorption studies showed that the quantitative recovery of Co (II) from the spent coir pith was achieved by using 0.5 N HCl. The suitability of this adsorbent for real situation has been observed, when complete removal of cobalt from nuclear power plant coolant water was obtained. The present studies successfully demonstrated the use of coir pith as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions.

  18. Surfactant modified coir pith, an agricultural solid waste as adsorbent for phosphate removal and fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kumar, M V Suresh

    2005-10-01

    The surface of coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was modified using a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and the modified coir pith was investigated to assess the capacity for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. Optimum pH for maximum phosphate adsorption was found to be 4.0. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the overall adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Effect of coexisting anions has also been studied. The feasibility of using spent adsorbent as fertilizer carrier to control phosphate release was also investigated.

  19. Adsorptive removal of 2-chlorophenol by low-cost coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2003-03-17

    Adsorption of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, 2-CP concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Adsorption equilibrium reached at 40, 60, 80 and 100 min for 2-CP concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l, respectively. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium data obeyed Freundlich isotherm. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of 2-CP. Desorption studies showed that chemisorption plays a major role in the adsorption process.

  20. Engineering a lignocellulosic biosorbent--coir pith for removal of cesium from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Sudersanan, M

    2010-02-01

    A novel method of engineering lignocellulosic biosorbent- coir pith (CP) by incorporation of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF), also referred to as Prussian blue analogue (PBA) inside its porous matrix is reported. Structural characterization confirmed the successful synthesis of NiHCF in the coir pith matrix. Sorption capacity of coir pith (CP) before and after loading of NiHCF was investigated for cesium (Cs) in batch equilibrium studies. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process was rapid and saturation was attained within 30 min. The applicability of non linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich Peterson isotherms was examined for the experimental data. The present studies revealed that there was nearly 100% increase in the sorption capacity of CP after its surface modification with NiHCF. Owing to its low cost, fast sorption kinetics and high uptake capacity, coir pith loaded with NiHCF (CP-NiHCF) seems to be one of the most promising biosorbents for recovery of cesium from liquid nuclear wastes.

  1. Adsorption characteristics of cadmium(II) onto functionalized poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-grafted coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, Thayyath Sreenivasan; Divya, Lekshmi; Rijith, Sreenivasan

    2010-07-01

    This study explored the feasibility of utilizing a novel adsorbent, poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-grafted coconut coir pith with carboxyl functionality (PGCP-COOH) for the removal of cadmium(II) from water and wastewater. Maximum removal of 99.9% was observed for an initial concentration of 25 mg/L at pH 6.0 and adsorbent dose of 2.0 g/L. The first-order reversible kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model were resulted in high correlation coefficients and described well the adsorption of Cd(II) onto PGCP-COOH. The complete removal of 22.4 mg/L Cd(II) from fertilizer industry wastewater was achieved by 2.0 g/L PGCP-COOH. The reusability of the PGCP-COOH for several cycles was demonstrated using 0.1 M HCl solution.

  2. Uptake of dyes by a promising locally available agricultural solid waste: coir pith.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Radhika, R; Suba, S

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption of rhodamine-B and acid violet by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. The adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity was found to be 2.56 mg and 8.06 mg dye per g of the adsorbent for rhodamine-B and acid violet, respectively. Adsorption of dyes followed first order rate kinetics. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of acid violet and alkaline pH was favorable to rhodamine-B. Desorption studies showed that alkaline pH was favorable for the desorption of acid violet and acidic pH was favorable for the desorption of rhodamine-B.

  3. A reinvestigation of EXAFS and EPR spectroscopic measurements of chromium(VI) reduction by coir pith.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Worasith, Niramon; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Nakajima, Akira; Goodman, Bernard A

    2010-08-15

    New measurements using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques are consistent with Cr in the Cr(III) oxidation state as the main product from the adsorption of Cr(VI) on coir pith. These confirm the previous X-ray measurements, but differ from the results of previous EPR studies, which indicated that Cr(V) was the main form of Cr. The reason for this discrepancy is the presence of a broad signal from Cr(III) in an unsymmetrical environment that was missed previously; the Cr(V) component is in fact only a minor reaction product. As a result of this problem with spectral acquisition and interpretation, some simple recommendations are presented for conducting EPR investigations on natural systems.

  4. Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by coir pith carbon: equilibrium and rate studies.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Kavitha, D

    2004-07-01

    Batch mode studies were conducted to study the removal of phenol, 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP) and Pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on coir pith carbon by adsorption process under varying experimental conditions such as agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Kinetics of adsorption obeyed second order rate equation and the rate constant was found to be in the range 0.0098-0.0672, 0.0949-0.8801 and 0.172-0.305 g/mg/min for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively. Equilibrium adsorption data follow Langmuir isotherm for phenol and PCP and the adsorption capacities were found to be 48.3 mg and 3.7 mg/g, respectively. For TCP, adsorption followed Freundlich isotherm only. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of all the chlorophenols. Studies on pH effect and desorption show that chemisorption seems to play a major rule in the adsorption process. The positive values of H0 24.99, 18.69, and 8.907 kJ/mol for phenol, TCP and PCP respectively, confirm the endothermic nature of adsorption.

  5. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K S M; Banat, I M; Thahira, J; Thayumanavan, Tha; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS.

  6. Removal of chromium(VI) from water and wastewater using surfactant modified coconut coir pith as a biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sureshkumar, M V

    2008-05-01

    Coconut coir pith, an agricultural solid waste was used as biosorbent for the removal of chromium(VI) after modification with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found to be 2.0. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) occurred to a slight extent during the removal. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data and the system followed all the three isotherms. The adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 76.3 mg g(-1), which is higher or comparable to the adsorption capacity of various adsorbents reported in literature. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption obeyed second order and Elovich model. Thermodynamic parameters such as delta G0, delta H0 and delta S0 were evaluated, indicating that the overall adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Effects of foreign anions were also examined. The adsorbent was also tested for the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating effluent.

  7. Arsenic(V) removal from aqueous solutions using an anion exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Unnithan, Maya R

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a new anion exchanger (AE) prepared from coconut coir pith (CP), for the removal of arsenic(V) [As(V)] from aqueous solutions was evaluated in this study. The adsorbent (CP-AE) carrying dimethylaminohydroxypropyl weak base functional group was synthesized by the reaction of CP with epichlorohydrin and dimethylamine followed by treatment of hydrochloric acid. IR spectroscopy results confirm the presence of -NH(+)(CH(3))(2)Cl(-) group in the adsorbent. XRD studies confirm the decrease of crystallinity in CP-AE compared to CP, and it favours the protrusion of the functional group into the aqueous medium. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the efficiency of the adsorbent on As(V) removal. Maximum removal of 99.2% was obtained for an initial concentration of 1 mgl(-1) As(V) at pH 7.0 and an adsorbent dose of 2 gl(-1). The kinetics of sorption of As(V) onto CP-AE was described using the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium isotherms were determined for different temperatures and the results were analysed using the Langmuir equation. The temperature dependence indicates an exothermic process. Utility of the adsorbent was tested by removing As(V) from simulated groundwater. Regeneration studies were performed using 0.1N HCl. Batch adsorption-desorption studies illustrate that CP-AE could be used to remove As(V) from ground water and other industrial effluents.

  8. Purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through saccharification of delignified coir pith to glucose.

    PubMed

    Asha, P; Divya, Jose; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    The study describes purification and characterisation of processive-type endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus ochraceus MTCC 1810 through bioconversion of delignified coir pith to fermentable glucose. The purified processive endoglucanase (AS-HT-Celuz A) and β-glucosidase (AS-HT-Celuz B) were found to have molecular mass of ≈78-kDa and 43-kDa respectively with optimum endoglucanase (35.63U/ml), total cellulase (28.15FPU/ml) and β-glucosidase (15.19U/ml) activities at 40°C/pH 6. The unique feature of AS-HT-Celuz A is the multiple substrate specificity and processivity towards both amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Zymogram indicated both endo and exoglucanase activities residing in different binding sites of a single protein exhibiting sequential synergy with its own β-glucosidase. Accordingly, the identified enzymes could be implemented as synergistic cellulases for complete cellulose saccharification which still considered an unresolved issue in bio-refineries.

  9. Instrumental Characterization Of Coir PITH By XRD, FTIR and SEM After Radium Adsorption From Aqueous Solution Under The Presence Of Humic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laili, Zalina; Omar, Muhamat; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Ibrahim, Mohd Zaidi; Yahaya, Mohd Yusri; Murshidi, Julie Andrianny

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption interactions of radium (Ra) ions onto coir pith (CP) under the presence of humic acid (HA) in the aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. XRD, IR and SEM characterization of the CP has revealed differences in the native CP and Ra ions loaded CP under the presence of HA in the aqueous solution. The X-Ray patterns showed that crystalline structure of the loaded CP exhibited a decrease in crystalline structure at around 49°-51° compared with unloaded CP. Characterization by IR revealed that participation of some surface functional groups during the Ra adsorption. SEM images for the morphological studies showed that there were slightly changes of the CP surfaces after the adsorption process.

  10. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Divya, L; Ramachandran, M

    2008-09-15

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R(2)=0.99; chi(2)=1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%.

  11. Preparation of activated carbon from sorghum pith and its structural and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, S.T.; Senthilkumar, B.; Balaji, S.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Kalai Selvan, R.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sorghum pith as the cost effective raw material for activated carbon preparation. {yields} Physicochemical method/KOH activation for preparation of activated carbon is inexpensive. {yields} Activated carbon having lower surface area surprisingly delivered a higher specific capacitance. {yields} Treated at 500 {sup o}C activated carbon exceeds maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s. -- Abstract: The cost effective activated carbon (AC) has been prepared from sorghum pith by NaOH activation at various temperatures, including 300 {sup o}C (AC1), 400 {sup o}C (AC2) and 500 {sup o}C (AC3) for the electrodes in electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The amorphous nature of the samples has been observed from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectral studies. Subsequently, the surface functional groups, surface morphology, pore diameter and specific surface area have been identified through FT-IR, SEM, histogram and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm methods. The electrochemical characterization of AC electrodes has been examined using cyclic voltammetry technique in the potential range of -0.1-1.2 V in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at different scan rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mV/s). The maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s and 222.1 F/g at 100 mV/s have been obtained for AC3 electrode when compared with AC1 and AC2 electrodes. Based on the characterization studies, it has been inferred that the activated carbon prepared from sorghum pith may be one of the innovative carbon electrode materials for EDLC applications.

  12. Relationship of nuclease activity and synthesis to senescence of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk pith, cob parenchyma and first developed leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, J N; Liu TU, Y S; Liu, C R; Pappelis, A J

    1976-01-01

    An increase in total RNase activity was associated with three patterns of cell senescence in corn (Zea mays L.) (cv. WF9 X 38-11) cob parenchyma during the first two weeks following silking, stalk pith tissue after internode elongation and the first developed leaf of seedlings. Stalk pith tissue had two RNase activities, one inhibited by EDTA and one not. Both remained in approximately equal amounts in young to old pith tissue. In the first developed leaf of seedlings, the activity not inhibited by EDTA remained at a constant low level during the period studied, while the other activity varied. No inhibition by EDTA was found in cob parenchyma tissue. Incubation of sections of cob parenchyma and stalk pith tissues suggested that the total RNase activity of cob parenchyma is very stable and that of stalk pith tissue is relatively stable. An age-related increase in DNase activity was found in stalk pith tissue and in the first developed leaf of seedlings, but not in cob parenchyma tissue.

  13. Nickel(II) adsorption onto biomass based activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, K Anoop; Sreejalekshmi, K G; Baiju, R S

    2011-11-01

    Bioavailability of Nickel in the form of hydrated Nickel(II) attributes to its toxicological effects and hence its removal from aqueous solution is of great concern. Adsorption is used as an efficient technique for the removal of Nickel(II), hereafter Ni(II), from water and wastewaters. Activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith (SBP-AC), a waste biomass collected from juice shops in Sarkara Devi Temple, Chirayinkeezhu, Trivandrum, India during annual festival, is used as adsorbent in the study. The process of adsorption is highly dependent on solution pH, and maximum removal occurs in the pH range of 4.0-8.0. Moreover, the amount of Ni(II) adsorbed onto SBP-AC increased with the time increase and reached equilibrium at 4h. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium data were analyzed for determining the best fit kinetic and isotherm models. The overall study reveals the potential value of steam pyrolysed SBP-AC as a possible commercial adsorbent in wastewater treatment strategies.

  14. Inhibitory H3 receptors on sympathetic nerves of the pithed rat: activation by endogenous histamine and operation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, G; Malinowska, B; Buczko, W; Schlicker, E

    1997-02-01

    Our previous results demonstrate the occurrence of presynaptic inhibitory histamine H3 receptors on sympathetic neurons innervating resistance vessels of the pithed rat. The present study, in which new H3 receptor ligands with increased potency and selectivity (imetit, clobenpropit) were used, was designed to further explore the role of H3 receptors in the regulation of the rat cardiovascular system. In particular we were interested whether these receptors may be activated by endogenous histamine and whether they are detectable in an experimental model of hypertension. All experiments were performed on pithed and vagotomized rats treated with rauwolscine 1 mumol/kg. In normotensive Wistar rats the electrical (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 20 s) stimulation of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres increased diastolic blood pressure by about 35 mmHg. Two H3 receptor agonists, R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine and imetit, inhibited the electrically induced increase in diastolic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect (about 25%) was obtained for R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine at about 10 mumol/kg and for imetit at about 1 mumol/kg. Two H3 receptor antagonists, thioperamide 1 mumol/kg and clobenpropit 0.1 mumol/kg, attenuated the inhibitory effect of imetit. The neurogenic vasopressor response was increased by about 15% by thioperamide 1 mumol/kg and clobenpropit 0.1 mumol/kg and decreased by 25% by the histamine methyltransferase inhibitor metoprine 37 mumol/kg. R-(-)-alpha-Methylhistamine, imetit, thioperamide, clobenpropit and metoprine did not affect the vasopressor response to exogenously added noradrenaline 0.01 mumol/kg (which increased diastolic blood pressure by about 40 mmHg). Metoprine had only a very low affinity for H3 binding sites (labelled by 3H-N alpha-methylhistamine; pKi 4.46). In pithed Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, electrical (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 10 s) stimulation increased diastolic blood pressure by 28

  15. Removal of trichloroethylene by zerovalent iron/activated carbon derived from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuh-fan; Cheng, Yu-ling; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2013-11-15

    Activated carbon (AC) and zerovalent iron (ZVI) have been widely used in the adsorption and dehalogenation process, respectively, for the removal of organic compounds in environmental treatments. This study aims to prepare ZVI/AC derived from an agricultural waste, coir pith, through simple one-step pyrolysis. The effect of activation temperature and time on the surface area, iron content, and zerovalent iron ratio of ZVI/AC was systemically investigated. The results indicated that the activation of AC by FeSO4 significantly increased surface area of AC and distributed elemental iron over the AC. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of ZVI/AC revealed that zerovalent iron was present. As compared to AC without FeSO4 activation, ZVI/AC increased the trichloroethylene removal rate constant by 7 times. The dechlorination ability of ZVI/AC was dominated by the zerovalent iron content. We have shown that lab-made ZVI/AC from coir pith can effectively adsorb and dehalogenate the chlorinated compounds in water.

  16. Ontogeny and Hormonal Control of Polyphenoloxidase Isozymes in Tobacco Pith 1

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, H. A.; Galston, A. W.

    1970-01-01

    Isozymes of tobacco pith polyphenoloxidases (o-diphenol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.1) were separated electrophoretically from fresh pith of intact plants and from cultured pith sections. Extracts of fresh pith contained a poorly resolved complex of two to three anodic bands after starch gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. This anodic complex was more active with chlorogenic acid than with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and was found in greater activity per gram fresh weight of tissue in younger internodes than in older ones. The longitudinal gradient of activity was thus the opposite of that found for the constitutive isozymes of peroxidase. A well defined cathodic band of polyphenoloxidase activity appeared after culture of pith in modified White's medium with shaking. This band, which was more active with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine than with chlorogenic acid, could be detected after 1 to 2 days of incubation. Its appearance was enhanced by the addition of 10 μm indoleacetic acid; kinetin (1 μm tended to prevent this indoleacetic acid effect). Such hormonal control is opposite to that previously reported for the rapidly appearing new isozymes of peroxidase. The pattern of the major isozymes associated with polyphenoloxidase activities differs from that of peroxidase. PMID:4993442

  17. Biosoftening of coir fiber using selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Akhila; Senan, Resmi C; Pavithran, C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2005-12-01

    Coir fiber belongs to the group of hard structural fibers obtained from coconut husk. As lignin is the main constituent of coir responsible for its stiffness, microbes that selectively remove lignin without loss of appreciable amounts of cellulose are extremely attractive in biosoftening. Five isolated strains were compared with known strains of bacteria and fungi. The raw fiber treated with Pseudomonas putida and Phanerocheate chrysosporium produced better softened fiber at 30+/-2 degrees C and neutral pH. FeSO4 and humic acid were found to be the best inducers for P. chrysosporium and P. putida, respectively, while sucrose and dextrose were the best C-sources for both. Biosoftening of unretted coir fibers was more advantageous than the retted fibers. Unlike the weak chemically softened fiber, microbial treatment produced soft, whiter fibers having better tensile strength and elongation (44.6-44.8%) properties. Scanning electron microscopy photos showed the mycelia penetrating the pores of the fiber, removing the tylose plug and degrading lignin.

  18. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  19. Antibiosis of the pith maize to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Ordás, B; Butrón, A; Soengas, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2002-10-01

    Thirteen inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with different levels of stem resistance to the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides Lefevbre were evaluated in the field and the laboratory to determine the antibiotic resistance to this pest. Inbreds CM151, CO125, and EP39 had antibiotic pith as well as stem resistance, so the pith could play a role in stem resistance. Inbreds A509, F473, and PB130 did not have antibiotic pith but had stem resistance; therefore, other mechanisms could confer stem resistance. Finally, the inbred MS1334 had antibiotic pith and did not show stem resistance; thus, other factors could compensate the effect of the pith. Therefore, although pith antibiotic compound seems to play a role in the defense against S. nonagrioides attack, it is not the only possible mechanism of defense.

  20. A clinical and radiographic study of coir workers.

    PubMed Central

    Uragoda, C G

    1975-01-01

    Processing of coir, which is the fibre obtained from the husk of the coconut, is a dusty procedure; 779 workers in two coir processing factories in Sri Lanka were examined clincally and radiographically for evidence of respiratory disease. Respiratory symptoms were present in 20 (2-6%) of them, which is no higher than in the general population. Respiratory disease such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, byssinosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis which may occur from occupational exposures were considered, but there was no evidence to suggest a definite association between these conditions and coir dust. Twenty-two workers had abnormal chest radiographs, but when compared with a control group of 591 workers from an engineering firm where lesions were found in 20 cases, there was no significant difference. In the opinion of the medical officer, management and workers of the large factory investigated, coir dust does not produce any respiratory disability. The chemical composition of coir dust is similar to that of sisal which is also relatively inert. PMID:1125129

  1. alpha-Adrenoceptor blocking properties of raubasine in pithed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Demichel, P.; Gomond, P.; Roquebert, J.

    1982-01-01

    1 Raubasine was compared with yohimbine and corynanthine in pithed rats. Antagonist activity at alpha 1-adrenoceptors was evaluated on the pressor response to electrical stimulation of the spinal sympathetic outflow and to phenylephrine administration, both being reduced by raubasine in the dose range 1 to 4 mg/kg. Corynanthine was quantitatively similar, but yohimbine was not only less potent but also in doses of 0.125 to 0.5 mg/kg enhanced the effects of electrical stimulation. 2 Antagonist activity at alpha 2-adrenoceptors was determined against the inhibitory effects of clonidine on tachycardia induced by electrical stimulation of cardiac sympathetic nerves and against the pressor responses to B-HT-933 injection. Raubasine up to 4 mg/kg, like corynanthine, did not affect the pressor responses to B-HT-933 nor did it reduce the inhibitory effect of clonidine. By contrast yohimbine reduced the response to BHT-933 and antagonized clonidine as well as enhancing the tachycardia caused by electrical stimulation. 3 The results indicate that, in vivo, raubasine, like corynanthine, is a selective antagonist at alpha 1-adrenoceptors and that yohimbine is more potent in blocking alpha 2-than alpha 1-adrenoceptors. PMID:6128043

  2. Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Hasan, Mahbub; Islam, Md Saiful; Ali, Md Ershad

    2009-10-01

    In this work, palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene bio-composites were manufactured using a single extruder and injection molding machine. Raw palm and coir were chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt to increase their compatibility with the polypropylene matrix. Both raw and treated palm and coir fiber at five level of fiber loading (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 wt.%) was utilized during composite manufacturing. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Comparison has been made between the properties of the palm and coir fiber composites. Treated fiber reinforced specimens yielded better mechanical properties compared to the raw composites, while coir fiber composites had better mechanical properties than palm fiber ones. Based on fiber loading, 30% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties.

  3. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Robinson Boyer, Louisa; Feng, Wei; Gulbis, Natallia; Hajdu, Klara; Harrison, Richard J.; Jeffries, Peter; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir) under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir. PMID:27594859

  4. Mechanical characterization of coir/palmyra waste fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugaprabu, V.; Uthayakumar, M.; Cardona, F.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    In the present days, the utilization of palmyra fiber in automotive and aerospace applications has increased drastically due to its high strength and low weight. This research focuses on the development of composite materials using palmyra waste and coir fiber with polyester as a matrix. The mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact strength of composites were investigated. Palmyra waste fiber and coir fiber with relative varying weight percentage in the ratio of 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 20:80 had been considered for the study. The composites were prepared by the compression moulding method. In addition, the prepared composites were subjected to moisture studies for 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours to know the composite resistance to water absorption. The results showed an increase in all the mechanical properties from the addition of palmyra waste. After analysing the results obtained from the study, a suitable application in the automobile and aerospace industries is suggested for the new developed composite.

  5. Chronic administration of oxprenolol and metoprolol attenuate sympathetic cardiovascular responses only in non-adrenalectomized pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Vila, E; Badia, A

    1995-10-01

    1. Oxprenolol and metoprolol (30 mg kg-1) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 1 day (acute treatment) and 6 weeks (chronic treatment) to Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. Increases of mean blood pressure and heart rate to noradrenaline (0.1-10 micrograms kg-1) and to electrical stimulation (0.5 msec, supramax V, 0.25-5 Hz) of the entire sympathetic outflow were measured in non-adrenalectomized (acute and chronic) and adrenalectomized (chronic) pithed rats. 3. Acute beta-adrenoceptor antagonist administration was without effect on mean blood pressure and heart rate increases to noradrenaline and electrical stimulation. 4. Chronic administration with oxprenolol significantly diminished the stimulation-induced increases of mean blood pressure and heart rate in non-adrenalectomized pithed rats. 5. Increases in heart rate, elicited by stimulation of the entire sympathetic outflow in non-adrenalectomized but not in adrenalectomized pithed rats, were decreased by metoprolol treatment. Both treatments were without effect on noradrenaline responses. 6. These results indicate that chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment is associated with a reduction in the cardiovascular responses to sympathetic nerve-stimulation. However, this mechanism only operates when adrenomedullary adrenaline is present to facilitate the noradrenaline release through activation of presynaptic beta 2-adrenoceptors.

  6. The protective and attractive covering of a vegetated embankment using coir geotextiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. The results reveal that treatment with geotextile in combination with grass is an effective eco-hydrological measure to protect steep slopes from erosion. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods. This paper analyses the performance of coir geotextile in different treatments with respect to soil moisture content, protection against erosion and biomass production.

  7. Median and common peroneal neuropathy in coir workers of Alappuzha district, Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Anand, Biji; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Coir work, in a large number of people involves mechanically rolling the coconut fibers into coir which is later subjected to various processes. The primary work is done as a cottage industry specially by women in the sitting posture for several hours. This study reports evidence of median and common peroneal neuropathy electrophysiologically in people who had been engaged in this job for several years. This study was initiated to establish the possible relationship between coir work and symptomatic neuropathies which was seen in that region with all investigations “for other causes not” contributing to the etiological diagnosis. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and forty-two upper limbs and 142 lower limbs in patients engaged in long years of coir work but having no symptoms were evaluated electrophysiologically with informed consent and financial compensation, appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed as described in the text. Results: There is electrophysiological evidence for median and common peroneal neuropathy in persons engaged in long years of coir work. Conclusions: Coir workers neuropathy appears to be a new occupational neuropathy which can be prevented by following simple preventive measures. PMID:28298838

  8. Cardiovascular Alterations during the Interictal Period in Awake and Pithed Amygdala-Kindled Rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; Rocha, Luisa; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Villalón, Carlos M

    2016-08-01

    Epileptic seizures are often accompanied by increased sympathetic cardiovascular activity (even interictally), but it remains unknown whether this increased activity is of central and/or peripheral origin. Hence, this study investigated the cardiovascular alterations produced by amygdala kindling in awake and pithed Wistar rats. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were initially recorded by tail cuff plethysmography in awake control, sham-operated and amygdala-kindled rats before and 24 hr after the kindling process. The after-discharge threshold (ADT) was measured under different conditions to correlate brain excitability with BP and HR in kindled rats. Twenty-four hours after the last kindling seizure, (i) HR, systolic and diastolic BP were increased and (ii) only higher HR values correlated with lower ADT values. Forty-eight hr after the last kindled seizure, all rats were pithed and prepared for analysing the tachycardic, vasopressor and vasodepressor responses by (i) stimulation of the sympathetic or sensory vasodepressor CGRPergic out-flows (stimulus-response curves, S-R curves) and (ii) intravenous injections of noradrenaline or α-CGRP (dose-response curves, D-R curves). Interestingly, (i) the tachycardic S-R and D-R curves were attenuated, whilst the CGRPergic S-R and D-R curves were potentiated in kindled rats, and (ii) the vasopressor noradrenergic S-R and D-R curves were not significantly different in all groups. Therefore, the kindling process may be associated with overstimulation in the central sympathetic and sensory out-flows interictally, producing (i) peripheral attenuation of cardiac sympathetic out-flow and β-adrenoceptor activity and (ii) peripheral potentiation of vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic out-flow and CGRP receptor activity.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Sisal/Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites Fabricated by Cold Pressing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Bio-composites have less density and are environmental friendly materials that require less energy during production and subsequent machining. This paper reports the mechanical and water absorption properties of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated sisal and coir fiber reinforced epoxy resin thermo set hybrid composites. The hybrid composites were prepared by traditional cold pressing method at room temperature with applied pressure of 410.4 kg/cm2 for 3 hours pressurization time. The mechanical properties were characterized according to ASTM standards. Hybrid composites with 40wt% of sisal and coir fiber were found to possess higher tensile strength of 48.2MPa and flexural strength of 76.68 MPa among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Absorption of water increases with increasing fiber volume. The experimental result also show that the sisal and coir fibers are promising reinforcement for use in low cost bio-composites which have high strength to weight ratio.

