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Sample records for activated dissociation cad

  1. Application of matrix calculation 1: Design and adjustment of a tandem mass spectrometer for Collision-Activated Dissociation (CAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    A matrix representation of the ion optics of the analyzing stage has been used in a computer model of a tandem mass spectrometer with simultaneous detection for CAD. The matrix algorithm of this model is discussed here as an elegant way of describing the ion optics in a first-order approximation. The accuracy of the calculations is illustrated by comparing calculated and measured adjustments of the instrument under normal experiment conditions. The ion-optical possibilities with respect to transmission, mass resolution influence of several ion optical parameters on the shape and position of the mass focal plane is discussed. The experimental values of mass range, mass resolution and ion transmission agree very well with the calculations. Moreover, the computer model appears to be a useful tool for giving clear insight into the operation of the rather complex ion optics of the instrument. The calculations have been further developed towards higher accuracy, making possible automatic focusing of the mass focal plane onto the detector.

  2. THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION WITH REPELLER-INDUCED COLLISIONALLY ACTIVATED DISSOCIATION OF DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermospray ionization with repeller-induced collisionally activated dissociation (repeller-CAD) has been used to acquire mass spectra of a series of dyes. hese were obtained by applying a voltage of 400 V on the wire repeller. he mass spectra contained arge number of fragment io...

  3. Activated-ion electron transfer dissociation improves the ability of electron transfer dissociation to identify peptides in a complex mixture.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, Aaron R; Beauchene, Nicole A; McAlister, Graeme C; Syka, John E P; Schwartz, Jae C; Griep-Raming, Jens; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J

    2010-12-15

    Using a modified electron transfer dissociation (ETD)-enabled quadrupole linear ion trap (QLT) mass spectrometer, we demonstrate the utility of IR activation concomitant with ETD ion-ion reactions (activated-ion ETD, AI-ETD). Analyzing 12 strong cation exchanged (SCX) fractions of a LysC digest of human cell protein extract using ETD, collision-activated dissociation (CAD), and AI-ETD, we find that AI-ETD generates 13 405 peptide spectral matches (PSMs) at a 1% false-discovery rate (1% FDR), surpassing both ETD (7 968) and CAD (10 904). We also analyze 12 SCX fractions of a tryptic digest of human cell protein extract and find that ETD produces 6 234 PSMs, AI-ETD 9 130 PSMs, and CAD 15 209 PSMs. Compared to ETD with supplemental collisional activation (ETcaD), AI-ETD generates ∼80% more PSMs for the whole cell lysate digested with trypsin and ∼50% more PSMs for the whole cell lysate digested with LysC. PMID:21062032

  4. Comparison of dissociation mechanism between collisionally activated dissociation and charge inversion using alkali metal targets for chlorophenol isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Shigeo; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2005-11-01

    Chlorinated aromatic compounds are well-known environmental pollutants whose toxicities depend dramatically on the chlorine substitution pattern, making differentiation of chlorophenol isomers important for environmental analysis. Collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) spectra and charge inversion spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-chlorophenols (ClC6H4OH) and their partially deuterated forms (ClC6H4OD) were measured using alkali metal targets. The peaks associated with C6H4O+ and C5H5Cl+ ions observed in the CAD spectra result from the loss of HCl and CO fragments, respectively, after the re-arrangement of the hydroxyl hydrogen atom. The peaks associated with C6H4OH- and ClC6H4O- ions observed in the charge inversion spectra result from Cl loss and from hydroxyl bond dissociation, respectively. Isomeric differentiation is possible based on the clear differences observed in the relative intensities of these pairs of peaks. Although the intensities of the peaks associated with C6H4O+ relative to those of C5H5Cl+ in the CAD spectra are independent of the target species, the intensities of the peaks associated with C6H4OH- relative to those of ClC6H4O- in the charge inversion spectra are target dependent. The isomeric dependence of the positive ion distribution patterns in the CAD spectra is proposed to be due to the differences in the rate of the hydrogen atom re-arrangement process. In contrast, the isomeric dependence of the negative ion distribution patterns in the charge inversion spectra is attributed to differences in the bond strength involved in the direct dissociation process in the neutral intermediate species.

  5. Comparison of sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally activated dissociation and multipole storage-assisted dissociation for top-down protein analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Karin M; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometric data acquired for small (8--18 kDa) intact proteins by sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally activated dissociation (SORI-CAD) and multipole storage-assisted dissociation (MSAD) were compared, and the results indicate that the two activation methods do not always provide the same fragmentation patterns. In MSAD experiments, the charge state distribution made available by the ionization conditions may dictate the range of fragment ions that can be generated. In addition, conditions of high space charge within the hexapole impair transmission and/or trapping of high m/z species, which can result in loss of important precursor and product ions. Finally, the non-resonant nature of activation in MSAD can provide access to secondary dissociation processes that are not available by SORI. Because of these considerations, MSAD is less reliable than SORI for generating sequence tag data. However, it appears that MSAD samples 'preferred' cleavage processes (i.e. those occurring at D and P residues) just as well as SORI, which implies that MSAD data may be somewhat more compatible with search algorithms that utilize unprocessed fragment ion masses.

  6. De Novo Sequencing of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides by Electron-Activated Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Yu, Xiang; Mao, Yang; Costello, Catherine E.; Zaia, Joseph; Lin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) is challenging because of the extensive sulfate losses mediated by free protons. While removal of the free protons may be achieved through the use of derivatization, metal cation adducts, and/or electrospray supercharging reagents, these steps add complexity to the experimental workflow. It is therefore desirable to develop an analytical approach for GAG sequencing that does not require derivatization or addition of reagents to the electrospray solution. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) can produce extensive and informative fragmentation for GAGs without the need to remove free protons from the precursor ions. However, EDD is an inefficient process, often requiring consumption of large sample quantities (typically several micrograms), particularly for highly sulfated GAG ions. Here, we report that with improved instrumentation, optimization of the ionization and ion transfer parameters, and enhanced EDD efficiency, it is possible to generate highly informative EDD spectra of highly sulfated GAGs on the liquid chromatography (LC) time-scale, with consumption of only a few nanograms of sample. We further show that negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) is an even more effective fragmentation technique for GAG sequencing, producing fewer sulfate losses while consuming smaller amount of samples. Finally, a simple algorithm was developed for de novo HS sequencing based on their high resolution tandem mass spectra. These results demonstrate the potential of EDD and NETD as sensitive analytical tools for detailed, high-throughput, de novo structural analyses of highly sulfated GAGs. PMID:24224699

  7. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  8. Activated Dissociation of HCl on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Shirhatti, Pranav R; Geweke, Jan; Steinsiek, Christoph; Bartels, Christof; Rahinov, Igor; Auerbach, Daniel J; Wodtke, Alec M

    2016-04-01

    We report zero-coverage reaction probabilities (S0) for HCl dissociative adsorption on Au(111) obtained by the seeded molecular beam hot-nozzle method. For measurements at normal incidence with mean translational energies ranging from 0.94 to 2.56 eV (nozzle temperatures 296 to 1060 K), S0 increased from 6 × 10(-6) to 2 × 10(-2). S0 also increased with increasing nozzle temperature for fixed incidence energy associated with the motion normal to the surface. Accounting for the influence of the vibrational state population and translational energy distributions in the incident beam, we are able to compare the experimental results to recent theoretical predictions. These calculations, performed employing 6-D quantum dynamics on an electronically adiabatic potential energy surface obtained using density functional theory at the level of the generalized gradient approximation and the static surface approximation, severely overestimate the reaction probabilities when compared with our experimental results. We discuss some possible reasons for this large disagreement. PMID:26990513

  9. Low-energy collisionally activated dissociation of pentose-borate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepi, Federico; Garzoli, Stefania; Tata, Alessandra; Giacomello, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Pentose-borate 1:1 complexes were generated in the ESI source of a triple quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometer by electrospray ionization of Na2B4O7 and pentose (arabinose, lyxose, ribose, xylose) 2:1 solution in CH3CN/H2O. The study of their low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) demonstrated that ribose and lyxose are preferentially complexed at the C2-C3 cis-diol function whereas arabinose and xylose are esterified at the C1-C2 hydroxyl groups. No evidence was found of the stronger affinity for ribose to borate. The ribose probiotic rule can be explained by considering its peculiar capability, among the investigated pentoses, to almost totally complex the borate anion at the C2-C3 hydroxyl group, thus enabling the subsequent stages of nucleotide assembly, such as phosphorylation and linkage to the nucleobases. Finally, the differences observed in the pentose-borate complex CAD spectra can be used for the mass spectrometric discrimination of isomeric pentoses in complex mixtures.

  10. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  11. High-energy collision-activated and electron-transfer dissociation of gas-phase complexes of tryptophan with Na+, K+, and Ca2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Sha, Yuki; Matsuo, Sou; Toyoda, Michisato; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2014-10-01

    The structure and reactivity of gas-phase complexes of tryptophan (Trp) with Na+, K+, and Ca2+ were examined by high-energy collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) using alkali metal targets. In the CAD spectra of M+Trp (M = Na and K), neutral Trp loss was the primary dissociation pathway, and the product ion of collision-induced intracomplex electron transfer from the indole π ring of Trp to the alkali metal ion was observed, indicating a charge-solvated structure in which Trp is non-zwitterionic. The NH3 loss observed in the CAD spectrum of Ca2+Trp2 is ascribed to a CZ (mixed charge-solvated/zwitterionic)-type structure, in which one Trp is non-zwitterionic and the other Trp adopts a zwitterionic structure with an NH3+ moiety. The H atom and NH3 losses observed in the ETD spectrum of Ca2+Trp2 indicate the formation of a hypervalent radical in the complex, R-NH3, via electron transfer from the alkali metal target to the NH3+ group of the CZ-type structure. Ca2+ attachment to Trp cluster induces the zwitterionic structure of Trp in the gas phase, and an electron transfer to the zwitterionic Trp forms the hypervalent radical as a reaction intermediate.

  12. A computational investigation on radiation damage and activation of structural material for C-ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tairan; Shen, Fei; Yin, Wen; Yu, Quanzhi; Liang, Tianjiao

    2015-11-01

    The C-ADS (China Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System) project, which aims at transmuting high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) and power generation, is now in the research and development stage. In this paper, a simplified ADS model is set up based on the IAEA Th-ADS benchmark calculation model, then the radiation damage as well as the residual radioactivity of the structural material are estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The peak displacement production rate, gas productions, activity and residual dose rate of the structural components like beam window and outer casing of subcritical reactor core are calculated. The calculation methods and the corresponding results provide the basic reference for making reasonable predictions for the lifetime and maintenance operations of the structural material of C-ADS.

  13. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Oligonucleotide Cations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Suncerae I; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2009-06-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of multi-protonated 6 - 20-mer oligonucleotides and 12- and 14-mer duplexes is compared to collision activated dissociation (CAD). ETD causes efficient charge reduction of the multi-protonated oligonucleotides in addition to limited backbone cleavages to yield sequence ions of low abundance. Subsequent CAD of the charge-reduced oligonucleotides formed upon electron transfer, in a net process termed electron transfer collision activated dissociation (ETcaD), results in rich fragmentation in terms of w, a, z, and d products, with a marked decrease in the abundance of base loss ions and internal fragments. Complete sequencing was possible for nearly all oligonucleotides studied. ETcaD of an oligonucleotide duplex resulted in specific backbone cleavages, with conservation of weaker non-covalent bonds. PMID:20161288

  14. Coupling capillary zone electrophoresis with electron transfer dissociation and activated ion electron transfer dissociation for top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yimeng; Riley, Nicholas M; Sun, Liangliang; Hebert, Alexander S; Yan, Xiaojing; Westphall, Michael S; Rush, Matthew J P; Zhu, Guijie; Champion, Matthew M; Mba Medie, Felix; Champion, Patricia A DiGiuseppe; Coon, Joshua J; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Top-down proteomics offers the potential for full protein characterization, but many challenges remain for this approach, including efficient protein separations and effective fragmentation of intact proteins. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has shown great potential for separation of intact proteins, especially for differentially modified proteoforms of the same gene product. To date, however, CZE has been used only with collision-based fragmentation methods. Here we report the first implementation of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) with online CZE separations for top-down proteomics, analyzing a mixture of four standard proteins and a complex protein mixture from the Mycobacterium marinum bacterial secretome. Using a multipurpose dissociation cell on an Orbitrap Elite system, we demonstrate that CZE is fully compatible with ETD as well as higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and that the two complementary fragmentation methods can be used in tandem on the electrophoretic time scale for improved protein characterization. Furthermore, we show that activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD), a recently introduced method for enhanced ETD fragmentation, provides useful performance with CZE separations to greatly increase protein characterization. When combined with HCD, AI-ETD improved the protein sequence coverage by more than 200% for proteins from both standard and complex mixtures, highlighting the benefits electron-driven dissociation methods can add to CZE separations. PMID:25893372

  15. Structural determination of glycosphingolipids as lithiated adducts by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using low-energy collisional-activated dissociation on a triple stage quadrupole instrument.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F F; Turk, J

    2001-01-01

    Structural characterization of glycosphingolipids as their lithiated adducts using low-energy collisional-activated dissociation (CAD) tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) is described. The tandem mass spectra contain abundant fragment ions reflecting the long chain base (LCB), fatty acid, and the sugar constituent of the molecule and permit unequivocal identification of cerebrosides, di-, trihexosyl ceramides and globosides. The major fragmentation pathways arise from loss of the sugar moiety to yield a lithiated ceramide ion, which undergoes further fragmentation to form multiple fragment ions that confirm the structures of the fatty acid and LCB. The mechanisms for the ion formation and the possible configuration of the fragment ions, resulting from CAD of the lithiated molecular ions ([M + Li]+) of monoglycosylceramides are proposed. The mechanisms were supported by CAD and source CAD tandem mass spectra of various cerebrosides and of their analogous molecules prepared by H-D exchange. Constant neutral loss and precursor ion scannings to identify galactosylceramides with sphingosine or sphinganine LCB subclasses, and with specific N-2-hydroxyl fatty acid subclass in mixtures are also demonstrated. PMID:11142362

  16. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated uc(l)-Alanine Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of uc(l)-alanine peptides (uc(l)-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) and homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the uc(l)-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+(uc(l)-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of uc(d)-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+(uc(d)-Trp). uc(l)-Ala peptides recognize uc(d)-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+(uc(d)-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas uc(l)-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of uc(l)-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  17. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the “Emotional Part” (EP) and the “Apparently Normal Part” (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors. Methods Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI was used to test the hypotheses that ANP and EP in DID have different perfusion patterns in response to rest instructions, and that perfusion is different in actors who were instructed to simulate ANP and EP. In a follow-up study, regional cerebral blood flow of DID patients was compared with the activation pattern of healthy non-simulating controls. Results Compared to EP, ANP showed elevated perfusion in bilateral thalamus. Compared to ANP, EP had increased perfusion in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and motor-related areas. Perfusion patterns for simulated ANP and EP were different. Fitting their reported role-play strategies, the actors activated brain structures involved in visual mental imagery and empathizing feelings. The follow-up study demonstrated elevated perfusion in the left temporal lobe in DID patients, whereas non-simulating healthy controls had increased activity in areas which mediate the mental construction of past and future episodic events. Conclusion DID involves dissociative part-dependent resting-state differences. Compared to ANP, EP activated brain structures involved in self-referencing and sensorimotor actions more. Actors had different perfusion patterns compared to genuine ANP and EP. Comparisons of neural activity for individuals with DID and non-DID simulating controls suggest that the resting-state features of ANP and EP in DID are not due to imagination. The findings are

  18. Activated Ras interacts with the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator.

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, F; Fields, S; Schneider, C; Martin, G S

    1994-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that interact with Ras. The H-Ras protein was found to interact with a guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (GDS) that has been previously shown to regulate guanine nucleotide exchange on another member of the Ras protein family, Ral. The interaction is mediated by the C-terminal, noncatalytic segment of the RalGDS and can be detected both in vivo, using the two-hybrid system, and in vitro, with purified recombinant proteins. The interaction of the RalGDS C-terminal segment with Ras is specific, dependent on activation of Ras by GTP, and blocked by a mutation that affects Ras effector function. These characteristics are similar to those previously demonstrated for the interaction between Ras and its putative effector, Raf, suggesting that the RalGDS may also be a Ras effector. Consistent with this idea, the RalGDS was found to inhibit the binding of Raf to Ras. Images PMID:7972015

  19. Expression of cadR Enhances its Specific Activity for Cd Detoxification and Accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrui; Wei, Xuezhi; Yu, Pengli; Deng, Xin; Xu, Wenxiu; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a transition metal that is highly toxic in biological systems. Anthropogenic emissions of Cd have increased biogeochemical cycling and the amount of Cd in the biosphere. Here we studied the utility of a bacterial Cd-binding protein, CadR, for the remediation of Cd contamination. CadR was successfully targeted to chloroplasts using a constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter or a shoot-specific Chl a/b-binding protein 2 gene (CAB2) promoter and an RbcS (small subunit of the Rubisco complex) transit peptide. Under short-term (2 d) exposure to Cd, the cadR transgenic plants showed up to a 2.9-fold Cd accumulation in roots compared with untransformed plants. Under medium term (7 d) exposure to Cd, the concentrations of Cd in leaves began to increase but there were no differences between the wild type and the cadR transgenic plants. Under long-term (16 d) exposure to Cd, the cadR transgenic plants accumulated greater amounts of Cd in leaves than the untransformed plants. Total Cd accumulation (µg per plant) in shoots and roots of the plants expressing cadR were significantly higher (up to 3.5-fold in shoots and 5.2-fold in roots) than those of the untransformed plants. We also found that targeting CadR to chloroplasts facilitated chloroplastic metal homeostasis and Chl b accumulation. Our results demonstrate that manipulating chelating capacity in chloroplasts or in the cytoplasm may be effective in modifying both the accumulation of and resistance to Cd. PMID:27382127

  20. Switchgrass PviCAD1: Understanding residues important for substrate preferences and activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls and is a complex aromatic heteropolymer. Reducing lignin content improves conversion efficiency into liquid fuels, and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis are attractive targets for bioengineering. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes t...

  1. New Insights into the Signaling Mechanism of the pH-responsive, Membrane-integrated Transcriptional Activator CadC of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Haneburger, Ina; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne; Jung, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-integrated transcriptional regulator CadC of Escherichia coli activates expression of the cadBA operon at low external pH with concomitantly available lysine, providing adaptation to mild acidic stress. CadC is a representative of the ToxR-like proteins that combine sensory, signal transduction, and DNA-binding activities within a single polypeptide. Although several ToxR-like regulators such as CadC, as well as the main regulator of Vibrio cholerae virulence, ToxR itself, which activate gene expression at acidic pH, have been intensively investigated, their molecular activation mechanism is still unclear. In this study, a structure-guided mutational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which CadC detects acidification of the external milieu. Thus, a cluster of negatively charged amino acids (Asp-198, Asp-200, Glu-461, Glu-468, and Asp-471) was found to be crucial for pH detection. These amino acids form a negatively charged patch on the surface of the periplasmic domain of CadC that stretches across its two subdomains. The results of different combinations of amino acid replacements within this patch indicated that the N-terminal subdomain integrates and transduces the signals coming from both subdomains to the transmembrane domain. Alterations in the phospholipid composition did not influence pH-dependent cadBA expression, and therefore, interplay of the acidic surface patch with the negatively charged headgroups is unlikely. Models are discussed according to which protonation of these acidic amino acid side chains reduces repulsive forces between the two subdomains and/or between two monomers within a CadC dimer and thereby enables receptor activation upon lowering of the environmental pH. PMID:21216950

  2. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  3. Differentiation of Regioisomeric Aromatic Ketocarboxylic Acids by Positive Mode Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Collision-Activated Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, Lucas M.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Gallardo, Vanessa A.; Habicht, Steven C.; Fu, Mingkun; Shea, Ryan C.; Mossman, Allen B.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-04-01

    Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS n ) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at different collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations.

  4. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data. PMID:27222917

  5. Synthetic glucocorticoids that dissociate transactivation and AP-1 transrepression exhibit antiinflammatory activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vayssière, B M; Dupont, S; Choquart, A; Petit, F; Garcia, T; Marchandeau, C; Gronemeyer, H; Resche-Rigon, M

    1997-08-01

    Some of the most potent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive agents are synthetic glucocorticoids. However, major side effects severely limit their therapeutic use. The development of improved glucocorticoid-based drugs will require the separation of beneficial from deleterious effects. One possibility toward this goal is to try to dissociate two main activities of glucocorticoids, i.e. transactivation and transrepression. Screening of a library of compounds using transactivation and AP-1 transrepression models in transiently transfected cells identified dissociated glucocorticoids, which exert strong AP-1 inhibition but little or no transactivation. Importantly, despite high ligand binding affinity, the prototypic dissociated compound, RU24858, acted as a weak agonist and did not efficiently antagonize dexamethasone-induced transcription in transfected cells. Similar results were obtained in hepatic HTC cells for the transactivation of the endogenous tyrosine amino transferase gene (TAT), which encodes one of the enzymes involved in the glucocorticoid-dependent stimulation of neoglucogenesis. To investigate whether dissociated glucocorticoids retained the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive potential of classic glucocorticoids, several in vitro and in vivo models were used. Indeed, secretion of the proinflammatory lymphokine interleukin-1beta was severely inhibited by dissociated glucocorticoids in human monocytic THP 1 cells. Moreover, in two in vivo models, these compounds exerted an antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activity as potent as that of the classic glucocorticoid prednisolone. These results may lead to an improvement of antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies and provide a novel concept for drug discovery. PMID:9259316

  6. Identification of epoxide functionalities in protonated monofunctional analytes by using ion/molecule reactions and collision-activated dissociation in different ion trap tandem mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Eismin, Ryan J; Fu, Mingkun; Yem, Sonoeun; Widjaja, Fanny; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2012-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method has been delineated for the identification of the epoxide functionalities in unknown monofunctional analytes. This method utilizes gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of protonated analytes with neutral trimethyl borate (TMB) followed by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trapping mass spectrometer (tested for a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and a linear quadrupole ion trap). The ion/molecule reaction involves proton transfer from the protonated analyte to TMB, followed by addition of the analyte to TMB and elimination of methanol. Based on literature, this reaction allows the general identification of oxygen-containing analytes. Vinyl and phenyl epoxides can be differentiated from other oxygen-containing analytes, including other epoxides, based on the loss of a second methanol molecule upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. The only other analytes found to undergo this elimination are some amides but they also lose O = B-R (R = group bound to carbonyl), which allows their identification. On the other hand, other epoxides can be differentiated from vinyl and phenyl epoxides and from other monofunctional analytes based on the loss of (CH(3)O)(2)BOH or formation of protonated (CH(3)O)(2)BOH upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. For propylene oxide and 2,3-dimethyloxirane, the (CH(3)O)(2)BOH fragment is more basic than the hydrocarbon fragment, and the diagnostic ion (CH(3)O)(2)BOH (2) (+) is formed. These reactions involve opening of the epoxide ring. The only other analytes found to undergo (CH(3)O)(2)BOH elimination are carboxylic acids, but they can be differentiated from the rest based on several published ion/molecule reaction methods. Similar results were obtained in the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:22002227

  7. Identification of Epoxide Functionalities in Protonated Monofunctional Analytes by Using Ion/Molecule Reactions and Collision-Activated Dissociation in Different Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eismin, Ryan J.; Fu, Mingkun; Yem, Sonoeun; Widjaja, Fanny; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2012-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method has been delineated for the identification of the epoxide functionalities in unknown monofunctional analytes. This method utilizes gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of protonated analytes with neutral trimethyl borate (TMB) followed by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trapping mass spectrometer (tested for a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and a linear quadrupole ion trap). The ion/molecule reaction involves proton transfer from the protonated analyte to TMB, followed by addition of the analyte to TMB and elimination of methanol. Based on literature, this reaction allows the general identification of oxygen-containing analytes. Vinyl and phenyl epoxides can be differentiated from other oxygen-containing analytes, including other epoxides, based on the loss of a second methanol molecule upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. The only other analytes found to undergo this elimination are some amides but they also lose O = B-R (R = group bound to carbonyl), which allows their identification. On the other hand, other epoxides can be differentiated from vinyl and phenyl epoxides and from other monofunctional analytes based on the loss of (CH3O)2BOH or formation of protonated (CH3O)2BOH upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. For propylene oxide and 2,3-dimethyloxirane, the (CH3O)2BOH fragment is more basic than the hydrocarbon fragment, and the diagnostic ion (CH3O)2BOH{2/+} is formed. These reactions involve opening of the epoxide ring. The only other analytes found to undergo (CH3O)2BOH elimination are carboxylic acids, but they can be differentiated from the rest based on several published ion/molecule reaction methods. Similar results were obtained in the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

  8. Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) CAD activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (Idaho Engineering Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B.

    1989-04-18

    June 1985 -- The drafting manager obtained approval to implement a cad system at the ICPP. He formed a committee to evaluate the various cad systems and recommend a system that would most benefit the ICPP. A PC'' (personal computer) based system using Autocad software was recommended in lieu of the much more expensive main frame based systems.

  9. Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) CAD activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (Idaho Engineering Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B.

    1989-04-18

    June 1985 -- The drafting manager obtained approval to implement a cad system at the ICPP. He formed a committee to evaluate the various cad systems and recommend a system that would most benefit the ICPP. A ``PC`` (personal computer) based system using Autocad software was recommended in lieu of the much more expensive main frame based systems.

  10. Active Thermochemical Tables: Sequential Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of Methane, Ethane, and Methanol and the Related Thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ruscic, Branko

    2015-07-16

    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) thermochemistry for the sequential bond dissociations of methane, ethane, and methanol systems were obtained by analyzing and solving a very large thermochemical network (TN). Values for all possible C-H, C-C, C-O, and O-H bond dissociation enthalpies at 298.15 K (BDE298) and bond dissociation energies at 0 K (D0) are presented. The corresponding ATcT standard gas-phase enthalpies of formation of the resulting CHn, n = 4-0 species (methane, methyl, methylene, methylidyne, and carbon atom), C2Hn, n = 6-0 species (ethane, ethyl, ethylene, ethylidene, vinyl, ethylidyne, acetylene, vinylidene, ethynyl, and ethynylene), and COHn, n = 4-0 species (methanol, hydroxymethyl, methoxy, formaldehyde, hydroxymethylene, formyl, isoformyl, and carbon monoxide) are also presented. The ATcT thermochemistry of carbon dioxide, water, hydroxyl, and carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms is also included, together with the sequential BDEs of CO2 and H2O. The provenances of the ATcT enthalpies of formation, which are quite distributed and involve a large number of relevant determinations, are analyzed by variance decomposition and discussed in terms of principal contributions. The underlying reasons for periodic appearances of remarkably low and/or unusually high BDEs, alternating along the dissociation sequences, are analyzed and quantitatively rationalized. The present ATcT results are the most accurate thermochemical values currently available for these species. PMID:25760799

  11. A Unified Kinetics and Equilibrium Experiment: Rate Law, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium Constant for the Dissociation of Ferroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) is the basis of a suite of four experiments spanning 5 weeks. Students determine the rate law, activation energy, and equilibrium constant for the dissociation of the complex ion in acid solution and base dissociation constant for phenanthroline. The focus on one chemical system simplifies a daunting set of…

  12. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Duplex DNA/Drug Complexes in a Quadrupole Ion Trap

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeffrey J.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Non-covalent duplex DNA/drug complexes formed between one of three 14-base pair non-self complementary duplexes with variable GC content and one of eight different DNA-interactive drugs are characterized by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), and the resulting spectra are compared to conventional collisional activated dissociation (CAD) mass spectra in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. IRMPD yielded comparable information to previously reported CAD results in which strand separation pathways dominate for complexes containing the more AT-rich sequences and/or minor groove binding drugs, whereas drug ejection pathways are prominent for complexes containing intercalating drugs and/or duplexes with higher GC base content. The large photoabsorptive cross-section of the phosphate backbone at 10.6 μm promotes highly efficient dissociation within short irradiation times (< 2 ms at 50 W) or using lower laser powers and longer irradiation times (< 15 W at 15 ms), activation times on par with or shorter than standard CAD experiments. This large photoabsorptivity leads to a controllable ion activation method which can be used to produce qualitatively similar spectra to CAD while minimizing uninformative base loss dissociation pathways or instead be tuned to yield a high degree of secondary fragmentation. Additionally, the low mass cut-off associated with conventional CAD plays no role in IRMPD, resulting in richer MS/MS information in the low m/z region. IRMPD is also used for multi-adduct dissociation in order to increase MS/MS sensitivity, and a two stage IRMPD/IRMPD method is demonstrated as a means to give specific DNA sequence information that would be useful when screening drug binding by mixtures of duplexes. PMID:17249688

  13. The relationship between childhood abuse and dissociation. Is it influenced by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity?

    PubMed

    Savitz, Jonathan B; van der Merwe, Lize; Newman, Timothy K; Solms, Mark; Stein, Dan J; Ramesar, Rajkumar S

    2008-03-01

    Dissociation is a failure of perceptual, memorial and emotional integration that is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dissociative processes are usually attributed to the sequelae of childhood trauma although there are data to suggest that genetic influences are also important. Bipolar disorder (BD), a condition with a strong genetic basis, has also been associated with early psychological trauma. Since childhood trauma is a risk factor for both BD and dissociation, we tested for potential gene-childhood abuse interactions on dissociation in a pilot sample of BD probands and their affected and unaffected relatives (n=178). Dissociation was measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES II) and childhood maltreatment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The BD and recurrent unipolar depression (MDE-R) groups showed higher levels of self-reported abuse and dissociation than their unaffected relatives. The low-activity Met allele of the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene was associated with lower levels of self-reported dissociation. Further, the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism interacted significantly with total CTQ abuse scores to impact perceived dissociation. The Val/Val genotype was associated with increasing levels of dissociation in participants exposed to higher levels of childhood trauma. The opposite was observed in people with Met/Met genotypes who displayed decreased dissociation with increasing self-reported childhood trauma. The current findings support the involvement of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in mediating the relationship between trauma and psychopathology. PMID:17608961

  14. Rheb Protein Binds CAD (Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, and Dihydroorotase) Protein in a GTP- and Effector Domain-dependent Manner and Influences Its Cellular Localization and Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase (CPSase) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-01

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. PMID:25422319

  15. Teaching for CAD Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    CAD (Computer Aided Design) has now become an integral part of Technology Education. The recent introduction of highly sophisticated, low-cost CAD software and CAM hardware capable of running on desktop computers has accelerated this trend. There is now quite widespread introduction of solid modeling CAD software into secondary schools but how…

  16. Amygdala activity contributes to the dissociative effect of cannabis on pain perception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael C; Ploner, Markus; Wiech, Katja; Bingel, Ulrike; Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Brooks, Jonathan; Menon, David K; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is reported to be remarkably effective for the relief of otherwise intractable pain. However, the bases for pain relief afforded by this psychotropic agent are debatable. Nonetheless, the frontal-limbic distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the brain suggests that cannabis may target preferentially the affective qualities of pain. This central mechanism of action may be relevant to cannabinoid analgesia in humans, but has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a naturally occurring cannabinoid, on brain activity related to cutaneous ongoing pain and hyperalgesia that were temporarily induced by capsaicin in healthy volunteers. On average, THC reduced the reported unpleasantness, but not the intensity of ongoing pain and hyperalgesia: the specific analgesic effect on hyperalgesia was substantiated by diminished activity in the anterior mid cingulate cortex. In individuals, the drug-induced reduction in the unpleasantness of hyperalgesia was positively correlated with right amygdala activity. THC also reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and primary sensorimotor areas during the ongoing-pain state. Critically, the reduction in sensory-limbic functional connectivity was positively correlated with the difference in drug effects on the unpleasantness and the intensity of ongoing pain. Peripheral mechanisms alone cannot account for the dissociative effects of THC on the pain that was observed. Instead, the data reveal that amygdala activity contributes to interindividual response to cannabinoid analgesia, and suggest that dissociative effects of THC in the brain are relevant to pain relief in humans. PMID:23273106

  17. Effective coordination number: A simple indicator of activation energies for NO dissociation on Rh(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Prasenjit; Pushpa, Raghani; Gironcoli, Stefano de

    2009-12-15

    We have used density-functional theory to compute the activation energy for the dissociation of NO on two physical and two hypothetical systems: unstrained and strained Rh(100) surfaces and monolayers of Rh atoms on strained and unstrained MgO(100) surfaces. We find that the activation energy, relative to the gas phase, is reduced when a monolayer of Rh is placed on MgO, due both to the chemical nature of the substrate and the strain imposed by the substrate. The former effect is the dominant one, though both effects are of the same order of magnitude. We find that both effects are encapsulated in a simple quantity which we term as the 'effective coordination number'(n{sub e}); the activation energy is found to vary linearly with n{sub e}. We have compared the performance of n{sub e} as a predictor of activation energy of NO dissociation on the above-mentioned Rh surfaces with the two well-established indicators, namely, the position of the d-band center and the coadsorption energy of N and O. We find that for the present systems n{sub e} performs as well as the other two indicators.

  18. Dissociating retrieval success from incidental encoding activity during emotional memory retrieval, in the medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Andrea T.; Dolcos, Florin

    2014-01-01

    The memory-enhancing effect of emotion has been linked to the engagement of emotion- and memory-related medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions (amygdala-AMY; hippocampus-HC; parahippocampus-PHC), during both encoding and retrieval. However, recognition tasks used to investigate the neural correlates of retrieval make it difficult to distinguish MTL engagement linked to retrieval success (RS) from that linked to incidental encoding success (ES) during retrieval. This issue has been investigated for retrieval of non-emotional memories, but not for emotional memory retrieval. To address this, we used event-related functional MRI in conjunction with an emotional distraction and two episodic memory tasks (one testing memory for distracter items and the other testing memory for new/lure items presented in the first memory task). This paradigm allowed for dissociation of MTL activity specifically linked to RS from that linked to both RS and incidental ES during retrieval. There were two novel findings regarding the neural correlates of emotional memory retrieval. First, greater emotional RS was identified bilaterally in AMY, HC, and PHC. However, AMY activity was most impacted when accounting for ES activity, as only RS activity in left AMY was dissociated from ES activity during retrieval, whereas portions of HC and PHC showing greater emotional RS were largely uninvolved in ES. Second, an earlier and more anteriorly spread response (left AMY and bilateral HC, PHC) was linked to greater emotional RS activity, whereas a later and more posteriorly localized response (right posterior PHC) was linked to greater neutral RS activity. These findings shed light on MTL mechanisms subserving the memory-enhancing effect of emotion at retrieval. PMID:24917798

  19. The Electrical Characteristics and Clinical Significance of the Effect of Adenosine on Dissociated Activity after Circumferential Venous Isolation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ya-Lei; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Feng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissociated activity can occur after circumferential thoracic vein isolation for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). However, its clinical significance and response to adenosine remain unclear. Methods Fifty-three patients (10 women, 11 with non-paroxysmal AF, with mean age 54.4 ± 11.2 years) with slow dissociated activity after thoracic vein isolation for AF ablation were analyzed. Adenosine (12 mg) was injected intravenously into 30 patients, and the responses of the dissociated activities were recorded. Results The clinical characteristics and the rate of recurrence did not differ between patients with and without dissociated activity. Dissociated activity was most frequently observed at the right superior pulmonary vein (PV) (61%), left superior PV (26%), right inferior PV (5%), left inferior PV (4%), and non-PV sites (4%). The locations of dissociated activities were associated with the AF trigger sites (p = 0.004). Adenosine injection decreased the cycle length of dissociated activity in 13 patients (group 1) and increased it in 17 patients (group 2). Dissociated activity disappeared in 7 patients (41%) (group 2) after adenosine injection. During the mean 33 ± 17 months of follow-up, group 2 patients had a lower AF recurrence rate (24%) than group 1 patients (62%) (p = 0.035). Conclusions The locations of dissociated activity were closely associated with the AF trigger sites. The responses to adenosine may predict AF recurrence in patients with dissociated activity. PMID:27122888

  20. Dissociation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and leg vascular resistance in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Herr, M. D.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the increase in inactive leg vascular resistance during forearm metaboreflex activation is dissociated from muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). MSNA (microneurography), femoral artery mean blood velocity (FAMBV, Doppler), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were assessed during fatiguing static handgrip exercise (SHG, 2 min) followed by posthandgrip ischemia (PHI, 2 min). Whereas both MAP and MSNA increase during SHG, the transition from SHG to PHI is characterized by a transient reduction in MAP but sustained elevation in MSNA, facilitating separation of these factors in vivo. Femoral artery vascular resistance (FAVR) was calculated (MAP/MBV). MSNA increased by 59 +/- 20% above baseline during SHG (P < 0.05) and was 58 +/- 18 and 78 +/- 18% above baseline at 10 and 20 s of PHI, respectively (P < 0.05 vs. baseline). Compared with baseline, FAVR increased 51 +/- 22% during SHG (P < 0.0001) but returned to baseline levels during the first 30 s of PHI, reflecting the changes in MAP (P < 0.005) and not MSNA. It was concluded that control of leg muscle vascular resistance is sensitive to changes in arterial pressure and can be dissociated from sympathetic factors.

  1. Developments in Power efficient dissociation of CO2 using non-equilibrium plasma activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Sanden, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Sustainable energy generation by means of, either photovoltaic conversion, concentrated solar power or wind, will certainly form a significant part of the energy mix in 2025. The intermittency as well as the temporal variation and the regional spread of this energy source, however, requires a means to store and transport energy on a large scale. In this presentation the means of storage will be addressed of sustainable energy transformed into fuels and the prominent role plasma science and technology can play in this great challenge. The storage of sustainable energy in these so called solar fuels, e.g. hydrocarbons and alcohols, by means of artificial photosynthesis from the feedstock CO2 and H2O, will enable a CO2 neutral power generation infrastructure, which is close to the present infrastructure based on fossil fuels. The challenge will be to achieve power efficient dissociation of CO2 or H2O or both, after which traditional chemical conversion (Fisher-Tropsch, Sabatier, etc.) towards fuels can take place. A promising route is the dissociation or activation of CO2 by means of plasma, possible combined with catalysis. Taking advantage of non-equilibrium plasma conditions to reach optimal energy efficiency we have started a solar fuels program at the beginning of 2012 focusing on CO2 plasma dissociation into CO and O2. The plasma is generated in a low loss microwave cavity with microwave powers up to 10 kW using a supersonic expansion to quench the plasma and prevent vibrational-translational relaxation losses. New ideas on the design of the facility and results on power efficient conversion (more then 50%) of large CO2 flows (up to 75 standard liter per minute with 11% conversion) at low gas temperatures will be presented.

  2. A force-activated trip switch triggers rapid dissociation of a colicin from its immunity protein.

    PubMed

    Farrance, Oliver E; Hann, Eleanore; Kaminska, Renata; Housden, Nicholas G; Derrington, Sasha R; Kleanthous, Colin; Radford, Sheena E; Brockwell, David J

    2013-01-01

    Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (K(d) ≈ fM, lifetime ≈ 4 days), immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9) and immunity protein 9 (Im9) complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (<20 pN) increases the rate of complex dissociation 10(6)-fold, to a timescale (lifetime ≈ 10 ms) compatible with intoxication. We term this catastrophic force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21-30) whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods. PMID:23431269

  3. Collisionally activated dissociation and electron capture dissociation of several mass spectrometry-identifiable chemical cross-linkers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saiful M; Munske, Gerhard R; Tang, Xiaoting; Bruce, James E

    2006-12-15

    One of the challenges in protein interaction studies with chemical cross-linking stems from the complexity of intra-, inter-, and dead-end cross-linked peptide mixtures. We have developed new cross-linkers to study protein-protein interactions with mass spectrometry to improve the ability to deal with this complexity. Even the accurate mass capabilities of FTICR-MS alone cannot unambiguously identify cross-linked peptides from cell-labeling experiments due to the complexity of these mixtures resultant from the enormous number of possible cross-linked species. We have developed novel cross-linkers that have unique fragmentation features in the gas phase. The characteristics of these cross-linkers combined with the accurate mass capability of FTICR-MS can help distinguish cross-linking reaction products and assign protein identities. These cross-linkers that we call protein interaction reporters (PIRs) have been constructed with two reactive groups attached through two bonds that can be preferentially cleaved by low-energy CID of the respective protonated precursor ions. After cleavage of the labile bonds, the middle part of the linker serves as a reporter ion to aid identification of cross-linked peptides. This report highlights three new PIRs with new features that have been developed to improve the efficiency of release of reporter ions. The new cross-linkers reported here were tuned with the addition of an affinity tag, a hydrophilic group, a photocleavable group, and new low-energy MS/MS cleavable bonds. This report presents our investigation of the MSMS fragmentation behavior of selected protonated ions of the new compounds. The comprehensive fragmentation of these PIRs and PIR-labeled cross-linked peptides with low-energy collisions and an example of electron capture dissociation in FTICR-MS is presented. These new cross-linkers will contribute to current systems biology research by allowing acquisition of global or large-scale data on protein

  4. Hemoglobin variants as models for investigation of dissociation of intact polypeptide chains by ESI tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Light, K.J.; Loo, J.A.; Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D.

    1991-06-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) is rapidly becoming a practical biochemical tool for peptide and protein sequence analysis. The utility of ESI-MS is through use of Collisionally Activated Dissociation (ESI-CAD-MS). Human hemoglobin (Hb, {approximately}62 kDa) consists of four polypeptide chains and a prosthetic heme group. There are over 400 Hb variants, characterized by amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta polypeptide chains. We investigated ESI-CAD-MS as a tool for rapidly analyzing amino acid substitutions, using eight Hb beta chain variants. The approximate location of the modification can be deduced from comparison of the CAD mass spectra and observance of the mass shifts of the fragment ion containing the substitution. Fragmentation occurs preferentially at the amino terminus of proline residues. For most substitutions, differences in CAD mass spectra were not seen. 2 figs.