  10. Kinetic study of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated coconut coir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmawati, Akbarningrum; Agustriyanto, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Biomass waste utilization for biofuel production such as bioethanol, has become more prominent currently. Coconut coir is one of lignocellulosic food wastes, which is abundant in Indonesia. Bioethanol production from such materials consists of more than one step. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial steps to produce sugar which can then be fermented into bioethanol. In this research, ground coconut coir was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at 121°C. This pretreatment had increased the cellulose content and decreased the lignin content of coconut coir. The pretreated coconut coir was hydrolyzed using a mix of two commercial cellulase enzymes at pH of 4.8 and temperature of 50°C. The enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted at several initial coconut coir slurry concentrations (0.1-2 g/100 mL) and reaction times (2-72 hours). The reducing sugar concentration profiles had been produced and can be used to obtain reaction rates. The highest reducing sugar concentration obtained was 1,152.567 mg/L, which was produced at initial slurry concentration of 2 g/100 mL and 72 hours reaction time. In this paper, the reducing sugar concentrations were empirically modeled as a function of reaction time using power equations. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis reaction is adopted. The kinetic parameters of that model for sulfuric acid-pretreated coconut coir enzymatic hydrolysis had been obtained which are Vm of 3.587×104 mg/L.h, and KM of 130.6 mg/L.

  11. The Effect of Sunlight in Parenchyma Pith Cells Diameter of Manihot esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, D.; Aziz, D. N.; Astuti, W.; Nuraeni, E.

    2017-03-01

    Sunlight is one of the factors that effect on the grow of a plant. Manihot esculenta is one of the plants that easily found in Indonesia because its role as staple food. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between sunlight the grow of parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Independent variable in this research is sunlight, and dependent variable is the parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Data was collected is in qualitative and quantitative form. Qualitative data gotten gained by morphology observation. The parenchyma pith cells of Manihot esculenta that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux, morphologically has hexagon, cell walls thick, solid state, and regular composition. Meanwhile, the parenchyma pith cells that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) has a hexagon shape, thin cell walls thin, soft state, and irregular composition. Qualitative data suported by quantitative data. The size of parenchyma pith cells diameter that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux 96,4 µm. While, the stem parenchyma pith cells diameter empulur that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) is 129,8 µm.

  12. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria on rubberized-coir for psychrophilic digestion of night soil.

    PubMed

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Ramana, Karna Venkat; Tomar, Arvind; Waghmare, Chandrakant; Kamboj, Dev Vrat; Singh, Lokendra

    2005-08-01

    Low-ambient temperatures, <30 degrees C, are known to cause drastic reduction in the efficiency of anaerobic biodigesters due to low-growth rate of the constituent bacterial consortium. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria has been attempted in the biodigester operating at 10 degrees C. Various matrices were screened and evaluated for the immobilization of bacteria in digesters. Anaerobic digestion of night soil was carried out with hydraulic retention time in the range of 9-18 days. Among the tested matrices, rubberized-coir was found to be the most useful at 10 degrees C with optimum hydraulic retention time of 15 days. Optimum amount of coir was found as 25 g/L of the working volume of biodigesters. Immobilization of bacteria on the coir was observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. The study indicates that rubberized-coir can be utilized to increase biodegradation of night soil at higher organic loading. Another advantage of using this matrix is that it is renewable and easily available in comparison to other synthetic polymeric matrices.

  13. Structural characterization of lignin isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; del Río, José C

    2013-03-13

    The structure of the isolated milled "wood" lignin from coconut coir has been characterized using different analytical methods, including Py-GC/MS, 2D NMR, DFRC, and thioacidolysis. The analyses demonstrated that it is a p-hydroxyphenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) lignin, with a predominance of G units (S/G ratio 0.23) and considerable amounts of associated p-hydroxybenzoates. Two-dimensional NMR indicated that the main substructures present in this lignin include β-O-4' alkyl aryl ethers followed by phenylcoumarans and resinols. Two-dimensional NMR spectra also indicated that coir lignin is partially acylated at the γ-carbon of the side chain with p-hydroxybenzoates and acetates. DFRC analysis showed that acetates preferentially acylate the γ-OH in S rather than in G units. Despite coir lignin's being highly enriched in G-units, thioacidolysis indicated that β-β' resinol structures are mostly derived from sinapyl alcohol. Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses.

  14. Role of 5-HT7 receptors in the inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Cristina; García-Pedraza, José Ángel; García, Mónica; Villalón, Carlos M; Morán, Asunción

    2014-10-01

    The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the modulation of vascular tone has been widely documented. Indeed, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats induces vasodepressor responses by activation of CGRP receptors. This study investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptors in the inhibition of the rat vasodepressor sensory outflow. Male Wistar pithed rats were pretreated with i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium and methoxamine, followed by physiological saline or AS-19 (a 5-HT7 receptor agonist). Then, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in DBP. The infusions of AS-19, as compared to those of saline, inhibited the vasodepressor responses induced by electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.v. bolus injections of exogenous α-CGRP. This inhibition by AS-19 was abolished by the antagonists pimozide (5-HT7) or sulfisoxazole (ETA), but not by indomethacin (COX1/2) or losartan (AT1), at doses that did not affect per se the electrically-induced vasodepressor responses. Interestingly, glibenclamide (an ATP-dependent K(+) channel blocker) attenuated these vasodepressor responses. The present results suggest that AS-19-induced inhibition of the rat vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow is mainly mediated by 5-HT7 receptors via endothelin release, with the possible involvement of ATP-dependent K(+) channels.

  15. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.; Idris, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

  16. Epinephrine regulation of hemodynamics in catecholamine knockouts and the pithed mouse.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Bao, Xuping; Elayan, Hamzeh; Milic, Milos; Liu, Fujun; Ziegler, Michael G

    2008-12-01

    Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) catalyzes synthesis of epinephrine (E) and is present in the brain, heart, and adrenal. E is a neurotransmitter and important hormone; however, its role in regulating cardiovascular dynamics is still unclear. We generated an E-deficient mouse model by knocking out the PNMT gene. The PNMT KO mouse had normal resting blood pressure, while treadmill exercise caused hypertension, suggesting an impaired response to stress in the absence of the stress hormone E. As PNMT occurs at a lower concentration in many extra-adrenal tissues including the brain, we set up a pithed mouse model to study the peripheral effects of E on cardiovascular dynamics, using pithing to eliminate central and reflex effects. The pithed mouse requires different surgical techniques and stimulation voltages than rats, and showed voltage- and frequency-dependent blood pressure responses to electrical stimuli. Stimulation with the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine gave a marked systolic pressor response, while the beta2 agonist salbutamol lowered diastolic blood pressure. The pithed PNMT KO mouse had an exaggerated blood pressure response to salbutamol, suggesting beta2 receptor supersensitivity. A targeted KO of tyrosine hydroxylase in PNMT-producing cells produced a mouse deficient in catecholamines in the adrenal. These targeted KO mice displayed significantly smaller pressor responses than pithed control mice. We find that E release during stress prevents an excessive increase in blood pressure.

  17. Subcritical carbon dioxide-water hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pith for reducing sugars production.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiezhen; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Linlin; Wei, Xiaojie; Wang, Huasheng; Lu, Songzhou; Li, Yunhua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars (TRS) by hydrolysis in subcritical CO2-water from sugarcane bagasse pith (SCBP), the fibrous residue remaining after papermaking from sugarcane bagasse. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by L16(4(5)) orthogonal experiments. The TRS yield achieved 45.8% at the optimal conditions: 200°C, 40min, 500rmin(-1), CO2 initial pressure of 1MPa and liquid-to-solid ratio of 50:1. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize hydrolysis liquor, treated and untreated SCBP, resulting in the removal of hemicelluloses to mainly produce xylose, glucose and arabinose during hydrolysis. The severity factors had no correlation to TRS yield, indicating that the simple kinetic processes of biomass solubilisation cannot perfectly describe the SCBP hydrolysis. The first-order kinetic model based on consecutive reaction was used to obtain rate constants, activation energies and pre-exponential factors.

  18. Mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable properties of polylactic acid (PLA)/coir fibre biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Ghataura, A.; Haroosh, H. J.

    2013-08-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)/coir fibre biocomposites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The effects of fibre content (5-30 wt%) and fibre treatment on mechanical, thermal and biodegradable properties of biocomposites were holistically investigated via mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and soil burial method to understand the applicability of manufacturing eco-efficient and sustainable "green composites".

  19. Investigations of plasma induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K. M.; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves; Mozetič, Miran; Junkar, Ita; Primc, Gregor; Gorjanc, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The development of lignocellulosic natural-fibre-reinforced polymers composites are constrained by two limitations: the upper temperature at which the fibre can be processed and the significant differences between the surface energy of the fibre and the polymer matrix. Since the fibres and matrices are chemically different, strong adhesion at their interface is needed for the effective transfer of stress and bond distribution throughout the interface. The present study investigated the plasma induced effects on the surface properties of natural coir fibres. Weakly ionized oxygen plasma was created in two different discharge chambers by an inductively coupled radiofrequency (RF) discharge. The water absorption studies showed an increase of water sorption from 39% to 100%. The morphological study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after the plasma treatment. The topographic measurements and phase imaging done using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated difference in topographic features and etching of coir wall, which points to the removal of the first layer of coir fibre. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the oxygen content measured for samples treated at 50 Pa increased from initial 18% to about 32%.

  20. Chemical composition and cell wall polysaccharide degradability of pith and rind tissues from mature maize internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to identify tissue-specific biochemical traits that may be targeted in breeding programs for improving forage digestibility. We compared cell wall chemical composition and 24- and 96-h in vitro degradabilities in separated pith and rind tissues of the fourth above-ground in...

  1. Chemical composition and cell wall polysaccharide degradability of pith and rind tissues from mature maize internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was undertaken to identify tissue-specific biochemical traits that may be targeted in breeding programs for improving forage digestibility. We compared cell wall chemical composition and 24- and 96-h in vitro degradabilities in separated pith and rind tissues from six maize inbred lines. A...

  2. Production of cellulose by Aspergillus niger under submerged and solid state fermentation using coir waste as a substrate

    PubMed Central

    Mrudula, Soma; Murugammal, Rangasamy

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was used for cellulase production in submerged (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The maximum production of cellulase was obtained after 72 h of incubation in SSF and 96 h in Smf. The CMCase and FPase activities recorded in SSF were 8.89 and 3.56 U per g of dry mycelial bran (DBM), respectively. Where as in Smf the CMase & FPase activities were found to be 3.29 and 2.3 U per ml culture broth, respectively. The productivity of extracellular cellulase in SSF was 14.6 fold higher than in SmF. The physical and nutritional parameters of fermentation like pH, temperature, substrate, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized. The optimal conditions for maximum biosynthesis of cellulase by A. niger were shown to be at pH 6, temperature 30 °C. The additives like lactose, peptone and coir waste as substrate increased the productivity both in SmF and SSF. The moisture ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was observed for optimum production of cellulase in SSF. PMID:24031730

  3. Surface modification of coir fibre involving oxidation of lignins followed by reaction with furfuryl alcohol: Characterization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saw, Sudhir Kumar; Sarkhel, Gautam; Choudhury, Arup

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the chemical treatment of the coir fibres was executed through oxidation with aqueous ClO2 followed by grafting with furfuryl alcohol (FA), leading to create a coating around the fibres more compatible with the polymeric matrices. The ClO2 was used to oxidize mainly phenolic syringyl and guaiacyl units of the lignin polymer to create quinones, which were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the surface features of modified fibres were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The extent of FA-grafting was found higher (weight gain 17.7%) for oxidized fibre compared to those for non-oxidized fibre (weight gain 2.2%). The surface modification with FA-grafting reduced the hydrophilicity of the coir fibre, as confirm by the dynamic contact angle and water absorption measurements. The thermal and mechanical properties of untreated, oxidized and FA-grafted coir fibres were evaluated and compared.

  4. Development of coconut pith chars towards high elemental mercury adsorption performance - Effect of pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Cheu, Siew Chin; Kong, Helen; Mat, Hanapi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, chars from coconut pith (CP) were prepared aiming for superior adsorption towards elemental mercury (Hg(o)). The yield, proximate analysis, textural characteristics, surface functional groups and elemental composition analyses of the chars produced at pyrolysis temperature of 300 °C, 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C were compared. The surface area, pore volume, ash and carbon content of chars increased, while the yield and moisture content decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The changing of physical and chemical properties of the chars produced at variety pyrolysis temperature was much effect on the Hg(o) adsorption performance and definitely provides important information on the Hg(o) adsorption mechanism. The highest Hg(o) adsorption capacity was observed for CP900 (6067.49 μg/g), followed by CP700 (2395.98 μg/g), CP500 (289.76 μg/g), CP300 (1.68 μg/g), and CP (0.73 μg/g). The equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-second order best described the kinetic data of the Hg(o) adsorption onto CP and CP300. For chars produced at higher pyrolysis temperature, however, the pseudo-zero order and pseudo-second order fitted well for the adsorption and breakthrough regions, respectively. The Hg(o) adsorption capacity of chars obtained from high pyrolysis temperature of CP significantly outperformed the commercial activated carbon (Darco KB-B) as well as superior to chars reported in the literature indicating the CP can be used as a precursor for preparation of chars as elemental mercury adsorbents.

  5. Pharmacological Evidence that Histamine H3 Receptors Mediate Histamine-Induced Inhibition of the Vagal Bradycardic Out-flow in Pithed Rats.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica; García-Pedraza, José Ángel; Villalón, Carlos M; Morán, Asunción

    2016-02-01

    In vivo stimulation of cardiac vagal neurons induces bradycardia by acetylcholine (ACh) release. As vagal release of ACh may be modulated by autoreceptors (muscarinic M2 ) and heteroreceptors (including serotonin 5-HT1 ), this study has analysed the pharmacological profile of the receptors involved in histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats. For this purpose, 180 male Wistar rats were pithed, artificially ventilated and pre-treated (i.v.) with 1 mg/kg atenolol, followed by i.v. administration of physiological saline (1 ml/kg), histamine (10, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg) or the selective histamine H1 (2-pyridylethylamine), H2 (dimaprit), H3 (methimepip) and H4 (VUF 8430) receptor agonists (1, 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg each). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (3, 6 and 9 Hz; 15 ± 3 V and 1 ms) of the vagus nerve resulted in frequency-dependent bradycardic responses, which were (i) unchanged during the infusions of saline, 2-pyridylethylamine, dimaprit or VUF 8430; and (ii) dose-dependently inhibited by histamine or methimepip. Moreover, the inhibition of the bradycardia caused by 50 μg/kg of either histamine or methimepip (which failed to inhibit the bradycardic responses to i.v. bolus injections of acetylcholine; 1-10 μg/kg) was abolished by the H3 receptor antagonist JNJ 10181457 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). In conclusion, our results suggest that histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of histamine H3 receptors, as previously demonstrated for the vasopressor sympathetic out-flow and the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic (calcitonin gene-related peptide) out-flow.

  6. Participatory research using coir geotextiles in watershed management A case study in south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, Kunnathu R.; Balan, Krishnan

    This paper deals with participatory research on the introduction and use of coir geotextiles for soil and water conservation in a small community pond in a watershed in south India. The results demonstrate that a participatory approach enables the community to visualize and evaluate the impact of innovative technologies. As a result, farmers readily adapt a technology when they have experienced the positive research outcome. This reduces the adoption time, and can bring significant increase in yield, or decrease in labour costs, helping to enhance productivity, sustainability and improvement of livelihood.

  7. Effect of fiber treatments on tensile and thermal properties of starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers/coir biocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of different fiber treatments, namely washing with water, alkali treatment (mercerization) and bleaching, on mechanical and thermal properties of starch/EVA/coir biocomposites were evaluated by tensile tests and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Additionally, the fiber/matrix interfac...

  8. Finite-Element Analysis of Jute- and Coir-Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Multipanel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirbhay, M.; Misra, R. K.; Dixit, A.

    2015-09-01

    Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are rapidly gaining interest worldwide both in terms of research and industrial applications. The present work includes the characterization and modeling of jute- and coir-fiber-reinforced hybrid composite materials. The mechanical behavior of a two-panel plate and a sixpanel box structure is analyzed under various loading regimes by using the finite-element software ABAQUS®. Exhaustive parametric studies are also performed to obtain a clear insight into the relationships between various parameters and deflections of the panels and stress distributions in them. Deflections of both the structures are compared and found to be in good agreement with published results. To determine the mechanical behavior of natural-fiber-reinforced composite panels, a finite-element analysis is performed.

  9. H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, B; Schlicker, E

    1991-12-03

    In pithed rats, the H3 agonist R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (R alpha MeHA) inhibited the electrically induced increase in blood pressure without affecting the vasopressor response to exogenous noradrenaline. The effect of R alpha MeHA was not affected by the H1 and H2 antagonists dimetindene and ranitidine, but attenuated by the H3 antagonist thioperamide. At higher doses, R alpha MeHA itself increased basal blood pressure; this effect was not affected by the H1, H2 and H3 antagonists. In conclusion, the neurogenic vasopressor response can be modulated via H3 receptors, probably located presynaptically on postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres.

  10. Free phenols in maize pith and their relationship with resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Santiago, R; Malvar, R A; Baamonde, M D; Revilla, P; Souto, X C

    2005-08-01

    The stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) is the most important insect pest of maize, Zea mays L., in northwestern Spain. Among the metabolites present in maize, phenolic compounds could play an important role in resistance. The objective of this work was to determine whether a relationship between phenols and the amount of resistance exists. Amounts of free phenolic compounds in the pith of 13 inbred maize lines that differ in resistance were measured. The phenolic compounds identified were p-coumaric acid, cafeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, chorogenic acid, sinapic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillin. The amount of free p-coumaric acid was correlated with the resistance level. Higher quantities of p-coumaric in the pith could contribute to general resistance to stem borer attack. Jointly with ferulic acid, p-coumaric could provide resistance mechanisms through cell wall fortification and lignification. The other compounds showed no or an unclear relationship with resistance. The vanillic acid showed a decreased tendency after silking, when maize is most attractive for S. nonagrioides, suggesting this acid could act as a chemoattractant for S. nonagrioides larvae or adults. Future studies that focus on these phenolic compounds could be useful in understanding S. nonagrioides resistance.

  11. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications.

  12. A comparative study of the effects of some 5-HT1A receptor agonists on the blood pressure of pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Bobadilla, R A; Ibarra, M; Castillo, E F; Hong, E

    1995-01-01

    The intention of this study was to supply additional information about direct effects of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist indorenate on the arterial blood pressure. The effects of indorenate were compared with those of buspirone and ipsapirone (all selective 5-HT1A agonists) on the blood pressure of pithed rats. These compounds increased the blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion. The effects of either ipsapirone or buspirone were clearly inhibited with 100 micrograms/kg of prazosin (selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist), whereas 1 mg/kg of this blocker elicited only a mild inhibition of the pressor effect of indorenate. Pindolol (100 micrograms/kg; a beta-adrenoceptor and 5-HT1 receptor blocker) was unable to modify the effects of all the 5-HT1A agonists tested. In addition, the 5-HT2 receptor and weak alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker ketanserin (10-100 micrograms/kg) antagonized the pressor effect of indorenate. Nevertheless, only a mild inhibition was observed in the case of both ipsapirone and buspirone. On the other hand, the latter drugs diminished the blood pressure of pithed rats intravenously infused with norepinephrine, but indorenate was inactive. However, in rats infused with quipazine, all the 5-HT1A agonists failed to reduce blood pressure. These results indicate that buspirone and ipsapirone behaved as partial alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists. Furthermore, the results show that indorenate-elicited pressor effects are probably due to stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors. Thus, unlike ipsapirone and buspirone, indorenate did not show conclusively activity related with alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

  13. L-NAME raises systolic blood pressure in the pithed rat by a direct adrenal epinephrine releasing action.

    PubMed

    Elayan, Hamzeh H; Kennedy, Brian P; Ziegler, Michael G

    2002-04-21

    It is generally thought that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase leads to blood pressure elevation largely through reduction in vascular levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide. However, there are several reports suggesting that NO synthase inhibitors cause adrenal epinephrine (E) release by both central and peripheral mechanisms. We investigated the role of adrenal E in the pressor effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME in the pithed rat to help distinguish central from peripherally mediated actions. L-NAME (10 mg/kg) raised both systolic and diastolic BP by about 30 mm Hg (P < .01) in the absence of exogenous electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves. During stimulation at 10 V and frequencies of 1 or 2 Hz, systolic BP was about 70 mm Hg higher in L-NAME treated rats than in drug free stimulated rats. This enhancement of systolic BP by L-NAME was less pronounced at 5 or 10 Hz stimulation frequencies. Following these types of electrical stimulations of pithed rats, both plasma norepinephrine (NE) and E levels were dramatically elevated above resting plasma levels. L-NAME pretreatment of these electrically stimulated rats increased plasma E levels by an additional 60% and decreased NE by 18%. Acute adrenalectomy dramatically reduced plasma E levels and abolished the ability of L-NAME to enhance the pressor effect of sympathetic stimulation. In contrast, acute adrenalectomy of unstimulated pithed rats did not significantly reduce the pressor response to L-NAME. We conclude that adrenal E release may mediate much of the systolic pressor response of L-NAME in the stimulated pithed rat, but the magnitude of this effect varies with stimulation frequency. Since pithing disrupts central pathways, this induction of adrenal E release by L-NAME is a peripheral effect.

  14. Putative role of pith cell wall phenylpropanoids in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butron, Ana; Arnason, John T; Reid, Lana M; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

    2006-03-22

    The stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) is the most important insect pest that attacks maize, Zea mays L., in northwestern Spain. Host plant resistance to this borer was investigated in relation to the cell wall phenylpropanoids content in the pith. Eight inbred lines that differ in resistance were analyzed. Three major simple phenolic acids, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5'b (benzofuran form), were identified. The amount of all these compounds was correlated with the resistance level in the genotypes, with the resistant inbreds having the highest concentrations. The role of these compounds in cell wall fortification and lignification is well-documented, suggesting their possible intervention in S. nonagrioides resistance. Future studies that focus on these compounds could be useful to enhance S. nonagroides resistance.

  15. Study of physical and sound absorbing property of epoxy blended coir dust biocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Mishra, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Reinforcement biocomposite has gained more attention recently due to its low cost, abundantly availability, low density, specific properties, easy method of separation, enhanced energy recovery, CO2 neutrality, biodegradability and recyclable in nature. As a waste product of coconut fruit, the coconut coir dust (CCD) obtained from the coconut husk. The biocomposite material prepared from the CCD modified with the proper blended solution with the help of ultrasonic technique. The study of adiabatic compressibility of acetone / water (70/30) worth its blending property for bleaching of CCD. The biocomposite material of CCD was prepared with epoxy resin. The different physical properties such as sound absorption coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity were measured. The morphological study of biocomposite and measurement of sound absorption coefficient shows good evidence of sound absorbing characteristics of biocomposite of CCD. The sound absorption property of composite material shows a significant result where as the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity executes a weak result. Thus biocomposite of CCD can acts as a good sound absorber and band conductor of heat and electric current.

  16. Biodegradation of toluene vapor in coir based upflow packed bed reactor by Trichoderma asperellum isolate.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, M; Mohanapriya, C; Sivakumar, K; Baskar, G; Muthukumaran, C; Dhanasekar, R

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a new biofiltration system involving a selective microbial strain isolated from aerated municipal sewage water attached with coir as packing material was developed for toluene degradation. The selected fungal isolate was identified as Trichoderma asperellum by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing method, and pylogenetic tree was constructed using BLASTn search. Effect of various factors on growth and toluene degradation by newly isolated T. asperellum was studied in batch studies, and the optimum conditions were found to be pH 7.0, temperature 30 °C, and initial toluene concentration 1.5 (v/v)%. Continuous removal of gaseous toluene was monitored in upflow packed bed reactor (UFPBR) using T. asperellum. Effect of various parameters like column height, flow rate, and the inlet toluene concentration were studied to evaluate the performance of the biofilter. The maximum elimination capacity (257 g m(-3) h(-1)) was obtained with the packing height of 100 cm with the empty bed residence time of 5 min. Under these optimum conditions, the T. asperellum showed better toluene removal efficiency. Kinetic models have been developed for toluene degradation by T. asperellum using macrokinetic approach of the plug flow model incorporated with Monod model.

  17. PtrWRKY19, a novel WRKY transcription factor, contributes to the regulation of pith secondary wall formation in Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Yang, Fan; Fan, Di; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-28

    WRKY proteins are one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants and play diverse roles in various biological processes. Previous studies have shown that some WRKY members act as negative regulators of secondary cell wall formation in pith parenchyma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of pith secondary wall formation in tree species remains largely unknown. In this study, PtrWRKY19 encoding a homolog of Arabidopsis WRKY12 was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. PtrWRKY19 was expressed in all tissues tested, with highest expression in stems, especially in pith. PtrWRKY19 was located in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional repressor. Ectopic expression of PtrWRKY19 in an atwrky12 mutant successfully rescued the phenotype in pith cell walls caused by the defect of AtWRKY12, suggesting that PtrWRKY19 had conserved functions for homologous AtWRKY12. Overexpression of PtrWRKY19 in poplar plants led to a significant increase in the number of pith parenchyma cells. qRT-PCR analysis showed that lignin biosynthesis-related genes were repressed in transgenic plants. In transcient reporter assays, PtrWRKY19 was identified to repress transcription from the PtoC4H2 promoter containing the conserved W-box elements. These results indicated that PtrWRKY19 may function as a negative regulator of pith secondary wall formation in poplar.

  18. Angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénal bénin: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Bagayogo, Tidiani; Othmane, Yddoussalah; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, Elkhader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya Andaloussi

    2015-01-01

    Les angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénaux (AMLeR) sont des tumeurs rares (identifiées chez moins de 0,1 patients pour 1000 habitants) et représentent 8% des angiomyolipomes (AML) opérés. Il a longtemps été considérécomme un hamartome mais plusieurs articles récents font penser qu'il s'agir d'une tumeur dérivant de cellules épithélioïdespérivasculaires. L'angiomyolipome épithélioïde est une forme rare d'angiomyolipome à potentiel malin, composé decellules épithélioïdes posant des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les carcinomes à cellules rénales. L'immunohistochimie,en révélant la positivité des cellules épithélioïdes au marqueur HMB45 est essentielle au diagnostic. Les auteursrapportent l'aspect tomodensitométrique et histologique d'angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes chez deux patientes. PMID:26953738

  19. Angiomyolipome épithélioïde rénal mimant un carcinome rénal

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Hanen; Khiari, Ramzi; Dridi, Mohamed; Ghozzi, Samir; Rais, Nawfel Ben

    2016-01-01

    L'angiomyolipome épithélioide est une forme rare d'angiomyolipome à potentiel malin, considéré récemment par l'OMS comme une entité à part dans la classification des tumeurs rénales. Cette lésion pose un problème dans le diagnostic différentiel avec les carcinomes à cellules claires. Il n'y a pas de critère spécifique clinique ou radiologique caractérisant cette tumeur. L'immunohistochimie en révélant la positivité des cellules épithélioide au marqueur HMB45 est essentielle au diagnostic. Le traitement doit être discuté en concertation pluridisciplinaire. PMID:27642438

  20. Comparison of alkali treatments for efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kankan; Li, Lulu; Long, Liangkun; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-05-01

    Two separate temperature and time ranges were respectively conducted for optimizing release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith by NaOH pretreatment using response surface methodology. Two desirable pretreatment conditions were selected as follows: 37°C, 2% NaOH and 12h, and 100°C, 1.75% NaOH and 37min in the low and high temperature ranges, respectively. Under these conditions, the enzymatic glucose yields were 85.6% and 90.4% respectively, whereas p-coumaric acid yields were 95.1% and 98.1% respectively. The final recovery of esterified p-coumaric acid reached 82.8% and 87.4% respectively after further separation with HP-20 resin. Interestingly, strong linear correlations exist between p-coumaric acid release with glucan saccharification yield and lignin dissolution. These results indicate that sorghum pith could be an attractive source for natural p-coumaric acid and efficient release of p-coumaric acid and enzymatic saccharification of sorghum pith can be achieved by mild NaOH pretreatment.

  1. The effectiveness of jute and coir blankets for erosion control in different field and laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalibová, Jana; Jačka, Lukáš; Petrů, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Vegetation cover is found to be an ideal solution to most problems of erosion on steep slopes. Biodegradable geotextiles (GTXs) have been proved to provide sufficient protection against soil loss in the period before vegetation reaches maturity, so favouring soil formation processes. In this study, 500 g m-2 jute (J500), 400 g m-2 (C400), and 700 g m-2 coir (C700) GTXs were first installed on a 9° slope under "no-infiltration" laboratory conditions, then on a 27° slope under natural field conditions. The impact of GTXs on run-off and soil loss was investigated to compare the performance of GTXs under different conditions. Laboratory run-off ratio (percentage portion of control plot) equalled 78, 83, and 91 %, while peak discharge ratio equalled 83, 91, and 97 % for J500, C700, and C400 respectively. In the field, a run-off ratio of 31, 62, and 79 %, and peak discharge ratio of 37, 74, and 87 % were recorded for C700, J500, and C400 respectively. All tested GTXs significantly decreased soil erosion. The greatest soil loss reduction in the field was observed for J500 (by 99.4 %), followed by C700 (by 97.9 %) and C400 (by 93.8 %). Irrespective of slope gradient or experimental condition, C400 performed with lower run-off and peak discharge reduction than J500 and C700. The performance ranking of J500 and C700 in the laboratory differed from the field, which may be explained by different slope gradients, and also by the role of soil, which was not included in the laboratory experiment.

  2. Experimental investigation on an entrained flow type biomass gasification system using coconut coir dust as powdery biomass feedstock.

    PubMed

    Senapati, P K; Behera, S

    2012-08-01

    Based on an entrained flow concept, a prototype atmospheric gasification system has been designed and developed in the laboratory for gasification of powdery biomass feedstock such as rice husks, coconut coir dust, saw dust etc. The reactor was developed by adopting L/D (height to diameter) ratio of 10, residence time of about 2s and a turn down ratio (TDR) of 1.5. The experimental investigation was carried out using coconut coir dust as biomass feedstock with a mean operating feed rate of 40 kg/h The effects of equivalence ratio in the range of 0.21-0.3, steam feed at a fixed flow rate of 12 kg/h, preheat on reactor temperature, product gas yield and tar content were investigated. The gasifier could able to attain high temperatures in the range of 976-1100 °C with gas lower heating value (LHV) and peak cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 7.86 MJ/Nm3 and 87.6% respectively.

  3. Removal of nutrients in denitrification system using coconut coir fibre for the biological treatment of aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manoj, Valsa Remony; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2012-03-01

    Ideal bacterial support medium for fixed film denitrification processes/bioreactors must be inexpensive, durable and possess large surface area with sufficient porosity. The present study has been focussed on removing nitrate nitrogen at two different nitrate nitrogen loading rates (60 (NLR I) and 120 (NLR II) mg l(-1)) from simulated aquaculture wastewater. Coconut coir fibre and a commercially available synthetic reticulated plastic media (Fujino Spirals) were used as packing medium in two independent upflow anaerobic packed bed column reactors. Removal of nitrate nitrogen was studied in correlation with other nutrients (COD, TKN, dissolved orthophosphate). Maximum removal of 97% at NLR-I and 99% at NLR - II of nitrate nitrogen was observed in with either media. Greater consistency in the case of COD removal of upto 81% was observed at NLR II where coconut coir was used as support medium compared to 72% COD removal by Fujino Spirals. The results observed indicate that the organic support medium is just as efficient in nitrate nitrogen removal as conventionally used synthetic support medium. The study is important as it specifically focuses on denitrification of aquaculture wastewater using cheaper organic support medium in anoxic bioreactors for the removal of nitrate nitrogen; which is seldom addressed as a significant problem.

  4. Experimental Design Approach for Methylene Blue Dye Removal in Aqueous Environment by Nitrilotriacetic Modified Banana Pith.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shi-Ling; Liew, Shu-Wei; Ong, Siew-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Native banana pith (NBP) was modified by using nitrilotriacetic acid to increase its efficiency and adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) dye. The effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, sorption isotherm and adsorbent dosage were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of the NBP and NTA-BP is 100 and 142.86 mg/g, respectively. The IR spectrum of NBP and NTA-BP showed the presence of both carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. From the SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of NTA-BP before adsorption appeared to be smoother as compared to that after adsorption process. The pH(pzc) of NBP is 5.6 whereas for NTA-BP is 7.6. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm with R(2) of 0.992. Plackett-Burman design was applied to identify the significant factors in affecting the uptake whereas the interaction between the factors and their optimum levels for the maximum percentage uptake of MB were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the results, the optimum condition for adsorption of MB was by using 0.06 g of NTA-BP in dye solution at pH 6 with 120 minutes contact time. The maximum adsorption of MB by NTA-BP achieved 99.42% under the optimum condition.

  5. Porogen effect on characteristics of banana pith carbon and the sorption of dichlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Vijayaraghavan, K; Binupriya, A R; Stephan, A M; Choi, J G; Yun, S E

    2008-04-01

    Banana pith was used as precursor material to prepare carbon with and without porogens. Characterization of the carbons showed higher BET surface area (1285 m2/g) for ZnCl2-treated carbon, comparatively. Adsorption experiments were conducted to study the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) from aqueous solutions using the carbons under varying experimental conditions. Decrease in pH increased the percentage removal. All the carbons studied showed greater percentage of DCP removal with decrease in the initial concentration of DCP. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of DCP on the carbons was a rapid process. Nonlinear forms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to fit the experimental data. Among these the pseudo-first-order model described the data with high correlation coefficients and low percentage error values. Four nonlinear isotherm models including the Langmuir, Freundlich, Toth, and Sips were used to analyze the experimental DCP isotherms under different pH (2-4) conditions. Adsorption capacities (Qmax) from the Langmuir model were found to be 129.4, 67.7, and 49.9 mg/g for ZnCl2-treated, KOH-treated, and porogen-free carbon, respectively, at pH 2. From desorption studies it seemed that chemisorption played a major role in the adsorption process. The results indicated that ZnCl2-treated carbon could effectively remove phenols from wastewater.

  6. Divergent selection for ester-linked diferulates in maize pith stalk tissues. Effects on cell wall composition and degradability.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Bunzel, Mirko; Santiago, Rogelio

    2012-11-01

    Cross-linking of grass cell wall components through diferulates (DFAs) has a marked impact on cell wall properties. However, results of genetic selection for DFA concentration have not been reported for any grass species. We report here the results of direct selection for ester-linked DFA concentration in maize stalk pith tissues and the associated changes in cell wall composition and biodegradability. After two cycles of divergent selection, maize populations selected for higher total DFA (DFAT) content (CHs) had 16% higher DFAT concentrations than populations selected for lower DFAT content (CLs). These significant DFA concentration gains suggest that DFA deposition in maize pith parenchyma cell walls is a highly heritable trait that is genetically regulated and can be modified trough conventional breeding. Maize populations selected for higher DFAT had 13% less glucose and 10% lower total cell wall concentration than CLs, suggesting that increased cross-linking of feruloylated arabinoxylans results in repacking of the matrix and possibly in thinner and firmer cell walls. Divergent selection affected esterified DFAT and monomeric ferulate ether cross link concentrations differently, supporting the hypothesis that the biosynthesis of these cell wall components are separately regulated. As expected, a more higher DFA ester cross-coupled arabinoxylan network had an effect on rumen cell wall degradability (CLs showed 12% higher 24-h total polysaccharide degradability than CHs). Interestingly, 8-8-coupled DFAs, previously associated with cell wall strength, were the best predictors of pith cell wall degradability (negative impact). Thus, further research on the involvement of these specific DFA regioisomers in limiting cell wall biodegradability is encouraged.

  7. Sarcome épithélioide pleural, à propos d'un cas avec revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Ouahbi, Hajar; Akasbi, Youssra; Oualla, Karima; Amara, Bouchra; Chatar, Achraf; Tizniti, Siham; Fatemi, Hind; Lemrabet, Fatima Zahra; Arifi, Samia; Mellas, Nawfal

    2016-01-01

    Le sarcome épithélioide proximal d'origine pleural révélé par un épanchement pleural reste rare dans la littérature, nous rapportons le cas d’une jeune patiente, admise au service d’oncologie médicale pour prise en charge d’un sarcome épithélioide pleural proximal métastatique. A la fin du premier cycle de chimiothérapie, la patiente est décédée dans un tableau de détresse respiratoire aiguë. Notre observation illustre le caractère potentiellement trompeur et agressif du sarcome épithélioide présentant un piège clinique pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital et dont le diagnostic positif est strictement anatomopathologique. PMID:28250889

  8. Changes in microbial properties and nutrient dynamics in bagasse and coir during vermicomposting: quantification of fungal biomass through ergosterol estimation in vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, P

    2010-05-01

    In this experiment, different microorganisms viz., Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Bacillus megaterium were inoculated in bagasse and coir with the objective to study their effect on nutrient dynamics and microbial properties, specially effect on fungal status in these waste materials. Fungal biomass (FBC) was calculated from the ergosterol content in the vermicompost samples. Inoculation of B. megaterium registered comparatively higher TP content in the final stabilized product. Vermicomposting increased microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) content in bagasse and coir. Microbial biomass carbon to nitrogen ratio (MBC/ MBN) was comparatively narrower in fungi inoculated vermicomposts and FBC/MBC ratio was increased up to 11.69 from 9.51 of control during vermicomposting.

  9. Inhibitory 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors involved in pressor effects obtained by stimulation of sympathetic outflow from spinal cord in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Morán, A; Velasco, C; Salvador, T; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    1994-12-01

    1. A study was made of the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on pressor response induced in vivo by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord of pithed rats. All animals had been pretreated with atropine. Intravenous infusion of 5-hydroxytryptamine at doses of 10 and 20 micrograms kg-1 min-1 reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation at intervals of 10 min over the 1 h of infusion. 2. This inhibitory action of 5-HT was depressed by cyproheptadine and methiothepin but was not modified by ketanserin or MDL-72222. By contrast, the inhibitory action of 5-HT was lost in pithed rats that had been pretreated with exogenous noradrenaline. 3. The 5-HT1 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide, produced a variable but significant increase in the pressor response. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist, m-CPP, did not modify the pressor sympathetic response. 4. Our results suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine interferes with sympathetic neurotransmission by inhibiting pressor effects as a result of stimulation of the complete sympathetic outflow, and that this inhibition is mainly through a presynaptic 5-HT1 mechanism.

  10. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Villalón, C M; Contreras, J; Ramírez-San Juan, E; Castillo, C; Perusquía, M; Terrón, J A

    1995-12-01

    1. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation (0.03-I Hz) and devoid of tachyphylaxis, is reversible after interrupting the infusions of 5-HT (up to 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. 2. The inhibition induced by 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 of 5-HT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was not blocked after i.v. treatment with physiological saline (1 ml kg-1), ritanserin (0.1 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (0.15 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1), which did not modify the sympathetically-induced pressor responses per se, but was significantly antagonized by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methysergide (0.3 mg kg-1), which also produced a slight attenuation of the pressor responses to 0.03 and 0.1 Hz per se. 3. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg kg-1) and metergoline (1 and 3 mg kg-1), apparently failed to block the above 5-HT-induced inhibition. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. 4. Consistent with the above findings, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, a potent 5-HT1-like receptor agonist), metergoline and methysergide mimicked the inhibitory action of 5-HT with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5CT > > 5-HT > metergoline > or = methysergide. 5

  11. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C. M.; Contreras, J.; Ramírez-San Juan, E.; Castillo, C.; Perusquía, M.; Terrón, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation (0.03-I Hz) and devoid of tachyphylaxis, is reversible after interrupting the infusions of 5-HT (up to 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. 2. The inhibition induced by 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 of 5-HT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was not blocked after i.v. treatment with physiological saline (1 ml kg-1), ritanserin (0.1 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (0.15 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1), which did not modify the sympathetically-induced pressor responses per se, but was significantly antagonized by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methysergide (0.3 mg kg-1), which also produced a slight attenuation of the pressor responses to 0.03 and 0.1 Hz per se. 3. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg kg-1) and metergoline (1 and 3 mg kg-1), apparently failed to block the above 5-HT-induced inhibition. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. 4. Consistent with the above findings, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, a potent 5-HT1-like receptor agonist), metergoline and methysergide mimicked the inhibitory action of 5-HT with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5CT > > 5-HT > metergoline > or = methysergide. 5

  12. Role of pre-junctional CB1, but not CB2 , TRPV1 or GPR55 receptors in anandamide-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2014-03-01

    Stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. Interestingly, endocannabinoids such as anandamide (which interacts with CB1 , CB2 , TRPV1 and GPR55 receptors) can regulate the activity of perivascular sensory nerves in dural blood vessels by modulating CGRP release. Yet, as no publication has reported whether this mechanism is operative in the healthy systemic vasculature, this study has specifically analysed the receptors mediating the potential inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists anandamide (non-selective), JWH-015 (CB2 ) and lysophosphatidylinositol (GPR55) on the rat vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow (an index of systemic vasodilatation). Healthy pithed rats were pre-treated with consecutive i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium, methoxamine and the above agonists. Electrical spinal (T9 -T12 ) stimulation of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow or i.v. injections of α-CGRP produced frequency-dependent or dose-dependent vasodepressor responses. The infusions of anandamide in a dose-dependent manner inhibited the vasodepressor responses by electrical stimulation (remaining unaffected by JWH-015 or lysophosphatidylinositol), but not those by α-CGRP. After i.v. administration of antagonists, the inhibition by 3.1 μg/kg min anandamide was: (i) potently blocked by 31-100 μg/kg NIDA41020 (CB1 ), (ii) unaffected by 180 μg/kg AM630 (CB2 ), 31 μg/kg cannabidiol (GPR55) or 31-100 μg/kg capsazepine (TRPV1) and (iii) slightly blocked by 310 μg/kg AM630. The above doses of antagonists were enough to block their respective receptors. These results suggest that anandamide-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of CB1 receptors, with no pharmacological evidence for the role of CB2 , TRPV1 or GPR55 receptors.

  13. Involvement of nitric oxide, but not prostaglandins, in the vascular sympathoinhibitory effects of losartan in the pithed spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed Central

    Richer, C.; Domergue, V.; Vincent, M. P.; Giudicelli, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO) and/or vasodilator prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the sympathoinhibitory effects exerted by losartan versus the vascular responses elicited by spinal cord electrical stimulation (SCS) in pithed spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). 2. SHRs were given orally and for 8 days either losartan (10 mg kg-1 daily) or distilled water (controls). After pithing, blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, renal and muscular blood flows (pulsed Doppler technique) and the corresponding vascular resistance values were measured or calculated at baseline. Then, animals from both groups were given i.v. either saline, or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg kg-1), or diclofenac (4 mg kg-1). Thereafter, haemodynamic parameters were determined in the six subgroups of animals in response (a) to SCS at increasing frequencies, and (b) to a noradrenaline bolus injection. 3. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial pressure as well as renal and total peripheral resistances. In addition, losartan exhibited strong vascular sympathoinhibitory effects, significantly decreasing the systemic pressor and regional vasoconstrictor responses to SCS, but did not affect those to exogenous noradrenaline. In contrast, SCS-induced tachycardia was not modified by losartan. 4. L-NAME significantly increased total peripheral and regional vascular resistances but did not affect blood pressure and heart rate basal values. L-NAME potentiated the haemodynamic responses to SCS in control and, to a larger extent, in losartan-treated SHRs so that, with the exception of the renal vascular bed, the sympathoinhibitory effects of losartan were attenuated in all vascular beds studied. L-Arginine (300 mg kg-1) caused reversal of L-NAME effects in both control and losartan-treated SHRs. 5. Diclofenac did not affect the basal values of haemodynamic parameters in control and losartan-treated SHRs. Diclofenac potentiated the

  14. Coir geotextile for slope stabilization and cultivation - A case study in a highland region of Kerala, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, K. R.

    A sloping field is not only vulnerable to soil erosion it may also suffer from soil moisture deficiency. Farmers that cultivate on slopes everywhere face similar problems. Conservation technologies may reduce soil and nutrient losses, and thus enhance water holding capacity and soil fertility. But although these technologies promote sustainable crop production on steep slopes, the construction of physical structure such as bench terraces are often labour intensive and expensive to the farmers, since construction and maintenance require high investments. Here we studied the efficiency of coir geotextile with and without crop cultivation in reducing soil moisture deficiency on marginal slopes in Kerala, India. From the results it is evident that the slopes treated with geotextile and crops have the highest moisture retention capacity followed by geotextiles alone, and that the control plot has the lowest moisture retention capacity. As the poor and marginal farmers occupy the highland region, this method provides an economically viable option for income generation and food security along with slope stabilization.

  15. NMR of 129Xe on CO/Ir(1 1 1) and on multilayer Xe/Ir(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Matthias; Gerhard, Peter; Jänsch, Heinz J.

    2006-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is performed on monolayer (ML) amounts of adsorbed 129Xe on a single crystal substrate. The inherently low sensitivity of NMR is overcome by using highly nuclear spin polarized 129Xe that has been produced by optical pumping. A polarization of 0.8 is regularly achieved which is 10 5 times the thermal (Boltzmann) polarization. The experiments are performed with a constant flux of xenon atoms impinging on the surface, typically 4 ML/s. The chemical shift ( σ) of 129Xe is highly sensitive to the Xe local environment. We measured profoundly different shifts for the Xe bulk, for the surface of the Xe bulk, and for Xe on CO/Ir(1 1 1). The growth of the bulk is seen in a phase transition like change of σ as a function of temperature at constant Xe flux. At temperatures where no bulk forms at a flux of 4 ML/s, the xenon exchange rate was measured by a spin inversion/recovery method. The exchange time of Xe is found to be 0.24 s at 63.4 K and 64.4 K and somewhat longer at 61.2 K. An analysis is given involving the desorption out of the second layer and fast mixing of first and second layer atoms at these temperatures.

  16. Physical, Mechanical and Water Absorption Behaviour of Coir Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Filled With Al2O3 Particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Geetanjali; Biswas, Sandhayarani

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the physical, mechanical and water absorption behaviour of coir fiber reinforced epoxy composites filled with Al2O3 particulates. Composites with different compositions were prepared by varying the length of the fiber and content of fiber using hand lay-up technique. The experimental investigation reveals that the properties of composite increases with the incorporation of Al2O3 particulates. It is observed that the density of composites increases with increase in fiber content, while a decrease in density is observed with increase in fiber length. The strength properties of the composites increases with the increase in fiber content up to 15 wt.% and 12mm fiber length, however further increase in fiber length and fiber content the value decreases. The maximum tensile strength of 25.71MPa, flexural strength of 29.75MPa and impact strength of 14.76kJ/m2 is obtained for composites with 12 mm fiber length and 15 wt.% of fiber content. The hardness and tensile modulus, on the other hand, increases with increase in fiber length and fiber content. The maximum hardness value of 19.52Hv and tensile modulus of 3.412GPa is obtained for composites with 15mm fiber length and 20 wt.% of fiber content. Finally, morphological analysis is also carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the fracture behaviour of the composite samples.

  17. Inhibition of nerve stimulation-induced vasodilatation in corpora cavernosa of the pithed rat by blockade of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Finberg, J. P.; Levy, S.; Vardi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effect of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on nerve stimulation-induced vasodilation in corpora cavernosa was studied in the pithed rat. Corporal vasodilation was estimated by the increase in ratio (corpora cavernosal pressure/systemic blood pressure; CP/BP) following electrical stimulation of the sacral part of the spinal cord. 2. L-NAME (2, 5, 10 and 25 mg kg-1) caused an increase in BP and a dose-dependent inhibition of the rise in the CP/BP ratio following stimulation. 3. The inhibitory effect of L-NAME (25 mg kg-1) on the corporal response to spinal cord stimulation, as well as the pressor response, was partially prevented by prior administration of L- but not D-arginine (400 mg kg-1, i.v.). 4. L-NAME (20 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not inhibit the rise in corporal pressure resulting from direct intracavernosal administration of papaverine (400 micrograms over 2 min). However, this response was inhibited by 5-hydroxytryptamine (20 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). 5. The results are indicative of a role of nitric oxide (NO) in the corporal vasodilator response to erectile stimulation. PMID:7683562

  18. Systemic and regional haemodynamic interactions between K+ channel openers and the sympathetic nervous system in the pithed SHR.

    PubMed

    Richer, C; Mulder, P; Doussau, M P; Gautier, P; Giudicelli, J F

    1990-07-01

    1. The interactions between two K+ channel openers, cromakalim and SR 44866 (infused i.v. at equihypotensive doses), and the sympathetic nervous system at the systemic and regional (mesentery, kidney, hindlimb) vascular levels were investigated in the pithed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) by use of the pulsed Doppler technique. 2. The two K+ channel openers did not affect postsynaptic alpha 1- but slightly reduced postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated systemic pressor and regional vasoconstrictor responses. 3. Both drugs significantly decreased the systemic pressor and regional vasoconstrictor responses elicited by spinal cord stimulation. These sympathoinhibitory effects were not homogeneously distributed among the different vascular beds, the decreasing rank order being: mesentery greater than kidney greater than hindlimb. Simultaneously, the spinal cord stimulation-induced tachycardia remained unaffected. 4. After treatment with K+ channel openers, restoration of initial blood pressure and vascular tone values by infusion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and vasopressin respectively did not affect and abolished the sympathoinhibitory effects of cromakalim and SR 44866. 5. We conclude that in SHRs the two K+ channel openers that we investigated exert similar sympathohibitory effects which affect some vascular beds more than others. These effects are not dependent upon the arterial blood pressure level and are most likely prejunctionally located.

  19. Additional amphivasal bundles in pedicel pith exacerbate central fruit dominance and induce self-thinning of lateral fruitlets in apple.