  5. ARF1 activation dissociates ADRP from lipid droplets to promote HCV assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Yin, Peiqi; Zhou, Liya; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Leiliang

    2016-06-17

    Lipid droplets are the place for HCV assembly and ADRP is an abundant lipid droplets-associated protein. However, little is known about the mechanisms how ADRP is involved in HCV life cycle. Here we demonstrate that activation of ARF1 dissociates ADRP from lipid droplets. A constitute active form of ARF1 (ARF1Q71I) promotes HCV assembly. We found that ADRP plays a positive role in HCV replication and a negative role in HCV assembly. Overexpression of ADRP increases the size of lipid droplets, while silencing ADRP reduces the size of lipid droplets. These findings provide new insight into the role of lipid droplets proteins in life cycle of HCV. PMID:27157138

  6. Attentional Dissociation in Hypnosis And Neural Connectivity: Preliminary Evidence from Bilateral Electrodermal Activity.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr; Siroka, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    According to recent findings, interhemispheric interactions and information connectivity represent crucial mechanisms used in processing information across various sensory modalities. To study these interactions, the authors measured bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA) in 33 psychiatric outpatients. The results show that, during congruent Stroop stimuli in hypnosis, the patients with higher hypnotizability manifest a decreased level of interhemispheric information transfer measured by pointwise transinformation (PTI) that was calculated from left and right EDA records. These results show that specific shifts of attentional focus during hypnosis are related to changes of interhemispheric interactions that may be reflected in neural connectivity calculated from the bilateral EDA measurement. This attentional shift may cause dissociated attentional control disturbing integrative functions of consciousness and contextual experiences. PMID:27267677

  7. Determination of dissociation constants of pharmacologically active xanthones by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaomu; Gong, Suxuan; Bo, Tao; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2004-12-24

    In this article, the dissociation constants (pKa) of 10 pharmacologically active xanthones isolated from herbal medicine Securidaca inappendiculata were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detection. The pKa values determined by the method based on the electrophoretic mobilities (calculated from migration times) have been proved by the method based on UV absorbance calculated from the online spectra corresponding peaks. No conspicuous difference was observed between the two methods with acceptable reproducibility. Two pKa values (pKa1 and pKa2) were found for four xanthones while generally the 10 compounds possess the pKa values ranging from 6.4 to 9.2. PMID:15641365

  8. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Marcia K.; Raye, Carol L.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Touryan, Sharon R.; Greene, Erich J.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a ‘self’ and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participants thought about non-self-relevant items. Self-reflection resulted in greater activity than distraction in dorsomedial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, consistent with previous findings of activity in these areas during self-relevant thought. For additional medial areas, we report new evidence of a double dissociation of function between medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about hopes and aspirations, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about duties and obligations. One possibility is that activity in medial prefrontal cortex is associated with instrumental or agentic self-reflection, whereas posterior medial cortex is associated with experiential self-reflection. Another, not necessarily mutually exclusive, possibility is that medial prefrontal cortex is associated with a more inward-directed focus, while posterior cingulate is associated with a more outward-directed, social or contextual focus. PMID:18574518

  9. Spatiotemporal dissociation of brain activity underlying subjective awareness, objective performance and confidence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hill, Zachary; He, Biyu J

    2014-03-19

    Despite intense recent research, the neural correlates of conscious visual perception remain elusive. The most established paradigm for studying brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception is to keep the physical sensory inputs constant and identify brain activities that correlate with the changing content of conscious awareness. However, such a contrast based on conscious content alone would not only reveal brain activities directly contributing to conscious perception, but also include brain activities that precede or follow it. To address this issue, we devised a paradigm whereby we collected, trial-by-trial, measures of objective performance, subjective awareness, and the confidence level of subjective awareness. Using magnetoencephalography recordings in healthy human volunteers, we dissociated brain activities underlying these different cognitive phenomena. Our results provide strong evidence that widely distributed slow cortical potentials (SCPs) correlate with subjective awareness, even after the effects of objective performance and confidence were both removed. The SCP correlate of conscious perception manifests strongly in its waveform, phase, and power. In contrast, objective performance and confidence were both contributed by relatively transient brain activity. These results shed new light on the brain mechanisms of conscious, unconscious, and metacognitive processing. PMID:24647958

  10. Dissociation of Subjectively Reported and Behaviorally Indexed Mind Wandering by EEG Rhythmic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jungang; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Inattention to current activity is ubiquitous in everyday situations. Mind wandering is an example of such a state, and its related brain areas have been examined in the literature. However, there is no clear evidence regarding neural rhythmic activities linked to mind wandering. Using a vigilance task with thought sampling and electroencephalography recording, the current study simultaneously examined neural oscillatory activities related to subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering. By implementing time-frequency analysis, we found that subjectively reported mind wandering, relative to behaviorally indexed, showed increased gamma band activity at bilateral frontal-central areas. By means of beamformer source imaging, we found subjectively reported mind wandering within the gamma band to be characterized by increased activation in bilateral frontal cortices, supplemental motor area, paracentral cortex and right inferior temporal cortex in comparison to behaviorally indexed mind wandering. These findings dissociate subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering and suggest that a higher degree of executive control processes are engaged in subjectively reported mind wandering. PMID:21915257

  11. Dissociable correlates of response conflict and error awareness in error-related brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Gethin; Yeung, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Errors in speeded decision tasks are associated with characteristic patterns of brain activity. In the scalp-recorded EEG, error processing is reflected in two components, the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). These components have been widely studied, but debate remains regarding the precise aspects of error processing they reflect. The present study investigated the relation between the ERN and Pe using a novel version of the flanker task to allow a comparison between errors reflecting different causes—response conflict versus stimulus masking. The conflict and mask conditions were matched for overall behavioural performance but differed in underlying response dynamics, as indexed by response time distributions and measures of lateralised motor activity. ERN amplitude varied in relation to these differing response dynamics, being significantly larger in the conflict condition compared to the mask condition. Furthermore, differences in response dynamics between participants were predictive of modulations in ERN amplitude. In contrast, Pe activity varied little between conditions, but varied across trials in relation to participants‘ awareness of their errors. Taken together, these findings suggest a dissociation between the ERN and Pe, with the former reflecting the dynamics of response selection and conflict, and the latter reflecting conscious recognition of an error. PMID:21130788

  12. Dissociated wake-like and sleep-like electro-cortical activity during sleep.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Lino; Ferrara, Michele; Moroni, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Russo, Giorgio Lo; Campus, Claudio; Cardinale, Francesco; De Carli, Fabrizio

    2011-09-15

    Sleep is traditionally considered a global process involving the whole brain. However, recent studies have shown that sleep depth is not evenly distributed within the brain. Sleep disorders, such as sleepwalking, also suggest that EEG features of sleep and wakefulness might be simultaneously present in different cerebral regions. In order to probe the coexistence of dissociated (wake-like and sleep-like) electrophysiological behaviors within the sleeping brain, we analyzed intracerebral electroencephalographic activity drawn from sleep recordings of five patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy without sleep disturbances, who underwent pre-surgical intracerebral electroencephalographic investigation. We applied spectral and wavelet transform analysis techniques to electroencephalographic data recorded from scalp and intracerebral electrodes localized within the Motor cortex (Mc) and the dorso-lateral Prefrontal cortex (dlPFc). The Mc showed frequent Local Activations (lasting from 5 to more than 60s) characterized by an abrupt interruption of the sleep electroencephalographic slow waves pattern and by the appearance of a wake-like electroencephalographic high frequency pattern (alpha and/or beta rhythm). Local activations in the Mc were paralleled by a deepening of sleep in other regions, as expressed by the concomitant increase of slow waves in the dlPFc and scalp electroencephalographic recordings. These results suggest that human sleep can be characterized by the coexistence of wake-like and sleep-like electroencephalographic patterns in different cortical areas, supporting the hypothesis that unusual phenomena, such as NREM parasomnias, could result from an imbalance of these two states. PMID:21718789

  13. Brain activity for chronic knee osteoarthritis: dissociating evoked pain from spontaneous pain

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Elle L.; Geha, Paul Y.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Katz, Jeffrey; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA), yet little is known about its properties and representation in the brain. Here we use fMRI combined with psychophysics to study knee pain in 14 OA patients and 9 healthy controls. Mechanical painful pressure stimuli were applied to the knee in both groups and ratings of evoked pain and related brain activity examined. We observe that psychophysical properties and brain activation patterns of evoked pain are essentially the same between OA patients and healthy subjects, and between worse and better OA knees. In OA patients, stimulus-related brain activity could be distinguished from brain activity associated with spontaneous pain. The former activated brain regions commonly observed for acute painful stimuli in healthy subjects, while the spontaneous pain of OA engaged prefrontal-limbic regions closely corresponding to areas observed for spontaneous pain in other chronic pain conditions, such as chronic back pain and post-herpetic neuralgia. Arthritis-related clinical characteristics of knee OA also mapped to prefrontal-limbic regions. In a subgroup of patients (n = 6) we examined brain activity changes for a 2-week, repeat measure, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (valdecoxib) therapy. Treatment decreased spontaneous pain for the worse knee and clinical characteristics of OA, and increased blood and csf levels of the drug which correlated positively with prefrontal-limbic brain activity. These findings indicate dissociation between mechanically induced and spontaneous OA knee pain, the latter engaging brain regions involved in emotional assessment of the self, and challenge the standard clinical view regarding the nature of OA pain. PMID:21315627

  14. Direct dynamics simulation of the activation and dissociation of 1,5-dinitrobiuret (HDNB).

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Siebert, Matthew R; Xu, Lai; Chambreau, Steven D; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyan L; Lischka, Hans; Liu, Jianbo; Hase, William L

    2014-03-27

    Certain room-temperature ionic liquids exhibit hypergolic activity as liquid bipropellants. Understanding the chemical pathways and reaction mechanisms associated with hypergolic ignition is important for designing new fuels. It has been proposed (J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 7816) that an important ignition step for the hypergolic ionic liquid bipropellant system of dicyanamide/nitric acid is the activation and dissociation of the 1,5-dinitrobiuret anion DNB(-). For the work reported here, a quasiclassical direct dynamics simulation, at the DFT/M05-2X level of theory, was performed to model H(+) + DNB(-) association and the ensuing unimolecular decomposition of HDNB. This association step is 324 kcal/mol exothermic, and the most probable collision event is for H(+) to directly scatter off of DNB(-), without sufficient energy transfer to DNB(-) for H(+) to associate and form a highly vibrationally excited HDNB molecule. Approximately 1/3 of the trajectories do form HDNB, which decomposes by eight different reaction paths and whose unimolecular dynamics is highly nonstatistical. Some of these paths are the same as those found in a direct dynamics simulation of the high-temperature thermal decomposition of HDNB (J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 8064), for a similar total energy. PMID:24571276

  15. CAD/CAM/CNC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, Dave; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Quick Start CNC (computer numerical control) with a Vacuum Filter and Laminated Plastic" (Domermuth); "School and Industry Cooperate for Mutual Benefit" (Buckler); and "CAD (computer-assisted drafting) Careers--What Professionals Have to Say" (Skinner). (JOW)

  16. Dopamine-induced dissociation of BOLD and neural activity in macaque visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, Daniel; Rauch, Alexander; Whittingstall, Kevin; Logothetis, Nikos K; Goense, Jozien

    2014-12-01

    Neuromodulators determine how neural circuits process information during cognitive states such as wakefulness, attention, learning, and memory. fMRI can provide insight into their function and dynamics, but their exact effect on BOLD responses remains unclear, limiting our ability to interpret the effects of changes in behavioral state using fMRI. Here, we investigated the effects of dopamine (DA) injections on neural responses and haemodynamic signals in macaque primary visual cortex (V1) using fMRI (7T) and intracortical electrophysiology. Aside from DA's involvement in diseases such as Parkinson's and schizophrenia, it also plays a role in visual perception. We mimicked DAergic neuromodulation by systemic injection of L-DOPA and Carbidopa (LDC) or by local application of DA in V1 and found that systemic application of LDC increased the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and amplitude of the visually evoked neural responses in V1. However, visually induced BOLD responses decreased, whereas cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses increased. This dissociation of BOLD and CBF suggests that dopamine increases energy metabolism by a disproportionate amount relative to the CBF response, causing the reduced BOLD response. Local application of DA in V1 had no effect on neural activity, suggesting that the dopaminergic effects are mediated by long-range interactions. The combination of BOLD-based and CBF-based fMRI can provide a signature of dopaminergic neuromodulation, indicating that the application of multimodal methods can improve our ability to distinguish sensory processing from neuromodulatory effects. PMID:25456449

  17. Carbon dioxide activation and dissociation on ceria (110): A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Sherman, Brent J.; Lo, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Ceria (CeO2) is a promising catalyst for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to liquid fuels and commodity chemicals, in part because of its high oxygen storage capacity, yet the fundamentals of CO2 adsorption, activation, and reduction on ceria surfaces remain largely unknown. We use density functional theory, corrected for onsite Coulombic interactions (GGA+U), to explore various adsorption sites and configurations for CO2 on stoichiometric and reduced ceria (110), the latter with either an in-plane oxygen vacancy or a split oxygen vacancy. We find that CO2 adsorption on both reduced ceria (110) surfaces is thermodynamically favored over the corresponding adsorption on stoichiometric ceria (110), but the most stable adsorption configuration consists of CO2 adsorbed parallel to the reduced ceria (110) surface at a split oxygen vacancy. Structural changes in the CO2 molecule are also observed upon adsorption. At the split vacancy, the molecule bends out of plane to form a unidentate carbonate with the remaining oxygen anion at the surface; this is in stark contrast to the bridged carbonate observed for CO2 adsorption at the in-plane vacancy. Also, we analyze the pathways for CO2 conversion to CO on reduced ceria (110). The subtle difference in the energies of activation for the elementary steps suggest that CO2 dissociation is favored on the split vacancy, while the reverse process of CO oxidation may favor the formation of the in-plane vacancy. We thus show how the structure and properties of the ceria catalyst govern the mechanism of CO2 activation and reduction.

  18. Dissociated functional significance of decision-related activity in the primate dorsal stream.

    PubMed

    Katz, Leor N; Yates, Jacob L; Pillow, Jonathan W; Huk, Alexander C

    2016-07-14

    During decision making, neurons in multiple brain regions exhibit responses that are correlated with decisions. However, it remains uncertain whether or not various forms of decision-related activity are causally related to decision making. Here we address this question by recording and reversibly inactivating the lateral intraparietal (LIP) and middle temporal (MT) areas of rhesus macaques performing a motion direction discrimination task. Neurons in area LIP exhibited firing rate patterns that directly resembled the evidence accumulation process posited to govern decision making, with strong correlations between their response fluctuations and the animal's choices. Neurons in area MT, in contrast, exhibited weak correlations between their response fluctuations and choices, and had firing rate patterns consistent with their sensory role in motion encoding. The behavioural impact of pharmacological inactivation of each area was inversely related to their degree of decision-related activity: while inactivation of neurons in MT profoundly impaired psychophysical performance, inactivation in LIP had no measurable impact on decision-making performance, despite having silenced the very clusters that exhibited strong decision-related activity. Although LIP inactivation did not impair psychophysical behaviour, it did influence spatial selection and oculomotor metrics in a free-choice control task. The absence of an effect on perceptual decision making was stable over trials and sessions and was robust to changes in stimulus type and task geometry, arguing against several forms of compensation. Thus, decision-related signals in LIP do not appear to be critical for computing perceptual decisions, and may instead reflect secondary processes. Our findings highlight a dissociation between decision correlation and causation, showing that strong neuron-decision correlations do not necessarily offer direct access to the neural computations underlying decisions. PMID:27376476

  19. Dissociation of the carbohydrate-binding and splicing activities of galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Voss, Patricia G; Gray, Richard M; Dickey, Seth W; Wang, Weizhong; Park, Jung W; Kasai, Ken-Ichi; Hirabayashi, Jun; Patterson, Ronald J; Wang, John L

    2008-10-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal1) and galectin-3 (Gal3) are two members of a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins that are found in the nucleus and that participate in pre-mRNA splicing assayed in a cell-free system. When nuclear extracts (NE) of HeLa cells were subjected to adsorption on a fusion protein containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Gal3, the general transcription factor II-I (TFII-I) was identified by mass spectrometry as one of the polypeptides specifically bound. Lactose and other saccharide ligands of the galectins inhibited GST-Gal3 pull-down of TFII-I while non-binding carbohydrates failed to yield the same effect. Similar results were also obtained using GST-Gal1. Site-directed mutants of Gal1, expressed and purified as GST fusion proteins, were compared with the wild-type (WT) in three assays: (a) binding to asialofetuin-Sepharose as a measure of the carbohydrate-binding activity; (b) pull-down of TFII-I from NE; and (c) reconstitution of splicing in NE depleted of galectins as a test of the in vitro splicing activity. The binding of GST-Gal1(N46D) to asialofetuin-Sepharose was less than 10% of that observed for GST-Gal1(WT), indicating that the mutant was deficient in carbohydrate-binding activity. In contrast, both GST-Gal1(WT) and GST-Gal1(N46D) were equally efficient in pull-down of TFII-I and in reconstitution of splicing activity in the galectin-depleted NE. Moreover, while the splicing activity of the wild-type protein can be inhibited by saccharide ligands, the carbohydrate-binding deficient mutant was insensitive to such inhibition. Together, all of the results suggest that the carbohydrate-binding and the splicing activities of Gal1 can be dissociated and therefore, saccharide-binding, per se, is not required for the splicing activity. PMID:18662664

  20. Optimized dissociation protocol for isolating human glioma stem cells from tumorspheres via fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Lv, Donglai; Ma, Qing-Hua; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Wu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xi-Long; Yu, Shi-Cang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2016-07-10

    Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the surface marker CD133 is the most common method for isolating glioma stem cells (GSCs) from heterogeneous glioma cell populations. Optimization of this method will have profound implications for the future of GSC research. Five commonly used digestion reagents, Liberase-TL, trypsin, TrypLE, Accutase, and non-enzymatic cell dissociation solution (NECDS), were used to dissociate glioma tumorspheres derived from two primary glioma specimens (091214 and 090116) and the cell lines U87 and T98G. The dissociation time, cell viability, retention of CD133, and stemness capacity were assessed. The results showed that single cells derived from the Liberase-TL (200 µg/ml) group exhibited high viability and less damage to the antigen CD133. However, the efficiency of NECDS for dissociating the tumorspheres into single cells was fairly low. Meanwhile, the use of this digestion reagent resulted in obvious cellular and antigenic impairments. Taken together, Liberase-TL (200 µg/ml) is an ideal reagent for isolating GSCs from tumorspheres. In contrast, the use of NECDS for such a protocol should be carefully considered. PMID:27091400

  1. Dissociative simple ionization of two active electron diatomic systems by fast electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmidi, N.; Joulakian, B.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative (e, 2e) ionization of diatomic hydrogen and lithium by fast electrons is studied theoretically as a vertical transition from the lowest vibrational and rotational level of the fundamental electronic state 1Σ+g of H2 (and Li2) to the first dissociative 2Σu state of H2+ (and Li2+). After verification of the perturbative procedure in the non-dissociative case, for which experimental and theoretical results exist, the variation of the multiply differential cross section of the dissociative ionization is studied in a variety of situations to show the particularities of this process and motivate actually realizable complete experiments, which can detect the scattered and ejected electrons in coincidence with the bare detached nucleus. Our results show that the dynamically well understood behaviour in the case of simple (e, 2e) ionization breaks down in the dissociative case, because of the increasing influence of the electron-electron correlation of the two target electrons.

  2. Postmortem changes in actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation and endogenous enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Deng, Shaoying; Xu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-15

    The changes of actomyosin, proteolytic activities and myofibril fragmentation during the postmortem aging of grass carp were studied. The study revealed dramatically increased actomyosin dissociation within 6 h of storage postmortem in grass carp, and it was associated with the drop of pH from 6.9 to 6.7, while liberated actin remained almost unchanged after 6 h postmortem. The myofibril fragmentation also increased significantly with the storage time in 6 h, and a highly positive correlation (P<0.01) existed between MFI and cathepsin B, D, H activities. The study indicated both actomyosin dissociation and cathepsin B, D, H played a role in postmortem tenderization and textural changes in grass carp. PMID:26616958

  3. The EJC Binding and Dissociating Activity of PYM Is Regulated in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay; Obrdlik, Ales; Marchand, Virginie; Ephrussi, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA processing events in the nucleus influence the fate of transcripts in the cytoplasm. The multi-protein exon junction complex (EJC) associates with mRNAs concomitant with splicing in the nucleus and plays important roles in export, translation, surveillance and localization of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. In mammalian cells, the ribosome associated protein PYM (HsPYM) binds the Y14-Mago heterodimer moiety of the EJC core, and disassembles EJCs, presumably during the pioneer round of translation. However, the significance of the association of the EJC with mRNAs in a physiological context has not been tested and the function of PYM in vivo remains unknown. Here we address PYM function in Drosophila, where the EJC core proteins are genetically required for oskar mRNA localization during oogenesis. We provide evidence that the EJC binds oskar mRNA in vivo. Using an in vivo transgenic approach, we show that elevated amounts of the Drosophila PYM (DmPYM) N-terminus during oogenesis cause dissociation of EJCs from oskar RNA, resulting in its mislocalization and consequent female sterility. We find that, in contrast to HsPYM, DmPYM does not interact with the small ribosomal subunit and dismantles EJCs in a translation-independent manner upon over-expression. Biochemical analysis shows that formation of the PYM-Y14-Mago ternary complex is modulated by the PYM C-terminus revealing that DmPYM function is regulated in vivo. Furthermore, we find that whereas under normal conditions DmPYM is dispensable, its loss of function is lethal to flies with reduced y14 or mago gene dosage. Our analysis demonstrates that the amount of DmPYM relative to the EJC proteins is critical for viability and fertility. This, together with the fact that the EJC-disassembly activity of DmPYM is regulated, implicates PYM as an effector of EJC homeostasis in vivo. PMID:24967911

  4. Dissociation of bactericidal activity from other functions of activated macrophages in exudates induced by thioglycolate medium.

    PubMed Central

    Spitalny, G L

    1981-01-01

    Macrophages displayed increased spreading, increased Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis, and increased secretion of plasminogen activator when collected from the peritoneal cavities of either Listeria-immune mice challenged intraperitoneally 3 days earlier with Listeria or nonimmune mice injected intraperitoneally 3 days earlier with fluid thioglycolate medium. In contrast, macrophages from the thioglycolate-induced peritoneal exudates were severely impaired in vitro in their ability to destroy Listeria. Injection of thioglycolate markedly interfered with the destruction of sublethal intraperitoneal challenge of Listeria, which resulted in nonimmune animals dying of an overwhelming systemic infection. In animals immune to Listeria, injection of thioglycolate delayed the onset of the expression of immunity to an intraperitoneal challenge of bacteria. The thioglycolate-induced suppression of bactericidal activity was determined to be confined to the site of injection. Results of experiments indicated that the colloidal agar in thioglycolate medium was the cause of the impairment of macrophage bactericidal activity. In addition to the impairment of bactericidal activity induced by agar, additional studies showed that an intraperitoneal injection of colloidal agar (0.075% wt/vol) by itself was a sufficient inflammatory stimulus for the accumulation of a large number of host phagocytic cells. Images PMID:6795125

  5. Characterization of the hyperpolarization-activated chloride current in dissociated rat sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed

    Clark, S; Jordt, S E; Jentsch, T J; Mathie, A

    1998-02-01

    1. Dissociated rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons have been shown to possess a hyperpolarization-activated inwardly rectifying chloride current. The current was not altered by changes in external potassium concentration, replacing external cations with NMDG (N-methyl-D-glucamine) or by addition of 10 mM caesium or barium ions. 2. The reversal potential of the current was altered by changing external anions. The anion selectivity of the current was Cl- > Br- > I- > cyclamate. All substituted permeant anions also blocked the current. 3. The current was blocked by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid), 9AC (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid) and NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) but was unaffected by SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene- 2,2'-disulphonic acid) and niflumic acid. The effective blockers were voltage dependent; DIDS and NPPB were more effective at depolarized potentials while 9AC was more effective at hyperpolarized potentials. 4. The current was enhanced by extracellular acidification and reduced by extracellular alkalinization. Reducing external osmolarity was without effect in conventional whole-cell recording but enhanced current amplitude in those perforated-patch recordings where little current was evident in control external solution. 5. The current in SCG neurons was blocked by external cadmium and zinc. ClC-2 chloride currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes were also sensitive to block by these divalent ions and by DIDS but the sensitivity of ClC-2 to block by cadmium ions was lower than that of the current in SCG neurons. 6. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments showed the presence of mRNA for ClC-2 in SCG neurons but not in rat cerebellar granule cells which do not possess a hyperpolarization-activated Cl- current. 7. The data suggest that ClC-2 may be functionally expressed in rat SCG neurons. This current may play a role in regulating the internal chloride

  6. Can Si-doped graphene activate or dissociate O2 molecule?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Xiao-chun; Liu, Yue-jie; Zhao, Jing-xiang; Cai, Qing-hai; Wang, Xuan-zhang

    2013-02-01

    Recently, the adsorption and dissociation of oxygen molecule on a metal-free catalyst has attracted considerable attention due to the fundamental and industrial importance. In the present work, we have investigated the adsorption and dissociation of O(2) molecule on pristine and silicon-doped graphene, using density functional theory calculations. We found that O(2) is firstly adsorbed on Si-doped graphene by [2+1] or [2+2] cycloaddition, with adsorption energies of -1.439 and -0.856eV, respectively. Following this, the molecularly adsorbed O(2) can be dissociated in different pathways. In the most favorable reaction path, the dissociation barrier of adsorbed O(2) is significantly reduced from 3.180 to 0.206eV due to the doping of silicon into graphene. Our results may be useful to further develop effective metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs), thus greatly widening the potential applications of graphene. PMID:23261882

  7. Teach CAD and Measuring Skills through Reverse Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a reverse engineering activity that gives students hands-on, minds-on experience with measuring tools, machine parts, and CAD. The author developed this activity to give students an abundance of practical experience with measuring tools. Equally important, it provides a good interface between the virtual world of CAD 3D…

  8. The VE/CAD synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, R.B.

    1993-03-19

    Value Engineering (VE) and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) can be used synergistically to reduce costs and improve facilities designs. The cost and schedule impacts of implementing alternative design ideas developed by VE teams can be greatly reduced when the drawings have been produced with interactive CAD systems. To better understand the interrelationship between VE and CAD, the fundamentals of the VE process are explained; and example of a VE proposal is described and the way CAD drawings facilitated its implementation is illustrated.

  9. A comparative study of Dissociative Ionization of N2 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Amrendra; Bapat, B.; Shamsundar, K. R.

    2014-04-01

    A comparative study on the properties of charge symmetric dissociation (CSD) and charge asymmetric dissociation (CAD) of doubly ionized N2 and CO is performed. Kinetic energy release (KER) distributions resulting from the dissociation of doubly charged molecular ions are explained on the basis of calculated potential energy curves.

  10. Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Three Switchgrass CADs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin content of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cell walls is a negative trait for conversion of biomass into liquid fuels. One of the key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis is cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). In this study, we have shown that CAD activity and protein levels decrease minimall...

  11. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  12. Unimolecular dissociation dynamics of vibrationally activated CH3CHOO Criegee intermediates to OH radical products.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Nathanael M; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaohong; Bowman, Joel M; Lester, Marsha I

    2016-05-01

    The hydroxyl radical is an important atmospheric oxidant, and a significant source of its production occurs through alkene ozonolysis. This takes place via a cycloaddition reaction and subsequent fragmentation to form an energized carbonyl oxide (for example, CH3CHOO), known as a Criegee intermediate, which can then either react with another atmospheric species or decay and, in doing so, produce the hydroxyl radical. Here, we examine the dissociation dynamics of a prototypical Criegee intermediate by characterizing the translational and internal energy distributions of the OH radical products, which reflect critical configurations along the reaction pathway. Experimentally, the kinetic energy release to OH products is ascertained through velocity map imaging. Theoretically, quasi-classical trajectories are performed on a new full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy surface. Both experiment and theory show that most of the available energy flows into internal excitation of the vinoxy products. The isotropic angular distribution of OH fragments indicates that dissociation occurs in ≥2 ps, in agreement with theory. PMID:27102686

  13. Unimolecular dissociation dynamics of vibrationally activated CH3CHOO Criegee intermediates to OH radical products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Nathanael M.; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaohong; Bowman, Joel M.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2016-05-01

    The hydroxyl radical is an important atmospheric oxidant, and a significant source of its production occurs through alkene ozonolysis. This takes place via a cycloaddition reaction and subsequent fragmentation to form an energized carbonyl oxide (for example, CH3CHOO), known as a Criegee intermediate, which can then either react with another atmospheric species or decay and, in doing so, produce the hydroxyl radical. Here, we examine the dissociation dynamics of a prototypical Criegee intermediate by characterizing the translational and internal energy distributions of the OH radical products, which reflect critical configurations along the reaction pathway. Experimentally, the kinetic energy release to OH products is ascertained through velocity map imaging. Theoretically, quasi-classical trajectories are performed on a new full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy surface. Both experiment and theory show that most of the available energy flows into internal excitation of the vinoxy products. The isotropic angular distribution of OH fragments indicates that dissociation occurs in ≥2 ps, in agreement with theory.

  14. Shape optimization and CAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, John

    1990-01-01

    Structural optimization has attracted the attention since the days of Galileo. Olhoff and Taylor have produced an excellent overview of the classical research within this field. However, the interest in structural optimization has increased greatly during the last decade due to the advent of reliable general numerical analysis methods and the computer power necessary to use them efficiently. This has created the possibility of developing general numerical systems for shape optimization. Several authors, eg., Esping; Braibant & Fleury; Bennet & Botkin; Botkin, Yang, and Bennet; and Stanton have published practical and successful applications of general optimization systems. Ding and Homlein have produced extensive overviews of available systems. Furthermore, a number of commercial optimization systems based on well-established finite element codes have been introduced. Systems like ANSYS, IDEAS, OASIS, and NISAOPT are widely known examples. In parallel to this development, the technology of computer aided design (CAD) has gained a large influence on the design process of mechanical engineering. The CAD technology has already lived through a rapid development driven by the drastically growing capabilities of digital computers. However, the systems of today are still considered as being only the first generation of a long row of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems. These systems to come will offer an integrated environment for design, analysis, and fabrication of products of almost any character. Thus, the CAD system could be regarded as simply a database for geometrical information equipped with a number of tools with the purpose of helping the user in the design process. Among these tools are facilities for structural analysis and optimization as well as present standard CAD features like drawing, modeling, and visualization tools. The state of the art of structural optimization is that a large amount of mathematical and mechanical techniques are

  15. Mechanical Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Gerald R.

    This instructor's manual contains 13 units of instruction for a course on mechanical drafting with options for using computer-aided drafting (CAD). Each unit includes some or all of the following basic components of a unit of instruction: objective sheet, suggested activities for the teacher, assignment sheets and answers to assignment sheets,…

  16. Understanding the enhanced catalytic activity of Cu1@Pd3(111) in formic acid dissociation, a theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Li, Kai; Xie, Guangyou; Wang, Ying; Jiao, Menggai; Tang, Hao; Wu, Zhijian

    2016-06-01

    The bimetallic Cu1@Pd3(111) catalyst has been synthesized recently and exhibits better catalytic activity and durability compared with pure Pd(111) as anode catalyst in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). In this work, we studied the reaction mechanism of formic acid dissociation on both Pd(111) and Cu1@Pd3(111) by using the density functional method. Our calculations showed that the surface adsorption of the poisoning species CO on Cu1@Pd3(111) is weakened mainly by the strain effect rather than the Cusbnd Pd ligand effect. The Cu1@Pd3(111) can effectively promote the catalytic activity for formic acid dissociation by decreasing the barrier of CO2 formation from the preferential trans-COOH intermediate and increasing the barrier of CO formation from the reduction of CO2. We found that the H atom accumulation, electron accumulation and low electrode potential could accelerate the catalyst deactivation due to the contamination of the poisoning species CO. Furthermore, under low anode potential, the Cu1@Pd3(111) has better durability than pure Pd(111), which can be attributed to the unfavorable CO formation and the favorable CO desorption.

  17. Dissociation between Neural Signatures of Stimulus and Choice in Population Activity of Human V1 during Perceptual Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Kyoung Whan; Blake, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Primary visual cortex (V1) forms the initial cortical representation of objects and events in our visual environment, and it distributes information about that representation to higher cortical areas within the visual hierarchy. Decades of work have established tight linkages between neural activity occurring in V1 and features comprising the retinal image, but it remains debatable how that activity relates to perceptual decisions. An actively debated question is the extent to which V1 responses determine, on a trial-by-trial basis, perceptual choices made by observers. By inspecting the population activity of V1 from human observers engaged in a difficult visual discrimination task, we tested one essential prediction of the deterministic view: choice-related activity, if it exists in V1, and stimulus-related activity should occur in the same neural ensemble of neurons at the same time. Our findings do not support this prediction: while cortical activity signifying the variability in choice behavior was indeed found in V1, that activity was dissociated from activity representing stimulus differences relevant to the task, being advanced in time and carried by a different neural ensemble. The spatiotemporal dynamics of population responses suggest that short-term priors, perhaps formed in higher cortical areas involved in perceptual inference, act to modulate V1 activity prior to stimulus onset without modifying subsequent activity that actually represents stimulus features within V1. PMID:24523561

  18. Spondylopelvic dissociation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew P; Smith, Harvey E; Schuster, James M; Donegan, Derek; Mehta, Samir; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-01-01

    Spondylopelvic dissociation is a complex injury pattern resulting in multiplanar instability of the lumbopelvis. These injuries have traditionally been known as "suicide jumper's fractures" and have recently increased in prevalence as a result of under-vehicle explosions seen in the past decade of military conflicts in the Middle East. The hallmarks of spondylopelvic dissociation are bilateral vertical sacral fractures with a horizontal component, resulting in lumbosacral instability in the sagittal and axial planes. Surgical treatment has evolved greatly and both percutaneous and open options are available, with triangular osteosynthesis being the most relied on method of fixation. PMID:24267208

  19. CAD/CAE Integration Enhanced by New CAD Services Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.

    2002-01-01

    A Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a computer interface standard for accessing data from computer-aided design (CAD) systems. The Object Management Group, an international computer standards organization, has adopted this CAD services standard. The new standard allows software (e.g., computer-aided engineering (CAE) and computer-aided manufacturing software to access multiple CAD systems through one programming interface. The interface is built on top of a distributed computing system called the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). CORBA allows the CAD services software to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment.

  20. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  1. CAD for small hydro projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, N.A. Jr. )

    1994-04-01

    Over the past decade, computer-aided design (CAD) has become a practical and economical design tool. Today, specifying CAD hardware and software is relatively easy once you know what the design requirements are. But finding experienced CAD professionals is often more difficult. Most CAD users have only two or three years of design experience; more experienced design personnel are frequently not CAD literate. However, effective use of CAD can be the key to lowering design costs and improving design quality--a quest familiar to every manager and designer. By emphasizing computer-aided design literacy at all levels of the firm, a Canadian joint-venture company that specializes in engineering small hydroelectric projects has cut costs, become more productive and improved design quality. This article describes how they did it.

  2. Computerized design of CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, B. E.; Pham, T. A.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized ballistic design technique for CAD/PAD is described by which a set of ballistic design parameters are determined, all of which satisfy a particular performance requirement. In addition, the program yields the remaining performance predictions, so that only a very few computer runs of the design program can quickly bring the ballistic design within the specification limits prescribed. An example is presented for a small propulsion device, such as a remover or actuator, for which the input specifications define a maximum allowable thrust and minimum end-of-stroke velocity. The resulting output automatically satisfies the input requirements, and will always yield an acceptable ballistic design.

  3. Dissociating effects of spatial learning from locomotor activity for ouabain-induced bipolar disorder-like rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chou; Wang, En-Nan; Wang, Chia-Chuan; Huang, Chung-Lei; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2014-05-30

    Whether ouabain, a Na+ - and K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor, mimics cognitive impairments that can be dissociated from motor effects in the bipolar disorder-like animal model remains unclear. Ouabain and the vehicle aCSF were microinjected into the left lateral ventricle immediately, after 4h, and after 24h. The results showed that (a) locomotion responses of the Immediate group were significantly decreased compared to those of the aCSF group, particularly the first five minutes. (b) The ouabain-treated rats have longer latency and total distance traveled in the water maze task; however, the velocity was not affected for the ouabain group. (c) The analysis of covariance showed that the latency time (but not the total distance traveled and velocity) of the ouabain group was more impaired than that of the aCSF group, regardless of omitting total distance traveled and cross movement in the open field test. The latency might be more sensitive than the distance traveled and the velocity for assessing spatial learning. Dissociating the spatial learning from the movement may allow testing drug treatments of cognitive deficits independent of locomotor effects associated with bipolar disorder. PMID:24656518

  4. Isotype-switched follicular lymphoma displays dissociation between activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Florian; Navarrete, Marcelo A; Bertinetti-Lapatki, Cristina; Boehm, Joachim; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Veelken, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    In B-cells, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin genes. AID introduces mutations in immunoglobulin variable regions (IGV) during B-cell receptor affinity maturation, but may also introduce aberrant mutations into non-immunoglobulin genes, most commonly BCL6. Follicular lymphoma (FL) B-cells constitutively express AID and undergo CSR, SHM and aberrant SHM. We have studied AID expression, the presence of SHM mutations, CSR, and aberrant SHM in BCL6 in a cohort of 75 FL patients. Whereas IgM-expressing (non-switched) FL were characterized by an expected positive correlation between AID and IGV and BCL6 mutations, isotype-switched FL showed dissociation between AID expression and aberrant SHM, and inverse correlation between SHM and AID expression. Our results unveil two manifest biological subgroups of FL and indicate that the specific dissociation between AID and SHM after isotype switch may correlate with the clinical outcome of this heterogeneous disease. PMID:25860234

  5. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27150507

  6. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  7. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-05-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  8. Dissociation between the induction of potassium efflux and cytostatic activity of polyene macrolides in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Malewicz, B; Jenkin, H M; Borowski, E

    1980-01-01

    The paper contains data on the induction of K+ efflux and viability of baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells after their treatment with macrolide antibiotics inducing specific pores in membrane. New water-soluble semisynthetic derivatives of amphotericin B and aureofacin (N-glycosyl and trimethylammonium methyl ester derivatives) as well as the parent compounds were used to compare the concentration of antibiotics inducing permeabilizing and cytostatic effects. We found that a two- to eight-times-higher concentration of polyene antibiotic was required to observe a cytostatic effect than for release of 50% of the cellular potassium (K50 concentration) from BHK-21 cells. These differences were larger for water-soluble derivatives than for the parent compounds. The amount of intracellular potassium in treated cells incubated under optimal growth conditions was higher than in cells which had been further washed with K+-free maintenance medium. The membrane permeability changes induced by low concentrations of specific polyenes were observed to be reversible. BHK-21 cells were able to repair polyene-induced membrane permeability within 3 to 12 h under optimal growth conditions, after cell treatment with K50 concentration of specific macrolide antibiotics. The repair phenomenon is postulated as an explanation for the dissociation observed between permeabilizing and cytostatic effect of specific polyenes in BHK-21 cells. PMID:7396461

  9. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Belakavadi, Madesh . E-mail: belakama@umdnj.edu; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    2005-10-07

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells.

  10. TRAD or CAD? A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resetarits, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Studies whether traditional drafting equipment (TRAD) or computer aided drafting equipment (CAD) is more effective. Proposes that students using only CAD can learn principles of drafting as well as students using only TRAD. Reports no significant difference either on achievement or attitude. (MVL)

  11. CAD/CAM data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  12. WITHDRAWN: Clinical fitting of CAD/CAM zirconia single crowns generated from digital intraoral impressions based on active wavefront sampling.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Roberto; Cardelli, Paolo; Baldissara, Paolo; Monaco, Carlo

    2011-10-17

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this clinical trial was to test the accuracy of single all-ceramic zirconia crowns resulting from digital intraoral impressions with active wavefront sampling technology by measuring the marginal and internal fits of the crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven teeth (24 anterior and 13 posterior) in fifteen patients were restored with single zirconia-ceramic crowns (Lava/Lava Ceram; 3M ESPE) generated from a digital intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner; 3M ESPE). Before definitive insertion, silicone replicas were produced for all 37 crowns. The sample was cut in four sections; each section was evaluated in four points: marginal gap, mid-axial wall, axio-occlusal edge and centro-occlusal. A total of 592 measurements (148 for each evaluation point) was examined using stereomicroscopy with a magnification of 50×. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate whether there were differences between anterior and posterior values (alpha=0.05). RESULTS: The mean values for each point were: 48.65μm (SD 29.45μm) for the marginal gap, 112.25μm (SD 55.54μm) at the mid-axial wall, 137.81μm (SD 71.31μm) at the axio-occlusal edge of the abutments, and 157.25μm (SD 75.51μm) at the centro-occlusal location. No statistical differences were found between the anterior and posterior group for each point (p-values: P1=0.39; P2=0.38; P3=0.07; P4=0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The marginal and internal fitting values obtained were within literature agreed as clinically acceptable for both anterior and posterior teeth. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Single crown restorations obtained using digital intraoral impressions based on active wavefront sampling technology presented enough accuracy to be used as an alternative to the conventional impression techniques. PMID:22027653

  13. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs. PMID:22373390

  14. Dissociation of diatomic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Landau-Zener theory of reactive cross sections has been applied to diatomic molecules dissociating from a ladder of rotational and vibrational states. Although the preexponential factor of the Arrhenius rate expression is shown to be a complex function of the dimensionless activation energy, the average over all states in the ladder is well represented by a single factor that varies about as T exp (-n), where the coefficient n is the order of unity. This relation agrees very well with experimental data for dissociation of O2 and N2, for example. The results validate previous empirical assignment of a single preexponential factor in the Arrhenius expression and justify the extrapolation of the expression well beyond the range of data. The theory is then used to calculate the effect of vibrational nonequilibrium on dissociation rate. For Morse oscillators the results are about the same as for harmonic oscillators, and the dissociation from a ladder of equilibrium rotational and nonequilibrium vibrational states is close to an analytic approximation provided by Hammerling, Kivel, and Teare for harmonic oscillators all dissociating from the ground rotational state.

  15. Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Al Awabdh, Sana; Gupta-Agarwal, Swati; Sheehan, David F; Muir, James; Norkett, Rosalind; Twelvetrees, Alison E; Griffin, Lewis D; Kittler, Josef T

    2016-07-01

    The astrocytic GLT-1 (or EAAT2) is the major glutamate transporter for clearing synaptic glutamate. While the diffusion dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuronal surface are well understood, far less is known regarding the surface trafficking of transporters in subcellular domains of the astrocyte membrane. Here, we have used live-cell imaging to study the mechanisms regulating GLT-1 surface diffusion in astrocytes in dissociated and brain slice cultures. Using GFP-time lapse imaging, we show that GLT-1 forms stable clusters that are dispersed rapidly and reversibly upon glutamate treatment in a transporter activity-dependent manner. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single particle tracking using quantum dots revealed that clustered GLT-1 is more stable than diffuse GLT-1 and that glutamate increases GLT-1 surface diffusion in the astrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the two main GLT-1 isoforms expressed in the brain, GLT-1a and GLT-1b, are both found to be stabilized opposed to synapses under basal conditions, with GLT-1b more so. GLT-1 surface mobility is increased in proximity to activated synapses and alterations of neuronal activity can bidirectionally modulate the dynamics of both GLT-1 isoforms. Altogether, these data reveal that astrocytic GLT-1 surface mobility, via its transport activity, is modulated during neuronal firing, which may be a key process for shaping glutamate clearance and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. GLIA 2016;64:1252-1264. PMID:27189737

  16. Neuronal activity mediated regulation of glutamate transporter GLT‐1 surface diffusion in rat astrocytes in dissociated and slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Al Awabdh, Sana; Gupta‐Agarwal, Swati; Sheehan, David F.; Muir, James; Norkett, Rosalind; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Griffin, Lewis D.

    2016-01-01

    The astrocytic GLT‐1 (or EAAT2) is the major glutamate transporter for clearing synaptic glutamate. While the diffusion dynamics of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuronal surface are well understood, far less is known regarding the surface trafficking of transporters in subcellular domains of the astrocyte membrane. Here, we have used live‐cell imaging to study the mechanisms regulating GLT‐1 surface diffusion in astrocytes in dissociated and brain slice cultures. Using GFP‐time lapse imaging, we show that GLT‐1 forms stable clusters that are dispersed rapidly and reversibly upon glutamate treatment in a transporter activity‐dependent manner. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and single particle tracking using quantum dots revealed that clustered GLT‐1 is more stable than diffuse GLT‐1 and that glutamate increases GLT‐1 surface diffusion in the astrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the two main GLT‐1 isoforms expressed in the brain, GLT‐1a and GLT‐1b, are both found to be stabilized opposed to synapses under basal conditions, with GLT‐1b more so. GLT‐1 surface mobility is increased in proximity to activated synapses and alterations of neuronal activity can bidirectionally modulate the dynamics of both GLT‐1 isoforms. Altogether, these data reveal that astrocytic GLT‐1 surface mobility, via its transport activity, is modulated during neuronal firing, which may be a key process for shaping glutamate clearance and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. GLIA 2016;64:1252–1264 PMID:27189737

  17. Therapeutic benefit of a dissociated glucocorticoid and the relevance of in vitro separation of transrepression from transactivation activity.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, M G; Wicks, S L; Battram, C H; Bottoms, S E; Redford, J E; Woodman, P; Brown, T J; Webber, S E; Foster, M L

    2001-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the mainstay of asthma therapy; however, major side effects limit their therapeutic use. GCs influence the expression of genes either by transactivation or transrepression. The antiinflammatory effects of steroids are thought to be due to transrepression and the side effects, transactivation. Recently, a compound, RU 24858, has been identified that demonstrated dissociation between transactivation and transrepression in vitro. RU 24858 exerts strong AP-1 inhibition (transrepression), but little or no transactivation. We investigated whether this improved in vitro profile results in the maintenance of antiinflammatory activity (evaluated in the Sephadex model of lung edema) with reduced systemic toxicity (evaluated by loss in body weight, thymus involution, and bone turnover) compared with standard GCs. RU 24858 exhibits comparable antiinflammatory activity to the standard steroid, budesonide. However, the systemic changes observed indicate that transactivation events do occur with this GC with similar potency to the standard steroids. In addition, the GCs profiled showed no differentiation on quantitative osteopenia of the femur. These results suggest that in vitro separation of transrepression from transactivation activity does not translate to an increased therapeutic ratio for GCs in vivo or that adverse effects are a consequence of transrepression. PMID:11160246

  18. CAD-centric Computation Management System for a Virtual TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth Munipalli; K.Y. Szema; P.Y. Huang; C.M. Rowell; A.Ying; M. Abdou

    2011-05-03

    HyPerComp Inc. in research collaboration with TEXCEL has set out to build a Virtual Test Blanket Module (VTBM) computational system to address the need in contemporary fusion research for simulating the integrated behavior of the blanket, divertor and plasma facing components in a fusion environment. Physical phenomena to be considered in a VTBM will include fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, neutronics, structural mechanics and electromagnetics. We seek to integrate well established (third-party) simulation software in various disciplines mentioned above. The integrated modeling process will enable user groups to interoperate using a common modeling platform at various stages of the analysis. Since CAD is at the core of the simulation (as opposed to computational meshes which are different for each problem,) VTBM will have a well developed CAD interface, governing CAD model editing, cleanup, parameter extraction, model deformation (based on simulation,) CAD-based data interpolation. In Phase-I, we built the CAD-hub of the proposed VTBM and demonstrated its use in modeling a liquid breeder blanket module with coupled MHD and structural mechanics using HIMAG and ANSYS. A complete graphical user interface of the VTBM was created, which will form the foundation of any future development. Conservative data interpolation via CAD (as opposed to mesh-based transfer), the regeneration of CAD models based upon computed deflections, are among the other highlights of phase-I activity.

  19. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  20. Dissociation of MIF-rpS3 complex and sequential NF-κB activation is involved in IR-induced metastatic conversion of NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Youn, HyeSook; Son, Beomseok; Kim, Wanyeon; Jun, Se Young; Lee, Jung Sub; Lee, Jae-Myung; Kang, ChulHee; Kim, Joon; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-11-01

    Frequent relapse and spreading of tumors during radiotherapy are principal obstacles to treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to investigate how macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) which is expressed at high levels in metastatic and primary lung cancer cells could regulate NSCLC metastasis in response to ionizing radiation (IR). The results indicated that MIF and ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) were shown to be connected to inflammation, proliferation, and metastasis of NSCLC via IR-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. Under unirradiated conditions, MIF physically established a complex with rpS3. MIF-rpS3 dissociation induced by IR activated NF-κB and made the expression of target genes of this factor transactivated in two NSCLC cell lines, A549, and NCI-H358. We also found that IR-induced dissociation of this complex led to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker proteins. Finally, the effects of IR-induced dissociation of the MIF-rpS3 complex on tumor metastasis were confirmed by in vivo xenograft studies. Taken together, the present study revealed that dissociation of the MIF-rpS3 complex and subsequent activation of NF-κB is a critical post-IR exposure event that accounts for IR-induced metastatic conversion of NSCLC. PMID:25900216

  1. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the evaluation of the packages and makes recommendations for…

  2. Dissociation between Processivity and Total Activity of γ-Secretase: Implications for the Mechanism of Alzheimer-Causing Presenilin Mutations†

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Monzon, Omar; Martin, Morgan M.; Fernandez, Marty A.; Cappello, Christina A.; Krzysiak, Amanda J.; Osenkowski, Pamela; Wolfe, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is produced from the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) through consecutive proteolysis by β- and γ-secretases. The latter protease contains presenilin as the catalytic component of a membrane-embedded aspartyl protease complex. Missense mutations in presenilin are associated with early-onset familial AD, and these mutations generally both decrease Aβ production and increase the proportion of the aggregation-prone 42-residue form (Aβ42) over the 40-residue form (Aβ40). The connection between these two effects is not understood. Besides Aβ40 and Aβ42, γ-secretase produces a range of Aβ peptides, the result of initial cutting at the ε site to form Aβ48 or Aβ49 and subsequent trimming every 3–4 residues. Thus, γ-secretase displays both overall proteolytic activity (ε cutting) and processivity (trimming) toward its substrate APP. Here we tested whether a decrease in total activity correlates with decreased processivity using wild type and AD-mutant presenilin-containing protease complexes. Changes in pH, temperature and salt concentration that reduced overall activity of the wild type enzyme did not consistently result in increased proportions of longer Aβ peptides. Low salt concentrations and acidic pH were notable exceptions that subtly alter the proportion of individual Aβ peptides, suggesting that the charged state of certain residues may influence processivity. Five different AD-mutant complexes, representing a broad range of effects on overall activity, Aβ42-to-Aβ40 ratios, and ages of disease onset were also tested, revealing again that changes in total activity and processivity can be dissociated. Factors that control initial proteolysis of APP at the ε site apparently differ significantly from factors affecting subsequent trimming and the distribution of Aβ peptides. PMID:21919498

  3. The bacteriocin AS-48 requires dimer dissociation followed by hydrophobic interactions with the membrane for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Rubén; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Albert, Armando; Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Barrena, María José

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism underlining the antibacterial activity of the bacteriocin AS-48 is not known, and two different and opposite alternatives have been proposed. Available data suggested that the interaction of positively charged amino acids of AS-48 with the membrane would produce membrane destabilization and disruption. Alternatively, it has been proposed that AS-48 activity could rely on the effective insertion of the bacteriocin into the membrane. The biological and structural properties of the AS-48G13K/L40K double mutant were investigated to shed light on this subject. Compared with the wild type, the mutant protein suffered an important reduction in the antibacterial activity. Biochemical and structural studies of AS-48G13K/L40K mutant suggest the basis of its decreased antimicrobial activity. Lipid cosedimentation assays showed that the membrane affinity of AS-48G13K/L40K is 12-fold lower than that observed for the wild type. L40K mutation is responsible for this reduced membrane affinity and thus, hydrophobic interactions are involved in membrane association. Furthermore, the high-resolution crystal structure of AS-48G13K/L40K, together with the study of its dimeric character in solution showed that G13K stabilizes the inactive water-soluble dimer, which displays a reduced dipole moment. Our data suggest that the cumulative effect of these three affected properties reduces AS-48 activity, and point out that the bactericidal effect is achieved by the electrostatically driven approach of the inactive water-soluble dimer towards the membrane, followed by the dissociation and insertion of the protein into the lipid bilayer. PMID:25816760

  4. Dissociating activity in the lateral intraparietal area from value using a visual foraging task

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Koorosh; Bisley, James W.