    PubMed

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Dheilly, Emmanuelle; Guillou, Marie-Charlotte; Simonneau, Fabienne; Juchaux, Marjorie; Costes, Evelyne; Laurens, François; Renou, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) trees naturally produce an excess of fruitlets that negatively affect the commercial value of fruits brought to maturity and impact their capacity to develop flower buds the following season. Therefore, chemical thinning has become an important cultural practice, allowing the selective removal of unwanted fruitlets. As the public pressure to limit the use of chemical agents increases, the control of thinning becomes a major issue. Here, we characterized the self-thinning capacity of an apple hybrid genotype from the tree scale to the molecular level. Additional amphivasal vascular bundles were identified in the pith of pedicels supporting the fruitlets with the lowest abscission potential (central fruitlet), indicating that these bundles might have a role in the acquisition of dominance over lateral fruitlets. Sugar content analysis revealed that central fruitlets were better supplied in sorbitol than lateral fruitlets. Transcriptomic profiles allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in the overproduction of vascular tissues in central pedicels. In addition, histological and transcriptomic data permitted a detailed characterization of abscission zone development and the identification of key genes involved in this process. Our data confirm the major role of ethylene, auxin, and cell wall-remodeling enzymes in abscission zone formation. The shedding process in this hybrid appears to be triggered by a naturally exacerbated dominance of central fruitlets over lateral ones, brought about by an increased supply of sugars, possibly through additional amphivasal vascular bundles. The characterization of this genotype opens new perspectives for the selection of elite apple cultivars.

  20. Pharmacological identification of the α₂-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating the vasopressor responses to B-HT 933 in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Villamil-Hernández, Ma Trinidad; Alcántara-Vázquez, Oscar; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David

    2012-09-15

    It has been shown that α(2)-adrenoceptors mediate vasopressor responses in pithed rats. However, the corresponding α(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes have not been pharmacologically identified. Thus, this study set out to identify the specific subtypes (α(2A), α(2B) and α(2C)) mediating the vasopressor responses to the α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, B-HT 933, by using the antagonists prazosin (α(1A/1B/1D)), rauwolscine (α(2A/2B/2C)), BRL44408 (α(2A)), imiloxan (α(2B)) and/or JP-1302 (α(2C)). In pithed rats, consecutive i.v. bolus injections of B-HT 933 produced dose-dependent increases in diastolic blood pressure, without affecting heart rate. The vasopressor responses to B-HT 933: (1) remained unaltered after, i.v., bolus injections of vehicles (1 ml/kg) or prazosin (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg/kg); (2) were dose-dependently blocked by rauwolscine (100 and 300 μg/kg), BRL44408 (100 and 300 μg/kg), imiloxan (1000 and 3000 μg/kg) and/or JP-1302 (10, 30, 100, and 300 μg/kg); and (3) were abolished by the combination BRL44408 (300 μg/kg)+imiloxan (1000 μg/kg)+JP-1302 (300 μg/kg). The above results support our contention that the α(2)-adrenoceptors mediating the vasopressor responses to B-HT 933 in pithed rats pharmacologically correlate with the α(2A), α(2B) and α(2C)-adrenoceptor subtypes.

  1. The atypical 5-HT2 receptor mediating tachycardia in pithed rats: pharmacological correlation with the 5-HT2A receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2002-01-01

    In pithed rats, 5-HT mediates tachycardia both directly (by 5-HT2 receptors) and indirectly (by a tyramine-like effect). The receptor mediating tachycardia directly has been classified as an ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptor since it was ‘weakly' blocked by ketanserin. Moreover, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist, failed to mimic 5-HT-induced tachycardia. Since 5-HT2 receptors consist of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C subtypes, this study investigated if these subtypes mediate the above response. In pithed rats, intraperitoneally (i.p.) pre-treated with reserpine (5 mg kg−1), intravenous (i.v.) administration of 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 each), produced dose-dependent tachycardic responses. Interestingly, DOI (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.) induced only slight, dose-unrelated, tachycardic responses, whilst the 5-HT2C agonist, Ro 60-0175 (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.), produced a slight tachycardia only at 300 and 1000 μg kg−1. In contrast, sumatriptan and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)- piperazine (TFMPP) were inactive. The rank order of potency was: 5-HT⩾5-MeO-T> mCPP⩾5-CT⩾DOI>Ro 60-0175. The tachycardic responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after i.v. saline (0.3 and 1 ml kg−1) or propranolol (3 mg kg−1), were selectively blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonists ketanserin (30 and 100 μg kg−1) or spiperone (10 and 30 μg kg−1) as well as by the non-selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ritanserin (10 and 30 μg kg−1) or mesulergine (100 μg kg−1). Remarkably, these responses were unaffected by the antagonists rauwolscine (5-HT2B), SB204741 (5-HT2B/2C) or Ro 04-6790 (5-ht6) (300 and 1000 μg kg−1 each). These results suggest that the ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptors mediating tachycardia in reserpinized pithed rats are pharmacologically similar to the 5-HT2A

  2. Predominant role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype for mediating the quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Villalón, Carlos M

    2013-05-01

    We have recently reported that quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) inhibits the vasopressor sympathetic outflow in pithed rats via sympatho-inhibitory D2-like receptors. Since D2-like receptors consist of D2, D3 and D4 receptor subtypes, this study investigated whether these subtypes are involved in the above quinpirole-induced sympatho-inhibition by using antagonists of these receptor subtypes. One hundred fifty-six male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared for preganglionic spinal (T7-T9) stimulation of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow. This approach resulted in frequency-dependent vasopressor responses which were analysed before and during i.v. continuous infusions of either saline (0.02 ml/min) or quinpirole (1 μg/kg.min) in animals receiving i.v. bolus injections of vehicle [saline or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] or the antagonists L-741,626 (D2), nafadotride or SB-277011-A (both D3) as well as L-745,870 (D4). Quinpirole inhibited the sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses. This sympatho-inhibition was (a) unaltered after 1 ml/kg saline, DMSO or 100 and 300 μg/kg L-741,626; (b) markedly blocked and abolished by, respectively, 30 and 100 μg/kg nafadotride or 100 and 300 μg/kg SB-277011-A and (c) slightly blocked after 30 and 100 μg/kg L-745,870, but 300 μg/kg L-745,870 produced no blockade whatsoever. Except for 300 μg/kg L-741,626 or 300 μg/kg L-745,870, the doses of the above compounds failed to modify per se the sympathetic vasopressor responses. The inhibition of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow induced by 1 μg/kg.min quinpirole in pithed rats is predominantly mediated by dopamine D3 and, to a lesser extent, by D4 receptor subtypes, with no evidence for the involvement of the D2 subtype.

  3. Radiosensibilité comparative des cellules épithéliales de trachée de rats après irradiation alpha in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, C.; Bailly-Despiney, I.; Lagroye, I.; Poncy, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    The main risk in nuclear industry is the internal contamination after inhalation of high LET alpha emitters radionuclides. Main targets of pulmonary carcinogenesis are epithelial respiratory tract cells. An in vitro study was performed in order to determine if a difference in the radiosensitivity occured in epithelial cells from the trachea of two rat strains: Sprague Dawley and Wistar Furth-Fischer F344 after alpha exposure. The cells were irradiated after sedimentation in a specific well. The irradiation was performed using 241Am electrodeposited sources. The irradiation dosecloning efficiency relation was evaluated. A kinetic study of the proliferation and the clonal growth has also been investigated. La contamination interne par inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs alpha de haut TEL est le risque majeur de l'industrie nucléaire. Les cibles principales de la cancérogenèse pulmonaire sont les cellules épithéliales de l'appareil respiratoire. Une étude in vitro a été menée pour déterminer s'il existe une différence de radiosensibilité aux rayonnement alpha, des cellules épithéliales trachéales de deux souches de rats : Sprague Dawley et Wistar Furth-Fischer F344. Les cellules sont irradiées sédimentées au fond d'un puit spécifique à l'aide de sources électrodéposées de 241Am. L'évaluation de la survie cellulaire en fonction de la dose d'irradiation est complétée par un suivi cinétique de la formation et de la prolifération des colonies.

  4. The effect of treating method of pithed pheasant on the content of biogenic amines in the meat during the course of storage.

    PubMed

    Hutarova, Z; Vecerek, V; Steinhauserova, I; Marsalek, P; Borilova, G; Forejtek, P

    2013-08-01

    The study monitored the effect of various methods of treating pheasant carcasses after killing on the hygienic quality of the venison. Pithed pheasants treated by evisceration (n = 60), drawing (n = 60), or left untreated (n = 60) were stored for a period of 21 d at temperatures of 0, 7, and 15°C. For determination of biogenic amines, samples of breast and thigh muscles were taken on d 1, 7, 14, and 21 after killing of the pheasants. Biogenic amines were separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography and consequently detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The sum of determined biogenic amine concentrations (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine) was compared with the value of the index for meat of high hygienic quality (5 mg/kg). At a storage temperature of 0°C, the sum of biogenic amine concentrations did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg in either breast or thigh muscle at any time during the storage period in untreated and drawn pheasants, and for a period of 14 d in eviscerated pheasants. At a storage temperature of 7°C, values lower than the limit of 5 mg/kg were recorded throughout the storage period in untreated pheasants, for a period of 14 d of storage in drawn pheasants, and for a period of just 7 d of storage in eviscerated birds. At the highest storage temperature (15°C), a value of 5 mg/kg was exceeded in eviscerated and untreated pheasants during the course of the first week of storage, and in drawn pheasants after the first week of storage. Our results indicate that the most suitable method of treatment to ensure high hygienic quality of the meat (assessed according to concentration of biogenic amines) for the longest period during the storage of pithed pheasants is to leave the pheasant carcasses untreated, followed by the drawing, with the least suitable method being the widely recommended method of evisceration.

  5. The role of pre-junctional D2 -like receptors mediating quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic out-flow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; González-Hernández, Abimael; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; Villalón, Carlos M

    2014-02-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from perivascular sensory nerves plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone. Indeed, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory out-flow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses, which are mainly mediated by CGRP release. This study investigated the potential role of dopamine D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the inhibition of these vasodepressor responses. For this purpose, male Wistar pithed rats (pre-treated i.v. with 25 mg/kg gallamine and 2 mg/kg min. hexamethonium) received i.v. continuous infusions of methoxamine (20 μg/kg min.) followed by physiological saline (0.02 ml/min.), the D1 -like receptor agonist SKF-38393 (0.1-1 μg/kg min.) or the D2 -like receptor agonist quinpirole (0.03-10 μg/kg min.). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the thoracic spinal cord (T9 -T12 ) resulted in frequency-dependent vasodepressor responses which were (i) unchanged during the infusions of saline or SKF-38393 and (ii) inhibited during the infusions of quinpirole (except at 0.03 μg/kg min.). Moreover, the inhibition induced by 0.1 μg/kg min. quinpirole (which failed to inhibit the vasodepressor responses elicited by i.v. bolus injections of exogenous α-CGRP; 0.1-1 μg/kg) was (i) unaltered after i.v. treatment with 1 ml/kg of either saline or 5% ascorbic acid and (ii) abolished after 300 μg/kg (i.v.) of the D2 -like receptor antagonists haloperidol or raclopride. These doses of antagonists (enough to completely block D2 -like receptors) essentially failed to modify per se the electrically induced vasodepressor responses. In conclusion, our results suggest that quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic out-flow is mainly mediated by pre-junctional D2 -like receptors.

  6. Pharmacological profile of the clonidine-induced inhibition of vasodepressor sensory outflow in pithed rats: correlation with α2A/2C-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C M; Albarrán-Juárez, J A; Lozano-Cuenca, J; Pertz, H H; Görnemann, T; Centurión, D

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Resistance blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic and primary sensory nerves, which modulate vascular tone through the release of noradrenaline and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), respectively. Moreover, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats results in vasodepressor responses which are mainly mediated by CGRP release. The present study has investigated the role of α2-adrenoceptors in the inhibition of these vasodepressor responses. Experimental approach: 144 pithed male Wistar rats were pretreated with hexamethonium (2 mg kg−1 min−1) followed by i.v. continuous infusions of either methoxamine (15 and 30 μg kg−1 min−1) or clonidine (3, 10 and 30 μg kg−1 min−1). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56–5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the spinal cord (T9–T12) resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Key results: The infusion of clonidine (10 μg kg−1 min−1), as compared to those of methoxamine (15 or 30 μg kg−1 min−1), inhibited the vasodepressor responses to electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.v. bolus injections of α-CGRP (0.1–1 μg kg−1). This inhibition by clonidine was: (i) antagonized by 300 μg kg−1 rauwolscine (α2A/2B/2C), 300 and 1000 μg kg−1 BRL44408 (α2A), or 10 and 30 μg kg−1 MK912 (α2C); and (ii) unaffected by 1 ml kg−1 saline, 100 μg kg−1 BRL44408, 3000 and 10000 μg kg−1 imiloxan (α2B) or 3 μg kg−1 MK912. Conclusions and implications: The inhibition produced by 10 μg kg−1 min−1 clonidine on the vasodepressor (perivascular) sensory outflow in rats may be mainly mediated by prejunctional α2A/α2C-adrenoceptors. PMID:18297098

  7. The role of dopamine D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor subtypes, in quinpirole-induced inhibition of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats

    PubMed Central

    Altamirano-Espinoza, A H; González-Hernández, A; Manrique-Maldonado, G; Marichal-Cancino, B A; Ruiz-Salinas, I; Villalón, C M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Quinpirole (a dopamine D2-like receptor agonist) inhibits the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats by sympathoinhibitory D2-like receptors. The present study was designed to identify pharmacologically the specific D2-like receptor subtypes (i.e. D2, D3 and D4) involved in this sympathoinhibition by quinpirole. Experimental Approach One hundred fourteen male Wistar rats were pithed, artificially ventilated with room air and prepared for either preganglionic spinal (C7-T1) stimulation of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow (n = 102) or i.v. bolus injections of exogenous noradrenaline (n = 12). This approach resulted in frequency-dependent and dose-dependent tachycardic responses, respectively, as previously reported by our group. Key Results I.v. continuous infusions of quinpirole (0.1–10 μg kg−1 min−1), but not of saline (0.02 mL min−1), dose-dependently inhibited the sympathetically induced tachycardic responses. Moreover, the cardiac sympathoinhibition induced by 3 μg kg−1 min−1 quinpirole (which failed to affect the tachycardic responses to i.v. noradrenaline) was: (i) unchanged after i.v. injections of the antagonists SB-277011-A (D3; 100–300 μg kg−1) or L-745,870 (D4; 30–100 μg kg−1); and (ii) markedly blocked and abolished by, respectively, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 of the D2 preferring receptor subtype antagonist L-741,626. These doses of antagonists, which did not affect per se the sympathetically induced tachycardic responses, were high enough to completely block their respective receptors. Conclusions and Implications The cardiac sympathoinhibition induced by 3 μg kg−1 min−1 quinpirole involves the dopamine D2 receptor subtype, with no evidence for the involvement of the D3 or D4 subtypes. This provides new evidence for understanding the modulation of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. PMID:24032529

  8. Additional Amphivasal Bundles in Pedicel Pith Exacerbate Central Fruit Dominance and Induce Self-Thinning of Lateral Fruitlets in Apple1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Dheilly, Emmanuelle; Guillou, Marie-Charlotte; Simonneau, Fabienne; Juchaux, Marjorie; Costes, Evelyne; Laurens, François; Renou, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) trees naturally produce an excess of fruitlets that negatively affect the commercial value of fruits brought to maturity and impact their capacity to develop flower buds the following season. Therefore, chemical thinning has become an important cultural practice, allowing the selective removal of unwanted fruitlets. As the public pressure to limit the use of chemical agents increases, the control of thinning becomes a major issue. Here, we characterized the self-thinning capacity of an apple hybrid genotype from the tree scale to the molecular level. Additional amphivasal vascular bundles were identified in the pith of pedicels supporting the fruitlets with the lowest abscission potential (central fruitlet), indicating that these bundles might have a role in the acquisition of dominance over lateral fruitlets. Sugar content analysis revealed that central fruitlets were better supplied in sorbitol than lateral fruitlets. Transcriptomic profiles allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in the overproduction of vascular tissues in central pedicels. In addition, histological and transcriptomic data permitted a detailed characterization of abscission zone development and the identification of key genes involved in this process. Our data confirm the major role of ethylene, auxin, and cell wall-remodeling enzymes in abscission zone formation. The shedding process in this hybrid appears to be triggered by a naturally exacerbated dominance of central fruitlets over lateral ones, brought about by an increased supply of sugars, possibly through additional amphivasal vascular bundles. The characterization of this genotype opens new perspectives for the selection of elite apple cultivars. PMID:24550240

  9. Analysis of anandamide- and lysophosphatidylinositol-induced inhibition of the vasopressor responses produced by sympathetic stimulation or noradrenaline in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; González-Hernández, Abimael; Maassenvandenbrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2013-12-05

    The endocannabinoid system exhibits multiple functions in cardiovascular regulation mainly by cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors, vanilloid TRPV1 receptors and, probably, by the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55). Hence, the role of these receptors was investigated in Wistar pithed rats on anandamide- and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI)-induced inhibition of the vasopressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) stimulation of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow or i.v. bolus injections of noradrenaline. The corresponding frequency- and dose-dependent vasopressor responses were analyzed before and during i.v. continuous infusions of anandamide (CB1, CB2, TRPV1 and GPR55), JWH-015 (CB2) and LPI (GPR55) in animals receiving (i.v.) the antagonists NIDA41020 (CB1), AM630 (CB2), capsazepine (TRPV1) and/or cannabidiol (GPR55). Anandamide (0.1-3.1 μg/kg min) inhibited the vasopressor responses by electrical stimulation, but not those by noradrenaline; while LPI (5.6-10 μg/kg min) inhibited both responses. In contrast, JWH-015 (5.6-10 μg/kg min) failed to induce sympatho-inhibition. Anandamide-induced sympatho-inhibition was: (i) dose-dependently blocked by 31 and 100 μg/kg NIDA41020; (ii) slightly blocked by 310 μg/kg AM630 or 31 μg/kg cannabidiol; and (iii) unaffected by 310 μg/kg capsazepine. Moreover, LPI-induced inhibition of both vasopressor responses was blocked and abolished by 10 and 31 μg/kg cannabidiol, respectively, and weakly blocked by 100 μg/kg NIDA41020. Thus, the sympatho-inhibition by anandamide is primarily mediated by cannabinoid CB1 and, minimally, by cannabidiol-sensitive receptors. In contrast, LPI-induced inhibition of both responses seems to be mainly mediated by postjunctional cannabidiol-sensitive (presumably endothelial GPR55) receptors.

  10. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  11. The 5-HT1-like receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in the pithed rat: operational correlation with the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Rabelo, Gonzalo; de Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Sánchez-López, Araceli

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that the inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in pithed rats is mediated by 5-HT1-like receptors. The present study has re-analysed this suggestion with regard to the classification schemes recently proposed by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on 5-HT receptors.Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT and the 5-HT1 receptor agonists, 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A), indorenate (5-HT1A), CP 93,129 (5-HT1B) and sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D), resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses.The sympatho-inhibitory responses induced by 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, indorenate, CP 93,129 or sumatriptan were analysed before and after i.v. treatment with blocking doses of the putative 5-HT receptor antagonists, WAY 100635 (5-HT1A), cyanopindolol (5-HT1A/1B) or GR 127935 (5-HT1B/1D). Thus, after WAY 100635, the responses to 5-HT and indorenate, but not to 8-OH-DPAT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, were blocked. After cyanopindolol, the responses to 5-HT, indorenate and CP 93,129 were abolished, whilst those to 8-OH-DPAT and sumatriptan (except at the lowest frequency of stimulation) remained unaltered. In contrast, after GR 127935, the responses to 5-HT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, but not to 8-OH-DPAT and indorenate, were abolished.In additional experiments, the inhibition induced by 5-HT was not modified after 5-HT7 receptor blocking doses of mesulergine.The above results suggest that the 5-HT1-like receptors, which inhibit the sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, display the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D, but not that of 5-HT7, receptors. PMID:9692787

  12. Effect of physical and chemical properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch, decanter cake and sago pith residue on cellulases production by Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2.

    PubMed

    Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Lai-Yee, Phang; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cultivation condition of two locally isolated ascomycetes strains namely Trichoderma asperellum UPM1 and Aspergillus fumigatus UPM2 were compared in submerged and solid state fermentation. Physical evaluation on water absorption index, solubility index and chemical properties of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content as well as the cellulose structure on crystallinity and amorphous region of treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) (resulted in partial removal of lignin), sago pith residues (SPR) and oil palm decanter cake towards cellulases production were determined. Submerged fermentation shows significant cellulases production for both strains in all types of substrates. Crystallinity of cellulose and its chemical composition mainly holocellulose components was found to significantly affect the total cellulase synthesis in submerged fermentation as the higher crystallinity index, and holocellulose composition will increase cellulase production. Treated OPEFB apparently induced the total cellulases from T. asperellum UPM1 and A. fumigatus UPM2 with 0.66 U/mg FPase, 53.79 U/mg CMCase, 0.92 U/mg β-glucosidase and 0.67 U/mg FPase, 47.56 U/mg and 0.14 U/mg β-glucosidase, respectively. Physical properties of water absorption and solubility for OPEFB and SPR also had shown significant correlation on the cellulases production.

  13. Specific role of α2A - and α2B -, but not α2C -, adrenoceptor subtypes in the inhibition of the vasopressor sympathetic out-flow in diabetic pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Villalón, Carlos M

    2015-07-01

    Several lines of evidence have shown an association of diabetes with a catecholamines' aberrant homeostasis involving a drastic change in the expression of adrenoceptors. This homeostatic alteration includes, among other things, atypical actions of α2 -adrenoceptor agonists within central and peripheral α2 -adrenoceptors (e.g. profound antinociceptive effects in diabetic subjects). Hence, this study investigated the pharmacological profile of the α2 -adrenoceptor subtypes that inhibit the vasopressor sympathetic out-flow in streptozotocin-pre-treated (diabetic) pithed rats. For this purpose, B-HT 933 (up to 30 μg/kg min) was used as a selective α2 -adrenoceptor agonist and rauwolscine as a non-selective α2A/2B/2C -adrenoceptor antagonist; in addition, BRL 44408, imiloxan and JP-1302 were used as subtype-selective α2A -, α2B - and α2C -adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively (all given i.v.). I.v. continuous infusions of B-HT 933 inhibited the vasopressor responses induced by electrical sympathetic stimulation without affecting those by i.v. bolus injections of noradrenaline in both normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. Interestingly, the ED50 for B-HT 933 in diabetic rats (25 μg/kg min) was almost 1-log unit greater than that in normoglycaemic rats (3 μg/kg.min). Moreover, the sympatho-inhibition induced by 10 μg/kg min B-HT 933 in diabetic rats was (i) abolished by 300 μg/kg rauwolscine or 100 and 300 μg/kg BRL 44408; (ii) partially blocked by 1000 μg/kg imiloxan; and (iii) unchanged by 1000 μg/kg JP-1302. Our findings, taken together, suggest that B-HT 933 has a less potent inhibitory effect on the sympathetic vasopressor responses in diabetic (compared to normoglycaemic) rats and that can probably be ascribed to a down-regulation of α2C -adrenoceptors.

  14. Pharmacological profile of the 5-HT-induced inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats: correlation with 5-HT1 and putative 5-ht5A/5B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión, David; Vázquez, Erika; Arulmani, Udayasankar; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) inhibit the tachycardiac responses to preganglionic (C7-T1) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine. The present study identified the pharmacological profile of this inhibitory action of 5-HT. The inhibition induced by intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT (5.6 μg kg−1 min−1) on sympathetically induced tachycardiac responses remained unaltered after i.v. treatment with saline or the antagonists GR 127935 (5-HT1B/1D), the combination of WAY 100635 (5-HT1A) plus GR 127935, ritanserin (5-HT2), tropisetron (5-HT3/4), LY215840 (5-HT7) or a cocktail of antagonists/inhibitors consisting of yohimbine (α2), prazosin (α1), ritanserin, GR 127935, WAY 100635 and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase), but was abolished by methiothepin (5-HT1/2/6/7 and recombinant 5-ht5A/5B). These drugs, used in doses high enough to block their respective receptors/mechanisms, did not modify the sympathetically induced tachycardiac responses per se. I.v. continuous infusions of the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 5-HT1/7 and recombinant 5-ht5A/5B), CP 93,129 (r5-HT1B), sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D), PNU-142633 (5-HT1D) and ergotamine (5-HT1B/1D and recombinant 5-ht5A/5B) mimicked the above sympatho-inhibition to 5-HT. In contrast, the agonists indorenate (5-HT1A) and LY344864 (5-ht1F) were inactive. Interestingly, 5-CT-induced cardiac sympatho-inhibition was abolished by methiothepin, the cocktail of antagonists/inhibitors, GR 127935 or the combination of SB224289 (5-HT1B) plus BRL15572 (5-HT1D), but remained unchanged when SB224289 or BRL15572 were given separately. Therefore, 5-HT-induced cardiac sympatho-inhibition, being unrelated to 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-ht6, 5-HT7 receptors, α1/2-adrenoceptor or prostaglandin synthesis, seems to be primarily mediated by (i) 5-HT1 (probably 5-HT1B/1D) receptors and (ii) a novel mechanism antagonized by methiothepin that, most likely, involves putative 5-ht5A/5B

  15. Coherent Behavior from Incoherent Knowledge Sources in the Automatic Synthesis of Numerical Computer Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    8217 xy ((r s) (e) (q)) Funny issorc q xvK. r -. S-’-v e->’/L OrI S) (e) (q)) C- Funny-Assrst q t 1- >x, h -~ ( s) (q) (e)) Of coir ,;P wheow’Pi I...outputs are in fact unknown. This guarantees that the compui.wtion pith could be part of a legitamate circuit. 5. No duplications in outline. This was

  16. Moments and Signal Processing: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Monterey, CA. on March 30-31 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-26

    between voiced aiol tiiivoiced sorinlds: coire - jarion] allmonrr ad Jarerit sarir oles and excit ationi models. Ill this sect it,. we shall investigate...8217 prdcillCT - -I~d a -’o cu______ b e fle-. (c) pith cntur btane I)-rcsil (11’" -esilaeSq eieuigte m to l 1] n d a tc orreatio sq eiA() of h-((ollvie pehs

  17. Auxin Activity of Substituted Benzoic Acids and Their Effect on Polar Auxin Transport 1

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, George W.; Baker, Robert A.