    2012-01-01

    We make decisions about where to look approximately three times per second in normal viewing. It has been suggested that eye movements may be guided by activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), which is thought to represent the relative value of objects in space. However, it is not clear how values for saccade goal selection are prioritized while free-viewing in a cluttered visual environment. To address this question, we compared the neural responses of LIP neurons in two subjects with their saccadic behavior and three estimates of stimulus value. These measures were extracted from the subjects’ performance in a visual foraging task, in which we parametrically controlled the number of objects on the screen. We found that the firing rates of LIP neurons did not correlate well with the animals’ behavior or any of our estimated measures of value. However, if the LIP activity was further normalized, it became highly correlated with the animals’ decisions. These data suggest that LIP activity does not represent value in complex environments, but that the value can easily be extracted with one further step of processing. We propose that activity in LIP represents attentional priority and that the downstream normalization of this activity is an essential process in guiding action. PMID:22670055

  5. Modulation of Backbone Flexibility for Effective Dissociation of Antibacterial and Hemolytic Activity in Cyclic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas T; Britt, Hannah M; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Thulstrup, Peter W; Sanderson, John M; Hansen, Paul R

    2016-08-11

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is on the rise and threatens to evolve into a worldwide emergency: alternative solutions to current therapies are urgently needed. Cationic amphipathic peptides are potent membrane-active agents that hold promise as the next-generation therapy for multidrug-resistant infections. The peptides' behavior upon encountering the bacterial cell wall is crucial, and much effort has been dedicated to the investigation and optimization of this amphipathicity-driven interaction. In this study we examined the interaction of a novel series of nine-membered flexible cyclic AMPs with liposomes mimicking the characteristics of bacterial membranes. Employed techniques included circular dichroism and marker release assays, as well as microbiological experiments. Our analysis was aimed at correlating ring flexibility with their antimicrobial, hemolytic, and membrane activity. By doing so, we obtained useful insights to guide the optimization of cyclic antimicrobial peptides via modulation of their backbone flexibility without loss of activity. PMID:27563396

  6. Dissociation of SERPINE1 mRNA from the translational repressor proteins Ago2 and TIA-1 upon platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Corduan, Aurélie; Plé, Hélène; Laffont, Benoit; Wallon, Thérèse; Plante, Isabelle; Landry, Patricia; Provost, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Platelets play an important role in haemostasis, as well as in thrombosis and coagulation processes. They harbour a wide variety of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), that can template de novo protein synthesis, and an abundant array of microRNAs, which are known to mediate mRNA translational repression through proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family. The relationship between platelet microRNAs and proteins capable of mediating translational repression, however, remains unclear. Here, we report that half of platelet microRNAs is associated to mRNA-regulatory Ago2 protein complexes, in various proportions. Associated to these Ago2 complexes are platelet mRNAs known to support de novo protein synthesis. Reporter gene activity assays confirmed the capacity of the platelet microRNAs, found to be associated to Ago2 complexes, to regulate translation of these platelet mRNAs through their 3'UTR. Neither the microRNA repertoire nor the microRNA composition of Ago2 complexes of human platelets changed upon activation with thrombin. However, under conditions favoring de novo synthesis of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein, we documented a rapid dissociation of the encoding platelet SERPINE1 mRNA from Ago2 protein complexes as well as from the translational repressor protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). These findings are consistent with a scenario by which lifting of the repressive effects of Ago2 and TIA-1 protein complexes, involving a rearrangement of proteinmRNA complexes rather than disassembly of Ago2microRNA complexes, would allow translation of SERPINE1 mRNA into PAI-1 in response to platelet activation. PMID:25673011

  7. Aromatic C-H bond activation revealed by infrared multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jašíková, Lucie; Hanikýřová, Eva; Schröder, Detlef; Roithová, Jana

    2012-04-01

    Metal-oxide cations are models of catalyst mediating the C-H bond activation of organic substrates. One of the most powerful reagents suggested in the gas phase is based on CuO(+) . Here, we describe the activation of the aromatic C-H bonds of phenanthroline in its complex with CuO(+) . The reaction sequence starts with a hydrogen atom abstraction by the oxygen atom from the 2-position of the phenanthroline ring, followed by OH migration to the ring. Using infrared multiphoton spectroscopy, it is shown that the reaction can be energetically facilitated by additional coordination of a water ligand to the copper ion. As the reaction is intramolecular, a spectroscopic characterization of the product is mandatory in order to unambiguously address the reaction mechanism. PMID:22689621

  8. Dissociation of antibacterial activity and aminoglycoside ototoxicity in the 4-monosubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine apramycin

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Tanja; Ng, Chyan Leong; Lang, Kathrin; Sha, Su-Hua; Akbergenov, Rashid; Shcherbakov, Dmitri; Meyer, Martin; Duscha, Stefan; Xie, Jing; Dubbaka, Srinivas R.; Perez-Fernandez, Déborah; Vasella, Andrea; Ramakrishnan, V.; Schacht, Jochen; Böttger, Erik C.

    2012-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are potent antibacterials, but therapy is compromised by substantial toxicity causing, in particular, irreversible hearing loss. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity occurs both in a sporadic dose-dependent and in a genetically predisposed fashion. We recently have developed a mechanistic concept that postulates a key role for the mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) in aminoglycoside ototoxicity. We now report on the surprising finding that apramycin, a structurally unique aminoglycoside licensed for veterinary use, shows little activity toward eukaryotic ribosomes, including hybrid ribosomes which were genetically engineered to carry the mitoribosomal aminoglycoside-susceptibility A1555G allele. In ex vivo cultures of cochlear explants and in the in vivo guinea pig model of chronic ototoxicity, apramycin causes only little hair cell damage and hearing loss but it is a potent antibacterial with good activity against a range of clinical pathogens, including multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These data provide proof of concept that antibacterial activity can be dissected from aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Together with 3D structures of apramycin-ribosome complexes at 3.5-Å resolution, our results provide a conceptual framework for further development of less toxic aminoglycosides by hypothesis-driven chemical synthesis. PMID:22699498

  9. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    PubMed

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  10. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  11. Characterization of oligodeoxynucleotides by electron detachment dissociation fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiong; Mo, Jingjie; Adamson, Julie T; Håkansson, Kristina

    2005-03-15

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD), recently introduced by Zubarev and co-workers for the dissociation of multiply charged biomolecular anions via a radical ion intermediate, has been shown to be analogous to electron capture dissociation (ECD) in several respects, including more random peptide fragmentation and retention of labile posttranslational modifications. We have previously demonstrated unique fragmentation behavior in ECD compared to vibrational excitation for oligodeoxynucleotide cations. However, that approach is limited by the poor sensitivity for oligonucleotide ionization in positive ion mode. Here, we show implementation of EDD on a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer utilizing two different configurations: a heated filament electron source and an indirectly heated hollow dispenser cathode electron source. The dispenser cathode configuration provides higher EDD efficiency and additional fragmentation channels for hexamer oligodeoxynucleotides. As in ECD, even-electron d/w ion series dominate the spectra, but we also detect numerous a/z (both even-electron and radical species), (a/z - B), c/x, (c/x - B), and (d/w - B) ions with minimal nucleobase loss from the precursor ions. In contrast to previous high-energy collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and ion trap CAD of radical oligonucleotide anions, we only observe minimum sugar cross-ring cleavage, possibly due to the short time scale of EDD, which limits secondary fragmentation. Thus, EDD provides fragmentation similar to ECD for oligodeoxynucleotides but at enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show that noncovalent bonding in a DNA duplex can be preserved following EDD, illustrating another analogy with ECD. We believe the latter finding implies EDD has promise for characterization of nucleic acid structure and folding. PMID:15762599

  12. The autoxidation and proton dissociation constants of tertiary diphosphines: relevance to biological activity.

    PubMed

    Berners-Price, S J; Norman, R E; Sadler, P J

    1987-11-01

    The pKas and autoxidation properties of a number of diphosphines which exhibit varying degrees of antitumor and cytotoxic activity were investigated. Titration by HClO4 in CH3NO2 was used to determine pKas of the following diphosphines: R2P(CH2)nPR'2, where for R = R' = Ph, n = 1, 2, and 3 (dppm, dppe, and dppp respectively); for R = R' = Et, n = 2 (depe); for R = Ph, R' = Et, n = 2 (eppe); and for cis and trans Ph2PCH = CHPPh2 (dppey). The difference between the first and second protonation constants decreases as the length of the carbon chain between the two phosphorus centers increases. Unsaturation in the carbon chain lowers pKas. -PEt2 centers are apparently more basic than -PPh2 centers. Apart from electrostatic effects, the protonation of a given phosphine center appears to be independent of the substituents at the second phosphine center. The autoxidation reactions of dppm, dppe, dppp, depe, and cis-dppey were studied in a variety of solvents by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The ethyl-substituted diphosphines were much more rapidly oxidized than the phenyl-substituted, and the pathways of autoxidation differed. Generally, the phenyl-substituted diphosphines gave only mono- and dioxides, while the ethyl-substituted diphosphines additionally gave phosphinites and other oxidation products. The relevance of the autoxidation reactivity and the pKas to the contrasting antitumor activity of these diphosphines is discussed. PMID:2828542

  13. Thermally Activated Exciton Dissociation and Recombination Control the Carrier Dynamics in Organometal Halide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Savenije, Tom J; Ponseca, Carlito S; Kunneman, Lucas; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zheng, Kaibo; Tian, Yuxi; Zhu, Qiushi; Canton, Sophie E; Scheblykin, Ivan G; Pullerits, Tonu; Yartsev, Arkady; Sundström, Villy

    2014-07-01

    Solar cells based on organometal halide perovskites have seen rapidly increasing efficiencies, now exceeding 15%. Despite this progress, there is still limited knowledge on the fundamental photophysics. Here we use microwave photoconductance and photoluminescence measurements to investigate the temperature dependence of the carrier generation, mobility, and recombination in (CH3NH3)PbI3. At temperatures maintaining the tetragonal crystal phase of the perovskite, we find an exciton binding energy of about 32 meV, leading to a temperature-dependent yield of highly mobile (6.2 cm(2)/(V s) at 300 K) charge carriers. At higher laser intensities, second-order recombination with a rate constant of γ = 13 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) becomes apparent. Reducing the temperature results in increasing charge carrier mobilities following a T(-1.6) dependence, which we attribute to a reduction in phonon scattering (Σμ = 16 cm(2)/(V s) at 165 K). Despite the fact that Σμ increases, γ diminishes with a factor six, implying that charge recombination in (CH3NH3)PbI3 is temperature activated. The results underline the importance of the perovskite crystal structure, the exciton binding energy, and the activation energy for recombination as key factors in optimizing new perovskite materials. PMID:26279532

  14. Subthalamic nucleus activity dissociates proactive and reactive inhibition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Benis, Damien; David, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Seigneuret, Eric; Krack, Paul; Fraix, Valérie; Chabardès, Stéphan; Bastin, Julien

    2014-05-01

    Models of action selection postulate the critical involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), especially in reactive inhibition processes when inappropriate responses to a sudden stimulus must be overridden. The STN could also play a key role during proactive inhibition, when subjects prepare to potentially suppress their actions. Here, we hypothesized that STN responses to reactive and proactive inhibitory control might be driven by different underlying mechanisms with specific temporal profiles. Direct neural recordings in twelve Parkinson's disease patients during a modified stop signal task (SST) revealed a decrease of beta band activity (βA, 13-35Hz) in the STN during reactive inhibition of smaller amplitude and shorter duration than during motor execution. Crucially, the onset latency of this relative increase of βA took place before the stop signal reaction time. It could thus be thought of as a "stop" signal inhibiting thalamo-cortical activity that would have supported motor execution. Finally, results also revealed a higher level of βA in the STN during proactive inhibition, which correlated with patient's inhibitory performances. We propose that βA in the STN would here participate in the implementation of a "hold your horse" signal to delay motor responses, thus prioritizing accuracy as compared to speed. In brief, our results provide strong electrophysiological support for the hypothesized role of the STN during executive control underlying proactive and reactive response suppression. PMID:24368260

  15. Dissociation of membrane binding and lytic activities of the lymphocyte pore-forming protein (perforin).

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Damiano, A; DiNome, M A; Leong, L G; Cohn, Z A

    1987-05-01

    Granules isolated from CTL and NK cells contain a cytolytic pore-forming protein (PFP/perforin). At low temperatures (on ice), PFP binds to erythrocyte membranes without producing hemolysis. Hemolysis occurs when the PFP-bound erythrocytes are warmed up to 37 degrees C, which defines a temperature-dependent, lytic (pore-formation) step distinct from the membrane-binding event. Ca2+ and neutral pH are required for both membrane binding and pore formation by PFP. Serum, LDL, HDL, and heparin inhibit the hemolytic activity of PFP by blocking its binding to lipid membranes. Lysis by PFP that has bound to erythrocyte membranes is no longer susceptible to the effect of these inhibitors. The hemolytic activities associated with intact granules and solubilized PFP show different requirements for Ca2+ and pH, indicating that cytolysis produced by isolated granules may involve an additional step, possibly fusion of granules with membranes. It is suggested that three distinct Ca2+- and pH-dependent events may be involved during cell killing by CTL and NK cells: fusion of cytoplasmic granules of effector cells with their plasma membrane, releasing PFP from cells; binding of the released PFP to target membranes; and insertion of monomers and the subsequent formation of lytic pores in the target membrane. The serum-mediated inhibition of membrane binding by PFP could prevent the accidental injury of bystander cells by cell-released PFP, but would allow cytolysis to proceed to completion once PFP has bound to the target membrane. PMID:3494808

  16. Dissociation and regeneration kinetics of carbon dioxide in the active medium of sealed-off transverse RF-excited CO{sub 2} lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Vesnov, I G

    2010-06-23

    An improved mathematical model describing the dissociation and regenerations kinetics of carbon dioxide in the active medium of sealed-off transverse RF-excited CO{sub 2} lasers is presented. It is shown that the calculation of the active medium composition of such lasers requires the equations of the gas-mixture kinetics to take into account the diffuse flow of oxygen atoms on metal electrodes and on the surface of heterogeneous catalysts used to reduce the degree of the carbon dioxide dissociation. The rate constants of the heterogeneous recombination reaction CO + O {yields} CO{sub 2} on the surface of alumina ceramics and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are determined. (active media)

  17. Genotoxicity of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 strain cannot be dissociated from its probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Olier, Maïwenn; Marcq, Ingrid; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Secher, Thomas; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Boury, Michèle; Bacquié, Valérie; Pénary, Marie; Gaultier, Eric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Fioramonti, Jean; Oswald, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 improves chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, but the molecular basis for this therapeutic efficacy is unknown. E. coli Nissle 1917 harbors a cluster of genes coding for the biosynthesis of hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide(s). This biosynthetic pathway confers the ability for bacteria to induce DNA double strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. Here we reveal that inactivation of the clbA gene within this genomic island abrogated the ability for the strain to induce DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities in non-transformed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells but is required for the probiotic activity of E. coli Nissle 1917. Thus, evaluation of colitis severity induced in rodent fed with E. coli Nissle 1917 or an isogenic non-genotoxic mutant demonstrated the need for a functional biosynthetic pathway both in the amelioration of the disease and in the modulation of cytokine expression. Feeding rodents with a complemented strain for which genotoxicity was restored confirmed that this biosynthetic pathway contributes to the health benefits of the probiotic by modulating its immunomodulatory properties. Our data provide additional evidence for the benefit of this currently used probiotic in colitis but remind us that an efficient probiotic may also have side effects as any other medication. PMID:22895085

  18. Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Dissociates Fatty Liver from Insulin Resistance by Inducing FGF21

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peipei; Yan, Jiong; Liu, Ke; Garbacz, Wojciech G.; Wang, Pengcheng; Xu, Meishu; Ma, Xiaochao; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), also known as the dioxin receptor, was originally characterized as a xenobiotic receptor that senses xenotoxicants. Here we investigated the endobiotic and hepatic role of AHR in fatty liver and energy metabolism, and identified the endocrine factor that mediates the metabolic function of AHR. Wild type and liver-specific constitutively activated human AHR transgenic (TG) mice were used to investigate the role of AHR in fatty liver and energy homeostasis. Adenovirus expressing short hairpin RNA targeting the fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were used to determine the involvement of FGF21 in the metabolic effect of AHR. We showed that despite their severe fatty liver, the TG mice were protected from diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. We identified the endocrine hormone FGF21 as a mediator for the metabolic benefit of AHR and established FGF21 as a direct transcriptional target of AHR. Interestingly, the transactivation of FGF21 by AHR contributed to both hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin hypersensitivity, both of which were largely abolished upon FGF21 knockdown. Conclusions The AHR-FGF21 endocrine signaling pathway establishes AHR as a pivotal environmental modifier that integrates signals from chemical exposure in the regulation of lipid and energy metabolism. PMID:25614121

  19. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    PubMed

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  20. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    PubMed Central

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  1. CAD Services: an Industry Standard Interface for Mechanical CAD Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell; Weitzer, Ilan

    2002-01-01

    Most organizations seek to design and develop new products in increasingly shorter time periods. At the same time, increased performance demands require a team-based multidisciplinary design process that may span several organizations. One approach to meet these demands is to use 'Geometry Centric' design. In this approach, design engineers team their efforts through one united representation of the design that is usually captured in a CAD system. Standards-based interfaces are critical to provide uniform, simple, distributed services that enable the 'Geometry Centric' design approach. This paper describes an industry-wide effort, under the Object Management Group's (OMG) Manufacturing Domain Task Force, to define interfaces that enable the interoperability of CAD, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. This critical link to enable 'Geometry Centric' design is called: Cad Services V1.0. This paper discusses the features of this standard and proposed application.

  2. Dissociation of Increases in PGC-1α and Its Regulators from Exercise Intensity and Muscle Activation Following Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Paul B.; Simpson, Craig A.; Little, Jonathan P.; Graham, Ryan B.; Gurd, Brendon J.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle activation as well as changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) following high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) were examined in young healthy men (n  = 8; age, 21.9±2.2 yrs; VO2peak, 53.1±6.4 ml/min/kg; peak work rate, 317±23.5 watts). On each of 3 visits HIIE was performed on a cycle ergometer at a target intensity of 73, 100, or 133% of peak work rate. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and three hours after each exercise condition. Total work was not different between conditions (∼730 kJ) while average power output (73%, 237±21; 100%, 323±26; 133%, 384±35 watts) and EMG derived muscle activation (73%, 1262±605; 100%, 2089±737; 133%, 3029±1206 total integrated EMG per interval) increased in an intensity dependent fashion. PGC-1α mRNA was elevated after all three conditions (p<0.05), with a greater increase observed following the 100% condition (∼9 fold, p<0.05) compared to both the 73 and 133% conditions (∼4 fold). When expressed relative to muscle activation, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA for the 133% condition was less than that for the 73 and 100% conditions (p<0.05). SIRT1 mRNA was also elevated after all three conditions (∼1.4 fold, p<0.05), with no difference between conditions. These findings suggest that intensity-dependent increases in PGC-1α mRNA following submaximal exercise are largely due to increases in muscle recruitment. As well, the blunted response of PGC-1α mRNA expression following supramaximal exercise may indicate that signalling mediated activation of PGC-1α may also be blunted. We also indentify that increases in PDK4, SIRT1, and RIP140 mRNA following acute exercise are dissociated from exercise intensity and muscle activation, while increases in EGR1 are augmented with supramaximal HIIE (p<0.05). PMID:23951207

  3. Human embryonic stem cell phosphoproteome revealed by electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, Danielle L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Thomson, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is central to the understanding of cellular signaling, and cellular signaling is suggested to play a major role in the regulation of human embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. Here, we describe the use of conventional tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing technology—collision-activated dissociation (CAD)—and the more recently developed method electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to characterize the human ES cell phosphoproteome. In total, these experiments resulted in the identification of 11,995 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 10,844 nonredundant phosphorylation sites, at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR). Among these phosphorylation sites are 5 localized to 2 pluripotency critical transcription factors—OCT4 and SOX2. From these experiments, we conclude that ETD identifies a larger number of unique phosphopeptides than CAD (8,087 to 3,868), more frequently localizes the phosphorylation site to a specific residue (49.8% compared with 29.6%), and sequences whole classes of phosphopeptides previously unobserved. PMID:19144917

  4. Muscarinic activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in pancreatic islets. Temporal dissociation of kinase activation and insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Babb, E L; Tarpley, J; Landt, M; Easom, R A

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that glucose activates the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in isolated rat pancreatic islets in a manner consistent with a role of this enzyme in the regulation of insulin secretion [Wenham, Landt and Easom (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 4947-4952]. In the current study, the muscarinic agonist, carbachol, has been shown to induce the conversion of CaM kinase II into a Ca(2+)-independent, autonomous form indicative of its activation. Maximal activation (2-fold) was achieved by 15 s, followed by a rapid return to basal levels by 1 min. This response was primarily the result of the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores since it was not affected by a concentration (20 microM) of verapamil that completely prevented the activation of CaM kinase II by glucose. Surprisingly, carbachol added prior to, or simultaneously with, glucose attenuated nutrient activation of CaM kinase II. This effect was mimicked by cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and thapsigargin, suggesting its mediation by phospholipase C and the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. In contrast, carbachol, CCK-8 and thapsigargin markedly potentiated glucose (12 mM)-induced insulin secretion. These results suggest that CaM kinase II activation can be temporally dissociated from insulin secretion but do not exclude the potential dependence of insulin exocytosis on CaM kinase II-mediated protein phosphorylation. PMID:8694759

  5. Myc versus USF: discrimination at the cad gene is determined by core promoter elements.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, K E; Farnham, P J

    1997-01-01

    Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase/aspartate carbamoyltransferase/dihydroorotase, which is encoded by the cad gene, is required for the first three rate-limiting steps of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. It has been previously demonstrated that cad transcription increases at the G1/S-phase boundary, as quiescent cells reenter the proliferative cell cycle. The growth-responsive element has been mapped to an E box at +65 in the hamster cad promoter. Using an in vivo UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation assay, we show that Myc, Max, and upstream stimulatory factor (USF) bind to the chromosomal cad promoter. To determine whether binding of Myc-Max or USF is critical for cad growth regulation, we analyzed promoter constructs which contain mutations in the nucleotides flanking the E box. We demonstrate that altering nucleotides which flank the cad E box to sequences which decrease Myc-Max binding in vitro correlates with a loss of cad G1/S-phase transcriptional activation. This result supports the conclusion that binding of Myc-Max, but not USF, is essential for cad regulation. Our investigations demonstrate that the endogenous cad E box can be bound by more than one transcription factor, but growth-induced cad expression is achieved only by Myc. PMID:9111322

  6. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments

    SciTech Connect

    Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B.; Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö.

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be{sub n} of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  7. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments.

    PubMed

    Fertitta, E; Paulus, B; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be(n) of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations. PMID:26395688

  8. A Survey of CAD Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) has been around for a number of years. An overview is provided of a number of major computer-aided design programs. A short analysis of each program includes the addresses of the software producers. (MLF)

  9. CAD systems simplify engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.

    1986-10-01

    Computer assisted drafting systems, with today's technology, provide high-quality, timely drawings that can be justified by the lower costs for the final product. The author describes Exxon Pipeline Co.'s experience in deciding on hardware and software for a CAD system installation and the benefits effected by this procedure and equipment.

  10. CAD Skills Increased through Multicultural Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how students in a college-entry-level CAD course researched four generations of their family histories and documented cultural and symbolic influences within their family backgrounds. AutoCAD software was then used to manipulate those cultural and symbolic images to create the design for a multicultural area rug. AutoCAD was…

  11. Cool-and Unusual-CAD Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This article describes several very useful applications of AutoCAD that may lie outside the normal scope of application. AutoCAD commands used in this article are based on AutoCAD 2000I. The author and his students used a Hewlett Packard 750C DesignJet plotter for plotting. (Contains 5 figures and 5 photos.)

  12. Incorporating CAD Instruction into the Drafting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    1990-01-01

    If education is to meet the challenged posed by the U.S. productivity crisis and the large number of computer-assisted design (CAD) workstations forecast as necessary in the future, schools must integrate CAD into the drafting curriculum and become aggressive in providing CAD training. Teachers need to maintain close contact with local industries…

  13. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

  14. Thermodynamic Constraints in Using AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) Alloys as N₂ Dissociation Catalysts: Functionalizing a Plasmon-Active Metal.

    PubMed

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2016-02-23

    The Haber-Bosch process for NH3 synthesis is arguably one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, with a massive footprint in agriculture and, historically, warfare. Current catalysts for this reaction use Fe for N2 activation, conducted at high temperatures and pressures to improve conversion rate and efficiency. A recent finding shows that plasmonic metal nanoparticles can either generate highly reactive electrons and holes or induce resonant surface excitations through plasmonic decay, which catalyze dissociation and redox reactions under mild conditions. It is therefore appealing to consider AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) alloys to combine the strongly plasmonic nature of Au and the catalytic nature of M metals toward N2 dissociation, which together might facilitate ammonia production. To this end, through density functional theory, we (i) explore the feasibility of forming these surface alloys, (ii) find a pathway that may stabilize/deactivate surface M substituents during fabrication, and (iii) define a complementary route to reactivate them under operational conditions. Finally, we evaluate their reactivity toward N2, as well as their ability to support a pathway for N2 dissociation with a low thermodynamic barrier. We find that AuFe possesses similar appealing qualities, including relative stability with respect to phase separation, reversibility of Fe oxidation and reduction, and reactivity toward N2. While AuMo achieves the best affinity toward N2, its strong propensity toward oxidation could greatly limit its use. PMID:26831377

  15. Near-IR activity of hybrid solar cells: Enhancement of efficiency by dissociating excitons generated in PbS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Asim; Rath, Arup K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2010-02-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on PbS nanoparticles remained inactive in the near-IR region due to a not-so-favorable energy band-diagram that does not allow dissociation of excitons generated in PbS. In this work, with the introduction of TiO2 nanostructures in the PbS-based hybrid system, we show an enhancement of photovoltaic performance in both visible and near-IR regions. The addition of TiO2 increases the power conversion efficiency from 0.006% to 0.12%. With the aid of energy band-diagram, we show that excitons generated in PbS even in the near-IR range can now become dissociated to yield photocurrent in the external circuit.

  16. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction–Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction–Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can ‘turnover’, albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. ‘DNA sliding’). PMID:22523084

  17. The role of rotational excitation in the activated dissociative chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100).

    PubMed

    Juurlink, L B; Smith, R R; Utz, A L

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the sticking probability of methane excited to v = 1 of the v3 antisymmetric C-H stretching vibration on a clean Ni(100) surface as a function of rotational state (J = 0, 1, 2 and 3) and have investigated the effect of Coriolis-mixing on reactivity. The data span a wide range of kinetic energies (9-49 kJ mol-1) and indicate that rotational excitation does not alter reactivity by more than a factor of two, even at low molecular speeds that allow for considerable rotation of the molecule during the interaction with the surface. In addition, rotation-induced Coriolis-splitting of the v3 mode into F+, F0 and F- states does not significantly affect the reactivity for J = 1 at 49 kJ mol-1 translational energy, even though the nuclear motions of these states differ. The lack of a pronounced rotational energy effect in methane dissociation on Ni(100) suggests that our previous results for (v = 1, v3, J = 2) are representative of all rovibrational sublevels of this vibrational mode. These experiments shed light on the relative importance of rotational hindering and dynamical steering mechanisms in the dissociative chemisorption on Ni(100) and guide future attempts to accurately model methane dissociation on nickel surfaces. PMID:11271989

  18. Distinct activity of the oxyl FeIIIsbnd Orad group in the methane dissociation by activated iron hydroxide: DFT predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Aleksandr A.; Ruzankin, Sergey Ph.; Zilberberg, Igor L.; Parmon, Valentin N.

    2015-11-01

    The abstraction of hydrogen from methane on the terminal iron-oxo group in the ferryl FeIVdbnd O and oxyl FeIIIsbnd Orad states, the hydrogen peroxide group Fesbnd OOH and the peroxo group Fesbnd OOsbnd Fe created in iron hydroxide was modeled by means of the density functional theory. The active groups were built using the Fe4O4(OH)4 starting complex having one hydrogen removed imitating the effect of the external oxidizer. Among considered groups the oxyl group is predicted to have the highest reactivity. A clear distinction in reactivity between the FeIIIsbnd Orad and FeIVdbnd O quasi-degenerate states has been attributed to the sign of terminal oxygen spin polarization.

  19. Dissociated Vertical Deviation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dissociated Vertical Deviation En Español Read in Chinese What is Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD)? DVD is ...

  20. Productivity improvements through the use of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrman, M. D.

    This paper focuses on Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) productivity improvements that occurred in the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (BCAC) between 1979 and 1983, with a look at future direction. Since the introduction of numerically controlled machinery in the 1950s, a wide range of engineering and manufacturing applications has evolved. The main portion of this paper includes a summarized and illustrated cross-section of these applications, touching on benefits such as reduced tooling, shortened flow time, increased accuracy, and reduced labor hours. The current CAD/CAM integration activity, directed toward capitalizing on this productivity in the future, is addressed.

  1. Compound A, a Dissociated Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Inhibits T-bet (Th1) and Induces GATA-3 (Th2) Activity in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Palermo-Neto, Joao; Castro, Carla N.; Druker, Jimena; Holsboer, Florian; Perone, Marcelo J.; Gerlo, Sarah; De Bosscher, Karolien; Haegeman, Guy; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Compound A (CpdA) is a dissociating non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand which has anti-inflammatory properties exerted by down-modulating proinflammatory gene expression. By favouring GR monomer formation, CpdA does not enhance glucocorticoid (GC) response element-driven gene expression, resulting in a reduced side effect profile as compared to GCs. Considering the importance of Th1/Th2 balance in the final outcome of immune and inflammatory responses, we analyzed how selective GR modulation differentially regulates the activity of T-bet and GATA-3, master drivers of Th1 and Th2 differentiation, respectively. Results Using Western analysis and reporter gene assays, we show in murine T cells that, similar to GCs, CpdA inhibits T-bet activity via a transrepressive mechanism. Different from GCs, CpdA induces GATA-3 activity by p38 MAPK-induction of GATA-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. CpdA effects are reversed by the GR antagonist RU38486, proving the involvement of GR in these actions. ELISA assays demonstrate that modulation of T-bet and GATA-3 impacts on cytokine production shown by a decrease in IFN-γ and an increase in IL-5 production, respectively. Conclusions Taken together, through their effect favoring Th2 over Th1 responses, particular dissociated GR ligands, for which CpdA represents a paradigm, hold potential for the application in Th1-mediated immune disorders. PMID:22496903

  2. Introduction to CAD/Computers. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockerby, Hugh

    This learning module for an eighth-grade introductory technology course is designed to help teachers introduce students to computer-assisted design (CAD) in a communications unit on graphics. The module contains a module objective and five specific objectives, a content outline, suggested instructor methodology, student activities, a list of six…

  3. Dissociation of pleasure in psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L

    1981-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of the concept of dissociation from 19th century psychological theory through 20th century neurophysiological thought. Recent research is discussed, indicating that normal individuals show an "association" between emitted pleasurable behavior and self-perception of pleasurable activity, whereas depressives and schizophrenics show a lack of association, or "dissociation," between these measures. concomitantly, depressives show an abnormal degree of association between the experience and expression of negative affect. Such a discrepancy in systems of affect is considered as both an important pathological element in mental disorder and also as a valuable new research tool for studying etiology, differential diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy in psychobiological illness. PMID:7005394

  4. Selective reduction of CAD false-positive findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarlinghi, N.; Gori, I.; Retico, A.; Bagagli, F.

    2010-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) systems are becoming widespread supporting tools to radiologists' diagnosis, especially in screening contexts. However, a large amount of false positive (FP) alarms would inevitably lead both to an undesired possible increase in time for diagnosis, and to a reduction in radiologists' confidence in CAD as a useful tool. Most CAD systems implement as final step of the analysis a classifier which assigns a score to each entry of a list of findings; by thresholding this score it is possible to define the system performance on an annotated validation dataset in terms of a FROC curve (sensitivity vs. FP per scan). To use a CAD as a supportive tool for most clinical activities, an operative point has to be chosen on the system FROC curve, according to the obvious criterion of keeping the sensitivity as high as possible, while maintaining the number of FP alarms still acceptable. The strategy proposed in this study is to choose an operative point with high sensitivity on the CAD FROC curve, then to implement in cascade a further classification step, constituted by a smarter classifier. The key issue of this approach is that the smarter classifier is actually a meta-classifier of more then one decision system, each specialized in rejecting a particular type of FP findings generated by the CAD. The application of this approach to a dataset of 16 lung CT scans previously processed by the VBNACAD system is presented. The lung CT VBNACAD performance of 87.1% sensitivity to juxtapleural nodules with 18.5 FP per scan is improved up to 10.1 FP per scan while maintaining the same value of sensitivity. This work has been carried out in the framework of the MAGIC-V collaboration.

  5. CAD/CAM systems in machine construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, H.-E.; Paulus, M.

    1985-09-01

    A description is provided of the present status of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology, taking into account applications, and risks related to the introduction and employment of CAD/CAM methods. The employment of CAD/CAM systems in the area of machine construction is discussed, giving attention to the situation in West Germany. With respect to the system component 'hardware', the transition to a new hardware generation is taking place. In addition to computer centers with large-scale computers, minicomputers and superminicomputers, designed especially for technical applications, have become available. However, existing CAD software does not yet permit the full exploitation of the changes in hardware technology. Attention is given to CAD potential and current utilization in various application areas, developments related to graphics and geometry, advantages of a suitable macro language, the current employment of CAD/CAM technology, and cost considerations.

  6. Co-activation of RanGTPase and inhibition of GTP dissociation by Ran-GTP binding protein RanBP1.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, F R; Krebber, H; Smirnova, E; Dong, W; Ponstingl, H

    1995-01-01

    RCC1 (the regulator of chromosome condensation) stimulates guanine nucleotide dissociation on the Ras-related nuclear protein Ran. Both polypeptides are components of a regulatory pathway that has been implicated in regulating DNA replication, onset of and exit from mitosis, mRNA processing and transport, and import of proteins into the nucleus. In a search for further members of the RCC1-Ran signal pathway, we have identified proteins of 23, 45 and 300 kDa which tightly bind to Ran-GTP but not Ran-GDP. The purified soluble 23 kDa Ran binding protein RanBP1 does not activate RanGTPase, but increases GTP hydrolysis induced by the RanGTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 by an order of magnitude. In the absence of RanGAP, it strongly inhibits RCC1-induced exchange of Ran-bound GTP. In addition, it forms a stable complex with nucleotide-free RCC1-Ran. With these properties, it differs markedly from guanine diphosphate dissociation inhibitors which preferentially prevent the exchange of protein-bound GDP and in some cases were shown to inhibit GAP-induced GTP hydrolysis. RanBP1 is the first member of a new class of proteins regulating the binding and hydrolysis of GTP by Ras-related proteins. Images PMID:7882974

  7. Identification of c-Type Heme-Containing Peptides Using Non-Activated Immobilized Metal Affinity Cchromatography Resin Enrichment and Higher-Energy Collisional Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Yang, Feng; Qian, Weijun; Brown, Roslyn N.; Wang, Yuexi; Merkley, Eric D.; Park, Jea H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2011-10-01

    c-type cytochromes play essential roles in many biological activities of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including electron transfer, enzyme catalysis and induction of apoptosis. We report a novel enrichment strategy for identifying c-type heme-containing peptides that uses non-activated IMAC resin. The strategy demonstrated at least seven-fold enrichment for heme-containing peptides digested from a cytochrome c protein standard, and quantitative linear performance was also assessed for heme-containing peptide enrichment. Heme-containing peptides extracted from the periplasmic fraction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were further identified using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated the applicability of this enrichment strategy to identify c-type heme-containing peptides from a highly complex biological sample, and at the same time, confirmed the periplasmic localization of heme-containing proteins during suboxic respiration activities of S. oneidensis MR-1.

  8. Viewing CAD Drawings on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendau, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) has been producing 3-D models for years. AutoCAD software is frequently used to create sophisticated 3-D models. These CAD files can be exported as 3DS files for import into Autodesk's 3-D Studio Viz. In this program, the user can render and modify the 3-D model before exporting it out as a WRL (world file hyperlinked)…

  9. Computing Mass Properties From AutoCAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A.

    1990-01-01

    Mass properties of structures computed from data in drawings. AutoCAD to Mass Properties (ACTOMP) computer program developed to facilitate quick calculations of mass properties of structures containing many simple elements in such complex configurations as trusses or sheet-metal containers. Mathematically modeled in AutoCAD or compatible computer-aided design (CAD) system in minutes by use of three-dimensional elements. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  10. Use of CAD Geometry in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) geometry in a Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) environment. Two techniques are presented to facilitate the use of CAD geometry by different disciplines, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). One method is to transfer the load from a CFD grid to a CSM grid. The second method is to update the CAD geometry for CSM deflection.

  11. Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p < 0.001; HADS-Depression: r = 0.364, p < 0.001) and with IES-R scores (IES-R-Intrusion: r = 0.698, p < 0.001; IES-R-Avoidance: r = 0.619, p < 0.001; IES-R- Hypervigilance: r = 0.681, p < 0.001). A stepwise regression analysis was performed in order to find the predictors of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic

  12. The Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peseta, Tai

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Challenging Academic Development (CAD) Collective and describes how it came out of a symposium called "Liminality, identity, and hybridity: On the promise of new conceptual frameworks for theorising academic/faculty development." The CAD Collective is and represents a space where people can open up their contexts and…

  13. Activation and dissociation of CO2 on the (001), (011), and (111) surfaces of mackinawite (FeS): A dispersion-corrected DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzade, N. Y.; Roldan, A.; de Leeuw, N. H.

    2015-09-01

    Iron sulfide minerals, including mackinawite (FeS), are relevant in origin of life theories, due to their potential catalytic activity towards the reduction and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic molecules, which may be applicable to the production of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. However, the fundamental understanding of CO2 adsorption, activation, and dissociation on FeS surfaces remains incomplete. Here, we have used density functional theory calculations, corrected for long-range dispersion interactions (DFT-D2), to explore various adsorption sites and configurations for CO2 on the low-index mackinawite (001), (110), and (111) surfaces. We found that the CO2 molecule physisorbs weakly on the energetically most stable (001) surface but adsorbs relatively strongly on the (011) and (111) FeS surfaces, preferentially at Fe sites. The adsorption of the CO2 on the (011) and (111) surfaces is shown to be characterized by significant charge transfer from surface Fe species to the CO2 molecule, which causes a large structural transformation in the molecule (i.e., forming a negatively charged bent CO2-δ species, with weaker C—O confirmed via vibrational frequency analyses). We have also analyzed the pathways for CO2 reduction to CO and O on the mackinawite (011) and (111) surfaces. CO2 dissociation is calculated to be slightly endothermic relative to the associatively adsorbed states, with relatively large activation energy barriers of 1.25 eV and 0.72 eV on the (011) and (111) surfaces, respectively.

  14. CAD programs: a tool for crime scene processing and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggiano, Daniel; De Forest, Peter R.; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1997-02-01

    Computer aided drafting (CAD) programs have great potential for helping the forensic scientist. One of their most direct and useful applications is crime scene documentation, as an aid in rendering neat, unambiguous line drawings of crime scenes. Once the data has been entered, it can easily be displayed, printed, or plotted in a variety of formats. Final renditions from this initial data entry can take multiple forms and can have multiple uses. As a demonstrative aid, a CAD program can produce two dimensional (2-D) drawings of the scene from one's notes to scale. These 2-D renditions are court display quality and help to make the forensic scientists's testimony easily understood. Another use for CAD is as an analytical tool for scene reconstruction. More than just a drawing aid, CAD can generate useful information from the data input. It can help reconstruct bullet paths or locations of furniture in a room when it is critical to the reconstruction. Data entry at the scene, on a notebook computer, can assist in framing and answering questions so that the forensic scientist can test hypotheses while actively documenting the scene. Further, three dimensional (3-D) renditions of items can be viewed from many 'locations' by using the program to rotate the object and the observers' viewpoint.

  15. Detection analysis of surface hydroxyl active sites and simulation calculation of the surface dissociation constants of aqueous diatomite suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of the diatomite were investigated using nitrogen adsorption/deadsorption isotherms, TG-DSC, FTIR, and XPS, and surface protonation-deprotonation behavior was determined by continuous acid-base potentiometric titration technique. The diatomite sample with porous honeycomb structure has a BET specific surface area of 10.21 m2/g and large numbers of surface hydroxyl functional groups (i.e. tbnd Si-OH, tbnd Fe-OH, and tbnd Al-OH). These surface hydroxyls can be protonated or deprotonated depending on the pH of the suspension. The experimental potentiometric data in two different ionic strength solutions (0.1 and 0.05 mol/L NaCl) were fitted using ProtoFit GUI V2.1 program by applying diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites and minimizing the sum of squares between a dataset derivative function and a model derivative function. The optimized surface parameters (i.e. surface dissociation constants (log K1, log K2) and surface site concentrations (log C)) of the sample were obtained. Based on the optimized surface parameters, the surface species distribution was calculated using Program-free PHREEQC 3.1.2. Thus, this work reveals considerable new information about surface protonation-deprotonation processes and surface adsorptive behaviors of the diatomite, which helps us to effectively use the cheap and cheerful diatomite clay adsorbent.

  16. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  17. A CAD interface for GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Poole, C M; Cornelius, I; Trapp, J V; Langton, C M

    2012-09-01

    Often CAD models already exist for parts of a geometry being simulated using GEANT4. Direct import of these CAD models into GEANT4 however, may not be possible and complex components may be difficult to define via other means. Solutions that allow for users to work around the limited support in the GEANT4 toolkit for loading predefined CAD geometries have been presented by others, however these solutions require intermediate file format conversion using commercial software. Here within we describe a technique that allows for CAD models to be directly loaded as geometry without the need for commercial software and intermediate file format conversion. Robustness of the interface was tested using a set of CAD models of various complexity; for the models used in testing, no import errors were reported and all geometry was found to be navigable by GEANT4. PMID:22956356

  18. Role of Au-C Interactions on the Catalytic Activity of Au Nanoparticles Supported on TiC(001) Towards Molecular Oxygen Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Feria, L.; Jirsak, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Illas, F.

    2010-03-10

    High-resolution photoemission and density functional calculations on realistic slab surface models were used to study the interaction and subsequent dissociation of O{sub 2} with Au nanoparticles supported on TiC(001). The photoemission results indicate that at 150 K O{sub 2} adsorbs molecularly on the supported gold nanoparticles, and upon heating to temperatures above 200 K the O{sub 2} {yields} 2O reaction takes place with migration of atomic oxygen to the TiC(001) substrate. The addition of Au to TiC(001) substantially enhances the rate of O{sub 2} dissociation at room temperature. The reactivity of Au nanoparticles supported on TiC(001) toward O{sub 2} dissociation is much larger than that of similar nanoparticles supported either on TiO{sub 2}(110) or MgO(001) surfaces, where the cleavage of O-O bonds is very difficult. Density functional calculations carried out on large supercells show that the contact of Au with TiC(001) is essential for charge polarization and an enhancement in the chemical activity of Au. Small two-dimensional particles which expose Au atoms in contact with TiC(001) are the most reactive. While O{sub 2} prefers binding to Au sites, the O atoms interact more strongly with the TiC(001) surface. The oxygen species active during the low-temperature (<200 K) oxidation of carbon monoxide on Au/TiC(001) is chemisorbed O{sub 2}. Once atomic O binds to TiC(001), the chemisorption bond is so strong that temperatures well above 400 K are necessary to remove the O adatoms from the TiC(001) substrate by direct reaction with CO. The high reactivity of Au/TiC(001) toward O{sub 2} at low-temperature opens the route for the transformation of alcohols and amines on the supported Au nanoparticles.

  19. Role of Au-C Interactions on the Catalytic Activity of Au Nanoparticles Supported on TiC(001) toward Molecular Oxygen Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Feria, L; Jirsak, T; Takahashi, Y; Nakamura, K; Illas, F

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution photoemission and density functional calculations on realistic slab surface models were used to study the interaction and subsequent dissociation of O{sub 2} with Au nanoparticles supported on TiC(001). The photoemission results indicate that at 150 K O{sub 2} adsorbs molecularly on the supported gold nanoparticles, and upon heating to temperatures above 200 K the O{sub 2} {yields} 2O reaction takes place with migration of atomic oxygen to the TiC(001) substrate. The addition of Au to TiC(001) substantially enhances the rate of O{sub 2} dissociation at room temperature. The reactivity of Au nanoparticles supported on TiC(001) toward O{sub 2} dissociation is much larger than that of similar nanoparticles supported either on TiO{sub 2}(110) or MgO(001) surfaces, where the cleavage of O-O bonds is very difficult. Density functional calculations carried out on large supercells show that the contact of Au with TiC(001) is essential for charge polarization and an enhancement in the chemical activity of Au. Small two-dimensional particles which expose Au atoms in contact with TiC(001) are the most reactive. While O{sub 2} prefers binding to Au sites, the O atoms interact more strongly with the TiC(001) surface. The oxygen species active during the low-temperature (<200 K) oxidation of carbon monoxide on Au/TiC(001) is chemisorbed O{sub 2}. Once atomic O binds to TiC(001), the chemisorption bond is so strong that temperatures well above 400 K are necessary to remove the O adatoms from the TiC(001) substrate by direct reaction with CO. The high reactivity of Au/TiC(001) toward O{sub 2} at low-temperature opens the route for the transformation of alcohols and amines on the supported Au nanoparticles.

  20. Sites Involved in Intra- and Interdomain Allostery Associated with the Activation of Factor VIIa Pinpointed by Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange and Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H.; Persson, Egon; Rand, Kasper D.

    2014-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease that plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form, as induced either by its cofactor tissue factor or a covalent active site inhibitor. Identified regulatory residues are situated at key sites across one continuous surface of the protease domain spanning the TF-binding helix across the activation pocket to the calcium binding site and are embedded in elements of secondary structure and at the base of flexible loops. Thus these residues are optimally positioned to mediate crosstalk between functional sites in FVIIa, particularly the cofactor binding site and the active site. Our results unambiguously show that the conformational allosteric activation signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease. PMID:25344622

  1. Bendix CAD-CAM site plan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The Bendix Site Plan for CAD-CAM encompasses the development and integration of interactive graphics systems, factory data management systems, robotics, direct numerical control, automated inspection, factory automation, and shared data bases to achieve significant plant-wide gains in productivity. This plan does not address all current or planned computerization projects within our facility. A summary of planning proposals and rationale is presented in the following paragraphs. Interactive Graphics System (IGS) capability presently consists of two Applicon CAD systems and the CD-2000 software program processing on a time-shared CYBER 174 computer and a dedicated CYBER 173. Proposed plans include phased procurment through FY85 of additional computers and sufficient graphics terminals to support projected needs in drafting, tool/gage design, N/C programming, and process engineering. Planned procurement of additional computer equipment in FY86 and FY87 will provide the capacity necessary for a comprehensive graphics data base management system, computer-aided process planning graphics, and special graphics requirements in facilities and test equipment design. The overall IGS plan, designated BICAM (Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing), will provide the capability and capacity to integrate manufacturing activities through a shared product data base and standardized data exchange format. Planned efforts in robotics will result in productive applications of low to medium technology robots beginning in FY82, and extending by FY85 to work cell capabilities utilizing higher technology robots with sensors such as vision and instrumented remote compliance devices. A number of robots are projected to be in service by 1990.

  2. Separation and Identification of Isomeric Glycans by Selected Accumulation-Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Electron Activated Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yi; Ridgeway, Mark E; Glaskin, Rebecca S; Park, Melvin A; Costello, Catherine E; Lin, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in structural characterization of oligosaccharides is the presence of many structural isomers in most naturally occurring glycan mixtures. Although ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has shown great promise in glycan isomer separation, conventional IMS separation occurs on the millisecond time scale, largely restricting its implementation to fast time-of-flight (TOF) analyzers which often lack the capability to perform electron activated dissociation (ExD) tandem MS analysis and the resolving power needed to resolve isobaric fragments. The recent development of trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) provides a promising new tool that offers high mobility resolution and compatibility with high-performance Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometers when operated under the selected accumulation-TIMS (SA-TIMS) mode. Here, we present our initial results on the application of SA-TIMS-ExD-FTICR MS to the separation and identification of glycan linkage isomers. PMID:26959868

  3. The thermodynamics and kinetics of phosphoester bond formation, use, and dissociation in biology, with the example of polyphosphate in platelet activation, trasience, and mineralization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelon, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria condense orthophosphates (Pi), forming phosphoester bonds for ATP production that is important to life. This represents an exchange of energy from dissociated carbohydrate bonds to phosophoester bonds. These bonds are available to phosphorylate organic compounds or hydrolyze to Pi, driving many biochemical processes. The benthic bacteria T. namibiensis 1 and Beggiatoa 2 condense Pi into phosphate polymers in oxygenated environments. These polyphosphates (polyPs) are stored until the environment becomes anoxic, when these bacteria retrieve the energy from polyP dissociation into Pi3. Dissociated Pi is released outside of the bacteria, where it precipitates as apatite.The Gibbs free energy of polyP phosphoester bond hydrolysis is negative, however, the kinetics are slow4. Diatoms contain a polyP pool that is stable until after death, after which the polyPs hydrolyze and form apatite5. The roles of polyP in eukaryotic organism biochemistry continue to be discovered. PolyPs have a range of biochemical roles, such as bioavailable P-storage, stress adaptation, and blood clotting6. PolyP-containing granules are released from anuclear platelets to activate factor V7 and factor XII in the blood clotting process due to their polyanionic charge8. Platelets have a lifespan of approximately 8 days, after which they undergo apoptosis9. Data will be presented that demonstrate the bioactive, thermodynamically unstable polyP pool within older platelets in vitro can spontaneously hydrolyze and form phosphate minerals. This process is likely avoided by platelet digestion in the spleen and liver, possibly recycling platelet polyPs with their phosphoester bond energy for other biochemical roles. 1 Schulz HN et al. Science (2005) 307: 416-4182 Brüchert V et al. Geochim Cosmochim Acta (2003) 67: 4505-45183 Goldhammer T et al. Nat Geosci (2010) 3: 557-5614 de Jager H-J et al. J Phys Chem A (1988) 102: 2838-28415 Diaz, J et al. Science (2008) 320: 652-6556 Mason KD et al

  4. Differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization CAD tandem mass spectrometry in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, Lucas M.; Owen, Ben C.; Gallardo, Vanessa A.; Habicht, S. C.; Fu, M.; Shea, R. C.; Mossman, A. B.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-01-01

    Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS n ) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at different collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations.

  5. Improving the radiologist-CAD interaction: designing for appropriate trust.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, W; Cnossen, F; van Ooijen, P M A

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist-CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the interaction between radiologists and the CAD system is not optimal. An important factor in the interaction between humans and automated aids (such as CAD) is trust. Suboptimal performance of the human-automation team is often caused by an inappropriate level of trust in the automation. In this review, we examine the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction and suggest ways to improve the output of the CAD system so that it allows radiologists to calibrate their trust in the CAD system more effectively. Observer studies of the CAD systems show that radiologists often have an inappropriate level of trust in the CAD system. They sometimes under-trust CAD, thereby reducing its potential benefits, and sometimes over-trust it, leading to diagnostic errors they would not have made without CAD. Based on the literature on trust in human-automation interaction and the results of CAD observer studies, we have identified four ways to improve the output of CAD so that it allows radiologists to form a more appropriate level of trust in CAD. Designing CAD systems for appropriate trust is important and can improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. Future CAD research and development should acknowledge the importance of the radiologist-CAD interaction, and specifically the role of trust therein, in order to create the perfect artificial partner for the radiologist. This review focuses on the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction. The aim of the review is to encourage CAD developers to design for appropriate trust and thereby improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. PMID:25459198

  6. Train effectively for CAD/D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    After failing with an unstructured computer-aided drafting/ design CAD/D program, Bechtel changed to a structured training program. Five considerations are presented here: teach CAD/D to engineers, not engineering to CAD/D experts; keep the program flexible enough to avoid rewriting due to fast technology evolution; pace information delivery; and rote learning of sequences only works if the students have a conceptual model first. On the job training is necessary, and better monitoring systems to test the OJT are needed. One such test is presented.

  7. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other. PMID:23282044

  8. Three dimensional CAD model of the Ignitor machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, S.; Zanaboni, P.; Macco, A.; Sioli, V.; Risso, E.

    1998-11-01

    defind The final, global product of all the structural and thermomechanical design activities is a complete three dimensional CAD (AutoCAD and Intergraph Design Review) model of the IGNITOR machine. With this powerful tool, any interface, modification, or upgrading of the machine design is managed as an integrated part of the general effort aimed at the construction of the Ignitor facility. ind The activities that are underway, to complete the design of the core of the experiment and that will be described, concern the following: ind - the cryogenic cooling system, ind - the radial press, the center post, the mechanical supports (legs) of the entire machine, ind - the inner mechanical supports of major components such as the plasma chamber and the outer poloidal field coils.

  9. Bilinguals at the "cocktail party": dissociable neural activity in auditory-linguistic brain regions reveals neurobiological basis for nonnative listeners' speech-in-noise recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Dexter, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    We examined a consistent deficit observed in bilinguals: poorer speech-in-noise (SIN) comprehension for their nonnative language. We recorded neuroelectric mismatch potentials in mono- and bi-lingual listeners in response to contrastive speech sounds in noise. Behaviorally, late bilinguals required ∼10dB more favorable signal-to-noise ratios to match monolinguals' SIN abilities. Source analysis of cortical activity demonstrated monotonic increase in response latency with noise in superior temporal gyrus (STG) for both groups, suggesting parallel degradation of speech representations in auditory cortex. Contrastively, we found differential speech encoding between groups within inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)-adjacent to Broca's area-where noise delays observed in nonnative listeners were offset in monolinguals. Notably, brain-behavior correspondences double dissociated between language groups: STG activation predicted bilinguals' SIN, whereas IFG activation predicted monolinguals' performance. We infer higher-order brain areas act compensatorily to enhance impoverished sensory representations but only when degraded speech recruits linguistic brain mechanisms downstream from initial auditory-sensory inputs. PMID:25747886

  10. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  11. CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.

    2007-07-01

    This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

  12. The unstoppable progress of CAD/CAM - Results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.

    1982-08-01

    The state of CAD/CAM technology in the construction and machinery industries is clarified by means of a few examples using PROREN software. The use of CAD in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional design is discussed, and CAD/CAM's potential for determining control information for numerically controlled milling is assessed. The design of parts by CAD is pictorially shown.

  13. The CAD-EGS Project: Using CAD Geometrics in EGS4

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willy G.J.

    2002-03-28

    The objective of the CAD-EGS project is to provide a way to use a CAD system to create 3D geometries for use within EGS4. In this report, we describe an approach based on an intermediate file, written out by the CAD system, that is read by an EGS4 user code designed for the purpose. A prototype solution was implemented using a commonly used CAD system and the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as an intermediate file format. We report results from the prototype, and discuss various problems arising from both the approach and the particular choices made.

  14. AutoCAD-To-NASTRAN Translator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    Program facilitates creation of finite-element mathematical models from geometric entities. AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator (ACTON) computer program developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element mathematical models for use with NASTRAN finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  15. CAD/CAM/CAE reshapes engineering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwinski, Thomas A.

    1993-06-01

    A development history and development trends evaluation is undertaken for computer-aided design/manufacturing/engineering techniques. Attention is drawn to the failure of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification for standardized transfer of CAD/CAM data among different data bases to support information concerning solids; it is anticipated that the ability to transfer data transparently among CAD/CAM systems will result in major savings to all users, but this directly impinges on company relations.

  16. CAD/CAM-coupled image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Rolf-Juergen; Rauh, W.

    1990-08-01

    Image processing systems have found wide application in industry. For most computer integrated manufacturing faci- lities it is necessary to adapt these systems thus that they can automate the interaction with and the integration of CAD and CAM Systems. In this paper new approaches will be described that make use of the coupling of CAD and image processing as well as the automatic generation of programmes for the machining of products.

  17. Dissociation of TNF-alpha cytotoxic and proinflammatory activities by p55 receptor- and p75 receptor-selective TNF-alpha mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, J A; Smith, W B; Gamble, J R; Van Ostade, X; Vandenabeele, P; Tavernier, J; Fiers, W; Vadas, M A; Lopez, A F

    1994-01-01

    Human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine capable of killing mammalian tumour cells in vitro and in vivo, and of enhancing the proinflammatory activity of leucocytes and endothelium, the latter effects limiting its usage as an antitumour agent in humans. Using TNF-alpha mutants with a selective capacity to bind to the TNF p55 receptor (TNFR55) or to the p75 receptor (TNFR75) we show here that these two major activities of TNF-alpha can be dissociated. The TNFR55-selective mutants (R32W, E146K and R32W-S86T) which bind poorly to TNFR75 displayed similar potency to wild-type TNF in causing cytotoxicity of a human laryngeal carcinoma-derived cell line (HEp-2) and cytostasis in a human leukaemic cell line (U937). However, these TNFR55-selective mutants exhibited lower proinflammatory activity than wild-type TNF. Specifically, TNF-alpha's priming of human neutrophils for superoxide production and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, platelet-activating factor synthesis and adhesion to endothelium were reduced by up to 170-fold. Activation of human endothelial cell functions represented by human umbilical venular endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesiveness for neutrophils, E-selectin expression, neutrophil transmigration and IL-8 secretion were also reduced by up to 280-fold. On the other hand, D143F, a TNFR75-selective mutant tested either alone or in combination with TNFR55-selective mutants, did not stimulate these activities despite being able to cause cytokine production in TNFR75-transfected PC60 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7509279

  18. RGS12 and RGS14 GoLoco motifs are G alpha(i) interaction sites with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Activity.

    PubMed

    Kimple, R J; De Vries, L; Tronchère, H; Behe, C I; Morris, R A; Gist Farquhar, M; Siderovski, D P

    2001-08-01

    The regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits and are thus recognized as key modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. RGS12 and RGS14 contain not only the hallmark RGS box responsible for GTPase-accelerating activity but also a single G alpha(i/o)-Loco (GoLoco) motif predicted to represent a second G alpha interaction site. Here, we describe functional characterization of the GoLoco motif regions of RGS12 and RGS14. Both regions interact exclusively with G alpha(i1), G alpha(i2), and G alpha(i3) in their GDP-bound forms. In GTP gamma S binding assays, both regions exhibit guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity, inhibiting the rate of exchange of GDP for GTP by G alpha(i1). Both regions also stabilize G alpha(i1) in its GDP-bound form, inhibiting the increase in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence stimulated by AlF(4)(-). Our results indicate that both RGS12 and RGS14 harbor two distinctly different G alpha interaction sites: a previously recognized N-terminal RGS box possessing G alpha(i/o) GAP activity and a C-terminal GoLoco region exhibiting G alpha(i) GDI activity. The presence of two, independent G alpha interaction sites suggests that RGS12 and RGS14 participate in a complex coordination of G-protein signaling beyond simple G alpha GAP activity. PMID:11387333

  19. [Prison psychosis and dissociative disorders].

    PubMed

    al Chaabani, S; Bataille, M

    2002-12-01

    Through a few clinical case histories stemming from their daily activities at the psychiatric section of the Lantin Prison, the authors propose to revisit the classic concept of Prison psychosis. They broaden its limits to include other psychotic and dissociative phenomena common to the jail population. This requires a strict differential diagnosis, allowing to eliminate some similar pathologies; nevertheless, some difficulties and imperfections persist. The development of the psychosis, the input from the jail architecture and milieu, the predisposing as well as facilitating factors linked to the personality of the inmate, and triggering phenomena are discussed. Finally, the comorbidity between these psychotic/dissociative phenomena and the borderline & histrionic personality disorders is envisaged. PMID:12632838

  20. On the Design of a CADS for Shoulder Pain Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ipiña, K. López; Hernández, M. C.; Martínez, E.; Vaquero, C.

    A musculoskeletal disorder is a condition of the musculoskeletal system, which consists in part of it being injured continuously over time. Shoulder disorders are one of the most common musculoskeletal cases attended in primary health care services. Shoulder disorders cause pain and limit the ability to perform many routine activities, affecting about 15-25 % of the general population. Several clinical tests have been described to aid diagnosis of shoulder disorders. However, the current literature acknowledges a lack of concordance in clinical assessment, even among musculoskeletal specialists. We are working on the design of a Computer-Aided Decision Support (CADS) system for Shoulder Pain Pathology. The paper presents the results of our efforts to build a CADS system testing several classical classification paradigms, feature reduction methods (PCA) and K-means unsupervised clustering. The small database size imposes the use of robust covariance matrix estimation methods to improve the system performance. Finally, the system was evaluated by a medical specialist.

  1. Productivity increase through implementation of CAD/CAE workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The tracking and communication division computer aided design/computer aided engineering system is now operational. The system is utilized in an effort to automate certain tasks that were previously performed manually. These tasks include detailed test configuration diagrams of systems under certification test in the ESTL, floorplan layouts of future planned laboratory reconfigurations, and other graphical documentation of division activities. The significant time savings achieved with this CAD/CAE system are examined: (1) input of drawings and diagrams; (2) editing of initial drawings; (3) accessibility of the data; and (4) added versatility. It is shown that the Applicon CAD/CAE system, with its ease of input and editing, the accessibility of data, and its added versatility, has made more efficient many of the necessary but often time-consuming tasks associated with engineering design and testing.

  2. Comparative anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin based on the phenolic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy, ionization potential and quantum chemical descriptor.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yukio; Ishii, Hiroaki; Takada, Naoki; Tanaka, Shoji; Machino, Mamoru; Ito, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin and its reduced derivative tetrahydrocurcumin have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive activity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was investigated using Northern blot analysis. The fimbria-stimulated expression of the COX-2 gene was inhibited by curcumin but not by tetrahydrocurcumin. LPS-stimulated COX-2 gene expression was completely inhibited by curcumin, but an increase in the concentration of tetrahydrocurcumin did not cause complete inhibition of COX-2 expression. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in the cells was clearly observed, but that of tetrahydrocurcumin was incomplete even at a concentration of 20 microM. To explain the difference in effect between the two compounds, analysis of the frontier orbital was performed using ab initio 6-31G* wave function. The calculated chemical hardness (eta) for curcumin was clearly smaller, whereas its electronegativity (chi) and electrophilicity (omega) were clearly greater than the corresponding values for the curcumin-related compounds tetrahydrocurcumin, isoeugenol and eugenol. This suggested that the anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin may be related to eta-, chi- and/or omega-controlled enzymes. In addition, the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) of the phenolic OH was calculated using the density function theory (DFT)/B3LY. The total BDE values of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin were almost identical, but the BDE of one-electron oxidation and ionization potential (IP) for curcumin were lower than those for tetrahydrocurcumin, suggesting the highly pro-oxidative activity of curcumin. Curcumin has both oxidant and antioxidant properties. A causal link between the anti-inflammatory activities and molecular properties of phenolic antioxidants is suggested. PMID:18507010

  3. Analysis of the Activation and Heterolytic Dissociation of H2 by Frustrated Lewis Pairs: NH3/BX3 (X = H, F, and Cl)

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Schenter, Gregory K.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Autrey, Thomas

    2012-07-05

    We present results of our computational study aimed at understanding the mechanism of H2 activation and heterolytic dissociation by 'frustrated' Lewis pairs (FLPs). We studied the pairs of ammonia (NH3) with BH3, BF3, and most extensively, BCl3. While these pairs are capable of forming a strong dative bond, electronic structure theories make it possible to explore the potential surface in regions away from the dative complex relevant to H2 activation by frustrated Lewis pairs. We analyzed in great detail the changes that occur along the minimum energy path between the FLP and the product ion pair complex. For X = Cl, the mechanism involves a precursor complex, H3N-H2-BCl3, with a B-H-H angle of {approx}80{sup o} and nearly linear N-H-H angle. At the transition state (TS), the H2 bond is weakened but not broken, and the BCl3 moiety has undergone significant pyramidal distortion. As such, the FLP is prepared to accept the incipient proton and hydride ion on the product-side. The interaction energy of the H2 with the acid/base pair and the different contributions for the precursor and TS complex from an energy decomposition analysis expose the dominant factors affecting the reactivity. We find that structural reorganization of precursor complex plays a significant role in the 'activation' and that charge-transfer interactions are the dominant stabilizing force in the activated complex. The electric field clearly has a role in polarizing H2, but its contribution to the overall interaction energy seems to be smaller. Our detailed study of the nature of the bonding and the different types of interaction between the prototypical Lewis pair and H2 provides insight into the important components that should be taken into account when designing related systems to activate hydrogen.

  4. Dopamine Receptor Blockade Modulates the Rewarding and Aversive Properties of Nicotine via Dissociable Neuronal Activity Patterns in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ninglei; Laviolette, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    The mesolimbic pathway comprising the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been identified as a critical neural system involved in processing both the rewarding and aversive behavioral effects of nicotine. Transmission through dopamine (DA) receptors functionally modulates these effects directly within the NAc. Nevertheless, the neuronal mechanisms within the NAc responsible for these bivalent behavioral effects are presently not known. Using an unbiased conditioned place preference procedure combined with in vivo neuronal recordings, we examined the effects of nicotine reward and aversion conditioning on intra-NAc neuronal sub-population activity patterns. We report that intra-VTA doses of nicotine that differentially produce rewarding or aversive behavioral effects produce opposite effects on sub-populations of fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) or medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the shell region of the NAc (NAshell). Thus, while the rewarding effects of intra-VTA nicotine were associated with inhibition of FSI and activation of MSNs, the aversive effects of nicotine produced the opposite pattern of NAshell neuronal population activity. Blockade of DA transmission with a broad-spectrum DA receptor antagonist, α-flupenthixol, strongly inhibited the spontaneous activity of NAshell FSIs, and reversed the conditioning properties of intra-VTA nicotine, switching nicotine-conditioned responses from aversive to rewarding. Remarkably, DA receptor blockade switched intra-NAshell neuronal population activity from an aversion to a reward pattern, concomitant with the observed switch in behavioral conditioning effects. PMID:24896614

  5. Dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Werner, John H; Lee, Donghoon; Sheppard, Aaron D; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to fatty liver disease. Our studies revealed that the hepatic circadian clock is disturbed in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, and effects of chronic alcohol administration upon the clock itself may contribute to steatosis. We extended these findings to explore the effects of chronic alcohol treatment on daily feeding and locomotor activity patterns. Mice were chronically pair-fed ad libitum for 4 weeks using the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, with calorie-controlled liquid and standard chow diets as control groups. Locomotor activity, feeding activity, and real-time bioluminescence recording of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression in tissue explants were measured. Mice on liquid control and chow diets exhibited normal profiles of locomotor activity, with a ratio of 22:78% day/night activity and a peak during early night. This pattern was dramatically altered in alcohol-fed mice, marked by a 49:51% ratio and the absence of a distinct peak. While chow-diet fed mice had a normal 24:76% ratio of feeding activity, with a peak in the early night, this pattern was dramatically altered in both liquid-diet groups: mice had a 43:57% ratio, and an absence of a distinct peak. Temporal differences were also observed between the two liquid-diet groups during late day. Cosinor analysis revealed a ∼4-h and ∼6-h shift in the alcohol-fed group feeding and locomotor activity rhythms, respectively. Analysis of hepatic PER2 expression revealed that the molecular clock in alcohol-fed and control liquid-diet mice was shifted by ∼11 h and ∼6 h, respectively. No differences were observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus explants, suggesting that changes in circadian phase in the liver were generated independently from the central clock. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption and a liquid diet can differentially modulate the daily rhythmicity of locomotor and feeding behaviors, aspects that might contribute to disturbances in the circadian

  6. Dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Werner, John H.; Lee, Donghoon; Sheppard, Aaron D.; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to fatty liver disease. Our studies revealed that the hepatic circadian clock is disturbed in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, and effects of chronic alcohol administration upon the clock itself may contribute to steatosis. We extended these findings to explore the effects of chronic alcohol treatment on daily feeding and locomotor activity patterns. Mice were chronically pair-fed ad libitum for 4 weeks using the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, with calorie-controlled liquid and standard chow diets as control groups. Locomotor activity, feeding activity, and real-time bioluminescence recording of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression in tissue explants were measured. Mice on liquid control and chow diets exhibited normal profiles of locomotor activity, with a ratio of 22:78% day/night activity and a peak during early night. This pattern was dramatically altered in alcohol-fed mice, marked by a 49:51% ratio and the absence of a distinct peak. While chow-diet fed mice had a normal 24:76% ratio of feeding activity, with a peak in the early night, this pattern was dramatically altered in both liquid-diet groups: mice had a 43:57% ratio, and an absence of a distinct peak. Temporal differences were also observed between the two liquid-diet groups during late day. Cosinor analysis revealed a ~4-h and ~6-h shift in the alcohol-fed group feeding and locomotor activity rhythms, respectively. Analysis of hepatic PER2 expression revealed that the molecular clock in alcohol-fed and control liquid-diet mice was shifted by ~11 h and ~6 h, respectively. No differences were observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus explants, suggesting that changes in circadian phase in the liver were generated independently from the central clock. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption and a liquid diet can differentially modulate the daily rhythmicity of locomotor and feeding behaviors, aspects that might contribute to disturbances in the circadian timing

  7. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  8. Ahnak protein activates protein kinase C (PKC) through dissociation of the PKC-protein phosphatase 2A complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Hye; Lim, Hee Jung; Yoon, Suhyeon; Seong, Je Kyung; Bae, Duk Soo; Rhee, Sue Goo; Bae, Yun Soo

    2008-03-01

    We have previously reported that central repeated units (CRUs) of Ahnak act as a scaffolding protein networking phospholipase Cgamma and protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we demonstrate that an Ahnak derivative consisting of four central repeated units binds and activates PKC-alpha in a phosphatidylserine/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-independent manner. Moreover, NIH3T3 cells expressing the 4 CRUs of Ahnak showed enhanced c-Raf, MEK, and Erk phosphorylation in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) compared with parental cells. To evaluate the effect of loss-of-function of Ahnak in cell signaling, we investigated PKC activation and Raf phosphorylation in embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) of the Ahnak knock-out (Ahnak(-/-)) mouse. Membrane translocation of PKC-alpha and phosphorylation of Raf in response to PMA or platelet-derived growth factor were decreased in Ahnak null MEF cells compared with wild type MEFs. Several lines of evidence suggest that PKC-alpha activity is regulated through association with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). A co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the association of PKC-alpha with PP2A was disrupted in NIH3T3 cells expressing 4 CRUs of Ahnak in response to PMA. Consistently, Ahnak null MEF cells stimulated by PMA showed enhanced PKC-PP2A complex formation, and add-back expression of Ahnak into Ahnak null MEF cells abolished the PKC-PP2A complex formation in response to PMA. These data indicate that Ahnak potentiates PKC activation through inhibiting the interaction of PKC with PP2A. PMID:18174170

  9. Dissociating Cortical Activity during Processing of Native and Non-Native Audiovisual Speech from Early to Late Infancy.

    PubMed

    Fava, Eswen; Hull, Rachel; Bortfeld, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Initially, infants are capable of discriminating phonetic contrasts across the world's languages. Starting between seven and ten months of age, they gradually lose this ability through a process of perceptual narrowing. Although traditionally investigated with isolated speech sounds, such narrowing occurs in a variety of perceptual domains (e.g., faces, visual speech). Thus far, tracking the developmental trajectory of this tuning process has been focused primarily on auditory speech alone, and generally using isolated sounds. But infants learn from speech produced by people talking to them, meaning they learn from a complex audiovisual signal. Here, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to measure blood concentration changes in the bilateral temporal cortices of infants in three different age groups: 3-to-6 months, 7-to-10 months, and 11-to-14-months. Critically, all three groups of infants were tested with continuous audiovisual speech in both their native and another, unfamiliar language. We found that at each age range, infants showed different patterns of cortical activity in response to the native and non-native stimuli. Infants in the youngest group showed bilateral cortical activity that was greater overall in response to non-native relative to native speech; the oldest group showed left lateralized activity in response to native relative to non-native speech. These results highlight perceptual tuning as a dynamic process that happens across modalities and at different levels of stimulus complexity. PMID:25116572

  10. Project CAD as of July 1978: CAD support project, situation in July 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesch, L.; Lang-Lendorff, G.; Rothenberg, R.; Stelzer, V.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and the requirements for program developments in past and future are described. The actual standard and the future aims of CAD programs are presented. The developed programs in: (1) civil engineering; (2) mechanical engineering; (3) chemical engineering/shipbuilding; (4) electrical engineering; and (5) general programs are discussed.

  11. An application protocol for CAD to CAD transfer of electronic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azu, Charles C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The exchange of Computer Aided Design (CAD) information between dissimilar CAD systems is a problem. This is especially true for transferring electronics CAD information such as multi-chip module (MCM), hybrid microcircuit assembly (HMA), and printed circuit board (PCB) designs. Currently, there exists several neutral data formats for transferring electronics CAD information. These include IGES, EDIF, and DXF formats. All these formats have limitations for use in exchanging electronic data. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, the Navy's MicroCIM program implemented a project to transfer hybrid microcircuit design information between dissimilar CAD systems. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) format is used since it is well established within the CAD industry. The goal of the project is to have a complete transfer of microelectronic CAD information, using IGES, without any data loss. An Application Protocol (AP) is being developed to specify how hybrid microcircuit CAD information will be represented by IGES entity constructs. The AP defines which IGES data items are appropriate for describing HMA geometry, connectivity, and processing as well as HMA material characteristics.

  12. Studies of adhesion-dependent platelet activation: distinct roles for different participating receptors can be dissociated by proteolysis of collagen.

    PubMed

    Siljander, P; Lassila, R

    1999-12-01

    The molecular differences between native-type collagen type I fibrils (NC) and their pepsinated monomers (PC) were used to uncover receptors involved in platelet-collagen interaction along the adhesion-activation axis. The platelet-depositing capacity of NC and PC under blood flow and their adhesive properties and respective morphologies, aggregation, procoagulant capacity, and tyrosine phosphorylation were compared under different cationic milieus, including or excluding the glycoprotein (GP) Ia/IIa. NC was consistently a more preferable and activating substrate than PC during flow (5 minutes) and in platelet aggregation. In PPACK-treated blood, both NC (3.3-fold) and PC (2.7-fold) increased platelet attachment on elevation of the shear rate from 500 to 1640 s(-1), whereas in citrated blood, adhesion and thrombus growth on PC were negligible under the high shear rate, unlike on NC (1.9-fold increase). The complete lack of platelet deposition on PC in citrated blood could be overcome by restoring physiological Mg(2+) concentration, and in contrast to NC, platelets interacting with PC were highly dependent on Mg(2+) during adhesion, aggregation, and procoagulant response. Monoclonal antibody (mAb 131.7) against GP IV inhibited platelet deposition to NC in citrated blood (2 minutes) by 49%, which was not further increased by coincubation with mAb against GP Ia (6F1). These results stress the importance of GP Ia/IIa in shear-resistant platelet deposition on collagen monomers. In native fibers, however, the preserved quaternary structure with telopeptides activates additional platelet receptors capable of substituting GP Ia/IIa and GP IV. PMID:10591685

  13. CD4 down regulation and raft dissociation by the non-depleting YTS177 antibody hinder murine T helper cell activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Jang; Lu, Chun-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Nguyen, Duc T; Huang, Yi-Shu; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Yen; Kuo, Ming-Ling

    2016-05-13

    Non-depleting YTS177 anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) has been reported to lead to antigen-specific immunotolerance in allograft transplantation and autoimmune diabetes, as well as possibly to inhibition of allergic inflammation in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hyporesponsive T cell responses induced by YTS177 MoAb remain elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that the YTS177 MoAb increases the levels of anergy factors p27(kip1) and Cbl-b, inhibits IL-2 production, and impairs calcium mobilization in activated T cells in vitro. YTS177 MoAb suppresses OVA-driven proliferation of DO11.10 CD4(+) T cells in vivo as well. Mechanistically, YTS177 MoAb induces tolerance by causing CD4 down-regulation through clathrin-dependent and raft dissociation. The results obtained in this study lead us to propose novel protective or curative approaches to CD4 T cell-mediated diseases. PMID:27045081

  14. Molecular formula analysis of fragment ions by isotope-selective collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of pharmacologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Lelario, Filomena; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the mass fragment characterization of commonly used drugs through a novel approach, which involves isotope-selective tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was performed with a low-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization. Three pharmacologically active ingredients, i.e. omeprazole, meloxicam and brinzolamide, selected as model compounds in their own formulation, were investigated as a sodiated adduct [C17 H19 N3 O3 S + Na](+) (omeprazole) and as protonated adducts, [C14 H13 N3 O4 S2  + H](+) and [C12 H21 N3 O5 S3  + H](+) , meloxicam and brinzolamide, respectively. Selecting a narrow window of ±0.5 m/z units, precursor ion fragmentation by CID-MS/MS of isotopologues A + 0, A + 1 and A + 2 was found very useful to confirm the chemical formula of product ions, thus aiding the establishment of characteristic fragmentation pathways of all three examined compounds. The correctness of putative molecular formula of product ions was easily demonstrated by exploiting the isotope peak abundance ratios (i.e. IF+0 /IF+1 and IF+0 /IF+2 ) as simple constraints in low-resolution MS instrumentations. PMID:25476951

  15. Structurally diagnostic ion-molecule reactions and collisionally activated dissociation of 1,4-benzodiazepines in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    McCarley, T D; Brodbelt, J

    1993-09-01

    The ion-molecule reactions of various 1,4-benzodiazepines and dimethyl ether ions were studied with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The methoxymethylene ions of dimethyl ether selectively react with 3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepines (temazepam, oxazepam) to form (M+13)+ adducts by methylene substitution, and they react with 1,4-benzodiazepines that do not have hydroxyl substituents (diazepam, nordiazepam, nitrazepam) to form (M+15)+ adduct by a simple methyl cation transfer. These adducts are formed by elimination of methanol or formaldehyde, respectively, from (M+CH2OCH3)+ precursor ions. Ion-molecule reactions of model compounds with dimethyl ether ions suggest that the reactive site in the formation of (M+15)+ adducts is the imine functional group of the 1,4-benzodiazepines, while the reactive site for formation of (M+13)+ adducts involves a functional group interaction between the hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups. Fragmentation induced by chemical ionization and collisionally activated dissociation provides further structural information for the differentiation of 1,4-benzodiazepines. Also, the gas-phase basicities of diazepam and temazepam have been estimated by bracketing techniques to be between 220.7 and 222.2 kcal/mol. PMID:8238931

  16. Dissociation of intestinal and hepatic activities of FXR and LXRα supports metabolic effects of terminal ileum interposition in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mencarelli, Andrea; Renga, Barbara; D'Amore, Claudio; Santorelli, Chiara; Graziosi, Luigina; Bruno, Angela; Monti, Maria Chiara; Distrutti, Eleonora; Cipriani, Sabrina; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the liver x receptors (LXRs) are bile acid-activated receptors that are highly expressed in the enterohepatic tissues. The mechanisms that support the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery are only partially defined. We have investigated the effects of ileal interposition (IT), a surgical relocation of the distal ileum into the proximal jejunum, on FXR and LXRs in rats. Seven months after surgery, blood concentrations of total bile acids, taurocholic acid, an FXR ligand, and taurohyocholic acid, an LXRα ligand, were significantly increased by IT (P < 0.05). In contrast, liver and intestinal concentrations of conjugated and nonconjugated bile acids were decreased (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with a robust induction of FXR and FXR-regulated genes in the intestine, including Fgf15, a negative regulator of bile acid synthesis. IT repressed the liver expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), two gluconeogenetic genes, along with the expression of LXRα and its target genes sterol regulatory element-binding protein (Srebp) 1c and fatty acid synthase (Fas) in the liver. Treating IT rats with chenodeoxycholic acid ameliorated insulin signaling in the liver. Whether confirmed in human settings, these results support the association of pharmacological therapies with bariatric surgeries to exploit the selective activation of intestinal nuclear receptors. PMID:23835330

  17. CO Oxidation on Inverse CeOx/Cu(111) Catalysts: High Catalytic Activity and Ceria-Promoted Dissociation of O2

    SciTech Connect

    F Yang; J Graciani; J Evans; P Liu; J Hrbek; J Fdez. Sanz; J Rodriguez

    2011-12-31

    A Cu(111) surface displays a low activity for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2}). Depending on the temperature, background pressure of O{sub 2}, and the exposure time, one can get chemisorbed O on Cu(111) or a layer of Cu{sub 2}O that may be deficient in oxygen. The addition of ceria nanoparticles (NPs) to Cu(111) substantially enhances interactions with the O{sub 2} molecule and facilitates the oxidation of the copper substrate. In images of scanning tunneling microscopy, ceria NPs exhibit two overlapping honeycomb-type moire structures, with the larger ones (H{sub 1}) having a periodicity of 4.2 nm and the smaller ones (H{sub 2}) having a periodicity of 1.20 nm. After annealing CeO{sub 2}/Cu(111) in O{sub 2} at elevated temperatures (600-700 K), a new phase of a Cu{sub 2}O{sub 1+x} surface oxide appears and propagates from the ceria NPs. The ceria is not only active for O{sub 2} dissociation, but provides a much faster channel for oxidation than the step edges of Cu(111). Exposure to CO at 550-750 K led to a partial reduction of the ceria NPs and the removal of the copper oxide layer. The CeO{sub x}/Cu(111) systems have activities for the 2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2} reaction that are comparable or larger than those reported for surfaces of expensive noble metals such as Rh(111), Pd(110), and Pt(100). Density-functional calculations show that the supported ceria NPs are able to catalyze the oxidation of CO due to their special electronic and chemical properties. The configuration of the inverse oxide/metal catalyst opens new interesting routes for applications in catalysis.

  18. TrkBT1 Induces Liver Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Sequestering Rho GDP Dissociation Inhibitor and Promoting RhoA Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongkui; Chang, Zhe; Chiao, Lucia J.; Kang, Ya’an; Xia, Qianghua; Zhu, Cihui; Fleming, Jason B.; Evans, Douglas B.; Chiao, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Many genetic and molecular alterations, such as K-ras mutation and NF-κB activation, have been identified in pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic cancer metastasizes still remain to be determined. Although we previously showed that the tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) was significantly correlated with the development of liver metastasis, its function in pancreatic cancer metastasis remained unresolved. In the present study, we showed that overexpressed TrkB is an alternatively spliced transcript variant of TrkB (TrkBT1) with a unique COOH-terminal 12–amino acid sequence and is mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Our results showed that overexpression of Flag-tagged TrkBT1 but not a Flag-tagged TrkBT1 COOH-terminal deletion mutant (Flag-TrkBT1ΔC) in nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cells enhanced cell proliferation, promoted formation of colonies in soft agar, stimulated tumor cell invasion, and induced liver metastasis in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. TrkBT1 interacted with Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in vivo, but Flag-TrkBT1ΔC did not. Furthermore, overexpression of Flag-TrkBT1 and knockdown of RhoGDI expression by RhoGDI short hairpin RNAs promoted RhoA activation, but Flag-TrkBT1ΔC overexpression did not. Therefore, our results showed that TrkBT1 overexpression induces liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer and uncovered a unique signaling mechanism by which TrkBT1 sequesters GDI and activates RhoA signaling. PMID:19773448

  19. CAD software lights up the environmental scene

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.

    1996-01-01

    There seems to be a natural affinity between the data requirements of environmental work and computer-aided design (CAD) software. Perhaps the best example of this is the famous shots of the ozone hole produced by computer-enhanced satellite imagery in the mid-1980s. Once this image was published, the highly abstract discussion of ozone concentrations and arctic wind patterns suddenly became very real. On ground level, in the day-to-day work of environmental managers and site restorers, CAD software is proving its value over and over. Graphic images are a convenient, readily understandable way of presenting the large volumes of data produced by environmental projects. With the latest CAD systems, the work of specifying process equipment or subsurface conditions can be reused again and again as projects move from the study and design phase to the construction or remediation phases. An important subset of CAD is geographic information systems (GIS), which are used to organize data on a site-specific basis. Like CAD itself, GIS reaches out beyond the borders of the computer screen or printout, in such ways making use of the Geostationary Positioning System (a global method of locating position precisely), and matching current with historical data. Good GIS software can also make use of the large database of geological data produced by government and industry, thus saving on surveying costs and exploratory well construction.

  20. Signal 3 determines tolerance versus full activation of naive CD8 T cells: dissociating proliferation and development of effector function.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, Julie M; Lins, Debra C; Mescher, Matthew F

    2003-05-01

    Activation of naive CD8 T cells to undergo clonal expansion and develop effector function requires three signals: (a) Ag, (b) costimulation, and (c) IL-12 or adjuvant. The requirement for the third signal to stimulate Ag-dependent proliferation is variable, making the greatest contribution when Ag levels are low. At high Ag levels, extensive proliferation can occur in vitro or in vivo in the absence of a third signal. However, despite having undergone the same number of divisions, cells that expand in the absence of a third signal fail to develop cytolytic effector function. Thus, proliferation and development of cytolytic function can be fully uncoupled. Furthermore, these cells are rendered functionally tolerant in vivo, in that subsequent restimulation with a potent stimulus results in limited clonal expansion, impaired IFN-gamma production, and no cytolytic function. Thus, the presence or absence of the third signal appears to be a critical variable in determining whether stimulation by Ag results in tolerance versus development of effector function and establishment of a responsive memory population. PMID:12732656

  1. Dissociation of explicit and implicit measures of the behavioral inhibition and activation system in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kobeleva, Xenia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Kohler, Christian; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2014-08-15

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from various impairments in emotional functioning such as affective instability, inappropriate anger and unstable relationships. These deficits may influence two fundamental motivational systems, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS). To investigate behavioral intentions and possible impairments in BPD we applied an implicit joystick task to measure implicit behavioral tendencies in response to facial expressions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear and neutral) in 25 patients with BPD and matched 25 healthy controls (HC). Additionally, we evaluated explicit approach and avoidance reactions to these social stimuli, emotion recognition abilities and subjective behavioral ratings. Our data analysis suggests that, although BPD patients accurately identified facial emotional expressions and reacted to them similarly as HC in the joystick task, they had significantly stronger avoidance tendencies in the rating task, especially for happiness and fear. On top of this they exhibited increased BIS sensitivity and decreased BAS sensitivity in the self-report measures. Possible influences are maladaptive cognitive schemas, high negative affect, insecure attachment style and a negative evaluation bias. The observed dysfunctional avoidance ratings may influence the appraisal of socially relevant stimuli and therefore adds further knowledge on social interaction problems in BPD. PMID:24798120

  2. Selective Activator of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Compound A Dissociates Therapeutic and Atrophogenic Effects of Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling in Skin

    PubMed Central

    Klopot, Anna; Baida, Gleb; Bhalla, Pankaj; Haegeman, Guy; Budunova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glucocorticoids are effective anti-inflammatory drugs widely used in dermatology and for the treatment of blood cancer patients. Unfortunately, chronic treatment with glucocorticoids results in serious metabolic and atrophogenic adverse effects including skin atrophy. Glucocorticoids act via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor that causes either gene transactivation (TA) or transrepression (TR). Compound A (CpdA), a novel non-steroidal GR ligand, does not promote GR dimerization and TA, retains anti-inflammatory potential but induces fewer metabolic side effects compared to classical glucocorticoids when used systemically. As topical effects of CpdA have not been well studied, this work goal was to compare the anti-inflammatory and side effects of topical CpdA and glucocorticoids and to assess their effect on GR TA and TR in keratinocytes. Methods: We used murine immortalized keratinocytes and F1 C57BlxDBA mice. Effect of glucocorticoid fluocinolone acetonide (FA) and CpdA on gene expression in keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR. The anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in the model of tumor promoter 12-O-tertradecanoyl-acetate (TPA)-induced dermatitis and in croton oil-induced ear edema test. Skin atrophy was assessed by analysis of epidermal thickness, keratinocyte proliferation, subcutaneous adipose hypoplasia, and dermal changes after chronic treatment with FA and CpdA. Results: In mouse keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo, CpdA did not activate GR-dependent genes but mimicked closely the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoid FA on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. When applied topically, CpdA inhibited TPA-induced skin inflammation and hyperplasia. Unlike glucocorticoids, CpdA itself did not induce skin atrophy which correlated with lack of induction of atrophogene regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) causatively involved in

  3. cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:18165364

  4. cadDX operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Feng, C W; Chiu, C F; Burne, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:18165364

  5. CAD/CAM integration - The imperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The assimilation of CAD/CAM capabilities into the organizational/production aspects of a manufacturing company are discussed. One company has begun the process by automating the engineering department, with all final design products subject to one vice-president's approval before being sent to the production line, which will eventually become an integrated part of the automated process. Another firm has established a CAE team within the engineering department to refine preliminary work and recommendations from other sources and fit them into manufacturing specifications. It is recommended that all managers and users be familiarized with CAD/CAM systems and that all defect-tendencies induced into people working under production pressure be anticipated and eliminated. It is emphasized that incorporating CAD/CAM into a company is as much a matter of the people involved as the technical considerations.

  6. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  7. Novel triple reuptake inhibitors with low risk of CAD associated liabilities: design, synthesis and biological activities of 4-[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-methoxyethyl]piperidine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Ishichi, Yuji; Kimura, Eiji; Honda, Eiji; Yoshikawa, Masato; Nakahata, Takashi; Terao, Yasuko; Suzuki, Atsuko; Kawai, Takayuki; Arakawa, Yuuichi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Terauchi, Jun

    2013-08-01

    A novel triple reuptake inhibitor with low potential of liabilities associated with cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) was identified following an analysis of existing drugs. Low molecular weight (MW < ca. 300), low aromatic ring count (number = 1) and reduced lipophilicity (ClogP < 3.5) were hypothesized to be key factors to avoid the CAD associated liabilities (CYP2D6 inhibition, hERG inhibition and phospholipidosis). Based on the hypothesis, a series of piperidine compounds was designed with consideration of the common characteristic features of CNS drugs. Optimization of the side chain by adjusting overall lipophilicity suggested that incorporation of a methoxymethyl group could provide compounds with a balance of both potent reuptake inhibition and low liability potential. Compound (S)-3a showed a potent antidepressant-like effect in the mice tail suspension test (MED = 10 mg/kg, p.o.), proportional monoamine transporter occupancies and enhancement of monoamine concentrations in mouse prefrontal cortex. PMID:23769168

  8. Automated CAD design for sculptured airfoil surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. D.; Yeagley, S. R.

    1990-11-01

    The design of tightly tolerated sculptured surfaces such as those for airfoils requires a significant design effort in order to machine the tools to create these surfaces. Because of the quantity of numerical data required to describe the airfoil surfaces, a CAD approach is required. Although this approach will result in productivity gains, much larger gains can be achieved by automating the design process. This paper discusses an application which resulted in an eightfold improvement in productivity by automating the design process on the CAD system.

  9. Dissociative Reactions to Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Mark

    In contrast to Freud's later and revised view of the etiology of hysterical, or dissociative, symptoms, it is now known that real, and not fantasized, sexual experiences in childhood are experienced in disociative symptomatology. It is useful to understand that incest involves both traumatic events, that is, incidents of sexual violation per se,…

  10. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  11. Dissociation and psychosis in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms, first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and delusions were assessed in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients with the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; DID patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised. DID patients obtained significantly (a) higher dissociation scores; (b) higher passive-influence scores (first-rank symptoms); and (c) higher scores on scales that measure child voices, angry voices, persecutory voices, voices arguing, and voices commenting. Schizophrenia patients obtained significantly higher delusion scores than did DID patients. What is odd is that the dissociation scores of schizophrenia patients were unrelated to their reports of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 81% of the variance in DID patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Ego-Alien Experiences Scale, whereas 92% of the variance in schizophrenia patients' dissociation scores was predicted by the MID's Voices Scale. We propose that schizophrenia patients' responses to the MID do not index the same pathology as do the responses of DID patients. We argue that neither phenomenological definitions of dissociation nor the current generation of dissociation instruments (which are uniformly phenomenological in nature) can distinguish between the dissociative phenomena of DID and what we suspect are just the dissociation-like phenomena of schizophrenia. PMID:22651674

  12. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  13. Dissociation Behavior of a TEMPO-Active Ester Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS) in Negative ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Christoph; Ihling, Christian H.; Götze, Michael; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagent, containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) and a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker, to derive three-dimensional structural information of proteins. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate the mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). In an initial study, we had investigated the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-derivatized peptides upon collision activation in (+)-electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) experiments. In addition to the homolytic NO-C bond cleavage FRIPS pathway delivering the desired odd-electron product ions, an alternative heterolytic NO-C bond cleavage, resulting in even-electron product ions mechanism was found to be relevant. The latter fragmentation route clearly depends on the protonation of the TEMPO-Bz-moiety itself, which motivated us to conduct (-)-ESI-MS, CID-MS/MS, and MS3 experiments of TEMPO-Bz-cross-linked peptides to further clarify the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-peptide molecular ions. We show that the TEMPO-Bz-linker is highly beneficial for conducting FRIPS in negative ionization mode as the desired homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond is the major fragmentation pathway. Based on characteristic fragments, the isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated. Interestingly, we observed pronounced amino acid side chain losses in cross-linked peptides if the cross-linked peptides contain a high number of acidic amino acids.

  14. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO₂ catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO₂(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO₂(111) compared with pyramidal Ni₄ particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of thismore » support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²⁺ species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO₂ has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.« less

  15. In situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO2 catalyst: importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Javier; López-Durán, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Crumlin, Ethan J; Matolín, Vladimir; Rodríguez, José A; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M Verónica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, the effect of the support on OH bond cleavage activity is elucidated for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O 1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO2 (111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO2 (111) compared with pyramidal Ni4 particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni(2+) species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO2 has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions. PMID:25651288

  16. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO₂ catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO₂(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO₂(111) compared with pyramidal Ni₄ particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²⁺ species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO₂ has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.

  17. Association of human erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins with blood-group Cad specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J P; Blanchard, D

    1982-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6187337

  18. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders. PMID:23282045

  19. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  20. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  1. CAD for 4-step braided fabric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.; Hahn, H.T.

    1994-12-31

    A general framework is provided to predict thermoelastic properties of three dimensional 4-step braided fabric composites. Three key steps involved are (1) the development of a CAD model for yarn architecture, (2) the extraction of a unit cell (3) the prediction of the thermoelastic properties based on micromechanics. Main features of each step are summarized and experimental correlations are provided in the paper.

  2. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  3. Use of CAD systems in design of Space Station and space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, Suren N.; Yadav, P.; Jones, Gary; Travis, Elmer W.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of CAD systems is traced. State-of-the-art CAD systems are reviewed and various advanced CAD facilities and supplementing systems being used at NASA-Goddard are described. CAD hardware, computer software, and protocols are detailed.