    1966-01-01

    Six dichloro-, 3 trichloro-, 2 triiodo-, and 3 heterosubstituted benzoic acids (amiben, dinoben, dicamba), and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid have been tested for effects on growth and on polar auxin transport. Growth activity with and without kinetin was measured by effects on fresh and dry weights of 30-day cultures of fresh tobacco pith. Transport inhibition was measured by following uptake and output of IAA-2-14C through 10 mm bean epicotyl sections. The distribution of callus growth on vascularized tobacco stem segments was also observed. Avena first internode extension assays established the relative activities: dicamba > amiben > dinoben suggested by pith growth results. Growth effects of active compounds were similar with and without kinetin, except that amiben was less active with kinetin, while 2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid was more active with kinetin than alone. The weak auxin activity of NPA was confirmed. Transport experiments showed that NPA was the most inhibitory compound tested, followed by TIBA. Other compounds tested were at least 300 times less inhibitory to IAA transport. The best growth promoters were the least inhibitory to transport, and the most effective transport inhibitors were at best poor auxins. It is suggested that the weak auxin and auxin synergistic activity of TIBA (and perhaps 2,3-dichlorobenzoic acid) in extension growth tests arises from its inhibition of transport of endogenous or added auxin out of the sections, rather than from its intrinsic auxin activity. Chemically induced apolar callus growth on vascularized tobacco stem explants can arise from inhibition of native auxin transport, apolar growth stimulation by auxinic action of the test compound, or both. PMID:16656441

  18. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-15

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs.

  19. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-01

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs.

  20. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  1. Removal performance of elemental mercury by low-cost adsorbents prepared through facile methods of carbonisation and activation of coconut husk.

    PubMed

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Alias, Afidatul Shazwani; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Mat, Hanapi

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of chars and activated carbon as low-cost elemental mercury adsorbents was carried out through the carbonisation of coconut husk (pith and fibre) and the activation of chars with potassium hydroxide (KOH), respectively. The synthesised adsorbents were characterised by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The elemental mercury removal performance was measured using a conventional flow type packed-bed adsorber. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents changed as a result of the carbonisation and activation process, hence affecting on the extent of elemental mercury adsorption. The highest elemental mercury (Hg°) adsorption capacity was obtained for the CP-CHAR (3142.57 µg g(-1)), which significantly outperformed the pristine and activated carbon adsorbents, as well as higher than some adsorbents reported in the literature.

  2. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  3. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  4. Evaluation des résultats après traitement des lésions intra épithéliales du col utérin par la cryothérapie: étude préliminaire au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Yaoundé: A propos de 21 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ndoua, Claude Cyrille Noa; Tebeu, Pierre Marie; Kemfang, Jean Dupont; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons les résultats d'une série de 21 cas de prise en charge par cryothérapie de lésions intra-épithéliales cervicales au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire (CHU) de Yaoundé. Notre objectif principal était d’évaluer les résultats préliminaires de la prise en charge des lésions précancéreuses éligibles pour la cryothérapie. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive qui s'est étalée sur 24 mois. Etaient inclus dans l’étude toutes les femmes traitées par cryothérapie. Nous avons exclu les patientes traitées par une autre méthode, les patientes perdues de vue et les dossiers incomplets. Le statut cervical a été déterminé à 6 semaines, 6 mois et 12 mois. Les complications précoces et tardives ont également été répertoriées. Au total 95.2% des lésions étaient cicatrisées à 6 semaines. A 6 mois, toutes les lésions avaient disparu et au 12ème mois, la guérison était effective chez 95.2% des patientes. Les saignements et l'hydrorrhée étaient les principales complications tardives avec des fréquences respectives de 66.7% et 95.2%. Aucun cas de sténose cervicale n'a été répertorié. La cryothérapie peut être utilisée comme méthode de traitement pour des lésions précancéreuses du col. PMID:26140068

  5. Nanocrystalline cellulose from coir fiber: preparation, properties, and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanocrystalline cellulose derived from various botanical sources offers unique and potentially useful characteristics. In principle, any cellulosic material can be considered as a potential source of a nanocrystalline material, including crops, crop residues, and agroindustrial wastes. Because of t...

  6. Automated Procedure for Evaluating Sites for Suitability as Helicopter Landing Zones. Volume 1. Descriptions and Instructions for Use of Computer Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    1-1 t I 1 SI to ca 0 03 0) cd h H 43 Ü W a Si/1 O »H^. *r 1 ^ p CO a) S o o O CO I 1 01 cncorococuojfoH coir \\ oi en...CO CO Q\\ O H H «£> CVJ -* \\£ CO O l> H CVJ 00 OCO ITxOlAHH fss^ssiRÄS* SiR» ifMA IAVO coir \\coi/\\«* co co co co co.* Jt...LINtl ON SMP« • mg i coNiraucT A OIAOONAL LWH IMPALLCI PITH THOM aatMNTtFaoa TH| CALCUkATtO XALUt O» -J ■ >« ’ ON THt UM VtBTlCAl. A>l

  7. Electrostatic Repulsion of Charged Pith Balls Hanging from Strings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Serway R A and Jewett J W 2010 Physics for Scientists and Engineers 8th edn (Belmont, CA: Brooks /Cole) p 666 [4] Halliday D, Resnick R and Walker J 2011 Fundamentals of Physics 9th edn (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley) p 578

  8. Fluvoxamine, a new antidepressant drug, fails to show antiserotonin activity.

    PubMed

    Maj, J; Rogóz, Z; Skuza, G

    1982-07-09

    Fluvoxamine, (E)-5-methoxy-4'-(trifluoromethyl)valerophenone O-2(2-aminoethyl)oxime, a new antidepressant drug inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) uptake, was studied in rats and mice in order to check whether it has any central anti-5-HT activity, as do some tricyclic antidepressants, e.g. amitriptyline and doxepin. Fluvoxamine did not influence either the 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head twitch response in mice or the tryptamine convulsions in rats. In the hind limb flexor reflex of the spinal rat the stimulation induced by fenfluramine was inhibited, that induced by LSD was not changed. Fluvoxamine also antagonized the hyperthermia (at ambient temperature of 28 degrees C), induced in rats by fenfluramine or p-chloroamphetamine. The hyperthermia caused by m-chlorophenylpiperazine was not inhibited. Fluvoxamine did not antagonize the 5-HT pressor effect in pithed rats. It has no effect on the immobility time in the behavioural despair test in rats. The results indicate that fluvoxamine fails to show anti-5-HT activity.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  10. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    PubMed

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  11. Mechanism of the cardiovascular activity of laudanosine: comparison with papaverine and other benzylisoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Chuliá, S; Ivorra, M D; Lugnier, C; Vila, E; Noguera, M A; D'Ocon, P

    1994-12-01

    1. The activity of (+/-)-laudanosine, a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, was investigated in pithed rats and rat isolated aorta. Its effects on [3H]-(+)-cis-diltiazem and [3H]-nitrendipine binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes, and on the different molecular forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) isolated from bovine aorta were investigated. 2. The dose-response curve to methoxamine (3-300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) in normotensive pithed rats was shifted to the right by (+/-)-laudanosine, 3 and 6 mg kg-1. 3. (+/-)-Laudanosine inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the contractile responses evoked by noradrenaline (NA 1 microM), depolarizing solution (KCl 80 mM) or depolarizing solution plus phentolamine (10 microM) in rat isolated aorta. The alkaloid appeared to be more potent against NA-induced contractions. 4. In Ca(2+)-free solution, (+/-)-laudanosine (100 microM) inhibited the contraction evoked by NA and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine. The alkaloid did not modify the refilling of the intracellular Ca(2+)-sotres sensitive to NA or caffeine. 5. (+/-)-Laudanosine inhibited [3H]-prazosin binding to cortical membranes and also inhibited [3H]-(+)-cis-diltiazem but with a lower potency. [3H]-nitrendipine binding was not affected by laudanosine. 6. (+/-)-Laudanosine does not have a significant effect on the different forms of PDEs isolated from bovine aorta. In contrast, compounds structurally related to this alkaloid such as papaverine and its derivatives, had a non-selective or more specific inhibitory effect on these PDE forms. These differences can be explained on the basis of their structural features: the planarity of the isoquinoline ring(papaverine) facilitates the interaction with receptor sites, and the different position of the benzyl group does not modify the activity unless this position leads to the presence of a chiral centre (laudanosine).7. These results suggest that (+/-)-laudanosine has

  12. Enzymatic activity and proteomic profile of class III peroxidases during sugarcane stem development.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Sampaio Mayer, Juliana Lischka; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    Class III peroxidases are present as large multigene families in all land plants. This large number of genes together with the diversity of processes catalyzed by peroxidases suggests possible functional specialization of each isoform. However, assigning a precise role for each individual peroxidase gene has continued to be a major bottleneck. Here we investigated the enzyme activity and translational profile of class III peroxidases during stem development of sugarcane as a first step in the estimation of physiological functions of individual isoenzymes. Internodes at three different developmental stages (young, developing and mature) were divided into pith (inner tissue) and rind (outer tissue) fractions. The rind of mature internodes presented the highest enzymatic activity and thus could be considered the ideal tissue for the discovery of peroxidase gene function. In addition, activity staining of 2DE gels revealed different isoperoxidase profiles and protein expression regulation among different tissue fractions. In-gel tryptic digestion of excised spots followed by peptide sequencing by LC-MS/MS positively matched uncharacterized peroxidases in the sugarcane database SUCEST. Multiple spots matching the same peroxidase gene were found, which reflects the generation of more than one isoform from a particular gene by post-translational modifications. The identified sugarcane peroxidases appear to be monocot-specific sequences with no clear ortholog in dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  13. Biofiltration of toluene-contaminated air using an agro by-product-based filter bed.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, B; Hima, A M; Haridas, Ajit

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, coir-pith-based, filter bed for degrading vapor phase toluene in a gas biofilter over 160 days without any external nutrient supply is reported in this study. Indigenous microflora present in the coir pith as well as in the aerobic sludge added at the start-up stage metabolized the toluene, and correspondingly, CO(2) was produced in the biofilter. Inlet toluene concentration in the range of 0.75 to 2.63 g/m(3) was supplied to the biofilter in short acclimation periods. The maximum elimination capacity achieved was 96.75 g/m(3) x h at 120.72 g/m(3) x h loading where around 60% was recovered as CO(2). The filter bed maintained a stable low-pressure drop (0-4 mm H(2)O), neutral pH range (6.5-7.5), and moisture content of 60-80% (w/w) throughout the period. In addition to toluene-degrading microbial community, a grazing fauna including rotifer, bacteriovoric nematode, tardigrade, and fly larvae were also present in the filter bed. The overall performance of the biofilter bed in pollutant removal and sustainability was analyzed in this study.

  14. Evaluation of adsorption properties of sulphurised activated carbon for the effective and economically viable removal of Zn(II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Anoop Krishnan, K; Sreejalekshmi, K G; Vimexen, V; Dev, Vinu V

    2016-02-01

    The prospective application of sulphurised activated carbon (SAC) as an ecofriendly and cost-effective adsorbent for Zinc(II) removal from aqueous phase is evaluated, with an emphasis on kinetic and isotherm aspects. SAC was prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith obtained from local juice shops in Sree Bhadrakali Devi Temple located at Ooruttukala, Neyyattinkara, Trivandrum, India during annual festive seasons. Activated carbon modified with sulphur containing ligands was opted as the adsorbent to leverage on the affinity of Zn(II) for sulphur. We report batch-adsorption experiments for parameter optimisations aiming at maximum removal of Zn(II) from liquid-phase using SAC. Adsorption of Zn(II) onto SAC was maximum at pH 6.5. For initial concentrations of 25 and 100mgL(-1), maximum of 12.3mgg(-1) (98.2%) and 23.7mgg(-1) (94.8%) of Zn(II) was adsorbed onto SAC at pH 6.5. Kinetic and equilibrium data were best described by pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models, respectively. A maximum adsorption capacity of 147mgg(-1) was obtained for the adsorption of Zn(II) onto SAC from aqueous solutions. The reusability of the spent adsorbent was also determined.

  15. Characterization of bioresidues for biooil production through pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Mythili, R; Venkatachalam, P; Subramanian, P; Uma, D

    2013-06-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource utilized to produce energy, fuels and chemicals. In this study, 25 bioresidues were selected and the physical, chemical, thermal and elemental analyses of the residues were studied as per standard methods. The bioresidues were pyrolyzed at 450°C in a fixed bed reactor to produce biooil. Among the residues, paper (pinfed computer) and Parthenium produced maximum (45%) and minimum biooil (6.33%), respectively. Arecanut stalk, redgram stalk, rice husk, wheat husk, maize cob, coir pith, Cumbu Napier grass Co5, Prosopis wood and paper resulted in a better biooil yield. Models were developed to predict the effect of constituents of bioresidues on the yield of biooil. The volatile matter and cellulose had significant effect on biooil yield. Biooil thus obtained can be used as fuel that may replace considerable fossil fuels.

  16. A novel green approach for the preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers from white coir.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diego M; Almeida, Jessica S; Dias, Amanda F; Figueirêdo, Maria Clea B; Morais, João Paulo S; Feitosa, Judith P A; de F Rosa, Morsyleide

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this work was to optimize the extraction of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) from unripe coconut husk fibers (CHF). The CHF was delignified using organosolv process, followed by alkaline bleaching (5% (w/w) H2O2+4% (w/w) NaOH; 50°C, 90 min). The CHF was subsequently hydrolyzed with 30% (v/v) sulfuric acid (60°C, 360 min). The process yielded a partially delignified acetosolv cellulose pulp and acetic black liquor, from which the lignin was recovered. The CNW from the acetosolv pulp exhibited an average length of 172±88 nm and a diameter of 8±3 nm, (aspect ratio of 22±8). The surface charge of the CNW was -33 mV, indicating a stable aqueous colloidal suspension. The nanocrystals presented physical characteristics close to those extracted from cellulose pulp made by CHF chlorine-pulping. This approach offers the additional advantage of extracting the lignin as an alternative to eradication.

  17. Materials Data on Hf2CoIr (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-08-23

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Pharmacological profile of valsartan: a potent, orally active, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1-receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Criscione, L.; de Gasparo, M.; Bühlmayer, P.; Whitebread, S.; Ramjoué, H. P.; Wood, J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of valsartan, (S)-N-valeryl-N-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]-methyl)-vali ne, a potent, highly selective, and orally active antagonist at the angiotensin II (AII) AT1-receptor, was studied in vitro and in vivo. 2. Valsartan competed with [125I]-AII at its specific binding sites in rat aortic smooth muscle cell membranes (AT1-receptor subtype) with a Ki of 2.38 nM, but was about 30,000 times less active in human myometrial membranes (AT2-receptor subtype). 3. In rabbit aortic rings incubated for 5 min with valsartan, at concentrations of 2, 20 and 200 nM, the concentration-response curve of AII was displaced to the right and the maximum response was reduced by 33%, 36% and 40%, respectively. Prolongation of the incubation time with valsartan to 1 h or 3 h, further reduced the maximum response by 48% or 59% (after 20 nM) and by 59% or 60% (after 200 nM) respectively. After 3 h incubation an apparent pKb value of 9.26 was calculated. Contractions induced by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or potassium chloride were not affected by valsartan. No agonistic effects were observed in the rabbit aorta at concentrations of valsartan up to 2 microM. 4. In bovine adrenal glomerulosa, valsartan inhibited AII-stimulated aldosterone release without affecting the maximum response (pA2 8.4). 5. In the pithed rat, oral administration of valsartan (10 mg kg-1) shifted the AII-induced pressor response curves to the right, without affecting responses induced by the electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow or by noradrenaline. Animals treated with valsartan 24 h before pithing also showed significant inhibition of the response to AII. 6. In conscious, two-kidney, one-clip renal hypertensive rats (2K1C), valsartan decreased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner after single i.v. or oral administration. The respective ED30 values were 0.06 mg kg-1 (i.v.) and 1.4 mg kg-1 (p.o.). The antihypertensive effect lasted for at least 24 h

  19. alpha-Adrenergic activity and cardiovascular effects of besipirdine HCl (HP 749) and metabolite P7480 in vitro and in the conscious rat and dog.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, J W; Nordstrom, S T; Smith, C P; Brooks, K M; Laws-Ricker, L; Zhou, L; Vargas, H M

    1997-04-01

    Besipirdine displays potent adrenergic activity in a variety of pharmacological and behavioral tests. Based on this property, we evaluated the effects of besipirdine and its N-despropyl metabolite N-despropyl-besipirdine (P7480) on cardiovascular function in rats and dogs. Besipirdine and P7480 bind alpha-2 adrenoceptors (K(I): 380 and 10 nM, respectively) and facilitate the stimulated release of [3H]norepinephrine from rat cortical slices due to presynaptic autoreceptor blockade. In rat aorta rings and the pithed rat, P7480, but not besipirdine, also behaved as a postsynaptic alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. In conscious rats, besipirdine (2-10 mg/kg, p.o.) and P7480 (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-related increases in mean arterial pressure. Inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P-450 enzyme activity blocked the pressor effect of besipirdine, but not of P7480; therefore, P7480 mediated besipirdine's pressor effect. The bradycardia after either agent was unaffected. In conscious dogs, besipirdine (0.1-2 mg/kg, p.o.) also produced dose-related hypertension and bradycardia. The hypertension, but not the bradycardia, were sensitive to prazosin (3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade studies in anesthetized dogs demonstrated the bradycardia to be due to withdrawal of cardiac sympathetic tone. These findings suggest that besipirdine's peripheral hypertensive effect is primarily mediated by the pressor metabolite P7480, although facilitated norepinephrine release may contribute. Besipirdine's bradycardic action appears to be centrally mediated, because both compounds lacked direct negative chronotropic activity on spontaneously beating guinea pig atria in vitro.

  20. Hydrogen production from oxidative steam reforming of bio-butanol over CoIr-based catalysts: effect of the support.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weijie; Piscina, Pilar Ramírez de la; Gabrowska, Klaudia; Homs, Narcís

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the support on the behavior of bimetallic CoIr-based catalysts (6.5 wt.% Co, 0.4 wt.% Ir) for hydrogen production from the oxidative steam reforming of bio-butanol raw mixture (butanol/acetone/ethanol = 6/3/1 mass ratio). Catalytic tests were carried out at 500 °C for 60 h with raw mixture/water/air/Ar = 1/10/7.5/12 molar ratio and GHSV = 7500 h(-1). Over CoIr/18CeZrO(2) and CoIr/ZnO the main process which took place was the oxidative steam reforming of the raw mixture. CoIr/18CeZrO(2) showed the better catalytic performance. Characterization of the used catalysts indicated that both active metal sintering and coke formation was prevented on the CoIr/18CeZrO(2) catalyst.

  1. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2014-07-31

    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (-1 to -4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor.

  2. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S.; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (−1 to −4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142

  3. Tissue- and Cell-Specific Cytokinin Activity in Populus × canescens Monitored by ARR5::GUS Reporter Lines in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Shanty; Wildhagen, Henning; Janz, Dennis; Teichmann, Thomas; Hänsch, Robert; Polle, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins play an important role in vascular development. But knowledge on the cellular localization of this growth hormone in the stem and other organs of woody plants is lacking. The main focus of this study was to investigate the occurrence and cellular localization of active cytokinins in leaves, roots, and along the stem of Populus × canescens and to find out how the pattern is changed between summer and winter. An ARR5::GUS reporter construct was used to monitor distribution of active cytokinins in different tissues of transgenic poplar lines. Three transgenic lines tested under outdoor conditions showed no influence of ARR5::GUS reporter construct on the growth performance compared with the wild-type, but one line lost the reporter activity. ARR5::GUS activity indicated changes in the tissue- and cell type-specific pattern of cytokinin activity during dormancy compared with the growth phase. ARR5::GUS activity, which was present in the root tips in the growing season, disappeared in winter. In the stem apex ground tissue, ARR5::GUS activity was higher in winter than in summer. Immature leaves from tissue-culture grown plants showed inducible ARR5::GUS activity. Leaf primordia in summer showed ARR5::GUS activity, but not the expanded leaves of outdoor plants or leaf primordia in winter. In stem cross sections, the most prominent ARR5::GUS activity was detected in the cortex region and in the rays of bark in summer and in winter. In the cambial zone the ARR5::GUS activity was more pronounced in the dormant than in growth phase. The pith and the ray cells adjacent to the vessels also displayed ARR5::GUS activity. In silico analyses of the tissue-specific expression patterns of the whole PtRR type-A family of poplar showed that PtRR10, the closest ortholog to the Arabidopsis ARR5 gene, was usually the most highly expressed gene in all tissues. In conclusion, gene expression and tissue-localization indicate high activity of cytokinins not only in summer, but

  4. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  5. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics: Health Benefits What are the benefits of physical activity? Physical activity increases your chances of living longer. ... pain Help you feel better about yourself Is physical activity for everyone? Yes! Physical activity is good for ...

  6. Activation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  7. Characterization of the Chemical Constitution and Profile of Pharmacological Activity of PGBx.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-23

    PGBx on blood pressure and heart rate of conscious unrestrained animals, and e) developed a cardiac function model in dogs that allows for a...the presence and absence of Mx3. The animl is pithed and artificially ventilated. 18 I105 N6 70 A X III A X 4w4 0 2 510 STuLus FREQUENCY (Hz) FIG. S...volts) while we required the 110 volt model . The company did not wish to replace it but instead sent a small transformer which when adapted caused fuses

  8. Divergent selection for ester-linked diferulates in maize pith stalk tissues: effects on cell wall composition and degradability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-linking of grass cell wall components through diferulates (DFAs) has a marked impact on cell wall properties. However, results of genetic selection for DFA concentration have not been reported for any grass species. We report here the results of direct selection for ester-linked DFA concentrat...

  9. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  10. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  11. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  12. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  13. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat poisonings, reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile ... lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Decreasing gas (flatulence). Some studies show that activated charcoal is effective ...

  14. Activity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  15. Plant metacaspase activation and activity.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena A; Stael, Simon; Van Breusegem, Frank; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Metacaspases are essential for cell death regulation in plants. Further understanding of biochemistry of metacaspases and their molecular function in plant biology requires a set of robust methods for detection of metacaspase activation and quantitative analysis of corresponding proteolytic activity. Here we describe methods for purification of recombinant metacaspases, measurement of enzymatic activity of recombinant and endogenous metacaspases in vitro and in cell lysates, respectively, and finally detection of metacaspase activation in vivo. Additionally, an in vitro metacaspase protein substrate cleavage assay based on the cell-free production of substrate protein followed by proteolysis with recombinant metacaspase is presented. These methods have been originally developed for type II metacaspases from Arabidopsis and Norway spruce (Picea abies), but they can be used as templates for type I metacaspases, as well as for type II metacaspases from other species.

  16. Active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior.

  17. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  18. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Activities: Spirolaterals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Richard; McFadden, Scott

    1981-01-01

    A set of activities designed to help students discover properties about order-3 spirolaterals on square grid paper is presented. The materials are prepared on worksheets designed for easy duplication. The lessons can lead to investigations involving spirolaterals of many other orders and shapes. (MP)

  20. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  1. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  2. Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  4. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

  5. Analgesic Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics are agents which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical, and technical problems. Both peripheral and central pain models are included to make the test more evident for the analgesic property of the plant. This chapter highlights methods such as hot plate and formalin and acetic acid-induced pain models to check the analgesic activity of medicinal plants.

  6. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  7. Wound-induced deposition of polyphenols in transgenic plants overexpressing peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrimini, L.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants transformed with a chimeric tobacco anionic peroxidase gene have previously been shown to synthesize high levels of peroxidase in all tissues throughout the plant. One of several distinguishable phenotypes of transformed plants is the rapid browning of pith tissue upon wounding. Pith tissue from plants expressing high levels of peroxidase browned within 24 hours of wounding, while tissue from control plants did not brown as late as 7 days after wounding. A correlation between peroxidase activity and wound-induced browning was observed, whereas no relationship between polyphenol oxidase activity and browning was found. The purified tobacco anionic peroxidase was subjected to kinetic analysis with substrates which resemble the precursors of lignin or polyphenolic acid. The purified enzyme was found to readily polymerize phenolic acids in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} via a modified ping-pong mechanism. The percentage of lignin and lignin-related polymers in cell walls was nearly twofold greater in pith tissue isolated from peroxidase-overproducer plants compared to control plants. Lignin deposition in wounded pith tissue from control plants closely followed the induction of peroxidase activity. However, wound-induced lignification occurred 24 to 48 hours sooner in plants overexpressing the anionic peroxidase. This suggests that the availability of peroxidase rather than substrate may delay polyphenol deposition in wounded tissue.