  4. A CAD (Classroom Assessment Design) of a Computer Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawi, Nazir S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a CAD (classroom assessment design) of an entry-level undergraduate computer programming course "Computer Programming I". CAD has been the product of a long experience in teaching computer programming courses including teaching "Computer Programming I" 22 times. Each semester, CAD is evaluated and modified for the subsequent…

  5. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit…

  6. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  7. Education and Training Packages for CAD/CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, I. C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses educational efforts in the fields of Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Describes two educational training initiatives underway in the United Kingdom, one of which is a resource materials package for teachers of CAD/CAM at the undergraduate level, and the other a training course for managers of CAD/CAM systems. (TW)

  8. Dissociation and psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Steingard, S; Frankel, F H

    1985-08-01

    The literature on hysterical or brief reactive psychosis reflects great diversity both in clinical description and theoretical formulation. The authors describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, rapid cycling type, but who, in fact, was experiencing dissociative episodes manifested as psychotic states. The patient's successful treatment with hypnosis is described, along with the clinical and theoretical implications of the case. PMID:4025593

  9. Drosophila melanogaster Cad99C, the orthologue of human Usher cadherin PCDH15, regulates the length of microvilli

    PubMed Central

    D'Alterio, Cecilia; Tran, Dao D.D.; Yeung, Maggie W.Y. Au; Hwang, Michael S.H.; Li, Michelle A.; Arana, Claudia J.; Mulligan, Vikram K.; Kubesh, Mary; Sharma, Praveer; Chase, Maretta; Tepass, Ulrich; Godt, Dorothea

    2005-01-01

    Actin-based protrusions can form prominent structures on the apical surface of epithelial cells, such as microvilli. Several cytoplasmic factors have been identified that control the dynamics of actin filaments in microvilli. However, it remains unclear whether the plasma membrane participates actively in microvillus formation. In this paper, we analyze the function of Drosophila melanogaster cadherin Cad99C in the microvilli of ovarian follicle cells. Cad99C contributes to eggshell formation and female fertility and is expressed in follicle cells, which produce the eggshells. Cad99C specifically localizes to apical microvilli. Loss of Cad99C function results in shortened and disorganized microvilli, whereas overexpression of Cad99C leads to a dramatic increase of microvillus length. Cad99C that lacks most of the cytoplasmic domain, including potential PDZ domain–binding sites, still promotes excessive microvillus outgrowth, suggesting that the amount of the extracellular domain determines microvillus length. This study reveals Cad99C as a critical regulator of microvillus length, the first example of a transmembrane protein that is involved in this process. PMID:16260500

  10. CAD/CAM of braided preforms for advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gui; Pastore, Christopher; Tsai, Yung Jia; Soebroto, Heru; Ko, Frank

    A CAD/CAM system for braiding to produce preforms for advanced textile structural composites is presented in this paper. The CAD and CAM systems are illustrated in detail. The CAD system identifies the fiber placement and orientation needed to fabricate a braided structure over a mandrel, for subsequent composite formation. The CAM system uses the design parameters generated by the CAD system to control the braiding machine. Experimental evidence demonstrating the success of combining these two technologies to form a unified CAD/CAM system for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms with complex structural shapes is presented.

  11. ProperCAD: A portable object-oriented parallel environment for VLSI CAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramkumar, Balkrishna; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1993-01-01

    Most parallel algorithms for VLSI CAD proposed to date have one important drawback: they work efficiently only on machines that they were designed for. As a result, algorithms designed to date are dependent on the architecture for which they are developed and do not port easily to other parallel architectures. A new project under way to address this problem is described. A Portable object-oriented parallel environment for CAD algorithms (ProperCAD) is being developed. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop new parallel algorithms that run in a portable object-oriented environment (CAD algorithms using a general purpose platform for portable parallel programming called CARM is being developed and a C++ environment that is truly object-oriented and specialized for CAD applications is also being developed); and (2) to design the parallel algorithms around a good sequential algorithm with a well-defined parallel-sequential interface (permitting the parallel algorithm to benefit from future developments in sequential algorithms). One CAD application that has been implemented as part of the ProperCAD project, flat VLSI circuit extraction, is described. The algorithm, its implementation, and its performance on a range of parallel machines are discussed in detail. It currently runs on an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Symmetry, Intel iPSC/2 and i860 hypercubes, a NCUBE 2 hypercube, and a network of Sun Sparc workstations. Performance data for other applications that were developed are provided: namely test pattern generation for sequential circuits, parallel logic synthesis, and standard cell placement.

  12. AutoCAD-To-GIFTS Translator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD-to-GIFTS translator program, ACTOG, developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element models using CASA/GIFTS finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include points, lines, arcs, solids, three-dimensional lines, and three-dimensional faces. From this information, ACTOG creates GIFTS SRC file, which then reads into GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or modified and reads into EDITM to create finite-element model. SRC file used as is or edited for any number of uses. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  13. Cost reduction advantages of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, G. T.

    1983-05-01

    Features of the CAD/CAM system implemented at the General Dynamics Convair division are summarized. CAD/CAM was initiated in 1976 to enhance engineering, manufacturing and quality assurance and thereby the company's competitive bidding position. Numerical models are substituted for hardware models wherever possible and numerical criteria are defined in design for guiding computer-controlled parts manufacturing machines. The system comprises multiple terminals, a data base, digitizer, printers, disk and tape drives, and graphics displays. The applications include the design and manufacture of parts and components for avionics, structures, scientific investigations, and aircraft structural components. Interfaces with other computers allow structural analyses by finite element codes. Although time savings have not been gained compared to manual drafting, components of greater complexity than could have been designed by hand have been designed and manufactured.

  14. Generating Composite Overlapping Grids on CAD Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W.D.

    2002-02-07

    We describe some algorithms and tools that have been developed to generate composite overlapping grids on geometries that have been defined with computer aided design (CAD) programs. This process consists of five main steps. Starting from a description of the surfaces defining the computational domain we (1) correct errors in the CAD representation, (2) determine topology of the patched-surface, (3) build a global triangulation of the surface, (4) construct structured surface and volume grids using hyperbolic grid generation, and (5) generate the overlapping grid by determining the holes and the interpolation points. The overlapping grid generator which is used for the final step also supports the rapid generation of grids for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and for moving grids. These algorithms have been implemented as part of the Overture object-oriented framework.

  15. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  16. Intelligent CAD approach for modular design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Miao-an; Li, Chenggang; Zhong, Yifang; Yu, Jun; Zhou, Ji

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, the technology of Artificial Intelligence is introduced into a modular design and manufacturing for machine tools. The authors present a methodology to realize the modular conceptual design combined with traditional CAD, and develop an intelligent machine tools modular conceptual system. The problem-solving strategies are described in detail. The design model and system architecture are set up. Techniques and their incorporation of expert system, case-based reasoning and artificial neural networks are clarified.

  17. Recurrent dissociative fugue.

    PubMed

    Mamarde, Abhishek; Navkhare, Praveen; Singam, Amrita; Kanoje, Akash

    2013-10-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rarely reported diagnostic entity. It is one of the least understood and yet clinically one of the most fascinating disorders in mental health. Here, we describe a case of fugue in a 32-year-old man who was brought to mental hospital with complete loss of memory for events pertaining to identity of self. This case illustrates the nature of presentation in hospital setting like mental hospital and effort taken to reintegrate his identity and reunite with his family. PMID:24379504

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, and ranks third for new cancer cases and cancer mortality for both men and women. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment when early detection is available. The purpose of colonoscopy is to identify and assess the severity of lesions, which may be flat or protruding. Due to the subjective nature of the examination, colonoscopic proficiency is highly variable and dependent upon the colonoscopist's knowledge and experience. An automated image processing system providing an objective, rapid, and inexpensive analysis of video from a standard colonoscope could provide a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design, functionality and preliminary results of its Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colonoscopy - ColonoCAD TM. ColonoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-algorithm image processing system, incorporating data management and visualization, video quality assessment and enhancement, calibration, multiple view based reconstruction, feature extraction and classification. As this is a new field in medical image processing, our hope is that this paper will provide the framework to encourage and facilitate collaboration and discussion between industry, academia, and medical practitioners.

  19. Mechanical design productivity using CAD graphics - A user's point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, R. J.; Avery, J. T., Jr.

    1985-02-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the mechanical design productivity resulting from the use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) graphics as a design tool. The considered studies had been conducted by a company which is involved in the design, development, and manufacture of government and defense products. Attention is given to CAD graphics for mechanical design, productivity, an overall productivity assessment, the use of CAD graphics for basic mechanical design, productivity in engineering-related areas, and an overall engineering productivity assessment. The investigation shows that there was no appreciable improvement in productivity with respect to basic mechanical design. However, rather substantial increases could be realized in productivity for engineering-related activities.

  20. THE DISSOCIATIVE TURN IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Itzkowitz, Sheldon

    2015-06-01

    In his response to the Roundtable Discussions on what is effective in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the author focuses on the renewed interest in the concept of dissociation that began to emerge toward the end of the 20th century. A contemporary psychoanalytic position informed by the impact of developmental trauma has led to an understanding of and interest in the dissociative mind. The actuality of trauma during infancy and early childhood is recognized as a key factor leading to the emergence of dissociative processes, the potential dissociative structuring of the mind, and mind being characterized by multiple, discontinuous, centers of consciousness. The therapeutic goal in the psychoanalytic work with fragmented patients is to establish communication and understanding between the dissociated self-states. The author offers two brief clinical examples of working with dissociated self-states. PMID:26177756

  1. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  2. CAD in the processing plant environment or managing the CAD revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbert, M.A.; Bennett, R.S.; Haring, W.I.

    1985-10-01

    The author presents a case report on the use of a Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) system. Illustrated is a four-work station system, in addition to which there are two 70 megabyte disk drives, a check plotter and a 24-inch wide electrostatic plotter, a 300 megabyte disk for on-line storage, a tape drive for archive and backup, and a 1-megabyte network process server. It is a distributed logic system. The author states that the CAD system both inexpensive enough and powerful enough for the plant environment is relatively new on the market, made possible by the advent of super microcomputers. Also discussed is the impact the CAD system has had on productivity.

  3. TRI2SOLID: an application of reverse engineering methods to the creation of CAD models of bone segments.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, M; Zannoni, C; Pierotti, L

    1998-06-01

    For many biomechanical engineering activities it would be useful to have the three dimensional (3D) geometry of bone segments available in form of vectorial models within computer aided design (CAD) environments. In this paper a new method for the semi-automatic conversion of a stack of CT images of a femur into a CAD solid model is described. This method is relatively simple, accurate, and requires only a 3D CAD plus a few additional programs available in the public domain. The proposed method was used to convert the CT scan data set of a human femur into a valid CAD model; the resulting solid was two times more accurate than that obtained using the commonly used procedure based on 2D segmentation. PMID:9725647

  4. Using Claris CAD To Develop a Floor Plan. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowicz, Bruce; Johnson, Tom

    This learning module for a high school architectural drafting course introduces students to the use of Claris CAD (Computer Aided Drafting) to develop a floor plan. The six sections of the module are the following: module objectives, content outline, teaching methods, student activities, resource list, and evaluation (pretest, posttest). Student…

  5. The Role of Flow Experience and CAD Tools in Facilitating Creative Behaviours for Architecture Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawoud, Husameddin M.; Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Zaqout, Fahed

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of flow experience in intellectual activity with an emphasis on the relationship between flow experience and creative behaviour in design using CAD. The study used confluence and psychometric approaches because of their unique abilities to depict a clear image of creative behaviour. A cross-sectional study…

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase 2 is constitutively active in vivo and can rescue the growth defect of the PCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant on Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Schmidt, Holger; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Clemens, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    Phytochelatins play a key role in the detoxification of metals in plants and many other eukaryotes. Their formation is catalysed by phytochelatin synthases (PCS) in the presence of metal excess. It appears to be common among higher plants to possess two PCS genes, even though in Arabidopsis thaliana only AtPCS1 has been demonstrated to confer metal tolerance. Employing a highly sensitive quantification method based on ultraperformance electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we detected AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin formation. Overexpression of AtPCS2 resulted in constitutive phytochelatin accumulation, i.e. in the absence of metal excess, both in planta and in a heterologous system. This indicates distinct enzymatic differences between AtPCS1 and AtPCS2. Furthermore, AtPCS2 was able to partially rescue the Cd hypersensitivity of the AtPCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant in a liquid seedling assay, and, more importantly, when plants were grown on soil spiked with Cd to a level that is close to what can be found in agricultural soils. No rescue was found in vertical-plate assays, the most commonly used method to assess metal tolerance. Constitutive AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin synthesis suggests a physiological role of AtPCS2 other than metal detoxification. The differences observed between wild-type plants and cad1-3 on Cd soil demonstrated: (i) the essentiality of phytochelatin synthesis for tolerating levels of Cd contamination that can naturally be encountered by plants outside of metal-rich habitats, and (ii) a contribution to Cd accumulation under these conditions. PMID:24821959

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase 2 is constitutively active in vivo and can rescue the growth defect of the PCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant on Cd-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Schmidt, Holger; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Clemens, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Phytochelatins play a key role in the detoxification of metals in plants and many other eukaryotes. Their formation is catalysed by phytochelatin synthases (PCS) in the presence of metal excess. It appears to be common among higher plants to possess two PCS genes, even though in Arabidopsis thaliana only AtPCS1 has been demonstrated to confer metal tolerance. Employing a highly sensitive quantification method based on ultraperformance electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we detected AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin formation. Overexpression of AtPCS2 resulted in constitutive phytochelatin accumulation, i.e. in the absence of metal excess, both in planta and in a heterologous system. This indicates distinct enzymatic differences between AtPCS1 and AtPCS2. Furthermore, AtPCS2 was able to partially rescue the Cd hypersensitivity of the AtPCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant in a liquid seedling assay, and, more importantly, when plants were grown on soil spiked with Cd to a level that is close to what can be found in agricultural soils. No rescue was found in vertical-plate assays, the most commonly used method to assess metal tolerance. Constitutive AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin synthesis suggests a physiological role of AtPCS2 other than metal detoxification. The differences observed between wild-type plants and cad1-3 on Cd soil demonstrated: (i) the essentiality of phytochelatin synthesis for tolerating levels of Cd contamination that can naturally be encountered by plants outside of metal-rich habitats, and (ii) a contribution to Cd accumulation under these conditions. PMID:24821959

  8. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Ashoka, H. G; Gowdappa, Basavnna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed. PMID:26286620

  9. Dissociative States and Neural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bob, Petr; Svetlak, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that neural mechanisms of consciousness are related to integration of distributed neural assemblies. This neural integration is particularly vulnerable to past stressful experiences that can lead to disintegration and dissociation of consciousness. These findings suggest that dissociation could be described as a level of…

  10. MHDL CAD tool with fault circuit handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Flores-Verdad, Guillermo; Altamirano Robles, Leopoldo; Osorio Roque, Leticia

    2003-04-01

    Behavioral modeling and simulation, with Analog Hardware and Mixed Signal Description High Level Languages (MHDLs), have generated the development of diverse simulation tools that allow handling the requirements of the modern designs. These systems have million of transistors embedded and they are radically diverse between them. This tendency of simulation tools is exemplified by the development of languages for modeling and simulation, whose applications are the re-use of complete systems, construction of virtual prototypes, realization of test and synthesis. This paper presents the general architecture of a Mixed Hardware Description Language, based on the standard 1076.1-1999 IEEE VHDL Analog and Mixed-Signal Extensions known as VHDL-AMS. This architecture is novel by consider the modeling and simulation of faults. The main modules of the CAD tool are briefly described in order to establish the information flow and its transformations, starting from the description of a circuit model, going throw the lexical analysis, mathematical models generation and the simulation core, ending at the collection of the circuit behavior as simulation"s data. In addition, the incorporated mechanisms to the simulation core are explained in order to realize the handling of faults into the circuit models. Currently, the CAD tool works with algebraic and differential descriptions for the circuit models, nevertheless the language design is open to be able to handle different model types: Fuzzy Models, Differentials Equations, Transfer Functions and Tables. This applies for fault models too, in this sense the CAD tool considers the inclusion of mutants and saboteurs. To exemplified the results obtained until now, the simulated behavior of a circuit is shown when it is fault free and when it has been modified by the inclusion of a fault as a mutant or a saboteur. The obtained results allow the realization of a virtual diagnosis for mixed circuits. This language works in a UNIX system

  11. A CAD approach to magnetic bearing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeyaseelan, M.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A design methodology has been developed at the Magnetic Bearing Research Laboratory for designing magnetic bearings using a CAD approach. This is used in the algorithm of an interactive design software package. The package is a design tool developed to enable the designer to simulate the entire process of design and analysis of the system. Its capabilities include interactive input/modification of geometry, finding any possible saturation at critical sections of the system, and the design and analysis of a control system that stabilizes and maintains magnetic suspension.

  12. CAD-driven microassembly and visual servoing

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Simon, R.W.

    1998-03-10

    This paper describes current research and development on a robotic visual servoing system for assembly of LIGA (Lithography Galvonoforming Abforming) parts. The workcell consists of an AMTI robot, precision stage, long working distance microscope, and LIGA fabricated tweezers for picking up the parts. Fourier optics methods are used to generate synthetic microscope images from CAD drawings. These synthetic images are used off-line to test image processing routines under varying magnifications and depths of field, They also provide reference image features which are used to visually servo the part to the desired position.

  13. CAD/CAM in packaging aerospace electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargione, F.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that hard-wired, welded circuits hold an important place in aerospace systems because they allow short production runs to be prepared quickly. However, the electronic system designs are very complicated and demanding to work on manually. The article describes a design process which saves time and effort without reducing the designer's freedom. It is shown that the CAD/CAM equipment produces all the drawings and extracts from the data needed to generate NC tapes for drilling and welding boards. In addition, it produces the artwork for etching the boards. Discussion covers the advance the system represents in cost effectiveness, versatility, and reliability.

  14. Development of intelligent CAD/CAM systems for progressive dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyin; Xiao, Xia; Li, Jianjun

    1995-08-01

    This paper focuses on the fundamental issues related to the development of intelligent CAD/CAM systems for progressive dies which are used for manufacturing sheet metal parts in mass production. The CAD/CAM functions for sheet metal product design and those for design and manufacture of progressive dies are defined by studying the sheet-metal-product life cycle. The procedures of industrial design and manufacture of progressive dies are reviewed, and the need for intelligent CAD/CAM systems identified. The platforms, environment, and key technologies for the systems design and implementation are discussed. Finally, a prototype CAD/CAM system for progressive dies is introduced.

  15. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  16. Drug Screening for Autophagy Inhibitors Based on the Dissociation of Beclin1-Bcl2 Complex Using BiFC Technique and Mechanism of Eugenol on Anti-Influenza A Virus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Xiang-Feng; Zeng, Jun; Wan, Qian-Ying; Yang, Jia-Cai; Li, Wei-Zhong; Chen, Xiao-Xuan; Wang, Ge-Fei; Li, Kang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in many human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and virus infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), influenza A virus (IAV) and coxsackievirus B3/B4 (CVB3/B4), so a drug screening model targeting autophagy may be very useful for the therapy of these diseases. In our study, we established a drug screening model based on the inhibition of the dissociation of Beclin1-Bcl2 heterodimer, an important negative regulator of autophagy, using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technique for developing novel autophagy inhibitors and anti-IAV agents. From 86 examples of traditional Chinese medicines, we found Syzygium aromaticum L. had the best activity. We then determined the anti-autophagy and anti-IAV activity of eugenol, the major active compound of Syzygium aromaticum L., and explored its mechanism of action. Eugenol could inhibit autophagy and IAV replication, inhibited the activation of ERK, p38MAPK and IKK/NF-κB signal pathways and antagonized the effects of the activators of these pathways. Eugenol also ameliorated the oxidative stress and inhibited the expressions of autophagic genes. We speculated that the mechanism underlying might be that eugenol inhibited the oxidative stress and the activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and IKK/NF-κB pathways, subsequently inhibited the dissociation of Beclin1-Bcl2 heterodimer and autophagy, and finally impaired IAV replication. These results might conversely display the reasonableness of the design of our screening model. In conclusion, we have established a drug screening model for developing novel autophagy inhibitor, and find eugenol as a promising inhibitor for autophagy and IAV infection. PMID:23613775

  17. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2011-09-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate. PMID:21900731

  18. Mammogram CAD, hybrid registration and iconic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, A.; Cloppet, F.; Vincent, N.

    2013-03-01

    This paper aims to develop a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) based on a two-step methodology to register and analyze pairs of temporal mammograms. The concept of "medical file", including all the previous medical information on a patient, enables joint analysis of different acquisitions taken at different times, and the detection of significant modifications. The developed registration method aims to superimpose at best the different anatomical structures of the breast. The registration is designed in order to get rid of deformation undergone by the acquisition process while preserving those due to breast changes indicative of malignancy. In order to reach this goal, a referent image is computed from control points based on anatomical features that are extracted automatically. Then the second image of the couple is realigned on the referent image, using a coarse-to-fine approach according to expert knowledge that allows both rigid and non-rigid transforms. The joint analysis detects the evolution between two images representing the same scene. In order to achieve this, it is important to know the registration error limits in order to adapt the observation scale. The approach used in this paper is based on an image sparse representation. Decomposed in regular patterns, the images are analyzed under a new angle. The evolution detection problem has many practical applications, especially in medical images. The CAD is evaluated using recall and precision of differences in mammograms.

  19. Dissociation of peripheral T cell responses from thymocyte negative selection by weak agonists supports a spare receptor model of T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Lisa K.; Evavold, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have focused on stability of the peptide-MHC complex as a determining factor of ligand potency for thymocytes and peripheral CD4+ T cell responses. MHC variant peptides that have low affinities and fast dissociation rates are different in that they stimulate proliferation and cytolysis of mature T cells (classifying the variant peptides as weak agonists) but do not induce thymocyte negative selection. The MHC variant weak agonists require significant receptor reserve, because decreasing the level of T cell receptor on mature T cells blocks the proliferative response. These results demonstrate that peripheral T cells are more sensitive to MHC variant ligands by virtue of increased T cell receptor expression; in addition, the data support a T cell model of the spare receptor theory. PMID:11904393

  20. Astronaut EVA exposure estimates from CAD model spacesuit geometry.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Anderson, Brooke M; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E; Qualls, Garry D; Wilson, John W

    2004-03-01

    Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed CAD model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesuit, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), is used to represent the directional shielding of an astronaut; it has detailed helmet and backpack structures, hard upper torso, and multilayer space suit fabric material. The NASA Computerized Anatomical Male and Female (CAM and CAF) models are used in conjunction with the space suit CAD model for dose evaluation within the human body. The particle environments are taken from the orbit-averaged NASA AP8 and AE8 models at solar cycle maxima and minima. The transport of energetic particles through space suit materials and body tissue is calculated by using the NASA LaRC HZETRN code for hadrons and a recently developed deterministic transport code, ELTRN, for electrons. The doses within the CAM and CAF models are determined from energy deposition at given target points along 968 directional rays convergent on the points and are evaluated for several points on the skin and within the body. Dosimetric quantities include contributions from primary protons, light ions, and electrons, as well as from secondary brehmsstrahlung and target fragments. Directional dose patterns are displayed as rays and on spherical surfaces by the use of a color relative intensity representation. PMID:15133283

  1. Binding of HTm4 to cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-associated phosphatase (KAP).Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the phosphatase activity of KAP, dissociates cyclin A, and facilitates KAP dephosphorylation of Cdk2.

    PubMed

    Chinami, Masanobu; Yano, Yoshihiko; Yang, Xing; Salahuddin, Saira; Moriyama, Kosei; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Turner, Helen; Shirakawa, Taro; Adra, Chaker N

    2005-04-29

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) activation requires phosphorylation of Thr160 and dissociation from cyclin A. The T-loop of cdk2 contains a regulatory phosphorylation site at Thr160. An interaction between cdc-associated phosphatase (KAP) and cdk2 compromises the interaction between cdk2 and cyclin A, which permits access of KAP, a Thr160-directed phosphatase, to its substrate, cdk2. We have reported that KAP is bound and activated by a nuclear membrane protein, HTm4. Here, we present in vitro data showing the direct interaction between the HTm4 C terminus and KAP Tyr141. We show that this interaction not only facilitates access of KAP to Thr160 and accelerates KAP kinetics, but also forces exclusion of cyclin A from the KAP.cdk2 complex. PMID:15671017

  2. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. PMID:26241024

  3. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  4. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  5. An Evaluation of Internet-Based CAD Collaboration Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shana Shiang-Fong

    2004-01-01

    Due to the now widespread use of the Internet, most companies now require computer aided design (CAD) tools that support distributed collaborative design on the Internet. Such CAD tools should enable designers to share product models, as well as related data, from geographically distant locations. However, integrated collaborative design…

  6. A MathCAD Exploration: Hunting for Hidden Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Benjamin N.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the use of a program called MathCAD which allows students to solve higher order polynomial equations and geometry problems. The use of cooperative learning is emphasized. Included are graphs and part of a printout generated while solving problems with MathCAD. (KR)

  7. Making a Case for CAD in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, K. Denise

    1995-01-01

    Computer-assisted design (CAD) technology is transforming the apparel industry. Students of fashion merchandising and clothing design must be prepared on state-of-the-art equipment. ApparelCAD software is one example of courseware for instruction in pattern design and production. (SK)

  8. Preparing Students for Computer Aided Drafting (CAD). A Conceptual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, A. R.; Duelm, Brian

    This presentation outlines guidelines for developing and implementing an introductory course in computer-aided drafting (CAD) that is geared toward secondary-level students. The first section of the paper, which deals with content identification and selection, includes lists of mechanical drawing and CAD competencies and a list of rationales for…

  9. From Bad to CAD: Maintaining Records of Maintenance Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Diane C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-assisted design (CAD) software program is used in a Connecticut school district to graphically provide information on maintenance projects by school and category of project over time. CAD supplies a computerized building plan, a "foot-print," used as a recordkeeping system for maintenance projects. (MLF)

  10. Evaluating the Learning Process of Mechanical CAD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, R. F.; Artail, H. A.; Jaber, M. Y.

    2007-01-01

    There is little theoretical or experimental research on how beginner-level trainees learn CAD skills in formal training sessions. This work presents findings on how trainees develop their skills in utilizing a solid mechanical CAD tool (Pro/Engineer version 2000i[squared] and later version Wildfire). Exercises at the beginner and intermediate…

  11. Practical CAD/CAM aspects of CNC prepreg cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of CAD/CAM in cutting large quantities of complex shapes out of prepregs is addressed. The advantages of CAD/CAM includes reduction of prototype cycles from weeks to days, improved part quality resulting from accurately cut plies, safer and more efficient cutting operations, and lower direct labor costs.

  12. Novel CAD-ALK gene rearrangement is drugable by entrectinib in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amatu, Alessio; Somaschini, Alessio; Cerea, Giulio; Bosotti, Roberta; Valtorta, Emanuele; Buonandi, Pasquale; Marrapese, Giovanna; Veronese, Silvio; Luo, David; Hornby, Zachary; Multani, Pratik; Murphy, Danielle; Shoemaker, Robert; Lauricella, Calogero; Giannetta, Laura; Maiolani, Martina; Vanzulli, Angelo; Ardini, Elena; Galvani, Arturo; Isacchi, Antonella; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions are recurrent events in a small fraction of colorectal cancers (CRCs), although these events have not yet been exploited as in other malignancies. Methods: We detected ALK protein expression by immunohistochemistry and gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the ALKA-372-001 phase I study of the pan-Trk, ROS1, and ALK inhibitor entrectinib. One out of 487 CRCs showed ALK positivity with a peculiar pattern that prompted further characterisation by targeted sequencing using anchored multiplex PCR. Results: A novel ALK fusion with the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) gene (CAD-ALK fusion gene) was identified. It resulted from inversion within chromosome 2 and the fusion of exons 1–35 of CAD with exons 20–29 of ALK. After failure of previous standard therapies, treatment of this patient with the ALK inhibitor entrectinib resulted in a durable objective tumour response. Conclusions: We describe the novel CAD-ALK rearrangement as an oncogene and provide the first evidence of its drugability as a new molecular target in CRC. PMID:26633560

  13. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  14. The infrared multiphoton dissociation of three nitrolkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodtke, A. M.; Hintsa, E. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared multiphoton dissociation in a molecular beam has been studied in order to elucidate the collision free, 'thermal' chemistry and dynamics of nitromethane, nitroethane and 2-nitropropane. The isomerization of CH3NO2 to CH3ONO was observed by detecting the CH3O and NO products from the dissociation of the very internally hot, isomerized nitromethane. A novel application of RRKM theory was used to estimate the barrier height to isomerization at 55.5 kcal/mol. The barrier height determination method was tested and found to give excellent results by applying it to the determintaion of the barrier height to HONO elimination from nitroethane, a value which is well known from activation energy measurements. The method was then applied to the case of HONO elimination from 2-nitropropane and it appears that there is good to believe that the barrier height is 3-5 kcal/mol lower in 2-nitropropane than in nitroethane. The success of this method for determining barrier heights shows how a microscopic molecular beam experiment, using infrared multiphoton dissociation where the concept of temperature has no place, can be quantitatively related to pyrolysis experiments which are conducted under collisional, thermal conditions and measure phenomenological quantities such as activation energies.

  15. How thioredoxin dissociates its mixed disulfide.

    PubMed

    Roos, Goedele; Foloppe, Nicolas; Van Laer, Koen; Wyns, Lode; Nilsson, Lennart; Geerlings, Paul; Messens, Joris

    2009-08-01

    The dissociation mechanism of the thioredoxin (Trx) mixed disulfide complexes is unknown and has been debated for more than twenty years. Specifically, opposing arguments for the activation of the nucleophilic cysteine as a thiolate during the dissociation of the complex have been put forward. As a key model, the complex between Trx and its endogenous substrate, arsenate reductase (ArsC), was used. In this structure, a Cys29(Trx)-Cys89(ArsC) intermediate disulfide is formed by the nucleophilic attack of Cys29(Trx) on the exposed Cys82(ArsC)-Cys89(ArsC) in oxidized ArsC. With theoretical reactivity analysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical complex formation experiments with Cys-mutants, Trx mixed disulfide dissociation was studied. We observed that the conformational changes around the intermediate disulfide bring Cys32(Trx) in contact with Cys29(Trx). Cys32(Trx) is activated for its nucleophilic attack by hydrogen bonds, and Cys32(Trx) is found to be more reactive than Cys82(ArsC). Additionally, Cys32(Trx) directs its nucleophilic attack on the more susceptible Cys29(Trx) and not on Cys89(ArsC). This multidisciplinary approach provides fresh insights into a universal thiol/disulfide exchange reaction mechanism that results in reduced substrate and oxidized Trx. PMID:19675666

  16. CAD-CAM printed circuit board design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agy, W. E.

    A step-by-step procedure for a printed circuit design achieved by CAD is presented. The operator at the interactive CRT station moves a stylus across a graphics tablet and intersperses commands which result in computer-generated pictorial forms on the screen that were drawn on the pad. Standard symbols are used for commands allowing, for instance, connections to be made of specific types in certain locations, which can be automatically edited from a materials list. An entire network of drawn lines can be referenced by a signal name for recall, and a finished circuit schematic can be checked for designs rules compliance, including fault reporting in terms of designator/pin number. A map may be present delineating the boundaries of the circuitry area, and previously completed circuitry segments can be recalled for piece-by-piece assembly of the circuit board.

  17. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Rufibach, Kaspar; Perron, Noelle; Wyss, Daniela; Kuenzler, Cornelia; Prezewowsky, Cornelia; Pitman, Roger K; Rufer, Michael

    2012-12-30

    Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as "serious mental illness". PMID:22578820

  18. TopoCad - A unified system for geospatial data and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felus, Y. A.; Sagi, Y.; Regev, R.; Keinan, E.

    2013-10-01

    "E-government" is a leading trend in public sector activities in recent years. The Survey of Israel set as a vision to provide all of its services and datasets online. The TopoCad system is the latest software tool developed in order to unify a number of services and databases into one on-line and user friendly system. The TopoCad system is based on Web 1.0 technology; hence the customer is only a consumer of data. All data and services are accessible for the surveyors and geo-information professional in an easy and comfortable way. The future lies in Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 technologies through which professionals can upload their own data for quality control and future assimilation with the national database. A key issue in the development of this complex system was to implement a simple and easy (comfortable) user experience (UX). The user interface employs natural language dialog box in order to understand the user requirements. The system then links spatial data with alpha-numeric data in a flawless manner. The operation of the TopoCad requires no user guide or training. It is intuitive and self-taught. The system utilizes semantic engines and machine understanding technologies to link records from diverse databases in a meaningful way. Thus, the next generation of TopoCad will include five main modules: users and projects information, coordinates transformations and calculations services, geospatial data quality control, linking governmental systems and databases, smart forms and applications. The article describes the first stage of the TopoCad system and gives an overview of its future development.

  19. Dissociative experiences and dissociative minds: Exploring a nomological network of dissociative functioning.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) were tested in a sample of Italian adults, and a nomological network of dissociative functioning based on current psychodynamic research was examined. A total of 794 participants (55% females) ranging in age from 18 to 64 completed the DES-II and other measures of theory of mind, alexithymia, attachment style, and empathy. The Italian translation of the DES-II showed high internal consistency, adequate item-to-scale homogeneity, and good split-half reliability. A single-factor solution including the 8 items of pathological dissociation (DES-T) adequately fit the data. Participants who reported higher levels of dissociative experiences showed significantly lower scores on theory of mind and empathy than other participants. They also showed significantly higher scores on alexithymia, preoccupied attachment, and fearful attachment. Results of the study support the view that people who suffer from severe dissociative experiences may also have difficulties mentalizing and regulating affects and that they may feel uncomfortable in close relationships because they have a negative view of the self. This can inform clinical work with dissociative individuals, who could benefit from therapies that consider their potential problems with mentalization, empathy, affect regulation, and attachment. PMID:26507547

  20. Catalytic efficiency of Nb and Nb oxides for hydrogen dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Shigehito; Kudoh, Katsuhiro; Hino, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei; Hara, Kenji

    2015-08-24

    In this letter, catalytic efficiency of Nb, NbO, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NbO{sub 2}, and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} for dissociation and recombination of hydrogen were experimentally investigated. On the surface of Nb and Nb oxides in a gas mixture of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} molecules can be dissociated to H and D atoms; then, H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD molecules can be produced according to the law of probability. With increase of frequency of the dissociation and recombination, HD ratio increases. The ratio of H{sub 2} and HD gas was analyzed by quadrupole mass spectrometry. As a result, NbO showed the highest catalytic activity towards hydrogen dissociation and recombination.

  1. Negligible Isotopic Effect on Dissociation of Hydrogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chuanqi; Shen, Yuneng; Deng, Gang-Hua; Tian, Yuhuan; Yu, Dongqi; Yang, Xueming; Yuan, Kaijun; Zheng, Junrong

    2016-03-31

    Isotopic effects on the formation and dissociation kinetics of hydrogen bonds are studied in real time with ultrafast chemical exchange spectroscopy. The dissociation time of hydrogen bond between phenol-OH and p-xylene (or mesitylene) is found to be identical to that between phenol-OD and p-xylene (or mesitylene) in the same solvents. The experimental results demonstrate that the isotope substitution (D for H) has negligible effects on the hydrogen bond kinetics. DFT calculations show that the isotope substitution does not significantly change the frequencies of vibrational modes that may be along the hydrogen bond formation and dissociation coordinate. The zero point energy differences of these modes between hydrogen bonds with OH and OD are too small to affect the activation energy of the hydrogen bond dissociation in a detectible way at room temperature. PMID:26967376

  2. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  3. Deciphering the structure of isomeric oligosaccharides in a complex mixture by tandem mass spectrometry: photon activation with vacuum ultra-violet brings unique information and enables definitive structure assignment.

    PubMed

    Ropartz, David; Lemoine, Jérôme; Giuliani, Alexandre; Bittebière, Yann; Enjalbert, Quentin; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates have a wide variety of structures whose complexity and heterogeneity challenge the field of analytical chemistry. Tandem mass spectrometry, with its remarkable sensitivity and high information content, provides key advantages to addressing the structural elucidation of polysaccharides. Yet, classical fragmentation by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in many cases fails to reach a comprehensive structural determination, especially when isomers have to be differentiated. In this work, for the first time, vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) synchrotron radiation is used as the activation process in tandem mass spectrometry of large oligosaccharides. Compared to low energy CAD (LE-CAD), photon activated dissociation brought more straightforward and valuable structural information. The outstanding feature was that complete series of informative ions were produced, with only minor neutral losses. Moreover, systematic fragmentation rules could be drawn thus facilitating the definitive assignments of fragment identities. As a result, most of the structures present in a complex mixture of oligogalacturonans could be comprehensively resolved, including many isomers differing in the position of methyl groups along the galacturonic acid backbone. PMID:24356224

  4. Low Barrier Carbon Induced CO Dissociation on Stepped Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, M. L.; Abild-Pedersen, F.; Kaya, S.; Mbuga, F.; Ogasawara, H.; Nilsson, A.

    2015-06-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we observe the breaking of the strong interatomic bond in molecular CO at low temperature on a stepped Cu surface. Since the electronic structure of Cu does not allow for the splitting of CO at such low temperatures it suggests that there may be a less obvious pathway for the process. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we can clearly identify products associated with the dissociation of CO and the subsequent formation of stable graphitic carbon on the surface. However, the dissociation of CO can be inhibited when the stepped Cu surface is kept clean from surface carbon. These observations imply that the reaction is driven by the presence of small amounts of weakly bound carbon at the surface. Density-functional theory calculations confirm that carbon atoms on a stepped Cu surface indeed are the preferred adsorption sites for CO, which increases the stabilization of CO on the surface and weakens the C-O bond. This results in the breaking of the C-O bond at the step edge via the Boudouard reaction (2 COads→Cads+CO2 ) with a barrier of 0.71 eV.

  5. A new CAD approach for improving efficacy of cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei; Li, Lihua; Pu, Jiantao; Kang, Yan; Lure, Fleming; Tan, Maxine; Qiu, Yuchen

    2015-03-01

    Since performance and clinical utility of current computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of detecting and classifying soft tissue lesions (e.g., breast masses and lung nodules) is not satisfactory, many researchers in CAD field call for new CAD research ideas and approaches. The purpose of presenting this opinion paper is to share our vision and stimulate more discussions of how to overcome or compensate the limitation of current lesion-detection based CAD schemes in the CAD research community. Since based on our observation that analyzing global image information plays an important role in radiologists' decision making, we hypothesized that using the targeted quantitative image features computed from global images could also provide highly discriminatory power, which are supplementary to the lesion-based information. To test our hypothesis, we recently performed a number of independent studies. Based on our published preliminary study results, we demonstrated that global mammographic image features and background parenchymal enhancement of breast MR images carried useful information to (1) predict near-term breast cancer risk based on negative screening mammograms, (2) distinguish between true- and false-positive recalls in mammography screening examinations, and (3) classify between malignant and benign breast MR examinations. The global case-based CAD scheme only warns a risk level of the cases without cueing a large number of false-positive lesions. It can also be applied to guide lesion-based CAD cueing to reduce false-positives but enhance clinically relevant true-positive cueing. However, before such a new CAD approach is clinically acceptable, more work is needed to optimize not only the scheme performance but also how to integrate with lesion-based CAD schemes in the clinical practice.

  6. CAD Model Retrieval Based on Graduated Assignment Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Songqiao

    2015-06-01

    A retrieval approach for CAD models based on graduated assignment algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, CAD models are transformed into face adjacency graphs (FAGs). Second, the vertex compatibility matrix and edge compatibility matrix between the FAGs of the query and data models are calculated, and the similarity metric for the two comparison models is established from their compatibility matrices, which serves as the optimization objective function for selecting vertex mapping matrix M between the two comparison models. Finally, Sinkhorn's alternative normalization approach for M's rows and columns is adopted to find the optimal vertex mapping matrix M. Experimental results have shown that the proposed approach supports CAD model retrieval.

  7. CAD/CAM ceramic restorations in the operatory and laboratory.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    Computer assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) technology has received considerable clinical and research interest from modern dental practices as a means of delivering all-ceramic restorations. The CEREC, System offers CAD/CAM dental technology designed for clinical use by dentists, as well as a separate system designed for dental laboratory technicians. The CEREC 3 system is indicated for dental operatory applications, and the CEREC inLab, system is indicated for dental laboratory applications. Although both systems rely on similar CAD/CAM technology, several significant differences exist in the processing techniques involved, restorative materials used, and types of restoration provided. PMID:14692164

  8. Turnkey CAD/CAM systems' integration with IPAD systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blauth, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Today's commercially available turnkey CAD/CAM systems provide a highly interactive environment, and support many specialized application functions for the design/drafting/manufacturing process. This paper presents an overview of several aerospace companies which have successfully integrated turnkey CAD/CAM systems with their own company wide engineering and manufacturing systems. It also includes a vendor's view of the benefits as well as the disadvantages of such integration efforts. Specific emphasis is placed upon the selection of standards for representing geometric engineering data and for communicating such information between different CAD/CAM systems.

  9. Differences in computer exposure between university administrators and CAD draftsmen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Liu, Yung-Ping; Chen, Hsieh-Ching

    2010-10-01

    This study utilized an external logger system for onsite measurements of computer activities of two professional groups-twelve university administrators and twelve computer-aided design (CAD) draftsmen. Computer use of each participant was recorded for 10 consecutive days-an average of 7.9+/-1.8 workdays and 7.8+/-1.5 workdays for administrators and draftsmen, respectively. Quantitative parameters computed using recorded data were daily dynamic duration (DD) and static duration, daily keystrokes, mouse clicks, wheel scrolling counts, mouse movement and dragged distance, average typing and clicking rates, and average time holding down keys and mouse buttons. Significant group differences existed in the number of daily keystrokes (p<0.0005) and mouse clicks (p<0.0005), mouse distance moved (p<0.0005), typing rate (p<0.0001), daily mouse DD (p<0.0001), and keyboard DD (p<0.005). Both groups had significantly longer mouse DD than keyboard DD (p<0.0001). Statistical analysis indicates that the duration of computer use for different computer tasks cannot be represented by a single formula with same set of quantitative parameters as those associated with mouse and keyboard activities. Results of this study demonstrate that computer exposure during different tasks cannot be estimated solely by computer use duration. Quantification of onsite computer activities is necessary when determining computer-associated risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Other significant findings are discussed. PMID:20392434

  10. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, Elliott D; Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Mosher, Scott W; Grove, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  11. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-06-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  12. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkovszky, László; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-04-01

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  13. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-04-15

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  14. Overview of NASA MSFC IEC Multi-CAD Collaboration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moushon, Brian; McDuffee, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a Design and Data Management System (DDMS) for Computer Aided Design (CAD) collaboration in order to support the Integrated Engineering Capability (IEC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  15. CDMS - CAD data set management system test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, E.L.

    1994-11-01

    This document will define the system test plan for the necessary modifications made to a commercial software product that manages and controls engineering drawings. Modifications include the ability to interface with the final plotting of CAD Data Sets.

  16. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials. PMID:25822749

  17. Refocusing CAD and CAE on O and M

    SciTech Connect

    Podczerwinski, C.A.; Wittenauer, J.P.; Irish, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    In the late 1980s, computer-aided design (CAD) software started to migrate from larger computer equipment to personal computers. Since then, competition in the desktop computer market transformed the personal computer (PC) into an office equipment commodity. The technological improvements accompanying that change transformed CAD from an expensive, specialized tool to an office software commodity that is a graphical counterpart to the word processor. The cost reductions and performance improvements have made many application concepts, previously too cumbersome to apply, cost effective and helpful. Applying these ideas has increased the level of CAD usage in their offices dramatically. Part of that growth has been an increasing number of projects directly aimed at helping reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs. This paper describes those projects and discusses the application of CAD to O and M work.

  18. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  19. CAD-CAE in Electrical Machines and Drives Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmans, R.; Geysen, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of computer-aided design (CAD) techniques in teaching the design of electrical motors. Approaches described include three technical viewpoints, such as electromagnetics, thermal, and mechanical aspects. Provides three diagrams, a table, and conclusions. (YP)

  20. Voice I/O: an effective option for CAD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    The current state of speech recognition and compression technology is examined. The application of this technology to input/output in the CAD environment is then considered. Human factors are discussed.

  1. CAD/CAM improves productivity in nonaerospace job shops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, D. T.

    1982-12-01

    Business cost improvements that can result from Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), when properly applied, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of CAD/CAM for machine and process control, design and planning control, and production and measurement control. It is pointed out that the implementation of CAD/CAM should be based on the following priorities: (1) recognize interrelationships between the principal functions of CAD/CAM; (2) establish a Systems Council to determine overall strategy and specify the communications/decision-making system; (3) implement the communications/decision-making system to improve productivity; and (4) implement interactive graphics and other additions to further improve productivity.

  2. CAD/CAM-Interface For Optical Systems And Optical Drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, Eckart

    1989-04-01

    It is explained why a general interface for optical data between CAD/CAM-Systems is necessary. The requirements for the interface are discussed. The philosophy of a solution is demonstrated and it is shown how to proceed.

  3. Analysis of the beta-lactamase plasmid of borderline methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: focus on bla complex genes and cadmium resistance determinants cadD and cadX.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Orietta; Mingoia, Marina; Fadda, Daniela; Whalen, Michael B; Montanari, Maria Pia; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2006-03-01

    Borderline methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains are a rather homogeneous group, characterized by MICs of penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs) at or just below the susceptibility breakpoint. Other features unique to this group include the presence of a pBW15-like beta-lactamase plasmid, the association with phage complex 94/96, and the production of a PRP-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase activity in addition to the classical penicillinase activity. The four HindIII fragments of pBORa53, a pBW15-like plasmid from the well-studied borderline S. aureus strain a53, were cloned in Escherichia coli, sequenced and analyzed. The plasmid (17,334 bp in size) contains 14 open reading frames (ORFs) and a complete copy of transposon Tn552, which harbors the three genes of the bla complex (blaZ, blaR1, and blaI) necessary for penicillinase production. Among the other 11 ORFs identified, two were homologous to cadmium resistance determinants of Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to the cadD and cadX genes recently detected in S. aureus. Consistent with this, strain a53 was found to be cadmium resistant. From a collection of 30 S. aureus isolates with borderline PRP MIC levels, 27 matched strain a53 in the positive amplification reactions with all of the four primer pairs targeting the cadD-cadX region, the presence of the 17.3-kb plasmid, and the level of cadmium resistance. The well-established S. aureus laboratory strain ATCC 29213 was also found to express cadD-cadX-mediated cadmium resistance. pBORa53 could be re-isolated from transformants obtained by transferring it into a PRP-susceptible recipient. However, while the transformants demonstrated levels of cadmium and penicillin resistance similar to those of strain a53, they remained fully susceptible to PRPs. PMID:16229889

  4. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    PubMed

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology. PMID:24952991

  5. A SINDA thermal model using CAD/CAE technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Spencer, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The approach to thermal analysis described by this paper is a technique that incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a thermal model that has the advantages of Finite Element Methods (FEM) without abandoning the unique advantages of Finite Difference Methods (FDM) in the analysis of thermal systems. The incorporation of existing CAD geometry, the powerful use of a pre and post processor and the ability to do interdisciplinary analysis, will be described.

  6. CAD/CAM designer - Jack of all trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, C. F.; Gallo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Aerospace design engineers are increasingly required to have more extensive knowledge of CAD/CAM tooling and manufacturing methods, in order to ensure that datasets can yield error-free components and assemblies. For structural concept design, engineers will work at the same CAD/CAM workstation on which the final component will be defined, controlling methods that yield the optimum solution for each member of a structural system from the viewpoints of both weight (for given strength) and producibility.

  7. Keeping ahead of the CAD/CAM curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daues, Jim; Meeker, Jay L.

    1993-06-01

    CAD/CAM tools can not only perform such major functions as analysis during the developmental phase of aerospace components; they also allow the design data to be passed directly to the user for access to numerically controlled (NC) programming, thereby shortening the product-delivery cycle. State-of-the-art commercial CAD/CAM systems support such advanced applications as solid modeling, feature-based design, and automation of key parts of the NC programming process.

  8. Complete denture fabrication with CAD/CAM record bases.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, J Bryan; Ramos, Van

    2015-10-01

    One of the primary goals of new materials and processes for complete denture fabrication has been to reduce polymerization shrinkage. The introduction of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication has eliminated polymerization shrinkage in the definitive denture. The use of CAD/CAM record bases for complete denture fabrication can provide a better-fitting denture with fewer postprocessing occlusal errors. PMID:26139040

  9. Thermodynamic and activation parameters for dissociation of [CpCr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} and [Cp*Cr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} into paramagnetic monomers from {sup 1}H NMR shift and line width measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Woska, D.C.; Ni, Y.; Wayland, B.B.

    1999-09-06

    Substitution of pentamethyl cyclopentadienide (Cp*) for cyclopentadienide (Cp) is commonly used as an approach for increasing ligand steric requirements that can enhance dissociation of M-M bonded complexes. {sup 1}H NMR spectra for solutions prepared by dissolution of [CpCr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} and [Cp*Cr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} in toluene in the temperature range 190--390 K are interpreted in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for dissociation of the diamagnetic dimers into the paramagnetic monomers CpCr(CO){sub 3} and Cp*Cr(CO){sub 3}. There is no evidence in this temperature range for thermally populated excited states or non-Curie magnetic behavior of the monomers making a significant contribution to the NMR. An expression for the temperature dependence of the NMR chemical shift at limiting fast interchange of monomer and dimer in terms of the {Delta}H{degree} and {Delta}S{degree} for dimer dissociation is applied in determining the thermodynamic parameters for Cr-Cr bond homolysis of [CpCr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} ({Delta}H{sub 1}{degree} = 15.3 {+-} 0.6 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}S{sub 1}{degree} = 39 {+-} 2 cal K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1}) and [Cp*Cr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} ({Delta}H{sub 2}{degree} = 14.2 {+-} 0.4 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}S{sub 2}{degree} = 47 {+-} 2 cal K{sup {minus}1}mol{sup {minus}1}). Rate constants and activation parameters have been evaluated from {sup 1}H NMR line broadening in the region of slow dimer-monomer interchange for dissociation of [CpCr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} ({kappa}{sub 1} (240 K) {approx} 59 s{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}H{sub 1}{double{underscore}dagger} = 17 {+-} 2 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}S{sub 1}{double{underscore}dagger} = 21 {+-} 6 cal K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1}) and [Cp*Cr(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} ({kappa}{sub 2} (240 K) {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}H{sub 2}{double{underscore}dagger} = 16 {+-} 1 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}S{sub 2}{double{underscore}dagger} = 30 {+-} 6 cal K

  10. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  11. An Algorithm for Projecting Points onto a Patched CAD Model

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W D

    2001-05-29

    We are interested in building structured overlapping grids for geometries defined by computer-aided-design (CAD) packages. Geometric information defining the boundary surfaces of a computation domain is often provided in the form of a collection of possibly hundreds of trimmed patches. The first step in building an overlapping volume grid on such a geometry is to build overlapping surface grids. A surface grid is typically built using hyperbolic grid generation; starting from a curve on the surface, a grid is grown by marching over the surface. A given hyperbolic grid will typically cover many of the underlying CAD surface patches. The fundamental operation needed for building surface grids is that of projecting a point in space onto the closest point on the CAD surface. We describe an fast algorithm for performing this projection, it will make use of a fairly coarse global triangulation of the CAD geometry. We describe how to build this global triangulation by first determining the connectivity of the CAD surface patches. This step is necessary since it often the case that the CAD description will contain no information specifying how a given patch connects to other neighboring patches. Determining the connectivity is difficult since the surface patches may contain mistakes such as gaps or overlaps between neighboring patches.

  12. [Gender differences in dissociative disorders].

    PubMed

    Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness, on the one hand, and sex and gender, on the other hand, has received interest since the beginning of medicine in antique times. A prototypical example of a seemingly woman-specific disease is hysteria. The term itself, which is derived from the Greek word for womb, denotes a psychosexual dimension comprising the current attitude towards sexuality and the dominating gender relationship. In addition, the colourful history of hysteria indicates that illness is not exclusively determined by biological factors, but also significantly by socio-cultural influences, for example in the treatment of hysterical women. Even nowadays, there is a wide-spread belief that dissociative symptoms and disorders, which have succeeded hysteria in current classification systems, are predominantly seen in women. However, empirical studies in the general population and in different clinical samples using sound instruments have indicated that dissociative symptoms do not differ between the genders. The seemingly dominance of dissociative disorders in women may also depend on the socio-cultural context, because men with dissociative disorders usually do not enter the general health system, but rather the legal system, i.e. they can be found in jail or forensic institutions. PMID:18185968

  13. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  14. Investigate the variation in optical redox ratio of epicardial adipose tissue in patients with CAD through auto-fluorescence metabolic molecular image (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lun-Zhang; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Lin, Jong-Wei; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, it has been suggested that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) plays an important role in development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). In this article, we used two-photon fluoresce microscope to measure the fluorescence metabolic image of EAT, which obtained from the patient with/without CAD/DM. We used 740nm and 890nm infrared light to excite the auto-fluorescence of metabolic molecules NADH and FAD respectively. We collected the fluorescence signal at wavelength 450nm to 500nm and 500nm to 550nm to obtain the metabolic image. Through the image, we computed the redox ratio (NADH/FAD) by analyzing the intensity. The preliminary result showed that the redox ratio increase in the patients with CAD. It indicates EAT adipocytes of patient with CAD have decreased cellular metabolic activity. But there were no significant variation of redox ratio in the patients with DM.

  15. Imagination and dissociation in hypnotic responding.

    PubMed

    Bowers, K S

    1992-10-01

    A neodissociative model of mind is better equipped than a social-psychological model to deal with the complexities of hypnosis, and of human behavior generally. It recognizes, as Coe's (1992) model does not, that behavior can be more automatically activated than strategically enacted. In particular, Coe's emphasis on human behavior as purposeful and goal directed does not distinguish between goal-directed behavior that serves a purpose, and goal-directed behavior that is performed on purpose. It is this distinction that permits goal-directed behavior to be dissociated from a person's conscious plans and intentions. In addition to offering a critique of Coe's "limited process" view of hypnosis, 4 main points are made in the interest of developing a slightly modified, neodissociation view of hypnosis. First, it is argued that goal-directed fantasies are more limited in their ability to mediate hypnotic responding than is commonly appreciated; as well, they do not seem to account for the nonvolitional quality of hypnotic responding. Second, it is argued that hypnotic ability is not unidimensional, with compliance and social influence more apt to account for the low than for the high hypnotizable's responsiveness to suggestion. Third, compared to low hypnotizables, the hypnotic responsiveness of high hypnotizables seems more likely to result from dissociated control. In other words, for high hypnotizables, hypnotic suggestions may often directly activate subsystems of cognitive control. Consequently, the need for executive initiative and effort to produce hypnotically suggested behavior is minimized, and such responses are therefore experienced as nonvolitional. Fourth and finally, while goal-directed fantasies typically accompany hypnotically suggested responses, they are in many cases more a marker of dissociated control than a mediator of suggested effects. PMID:1468834

  16. Ion Mobility Spectrometry Reveals Duplex DNA Dissociation Intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrova, Anastasia; Gabelica, Valérie; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-11-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) soft desolvation is widely used to investigate fragile species such as nucleic acids. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) gives access to the gas phase energetics of the intermolecular interactions in the absence of solvent, by following the dissociation of mass-selected ions. Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) provides indications on the tridimensional oligonucleotide structure by attributing a collision cross section (CCS) to the studied ion. Electrosprayed duplexes longer than eight bases pairs retain their helical structure in a solvent-free environment. However, the question of conformational changes under activation in MS/MS studies remains open. The objective of this study is to probe binding energetics and characterize the unfolding steps occurring prior to oligonucleotide duplex dissociation. Comparing the evolution of CCS with collision energy and breakdown curves, we characterize dissociation pathways involved in CID-activated DNA duplex separation into single strands, and we demonstrate here the existence of stable dissociation intermediates. At fixed duplex length, dissociation pathways were found to depend on the percentage of GC base pairs and on their position in the duplex. Our results show that pure GC sequences undergo a gradual compaction until reaching the dissociation intermediate: A-helix. Mixed AT-GC sequences were found to present at least two conformers: a classic B-helix and an extended structure where the GC tract is a B-helix and the AT tract(s) fray. The dissociation in single strands takes place from both conformers when the AT base pairs are enclosed between two GC tracts or only from the extended conformer when the AT tract is situated at the end(s) of the sequence.

  17. A p60v-src-related tyrosine kinase in the acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes of Narke japonica: association and dissociation of phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Y; Owada, M K; Sumi, M; Hayashi, F

    1986-09-14

    We have isolated a tyrosine-specific protein kinase from the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-rich membranes of the electric ray Narke japonica. The enzyme is immunologically related to p60v-src, the product of the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus. A substantial phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was associated with this enzyme when it was purified through tyrosine-agarose affinity chromatography used previously for the purification of p60v-src. However, by subsequent chromatography on casein-agarose, most of the associated PI kinase activity was separated from the tyrosine kinase activity. The results suggest that the tyrosine-specific protein kinase in the AChR-rich membranes of N. japonica has no intrinsic PI kinase activity. PMID:3094516

  18. [Dissociative disorders: from Janet to DSM-IV].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Y

    2000-01-01

    I reviewed the literature on dissociation and dissociative disorders from Pierre Janet to DSM-IV, and examined the current trends in research. Janet's theory on hysteria is multifaceted, and is based on three psychological models. Based on a hierarchical model, Janet related hysteric symptoms to the activities within the lower strata of mental hierarchy (automatisms psychologiques), which were demonstrably shown in somnambulism. A second model was based on the concept of a psychological system, which was hypothetically composed of ideas, images, feelings, sensations, and movements. According to this model, dissociation of psychological functions was fundamental to the mechanism of hysteria: loss of integration was thought to engender fixed ideas (ideas fixes) and to lead to the development of a system totally isolated from the whole personality system. Janet also attempted to explain various mental disorders using an economic model. He referred to a loss of equilibration between psychological force and psychological tension. Thus, an unexpected emotional experience was conceived to cause a consumption of reserved psychological force, which was in turn followed by exhaustion associated with hysteric symptoms. Whereas most current researchers regard Janet as the first to study psychological trauma as a principal cause of dissociation, I feel it is important to note that he also emphasized the role of stigmata, i.e., permanent traits of hysteric patients, which were represented as a suggestibility and a tendency toward a narrowing of the consciousness field. Discussion about dissociation and its relation to trauma all but disappeared after Janet. However, during the Second World War and post-war period, some psychiatrists began to pay attention to two emerging phenomena: a high incidence of dissociative symptoms such as fugue and amnesia among combatants, and traumatic neurosis frequently observed among ex-inmates of concentration camps. In the 1970s, interest in

  19. Crystal structure of the sensory domain of Escherichia coli CadC, a member of the ToxR-like protein family

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Andreas; Haneburger, Ina; Koller, Christiane; Jung, Kirsten; Skerra, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-integral transcriptional activator CadC comprises sensory and transcriptional regulatory functions within one polypeptide chain. Its C-terminal periplasmic domain, CadCpd, is responsible for sensing of environmental pH as well as for binding of the feedback inhibitor cadaverine. Here we describe the crystal structure of CadCpd (residues 188–512) solved at a resolution of 1.8 Å via multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using a ReCl62− derivative. CadCpd reveals a novel fold comprising two subdomains: an N-terminal subdomain dominated by a β-sheet in contact with three α-helices and a C-terminal subdomain formed by an eleven-membered α-helical bundle, which is oriented almost perpendicular to the helices in the first subdomain. Further to the native protein, crystal structures were also solved for its variants D471N and D471E, which show functionally different behavior in pH sensing. Interestingly, in the heavy metal derivative of CadCpd used for MAD phasing a ReCl62− ion was found in a cavity located between the two subdomains. Amino acid side chains that coordinate this complex ion are conserved in CadC homologues from various bacterial species, suggesting a function of the cavity in the binding of cadaverine, which was supported by docking studies. Notably, CadCpd forms a homo-dimer in solution, which can be explained by an extended, albeit rather polar interface between two symmetry-related monomers in the crystal structure. The occurrence of several acidic residues in this region suggests protonation-dependent changes in the mode of dimerization, which could eventually trigger transcriptional activation by CadC in the bacterial cytoplasm. PMID:21308846

  20. Online coupling of high-resolution chromatography with extreme UV photon activation tandem mass spectrometry: Application to the structural investigation of complex glycans by dissociative photoionization.

    PubMed

    Ropartz, David; Giuliani, Alexandre; Fanuel, Mathieu; Hervé, Cécile; Czjzek, Mirjam; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-24

    The activation of ions by extreme-energy photons (XUV) produced by a synchrotron radiation beamline is a powerful method for characterizing complex glycans using tandem mass spectrometry (MS). As previously described, this activation method leads to rich fragmentation spectra with many structurally valuable cross-ring cleavages while maintaining labile modifications on the glycan structures. However, until now, the tandem MS event was too long to be compatible with liquid chromatography elution times. In this work, the duty cycle of the activation and detection of fragments was shortened, and the background signal on the spectra was drastically reduced. Both improvements allowed, for the first time, the successful coupling of a UHPLC system to XUV-activated tandem MS. The approach was used to characterize a complex mixture of oligo-porphyrans, which are a class of highly sulfated oligosaccharides, in a fully automated way. Due to an enhanced dynamic range and an increased sensitivity, some hypothetical structures of low abundance have been unequivocally confirmed in this study and others have been revised. Some previously undescribed species of oligo-porphyrans that exhibit lateral branching have been fully resolved. This work contributes to the scarce knowledge of the structure of porphyrans in red algae and pushes the current capacities of XUV-activation tandem MS by demonstrating the possibility of a direct coupling with UHPLC. This study will considerably broaden the applicability and practicality of this method in many fields of analytical biology. PMID:27496992

  1. From CAD to Digital Modeling: the Necessary Hybridization of Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, G. A.; Bernardi, F.; Cristofolini, A.

    2011-09-01

    The essay deals with the themes of digital representation of architecture starting from several years of teaching activity which is growing within the course of Automatic Design of the degree course in Engineering/Architecture in the University of Trento. With the development of CAD systems, architectural representation lies less in the tracking of a simple graph and drawn deeper into a series of acts of building a complex digital model, which can be used as a data base on which to report all the stages of project and interpretation work, and from which to derive final drawings and documents. The advent of digital technology has led to increasing difficulty in finding explicit connections between one type of operation and the subsequent outcome; thereby increasing need for guidelines, the need to understand in order to precede the changes, the desire not to be overwhelmed by uncontrollable influences brought by technological hardware and software systems to use only in accordance with the principle of maximum productivity. Formation occupies a crucial role because has the ability to direct the profession toward a thoughtful and selective use of specific applications; teaching must build logical routes in the fluid world of info-graphics and the only way to do so is to describe its contours through method indications: this will consist in understanding, studying and divulging what in its mobility does not change, as procedural issues, rather than what is transitory in its fixity, as manual questions.

  2. Metabolic analysis of Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 reveals clues of the symbiosis in ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum'.

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueda-García, Daniel; Martínez-Castilla, León P; Falcón, Luisa I; Delaye, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A symbiotic association occurs in ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum', a phototrophic consortium integrated by two species of phylogenetically distant bacteria composed by the green-sulfur Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 epibiont that surrounds a central β-proteobacterium. The non-motile chlorobia can perform nitrogen and carbon fixation, using sulfide as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The consortium can move due to the flagella present in the central β-protobacterium. Although Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is never found as free-living bacteria in nature, previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed that there are differential transcription patterns between the symbiotic and free-living status of Chl. chlorocromatii CaD3 when grown in laboratory conditions. The differences occur mainly in genes encoding the enzymatic reactions involved in nitrogen and amino acid metabolism. We performed a metabolic reconstruction of Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 and an in silico analysis of its amino acid metabolism using an elementary flux modes approach (EFM). Our study suggests that in symbiosis, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is under limited nitrogen conditions where the GS/GOGAT (glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase) pathway is actively assimilating ammonia obtained via N2 fixation. In contrast, when free-living, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is in a condition of nitrogen excess and ammonia is assimilated by the alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) pathway. We postulate that ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum' originated from a parasitic interaction where the N2 fixation capacity of the chlorobia would be enhanced by injection of 2-oxoglutarate from the β-proteobacterium via the periplasm. This consortium would have the advantage of motility, which is fundamental to a phototrophic bacterium, and the syntrophy of nitrogen and carbon sources. PMID:24285361

  3. Two-temperature models for nitrogen dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. Lino; Guerra, V.; Loureiro, J.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate sets of nitrogen state-resolved dissociation rates have been reduced to two-temperature (translational T and vibrational Tv) dissociation rates. The analysis of such two-temperature dissociation rates shows evidence of two different dissociation behaviors. For Tv < 0.3 T dissociation proceeds predominantly from the lower-lying vibrational levels, whereas for Tv > 0.3 T dissociation proceeds predominantly form the near-dissociative vibrational levels, with an abrupt change of behavior at Tv = 0.3 T. These two-temperature sets have then been utilized as a benchmark for the comparison against popular multitemperature dissociation models (Park, Hansen, Marrone-Treanor, Hammerling, Losev-Shatalov, Gordiets, Kuznetsov, and Macheret-Fridman). This has allowed verifying the accuracy of each theoretical model, and additionally proposing adequate values for any semi-empirical parameters present in the different theories. The Macheret-Fridman model, who acknowledges the existence of the two aforementioned dissociation regimes, has been found to provide significantly more accurate results than the other models. Although these different theoretical approaches have been tested and validated solely for nitrogen dissociation processes, it is reasonable to expect that the general conclusions of this work, regarding the adequacy of the different dissociation models, could be extended to the description of arbitrary diatomic dissociation processes.

  4. Study of the dissociation of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.

    1981-01-01

    Dissociators used to obtain an RF plasma discharge for hydrogen masers and the test system used for operation and evaluation of the dissociators are described. A compact sorption cartridge using a graphite matrix is tested as part of a hydrogen scavenging system. Testing of a vacuum enclosed hydrogen dissociator suitable for long term operation in space is described.

  5. A structural view of the dissociation of Escherichia coli tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Green, Keren; Qasim, Nasrin; Gdaelvsky, Garik; Kogan, Anna; Goldgur, Yehuda; Parola, Abraham H; Lotan, Ofra; Almog, Orna

    2015-12-01

    Tryptophanase (Trpase) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent homotetrameric enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of L-tryptophan. Trpase is also known for its cold lability, which is a reversible loss of activity at low temperature (2°C) that is associated with the dissociation of the tetramer. Escherichia coli Trpase dissociates into dimers, while Proteus vulgaris Trpase dissociates into monomers. As such, this enzyme is an appropriate model to study the protein-protein interactions and quaternary structure of proteins. The aim of the present study was to understand the differences in the mode of dissociation between the E. coli and P. vulgaris Trpases. In particular, the effect of mutations along the molecular axes of homotetrameric Trpase on its dissociation was studied. To answer this question, two groups of mutants of the E. coli enzyme were created to resemble the amino-acid sequence of P. vulgaris Trpase. In one group, residues 15 and 59 that are located along the molecular axis R (also termed the noncatalytic axis) were mutated. The second group included a mutation at position 298, located along the molecular axis Q (also termed the catalytic axis). Replacing amino-acid residues along the R axis resulted in dissociation of the tetramers into monomers, similar to the P. vulgaris Trpase, while replacing amino-acid residues along the Q axis resulted in dissociation into dimers only. The crystal structure of the V59M mutant of E. coli Trpase was also determined in its apo form and was found to be similar to that of the wild type. This study suggests that in E. coli Trpase hydrophobic interactions along the R axis hold the two monomers together more strongly, preventing the dissociation of the dimers into monomers. Mutation of position 298 along the Q axis to a charged residue resulted in tetramers that are less susceptible to dissociation. Thus, the results indicate that dissociation of E. coli Trpase into dimers occurs along the molecular Q axis. PMID

  6. Altered Cingulate Sub-Region Activation Accounts for Task-Related Dissociation in ERN Amplitude as a Function of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, James F.; Grundler, Theo O. J.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Larger error-related negativities (ERNs) have been consistently found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and are thought to reflect the activities of a hyperactive cortico-striatal circuit during action monitoring. We previously observed that obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatic students (non-patients) have larger ERNs during errors…

  7. Information processing of an acquaintance rape scenario among high- and low-dissociating college women.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, D A; Lynn, S J; Matorin, A I

    2001-07-01

    To assess the impact of dissociation on information processing, 66 college women with high and low levels of trait dissociation were studied with regard to how they unitized videotape segments of an acquaintance rape scenario (actual assault not shown) and a nonthreatening control scenario. Unitization is a paradigm that measures how actively people process stimuli by recording how many times they press a button to indicate that they have seen a significant or meaningful event. Trait dissociation was negatively correlated with participants' unitization of the acquaintance rape videotape, unitization was positively correlated with danger cue identification, and state dissociation was negatively correlated with dangerousness ratings. PMID:11534887

  8. Coulomb dissociation of N,2120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamaño, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkäll, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Datta Pramanik, Ushasi; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Göbel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hâkan; Jonson, Björn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knöbel, Ronja; Kröll, Thorsten; Krücken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; Sanchez del Rio Saez, Jose; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai; R3B Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N,2120 are reported. Relativistic N,2120 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the 19N (n ,γ )20N and 20N (n ,γ ) 21N excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The 19 (n ,γ )20N rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at T <1 GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.

  9. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary. PMID:16609871

  10. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  11. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype x

  12. Dexras1 a unique ras-GTPase interacts with NMDA receptor activity and provides a novel dissociation between anxiety, working memory and sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Carlson, G C; Lin, R E; Chen, Y; Brookshire, B R; White, R S; Lucki, I; Siegel, S J; Kim, S F

    2016-05-13

    Dexras1 is a novel GTPase that acts at a confluence of signaling mechanisms associated with psychiatric and neurological disease including NMDA receptors, NOS1AP and nNOS. Recent work has shown that Dexras1 mediates iron trafficking and NMDA-dependent neurodegeneration but a role for Dexras1 in normal brain function or psychiatric disease has not been studied. To test for such a role, mice with germline knockout (KO) of Dexras1 were assayed for behavioral abnormalities as well as changes in NMDA receptor subunit protein expression. Because Dexras1 is up-regulated during stress or by dexamethasone treatment, we included measures associated with emotion including anxiety and depression. Baseline anxiety-like measures (open field and zero maze) were not altered, nor were depression-like behavior (tail suspension). Measures of memory function yielded mixed results, with no changes in episodic memory (novel object recognition) but a significant decrement on working memory (T-maze). Alternatively, there was an increase in pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), without concomitant changes in either startle amplitude or locomotor activity. PPI data are consistent with the direction of change seen following exposure to dopamine D2 antagonists. An examination of NMDA subunit expression levels revealed an increased expression of the NR2A subunit, contrary to previous studies demonstrating down-regulation of the receptor following antipsychotic exposure (Schmitt et al., 2003) and up-regulation after exposure to isolation rearing (Turnock-Jones et al., 2009). These findings suggest a potential role for Dexras1 in modulating a selective subset of psychiatric symptoms, possibly via its interaction with NMDARs and/or other disease-related binding-partners. Furthermore, data suggest that modulating Dexras1 activity has contrasting effects on emotional, sensory and cognitive domains. PMID:26946266

  13. Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry of Hemoglobin on Clinical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho Graça, Didia; Lescuyer, Pierre; Clerici, Lorella; Tsybin, Yury O.; Hartmer, Ralf; Meyer, Markus; Samii, Kaveh; Hochstrasser, Denis F.; Scherl, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    A mass spectrometry-based assay combining the specificity of selected reaction monitoring and the protein ion activation capabilities of electron transfer dissociation was developed and employed for the rapid identification of hemoglobin variants from whole blood without previous proteolytic cleavage. The analysis was performed in a robust ion trap mass spectrometer operating at nominal mass accuracy and resolution. Subtle differences in globin sequences, resulting with mass shifts of about one Da, can be unambiguously identified. These results suggest that mass spectrometry analysis of entire proteins using electron transfer dissociation can be employed on clinical samples in a workflow compatible with diagnostic applications.

  14. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  15. CAD-model-based vision for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Linda G.

    1988-01-01

    A pose acquisition system operating in space must be able to perform well in a variety of different applications including automated guidance and inspections tasks with many different, but known objects. Since the space station is being designed with automation in mind, there will be CAD models of all the objects, including the station itself. The construction of vision models and procedures directly from the CAD models is the goal of this project. The system that is being designed and implementing must convert CAD models to vision models, predict visible features from a given view point from the vision models, construct view classes representing views of the objects, and use the view class model thus derived to rapidly determine the pose of the object from single images and/or stereo pairs.

  16. Reaction paths of phosphine dissociation on silicon (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warschkow, O.; Curson, N. J.; Schofield, S. R.; Marks, N. A.; Wilson, H. F.; Radny, M. W.; Smith, P. V.; Reusch, T. C. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and guided by extensive scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image data, we formulate a detailed mechanism for the dissociation of phosphine (PH3) molecules on the Si(001) surface at room temperature. We distinguish between a main sequence of dissociation that involves PH2+H, PH+2H, and P+3H as observable intermediates, and a secondary sequence that gives rise to PH+H, P+2H, and isolated phosphorus adatoms. The latter sequence arises because PH2 fragments are surprisingly mobile on Si(001) and can diffuse away from the third hydrogen atom that makes up the PH3 stoichiometry. Our calculated activation energies describe the competition between diffusion and dissociation pathways and hence provide a comprehensive model for the numerous adsorbate species observed in STM experiments.

  17. Passivity of conventional and CAD/CAM fabricated implant frameworks.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Gabriela Monteiro; de França, Danilo Gonzaga Bernardo; Silva Neto, João Paulo; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the passivity by measuring the passive fit and strain development of frameworks screwed on abutments, made by CAD/CAM technology, and to compare these parts with samples manufactured by conventional casting. Using CAD/CAM technology, four samples were made from zirconia (Zircad) and four samples were manufactured from cobalt-chrome (CoCrcad). The control groups were four specimens of cobalt-chrome, made by one-piece casting (CoCrci), with a total of 12 frameworks. To evaluate the passive fit, the vertical misfit at the abutment-framework interface was measured with scanning electron microscopy (250×) when only one screw was tightened. The mean strain in these frameworks was analyzed by photoelasticity test. A significant difference in the passive fit was observed between the control and sample groups. CoCrcad exhibited the best value of passive fit (48.76±13.45 µm) and CoCrci the worst (187.55±103.63 µm); Zircad presented an intermediate value (103.81±43.15 µm). When compared to the other groups, CoCrci showed the highest average stress around the implants (17.19±7.22 kPa). It was concluded that CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibited better passivity compared with conventionally fabricated frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated Co-Cr frameworks may exhibit better passive fit compared with CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks. Even so, similar levels of stress were achieved for CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks. PMID:26200153

  18. Longitudinal myocardial blood flow gradient and CAD detection.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Ines; Wahl, Richard L; Schindler, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Conventional myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT/CT or with PET/CT has been established as pivotal clinical imaging modality for the identification of hemodynamically obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and risk stratification of patients with suspected or known CAD. While the assessment of the relative distribution of radiotracer uptake in the left-ventricular (LV) myocardium during vasomotor stress identifies the "culprit" or most severe CAD lesion in multivessel disease, flow-limiting effects of remaining but less severe epicardial lesions may be missed. This limitation principally may be overcome by the possibility of PET/CT with radiotracer-kinetic modeling to concurrently assess left-ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flow (MBF) in ml/g/min at rest and during vasomotor stress and the resulting myocardial flow reserve (MFR). While a stress-induced regional reduction in radiotracer uptake or perfusion identifies the most advanced epicardial lesion, flow-limiting effects of the other epicardial lesions may principally be identified by regional reductions in MFR. Conversely, reductions in MFR in CAD may be appreciated as suboptimal as they reflect not only the consequences of flow-limiting effects of epicardial stenosis but also of microvascular dysfunction. The relatively low specificity of a reduced therefore MFR may hamper a clear identification of the downstream hemodynamic effects of an epicardial lesion on hyperemic coronary flow increases. In this scenario, there is increasing evidence that the PET assessment of an abnormal decrease in MBF from the base to the apex of the LV during hyperemic flows, a so-called longitudinal flow gradient, is primarily related to fluid dynamic consequences of CAD-induced diffuse luminal and/or focal narrowing of the epicardial artery. The combined evaluation of the MFR and corresponding longitudinal MBF gradient could emerge as new a novel analytic concept to further optimize the identification and

  19. Dissociable effects of natural image structure and color on LFP and spiking activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex and extrastriate visual area V4.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Stefanie; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2011-07-13

    Visual perception is mediated by unique contributions of the numerous brain regions that constitute the visual system. We performed simultaneous recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity (SUA) in areas V4 and lateral prefrontal cortex to characterize their contribution to visual processing. Here, we trained monkeys to identify natural images at different degradation levels in a visual recognition task. We parametrically varied color and structural information of natural images while the animals were performing the task. We show that the visual-evoked potential (VEP) of the LFP in V4 is highly sensitive to color, whereas the VEP in prefrontal cortex predominantly depends on image structure. When examining the relationship between VEP and SUA, we found that stimulus sensitivity for SUA was well predicted by the VEP in PF cortex but not in V4. Our results first reveal a functional specialization in both areas at the level of the LFP and further suggest that the degree to which mesoscopic signals, such as the VEP, are representative of the underlying SUA neural processing may be brain region specific within the context of visual recognition. PMID:21752998

  20. The impact of dissociation and depression on the efficacy of prolonged exposure treatment for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; van Minnen, Agnes; Hoogduin, Kees A L

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of dissociative phenomena and depression on the efficacy of prolonged exposure treatment in 71 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Diagnoses, comorbidity, pretreatment depressive symptoms, PTSD symptom severity, and dissociative phenomena (trait dissociation, numbing, and depersonalization) were assessed at pretreatment using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. In a pretreatment behavioral exposure test, patients were imaginally exposed to (part of) their trauma memory for 9 min, during which subjective fear was assessed. At posttreatment and 6 months follow-up PTSD, depressive and dissociative symptoms were again assessed in the completers (n = 60). Pretreatment levels of dissociative and depressive symptoms were similar in dropouts and completers and none of the dissociative phenomena nor depression predicted improvement. Against expectations, dissociative phenomena and depression were associated with enhanced rather than impeded fear activation during the behavioral exposure test. However, these effects disappeared after controlling for initial PTSD severity. Hence, rather than supporting contraindication, the current results imply that patients presenting with even severe dissociative or depressive symptoms may profit similarly from exposure treatment as do patients with minimal dissociative or depressive symptoms. PMID:19766987

  1. Study of medium beta elliptical cavities for CADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Liangjian; Zhang, Shenghu; Li, Yongming; Wang, Ruoxu; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Cong; Jia, Huan; Jiang, Tiancai; Li, Chunlong; He, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    The China Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) is a high intensity proton facility to dispose of nuclear waste and generate electric power. CADS is based on a 1.5 GeV, 10 mA CW superconducting (SC) linac as a driver. The high energy section of the linac is composed of two families of SC elliptical cavities which are designed with geometrical beta 0.63 and 0.82. In this paper, the 650 MHz β=0.63 SC elliptical cavity is studied, including cavity optimization, multipacting, high order modes (HOMs) and generator RF power calculation. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303)

  2. How to Quickly Import CAD Geometry into Thermal Desktop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Shonte; Beltran, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    There are several groups at JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) that are committed to concurrent design efforts, two are featured here. Center for Space Mission Architecture and Design (CSMAD) enables the practical application of advanced process technologies in JPL's mission architecture process. Team I functions as an incubator for projects that are in the Discovery, and even pre-Discovery proposal stages. JPL's concurrent design environment is to a large extent centered on the CAD (Computer Aided Design) file. During concurrent design sessions CAD geometry is ported to other more specialized engineering design packages.

  3. How to Quickly Import CAD Geometry into Thermal Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shonte; Beltran, Emilio

    2002-07-01

    There are several groups at JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) that are committed to concurrent design efforts, two are featured here. Center for Space Mission Architecture and Design (CSMAD) enables the practical application of advanced process technologies in JPL's mission architecture process. Team I functions as an incubator for projects that are in the Discovery, and even pre-Discovery proposal stages. JPL's concurrent design environment is to a large extent centered on the CAD (Computer Aided Design) file. During concurrent design sessions CAD geometry is ported to other more specialized engineering design packages.

  4. Development to integrate conceptual design tools and a CAD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, V. H.; Ríos, J.; Vizán, A.; Pérez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The information supported by PLM/CAD systems is mainly related to Embodiment and Detail Design Phases. Information related to the Conceptual Design Phase is mainly limited to requirement specification documents and system architecture diagram documents. This work aims helping in the integration of the Conceptual Design process and its associated information flow into a commercial software system. It proposes a development framework to integrate Quality Function Deployment, Axiomatic Design, and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis into a PLM/CAD system. This communication presents the methodology used in the development, the software development environment, the modeling of the proposed application and the first results of a pilot implementation.

  5. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  6. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  7. Complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2//CASSCF) study of the dissociative electron attachment in canonical DNA nucleobases caused by low-energy electrons (0-3 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés-Monerris, Antonio; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Merchán, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Low-energy (0-3 eV) ballistic electrons originated during the irradiation of biological material can interact with DNA/RNA nucleobases yielding transient-anion species which undergo decompositions. Since the discovery that these reactions can eventually lead to strand breaking of the DNA chains, great efforts have been dedicated to their study. The main fragmentation at the 0-3 eV energy range is the ejection of a hydrogen atom from the specific nitrogen positions. In the present study, the methodological approach introduced in a previous work on uracil [I. González-Ramírez et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2769-2776 (2012)] is employed to study the DNA canonical nucleobases fragmentations of N-H bonds induced by low-energy electrons. The approach is based on minimum energy path and linear interpolation of internal coordinates computations along the N-H dissociation channels carried out at the complete-active-space self-consistent field//complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory level. On the basis of the calculated theoretical quantities, new assignations for the adenine and cytosine anion yield curves are provided. In addition, the π1- and π2- states of the pyrimidine nucleobases are expected to produce the temporary anions at electron energies close to 1 and 2 eV, respectively. Finally, the present theoretical results do not allow to discard neither the dipole-bound nor the valence-bound mechanisms in the range of energies explored, suggesting that both possibilities may coexist in the experiments carried out with the isolated nucleobases.

  8. Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the triple GoLoco motif protein G18: alanine-to-aspartate mutation restores function to an inactive second GoLoco motif.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Randall J; Willard, Francis S; Hains, Melinda D; Jones, Miller B; Nweke, Gift K; Siderovski, David P

    2004-03-15

    GoLoco ('Galpha(i/o)-Loco' interaction) motif proteins have recently been identified as novel GDIs (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits. G18 is a member of the mammalian GoLoco-motif gene family and was uncovered by analyses of human and mouse genomes for anonymous open-reading frames. The encoded G18 polypeptide is predicted to contain three 19-amino-acid GoLoco motifs, which have been shown in other proteins to bind Galpha subunits and inhibit spontaneous nucleotide release. However, the G18 protein has thus far not been characterized biochemically. Here, we have cloned and expressed the G18 protein and assessed its ability to act as a GDI. G18 is capable of simultaneously binding more than one Galpha(i1) subunit. In binding assays with the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, G18 exhibits GDI activity, slowing the exchange of GDP for GTP by Galpha(i1). Only the first and third GoLoco motifs within G18 are capable of interacting with Galpha subunits, and these bind with low micromolar affinity only to Galpha(i1) in the GDP-bound form, and not to Galpha(o), Galpha(q), Galpha(s) or Galpha12. Mutation of Ala-121 to aspartate in the inactive second GoLoco motif of G18, to restore the signature acidic-glutamine-arginine tripeptide that forms critical contacts with Galpha and its bound nucleotide [Kimple, Kimple, Betts, Sondek and Siderovski (2002) Nature (London) 416, 878-881], results in gain-of-function with respect to Galpha binding and GDI activity. PMID:14656218

  9. Complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2//CASSCF) study of the dissociative electron attachment in canonical DNA nucleobases caused by low-energy electrons (0-3 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Francés-Monerris, Antonio; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Merchán, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel

    2015-12-07

    Low-energy (0-3 eV) ballistic electrons originated during the irradiation of biological material can interact with DNA/RNA nucleobases yielding transient-anion species which undergo decompositions. Since the discovery that these reactions can eventually lead to strand breaking of the DNA chains, great efforts have been dedicated to their study. The main fragmentation at the 0-3 eV energy range is the ejection of a hydrogen atom from the specific nitrogen positions. In the present study, the methodological approach introduced in a previous work on uracil [I. González-Ramírez et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2769-2776 (2012)] is employed to study the DNA canonical nucleobases fragmentations of N–H bonds induced by low-energy electrons. The approach is based on minimum energy path and linear interpolation of internal coordinates computations along the N–H dissociation channels carried out at the complete-active-space self-consistent field//complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory level. On the basis of the calculated theoretical quantities, new assignations for the adenine and cytosine anion yield curves are provided. In addition, the π{sub 1}{sup −} and π{sub 2}{sup −} states of the pyrimidine nucleobases are expected to produce the temporary anions at electron energies close to 1 and 2 eV, respectively. Finally, the present theoretical results do not allow to discard neither the dipole-bound nor the valence-bound mechanisms in the range of energies explored, suggesting that both possibilities may coexist in the experiments carried out with the isolated nucleobases.

  10. Annotation and retrieval system of CAD models based on functional semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhansong; Tian, Ling; Duan, Wenrui

    2014-11-01

    CAD model retrieval based on functional semantics is more significant than content-based 3D model retrieval during the mechanical conceptual design phase. However, relevant research is still not fully discussed. Therefore, a functional semantic-based CAD model annotation and retrieval method is proposed to support mechanical conceptual design and design reuse, inspire designer creativity through existing CAD models, shorten design cycle, and reduce costs. Firstly, the CAD model functional semantic ontology is constructed to formally represent the functional semantics of CAD models and describe the mechanical conceptual design space comprehensively and consistently. Secondly, an approach to represent CAD models as attributed adjacency graphs(AAG) is proposed. In this method, the geometry and topology data are extracted from STEP models. On the basis of AAG, the functional semantics of CAD models are annotated semi-automatically by matching CAD models that contain the partial features of which functional semantics have been annotated manually, thereby constructing CAD Model Repository that supports model retrieval based on functional semantics. Thirdly, a CAD model retrieval algorithm that supports multi-function extended retrieval is proposed to explore more potential creative design knowledge in the semantic level. Finally, a prototype system, called Functional Semantic-based CAD Model Annotation and Retrieval System(FSMARS), is implemented. A case demonstrates that FSMARS can successfully botain multiple potential CAD models that conform to the desired function. The proposed research addresses actual needs and presents a new way to acquire CAD models in the mechanical conceptual design phase.

  11. Religious Dissociation and Economic Appraisal in Brazil.

    PubMed

    François Dengah, H J

    2016-04-01

    Research on the association between religion and health often neglects to provide an explicit theoretical mechanism of influence between faith and well-being. This research posits that dissociative behaviors, such as glossolalia, may provide a biological pathway that influences both physiological and psychological health. This paper argues that religious dissociation acts as a moderator between economic stressors and psychobiological appraisal. Brazil, with its economic inequality and preponderance of religious dissociative rituals, provides an ideal context to examine religious dissociation as a moderator of stress. Utilizing data from a cross section of Brazilian faiths, this paper examines: (1) Whether individuals with low socioeconomic status preferentially participate and experience religious dissociative states and (2) whether dissociative states are correlated with greater psychological appraisal of status. PMID:25687180

  12. Dissociative Tendencies and Facilitated Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Dissociation is a process linked to lapses of attention, history of abuse or trauma, compromised emotional memory, and a disintegrated sense of self. It is theorized that dissociation stems from avoiding emotional information, especially negative emotion, to protect a fragile psyche. The present study tested whether or not dissociaters do actually avoid processing emotion by asking groups scoring high or low on the Dissociative Experiences Scale to judge the affective valence of several types of emotional stimuli. Manipulations of valence, modality (pictures or words), task complexity, and personal relevance lead to results suggesting that dissociation is linked to facilitated rather than deficient emotional processing. Our results are consistent with a theory that sensitivity to emotional material may be a contributing factor in subsequent dissociation to avoid further elaboration of upsetting emotion in these individuals. The findings for dissociation further exemplify the influence of individual differences in the link between cognition and emotion. PMID:18837615

  13. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  14. Products of Dissociative Recombination in the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosby, Philip

    1996-01-01

    SRI International undertook a novel experimental measurement of the product states formed by dissociative recombination (DR) of O2(+), NO(+), and N2(+) as a function of both electron energy and reactant ion vibrational level. For these measurements we used a recently developed experimental technique for measuring dissociation product distributions that allows both the branching ratios to be accurately determined and the electronic and rovibrational state composition of the reactant ions to be specified. DR is the dominant electron loss mechanism in all regions of the ionosphere. In this process, electron attachment to the molecular ion produces an unstable neutral molecule that rapidly dissociates. For a molecular ion such as O2(+), the dissociation recombination reaction is (1) O2(+) + e yields O + O + W. The atomic products of this reaction, in this case two oxygen atoms, can be produced in a variety of excited states and with a variety of kinetic energies, as represented by W in Eq. (1). These atoms are not only active in the neutral chemistry of the ionosphere, but are also especially important because their optical emissions are often used to infer in situ concentrations of the parent molecular ion and ambient electron densities. Many laboratory measurements have been made of DR reaction rates under a wide range of electron temperatures, but very little is known about the actual distributions among the final states of the atomic products. This lack of knowledge seriously limits the validity and effectiveness of efforts to model both natural and man-made ionospheric disturbances. Bates recently identified major deficiencies in the currently accepted branching ratios for O2(+) as they relate to blue and green line emission measurements in the nocturnal F-region. During our two-year effort, we partially satisfied our ambitious goals. We constructed and operated a variable pressure, electron-impact ion source and a high pressure, hollow-cathode discharge ion

  15. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  16. The design and construction of the CAD-1 airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, H. J.; Schneider, R.; Duncan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The background history, design philosophy and Computer application as related to the design of the envelope shape, stress calculations and flight trajectories of the CAD-1 airship, now under construction by Canadian Airship Development Corporation are reported. A three-phase proposal for future development of larger cargo carrying airships is included.

  17. Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddam, Mounica Reddy

    The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).

  18. Present State of CAD Teaching in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ramon Rubio; Santos, Ramon Gallego; Quiros, Javier Suarez; Penin, Pedro I. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, all Spanish Universities updated the syllabuses of their courses as a result of the entry into force of the new Organic Law of Universities ("Ley Organica de Universidades") and, for the first time, "Computer Assisted Design" (CAD) appears in the list of core subjects (compulsory teaching content set by the government) in many of…

  19. Alternatives for Saving and Viewing CAD Graphics for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Sadowski, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces some alternatives for preparing and viewing computer aided design (CAD) graphics for Internet output on a budget, without the fear of copyright infringement, and without having to go back to college to learn a complex graphic application. (Author/YDS)

  20. Parametric Design Optimization By Integrating CAD Systems And Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, M.; Olabi, A. G.

    2009-11-01

    Designing a cost effective product in minimum time is a complex process. In order to achieve this goal the requirement of optimum designs are becoming more important. One of the time consuming factor in the design optimization cycle is the modifications of Computer Aided Design (CAD) model after optimization. In conventional design optimization techniques the design engineer has to update the CAD model after receiving optimum design from optimization tools. It is worthwhile using parametric design optimization process to minimize the optimization cycle time. This paper presents a comprehensive study to integrate the optimization parameters between CAD system and optimization tools which were driven from a single user environment. Finally, design optimization of a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) cylinder was implemented as case study. In this case study the optimization tools were fully integrated with CAD system, therefore, all the deliverables including; part design, drawings and assembly can be automatically updated after achieving the optimum geometry having minimum volume and satisfying all imposed constraints.

  1. Program Evolves from Basic CAD to Total Manufacturing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassola, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Close to a decade ago, John Hersey High School (JHHS) in Arlington Heights, Illinois, made a transition from a traditional classroom-based pre-engineering program. The new program is geared towards helping students understand the entire manufacturing process. Previously, a JHHS student would design a project in computer-aided design (CAD) software…

  2. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  3. Optical properties of manually and CAD/CAM-fabricated polymers.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Zuch, Timo; Zwinge, Sebastian; Engels, Jörg; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the light translucency and fluorescence 5 manually and 11 CAD/CAM polymer materials to a glass-ceramic material. Light-transmission was measured using a spectrophotometer. Overall light transmission (n=40) was calculated as the integration (tc (λ) dλ [10(-5)]) of all tc values for the wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm. One-Way-ANOVA, (Scheffe's post hoc) revealed following light transmission values: Artbloc Temp (33.1%; A), Polycon ae (33.6%; A), Cercon base PMMA (38.3%; B), Luxatemp Fluorescence (40.7%; C), Protemp 4 (41.6%; C), Structur 2 SC (43.1%; D), CAD Temp (45.0%; E), Paradigm MZ 100 (45.4%; E), New Outline (45.6%,E), Ambarino High-Class (45.9%; E, F), Fixtemp C&B (46.1%; E, F, G), Lava Ultimate (47.1%; F, G), Telio-CAD (47.3%; G), glass-ceramic Vita Mark II (50.8%; H), New Outline CAD (52.1%; H, I), QUATTRO DISC Eco PMMA (53.0%; I) and Zenotec PMMA (54.5%, J). Polymers from conventional and industrial polymerization show widely varying translucent and fluorescent properties when compared with glass-ceramics of the same color. PMID:24240888

  4. Research on remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition method in AutoCAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Guangtong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The remote sensing image has been widely used in AutoCAD, but AutoCAD lack of the function of remote sensing image processing. In the paper, ObjectARX was used for the secondary development tool, combined with the Image Engine SDK to realize remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition in AutoCAD, which provides critical technical support for AutoCAD environment remote sensing image processing algorithms.