  8. Active tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This study is part of a series of Studies in Geophysics that have been undertaken for the Geophysics Research Forum by the Geophysics Study Committee. One purpose of each study is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such assessments is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs as a source of information required for those decisions. The study addresses our current scientific understanding of active tectonics --- particularly the patterns and rates of ongoing tectonic processes. Many of these processes cannot be described reasonably using the limited instrumental or historical records; however, most can be described adequately for practical purposes using the geologic record of the past 500,000 years. A program of fundamental research focusing especially on Quaternary tectonic geology and geomorphology, paleoseismology, neotectonics, and geodesy is recommended to better understand ongoing, active tectonic processes. This volume contains 16 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database.

  9. IASS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  10. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  11. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  12. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Permanent Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    entangled or trapped in it. Acceptable substitutes include coconut coir matting or tackified hydroseeding compounds. Regrading and Revegetating of...tiger salamander may become entangled or trapped in it. Acceptable substitutes include coconut coir matting or tackified hydroseeding compounds. 21

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1; carbonised lignite briquettes (Leco). Chloroquine phosphate, formulations manufactured out of imported bulk drug (chloroquine phosphate); coir ...and coir products; cotton yarn including tyre cord yarn (amended); deoiled groundnut cake (extraction); deoiled rice bran (rice bran extraction

  15. Boat-Wave-Induced Bank Erosion on the Kenai River, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    with coir log habitat restoration. .....................................................................75 Figure 51. Type 1 bank with willow...various types of streambank stabilization. Common stabilization techniques consist of root wads, spruce tree revetments, coir logs, and riprap...restoration. ERDC TR-08-5 75 Figure 50. Type 1 bank with coir log habitat restoration. Figure 51. Type 1 bank with willow plantings/ladder access habitat

  16. Laboratory Studies of Wave Attenuation through Artificial and Real Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    33  Figure 35. Securing S. alterniflora in coir mats (left...alterniflora sections in the flume (left) with completed bed (right). ............. 39  Figure 42. Wave spectral transformation through coir control...44  Figure 45. Decay coefficient for S. alterniflora (N = 162 stems/m2) versus unplanted coir

  17. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.

  18. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  19. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  20. Domain-wall profiles in Co/Ir n/Pt(111) ultrathin films: Influence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, Gy. J.; Simon, E.; Rózsa, L.; Palotás, K.; Szunyogh, L.

    2016-12-01

    We perform a study of domain walls in Co/Irn/Pt(111) (n =0 ,⋯,6 ) films by a combined approach of first-principles calculations and spin-dynamics simulations. We determine the tensorial exchange interactions and the magnetic anisotropies for the Co overlayer in both fcc and hcp geometries, depending on the number of Ir buffer layers. We find strong ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor isotropic exchange interactions between the Co atoms and an out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy for the films in fcc geometry. Our simulations show that the magnetic domain walls are of Néel type, and their rotational sense (chirality) is changed upon the insertion of an Ir buffer layer compared to the pristine Co/Pt(111) system. Our spin-dynamics simulations indicate a twisting of the spins with respect to the planar domain-wall profile on the triangular lattice. We discuss this domain-wall twisting using symmetry arguments and in terms of an appropriate micromagnetic continuum model considering extra energy terms compared to the available literature.

  1. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  2. Reduction of lignin levels in mutant sorghum lines developed for saccharification leads to increased production of insecticidal compounds in stalk pith

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of material for biomass that can be converted to energy sources such as ethanol is impeded by the presence of lignin that limits saccharafication. Lines of crops such as sorghum have been developed with reduced levels of lignin that have promise for use in bioenergy production due to enha...

  3. Home Activities for Fours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    These home learning activity guides have been developed for parents to use with their 4-year-old children. Most of the activities require only household items that are often thrown away and can be recycled for learning activities. Some require no materials at all. The guides frequently begin with a discussion of home activities; progress through…

  4. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  5. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  6. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  7. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  8. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  9. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  10. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  11. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  12. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  13. ACS Community Activities Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgener, Marisa

    2007-08-01

    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  14. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  15. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  16. Horticultural Practices. Activity Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.

    The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…

  17. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  18. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Provides on-task activities to fill in unexpected extra moments in elementary classes. The activities require little preparation and take 5-15 minutes to complete. There are activities for math, language arts, social science, science, critical thinking, and computer. An outer space board game is also included. (SM)

  19. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  20. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  1. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  2. Computers + Student Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masie, Elliott; Stein, Michele

    Designed to provide schools with the tools to start utilizing computers for student activity programs without additional expenditures, this handbook provides beginning computer users with suggestions and ideas for using computers in such activities as drama clubs, yearbooks, newspapers, activity calendars, accounting programs, room utilization,…

  3. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  4. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  5. Metabolism Supports Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Langston, P. Kent; Shibata, Munehiko; Horng, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here, we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:28197151

  6. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  7. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Patterns in Active Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like, chaotic patterns. We describe how active systems can be stabilised by tuning a physical feature of the system, friction. We demonstrate how the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter and demonstrate vortex ordering at the wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organisation of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects may be a useful step towards the design and control of active materials.

  9. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  10. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  11. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  12. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  13. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  14. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  15. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  16. Active Students in Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  17. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  18. Warm-Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingguang, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how warm-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. Warm-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)

  19. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  20. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  1. The Journal Synthesizing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Zev

    The journal synthesizing activity is intended to combine aspects of the formal essay with that of a diary. Activities associated with lecture topics are written up as short journal entries of approximately five typewritten pages and are turned in during the weekly class session at which the related topic is being discussed. The journal project…

  2. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  3. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  4. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  5. Activities: More Calculator Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Rosemary

    1983-01-01

    Provided is an activity designed to give grades 7-12 students opportunities to discover numerical patterns and to derive general conclusions from observing data. The activity focuses attention on patterns in products such as 33x34, 333x334, and 3333x3334. Three worksheets and answers are included. (JN)

  6. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  7. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  8. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  9. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  10. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  11. Students Active in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutcher, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes SAIL (Students Active in Leadership) as a school-based, youth-directed group. States that the program helps teenagers learn leadership skills by developing and implementing community service activities. SAIL finds partners with whom to collaborate among local businesses, government, and health associations, and these partners provide the…

  12. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  13. Nature's engines: active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-03-01

    Active materials, bacteria, molecular motors, and self-propelled colloids, continuously transform chemical energy from the environment to mechanical work. Dense active matter, from layers of cells to flocks of birds, self-assembles into intricate patterns. Nature's engines are complex and efficient, and we would like to exploit her ideas to fabricate nano-machines.

  14. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  15. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  16. [Biosignals of dermal activity].

    PubMed

    Rathkolb, O; Gallei, L

    1993-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) summarizes different electrophysiological dimensions of human skin. EDA is based on the activity of sweat glands and their innervation by the autonomic nervous system. EDA is used as indicator in the additional diagnostic assessment of patients in the fields of neurology and psychosomatic medicine.

  17. Active galactic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

  18. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  19. Student Activities. Managing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Barbara; And Others

    This monograph suggests ways that college or university administrations can undertake a systematic and careful review of the risks posed by students' activities. Its purpose is to provide guidance in integrating the risk management process into a school's existing approaches to managing student organizations and activities. It is noted that no…

  20. The Activity of Trypsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Salvatore F.; Holzman, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that illustrates the following points concerning the experimental determination of trypsin activity: (1) there is a difference in basing enzyme concentration on weight, absorbance, or active sites; and (2) the method of expressing enzyme concentration determines the value of specific, molecular, and catalytic center…

  1. Metastasis and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Sheng, Shijie; Pardee, Arthur B

    2008-10-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of cancer patient deaths. More information is needed about the molecular basis for its potential detection and treatment. The activated AKT kinase is necessary for many events of the metastatic pathway including escape of cells from the tumor's environment, into and then out of the circulation, activation of proliferation, blockage of apoptosis, and activation of angiogenesis. A series of steps leading to metastatic properties can be initiated upon activation of AKT by phosphorylation on Ser-473. These findings lead to the question of how this activation is connected to metastasis. Activated AKT phosphorylates GSK-3beta causing its proteolytic removal. This increases stability of the negative transcription factor SNAIL, thereby decreasing transcription of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin that forms adhesions between adjacent cells, thereby permitting their detachment. How is AKT hyperactivated in metastatic cells? Increased PI3K or TORC2 kinase activity- or decreased PHLPP phosphatase could be responsible. Furthermore, a positive feedback mechanism is that the decrease of E-cadherin lowers PTEN and thereby increases PIP3, further activating AKT and metastasis.

  2. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  3. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  4. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  5. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  6. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands,…

  7. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  8. Methanandamide allosterically inhibits in vivo the function of peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the alpha 7-subunit.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Urszula; Göthert, Manfred; Rudz, Radoslaw; Malinowska, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Methanandamide (MAEA), the stable analog of the endocannabinoid anandamide, has been proven in Xenopus oocytes to allosterically inhibit the function of the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in a cannabinoid (CB) receptor-independent manner. The present study aimed at demonstrating that this mechanism can be activated in vivo. In anesthetized and vagotomized pithed rats treated with atropine, we determined the tachycardic response to electrical stimulation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves via the pithing rod or to i.v. nicotine (0.7 micromol/kg) activating nAChRs on the cardiac postganglionic sympathetic neurons. MAEA (3 and 10 micromol/kg) inhibited the electrically induced tachycardia (maximally by 15-20%; abolished by the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM 251 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide]; 3 micromol/kg) in pentobarbitone-anesthetized pithed rats, but not in urethane-anesthetized pithed rats, which, thus, are suitable to study the CB(1) receptor-independent inhibition of nicotine-evoked tachycardia. The subunit-nonselective nAChR antagonist hexamethonium (100 micromol/kg) and the selective alpha7-subunit antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 3 and 10 micromol/kg) decreased the nicotine-induced tachycardia by 100 and 40%, respectively (maximal effects), suggesting that nAChRs containing the alpha7-subunit account for 40% of the nicotine-induced tachycardia. MAEA (3 micromol/kg) produced an AM 251-insensitive inhibition (maximum again by 40%) of the nicotine-induced tachycardia. Simultaneous or sequential coadministration of MLA and MAEA inhibited the nicotine-induced tachycardia to the same extent (maximally by 40%) as each of the drugs alone. In conclusion, according to nonadditivity of the effects, MAEA mediates in vivo inhibition by the same receptors as MLA, namely alpha7-subunit-containing nAChRs, although at an allosteric instead of the orthosteric site.

  9. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  10. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  11. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  12. THE ACTIVE CENTAURS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2009-05-15

    The Centaurs are recent escapees from the Kuiper Belt that are destined either to meet fiery oblivion in the hot inner regions of the solar system or to be ejected to the interstellar medium by gravitational scattering from the giant planets. Dynamically evolved Centaurs, when captured by Jupiter and close enough to the Sun for near-surface water ice to sublimate, are conventionally labeled as 'short-period' (specifically, Jupiter-family) comets. Remarkably, some Centaurs show comet-like activity even when far beyond the orbit of Jupiter, suggesting mass loss driven by a process other than the sublimation of water ice. We observed a sample of 23 Centaurs and found nine to be active, with mass-loss rates measured from several kg s{sup -1} to several tonnes s{sup -1}. Considered as a group, we find that the 'active Centaurs' in our sample have perihelia smaller than the inactive Centaurs (median 5.9 AU versus 8.7 AU), and smaller than the median perihelion distance computed for all known Centaurs (12.4 AU). This suggests that their activity is thermally driven. We consider several possibilities for the origin of the mass loss from the active Centaurs. Most are too cold for activity at the observed levels to originate via the sublimation of crystalline water ice. Solid carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have the opposite problem: they are so volatile that they should drive activity in Centaurs at much larger distances than observed. We consider the possibility that activity in the Centaurs is triggered by the conversion of amorphous ice into the crystalline form accompanied by the release of trapped gases, including carbon monoxide. By imposing the condition that crystallization should occur when the crystallization time is shorter than the orbital period we find a qualitative match to the perihelion distribution of the active Centaurs and conclude that the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Centaurs contain amorphous ice.

  13. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  14. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  15. MARIHUANA ACTIVITY OF CANNABINOL.

    PubMed

    Loewe, S

    1945-12-14

    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  16. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  17. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  18. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  19. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  20. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  1. ERLN Activities Details

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Response Laboratory Network activities include the All Hazard Receipt Facility and Screening Protocol, standardizing chemical methods, Chemical Warfare Agent Fixed Laboratory Pilot Project, microbial efforts, and WLA response plan.

  2. The Activity Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents four examples on arithmetic mean and harmonic mean. Provides solution of each of the examples and instructional activities related to the examples. Lists eight references on mathematical problem solving. (YP)

  3. Active at Any Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... a row. Your muscles need time to recover. Mind and body exercise Your local hospital or fitness, ... can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . Additional Reading Tips to Help You Get Active Identifies and ...

  4. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...

  5. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  6. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  7. Interactive Design Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  8. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  9. Active Limiters For Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Active or "smart" electro-optical shutters proposed for protection of photodetectors, imaging devices, and other sensitive optical or optoelectronic elements. Responds rapidly and automatically to increase in illumination above prescribed level.

  10. Math Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  11. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  12. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  13. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  14. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  15. Active aperture phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, R. P.

    1989-04-01

    Developments towards the realization of active aperture phased arrays are reviewed. The technology and cost aspects of the power amplifier and phase shifter subsystems are discussed. Consideration is given to research concerning T/R modules, MESFETs, side lobe control, beam steering, optical control techniques, and printed circuit antennas. Methods for configuring the array are examined, focusing on the tile and brick configurations. It is found that there is no technological impediment for introducing active aperture phased arrays.

  16. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  17. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  18. Rheology of Active Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active gel composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active gels; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active gel to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active gels.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  20. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  1. T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Smith-Garvin, Jennifer E; Koretzky, Gary A; Jordan, Martha S

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the first Annual Review of Immunology article to describe features of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). In celebration of this anniversary, we begin with a brief introduction outlining the chronology of the earliest studies that established the basic paradigm for how the engaged TCR transduces its signals. This review continues with a description of the current state of our understanding of TCR signaling, as well as a summary of recent findings examining other key aspects of T cell activation, including cross talk between the TCR and integrins, the role of costimulatory molecules, and how signals may negatively regulate T cell function.Acronyms and DefinitionsAdapter protein: cellular protein that functions to bridge molecular interactions via characteristic domains able to mediate protein/protein or protein/lipid interactions Costimulation: signals delivered to T cells by cell surface receptors other than the TCR itself that potentiate T cell activation cSMAC: central supramolecular activation cluster Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM): a short peptide sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of key surface receptors on hematopoietic cells that is characterized by tyrosine residues that are phosphorylated by Src family PTKs, enabling the ITAM to recruit activated Syk family kinases Inside-out signaling: signals initiated by engagement of immunoreceptors that lead to conformational changes and clustering of integrins, thereby increasing the affinity and avidity of the integrins for their ligands NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase PKC: protein kinase C PLC: phospholipase C pMHC: peptide major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complex pSMAC: peripheral supramolecular activation cluster PTK: protein tyrosine kinase Signal transduction: biochemical events linking surface receptor engagement to cellular responses TCR: T cell antigen receptor

  2. Sirtuin activators and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, José M.; Alcaín, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins 1-7 (SIRT1-7) belong to the third class of deacetylase enzymes, which are dependent on NAD+ for activity. Sirtuins activity is linked to gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy aging. Because sirtuins modulation could have beneficial effects on human diseases there is a growing interest in the discovery of small molecules modifying their activity. We review here those compounds known to activate or inhibit sirtuins, discussing the data that support the use of sirtuin-based therapies. Almost all sirtuin activators have been described only for SIRT1. Resveratrol is a natural compound which activates SIRT1, and may help in the treatment or prevention of obesity, and in preventing tumorigenesis and the aging-related decline in heart function and neuronal loss. Due to its poor bioavailability, reformulated versions of resveratrol with improved bioavailability have been developed (resVida, Longevinex®, SRT501). Molecules that are structurally unrelated to resveratrol (SRT1720, SRT2104, SRT2379, among others) have been also developed to stimulate sirtuin activities more potently than resveratrol. Sirtuin inhibitors with a wide range of core structures have been identified for SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT5 (splitomicin, sirtinol, AGK2, cambinol, suramin, tenovin, salermide, among others). SIRT1 inhibition has been proposed in the treatment of cancer, immunodeficiency virus infections, Fragile X mental retardation syndrome and for preventing or treating parasitic diseases, whereas SIRT2 inhibitors might be useful for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22730114

  3. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  4. Methods for calculating activity budgets compared: a case study using orangutans.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark E; Vogel, Erin R; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; van Noordwijk, Maria A

    2009-04-01

    The results of comparisons of behavioral data between individuals, age-sex classes, seasons, sites and possibly even species may depend on sample size and the computational method used. To establish whether these are valid concerns, we compared results for percentage time spent feeding on major food types (fruit, leaves, flowers, invertebrates, bark, pith and other) for two orangutan populations in Sabangau (24 months) and Tuanan (29 months), Indonesian Borneo. Both the minimum follow limit included in analyses and the computational method used produced small, but statistically significant, differences in the results obtained, and the differences were more common for food types eaten less frequently. In addition, using different computational methods produced more significant differences than did including different minimum follow lengths in analyses. The computational method used also influenced the results of tests for differences in diet composition between age-sex classes. Thus, the method used can influence the results obtained and, hence, it is important to state explicitly the minimum follow limit included and computational method used to compile averages, and to ensure standardization in methods when comparing data between age-sex classes, time periods, field sites or species.

  5. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  6. Chromatin as active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  7. Active flows on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  8. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  9. Active thermal cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dang Minh; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-09-01

    Thermal cloaking, as an ultimate thermal "illusion" phenomenon, is the result of advanced heat manipulation with thermal metamaterials—heat can be guided around a hidden object smoothly without disturbing the ambient thermal environment. However, all previous thermal metamaterial cloaks were passive devices, lacking the functionality of switching on/off and the flexibility of changing geometries. In this letter, we report an active thermal cloaking device that is controllable. Different from previous thermal cloaking approaches, this thermal cloak adopts active thermoelectric components to "pump" heat from one side to the other side of the hidden object, in a process controlled by input electric voltages. Our work not only incorporates active components in thermal cloaking but also provides controllable functionality in thermal metamaterials that can be used to construct more flexible thermal devices.

  10. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of spices.

    PubMed

    Arora, D S; Kaur, J

    1999-08-01

    Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity. This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93% killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.

  12. PRODUCTS OF ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Clemens; Bloom, Barry R.

    1973-01-01

    General methods were developed and applied to the biosynthesis and purification of products of activated lymphocytes available in minute quantities. The activity studied here was the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) produced by purified protein derivative (PPD)- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from one guinea pig or less. The methods selected yielded results in terms of two chemical parameters characteristic of the molecules involved, namely Kd on Sephadex G-75 and isoionic point, pI, on isoelectric focusing. When supernatants were fractionated on G-75 columns, there were several areas even in control supernatants which produced migration inhibition relative to medium controls. However, in PPD- and Con A-stimulated supernatants, at least one peak of MIF activity was found solely in the stimulated cultures, with a Kd of 0.15. A double-labeling technique was used to characterize the proteins of this peak. Control, unstimulated cultures were labeled with [14C]leucine and stimulated cultures were labeled with [3H]leucine. After mixing the supernatants and G-75 filtration, a major "ratiolabeled" broad peak. i.e. one with increased 3H/14C ratio, was found. When a narrow portion of this peak about Kd 0.15, containing most of the MIF activity, was subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing, all of the label was associated with proteins of lower net charge than albumin. A unique ratiolabeled peak was found in PPD- and Con A-stimulated fractions with a pI of approx. 5.3. A micropreparative isoelectric focusing technique was developed and yielded MIF activity in the same region as the major ratiolabeled peak. Further study will be required to ascertain whether the ratiolabeled protein is MIF. By following the Kd, pI, and 3H/14C labeling ratio, at least 14 products of activated lymphocytes, synthesized either de novo or in increased amounts, could be distinguished. PMID:4688317

  13. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  14. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  15. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  16. Inflammasomes and Their Activation

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sonal; Luc, Nancy; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system relies on the recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors as a first line of defense and to initiate the adaptive immune response. Substantial progress has been made in defining the role of Nod (nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain)-like receptors and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) as pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammasomes in macrophages. Inflammasomes are protein platforms essential for the activation of inflammatory caspases and subsequent maturation of their pro-inflammatory cytokine substrates and induction of pyroptosis. This paper summarizes recent developments regarding the function of Nod-like receptors in immunity and disease. PMID:21083527

  17. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  18. Antibacterial activity of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, B; Heisig, P

    1997-12-01

    Grepafloxacin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps); the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  19. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  20. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  1. Cosmogenic activation of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Beltrán, B.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Cremonesi, O.; García, E.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Luzón, G.; Martínez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pavan, M.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    The problem of cosmogenic activation produced at sea level in materials typically used in underground experiments looking for rare events is being studied. Several nuclear data libraries have been screened looking for relevant isotope production cross-sections and different codes which can be applied to activation studies have been reviewed. The excitation functions for some problems of interest like production of 60Co and 68Ge in germanium and production of 60Co in tellurium have been obtained taking into account both measurements and calculations and a preliminary estimate of the corresponding rates of production at sea level has been performed.

  2. [Problem Solving Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

  3. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    PubMed

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  4. Active Authentication: Beyond Passwords

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-18

    semantic analysis (how you construct sentences); Forensic authorship Keystroke pattern; Mouse movement Fingerprint ; Iris pattern; Vein...Solutions Physiological Biometrics Sensors tracking the physical attributes of you • DNA • Ear Geometry • Facial Geometry • Fingerprint • Iris...Preview Fingerprint Forensic authorship2 Mouse tracking1 How you behave Physical aspects of you The context you exist in • The Active Authentication

  5. An Active Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joseph C.; Buzzelli, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit on magnetism that utilizes hands-on activities in which students make hypotheses for discrepant behavior, discover whether a magnet attracts one object through another, measure the strength of magnets, explore levitating paper clips, and play a game dependent on magnetic attraction. (MDH)

  6. Active control system trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yore, E. E.; Gunderson, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The active control concepts which achieve the benefit of improved mission performance and lower cost and generate system trends towards improved dynamic performance, more integration, and digital fly by wire mechanization are described. Analytical issues and implementation requirements and tools and approaches developed to address the analytical and implementation issues are briefly discussed.

  7. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  8. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  9. Earthfest. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weilbacher, Mike

    1991-01-01

    An activity book to help elementary teachers and students explore the environment offers information and questions about spaceships; an ecology primer and poster with questions; information on animal adaptation with poster and questions; ecological and dramatic arts projects; a script for performance; and suggestions to make Earth Day celebrations…

  10. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  11. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  12. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…

  13. Active microwave water equivalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyne, H. S.; Ellerbruch, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of water equivalence using an active FM-CW microwave system were conducted over the past three years at various sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The measurement method is described. Measurements of water equivalence and stratigraphy are compared with ground truth. A comparison of microwave, federal sampler, and snow pillow measurements at three sites in Colorado is described.

  14. Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  15. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  16. Macrophage activation and polarization.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando Oneissi; Sica, Antonio; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are widely distributed immune system cells that play an indispensable role in homeostasis and defense. They can be phenotypically polarized by the microenvironment to mount specific functional programs. Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified in two main groups: classically activated macrophages (or M1), whose prototypical activating stimuli are IFNgamma and LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages (or M2), further subdivided in M2a (after exposure to IL-4 or IL-13), M2b (immune complexes in combination with IL-1beta or LPS) and M2c (IL-10, TGFbeta or glucocorticoids). M1 exhibit potent microbicidal properties and promote strong IL-12-mediated Th1 responses, whilst M2 support Th2-associated effector functions. Beyond infection M2 polarized macrophages play a role in resolution of inflammation through high endocytic clearance capacities and trophic factor synthesis, accompanied by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Similar functions are also exerted by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), which also display an alternative-like activation phenotype and play a detrimental pro-tumoral role. Here we review the main functions of polarized macrophages and discuss the perspectives of this field.

  17. Active Ingredient - AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pesticide Chemical Search allows a user to easily find the pesticide chemical or active ingredient that they are interested in by using an array of simple to advanced search options. Chemical Search provides a single point of reference for easy access to information previously published in a variety of locations, including various EPA web pages and Regulations.gov.

  18. Shark Tagging Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  19. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  20. Activities: Visualization, Estimation, Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan M.

    1982-01-01

    The material is designed to help students build a cone model, visualize how its dimensions change as its shape changes, estimate maximum volume position, and develop problem-solving skills. Worksheets designed for duplication for classroom use are included. Part of the activity involves student analysis of a BASIC program. (MP)

  1. Intermittent Activity in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, A.; Czerny, B.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2004-10-01

    There is a growing evidence that the AGN activity could be intermittent. It remains an open question if this behavior is caused by changes in the fuel sup- ply to the supermassive black hole from the large distances, or rather by a processes intrinsic to the active nucleus. We consider the possibility that ac- cretion onto a supermassive black hole is controlled by an accretion disk which is subject to the hydro- gen ionization instability. This drives the observed on-off activity cycle, since periodically the accretion flow becomes inefficient and the disk goes to quies- cence. We consider effects of the MHD turbulence on the viscosity during the evolution of a standard α - disk. We perform a self-consistency check of the α de- scription of the angular momentum transfer. Hav- ing shown that the viscosity parameter is constant throughout the whole instability cycle, as implied by the strength of the MHD turbulence, we calcu- late the time evolution of the disk under the influ- ence of the ionization instability. We demonstrate that if the accretion onto a supermassive black hole proceeds through an outer standard accretion disk and inner, radiatively inefficient and advection dom- inated flow, the modelled amplitudes of disk lumi- nosity variations are sufficiently high to account for the observations. Key words: accretion disks; galaxies: active.

  2. Highlights of 1976 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1976-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's 1976 activities are summarized. Sixteen successful launches were made. Two landings of Viking spacecraft on Mars and rollout of the space shuttle orbiter are reviewed. Applications of aerospace science to education, health care, and community services are also discussed.