  5. Tissue dissociation enzyme neutral protease assessment.

    PubMed

    Breite, A G; Dwulet, F E; McCarthy, R C

    2010-01-01

    Neutral proteases, essential components of purified tissue dissociation enzymes required for successful human islet isolation, show variable activities and effects of substrate on their activities. Initially we used a spectrophotometric endpoint assay with azocasein substrate to measure neutral protease activity. After critical review of the results, we observed these data to be inconsistent and not correlating expected differences in specific activities between thermolysin and Bacillus polymyxa proteases. This observation led to the development of a fluorescent microplate assay using fluorescein isothyocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) as the substrate. This simpler, more flexible method offered a homogeneous, kinetic enzyme assay allowing determination of steady state reaction rates of sample replicates at various dilutions. The assay had a linear range of 4- to 8-fold and interassay coefficients of variation for B polymyxa protease and thermolysin of <9% and <15%, respectively, which were lower than those using the spectrophotometric endpoint assay, namely, 54% and 36%, respectively. This format allowed for incorporation of enzyme inhibitors, as illustrated by addition of sulfhydryl protease inhibitors, which, consistent with earlier reports, strongly indicated that the main contaminant in purified collagenase preparations was clostripain. Determination of the specific activities for several purified neutral proteases showed that the B polymyxa and Clostridium histolyticum proteases had approximately 40% and 15% specific activities, respectively, of those obtained with purified thermolysin, indicating the different characteristics of neutral protease enzymes for cell isolation procedures. PMID:20692405

  6. Coulomb Dissociation of 27P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beceiro Novo, S.; Sümmerer, K.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Wimmer, C.; Plag, R.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Behr, K.; Boretzky, K.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Datta-Pramanik, U.; Elekes, Z.; Fulop, Z.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Giron, S.; Greife, U.; Hammache, F.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Le Bleis, T.; Litvinov, Y.; Mahata, K.; Muentz, C.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Paschalis, S.; Prokopowicz, W.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Stanoiu, M.; Stroth, J.; Typel, S.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the astrophysical 26Si(p,γ)27P reaction is studied using the Coulomb dissociation technique. We performed a 27P Coulomb Dissociation experiment at GSI, Darmstadt (28 May-5 June 2007) using the ALADIN-LAND setup which allows complete-kinematic studies. A secondary 27P beam at 498 AMeV impinging a 515mg/cm2 Pb target was used. The relative energy of the outgoing system (26Si+p) is measured obtaining the resonant states of the 27P. Preliminary results show four resonant states measured at 0.36±0.07, 0.88±0.09, 1.5±0.2, 2.3±0.3 MeV and evidence of a higher state at around 3.1 MeV. The preliminary total cross section obtained for relative energies between 0 and 3 MeV has been measured and yields 55±7 mb.

  7. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  8. Final report. Surface-induced dissociation versus collision-induced dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, Jean H.

    2001-04-19

    A 7-Tesla Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was modified to insert a surface inside the cell for ion-surface collisions leading to the dissociation of impacting ions. Modifications were made to the software/hardware to collide the ions brought into the cell and trap the resulting fragment and undissociated primary ions inside the cell. The trapping plates were also ramped to determine kinetic energy distributions of these ions. The surface-induced dissociation (SID) of benzene and chromium hexacarbonyl ions was first studied as test cases for the instrument. Then a systematic study of the SID of small protonated peptides formed by electrospray ionization was begun. A series of small alanine(A)-containing peptides, viz., AA, AAA, AAAA, AAAAA, and PAAAA were used in the study. In the absence of any direct comparisons of the SID processes with the commonly used technique of tandem mass spectrometry of collision-induced dissociations (CID) via collisions with a neutral gas, a comparative study of CID and SID using the same protonated peptides was made. Since multiple collisions are often used to enhance dissociation efficiency in CID, the CID was performed under single as well as multiple collisional activation conditions. Both on-resonance and sustained off-resonance irradiation excitation were used for CID experiments. Kinetic energy of the ions was varied by changing peak-to-peak voltage applied to the excitation plates. Results are shown in a series of graphs, and a simple theoretical model is presented. This direct comparison of the two activation techniques on the same instrument provided insights into the similarities and differences between these two. The results suggest that internal energy distributions of ions activated by ion-surface collision and multiple collision ion-gaseous neutral collisions are quite comparable. The results also suggest that, in ion-surface collisions, the ion collides with only a small fraction of th

  9. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  10. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  11. Degree of somatoform and psychological dissociation in dissociative disorder is correlated with reported trauma.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, E R; Spinhoven, P; van Dyck, R; van der Hart, O; Vanderlinden, J

    1998-10-01

    In this study, the prevalence and severity of traumatic experiences as reported by patients with dissociative disorders and with other DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were compared. Furthermore, the predictive value of emotional, physical, and sexual trauma with respect to somatoform and psychological dissociation was analyzed. In contrast with comparison patients, dissociative disorder patients reported severe and multifaceted traumatization. Physical and sexual trauma predicted somatoform dissociation, sexual trauma predicted psychological dissociation as well. According to the memories of the dissociative disorder patients, this abuse occurred in an emotionally neglectful and abusive social context. Pathological dissociation was best predicted by early onset of reported intense, chronic and multiple traumatization. Methodological limitations restricting causal inferences between reported trauma and dissociation are discussed. PMID:9870223

  12. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. PMID:22425531

  13. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    PubMed

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; de Jong, Bauke M

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity) or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity). These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space. PMID:26963705

  14. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size

    PubMed Central

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity) or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity). These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a ‘resized’ virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space. PMID:26963705

  15. Biallelic mutations in CAD, impair de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and decrease glycosylation precursors

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Bobby G.; Wolfe, Lynne A.; Ichikawa, Mie; Markello, Thomas; He, Miao; Tifft, Cynthia J.; Gahl, William A.; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2015-01-01

    In mitochondria, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 activity produces carbamoyl phosphate for urea synthesis, and deficiency results in hyperammonemia. Cytoplasmic carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, however, is part of a tri-functional enzyme encoded by CAD; no human disease has been attributed to this gene. The tri-functional enzyme contains carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2 (CPS2), aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) and dihydroorotase (DHOase) activities, which comprise the first three of six reactions required for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here we characterize an individual who is compound heterozygous for mutations in different domains of CAD. One mutation, c.1843-1G>A, results in an in-frame deletion of exon 13. The other, c.6071G>A, causes a missense mutation (p.Arg2024Gln) in a highly conserved residue that is essential for carbamoyl-phosphate binding. Metabolic flux studies showed impaired aspartate incorporation into RNA and DNA through the de novo synthesis pathway. In addition, CTP, UTP and nearly all UDP-activated sugars that serve as donors for glycosylation were decreased. Uridine supplementation rescued these abnormalities, suggesting a potential therapy for this new glycosylation disorder. PMID:25678555

  16. Why Is There an “Inert” Metal Center in the Active Site of Nitrile Hydratase? Reactivity and Ligand Dissociation from a Five-Coordinate Co(III) Nitrile Hydratase Model

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Jason; Kung, Irene Y.; Lovell, Scott; Kaminsky, Werner; Kovacs, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine how a substitutionally inert metal can play a catalytic role in the metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase (NHase), a reactive five-coordinate CoIII thiolate complex ([CoIII(S2Me2N3(Pr,Pr))](PF6) (1)) that resembles the active site of cobalt containing nitrile hydratase (Co NHase) was prepared. This was screened for reactivity, by using low-temperature electronic absorption spectroscopy, toward a number of biologically relevant “substrates”. It was determined 1 will react with azide, thiocyanate, and ammonia, but is unreactive toward nitriles, NO, and butyrate. Substrate-bound 1 has similar spectroscopic and structural properties as [CoIII(ADIT2)](PF6) (2). Complex 2 is a six-coordinate CoIII complex containing cis-thiolates and imine nitrogens, and has properties similar to the cobalt center of Co NHase. Substrate binding to 1 is reversible and temperature-dependent, allowing for the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of azide and thiocyanate binding and the rates of ligand dissociation. Azide and thiocyanate bind trans to a thiolate, and with similar entropies and enthalpies (thiocyanate: ΔH = −7.5 ± 1.1 kcal/mol, ΔS = −17.2 ± 3.2 eu; azide: ΔH = −6.5 ± 1.0 kcal/mol, ΔS = −12.6 ± 2.4 eu). The rates of azide and thiocyanate displacement from the metal center are also comparable to one another (kd = (7.22 ± 0.04) × 10−1 s−1 for thiocyanate and kd = 2.14 ± 0.50) × 10−2 s−1 for azide), and are considerably faster than one would expect for a low-spin d6 six-coordinate CoIII complex. These rates are comparable to those of an analogous Fe(III) complex, demonstrating that Co(III) and Fe(III) react at comparable rates when in this ligand environment. This study therefore indicates that ligand displacement from a low-spin CoIII center in a ligand environment that resembles NHase is not prohibitivly slow so as to disallow catalytic action in nonredox active cobalt metalloenzymes. PMID:11456548

  17. Molecular dissociation in dilute gas

    SciTech Connect

    Renfrow, S.N.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. |

    1999-06-01

    The charge state distributions (CSD) produced during molecular dissociation are important to both Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) and the ion implantation industry. The CSD of 1.3{endash}1.7 MeV SiN{sup +}, SiMg{sup +}, SiMn{sup +}, and SiZn{sup +} molecules have been measured for elements that do not form atomic negative ions (N, Mg, Mn, and Zn) using a NEC Tandem Pelletron accelerator. The molecules were produced in a Cs sputter negative ion source, accelerated, magnetically analyzed, and then passed through an N{sub 2} gas cell. The neutral and charged breakups where analyzed using an electrostatic deflector and measured with particle detectors. Equilibrium CSD were determined and comparisons made between molecular and atomic ion data. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. The Dissociative Recombination of OH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical quantum chemical calculations of the cross sections and rates for the dissociative recombination of the upsilon = 0 level of the ground state of OH(+) show that recombination occurs primarily along the 2 (2)Pi diabatic route. The products are 0((1)D) and a hot H atom with 6.1 eV kinetic energy. The coupling to the resonances is very small and the indirect recombination mechanism plays only a minor role. The recommended value for the rate coefficient is (6.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(exp -9)x (T(e)/1300)(exp -0.48) cu.cm/s for 10 less than T(e) less than 1000 K.

  19. Dissociative recombination of highly symmetric polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Nicolas; Orel, Ann E; Greene, Chris H; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

    2012-01-13

    A general first-principles theory of dissociative recombination is developed for highly symmetric molecular ions and applied to H(3)O(+) and CH(3)(+), which play an important role in astrophysical, combustion, and laboratory plasma environments. The theoretical cross sections obtained for the dissociative recombination of the two ions are in good agreement with existing experimental data from storage ring experiments. PMID:22324682

  20. A Hierarchical Process-Dissociation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Lu, Jun; Morey, Richard D.; Sun, Dongchu; Speckman, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    In fitting the process-dissociation model (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) to observed data, researchers aggregate outcomes across participant, items, or both. T. Curran and D. L. Hintzman (1995) demonstrated how biases from aggregation may lead to artifactual support for the model. The authors develop a hierarchical process-dissociation model that does not…

  1. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  2. Dissociative depression among women in the community.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs

    2013-01-01

    This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders. PMID:23796173

  3. Dissociation in hysteria and hypnosis: evidence from cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bell, Vaughan; Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W; Deeley, Quinton

    2011-03-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot proposed the radical hypothesis that similar brain processes were responsible for the unexplained neurological symptoms of 'hysteria', now typically diagnosed as 'conversion disorder' or 'dissociative (conversion) disorder', and the temporary effects of hypnosis. While this idea has been largely ignored, recent cognitive neuroscience studies indicate that (i) hypnotisability traits are associated with a tendency to develop dissociative symptoms in the sensorimotor domain; (ii) dissociative symptoms can be modelled with suggestions in highly hypnotisable subjects; and (iii) hypnotic phenomena engage brain processes similar to those seen in patients with symptoms of hysteria. One clear theme to emerge from the findings is that 'symptom' presentation, whether clinically diagnosed or simulated using hypnosis, is associated with increases in prefrontal cortex activity suggesting that intervention by the executive system in both automatic and voluntary cognitive processing is common to both hysteria and hypnosis. Nevertheless, while the recent literature provides some compelling leads into the understanding of these phenomena, the field still lacks well controlled systematically designed studies to give a clear insight into the neurocognitive processes underlying dissociation in both hysteria and hypnosis. The aim of this review is to provide an agenda for future research. PMID:20884677

  4. Recent developments in the theory of dissociation

    PubMed Central

    SPITZER, CARSTEN; BARNOW, SVEN; FREYBERGER, HARALD J; GRABE, HANS JOERGEN

    2006-01-01

    Although the construct of dissociation was introduced into psychiatry at the end of the 19th century by Pierre Janet, the term still lacks a coherent conceptualization, which is partially reflected by differences in the classification of dissociative and conversion disorders in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Given the clinical significance of dissociative psychopathology in numerous clinical conditions, it is very valuable that various efforts have been made to refine and to specify current conceptualizations in recent years. The most promising and convincing approaches converge in subdividing dissociation into qualitatively different types, i.e. pathological versus non-pathological dissociation, and "detachment" versus "compartmentalization". We review these concepts and discuss their scientific and clinical potential as well as their limitations. PMID:16946940

  5. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  6. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  7. A comparative analysis of 2D and 3D CAD for calcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Conant, Emily F.

    2015-03-01

    Many medical centers offer digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and 2D digital mammography acquired under the same compression (i.e., "Combo" examination) for screening. This paper compares a conventional 2D CAD algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® CAD v9.4) for calcification detection against a prototype 3D algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® 3D Calc CAD v1.0). Due to the newness of DBT, the development of this 3D CAD algorithm is ongoing, and it is currently not FDA-approved in the United States. For this study, DBT screening cases with suspicious calcifications were identified retrospectively at the University of Pennsylvania. An expert radiologist (E.F.C.) reviewed images with both 2D and DBT CAD marks, and compared the marks to biopsy results. Control cases with one-year negative follow-up were also studied; these cases either possess clearly benign calcifications or lacked calcifications. To allow the user to alter the sensitivity for cancer detection, an operating point is assigned to each CAD mark. As expected from conventional 2D CAD, increasing the operating point in 3D CAD increases sensitivity and reduces specificity. Additionally, we showed that some cancers are occult to 2D CAD at all operating points. By contrast, 3D CAD allows for detection of some cancers that are missed on 2D CAD. We also demonstrated that some non-cancerous CAD marks in 3D are not present at analogous locations in the 2D image. Hence, there are additional marks when using both 2D and 3D CAD in combination, leading to lower specificity than with conventional 2D CAD alone.

  8. AutoCAD discipline layering convention. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, B.L.

    1995-05-17

    This document is a user`s guide to establishing layering standards for drawing development. Uniform layering standards are established to exchange of AutoCAD datasets between organizations and companies. Consistency in the layering conventions assists the user through logical separation and identification of drawing data. This allows the user to view and plot related aspects of a drawing separately or in combination. The use of color and Linetype by layer is the preferred layering convention method, however to accommodate specific needs, colors and linetypes can also be assigned on an entity basis. New drawing setup files (also identified in AutoCAD documentation as Prototype drawings) use this layering convention to establish discipline drawing layers that are routinely used. Additions, deletions or revisions to the layering conventions are encourage.

  9. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  10. Integration of a CAD System Into an MDO Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Langley has developed a heterogeneous distributed computing environment, called the Framework for Inter-disciplinary Design Optimization, or FIDO. Its purpose has been to demonstrate framework technical feasibility and usefulness for optimizing the preliminary design of complex systems and to provide a working environment for testing optimization schemes. Its initial implementation has been for a simplified model of preliminary design of a high-speed civil transport. Upgrades being considered for the FIDO system include a more complete geometry description, required by high-fidelity aerodynamics and structures codes and based on a commercial Computer Aided Design (CAD) system. This report presents the philosophy behind some of the decisions that have shaped the FIDO system and gives a brief case study of the problems and successes encountered in integrating a CAD system into the FEDO framework.

  11. Impact of CAD-deficiency in flax on biogas production.

    PubMed

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Szperlik, Jakub; Dymińska, Lucyna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and the reduction in our fossil fuel reservoir have forced humanity to look for new means of energy production. Agricultural waste remains a large source for biofuel and bioenergy production. Flax shives are a waste product obtained during the processing of flax fibers. We investigated the possibility of using low-lignin flax shives for biogas production, specifically by assessing the impact of CAD deficiency on the biochemical and structural properties of shives. The study used genetically modified flax plants with a silenced CAD gene, which encodes the key enzyme for lignin synthesis. Reducing the lignin content modified cellulose crystallinity, improved flax shive fermentation and optimized biogas production. Chemical pretreatment of the shive biomass further increased biogas production efficiency. PMID:26178244

  12. Molecular mechanism of the dual activity of 4EGI-1: Dissociating eIF4G from eIF4E but stabilizing the binding of unphosphorylated 4E-BP1

    PubMed Central

    Sekiyama, Naotaka; Arthanari, Haribabu; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Rodriguez-Mias, Ricard A.; Wagner, Gerhard; Léger-Abraham, Mélissa

    2015-01-01

    The eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) is a phosphorylation-dependent regulator of protein synthesis. The nonphosphorylated or minimally phosphorylated form binds translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), preventing binding of eIF4G and the recruitment of the small ribosomal subunit. Signaling events stimulate serial phosphorylation of 4E-BP, primarily by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) at residues T37/T46, followed by T70 and S65. Hyperphosphorylated 4E-BP dissociates from eIF4E, allowing eIF4E to interact with eIF4G and translation initiation to resume. Because overexpression of eIF4E is linked to cellular transformation, 4E-BP is a tumor suppressor, and up-regulation of its activity is a goal of interest for cancer therapy. A recently discovered small molecule, eIF4E/eIF4G interaction inhibitor 1 (4EGI-1), disrupts the eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and promotes binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E. Structures of 14- to 16-residue 4E-BP fragments bound to eIF4E contain the eIF4E consensus binding motif, 54YXXXXLΦ60 (motif 1) but lack known phosphorylation sites. We report here a 2.1-Å crystal structure of mouse eIF4E in complex with m7GTP and with a fragment of human 4E-BP1, extended C-terminally from the consensus-binding motif (4E-BP150–84). The extension, which includes a proline-turn-helix segment (motif 2) followed by a loop of irregular structure, reveals the location of two phosphorylation sites (S65 and T70). Our major finding is that the C-terminal extension (motif 3) is critical to 4E-BP1–mediated cell cycle arrest and that it partially overlaps with the binding site of 4EGI-1. The binding of 4E-BP1 and 4EGI-1 to eIF4E is therefore not mutually exclusive, and both ligands contribute to shift the equilibrium toward the inhibition of translation initiation. PMID:26170285

  13. Group technology methods for integrated CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propen, M.; Jacko, J.

    1984-10-01

    The use of a single product definition and comprehensive database are key factors in integrating CAD and CAM. This paper describes one approach for investigating the scope of developing a full scale Group Technology (GT) system. The prototype GT system discussed required the integration of a decision logic processor, relational database, and design/drafting system, and demonstrated a generative process planning system for a family of gas turbine engine components.

  14. Integrated CAD/CAM: Problems, prognosis, and role of IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilson, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Major technology problems impede the development and evolution of totally integrated interactive CAD/CAM systems. IPAD is playing an important role in the identification of these problems and is contributing significantly to their solution. It is the purpose of this presentation to examine some of these issues, look at the prognosis of obtaining effective solutions, and point up some of the past and expected contributions of IPAD to this technology.

  15. Complete denture fabrication supported by CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Timea; Gallus, Korbinian; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-05-01

    The inclusion of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication facilitates the procedures. The presented workflow for complete denture fabrication combines conventional and digitally supported treatment steps for improving dental care. With the presented technique, the registration of the occlusal plane, the determination of the ideal lip support, and the verification of the maxillomandibular relationship record are considered. PMID:26774323

  16. Ovulation leads women to perceive sexy cads as good dads.

    PubMed

    Durante, Kristina M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Cantú, Stephanie M; Li, Norman P

    2012-08-01

    Why do some women pursue relationships with men who are attractive, dominant, and charming but who do not want to be in relationships--the prototypical sexy cad? Previous research shows that women have an increased desire for such men when they are ovulating, but it is unclear why ovulating women would think it is wise to pursue men who may be unfaithful and could desert them. Using both college-age and community-based samples, in 3 studies we show that ovulating women perceive charismatic and physically attractive men, but not reliable and nice men, as more committed partners and more devoted future fathers. Ovulating women perceive that sexy cads would be good fathers to their own children but not to the children of other women. This ovulatory-induced perceptual shift is driven by women who experienced early onset of puberty. Taken together, the current research identifies a novel proximate reason why ovulating women pursue relationships with sexy cads, complementing existing research that identifies the ultimate, evolutionary reasons for this behavior. PMID:22582900

  17. Use of Existing CAD Models for Radiation Shielding Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Barzilla, J. E.; Wilson, P.; Davis, A.; Zachman, J.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of a radiation exposure analysis depends not only on the accuracy of the underlying particle transport code, but also on the accuracy of the geometric representations of both the vehicle used as radiation shielding mass and the phantom representation of the human form. The current NASA/Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) process to determine crew radiation exposure in a vehicle design incorporates both output from an analytic High Z and Energy Particle Transport (HZETRN) code and the properties (i.e., material thicknesses) of a previously processed drawing. This geometry pre-process can be time-consuming, and the results are less accurate than those determined using a Monte Carlo-based particle transport code. The current work aims to improve this process. Although several Monte Carlo programs (FLUKA, Geant4) are readily available, most use an internal geometry engine. The lack of an interface with the standard CAD formats used by the vehicle designers limits the ability of the user to communicate complex geometries. Translation of native CAD drawings into a format readable by these transport programs is time consuming and prone to error. The Direct Accelerated Geometry -United (DAGU) project is intended to provide an interface between the native vehicle or phantom CAD geometry and multiple particle transport codes to minimize problem setup, computing time and analysis error.

  18. A CAD system based on spherical dual representations

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.W.; Paripati, P.K.; Wright, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) systems typically have many different functions: drafting, two-dimensional modeling, three-dimensional modeling, finite element analysis, and fit and tolerancing of parts. The authors report on the construction of a CAD system based on shape representation ideas used in the vision community to determine the shape of an object from its image. In the long term, they propose to construct a combined CAD and sensing system based on the same underlying object models. Considerable advantages follow from building a model-driven sensor fusion system that uses a common geometric model. In a manufacturing environment, for example, a library of objects can be built up and its models used in a vision and touch sensing system integrated into an automated assembly line to discriminate between objects and determine orientation and distance. If such a system could be made robust and highly reliable, then some of the most difficult problems that plague attempts to create a fully flexible automated environment would be solved.

  19. Centerline-based colon segmentation for CAD of CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näppi, Janne; Frimmel, Hans; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-01

    We developed a fast centerline-based segmentation (CBS) algorithm for the extraction of colon in computer-aided detection (CAD) for CT colonography (CTC). CBS calculates local centerpoints along thresholded components of abdominal air, and connects the centerpoints iteratively to yield a colon centerline. A thick region encompassing the colonic wall is extracted by use of region-growing around the centerline. The resulting colonic wall is employed in our CAD scheme for the detection of polyps, in which polyps are detected within the wall by use of volumetric shape features. False-positive detections are reduced by use of a Bayesian neural network. The colon extraction accuracy of CBS was evaluated by use of 38 clinical CTC scans representing various preparation conditions. On average, CBS covered more than 96% of the visible region of colon with less than 1% extracolonic components in the extracted region. The polyp detection performance of the CAD scheme was evaluated by use of 121 clinical cases with 42 colonoscopy-confirmed polyps 5-25 mm. At a 93% by-polyp detection sensitivity for polyps >=5 mm, a leave-one-patient-out evaluation yielded 1.4 false-positive polyp detections per CT scan.

  20. CO dissociation on Ni: The effect of steps and of nickel carbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Lytken, Ole; Nielsen, Jane H.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    The dissociation of CO was investigated on a stepped Ni(14 13 13) crystal. The experiments show that the monoatomic steps completely dominate the dissociation of CO on the nickel surface. The activation energy for dissociation of CO along the steps is measured at 500 K to be 150 kJ/mol in the pressure range 1-7 × 10 -6 mbar CO. Poisoning the steps by preadsorbing 0.05 ML sulfur, the dissociation rate was reduced by more than a factor of 50 clearly providing evidence for the step activity. Furthermore, by deliberately adding remote amounts of nickel carbonyl (0.25%) to the CO gas, it is shown that the dissociation probability of CO is increased by a factor of 60 compared to when using a purified CO gas. This clearly demonstrates the importance of avoiding nickel carbonyl when CO dissociation is studied. CO dissociation is important because it is believed to be the rate limiting step in methanation and in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  1. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Görg, Nora; Dyer, Anne; Steil, Regina; Lyssenko, Lisa; Winter, Dorina; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. Objective The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (DBT-PTSD). We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement. Methods We present a hypothesis-driven post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy in patients with PTSD after CSA. Regression analyses relating pre–post improvements in the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to dissociation were applied to the women who participated in the active treatment arm (DBT-PTSD). Multivariate models accounting for major confounders were used to relate improvements in both the CAPS and the PDS to (1) state dissociation as assessed after each treatment session and (2) trait dissociation as assessed at baseline. Results State dissociation during psychotherapy sessions predicted improvement after DBT-PTSD: patients with low state dissociation during treatment had a higher chance to show substantial improvement. This relation consistently emerged across subgroups of PTSD patients with and without borderline personality disorder. The operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference as improvement was not significantly predicted from trait dissociation. Conclusions Dissociation during treatment sessions may reduce success with trauma-focused therapies such as DBT-PTSD. Accordingly, clinical studies aimed at improving ways to address dissociation are needed. Highlights of the article The article investigates whether state

  2. Cadmium-hazard mapping using a general linear regression model (Irr-Cad) for rapid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Robert W; Noble, Andrew D; Pongsakul, P; Sukreeyapongse, O; Chinabut, N

    2009-02-01

    (W)). The use of primary fields as the basis for Irr-Cad is also an important practical consideration due to their inherent ease of identification and vital role in the classification of fields in terms of Field Order(IS). The inclusion of mean field order soil pH (1:5(water)) to the Irr-Cad model accounted for over 79% of the variation in mean Field Order bio-available (DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable) soil Cd. Rice is the staple food of countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (includes Vietnam, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand and Yunnan Province, China). These countries also have actively and historically mined Zn, Pb, and Cu deposits where Cd is likely to be a potential hazard if un-controlled discharge/runoff enters areas of rice cultivation. As such, it is envisaged that the Irr-Cad model could be applied for Cd hazard assessment and effectively form the basis of intervention options and policy decisions to protect public health, livelihoods, and export security. PMID:18311588

  3. From state dissociation to status dissociatus.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Bhatia, Kailash P; Liguori, Rocco; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The states of being are conventionally defined by the simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological and autonomic descriptors. State dissociation disorders are due to the intrusion of features typical of a different state into an ongoing state. Disorders related to these conditions are classified according to the ongoing main state and comprise: 1) Dissociation from prevailing wakefulness as seen in hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis 2) Dissociation from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as seen in REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming and 3) Dissociation from NREM sleep as seen in the disorders of arousal. The extreme expression of states dissociation is characterized by the asynchronous occurrence of the various components of the different states that prevents the recognition of any state of being. This condition has been named status dissociatus. According to the underlying disorders/diseases and to their severity, among status dissociatus we may recognize disorders in which such an extreme dissociation occurs only at night time or intermittently (i.e., autoimmune encephalopathies, narcolepsy type 1 and IgLON5 parasomnia), and others in which it occurs nearly continuously with complete loss of any conventionally defined state of being, and of the circadian pattern (agrypnia excitata). Here, we render a comprehensive review of all diseases/disorders associated with state dissociation and status dissociatus and propose a critical classification of this complex scenario. PMID:26431902

  4. Theory of dissociative tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensmark, Jens; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the dissociative tunneling ionization process. Analytic expressions for the nuclear kinetic energy distribution of the ionization rates are derived. A particularly simple expression for the spectrum is found by using the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation in conjunction with the reflection principle. These spectra are compared to exact non-BO ab initio spectra obtained through model calculations with a quantum mechanical treatment of both the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. In the regime where the BO approximation is applicable, imaging of the BO nuclear wave function is demonstrated to be possible through reverse use of the reflection principle, when accounting appropriately for the electronic ionization rate. A qualitative difference between the exact and BO wave functions in the asymptotic region of large electronic distances is shown. Additionally, the behavior of the wave function across the turning line is seen to be reminiscent of light refraction. For weak fields, where the BO approximation does not apply, the weak-field asymptotic theory describes the spectrum accurately.

  5. A method for assurance of image integrity in CAD-PACS integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng

    2007-03-01

    Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis (CAD) can greatly assist in the clinical decision making process, and therefore, has drawn tremendous research efforts. However, integrating independent CAD workstation results with the clinical diagnostic workflow still remains challenging. We have presented a CAD-PACS integration toolkit that complies with DICOM standard and IHE profiles. One major issue in CAD-PACS integration is the security of the images used in CAD post-processing and the corresponding CAD result images. In this paper, we present a method for assuring the integrity of both DICOM images used in CAD post-processing and the CAD image results that are in BMP or JPEG format. The method is evaluated in a PACS simulator that simulates clinical PACS workflow. It can also be applied to multiple CAD applications that are integrated with the PACS simulator. The successful development and evaluation of this method will provide a useful approach for assuring image integrity of the CAD-PACS integration in clinical diagnosis.

  6. Dissociative Ionization of Pyridine by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher; Huo, Winifred; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the damage of biomolecules by electrons, a process important in radiation damage, we undertake a study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of pyridine (C5H5N) from the low-lying ionization channels. The methodology used is the same as in the benzene study. While no experimental DI data are available, we compare the dissociation products from our calculations with the dissociative photoionization measurements of Tixier et al. using dipole (e, e(+) ion) coincidence spectroscopy. Comparisons with the DI of benzene is also made so as to understand the difference in DI between a heterocyclic and an aromatic molecule.

  7. Dissociation of Natural and Artificial Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misyura, S. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Present work deals with natural and artificial methane hydrate dissociation. The heating of the powder produced due to the temperature difference between the external air and the powder. The dissociation rate was determined by gravimetric method. The range of the partial self-preservation for the natural hydrate is significantly longer than for the artificial one and moved to higher temperatures. The destruction of the natural sample is slower than the artificial one. The time-averaged dissociation rate for the artificial sample is equal to 1,25 %/s and for the natural hydrate corresponds to 0,59 %/s.

  8. Products of Dissociative Recombination in the Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosby, Philip

    1996-01-01

    SRI International undertook a novel experimental measurement of the product states formed by dissociative ro-combination (DR) of C2(+), NO(+), and N2(+) as a function of both electron energy and reactant ion vibrational level. For these measurements we used a recently developed experimental technique for measuring dissociation product distributions that allows both the branching ratios to be accurately determined and the electronic and ro-vibrational state composition of the reactant ions to be specified. DR is the dominant electron loss mechanism in all regions of the ionosphere. In this process, electron attachment to the molecular ion produces an unstable neutral molecule that rapidly dissociates.

  9. Wavepacket theory of collisional dissociation in molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kulander, K.

    1980-01-01

    An explicit integration scheme is used to solve the time dependent Schroedinger equation for wavepackets which model collisions in the collinear H + H/sub 2/ system. A realistic LEPS-type potential energy surface is used. Collision energies considered are above the dissociation threshold and probabilities for collision induced dissociation are reported. Also quantum mechanical state-to-state transition probabilities are generated. These results are compared to extensive classical trajectory calculations performed on this same system. The time evolution of the wavepacket densities is studied to understand the dynamics of the collinear collisional dissociation process.

  10. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  11. Differences between the internal energy depositions induced by collisional activation and by electron transfer of W(CO){sub 6}{sup 2+} ions on collision with Ar and K targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Shigeo; Kitaguchi, Akihiro; Kameoka, Satoko; Toyoda, Michisato; Ichihara, Toshio

    2006-06-14

    Doubly charged tungsten hexacarbonyl W(CO){sub 6}{sup 2+} ions were made to collide with Ar and K targets to give singly and doubly charged positive ions by collision-induced dissociation (CID). The resulting ions were analyzed and detected by using a spherical electrostatic analyzer. Whereas the doubly charged fragment ions resulting from collisional activation (CA) were dominant with the Ar target, singly charged fragment ions resulting from electron transfer were dominant with the K target. The internal energy deposition in collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) evaluated with the Ar target was broad and decreased with increasing internal energy. The predominant peaks observed with the K target were associated with singly charged W(CO){sub 2}{sup +} and W(CO){sub 3}{sup +} ions: these ions were not the result of CA, but arose from dissociation induced by electron transfer (DIET). The internal energy deposition resulting from the electron transfer was very narrow and centered at a particular energy, 7.8 eV below the energy level of the W(CO){sub 6}{sup 2+} ion. This narrow internal energy distribution was explained in terms of electron transfer by Landau-Zener [Z. Phys. Soviet 2, 46 (1932); Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 137, 646 (1952)] potential crossing at a separation of 5.9x10{sup -8} cm between a W(CO){sub 6}{sup 2+} ion and a K atom, and the coulombic repulsion between singly charged ions in the exit channel. A large cross section of 1.1x10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} was estimated for electron capture of the doubly charged W(CO){sub 6}{sup 2+} ion from the alkali metal target, whose ionization energy is very low. The term ''collision-induced dissociation,'' taken literally, includes all dissociation processes induced by collision, and therefore encompasses both CAD and DIET processes in the present work. Although the terms CID and CAD have been defined similarly, we would like to propose that they should not be used interchangeably, on the basis that there are

  12. How low can you go? Minimum energy pathways for O2 dissociation on Pt(111).

    PubMed

    McEwen, J-S; Bray, J M; Wu, C; Schneider, W F

    2012-12-28

    Many DFT studies of O(2) dissociation on Pt(111) give conflicting information on preferred paths and final states. Here we report large p(4 × 4) unit cell minimum energy pathway evaluations and compare O(2) adsorption and dissociated states on Pt(111). Calculations reveal how the pathways for O(2) dissociation starting from top-fcc-bridge, top-hcp-bridge, and top-bridge-top sites are interconnected. They also provide a direct reaction pathway for the dissociation of an O(2) molecule from a top-fcc-bridge into an hcp and an fcc site, which is consistent with low temperature scanning tunneling microscope experiments. Such a pathway is shown to be considerably perturbed by the presence of co-adsorbed oxygen atoms. We quantify the coverage dependence through the construction of a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationship relating the O(2) dissociation activation energies to the binding energies of the dissociated O atoms. We also show that all pathways starting from a top-fcc-bridge site give the smallest barriers for O(2) dissociation. PMID:23093349

  13. Dissociative identity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Aydemir, Ertugrul H; Oguz, Oya

    2006-06-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by rubbing of skin blisters and denial of self-infliction. Dissociation may be comorbid with self-injurious behavior. A background of emotional disturbances during formative years and in later life often results in feelings of isolation and insecurity, which can lead to dissociation as a primary defense mechanism used to overcome traumatic events. In this case report, we describe a female patient with dermatitis artefacta associated with dissociative identity disorder. The patient was a 14-year-old girl. Multiple large, deep ulcerations with unnatural shapes were seen on her left forearm. The ulcerations were thought to be self-inflicted. Psychiatric examination revealed that she had a different identity, and inflicted the lesions when this was assumed. This case leads us to suggest that patients with dermatitis artefacta might have comorbid dissociative experiences, which cannot be identified easily. PMID:16796649

  14. Collision-induced gas phase dissociation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1990-01-01

    The Landau-Zener theory of reactive cross sections was applied to diatomic molecules dissociating from a ladder of vibrational states. The result predicts a dissociation rate that is quite well duplicated by an Arrhenius function having a preexponential temperature dependence of about T(sub -1/2), at least for inert collision partners. This relation fits experimental data reasonably well. The theory is then used to calculate the effect of vibrational nonequilibrium on dissociation rate. For Morse oscillators, the results are about the same as given by Hammerling, Kivel, and Teare in their analytic approximation for harmonic oscillators, though at very high temperature a correction for the partition function limit is included. The empirical correction for vibration nonequilibrium proposed by Park, which is a convenient algorithm for CFD calculations, is modified to prevent a drastic underestimation of dissociation rates that occurs with this method when vibrational temperature is much smaller than the kinetic temperature of the gas.

  15. Research Reports: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in bizarre or dangerous behavior. Hallucinogens such as LSD, psilocybin, peyote, DMT, and ayahuasca cause emotions to ... Take Hallucinogenic or Dissociative Drugs? How Do Hallucinogens (LSD, Psilocybin, Peyote, DMT, and Ayahuasca) Affect the Brain ...

  16. Dissociation energy of molecules in dense gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A general approach is presented for calculating the reduction of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules immersed in a dense (n = less than 10 exp 22/cu cm) gas of molecules and atoms. The dissociation energy of a molecule in a dense gas differs from that of the molecule in vacuum because the intermolecular forces change the intramolecular dynamics of the molecule, and, consequently, the energy of the molecular bond.

  17. Gridgen`s synergistic implementation of CAD and grid geometry modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbrenner, J.P.; Chawner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The concept of dual-use CAD and grid data was implemented in Gridgen. A common data format was developed; point, curve, and surface creation capabilities that are applicable to both grid and model geometry were developed and implemented; geometry modification utilities applicable to both grid and model geometry were developed and implemented; and these capabilities were demonstrated through the repair and idealization of a real-world geometry. The results show that by using a common toolkit for CAD and grid geometry, programming effort is reduced, users can repair CAD without access to a CAD system, and grids could be generated using many of the powerful functions available within CAD systems without the CAD overhead.

  18. CAD data exchange with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.L.

    1994-10-01

    This document has been developed to provide guidance in the interchange of electronic CAD data with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is not meant to be as comprehensive as the existing standards and specifications, but to provide a minimum set of practices that will enhance the success of the CAD data exchange. It is now a Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Field Office requirement that Architect-Engineering (A-E) firms prepare all new drawings using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) system that is compatible with the Facility Manager`s (FM) CAD system. For Oak Ridge facilities, the CAD system used for facility design by the FM, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is Intregraph. The format for interchange of CAD data for Oak Ridge facilities will be the Intergraph MicroStation/IGDS format.

  19. Dissociative Ionization of Benzene by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred; Dateo, Christopher; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of benzene from the low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion and DI is treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For the unimolecular dissociation step, we study the steepest descent reaction path to the minimum of the ion potential energy surface. The path is used to analyze the probability of unimolecular dissociation and to determine the product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of the productions are compared with the result dissociative photoionization measurements of Feng et al. The partial oscillator strengths from Feng et al. are then used in the iBED cross section calculations.

  20. Collision induced dissociation of alpha hydroxy acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandu, Mary L.; Grubbs, Thomas; Kater, Marcus; Desaire, Heather

    2006-03-01

    Alpha hydroxy acids typically dissociate in tandem mass spectrometric experiments to produce product ions representing a neutral loss of 46 Da (CH2O2) in negative ion mode. Although it is widely accepted that the carboxylate group is lost in the dissociation process, the origin of the remaining two hydrogens is unclear. The current study utilizes an alpha hydroxy acid chemical library and deuterium labeling experiments to identify the origin of the two hydrogens lost during dissociation. Secondly, this study investigates the lower m/z region of the CID spectrum, a region previously unexplored, to aid in characterizing the dissociation mechanism. Further experiments testing the energy requirements and time parameters of the dissociation also are consistent with criteria previously defined for ion-neutral complex formation. In addition to describing the mechanism for the loss of CH2O2, we have conducted experiments that demonstrate the important chemical features of molecules that can prevent alpha hydroxy acids from undergoing the loss of 46 Da. By understanding the chemical composition of the 46 Da loss, the dissociation mechanism responsible for the loss, and the factors that hinder this mechanistic pathway, chemical information about alpha hydroxy acids can be obtained from their CID data.

  1. Unimolecular dissociation of cyclopentadiene and indene

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, W.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Bersohn, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The dissociation of hydrogen atoms from the methylene group of cyclopentadiene (CP) and indene (ID) excited with a 193 nm photon has been studied by hydrogen atom laser induced fluorescence. The rate of dissociation of IND was 7.4{times}10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} but that of CP was too fast to measure. The ratio of H atoms to D atoms generated from 5-deuteriocyclopentadiene (5-dCP) was 3.91{plus minus}0.46. Rice--Ramsberger--Kassel--Marcus theory was used to calculate the rates of dissociation of CP and 5-dCP. The quantum yield for dissociating H atoms from CP was 0.85{plus minus}0.07. The ejected H atoms have a Maxwell velocity distribution with temperatures which are equal to the vibrational temperatures, 3690 and 2479 K for CP and IND, respectively. The most important result of the work is this confirmation of an earlier finding on a different set of molecules that the translational temperature of the fragments {ital after} the dissociation is equal to the vibrational temperature {ital before} the dissociation. This is explained by the assumption that the motion of the fast, light hydrogen atom is partly decoupled from that of the heavier, slower atoms.

  2. The evaluation of multi-structure, multi-atlas pelvic anatomy features in a prostate MR lymphography CAD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijs, M.; Debats, O.; Huisman, H.

    2015-03-01

    In prostate cancer, the detection of metastatic lymph nodes indicates progression from localized disease to metastasized cancer. The detection of positive lymph nodes is, however, a complex and time consuming task for experienced radiologists. Assistance of a two-stage Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system in MR Lymphography (MRL) is not yet feasible due to the large number of false positives in the first stage of the system. By introducing a multi-structure, multi-atlas segmentation, using an affine transformation followed by a B-spline transformation for registration, the organ location is given by a mean density probability map. The atlas segmentation is semi-automatically drawn with ITK-SNAP, using Active Contour Segmentation. Each anatomic structure is identified by a label number. Registration is performed using Elastix, using Mutual Information and an Adaptive Stochastic Gradient optimization. The dataset consists of the MRL scans of ten patients, with lymph nodes manually annotated in consensus by two expert readers. The feature map of the CAD system consists of the Multi-Atlas and various other features (e.g. Normalized Intensity and multi-scale Blobness). The voxel-based Gentleboost classifier is evaluated using ROC analysis with cross validation. We show in a set of 10 studies that adding multi-structure, multi-atlas anatomical structure likelihood features improves the quality of the lymph node voxel likelihood map. Multiple structure anatomy maps may thus make MRL CAD more feasible.

  3. Simulation of gas hydrate dissociation caused by repeated tectonic uplift events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Shusaku; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Nagakubo, Sadao

    2016-05-01

    Gas hydrate dissociation by tectonic uplift is often used to explain geologic and geophysical phenomena, such as hydrate accumulation probably caused by hydrate recycling and the occurrence of double bottom-simulating reflectors in tectonically active areas. However, little is known of gas hydrate dissociation resulting from tectonic uplift. This study investigates gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments caused by repeated tectonic uplift events using a numerical model incorporating the latent heat of gas hydrate dissociation. The simulations showed that tectonic uplift causes upward movement of some depth interval of hydrate-bearing sediment immediately above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) to the gas hydrate instability zone because the sediment initially maintains its temperature: in that interval, gas hydrate dissociates while absorbing heat; consequently, the temperature of the interval decreases to that of the hydrate stability boundary at that depth. Until the next uplift event, endothermic gas hydrate dissociation proceeds at the BGHS using heat mainly supplied from the sediment around the BGHS, lowering the temperature of that sediment. The cumulative effects of these two endothermic gas hydrate dissociations caused by repeated uplift events lower the sediment temperature around the BGHS, suggesting that in a marine area in which sediment with a highly concentrated hydrate-bearing layer just above the BGHS has been frequently uplifted, the endothermic gas hydrate dissociation produces a gradual decrease in thermal gradient from the seafloor to the BGHS. Sensitivity analysis for model parameters showed that water depth, amount of uplift, gas hydrate saturation, and basal heat flow strongly influence the gas hydrate dissociation rate and sediment temperature around the BGHS.

  4. CAD framework concept for the design of integrated microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andras; Rencz, Marta; Szekely, Vladimir; Karam, Jean Michel; Courtois, Bernard; Hofmann, K.; Glesner, M.

    1995-09-01

    Besides foundry facilities, CAD-tools are also required to move microsystems from research prototypes to an industrial market. CAD tools of microelectronics have been developed for more than 20 years, both in the field of circuit design tools and in the area of TCAD tools. Usually a microelectronics engineer is involved only in one side of the design: either he deals with application design or he participates in the manufacturing design, but not in both. This is one point that is to be followed in case of microsystem design, if higher level of design productivity is expected. Another point is that certain standards should also be established in case of microsystem design too: based on selected technologies a set of standard components should be predesigned and collected in a standard component library. This component library should be available from within microsystem design frameworks which might well be established by a proper configuration and extension of existing IC design frameworks. A very important point is the development of proper simulation models of microsystem components that are based on e.g. the FEM results of the predesign phase and are provided in the form of an analog VHDL script. After detailing the above mentioned considerations we discuss the development work concerning a microsystem design framework. Its goal is to provide a set of powerful tools for microsystem application designers. This future framework will be composed of different industry-standard CAD programs and different design databases which in certain cases are completed with special interfaces and special purpose simulation tools.

  5. An image database management system for conducting CAD research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas; Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2007-03-01

    The development of image databases for CAD research is not a trivial task. The collection and management of images and their related metadata from multiple sources is a time-consuming but necessary process. By standardizing and centralizing the methods in which these data are maintained, one can generate subsets of a larger database that match the specific criteria needed for a particular research project in a quick and efficient manner. A research-oriented management system of this type is highly desirable in a multi-modality CAD research environment. An online, webbased database system for the storage and management of research-specific medical image metadata was designed for use with four modalities of breast imaging: screen-film mammography, full-field digital mammography, breast ultrasound and breast MRI. The system was designed to consolidate data from multiple clinical sources and provide the user with the ability to anonymize the data. Input concerning the type of data to be stored as well as desired searchable parameters was solicited from researchers in each modality. The backbone of the database was created using MySQL. A robust and easy-to-use interface for entering, removing, modifying and searching information in the database was created using HTML and PHP. This standardized system can be accessed using any modern web-browsing software and is fundamental for our various research projects on computer-aided detection, diagnosis, cancer risk assessment, multimodality lesion assessment, and prognosis. Our CAD database system stores large amounts of research-related metadata and successfully generates subsets of cases that match the user's desired search criteria.

  6. Ionization and dissociation dynamics of molecules in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei

    The fast advancement of ultrashort-pulsed high-intensity laser technology allows for generating an electric field equivalent to the Coulomb field inside an atom or a molecule (e.g., EC=5.14x109 V/cm at the 1s orbit radius a0=0.0529 nm of the hydrogen atom, which corresponds to an intensity of 3.54x1016 W/cm2). Atoms and molecules exposed in such a field will easily be ionized, as the external field is strong enough to remove the electrons from the core. This is usually referred to "strong field". Strong fields provide a new tool for studying the interaction of atoms and molecules with light in the nonlinear nonperturbative regime. During the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the strong field science. Today, most phenomena involving atoms in strong fields have been relatively well understood by the single-active-electron (SAE) approximation. However, the interpretation of these responses in molecules has encountered great difficulties. Not like atoms that only undergo excitation and ionization, various dissociation channels accompanying excitation and ionization can occur in molecules during the laser pulse interaction, which imparts further complexity to the study of molecules in strong fields. Previous studies have shown that molecules can behave significantly different from rare gas atoms in phenomena as simple as single and double ionization. Molecular dissociation following ionization also presents challenges in strong fields compared to what we have learned in the weak-field regime. This dissertation focuses on experimental studies on ionization and dissociation of some commonly-seen small molecules in strong laser fields. Previous work of molecules in strong fields will be briefly reviewed, particularly on some open questions about multiple dissociation channels, nonsequential double ionization, enhanced ionization and molecular alignment. The identification of various molecular dissociation channels by recent experimental technical

  7. A Proposal of CAD Mechanism for Design Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomaguchi, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    In this paper, we propose a fundamental idea of a new CAD mechanism to facilitate design knowledge management. This mechanism encourages a designer to externalise his/her knowledge during a design process and facilitates sharing and reuse of such externalised design knowledge in later stages. We also describe the implementation of this idea called DDMS (Design Documentation Management System). DDMS works as a front end to KIEF (Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework), which we have been developing. We also illustrate an example of machining tool design to demonstrate the features of DDMS.