  3. Activities from Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the best way to learn about another culture is to know how its habits, traditions, and environments differ from or resemble our own. Provides several activities to help young children understand Asian cultures, including cooking, origami, and games and festivals. (HTH)

  4. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  5. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  6. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  7. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    MedlinePlus

    ... a certain type of wild animal bites a child. Passive immunizations for hepatitis A (gamma globulin) may be helpful ... A is common. They are typically given before children or adults leave on their ... active vaccination is preferable. Keep in mind that passive immunizations ...

  8. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  9. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  10. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  11. Dissemination Activities Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Hanna; Batatia, Hudj; Bauters, Merja; Ben Ami, Zvi; Drachman, Raul; Flouris, Giorgos; Jadin, Tanja; Jalonen, Satu; Karlgren, Klas; Karpati, Andrea; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Lakkala, Minna; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Nygard, Kathrine; Paavola, Sami; Padiglia, Sheila; Scapolla, Marina; Sins, Patrick; Vasileva, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In the first 24 months of the project, KP-Lab members were highly dedicated to dissemination and were engaged in various dissemination activities that contributed to the prime objective of the KP-Lab dissemination efforts which is "to make the project widely known to a variety of prospective users and, at a later stage, to promote the…

  12. Designing Metacognitive Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a framework for thinking about how metacognition research might apply to design activities. Examines two basic approaches to supporting metacognition: strategy training, and creation of a supportive social environment for metacognition. Identifies two kinds of content that are taught using these two approaches: knowledge about a specific…

  13. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the…

  14. Marketing coprovided activities.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-05-01

    Coproviding is a wonderful way for two or more organizations to work together to provide continuing nursing education. To be transparent to the learners, marketing materials identify the parties involved and prominently note the name of the organization accountable for developing the activity and awarding the contact hours.

  15. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  16. Chaperone activation by unfolding.

    PubMed

    Foit, Linda; George, Jenny S; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L; Bardwell, James C A

    2013-04-02

    Conditionally disordered proteins can alternate between highly ordered and less ordered configurations under physiological conditions. Whereas protein function is often associated with the ordered conformation, for some of these conditionally unstructured proteins, the opposite applies: Their activation is associated with their unfolding. An example is the small periplasmic chaperone HdeA, which is critical for the ability of enteric bacterial pathogens like Escherichia coli to survive passage through extremely acidic environments, such as the human stomach. At neutral pH, HdeA is a chaperone-inactive dimer. On a shift to low pH, however, HdeA monomerizes, partially unfolds, and becomes rapidly active in preventing the aggregation of substrate proteins. By mutating two aspartic acid residues predicted to be responsible for the pH-dependent monomerization of HdeA, we have succeeded in isolating an HdeA mutant that is active at neutral pH. We find this HdeA mutant to be substantially destabilized, partially unfolded, and mainly monomeric at near-neutral pH at a concentration at which it prevents aggregation of a substrate protein. These results provide convincing evidence for direct activation of a protein by partial unfolding.

  17. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  18. Organizing Preservation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele

    This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1)…

  19. Activities: Some Colorful Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)

  20. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  1. Activating silent argonautes.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Multiple Argonaute proteins are implicated in gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), but only one is known to be an endonuclease that can cleave target mRNAs. Chimeric Argonaute proteins now reveal an unexpected mechanism by which mutations distal to the catalytic center can unmask intrinsic catalytic activity, results hinting at structurally mediated regulation.

  2. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  3. 45 CFR 1226.8 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.8 Prohibited activities. (a) Electoral Activity. Volunteers shall not engage in any activity which may, directly...

  4. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  5. Activities. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provided are the activity sheets for students and the teaching guide for this middle school geometry activity. Materials, prerequisites, objectives, and procedures are listed. Extension activities are suggested. An answer key is included. (CW)

  6. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  7. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  8. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  9. Active braze process

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, I.L.; Pike, R.A.

    1990-11-02

    Active metal bonding using Cusil (silver-copper) braze alloys is a well established method used at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) for bonding metal to metal, metal to ceramics, and ceramics to ceramics. However, there are many instances in which using a silver alloy for bonding is undesirable (e.g., in vacuum tube envelopes, or where sequential braze steps at different temperatures are required to complete an assembly). The Material and Processes Laboratory at GEND has discovered a new method of active brazing with non-silver alloys which has proved especially successful in ceramic-to-ceramic joints. This method has the added advantage of eliminating several steps which are required in conventional bonding techniques. 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Myofilament length dependent activation.

    PubMed

    de Tombe, Pieter P; Mateja, Ryan D; Tachampa, Kittipong; Ait Mou, Younss; Farman, Gerrie P; Irving, Thomas C

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca(2+) ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the "Frank-Starling law of the heart" constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  11. Mount Erebus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An international team of scientists reports that unusually high seismic activity joggled Mount Erebus last fall. However, the Antarctic volcano showed no external signs of an eruption.When scientists from the United States, Japan, and New Zealand returned to the world's southernmost active volcano last November for their annual field expedition, they found that seismic stations recorded 650 small tremors on October 8; prior to that, the number of quakes had averaged between 20 and 80 per day. The October 8 maximum was followed by 140 on October 9 and 120 on October 10. Philip R. Kyle, assistant professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro and leader of the team studying Mount Erebus, noted that some of the strongest earthquakes recorded during the team's 3 years of observations occurred on October 8; these registered less than 2 on the Richter scale.

  12. UNESCO's activities in ethics.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk A M J

    2010-03-01

    UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project.

  13. LANSCE Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  14. Myofilament length dependent activation

    SciTech Connect

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  15. Techniques for active passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  16. Nematicidal activity of terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Alaniz, Nina M; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four phytoterpenoids were evaluated for their nematicidal effect using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematicidal activities of the tested compounds at concentrations of 50 μg/mL showed wide variation in their effects ranging from no effect, weak, moderate and strong effects. Terpenoids exerting 50% or higher mortality at 50 μg/mL were further tested at five different concentrations to calculate the concentration that will kill 50% of the nematode population (LC(50)). Among the most effective terpenoids were carvacrol, thymol, nerolidol, α-terpinene, geraniol, citronellol, farnesol, limonene, pseudoionone and eugenol in a descending order. These compounds exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The results suggest that the selected monoterpenoids and essential oils with a high concentration of these compounds mayprovide potential natural nematicides and merit further study as botanical nematicides for the control of both plant and animal parasitic nematodes. In general, oxygenated terpenoids and phenolic terpenoids exhibited higher nematicidal activity than hydrocarbons terpenoids.

  17. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  18. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L

    2000-09-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  19. Active optical zoom system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Shen, Chuan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Chun-Mei

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we propose an active optical zoom system. The zoom module of the system is formed by a liquid lens and a spatial light modulator (SLM). By controlling the focal lengths of the liquid lens and the encoded digital lens on the SLM panel, we can change the magnification of an image without mechanical moving parts and keep the output plane stationary. The magnification can change from 1/3 to 3/2 as the focal length of the encoded lens on the SLM changes from infinity to 24 cm. The proposed active zoom system is simple and flexible, and has widespread application in optical communications, imaging systems, and displays.

  20. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  1. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  2. [Chronotropic activity of semax].

    PubMed

    Arushanian, E B; Popov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The chronic administration of nootropic drug Semax, a peptide analog of ACTH (4-10), normalized the circadian locomotor rhythm in rats (with an increase in its amplitude, a shift in the acrophase, and a change of the spectral characteristics) and reduced the integral chronobiological index. It is suggested that the rhythm-synchronizing chronotropic activity may be a part of the specific effect of this cognitive enhancer.

  3. Imaging nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Fields, Douglas R; Shneider, Neil; Mentis, George Z; O'Donovan, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    This unit describes methods for loading ion- and voltage-sensitive dyes into neurons, with a particular focus on the spinal cord as a model system. In addition, we describe the use of these dyes to visualize neural activity. Although the protocols described here concern spinal networks in culture or an intact in vitro preparation, they can be, and have been, widely used in other parts of the nervous system.

  4. Assay of FAAH Activity.

    PubMed

    Bari, Monica; Feole, Monica; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of endogenous anandamide (AEA), a reaction that terminates the biological effects of this lipid mediator. The final products of this reaction are arachidonic acid and ethanolamine. In the method described herein, FAAH activity is measured through the use of a radioactive substrate by quantification of reaction products, that is, [(14)C]-ethanolamine from [(14)C-ethanolamine]-AEA.

  5. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.

  6. Active Brownian rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruani, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria, chemically-driven rods, and motility assays are examples of active (i.e. self-propelled) Brownian rods (ABR). The physics of ABR, despite their ubiquity in experimental systems, remains still poorly understood. Here, we review the large-scale properties of collections of ABR moving in a dissipative medium. We address the problem by presenting three different models, of decreasing complexity, which we refer to as model I, II, and III, respectively. Comparing model I, II, and III, we disentangle the role of activity and interactions. In particular, we learn that in two dimensions by ignoring steric or volume exclusion effects, large-scale nematic order seems to be possible, while steric interactions prevent the formation of orientational order at large scales. The macroscopic behavior of ABR results from the interplay between active stresses and local alignment. ABR exhibit, depending on where we locate ourselves in parameter space, a zoology of macroscopic patterns that ranges from polar and nematic bands to dynamic aggregates.

  7. Active polarization descattering.

    PubMed

    Treibitz, Tali; Schechner, Yoav Y

    2009-03-01

    Vision in scattering media is important but challenging. Images suffer from poor visibility due to backscattering and attenuation. Most prior methods for scene recovery use active illumination scanners (structured and gated), which can be slow and cumbersome, while natural illumination is inapplicable to dark environments. The current paper addresses the need for a non-scanning recovery method, that uses active scene irradiance. We study the formation of images under widefield artificial illumination. Based on the formation model, the paper presents an approach for recovering the object signal. It also yields rough information about the 3D scene structure. The approach can work with compact, simple hardware, having active widefield, polychromatic polarized illumination. The camera is fitted with a polarization analyzer. Two frames of the scene are taken, with different states of the analyzer or polarizer. A recovery algorithm follows the acquisition. It allows both the backscatter and the object reflection to be partially polarized. It thus unifies and generalizes prior polarization-based methods, which had assumed exclusive polarization of either of these components. The approach is limited to an effective range, due to image noise and illumination falloff. Thus, the limits and noise sensitivity are analyzed. We demonstrate the approach in underwater field experiments.

  8. Active quantum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K; M Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics.

  9. THE ACTIVE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2012-03-15

    Some asteroids eject dust, unexpectedly producing transient, comet-like comae and tails. First ascribed to the sublimation of near-surface water ice, mass-losing asteroids (also called 'main-belt comets') can in fact be driven by a surprising diversity of mechanisms. In this paper, we consider 11 dynamical asteroids losing mass, in nine of which the ejected material is spatially resolved. We address mechanisms for producing mass loss including rotational instability, impact ejection, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses, and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of ice. In two objects (133P and 238P) the repetitive nature of the observed activity leaves ice sublimation as the only reasonable explanation, while in a third ((596) Scheila), a recent impact is the cause. Another impact may account for activity in P/2010 A2, but this tiny object can also be explained as having shed mass after reaching rotational instability. Mass loss from (3200) Phaethon is probably due to cracking or dehydration at extreme ({approx}1000 K) perihelion temperatures, perhaps aided by radiation pressure sweeping. For the other bodies, the mass-loss mechanisms remain unidentified, pending the acquisition of more and better data. While the active asteroid sample size remains small, the evidence for an astonishing diversity of mass-loss processes in these bodies is clear.

  10. Active quantum plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K.; M. Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26824066

  11. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review. PMID:26295461

  12. Transport to Rhebpress activity.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Amanda; Brandt, Marta; Djouder, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPases from the rat sarcoma (Ras) superfamily are a heterogeneous group of proteins of about 21 kDa that act as molecular switches, modulating cell signaling pathways and controlling diverse cellular processes. They are active when bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and inactive when bound to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is a member of the Ras GTPase superfamily and a key activator of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We recently determined that microspherule protein 1 (MCRS1) maintains Rheb at lysosomal surfaces in an amino acid-dependent manner. MCRS1 depletion promotes the formation of the GDP-bound form of Rheb, which is then delocalized from the lysosomal platform and transported to endocytic recycling vesicles, leading to mTORC1 inactivation. During this delocalization process, Rheb-GDP remains farnesylated and associated with cellular endomembranes. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of small GTPases, whose activity depends on both their GTP/GDP switch state and their capacity to move between different cellular membrane-bound compartments. Dynamic spatial transport between compartments makes it possible to alter the proximity of small GTPases to their activatory sites depending on the prevailing physiological and cellular conditions.

  13. Thermal activity on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Besserer, J.; Behounkova, M.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Sotin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Observations by Cassini have revealed that Enceladus' souh pole is highly active, with jets of icy particles and water vapour emanated from narrow tectonic ridges, called "tiger stripes". This jet activity is associated to a very high thermal emission mainly focused along the tectonic ridges. Heat power required to sustain such an activity is probably related to the dissipation of mechanical energy due to tidal forces exerted by Saturn. However, the dissipation process and its relation to the tectonic features are not clearly established. Both shear heating along the tectonic ridges and viscous dissipation in the convective part of the ice shell could contribute to the energy budget (Nimmo et al. 2007, Tobie et al. 2008). Tobie et al. (2008) pointed out that only interior models with a liquid water layer at depth, covering at least ~2/3 of the southern hemisphere, can explain the observed magnitude of dissipation and its particular location at the south pole. However, the long term stability of such a liquid reservoir remains problematic (Roberts and Nimmo 2007) and the possible link between the liquid reservoir and the surface activities is unknown. Concentration of tidal stresses along the tiger ridges have also been invoked as a mechanism to trigger the eruptive processes (Hurtford et al. 2007, Smith-Konter et al. 2008). However, those models do not take into account a realistic rheological structure for the ice shell when computing the fluctuating stress field. Moreover, the effect of the faults on the background tidal stress is neglected. In particular, low viscosity values are expected to be associated with the shear zone along the tiger stripes and may have a significant impact of the global tidal stress field. In order to self-consistently determine the tidal deformation and its impact on the thermal activity on Enceladus, we are currently developing a 3D model that combines a thermal convection code in spherical geometry (Choblet et al. 2007) and a

  14. Gender Issues: An Activity File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Susan

    This activity file grew out of research of an "Images of Women in Development" project of the Centre for Global Education at the University of York, England. The activities are intended for students in the 8- to 13-year-old range to learn more about gender issues. The activities are divided into four sections: (1) awareness-raising activities in…

  15. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  16. Changing Conceptions of Activation Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Philip D.

    1981-01-01

    Provides background material which relates to the concept of activation energy, fundamental in the study of chemical kinetics. Compares the related concepts of the Arrhenius activation energy, the activation energy at absolute zero, the enthalpy of activation, and the threshold energy. (CS)

  17. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  18. Epsiodic Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, D.J.; Konar, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Machalski, J.; Gupta, Neeraj; Stawarz, L.; Mack, K.-H.; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-10-15

    One of the interesting issues in our understanding of active galactic nuclei is the duration of their active phase and whether such activity is episodic. In this paper we summarize our recent results on episodic activity in radio galaxies obtained with the GMRT and the VLA.

  19. Explosive Remnants of War in Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    be used if these materials are the only ones available. These alternative materials, such as hemp, sugar cane, and coir (coconut husk), are explored...50 Unfortunately, initial attempts at using natural and synthetic fibers, such as hemp, coir , nylon and polypropylene, were not as successful...Pulp) Phormium (New Zealand Flax) Indian hemp (Dogbane) Papaya Reed Fiber Ramie (China grass cloth) Sisal (Often termed agave) Coir

  20. Alkyl Chain Ordering of Asymmetric Phosphatidyicholines Adsorbed at a Liquid-Liquid Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    polarizability when COIR is tuned across allowed molecular vibrational transitions. Our measurements are sensitive only to this resonant component of the second...nonzero for the particular vibration. As COIR approaches the frequency of an allowed vibrational transition, ot(2) in Eq. 2 becomes very large and a...the CCU-water interface utilizing a total internal reflection geometry, ©vis and COIR are incident on the liquid-liquid interface at their respective

  1. The active asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, D.

    2014-07-01

    Active asteroids simultaneously possess the orbits of main-belt asteroids and the physical appearances of comets; they show transient dust comae and solar-radiation pressure-swept tails. Apart from the shear surprise at finding such strange objects in the asteroid belt, the active asteroids are scientifically interesting for several reasons. Although we are limited to scarcely more than a dozen examples, the active asteroids already reveal the distinct action of different physical processes, each previously unobserved and carrying big-picture importance for understanding the solar system. 1. IMPACT. An unambiguous asteroid-asteroid impact was observed in 2010, when a 30-m scale body struck 100-km diameter (596) Scheila. Direct observations of impacts hold scientific importance both by sampling this natural process at full scale (compared with laboratory impacts conducted at tiny scales) and because impact statistics will allow us to assess the erosion rate in the asteroid belt and the contribution of asteroid dust to the interplanetary medium. 2. CRITICAL ROTATION. Several objects have been observed in which the best explanation seems to lie with spin-up to critical periods, presumably (but not certainly) caused by YORP. Examples of both likely mass-shedding (P/2010 A2, P/2013 P5) and full break-up (P/2013 R3, shown below) exist. It has been suggested that, at sub-kilometer sizes, spin-up disruption rates may surpass impact disruption rates. Future observations will show whether or not this is true, and may ultimately lead to an improved understanding of the physics of break-up. 3. THERMAL DISINTEGRATION. Geminid parent (3200) Phaethon shows on-going mass-loss at perihelion, driven by the 1000-K surface temperatures found there. The mechanisms appear to be some combination of thermal fracture and desiccation stress. 4. SUBLIMATION. Two objects have shown repeated activity that appears to be correlated with position in the orbit. The best example is 133P, which has

  2. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  3. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  4. Rationales for regulatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Perhac, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  5. GPS Activities at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Behrend, Dirk

    2002-11-19

    The Alignment Engineering Group of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) started to use RTK (real-time kinematic) GPS equipment in order to perform structure mapping and GIS-related tasks on the SLAC campus. In a first step a continuously observing GPS station (SLAC M40) was set up. This station serves as master control station for all differential GPS activities on site and its coordinates have been determined in the well-defined global geodetic datum ITRF2000 at a given reference epoch. Some trials have been performed to test the RTK method. The tests have proven RTK to be very fast and efficient.

  6. Reuse of activated alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Hobensack, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  7. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  8. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  9. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  10. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  11. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  12. Activation of solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P.J.; Migliuolo, S.; Hood, A.W.

    1984-11-01

    The physics of the activation of two-ribbon solar flares via the MHD instability of coronal arcades is presented. The destabilization of a preflare magnetic field is necessary for a rapid energy release, characteristic of the impulsive phase of the flare, to occur. The stability of a number of configurations are examined, and the physical consequences and relative importance of varying pressure profiles and different sets of boundary conditions (involving field-line tying) are discussed. Instability modes, driven unstable by pressure gradients, are candidates for instability. Shearless vs. sheared equilibria are also discussed. (ESA)

  13. ECLSS medical support activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    During the period from April 10, 1990 to April 9, 1991, the Consortium for the Space Life Sciences provided technical assistance to the NASA/MSFC water recovery efforts. This assistance was in the form of literature reviews, technical recommendations, and presentations. This final report summarizes the activities completed during this period and identifies those areas requiring additional efforts. The tasks which the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) water recovery team addressed were either identified by MSFC technical representatives or chosen from those outlined in the subject statement of work.

  14. Bioethics activities in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandini K

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.

  15. AMS Prototyping Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  16. Imaging nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Fields, R D; O'Donovan, M J

    2001-05-01

    Optical imaging methods rely upon visualization of three types of signals: (1) intrinsic optical signals, including light scattering and reflectance, birefringence, and spectroscopic changes of intrinsic molecules, such as NADH or oxyhemoglobin; (2) changes in fluorescence or absorbance of voltage-sensitive membrane dyes; and (3) changes in fluorescence or absorbance of calcium-sensitive indicator dyes. Of these, the most widely used approach is fluorescent microscopy of calcium-sensitive dyes. This unit describes protocols for the use of calcium-sensitive dyes and voltage-dependent dyes for studies of neuronal activity in culture, tissue slices, and en-bloc preparations of the central nervous system.

  17. ASTP RBCC Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; McArthur, Craig; Leopard, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) in the development of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC)technology. The document consist of the presentation slides for a talk scheduled to be given to the World Aviation Congress and Exhibit of SAE. Included in the review is discussion of recent accomplishments in the area of Advanced Reusable technologies (ART), which includes work in flowpath testing, and system studies of the various vehicle/engine combinations including RBCC, Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) and Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE). Pictures of the proposed RBCC Flowpaths are included. The next steps in the development process are reviewed.

  18. Hypnotic activity of brotizolam

    PubMed Central

    Uzzan, B.; Warot, D.; Chermat, P.; Dantlo, B.; Bornstein, S.; Simon, P.

    1983-01-01

    1 A double-blind, crossover study was carried out in general practice on the hypnotic activity of 0.25 mg brotizolam in patients aged between 18 and 70 years complaining of insomnia (11 men, 28 women). 2 Patients reported that they slept better, that they awoke less frequently and that they slept longer with brotizolam than with placebo. Overall the patients preferred brotizolam to placebo, and subjective assessments of well-being after brotizolam did not differ from those after placebo. Brotizolam was well tolerated and there were no incidents of note. PMID:6362701

  19. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  20. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  1. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  2. Activities for the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Joyce

    From my research experiences on board the R/V Atlantis, I have developed experiments that can be used in an integrated science program or for biology. These activities reflect life in extreme environments on Earth such as the hydrothermal vents and on other planets and moons in our solar system. Students can learn to map the oceans of Europa and discover how plants grow on Mars. Students have designed research projects from the experimentation that I was involved with through the REVEL program.

  3. The Active Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  4. Raman activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Song, Yizhi; Yin, Huabing; Huang, Wei E

    2016-08-01

    Single cell Raman spectra (SCRS) are intrinsic biochemical profiles and 'chemical images' of single cells which can be used to characterise phenotypic changes, physiological states and functions of cells. On the base of SCRS, Raman activated cell sorting (RACS) provides a label-free cell sorting approach, which can link single cells to their chemical or phenotypic profiles. Overcoming naturally weak Raman signals, establishing Raman biomarker as sorting criteria to RACS and improving specific sorting technology are three challenges of developing RACS. Advances on Raman spectroscopy such as stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and pre-screening helped to increase RACS sorting speed. Entire SCRS can be characterised using pattern recognition methods, and specific Raman bands can be extracted as biomarkers for RACS. Recent advances on cell sorting technologies based on microfluidic device and surface-ejection enable accurate and reliable single cell sorting from complex samples. A high throughput RACS will be achievable in near future by integrating fast Raman detection system such as SRS with microfluidic RACS and Raman activated cell ejection (RACE).

  5. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  6. Activating event knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension.

  7. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  8. Visualizing cellulase activity.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Patricia; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2013-06-01

    Commercial exploitation of lignocellulose for biotechnological production of fuels and commodity chemicals requires efficient-usually enzymatic-saccharification of the highly recalcitrant insoluble substrate. A key characteristic of cellulose conversion is that the actual hydrolysis of the polysaccharide chains is intrinsically entangled with physical disruption of substrate morphology and structure. This "substrate deconstruction" by cellulase activity is a slow, yet markedly dynamic process that occurs at different length scales from and above the nanometer range. Little is currently known about the role of progressive substrate deconstruction on hydrolysis efficiency. Application of advanced visualization techniques to the characterization of enzymatic degradation of different celluloses has provided important new insights, at the requisite nano-scale resolution and down to the level of single enzyme molecules, into cellulase activity on the cellulose surface. Using true in situ imaging, dynamic features of enzyme action and substrate deconstruction were portrayed at different morphological levels of the cellulose, thus providing new suggestions and interpretations of rate-determining factors. Here, we review the milestones achieved through visualization, the methods which significantly promoted the field, compare suitable (model) substrates, and identify limiting factors, challenges and future tasks.

  9. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  10. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  11. Neutron activation for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Loughlin, M.J.; Nishitani, Takeo

    1996-04-29

    There are three primary goals for the Neutron Activation system for ITER: maintain a robust relative measure of fusion power with stability and high dynamic range (7 orders of magnitude); allow an absolute calibration of fusion power (energy); and provide a flexible and reliable system for materials testing. The nature of the activation technique is such that stability and high dynamic range can be intrinsic properties of the system. It has also been the technique that demonstrated (on JET and TFTR) the highest accuracy neutron measurements in DT operation. Since the gamma-ray detectors are not located on the tokamak and are therefore amenable to accurate characterization, and if material foils are placed very close to the ITER plasma with minimum scattering or attenuation, high overall accuracy in the fusion energy production (7--10%) should be achievable on ITER. In the paper, a conceptual design is presented. A system is shown to be capable of meeting these three goals, also detailed design issues remain to be solved.

  12. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  13. Regulation of inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasome biology is one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas in immunology. Over the past 10 years, inflammasomes have been recognized for their roles in the host defense against invading pathogens and in the development of cancer, auto-inflammatory, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Assembly of an inflammasome complex requires cytosolic sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or danger-associated molecular patterns by a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) or absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors (ALR). NLRs and ALRs engage caspase-1, in most cases requiring the adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), to catalyze proteolytic cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 and drive pyroptosis. Recent studies indicate that caspase-8, caspase-11, IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAK), and receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases contribute to inflammasome functions. In addition, post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, deubiquitination, phosphorylation, and degradation control almost every aspect of inflammasome activities. Genetic studies indicate that mutations in NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 are linked with the development of auto-inflammatory diseases, enterocolitis, and cancer. Overall, these findings transform our understanding of the basic biology and clinical relevance of inflammasomes. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest development of inflammasome research and discuss how inflammasome activities govern health and disease.