  8. Getting into CAD at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Scoggins, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Project Department was producing approximately 1100 new drawings and 3000 revisions per year, with a force of 30 draftsmen. Design services for the Plant were increasing due to changing programs, obsolescent equipment replacements and added security requirements. This increasing workload greatly increased the engineering drafting backlog. At the same time, many draftsmen were approaching retirement age and were to be replaced with unskilled draftsman trainees. A proposal was presented to management to acquire a Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) system to produce instrument and electrical drawings which comprised 30% of the work load.

  9. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  10. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  11. Interfacing WIPL-D with Mechanical CAD Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliznyuk, Nataliya; Janic, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    of almost any popular CAD format, e.g. IGES, Parasolid, DXF, ACIS etc. The solid models are processed (simplified) and meshed in GiD(R), and then converted into WIPL-D Pro input file by simple Fortran or Matlab code. This algorithm allows the user to control the mesh of imported geometry, and to assign electric pperties to metalic and dielectric surfaces. Implementation of the algorithm is demonstrated by examples obtained from the NASA Discovery mission, Phoenix Lander 2008. Results for radiation pattern of Phoenix Lander UHF relay antenna with effect of Martian surface, both simulated in WIPL-D Pro and measured, are shown for comparison.

  12. HDL subfractions and very early CAD: novel findings from untreated patients in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Xu, Rui-Xia; Li, Sha; Li, Xiao-Lin; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Gao, Ying; Qing, Ping; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young individuals is a rare disease associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of specific lipoprotein subfractions in very young CAD patients (≤45 years) is not established yet. A total of 734 consecutive CAD subjects were enrolled and were classified as very early (n = 81, ≤45), early (n = 304, male: 45-55; female: 45-65), and late (n = 349, male: >55; female: >65) groups. Meanwhile, a group of non-CAD subjects were also enrolled as controls (n = 56, ≤45). The lipoprotein separation was performed using Lipoprint System. As a result, the very early CAD patients have lower large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction and higher small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction (p < 0.05). Although body mass index was inversely related to large HDL subfraction, overweight did not influence its association with very early CAD. In the logistic regression analysis, large HDL was inversely [OR 95% CI: 0.872 (0.825-0.922)] while small LDL was positively [1.038 (1.008-1.069)] related to very early CAD. However, after adjusting potential confounders, the association was only significant for large HDL [0.899 (0.848-0.954)]. This study firstly demonstrated that large HDL subfraction was negatively related to very early CAD suggestive of its important role in very early CAD incidence. PMID:27489174

  13. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  14. HDL subfractions and very early CAD: novel findings from untreated patients in a Chinese cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Xu, Rui-Xia; Li, Sha; Li, Xiao-Lin; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Gao, Ying; Qing, Ping; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young individuals is a rare disease associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of specific lipoprotein subfractions in very young CAD patients (≤45 years) is not established yet. A total of 734 consecutive CAD subjects were enrolled and were classified as very early (n = 81, ≤45), early (n = 304, male: 45–55; female: 45–65), and late (n = 349, male: >55; female: >65) groups. Meanwhile, a group of non-CAD subjects were also enrolled as controls (n = 56, ≤45). The lipoprotein separation was performed using Lipoprint System. As a result, the very early CAD patients have lower large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction and higher small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction (p < 0.05). Although body mass index was inversely related to large HDL subfraction, overweight did not influence its association with very early CAD. In the logistic regression analysis, large HDL was inversely [OR 95% CI: 0.872 (0.825–0.922)] while small LDL was positively [1.038 (1.008–1.069)] related to very early CAD. However, after adjusting potential confounders, the association was only significant for large HDL [0.899 (0.848–0.954)]. This study firstly demonstrated that large HDL subfraction was negatively related to very early CAD suggestive of its important role in very early CAD incidence. PMID:27489174

  15. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kneafsey, Timothy J; Rees, Emily V L

    2011-06-30

    Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and/or production of methane (CH(4)) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH(4) and CO(2) hydrate (CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrates. We prepared CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH(4)-CO(2) compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO(2) concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO(2) than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO(2) in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO(2) concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO(2). The dissociation enthalpy of the CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH(4)-CO(2) mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH(4) hydrate and CO(2) hydrate, increasing with the CO(2) fraction in the hydrate phase. PMID:21604671

  16. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  17. Dissociation in borderline personality disorder: Disturbed cognitive and emotional inhibition and its neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Winter, Dorina; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Lis, Stefanie; Chiu, Chui-De; Lanius, Ruth A; Schriner, Friederike; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-09-30

    Evidence is heterogeneous regarding whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display disturbed emotional inhibition in the emotional Stroop task. Previous findings suggest that state dissociation may influence cognitive inhibition of task-irrelevant material, particularly with negative content. Our aim was to examine performance in an emotional Stroop task including negative, neutral, and positive words in BPD patients and healthy controls during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In advance, half of the BPD patients underwent a dissociation induction using script-driven imagery. BPD patients without dissociation induction showed behavioural performance comparable to that of healthy controls but displayed stronger neural responses, especially to positive stimuli, in the superior temporal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. BPD patients with dissociation induction showed overall slower and less accurate responses as well as increased reaction times for negative versus neutral words compared with BPD patients without dissociation induction. Moreover, they showed comparatively decreased neuronal activity in the fusiform gyrus and parietal cortices independent of valence, but elevated activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus in response to negative versus neutral words. In conclusion, experimentally induced dissociation in BPD was associated with inefficient cognitive inhibition, particularly of negative stimuli, in the emotional Stroop task. PMID:26254542

  18. Molecular origins of the slow streptavidin-biotin dissociation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chilkoti, A.; Stayton, P.S.

    1995-11-01

    The association of streptavidin and avidin with biotin is among the strongest known noncovalent protein-ligand interactions (K{sub a} nearly equals 2.5 x 10{sup 13} M{sup -1}) and is controlled by an exceptionally slow off-rate. We have used this model system to elucidate the role of aromatic tryptophan side-chain binding contacts in the dissociation reaction coordinate and relatedly to the construction of the activation barrier and to the structure of the transition state. We have also conducted a transition state analysis of the temperature-dependent dissociation kinetics, which along with the independent estimation of the equilibrium biotin-binding free energies and enthalpies has provided thermodynamic profiles defining the enthalpic, entropic, and free energy barriers to dissociation for the mutants relative to wild-type streptavidin. The increased biotin off-rate for W79F, which contacts the valeric acid moiety of biotin, and for W120F, which partially caps the bicyclic ring system, is caused largely by free energy destabilization of the ligand-bound ground state relative to wild-type streptavidin. W79F displays an increased equilibrium binding enthalpy relative to wild-type, and thus streptavidin sacrifices potential binding enthalpy to minimize the entropic costs of biotin immobilization. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Interoperation of heterogeneous CAD tools in Ptolemy II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Wu, Bicheng; Liu, Xiaojun; Lee, Edward A.

    1999-03-01

    Typical complex systems that involve microsensors and microactuators exhibit heterogeneity both at the implementation level and the problem level. For example, a system can be modeled using discrete events for digital circuits and SPICE-like analog descriptions for sensors. This heterogeneity exist not only in different implementation domains, but also at different level of abstraction. This naturally leads to a heterogeneous approach to system design that uses domain-specific models of computation (MoC) at various levels of abstractions to define a system, and leverages multiple CAD tools to do simulation, verification and synthesis. As the size and scope of the system increase, the integration becomes too difficult and unmanageable if different tools are coordinated using simple scripts. In addition, for MEMS devices and mixed-signal circuits, it is essential to integrate tools with different MoC to simulate the whole system. Ptolemy II, a heterogeneous system-level design tool, supports the interaction among different MoCs. This paper discusses heterogeneous CAD tool interoperability in the Ptolemy II framework. The key is to understand the semantic interface and classify the tools by their MoC and their level of abstraction. Interfaces are designed for each domain so that the external tools can be easily wrapped. Then the interoperability of the tools becomes the interoperability of the semantics. Ptolemy II can act as the standard interface among different tools to achieve the overall design modeling. A micro-accelerometer with digital feedback is studied as an example.

  20. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the “Making Choices©” Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the “think aloud” interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Results Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Conclusions Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids. PMID:24521210

  1. Development of CAD prototype system for Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a CAD prototype system for Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease causes inflammation or ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. The number of patients of Crohn's disease is increasing in Japan. Symptoms of Crohn's disease include intestinal stenosis, longitudinal ulcers, and fistulae. Optical endoscope cannot pass through intestinal stenosis in some cases. We propose a new CAD system using abdominal fecal tagging CT images for efficient diagnosis of Crohn's disease. The system displays virtual unfolded (VU), virtual endoscopic, curved planar reconstruction, multi planar reconstruction, and outside views of both small and large intestines. To generate the VU views, we employ a small and large intestines extraction method followed by a simple electronic cleansing method. The intestine extraction is based on the region growing process, which uses a characteristic that tagged fluid neighbor air in the intestine. The electronic cleansing enables observation of intestinal wall under tagged fluid. We change the height of the VU views according to the perimeter of the intestine. In addition, we developed a method to enhance the longitudinal ulcer on views of the system. We enhance concave parts on the intestinal wall, which are caused by the longitudinal ulcer, based on local intensity structure analysis. We examined the small and the large intestines of eleven CT images by the proposed system. The VU views enabled efficient observation of the intestinal wall. The height change of the VU views helps finding intestinal stenosis on the VU views. The concave region enhancement made longitudinal ulcers clear on the views.

  2. CAD/CAM in the French automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezier, Pierre E.

    1990-08-01

    The French aircraft industry began paying attention to CAD/CAM before 1960, and the car builders soon followed suit, but their problem was somewhat different It can be said that, from the start, the aim was to obtain a complete description of the shape of the heet-metal parts , i.e. car body elements, and to use it to carry information throughout the entire process, fromstyling to inspection of stamped and assembled parts One of the first and foremost conditions was to adopt a mathemtical solution that could be easily understood and operated by designers, draughtsmen and machine-tool operators Consequently, the system should not be used to translate an already existing set of' drawings, but to directly express with figures and numbers the shape previously defined, be it scantly, by small or large scale sketches and 3D mockups Now, numerical data are carried from R.& D. division to those of Production Engineering and tool shops; it is compulsory, too, that the system be compatible with those of subcontractors and suppliers To get full advanta9e of CAD/CAM, it is often necessary to bring important and radical change in the functioning of R..& D. and Production of' the company , and sometimes to other divisions

  3. CAD/CAM software for an industrial laser manufacturing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen Boehlen, Ines; Fieret, Jim; Holmes, Andrew S.; Lee, Kin W.

    2003-07-01

    A facility for rapid prototyping of MEMS devices is crucial for the development of novel miniaturized components in all sectors of high-tech industry, e.g. telecommunications, information technology, micro-optics and aerospace. To overcome the disadvantages of existing techniques in terms of cost and flexibility, a new approach has been taken to provide a tool for rapid prototyping and small-scale production: Complex CAD/CAM software has been developed that automatically generates the tool paths according to a CAD drawing of the MEMS device. As laser ablation is a much more complicated process than mechanical machining, for which such software has already been in use for many years, the generation of these tool paths relies not only on geometric considerations, but also on a sophisticated simulation module taking into account various material and laser parameters and micro-effects. The following laser machining options have been implemented: cutting, hole drilling, slot cutting, 2D area clearing, pocketing and 2½D surface machining. Once the tool paths are available, a post processor translates this information into CNC commands that control a scanner head. This scanner head then guides the beam of a UV solid-state laser to machine the desired structure by direct laser ablation.

  4. Impurity profiling of ibandronate sodium by HPLC-CAD.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Oliver; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-10-10

    The modern bisphosphonate drug ibandronate sodium, a challenging candidate for impurity profiling, was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with corona charged aerosol detection (CAD). Separation was achieved on a mixed mode column combining hydrophobic C18 and strong anion exchange retention mechanisms using a mass spectrometer compatible volatile mobile phase consisting of trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile while gradient elution was applied. The method was validated following the ICH guideline Q2(R1) and found suitable for the assessment of ibandronate's related substances. The observed CAD-response for all identified impurities was linear (R(2)>0.995) over a small concentration range (0.05-0.25) and a quantification limit of at least 0.03% was found. Four batches of two different manufacturers were tested by means of the method. None of the batches contained a single impurity above 0.05%. The major impurities of all batches were the synthesis by-products N-desmethyl- and N-despentyl ibandronate as well as N,N-dimethyl pamidronate. PMID:26092222

  5. Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf

    2002-05-01

    Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.

  6. Rotamers and Migration: Investigating the Dissociative Photoionization of Ethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Muller, Giel; Voronova, Krisztina; Sztáray, Bálint; Meloni, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The unimolecular dissociation of energy-selected ethylenediamine cations was studied by threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy (TPEPICO) in the photon energy range of 8.60-12.50 eV. Modeling the breakdown diagram and time-of-flight distributions with rigid activated complex RRKM theory yielded 0 K appearance energies for eight dissociation channels, leading to NH2CHCH2(+)(•) at 9.120 ± 0.010 eV, CH3C(NH2)2(+) at 9.200 ± 0.012 eV, NH2CHCH3(+) at 9.34 ± 0.08 eV, CH2NH2(+) at 9.449 ± 0.025 eV, CH2NH3(+) at 9.8 ± 0.1 eV, c-C2H4NH2(+) at 10.1 ± 0.1 eV, CH3NHCHCH2(+) at 10.2 ± 0.1 eV, and the reappearance of CH2NH2(+) at 10.2 ± 0.1 eV. The CBS-QB3-calculated pathways highlighted the influence of intramolecular hydrogen attractions on the dissociation processes, presenting novel isomers and low-energy van der Waals intermediates that led to fragments in good agreement with experimental results. While most of the dissociation channels take place through reverse barriers, the 0 K heat of formation of (•)CH2NH2 was determined to be 147.6 ± 3.7 kJ mol(-1), in excellent agreement with literature, and the 0 K heat of formation of CH2NH3(+) at 844 ± 10 kJ mol(-1) is the first experimentally measured value available and is in good agreement with theory. PMID:27177327

  7. Dissociable Brain Mechanisms for Processing Social Exclusion and Rule Violation

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J.; McPartland, James C.; Mayes, Linda C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called “Cyberball” (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called “Cybershape”, in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation. PMID:20974272

  8. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-02-01

    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called "Cyberball" (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called "Cybershape," in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation. PMID:20974272

  9. Refractive index change in dissociating shocked benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    A calculation is made of the refractive index of a shocked solution of hydrocarbon species and spheroidal carbon particles that would be the dissociation products of benzene. The results is evaluated for benzene shocked to 15 GPa, both for an arbitrary endpoint distribution of products and reactant, and for a specific endpoint distribution suggested by a statistical-mechanical calculation. In the case of diamond particles, the refractive index is predicted to decrease by a small amount (from 1.96 to 1.75) as the dissociation proceeds. In the case of graphite particles of large oblateness, the refractive index could increase significantly through the dissociation (from 1.96 to 2.75 for infinitely oblate platelets). Thus the measurement of the time dependent refractive index through the dissociation of shocked benzene can indicate the morphology of the carbon particulates as well as the time scale for this reaction. We propose using the refractive index as a measure of completion of the dissociation reaction. This would allow a determination of the instantaneous amount of carbon in particulate form, information which is valuable in conjunction with Mie scattering experiments for example.

  10. Intrinsic disorder accelerates dissociation rather than association.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Koji; Ohnuki, Jun; Higo, Junichi; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) has distinct properties both physically and biologically: it often becomes folded when binding to the target and is frequently involved in signal transduction. The physical property seems to be compatible with the biological property where fast association and dissociation between IDP and the target are required. While fast association has been well studied, fueled by the fly-casting mechanism, the dissociation kinetics has received less attention. We here study how the intrinsic disorder affects the dissociation kinetics, as well as the association kinetics, paying attention to the interaction strength at the binding site (i.e., the quality of the "fly lure"). Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of the pKID-KIX system, a well-studied IDP system, shows that the association rate becomes larger as the disorder-inducing flexibility that was imparted to the model is increased, but the acceleration is marginal and turns into deceleration as the quality of the fly lure is worsened. In contrast, the dissociation rate is greatly enhanced as the disorder is increased, indicating that intrinsic disorder serves for rapid signal switching more effectively through dissociation than association. Proteins 2016; 84:1124-1133. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27122223

  11. Ion-induced dissociation dynamics of acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    De, Sankar; Rajput, Jyoti; Roy, A.; Safvan, C. P.; Ghosh, P. N.

    2008-02-15

    We report on the results of dissociation dynamics of multiple charged acetylene molecules formed in collision with 1.2 MeV Ar{sup 8+} projectiles. Using the coincidence map, we can separate out the different dissociation pathways between carbon and hydrogen ionic fragments as well as complete two-body breakup events. From the measured slopes of the coincidence islands for carbon atomic fragments and theoretical values determined from the charge and momentum distribution of the correlated particles, we observe a diatom like behavior of the C-C charged complex during dissociation of multiply charged C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. We conclude that this behavior in breakup dynamics is a signature of sequentiality in dissociation of this multiply charged molecular species. The shape and orientation of the islands give further information about the momentum balance in the fragmentation process of two- or many-body dissociation pathways. Kinetic energy release of different breakup channels are reported here and compared with values calculated from the pure Coulomb explosion model.

  12. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G. [Pleasanton, CA

    1978-08-29

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, .sup.235 UF.sub.6 is separated from a UF.sub.6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into .sup.235 UF.sub.5 - and F.

  13. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-08-29

    Disclosed is a method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, [sup 235]UF[sub 6] is separated from a UF[sub 6] mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into [sup 235]UF[sub 5]- and F. 2 figs.

  14. The cell adhesion molecule DdCAD-1 regulates morphogenesis through differential spatiotemporal expression in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Zhu, Yingyue; Manoharan, Kumararaaj; Yang, Chunxia; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2011-06-01

    During development of Dictyostelium, multiple cell types are formed and undergo a coordinated series of morphogenetic movements guided by their adhesive properties and other cellular factors. DdCAD-1 is a unique homophilic cell adhesion molecule encoded by the cadA gene. It is synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane by contractile vacuoles. In chimeras developed on soil plates, DdCAD-1-expressing cells showed greater propensity to develop into spores than did cadA-null cells. When development was performed on non-nutrient agar, wild-type cells sorted from the cadA-null cells and moved to the anterior zone. They differentiated mostly into stalk cells and eventually died, whereas the cadA-null cells survived as spores. To assess the role of DdCAD-1 in this novel behavior of wild-type and mutant cells, cadA-null cells were rescued by the ectopic expression of DdCAD-1-GFP. Morphological studies have revealed major spatiotemporal changes in the subcellular distribution of DdCAD-1 during development. Whereas DdCAD-1 became internalized in most cells in the post-aggregation stages, it was prominent in the contact regions of anterior cells. Cell sorting was also restored in cadA(-) slugs by exogenous recombinant DdCAD-1. Remarkably, DdCAD-1 remained on the surface of anterior cells, whereas it was internalized in the posterior cells. Additionally, DdCAD-1-expressing cells migrated slower than cadA(-) cells and sorted to the anterior region of chimeric slugs. These results show that DdCAD-1 influences the sorting behavior of cells in slugs by its differential distribution on the prestalk and prespore cells. PMID:21561987

  15. Extracellular ATP dissociates nonmuscle myosin from P2X(7) complex: this dissociation regulates P2X(7) pore formation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Rathsam, Catherine; Stokes, Leanne; McGeachie, Andrew B; Wiley, James S

    2009-08-01

    The P2X(7) receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that is highly expressed on monocyte-macrophages and that mediates the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular ATP. Dilation of the P2X(7) channel and massive K(+) efflux follows initial channel opening, but the mechanism of secondary pore formation is unclear. The proteins associated with P2X(7) were isolated by using anti-P2X(7) monoclonal antibody-coated Dynabeads from both interferon-gamma plus LPS-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells and P2X(7)-transfected HEK-293 cells. Two nonmuscle myosins, NMMHC-IIA and myosin Va, were found to associate with P2X(7) in THP-1 cells and HEK-293 cells, respectively. Activation of the P2X(7) receptor by ATP caused dissociation of P2X(7) from nonmuscle myosin in both cell types. The interaction of P2X(7) and NMMHC-IIA molecules was confirmed by fluorescent life time measurements and fluorescent resonance of energy transfer-based time-resolved flow cytometry assay. Reducing the expression of NMMHC-IIA or myosin Va by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA led to a significant increase of P2X(7) pore function without any increase in surface expression or ion channel function of P2X(7) receptors. S-l-blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NMMHC-IIA ATPase, inhibited both ATP-induced ethidium uptake and ATP-induced dissociation of P2X(7)-NMMHC-IIA complex. In both cell types nonmuscle myosin closely interacts with P2X(7) and is dissociated from the complex by extracellular ATP. Dissociation of this anchoring protein may be required for the transition of P2X(7) channel to a pore. PMID:19494237

  16. Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2015-09-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. PMID:24700583

  17. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  18. The Use of a Parametric Feature Based CAD System to Teach Introductory Engineering Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Steven K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a parametric-feature-based computer-aided design (CAD) System, AutoCAD Designer, in teaching concepts of three dimensional geometrical modeling and design. Allows engineering graphics to go beyond the role of documentation and communication and allows an engineer to actually build a virtual prototype of a design idea and…

  19. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  20. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  1. Computer Use and CAD in Assisting Schools in the Creation of Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Robert H.; Essex, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) programs are powerful drafting tools, but are also able to assist with many other facility planning functions. Describes the hardware, software, and the learning process that led to understanding the CAD software at the University of Alabama. (MLF)

  2. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  3. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM. 872.3661 Section 872.3661 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of Dental Restorations; Guidance for Industry and FDA.” For...

  4. Teaching an Introductory CAD Course with the System-Engineering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Y. C.

    1985-01-01

    Advocates that introductory computer aided design (CAD) courses be incorporated into engineering curricula in close conjunction with the system dynamics course. Block diagram manipulation/Bode analysis and finite elementary analysis are used as examples to illustrate the interdisciplinary nature of CAD teaching. (JN)

  5. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  7. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Julie P; Dillon, Kristy S; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-02-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called "dissociative disorders," including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report "dissociative" symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan. PMID:23556139

  8. Swirling flow of a dissociated gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfram, W. R., Jr.; Walker, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    Most physical applications of the swirling flow, defined as a vortex superimposed on an axial flow in the nozzle, involve high temperatures and the possibility of real gas effects. The generalized one-dimensional swirling flow in a converging-diverging nozzle is analyzed for equilibrium and frozen dissociation using the ideal dissociating gas model. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the major effects and to compare with results obtained for a perfect gas with constant ratio of specific heats. It is found that, even in the case of real gases, perfect gas calculations can give a good estimate of the reduction in mass flow due to swirl.

  9. Dissociation of ultracold molecules with Feshbach resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Stephan; Volz, Thomas; Rempe, Gerhard

    2004-09-01

    Ultracold molecules are associated from an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate by ramping a magnetic field across a Feshbach resonance. The reverse ramp dissociates the molecules. The kinetic energy released in the dissociation process is used to measure the widths of four Feshbach resonances in {sup 87}Rb. This method to determine the width works remarkably well for narrow resonances even in the presence of significant magnetic-field noise. In addition, a quasimonoenergetic atomic wave is created by jumping the magnetic field across the Feshbach resonance.

  10. Dissociation and recombination in an inhomogeneous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuščer, Ivan

    1991-09-01

    The system of Boltzmann equations of Ludwig and Heil for a dissociating gas mixture is reviewed and reformulated in terms of differential cross sections. For the purpose of Monte Carlo simulations, collision models of the type of Borgnakke and Larsen are proposed. In case of short-lived transient flows of molecular gases and at not too high temperatures, simulation of scattering collisions is expected to suffice; the distribution function of the dissociated particles can be evaluated afterwards by integration, and recombination can be ignored.

  11. Quantum Zeno control of coherent dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Khripkov, C.; Vardi, A.

    2011-08-15

    We study the effect of dephasing on the coherent dissociation dynamics of an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that when phase-noise intensity is strong with respect to the inverse correlation time of the stimulated process, dissociation is suppressed via a Bose enhanced quantum Zeno effect. This is complementary to the quantum Zeno control of phase-diffusion in a bimodal condensate by symmetric noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 220403 (2008)] in that the controlled process here is phase formation and the required decoherence mechanism for its suppression is purely phase noise.

  12. "Trip-Sitting" in the Black Hole: A Netnographic Study of Dissociation and Indigenous Harm Reduction.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Evelyn; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-01-01

    An array of dissociative novel psychoactive substances, including "methoxetamine," "3-MeO-PCP," and "methoxphenidine," have emerged as substitutes for the illicit substance "ketamine." A netographic research methodology aimed to describe online, dissociative novel psychoactive substance users' perceptions of risk, informed knowledge around use, and indigenous harm-reduction practices as advocated within online drug fora, so as to provide credible information which can be used to inform public online health education and drug prevention. Systematic Internet searches were performed using the terms "synthetic dissociative," "methoxetamine," "methoxphenidine," "diphenidine," "3-MeO-PCP," "4-MeO-PCP," "2-MDP," and "dissociative research chemical" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 3,476 forum threads with removal of duplicates and exclusion criteria, 90 user trip reports and 115 fora threads from seven drug fora websites were analyzed by conducting content analysis. Five themes emerged with 43 categories. The findings illustrated how forum activity within the cyber drug user community disseminated and exchanged "communal folk pharmacology" relating to the use of dissociative novel psychoactive substances. Further research and consistent monitoring of Internet drug fora are advised to explore variations in harm-reduction tactics throughout dissociative NPS populations, and to consider how existing harm-reduction initiatives are influencing these hard-to-reach groups. PMID:27430659

  13. Tandem crossed-beam collision-induced dissociation of CO{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Shukla, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Angle and energy resolved CID provides valuable information about energy transfer reaction mechanisms and role of excited states in activation and dissociation steps. Recent studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that electronic excitation is a prominent mechanism in low and moderate collision energy CID of certain molecules (acetone, nitromethane) but others (enol acetone, methane, propane, methyl nitrite) dissociate predominantly on the ground state hypersurface. A current focus of this research is angle and energy resolved CID studies of triatomic cations whose potential surfaces are relatively well described. They are a logical bridge between diatomics (which dissociate in a single vibration) and more complex polyatomics (which generally follow RRKM/QET delayed dissociation mechanisms). In the accompanying poster the authors develop a prompt dissociation kinematics model and demonstrate that CID of CS{sub 2}{sup +} is well described by this model. Although the structure and energetics of CO{sub 2}{sup +} are similar to CS{sub 2}{sup +}, the authors find rather different dissociation dynamics for the analogous O{sup +} and CO{sup +} products.

  14. Contemporary dental CAD/CAM: modern chairside/lab applications and the future of computerized dentistry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neal

    2014-01-01

    CAD/CAM in dentistry has been particularly useful in enabling the fabrication of custom, patient-specific restorations and prosthetics without the need for traditional analog dental laboratory methods. While the optimal use of CAD/CAM technology must be determined on a case-by-case basis, it is important for clinicians to recognize the opportunity to utilize computerized technology in patient therapy to provide more highly efficient, accurate, and potentially ideal outcomes. This article will discuss and evaluate the state-ofthe- art of CAD/CAM dentistry for both chairside and laboratory-based solutions. Current options for CAD/CAM technology in the treatment of patients for comprehensive dentistry along with the most common uses of chairside and laboratory-based applications will be explored. The discussion will also identify recent and future trends in CAD/CAM applications in dentistry. PMID:25454527

  15. Utilization of a global data grid repository in CAD assessment of carotid wall thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Marco A.; Lee, Jasper; Zhou, Zheng; Pilon, Paulo E.; Lage, Silvia G.

    2007-03-01

    A CAD method of calculating wall thickness of carotid vessels addresses the time-consuming issue of using B-mode ultrasound as well as inter- and intra-observer variability in results. Upon selection of a region-of-interest and filtering of a series of ultrasound carotid images, the CAD is able to measure the geometry of the lumen and plaque surfaces using a least-square fitting of the active contours during systole and diastole. To evaluate the approach, ultrasound image sequences from 30 patients were submitted to the procedure. The images were stored on an international data grid repository that consists of three international sites: Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) Laboratory at University of Southern California, USA; InCor (Heart Institute) at Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. The three chosen sites are connected with high speed international networks including the Internet2, and the Brazilian National Research and Education Network (RNP2). The Data Grid was used to store, backup, and share the ultrasound images and analysis results, which provided a large-scale and a virtual data system. In order to study the variability between the automatic and manual definition of artery boundaries, the pooled mean and the standard deviation for the difference between measurements of lumen diameter were computed. The coefficient of variation and correlation were also calculated. For the studied population the difference between manual and automatic measurement of the lumen diameter (LD) and intima-media-thickness (IMT) were 0.12 +/-0.10 and 0.09+/- 0.06, respectively.

  16. CAD system for automatic analysis of CT perfusion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachaj, T.; Ogiela, M. R.

    2011-03-01

    In this article, authors present novel algorithms developed for the computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system for analysis of dynamic brain perfusion, computer tomography (CT) maps, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Those methods perform both quantitative analysis [detection and measurement and description with brain anatomy atlas (AA) of potential asymmetries/lesions] and qualitative analysis (semantic interpretation of visualized symptoms). The semantic interpretation (decision about type of lesion: ischemic/hemorrhagic, is the brain tissue at risk of infraction or not) of visualized symptoms is done by, so-called, cognitive inference processes allowing for reasoning on character of pathological regions based on specialist image knowledge. The whole system is implemented in.NET platform (C# programming language) and can be used on any standard PC computer with.NET framework installed.

  17. CAD and CAE Analysis for Siphon Jet Toilet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhua; Xiu, Guoji; Tan, Haishu

    The high precision 3D laser scanner with the dual CCD technology was used to measure the original design sample of a siphon jet toilet. The digital toilet model was constructed from the cloud data measured with the curve and surface fitting technology and the CAD/CAE systems. The Realizable k - ɛ double equation model of the turbulence viscosity coefficient method and the VOF multiphase flow model were used to simulate the flushing flow in the toilet digital model. Through simulating and analyzing the distribution of the flushing flow's total pressure, the flow speed at the toilet-basin surface and the siphoning bent tube, the toilet performance can be evaluated efficiently and conveniently. The method of "establishing digital model, flushing flow simulating, performances evaluating, function shape modifying" would provide a high efficiency approach to develop new water-saving toilets.

  18. CAD-based radiation protection and shielding in space

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the not-too-distant future, astronauts will begin living and working on space station Freedom (SSF), eventually establishing a permanent presence in space. Beyond Freedom, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has set its sights on returning to and eventually establishing outposts on the moon and Mars. Without appropriate methods of identifying protection deficiencies, spacecraft designers often overestimate or defer shielding solutions in both cases burdening the program. To avoid possible penalties such as increased mass, complexity, and cost, radiation analysis should be conducted as part of the preliminary design process. An innovative radiation assessment system combining computer-aided design (CAD) capabilities with established NASA transport codes has been developed permitting fast, accurate analysis of spacecraft. The use of this automated analytical tool the Boeing Radiation Exposure Model (Brem) is discussed in this paper, relative to spacecraft design and the optimization of radiation shielding. Results obtained from recently completed radiation analysis of space station Freedom are also discussed.

  19. Custom hip prostheses by integrating CAD and casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pedro F.; Leal, Nuno; Neto, Rui J.; Lino, F. Jorge; Reis, Ana

    2012-09-01

    Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is a surgical intervention that is being achieving high rates of success, leaving room to research on long run durability, patient comfort and costs reduction. Even so, up to the present, little research has been done to improve the method of manufacturing customized prosthesis. The common customized prostheses are made by full machining. This document presents a different approach methodology which combines the study of medical images, through CAD (Computer Aided Design) software, SLadditive manufacturing, ceramic shell manufacture, precision foundry with Titanium alloys and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). The goal is to achieve the best comfort for the patient, stress distribution and the maximum lifetime of the prosthesis produced by this integrated methodology. The way to achieve this desiderate is to make custom hip prosthesis which are adapted to each patient needs and natural physiognomy. Not only the process is reliable, but also represents a cost reduction comparing to the conventional full machined custom hip prosthesis.

  20. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  1. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-11-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  2. CAD/CAM for MEMS and BioMEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Brian; Irwin, Bryan; Parkhill, Robert; Church, Kenneth H.; Nguyen, Michael N.; Kachurin, Anatoly; Warren, William L.

    2004-07-01

    Novel devices can be relatively simple in theory and modeling, but difficult and many times unfeasible to fabricate in a traditional cleanroom environment. We have developed a CAD/CAM tool capable of integrating multiple materials in the electronic, photonic, and biological regimes for applications in both MEMS and BioMEMS devices. Some materials are known and more fully characterized, such as thick film resistors or conductors, while other materials such as biodegradable scaffolding are new but showing promise to realize heterogenous tissue engineered constructs and drug delivery devices. The tool does not discriminate, but rather places these materials in specified locations with precision volumetric control, gently, conformally, and in 3-D. This paper will describe the enabling aspect of true 3-D maskless fabrication as well as describe multiple device structures and demonstrations.

  3. Carbon monoxide dissociative attachment and resonant dissociation by electron-impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporta, V.; Tennyson, J.; Celiberto, R.

    2016-02-01

    Low-energy dissociative electron attachment and resonant electron impact dissociation of CO molecule are considered. Ro-vibrationally resolved cross sections and rate coefficients for both the processes are calculated using an ab-initio model based on the low-lying \\text{X}{{}2}\\Pi resonance of CO-. Final results show that the cross sections increases very rapidly as a function of the ro-vibrational level; these cross sections should be useful for understanding kinetic dissociation of CO in strongly non-equilibrium plasmas.

  4. Dissociation dynamics of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, K; Shibuta, Y; Ohmura, S; Arifin, R; Shimojo, F

    2016-04-13

    The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed. PMID:26953616

  5. Dissociation dynamics of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, K.; Shibuta, Y.; Ohmura, S.; Arifin, R.; Shimojo, F.

    2016-04-01

    The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed.

  6. The Nature of the Dissociation Sites of Hydrogen Molecules on Ru(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Salmeron, Miquel; Rose, Franck; Tartakhanov, Mous; Fomin, Evgeni; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-03-12

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to study the dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} on Ru(001) near saturation coverage, when the number of residual hydrogen vacancies (i.e., unoccupied Ru sites) is small. We found that H{sub 2} dissociation takes place only on Ru sites where the metal atom is not bound to any H atom. Such active sites are formed when at least 3 H-vacancies aggregate by thermal diffusion. Sites formed by single H-vacancies or pairs of adjoining vacancies were found to be unreactive toward H{sub 2}. As a similar phenomenon was found previously on Pd(111), the present results indicate that the active sites for H2 dissociation share a common characteristic among catalytically active transition metals.

  7. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Resin cements with corresponding primer and bonding systems were used to lute the FPDs: Compolute/EBS multi (3M Espe, Germany), Panavia F/ED (Kuraray, Japan), Variolink 2/Syntac classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) and RelyX Unicem/without treatment (3M Espe, Germany). Aualloy FPDs (BioPontostar, Bego, Germany) were cemented with RelyX Unicem and Harvard (Harvard, Germany) as the control. Marginal adaptation was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy using replica specimen before and after artificial aging. After aging, microleakage tests were performed with fuchsine solution. The interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-FPD were examined. Results At the interfaces (cement-tooth and cement-FPD), the systems showed a 95% or higher perfect margin before and after aging. Only Variolink2/Syntac had a marginal adaptation, lower than a 70% perfect margin. Generally, the fuchsine penetration was below 20%, only BioPontstar/Harvard andLava/Variolink2 showed penetration results between 80% and 100%. Conclusion The success of the adhesive cementation of zirconia FPDs depends on the cement system. Under the conditions of this study, zirconia FPDs showed good to sufficient marginal integrity in combination with Panavia/ED, Compolute/EBS and RelyX Unicem. PMID:19212494

  8. Art Therapy and Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how art therapy helped a woman address her identity and memory difficulties while she managed her daily activities. The process helped her validate traumatic events in her history and provided a starting point for addressing internal conflicts. The client's artwork helped the therapist learn about the client's unconscious states. (MKA)

  9. The H2 dissociation on the BN, AlN, BP and AlP nanotubes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Beheshtian, Javad; Soleymanabadi, Hamed; Kamfiroozi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Ali

    2012-06-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic feasibility of H(2) dissociation on the BN, AlN, BP and AlP zigzag nanotubes has been investigated theoretically by calculating the dissociation and activation energies. We determined the BN and AlP tubes to be inert toward H(2) dissociation, both thermodynamically and kinetically. The reactions are endothermic by 5.8 and 3 kcal mol(-1), exhibiting high activation energies of 38.8 and 30.6 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Our results indicated that H(2) dissociation is thermodynamically favorable on both PB and AlN nanotubes. However, in spite of the thermodynamic feasibility of H(2) dissociation on PB types, this process is kinetically unfavorable due to partly high activation energy. Generally, we concluded that among the four studied tubes, the AlN nanotube may be an appropriate model for H(2) dissociation process, from a thermodynamic and kinetic stand point. We also indicated that H(2) dissociation is not homolytic, rather it takes place via a heterolytic bond cleavage. In addition, a comparative study has been performed on the electrical and geometrical properties of the tubes. Our analysis showed that the electrical conductivity of tubes is as follows: BP>AlP>BN>AlN depending on how to combine the electron rich and electron poor atoms. PMID:21979405

  10. Kinetic ion thermometers for electron transfer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Robert; Tureček, František

    2015-02-19

    Peptide fragment ions of the z-type were used as kinetic ion thermometers to gauge the internal energy of peptide cation-radicals produced by electron transfer in the gas-phase. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD)-produced z2 ions containing the leucine residue, z2(Leu-Lys) and z2(Leu-Arg), were found to undergo spontaneous dissociation by loss of C3H7 that was monitored by time-resolved kinetic measurements on the time scale of the linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Kinetic modeling of the dissociations, including collisional cooling and product loss by neutralization, provided unimolecular rate constants for dissociation that were converted to the z ion internal energies using RRKM theory. The internal energy of z2(Leu-Lys) and z2(Leu-Arg) fragment ions was found to decrease with the increasing size of the precursor peptide ion, indicating vibrational energy partitioning between the ion and neutral fragments and ergodic behavior. The experimentally determined excitation in the peptide cation-radicals upon electron transfer (285-327 kJ mol(-1)) was found to be lower than that theoretically calculated from the reaction exothermicity. The reasons for this missing energy are discussed. PMID:25594857

  11. Double Dissociation between Reading and Spelling Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Landerl, Karin

    2009-01-01

    In two studies dissociations between reading and spelling skills were examined. Study 1 reports equally high prevalence rates for isolated deficits in reading (7%) or spelling (6%) in a representative sample (N = 2,029) of German-speaking elementary school children. In Study 2, children with isolated deficits were presented with the same words to…

  12. EVIDENCE FOR CO DISSOCIATION ON RHODIUM SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, D.G.; Dubois, L.H.; Sexton, B.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    Carbon monoxide adsorbs molecularly on rhodium surfaces at 300K, but if the rhodium samples are heated in the presence of carbon monoxide, there is evidence for carbon-oxygen bond breaking at step and/or defect sites. The effects of step and defect site density, subsurface oxygen concentration, and oxygen dissolution into the rhodium lattice on CO dissociation are discussed.

  13. A supervised 'lesion-enhancement' filter by use of a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenji

    2009-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has been an active area of study in medical image analysis. A filter for the enhancement of lesions plays an important role for improving the sensitivity and specificity in CAD schemes. The filter enhances objects similar to a model employed in the filter; e.g. a blob-enhancement filter based on the Hessian matrix enhances sphere-like objects. Actual lesions, however, often differ from a simple model; e.g. a lung nodule is generally modeled as a solid sphere, but there are nodules of various shapes and with internal inhomogeneities such as a nodule with spiculations and ground-glass opacity. Thus, conventional filters often fail to enhance actual lesions. Our purpose in this study was to develop a supervised filter for the enhancement of actual lesions (as opposed to a lesion model) by use of a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) in a CAD scheme for detection of lung nodules in CT. The MTANN filter was trained with actual nodules in CT images to enhance actual patterns of nodules. By use of the MTANN filter, the sensitivity and specificity of our CAD scheme were improved substantially. With a database of 69 lung cancers, nodule candidate detection by the MTANN filter achieved a 97% sensitivity with 6.7 false positives (FPs) per section, whereas nodule candidate detection by a difference-image technique achieved a 96% sensitivity with 19.3 FPs per section. Classification-MTANNs were applied for further reduction of the FPs. The classification-MTANNs removed 60% of the FPs with a loss of one true positive; thus, it achieved a 96% sensitivity with 2.7 FPs per section. Overall, with our CAD scheme based on the MTANN filter and classification-MTANNs, an 84% sensitivity with 0.5 FPs per section was achieved. First presented at the Seventh International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, San Diego, CA, USA, 11-13 December 2008.

  14. Experimental Dissociation of Methane Hydrates Through Depressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgfeldt, T.; Flemings, P. B.; Meyer, D.; You, K.

    2015-12-01

    We dissociated methane hydrates by stepwise depressurization. The initial hydrates were formed by injecting gas into a cylindrical sample of brine-saturated, coarse-grained sand at hydrate-stable conditions with the intention of reaching three-phase equilibrium. The sample was initially at 1°C with a pore pressure of 1775 psi and a salinity of 7 wt. % NaBr. The depressurization setup consisted of one pump filled with tap water attached to the confining fluid port and a second pump attached to the inlet port where the methane was injected. Depressurization was conducted over sixteen hours at a constant temperature of 1°C. The pore pressure was stepwise reduced from 1775 psi to atmospheric pressure by pulling known volumes of gas from the sample. After each extraction, we recorded the instantaneous and equilibrium pore pressure. 0.503 moles of methane were removed from the sample. The pore pressure decreased smoothly and nonlinearly with the cumulative gas withdrawn from the sample. We interpret that hydrate began to dissociate immediately with depressurization, and it continued to dissociate when the pressure decreased below the three-phase pressure for 1°C and 0 wt. % salinity. Two breaks in slope in the pressure vs. mass extracted data are bounded by smooth, nonlinear curves with differing slopes on either side. We attribute the breaks to dissociation of three zones of hydrate concentration. We created a box model to simulate the experimental behavior. For a 10% initial gas saturation (estimated from the hydrate formation experiment and based on mass conservation), an initial hydrate saturation of 55% is required to match the total methane extracted from the sample. Future experiments will be conducted over a longer timespan while monitoring hydrate dissociation with CT imaging throughout the process.

  15. Multiphoton dissociation of electrosprayed megadalton-sized DNA ions in a charge-detection mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Doussineau, Tristan; Paletto, Pierre; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry in combination with a linear electrostatic ion trap coupled to a continuous wavelength infrared CO2 laser has been used to study the multiphoton dissociation of DNA macromolecular ions. Samples, with masses ranging from 2.23 to 31.5 MDa, include single strand circular M13mp18, double strand circular M13mp18, and double strand linear LambdaPhage DNA fragments. Their activation energies for unimolecular dissociation were determined. Activation energy values slightly increase as a function of the molecular weight. The most important result is the difference between the fragmentations observed for hybridized double-strands and dimers of single strands. PMID:25348472

  16. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, T.H.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2011-02-15

    Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and/or production of methane (CH{sub 4}) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} hydrate (CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates. We prepared CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO{sub 2} than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO{sub 2} in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO{sub 2}. The dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH{sub 4} hydrate and CO{sub 2} hydrate, increasing with the CO{sub 2} fraction in the hydrate phase.

  17. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report “dissociative” symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan. PMID:23556139

  18. What contributes to predicting change in the treatment of dissociation: initial levels of dissociation, PTSD, or overall distress?

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Stadnik, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with dissociative disorders (DDs) suffer from high levels of dissociation as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general distress. No research has investigated how changes in dissociation relate to changes in other symptoms over the course of treatment in patients with DD. Using a prospective, naturalistic design, we collected reports of symptoms from a sample of therapists and their patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in the Treatment Outcome of Patients with Dissociative Disorders study. The patients completed surveys at intake (Time 1) into the study and at 30-month follow-up (Time 4). We found that dissociative symptoms, including amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption, at the initial assessment of the study ("initial") were related to initial levels of PTSD and general distress and that changes in dissociative symptoms were related to changes in PTSD and general distress. Initial dissociation was a significant predictor of change in dissociation at 30 months when we controlled for length of time for follow-up, length of time practicing therapy, and length of time treating dissociative patients. Our results suggest that a reduction in dissociative symptoms in DD patients is associated with reductions in the overall severity of dissociative, posttraumatic stress, and distress symptoms. PMID:23627481

  19. Probabilistic framework for reliability analysis of information-theoretic CAD systems in mammography.

    PubMed

    Habas, Piotr A; Zurada, Jacek M; Elmaghraby, Adel S; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a probabilistic framework for reliability analysis of information-theoretic computer-assisted detection (IT-CAD) systems in mammography. The study builds upon our previous work on a feature-based reliability analysis technique tailored to traditional CAD systems developed with a supervised learning scheme. The present study proposes a probabilistic framework to facilitate application of the reliability analysis technique for knowledge-based CAD systems that are not feature-based. The study was based on an information-theoretic CAD system developed for detection of masses in screening mammograms from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The experimental results reveal that the query-specific reliability estimate provided by the proposed probabilistic framework is an accurate predictor of CAD performance for the query case. It can also be successfully applied as a base for stratification of CAD predictions into clinically meaningful reliability groups (i.e., HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW). Based on a leave-one-out sampling scheme and ROC analysis, the study demonstrated that the diagnostic performance of the IT-CAD is significantly higher for cases with HIGH reliability (A(z) = 0.92 +/- 0.03) than for those stratified as MEDIUM (A(z) = 0.84 +/- 0.02) or LOW reliability predictions (A(z) = 0.78 +/- 0.02). PMID:17946741

  20. Cadherin Cad99C is regulated by Hedgehog signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Karin; Demontis, Fabio; Dahmann, Christian

    2005-03-01

    The subdivision of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc into anterior and posterior compartments requires a transcriptional response to Hedgehog signaling. However, the genes regulated by Hedgehog signal transduction that mediate the segregation of anterior and posterior cells have not been identified. Here, we molecularly characterize the previously predicted gene cad99C and show that it is regulated by Hedgehog signaling. Cad99C encodes a transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of approximately 184 kDa that contains 11 cadherin repeats in its extracellular domain and a conserved type I PDZ-binding site at its C-terminus. The levels of cad99C RNA and protein are low throughout the wing imaginal disc. However, in the pouch region, these levels are elevated in a strip of anterior cells along the A/P boundary where the Hedgehog signal is transduced. Ectopic expression of Hedgehog, or the Hedgehog-regulated transcription factor Cubitus interruptus, induces high-level expression of Cad99C. Conversely, blocking Hedgehog signal transduction by either inactivating Smoothened or Cubitus interruptus reduces high-level Cad99C expression. Finally, by analyzing mutant clones of cells, we show that Cad99C is not essential for cell segregation at the A/P boundary. We conclude that cad99C is a novel Hedgehog-regulated gene encoding a member of the cadherin superfamily in Drosophila. PMID:15708564