  14. Activities in dementia care: A comparative assessment of activity types.

    PubMed

    Lokon, Elizabeth; Sauer, Philip E; Li, Yue

    2016-12-05

    This exploratory study compares the impact of five activity types on the well-being of institutionalized people with dementia: the intergenerational art program Opening Minds through Art, art and music therapies, creative activities, non-creative activities, and no activities at all. We validated the Scripps Modified Greater Cincinnati Chapter Well-Being Observational Tool, and used that instrument to systematically observe N = 67 people with dementia as they participated in different activity types. People with dementia showed the highest well-being scores during Opening Minds through Art compared to all other activities. No significant well-being differences were found between creative activities led by licensed art/music therapist versus regular activity staff. Furthermore, no significant well-being differences were found between creative and non-creative activities that were both led by regular activity staff. Overall, people with dementia benefit from participating in activities, regardless of the type (creative or non-creative), or who conducts them (licensed therapists or activity staff). However, in order for people with dementia to reach significantly high levels of overall well-being, we recommend that activities are specifically designed for people with dementia and incorporate a 1:1 ratio between people with dementia and well-trained volunteers/staff members.

  15. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  16. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, John A.; Oseen-Send, Kathryn; Ferguson, Luke; Pouresfandiary, Jamshid; Cousins, Anand; Ralph, Heather; Hampto, Tom

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  17. Overview of Langley activities in active controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. The activities of the Langley Research Center (laRC) in advancing active controls technology. Activities are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  18. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  19. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  20. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  1. Active Play: Exploring the Influences on Children's School Playground Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda; Telford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Because children spend so much of their time in schools, their playgrounds offer a good setting for promoting active play in young lives. Teachers, instead of considering active play a taxing demand on their busy day, have begun to develop an informal curriculum for it. The authors review the research on children's active play and explores its…

  2. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 2--Language Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    This booklet containing 20 language arts activities is the second in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" produced by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center. The description of each activity contains learning objectives, directions, and suggested student evaluation standards. Elementary and intermediate level students…

  3. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 4--Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Fourth in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center, the booklet contains 39 environment-based science activities directed to students in primary, intermediate, and junior high classes. Organization of the activities usually includes grade level, objectives, procedures, and materials,…

  4. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 1--Art and Music Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    First of a series of 6 publications containing environmental education activities, this booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center describes 12 environmentally-based art and music activities for elementary and intermediate grades. Each activity description contains objectives, preparation, materials, directions, student evaluation, and…

  5. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  6. Summary of JPL Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight programs, including past, present and future missions targeting Solar System exploration. Details, including launch dates and batteries used, are given for Deep Space 1 (Asteroid Rendezvous), Deep Space 2 (Mars Penetrator), Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Surveyor '98, Stardust, Europa Orbiter, Mars Surveyor 2001, Mars 2003 Lander and Rover, and Genesis (Solar Dust Return). Earth science projects are also outlined: Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ARIMSAT), Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon), Jason-1 (TOPEX follow-on), and QuikScat/Seawinds (Ocean Winds Tracking). The status, background, and plans are given for several batteries: (1) 2.5 inch common pressure vessel (CPV), (2) 3.5 inch CPV, (3) Ni-H2, and (4) Li-Ion.

  7. P21 activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The p21 activated kinases (Paks) are well known effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. The Paks contain 6 members, which fall into 2 families of proteins. The first family consists of Paks 1, 2, and 3, and the second consists of Paks 4, 5, and 6. While some of the Paks are ubiquitously expressed, others have more restrictive tissue specificity. All of them are found in the nervous system. Studies using cell culture, transgenic mice, and knockout mice, have revealed important roles for the Paks in cytoskeletal organization and in many aspects of cell growth and development. This review discusses the basic structures of the Paks, and their roles in cell growth, development, and in cancer. PMID:24658305

  8. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  9. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  10. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  11. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  12. Active submarine volcano sampled

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.

    1983-01-01

    On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh lava were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, in the western Pacific Ocean, from the water depths of 1,200 and 2,700 feet. the shallower dredge site was within 0.5 mile of the active submarine vent shown at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano that has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978; but, in each case, it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982. 

  13. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.

  14. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  15. CNES gondola development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Verdier, Nicolas; Escarnot, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, André

    Recent safety rules and gondola obsolescence oblige CNES to initiate new developments to improve performances according scientific needs. A large project called NOSYCA will able to offer versatile housekeeping and science telemetry system for Zero Pressure Balloons. This concept is modular, use IP protocol for scientific high data rate and mix telemetry systems to perform long duration flight. To respect safety duties, the long duration flight ISBA gondola is modified. New functions are implemented to increase reliability for stratospheric super and zero Pressure balloons flights. "Pointed gondola activity" is also concerned by improvements. After the First Fireball flight, new equipment designs are in progress for future missions. At least, boundary layer balloons performances of science payload and housekeeping system increase with new instrumentation and network telemetry concepts.

  16. Factors regulating microglia activation

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, Katrin; Prinz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that display high functional similarities to other tissue macrophages. However, it is especially important to create and maintain an intact tissue homeostasis to support the neuronal cells, which are very sensitive even to minor changes in their environment. The transition from the “resting” but surveying microglial phenotype to an activated stage is tightly regulated by several intrinsic (e.g., Runx-1, Irf8, and Pu.1) and extrinsic factors (e.g., CD200, CX3CR1, and TREM2). Under physiological conditions, minor changes of those factors are sufficient to cause fatal dysregulation of microglial cell homeostasis and result in severe CNS pathologies. In this review, we discuss recent achievements that gave new insights into mechanisms that ensure microglia quiescence. PMID:23630462

  17. Implementation team activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, F.

    2002-12-01

    The implementation Team (IT) is a body reporting to the SCSB,. It has been assigned the task of preparing and harmonising policy, standards and specification proposals for evaluation, qualification and quality control, thus enabling a coherent and cost-effective ESCC Specification System for the procurement of EEE space components. Among the 10 recommendations issued by the SCAHC, 7 have been studied under the auspices of the Implementation Team. Its main activities have been the updating and modernising of the ESA/SCC system in order to meet user needs and to be compatible with market trends. In particular it updated the technical aspects of generic specifications for the different component families and introduced the QML concept into the SCC system. It has also studied and discussed other topics such as procurement standards, a reliability system, mutual recognition, databases and the preferred parts list. A summary of the progress made in all these fields will be presented below.

  18. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-12-07

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  19. Lightning activity on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Bar-Nun, A.; Scarf, F. L.; Look, A. F.; Hunt, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Photographic observations of the nightside of Jupiter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft show the presence of extensive lightning activity. Detection of whistlers by the plasma wave analyzer confirms the optical observations and implies that many flashes were not recorded by the Voyager camera because the intensity of the flashes was below the threshold sensitivity of the camera. Measurements of the optical energy radiated per flash indicate that the observed flashes had energies similar to that for terrestrial superbolts. The best estimate of the lightning energy dissipation rate of 0.0004 W/sq m was derived from a consideration of the optical and radiofrequency measurements. The ratio of the energy dissipated by lightning compared to the convective energy flux is estimated to be between 0.000027 and 0.00005. The terrestrial value is 0.0001.

  20. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  1. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  2. Science Activities for School Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Walter C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes ways in which physics-learning activity packets can be used by high school students participating in trips organized by other departments. Provides an example of physics activities incorporated into an airplane trip to Disney World. (CS)

  3. Antinociceptive activity of Helicteres isora.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sama; Laxmi, K Sai; Reddy, B Madhava; Ramesh, M

    2007-02-01

    Helicteres isora root extracts were studied for antinociceptive activity on acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous ethanol extracts have shown significant activity.

  4. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... more energy than resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for ...

  5. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  6. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  7. Antiviral activities of photoactive perylenequinones.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Imperial, V; Haugland, R P; Diwu, Z

    1997-02-01

    Nine perylenequinones (PQ), including some familiar naturally occurring pigments, were compared for their light-mediated antiviral efficacies. Calphostin C was the most active compound against the two target viruses, herpes simplex virus type 1 and Sindbis virus. Hypocrellins A and B were also very active. However, three cercosporin-like PQ were substantially less active in spite of their high quantum yields of singlet oxygen, whereas phleichrome, another efficient singlet oxygen producer, showed no detectable antiviral activity. One other PQ, which was a very weak singlet oxygen producer, also showed no antiviral activity. None of the active compounds showed significant antiviral activity in the dark. Thus, for some groups of PQ there was correlation between quantum yield of singlet oxygen (1O2) and antiviral efficacy, but there are evidently other structural features of PQ that influence activity.

  8. Papermaking as a Science Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Marcia K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple procedure for making paper and provides some suggestions for extending and modifying the activity. The activity is correlated to the National Science Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. (SAH)

  9. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  10. The Study of Animal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce

    1971-01-01

    Describes how to measure the daily rhythm of activity (photoperiodism) of small mammals. Three methods for recording information are reviewed including instructions for making a recorder. Includes suggestions for activities and experiments. (PR)

  11. Organic active materials for batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Abouimrane, Ali; Weng, Wei; Amine, Khalil

    2016-08-16

    A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R.sup.1 and R.sup.2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions M.sup.a+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and "a" is 1, 2, or 3.

  12. Insight into hydroxides-activated coals: chemical or physical activation?

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaniz-Monge, J.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to get an insight into the chemical activation mechanism using KOH and NaOH as activated agents. Three coals have been selected as carbon precursors. It was found that KOH and NaOH develop a similar narrow microporosity, independently of the coal rank, whereas only KOH generates supermicroporosity. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments, carried out with impregnated anthracite, show differences on the gas evolved during the activated carbon preparation using the two activating agents. Thus, whereas hydrogen profiles are quite similar for both activated agents, the CO and H{sub 2}O profiles are different. It is remarkable the high amount of H{sub 2}O evolved at the maximum treatment temperature for both activating agents. The results obtained to allow conclusion that the chemical activation is due to a combination of different process driving the development of material porosity.

  13. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  14. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  15. Art Activities for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, Frank, Comp.

    Intended for professionals interested in incorporating arts activities into the educational programs for disabled students, Part One of the document contains arts activities contributed by clinician-presenters in the 1978 Illinois series of Very Special Arts Festivals; while Part Two contains activities contributed by clinician-presenters and…

  16. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  17. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  18. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells lacking RXFP1, relaxin had no effect. Relaxin increased both the baseline activity and the response to the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, but not to agonists of PPARα or PPARδ. In HEK-RXFP1 cells infected with adenovirus expressing PPARγ, relaxin increased transcriptional activity through PPRE, and this effect was blocked with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative PPARγ. Knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA resulted in a decrease in the response to both relaxin and rosiglitazone. Both relaxin and rosiglitazone increased expression of the PPARγ target genes CD36 and LXRα in HEK-RXFP1 and in THP-1 cells naturally expressing RXFP1. Relaxin did not increase PPARγ mRNA or protein levels. Treatment of cells with GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ ligand binding, effectively blocked rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ activation, but had no effect on relaxin activation of PPARγ. These results suggest that relaxin activates PPARγ activity, and increases the overall response in the presence PPARγ agonists. This activation is dependent on the presence of RXFP1. Furthermore, relaxin activates PPARγ via a ligand-independent mechanism. These studies represent the first report that relaxin can activate the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. PMID:19712722

  19. Oriented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  20. Ocatin. A Novel Tuber Storage Protein from the Andean Tuber Crop Oca with Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities1

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E.

    2002-01-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens. PMID:11950978

  1. Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Lee; Pease, Phil; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Rosen, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center (GSFC V0 DAAC) is being developed to enhance and improve scientific research and productivity by consolidating access to remote sensor earth science data in the pre-EOS time frame. In cooperation with scientists from the science labs at GSFC, other NASA facilities, universities, and other government agencies, the DAAC will support data acquisition, validation, archive and distribution. The DAAC is being developed in response to EOSDIS Project Functional Requirements as well as from requirements originating from individual science projects such as SeaWiFS, Meteor3/TOMS2, AVHRR Pathfinder, TOVS Pathfinder, and UARS. The GSFC V0 DAAC has begun operational support for the AVHRR Pathfinder (as of April, 1993), TOVS Pathfinder (as of July, 1993) and the UARS (September, 1993) Projects, and is preparing to provide operational support for SeaWiFS (August, 1994) data. The GSFC V0 DAAC has also incorporated the existing data, services, and functionality of the DAAC/Climate, DAAC/Land, and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Systems.

  2. Photoperiodism and Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Orlando; Morel, Claudine

    1974-01-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system. PMID:16658749

  3. Optically active quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  4. VERA Geodetic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Shizugami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    This report briefly describes the geodetic activities of VERA in the year 2012. The regular geodetic observations are carried out both in K- and S/X-bands. The frequency of regular observations is three times a month-twice for the VERA internal observations in K-band. The networks of the S/X sessions are JADE of GSI and IVS-T2. The raw data of the T2 and JADE sessions are electronically transferred to the Bonn, Haystack, and GSI correlators via Internet. Gravimetric observations are carried out at the VERA stations. An SG was installed at Mizusawa and placed in the vicinity of the VERA antenna in order to monitor vertical displacement at the end of 2008, and the observations continued throughout the year. Also at the VERA-Ishigakijima station, continuous operation of the SG started in 2012. The crustal movements generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku continued during 2012, and displacement of the VERA-Mizusawa position by post-seismic creeping continued.

  5. Active control of convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    1991-12-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically that active (feedback) control can be used to alter the characteristics of thermal convection in a toroidal, vertical loop heated from below and cooled from above. As the temperature difference between the heated and cooled sections of the loop increases, the flow in the uncontrolled loop changes from no motion to steady, time-independent motion to temporally oscillatory, chaotic motion. With the use of a feedback controller effecting small perturbations in the boundary conditions, one can maintain the no-motion state at significantly higher temperature differences than the critical one corresponding to the onset of convection in the uncontrolled system. Alternatively, one can maintain steady, time-independent flow under conditions in which the flow would otherwise be chaotic. That is, the controller can be used to suppress chaos. Likewise, it is possible to stabilize periodic nonstable orbits that exist in the chaotic regime of the uncontrolled system. Finally, the controller also can be used to induce chaos in otherwise laminar (fully predictable), nonchaotic flow.

  6. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  7. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  8. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  9. Recurrent Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jamrozy, Marek; Konar, Chiranjib; Machalski, Jerzy; Mack, Karl-Heinz; Saikia, Dhruba; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U.

    2007-10-15

    One of the outstanding issues concerning extragalactic radio sources is the total duration of their active phase and the possible existence of duty cycles of their nuclear activity. A duty cycle can be recognized if there is a mechanism which preserves the information of past activity for a sufficiently long time after a new activity has started up. If a new cycle starts before the radio lobes created during a former activity period have faded, we can recognize this by the observations of a young radio source embedded in an old relic structure.

  10. Activated sintering of zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, V. E.; Slosman, A. I.; Matrenin, S. V.

    1996-02-01

    A new phenomenon has been observed — the activated sintering of a zirconium ceramic in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma of a glow discharge. It is shown that the activation energy is considerably lower than the activation energy for sintering in a vacuum furnace. This makes it possible to reduce sintering temperature, refine the grains, and improve the mechanical properties of the ceramic. It is proposed that the mechanism by which sintering is activated is connected with the activating effect of hydrogen during a structural transformation involving the formation of oxynitride phases.

  11. Global optogenetic activation of inhibitory interneurons during epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Ledri, Marco; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Nikitidou, Litsa; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-02-26

    Optogenetic techniques provide powerful tools for bidirectional control of neuronal activity and investigating alterations occurring in excitability disorders, such as epilepsy. In particular, the possibility to specifically activate by light-determined interneuron populations expressing channelrhodopsin-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity of exploring their contribution to physiological and pathological network activity. There are several subclasses of interneurons in cortical areas with different functional connectivity to the principal neurons (e.g., targeting their perisomatic or dendritic compartments). Therefore, one could optogenetically activate specific or a mixed population of interneurons and dissect their selective or concerted inhibitory action on principal cells. We chose to explore a conceptually novel strategy involving simultaneous activation of mixed populations of interneurons by optogenetics and study their impact on ongoing epileptiform activity in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Here we demonstrate that such approach results in a brief initial action potential discharge in CA3 pyramidal neurons, followed by prolonged suppression of ongoing epileptiform activity during light exposure. Such sequence of events was caused by massive light-induced release of GABA from ChR2-expressing interneurons. The inhibition of epileptiform activity was less pronounced if only parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons were activated by light. Our data suggest that global optogenetic activation of mixed interneuron populations is a more effective approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, but the initial action potential generation in principal neurons needs to be taken in consideration.

  12. Trypsin activity is not involved in premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation.

    PubMed

    Halangk, Walter; Krüger, Burkhard; Ruthenbürger, Manuel; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Albrecht, Elke; Lippert, Hans; Lerch, Markus M

    2002-02-01

    A premature and intracellular activation of digestive zymogens is thought to be responsible for the onset of pancreatitis. Because trypsin has a critical role in initiating the activation cascade of digestive enzymes in the gut, it has been assumed that trypsin also initiates intracellular zymogen activation in the pancreas. We have tested this hypothesis in isolated acini and lobules from rat pancreas. Intracellular trypsinogen activation was induced by supramaximal secretagogue stimulation and measured using either specific trypsin substrates or immunoreactivity of the trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP). To prevent a trypsin-induced trypsinogen activation, we used the cell-permeant, highly specific, and reversible inhibitor Nalpha-(2-naphthylsulfonyl)-3-amidinophenylalanine-carboxymethylpiperazide (S124), and to prevent cathepsin-induced trypsinogen activation, we used the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64d. Incubation of acini or lobules in the presence of S124 completely prevented the generation of trypsin activity in response to supramaximal caerulein but had no effect whatsoever on the generation of TAP. Conversely, when trypsin activity was recovered at the end of the experiment by either washout of S124 from acini or extensive dilution of lobule homogenates, it was up to 400% higher than after caerulein alone and corresponded, in molar terms, to the generation of TAP. Both trypsin activity and TAP release were inhibited in parallel by E-64d. We conclude that caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation in the pancreas is caused by an E-64d-inhibitable mechanism such as cathepsin-induced trypsinogen activation, and neither involves nor requires intracellular trypsin activity. Specific trypsin inhibition, on the other hand, prevents 80% of trypsin inactivation or autodegradation in the pancreas.

  13. Dynamic Patterns in Active Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülicher, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Biological matter is inherently dynamic and exhibits active properties. A key example is the force generation by molecular motors in the cell cytoskeleton. Such active processes give rise to the generation of active mechanical stresses and spontaneous flows in gel-like cytoskeletal networks. Active material behaviors play a key role for the dynamics of cellular processes such as cell locomotion and cell division. We will discuss intracellular flow patterns that are created by active processes in the cell cortex. By combining theory with quantitative experiments we show that observed flow patterns result from profiles of active stress generation in the system. We will also consider the situation where active stress is regulated by a diffusing molecular species. In this case, spatial concentration patterns are generated by the interplay of stress regulation and self-generated flow fields.

  14. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  15. Strategy as active waiting.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  16. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  17. AMPK activators: mechanisms of action and physiological activities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joungmok; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Yeji; Kim, Jin; Ha, Joohun

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Thus, activators of AMPK may have potential as novel therapeutics for these diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of both indirect and direct AMPK activators and their modes of action in relation to the structure of AMPK. We discuss the functional differences among isoform-specific AMPK complexes and their significance regarding the development of novel AMPK activators and the potential for combining different AMPK activators in the treatment of human disease. PMID:27034026

  18. Fluidization and Active Thinning by Molecular Kinetics in Active Gels.

    PubMed

    Oriola, David; Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-02-24

    We derive the constitutive equations of an active polar gel from a model for the dynamics of elastic molecules that link polar elements. Molecular binding kinetics induces the fluidization of the material, giving rise to Maxwell viscoelasticity and, provided that detailed balance is broken, to the generation of active stresses. We give explicit expressions for the transport coefficients of active gels in terms of molecular properties, including nonlinear contributions on the departure from equilibrium. In particular, when activity favors linker unbinding, we predict a decrease of viscosity with activity-active thinning-of kinetic origin, which could explain some experimental results on the cell cortex. By bridging the molecular and hydrodynamic scales, our results could help understand the interplay between molecular perturbations and the mechanics of cells and tissues.

  19. Being active when you have heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - activity; CAD - activity; Coronary artery disease - activity; Angina - activity ... Getting regular exercise when you have heart disease is important. Exercise can make your heart muscle stronger. It may also help you be more active without chest pain or ...

  20. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  1. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  2. Silicon active photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  3. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  4. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  5. CDPK Activation in PRR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Heike; Boudsocq, Marie; Romeis, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases undergo a rapid biochemical activation in response to an intracellular Ca increase induced by the PRR-dependent perception of a pathogen-related stimulus. Based on SDS gel resolution, the in-gel kinase assay allows the analysis of multiple in vivo protein samples in parallel, combining the advantage of protein separation according to molecular mass with the activity read-out of a protein kinase assay. It thus enables to follow the transient CDPK activation and inactivation in response to in vivo elicitation with a time-wise resolution. In addition, changes of CDPK phosphorylation activity often correlate with slight shifts in the enzyme's apparent molecular mass, indicating posttranslational modifications and a conformational change of the active enzyme compared to its inactive resting form. These band shifts can be detected by a simple immunoblotting to monitor CDPK activation.

  6. Swim pressure of active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  7. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  8. Active Cells for Multifunctional Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-24

    techniques to explore a variety of cell designs.  Designed a simplified active cell using Nitinol as the actuation method and relying on Joule heating...for contraction of the cell.  Developed manufacturing techniques for reliably creating Nitinol spring coils in a variety of diameters and gauges...design of the active cells to maximum the stroked length of the active cells by tuning the stiffness of a passive spring in parallel with the Nitinol

  9. Antiangiogenic Activity of Glycyrrhiza Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Qiu

    The bioactivity of extract of glycyrrhiza was detected by zebrafish antiangiogenic model after 70% ethanol extract of glycyrrhiza was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol. The inhibition of the extracts in antiangiogenic activity showed that the highest active components existed in ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza. The ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza was separated by polyamide column chromatography to obtain 7 fractions (Fr1-Fr7), which Fr5 and Fr6 showed antiangiogenic activity.

  10. In Situ Activation of Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing two or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug, or a prodrug and a drug activator are partitioned into separate phases. or prevented from diffusing out of the microcapsule by a liquid phase in which the drug is poorly soluble. Also disclosed are methods of using the microcapsules for in situ activation of drugs where upon exposure to an appropriate energy source the internal phases mix and the drug is activated in situ.

  11. Macrophage Biochemistry, Activation and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    glucoeidase +8 . . Sulfatase c +8 Modified from Morahan, 1980. b(+)Exhibit@ activity; (-) lacks activity; (+) weak or marginal activity. ’References: (1...endoplasmic reticulum enzymes, sulfatase c and alkaline a-glucosidase. Dissociation of the lysosomal enzyme patterns from sulfatase c and alkaline r...1974; Beaufay et al., 1974). Peritoneal macrophages are deficient or contain inauf- • -𔃼 :’- 41 ficient quantities of the classical constituents to be

  12. L3 Study Team Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team

    2017-01-01

    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.

  13. Active auditory mechanics in mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, M. C.; Robert, D.

    2001-01-01

    In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is improved by active contractile properties of hair cells. Comparable active auditory mechanics is now demonstrated in insects. In mosquitoes, Johnston's organ transduces sound-induced vibrations of the antennal flagellum. A non-muscular 'motor' activity enhances the sensitivity and tuning of the flagellar mechanical response in physiologically intact animals. This motor is capable of driving the flagellum autonomously, amplifying sound-induced vibrations at specific frequencies and intensities. Motor-related electrical activity of Johnston's organ strongly suggests that mosquito hearing is improved by mechanoreceptor motility. PMID:11270428

  14. Geomagnetic response to solar activity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between solar activity and geomagnetic variations is discussed in the light of spacecraft data obtained during the last decade. The effects of centers of solar activity responsible for producing geomagnetic activity on earth are believed to be transmitted through the solar wind, and there is usually a delay of two or three days before the onset of magnetic activity. Attempts to make a one-to-one correspondence between specific solar events and specific magnetic storms, however, are usually unsuccessful, because of the complex and indirect processes linking the two phenomena. Normally, only statistical tendencies can be shown.

  15. Activated T lymphocytes in uveitis.

    PubMed Central

    Deschênes, J.; Char, D. H.; Kaleta, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two colour flow cytometry techniques were used to assess the activation stages of peripheral and intraocular T lymphocytes in uveitis. Increased numbers of T lymphocytes bearing the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors were found in intraocular fluids or peripheral blood or both of 35/51 patients with uveitis. This increased expression of IL-2 receptors on lymphocytes correlated with increased expression of other early T lymphocyte activation markers, HLA-DR and L-35. Both T helper cells (Leu-3A+) and suppressor cells (Leu 2A+) were activated in vivo. A positive correlation was seen between lymphocyte activation and clinical uveitis activity. In idiopathic uveitis activation of Leu-3A lymphocytes (helper/inducer) was significantly increased, and intraocular activation of the Leu-2A lymphocytes (cytotoxic/suppressor) was significantly decreased. These data show that some patients with idiopathic uveitis have a perturbation of T helper cells. Twenty-two of 31 patients with idiopathic uveitis, not associated with systemic disease, had increased peripheral T lymphocyte activation. This finding indicates that in some inflammations believed to be restricted to the eye an abnormal systemic immune activation exists. PMID:2964862

  16. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized.

  17. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  18. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  19. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  20. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts