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Sample records for activated luciferase expression

  1. Avian retroviral expression of luciferase.

    PubMed

    Garber, E A; Rosenblum, C I; Chute, H T; Scheidel, L M; Chen, H

    1991-12-01

    Biologically active replication-competent (subgroups A, B, and C) and replication-defective Rous sarcoma virus-derived vectors containing the cDNA encoding firefly luciferase as a reporter gene were constructed. In these retroviral vectors, luciferase is expressed from a spliced subgenomic mRNA. A biologically active replication-defective UR2 virus-derived vector expressing the reporter gene as a gag-luciferase fusion protein from an unspliced genomic mRNA was also constructed. The luciferase reporter gene was used because it lacks homology with chicken genomic sequences and because a rapid and sensitive direct enzymatic assay is available to monitor luciferase expression in retrovirus-infected cells. The levels of luciferase expression in luciferase recombinant retrovirus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts are greater than 10(3) higher than that detected in uninfected cells or in cells infected with retroviral vectors carrying other genes. Endpoint dilution titration experiments demonstrated that one infected cell can be detected in a background of 10(3) uninfected cells. The vectors are stable in tissue culture and high level expression of the unselected luciferase reporter gene is maintained. The vectors were used to express luciferase in chicken embryos, demonstrating the potential utility of luciferase as a reporter in vivo.

  2. Biophysical characterization of highly active recombinant Gaussia luciferase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rathnayaka, Tharangani; Tawa, Minako; Sohya, Shihori; Yohda, Masafumi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the smallest bioluminescent protein (MW: 19.9 kDa), Gaussia luciferase (GLuc), has been isolated from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps and has attracted much attention as a reporter protein. However, preparation of large quantities of homogeneous natively folded recombinant GLuc appears to be difficult due to its ten cysteines. Here, we report the biophysical characterization of recombinant GLuc expressed using a novel Escherichia coli expression system based on a cold induced expression vector (pCold). Using this system, a large fraction of the protein was expressed in the soluble fraction. GLuc, purified exclusively from the supernatant using nickel affinity chromatography, yielded a large amount of pure GLuc with a native disulfide bond pattern (Soluble-GLuc). Soluble-GLuc had a strong bioluminescence activity and it retained 65% of its activity after 30 min incubation at 95 degrees C. Soluble-GLuc remained fully folded until 40 degrees C, as assessed by circular dichroism; and the thermal denaturation curve was S-shaped, indicating a cooperative transition, with a midpoint temperature of 56 degrees C. These results indicate that both the structure and bioluminescence activity of GLuc remain stable at high temperatures, and they strongly suggest GLuc's potential as a reporter protein. PMID:20452471

  3. Infection by bacterial pathogens expressing type III secretion decreases luciferase activity: ramifications for reporter gene studies.

    PubMed

    Savkovic, S D; Koutsouris, A; Wu, G; Hecht, G

    2000-09-01

    Pathogenic microbes influence gene regulation in eukaryotic hosts. Reporter gene studies can define the roles of promoter regulatory sequences. The effect of pathogenic bacteria on reporter genes has not been examined. The aim of this study was to identify which reporter genes are reliable in studies concerning host gene regulation by bacterial pathogens expressing type III secretory systems. Human intestinal epithelial cells, T84, Caco-2 and HT-29, were transfected with plasmids containing luciferase (luc), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) as reporter genes driven by the inducible interleukin-8 (IL-8) or constitutively active simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter. Cells were infected with enteropathogenic E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium, and the reporter activity was assessed. Luc activity significantly decreased following infection, regardless of the promoter. The activity of recombinant luc was nearly ablated by incubation with either EPEC or Salmonella in a cell-free system. Activity was partially preserved by protease inhibitors, and immunoblot analysis showed a decreased amount and molecular weight of recombinant luc, suggesting protein degradation. Neither beta-gal nor CAT activity was altered by infection. Disruption of type III secretion prevented the loss of luc activity. We conclude that CAT or beta-gal, but not luc, can be used as reliable reporter genes to assess the impact of pathogenic microbes, especially those expressing type III secretion on host cell gene regulation.

  4. Firefly luciferase gene: structure and expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    de Wet, J R; Wood, K V; DeLuca, M; Helinski, D R; Subramani, S

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the luciferase gene from the firefly Photinus pyralis was determined from the analysis of cDNA and genomic clones. The gene contains six introns, all less than 60 bases in length. The 5' end of the luciferase mRNA was determined by both S1 nuclease analysis and primer extension. Although the luciferase cDNA clone lacked the six N-terminal codons of the open reading frame, we were able to reconstruct the equivalent of a full-length cDNA using the genomic clone as a source of the missing 5' sequence. The full-length, intronless luciferase gene was inserted into mammalian expression vectors and introduced into monkey (CV-1) cells in which enzymatically active firefly luciferase was transiently expressed. In addition, cell lines stably expressing firefly luciferase were isolated. Deleting a portion of the 5'-untranslated region of the luciferase gene removed an upstream initiation (AUG) codon and resulted in a twofold increase in the level of luciferase expression. The ability of the full-length luciferase gene to activate cryptic or enhancerless promoters was also greatly reduced or eliminated by this 5' deletion. Assaying the expression of luciferase provides a rapid and inexpensive method for monitoring promoter activity. Depending on the instrumentation employed to detect luciferase activity, we estimate this assay to be from 30- to 1,000-fold more sensitive than assaying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression. Images PMID:3821727

  5. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-08-29

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development.

  6. Use Of Low Light Image Microscopy To Monitor Genetically Engineered Bacterial Luciferase Gene Expression In Living Cells And Gene Activation Throughout The Development Of A Transgenic Organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, W. H.; Escher, Alan P.; Baga, M.; O'Kane, Dennis J.; Wampler, John E.; Koncz, C.; Schell, John D.; Szalay, A. A.

    1989-12-01

    Procaryotic and eucaryotic expression vectors which contain a marker gene for selection of transformants linked to genes encoding bacterial luciferase for detection of promoter activated gene expression in vivo were used to transform the appropriate host organisms and drug resistant colonies, cells, or calli were obtained. Bacterial luciferase expression was measured by a luminescence assay for quantitative determination of promoter activation. The cellular localization of bacteria inside the host plant cell cytoplasm was achieved in a single infected plant cell based on the light emitting ability of the genetically engineered bacteria. In addition, the bacterial luciferase marker gene fusions were used to monitor cell type, tissue, and organ specific gene expression in transgenic plants in vivo. To monitor physiological changes during ontogeny of a transformed plant, low light video microscopy, aided by real time image processing techniques developed specifically to enhance extreme low light images, was successfully applied.

  7. Expression and stabilization of bacterial luciferase in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Stacey S.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2004-06-01

    Current mammalian bioreporters using either firefly luciferase (luc) or GFP constructs require lysis and/or exogenous excitation to evoke a measurable response. Consequently, these cells cannot serve as continuous, on-line monitoring devices for in vivo imaging. Bacterial luciferase, lux, produces a photonic reaction that is cyclic, resulting in autonomous signal generation without the requirement for exogenous substrates or external activation. Therefore, lux-based bioluminescent bioreporters are the only truly autonomous light-generating sensors in existence. Unfortunately, the bacterial lux system has not yet been efficiently expressed in mammalian cells. In this research, three approaches for optimal expression of the a and b subunits of the bacterial luciferase protein were compared and reporter signal stability was evaluated from stably transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Maximum light levels were obtained from cells expressing the luciferase subunits linked with an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Cells harboring this construct produced bioluminescence equaling 2.6 X 106 photons/sec compared to 7.2 X 104 photons/sec obtained from cells expressing the luciferase from a dual promoter vector and 3.5 X 104 photons/sec from a Lux fusion protein. Furthermore, the bioluminescence levels remained stable for more than forty cell passages (5 months) in the absence of antibiotic selection. After this time, bioluminescence signals dropped at a rate of approximately 5% per cell passage. These data indicate that mammalian cell lines can be engineered to efficiently express the bacterial lux system, thus lending themselves to possible long-term continuous monitoring or imaging applications in vivo.

  8. Variable patterns of expression of luciferase in transgenic tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Barnes, W M

    1990-12-01

    A carboxyl-terminally modified firefly luciferase, encoded as a gene fusion to the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (which confers kanamycin resistance), was found to be enzymatically active for both enzymes when expressed in bacteria and in transgenic plants. A military-type starlight vision system was used to conveniently analyze the pattern of gene expression in transgenic tobacco plant leaves. Transgenic tobacco plants which expressed luciferase uniformly in all areas of the leaf, and assays for luciferin, demonstrated that luciferin rapidly penetrates all regions of a tobacco leaf in at least two dimensions. Depending on the test gene structure or, presumably, on the transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertional context, other transgenic plants were obtained that expressed luciferase with a wide range of nonuniform patterns from nominally the same cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. For instance, the veins can be dark, while only the interveinal regions of the leaf lamina glow, or only the small capillary veins glow, or only the major veins glow. Local and/or systemic induction in response to wounding was also demonstrated. PMID:2251262

  9. Ah-receptor controlled luciferase expression: A novel species-specific bioassay for Ah-receptor active compounds in environmental matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Murk, A.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Koeman, J.H.; Brouwer, A.; Denison, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate especially in sediments and in top predators of the aquatic foodchain. PHAHs elicit a number of common toxic responses, which are highly species-specific. The most toxic, planar, PHAHs share a common mechanism of action mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Based on this mechanism, the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) concept has been developed, allowing hazard and risk assessment for mixtures of PHAHs. The TEF-approach assumes additive responses, but also synergistic and antagonistic interactions have been observed. In addition, the often large number of compounds in a mixture, low levels of individual congeners, possible presence of unknown AhR-active substances, and species differences in inducibility, ask for an comprehensive approach in hazard assessment. A number of recombinant cell lines, including Hepa1c1c7 mouse and H411E rat hepatoma cell lines, were developed, showing AhR-mediated firefly (Photinuspyralis) luciferase gene expression. The response by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the CALUX (chemical activated luciferase expression) assay with these cell lines is dose-dependent, and not subjected to substrate inhibition at higher ligand concentrations. The detection limit for 2,3,7,8-TCDD is below 1 pM (0.2 fmol). The luciferase assay has been successfully applied for monitoring the amount of AhR-active compounds in small aliquots of blood plasma and in both sediment and pore-water samples, of which examples will be presented.

  10. A transgenic rat with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakamata, Yoji; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    In vivo imaging strategies provide cellular and molecular events in real time that helps us to understand biological processes in living animals. The development of molecular tags such as green fluorescent proteins and luciferase from the firefly Photinus pyralis has lead to a revolution in the visualization of complex biochemical processes. We developed a novel inbred transgenic rat strain containing firefly luciferase based on the transgenic (Tg) technique in rats. This Tg rat expressed the luciferase gene ubiquitously under control of the ROSA26 promoter. Cellular immune responsiveness against the luciferase protein was evaluated using conventional skin grafting and resulted in the long-term acceptance of Tg rat skin on wild-type rats. Strikingly, organ transplant with heart and small bowel demonstrated organ viability and graft survival, suggesting that cells from luciferase-Tg are transplantable to track their fate. Taking advantage of the less immunogenic luciferase, we also tested the role of hepatocyte-infusion in a liver injury model, and bone marrow-derived cells in a skin defect model. Employed in conjunction with modern advances in optical imaging, this luciferase-Tg rat system provides an innovative animal tool and a new means of facilitating biomedical research such as in the case of regeneration medicine.

  11. Expression and assembly of functional bacterial luciferase in plants

    PubMed Central

    Koncz, Csaba; Olsson, Olof; Langridge, William H. R.; Schell, Jeff; Szalay, Aladar A.

    1987-01-01

    The luxA and luxB structural genes of Vibrio harveyi luciferase [alkanal,reduced FMN:oxygen oxidoreductase (1-hydroxylating, luminescing), EC 1.14.14.3] were introduced into a plant expression vector and transferred into tobacco and carrot cells by Agrobacterium-mediated or direct DNA transformation. Simultaneous expression of the luxA and luxB genes was monitored by protein immunoblot analysis. Luciferase-mediated light emission provided evidence for the assembly of the two protein subunits into a functional dimeric enzyme in plant protoplasts, in transformed calli, and in leaves of transformed plants. Bacterial luciferase may provide a useful marker-gene system for the quantitative assay of coordinate gene expression in transgenic plants. Images PMID:16593793

  12. Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Olson, Ken E.; Allen-Miura, Tanya; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Coates, Craig J.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Beaty, Barry J.; Higgs, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3′2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5′ end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo. PMID:10557332

  13. Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B W; Olson, K E; Allen-Miura, T; Rayms-Keller, A; Carlson, J O; Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; James, A A; Beaty, B J; Higgs, S

    1999-11-01

    A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3'2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5' end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo. PMID:10557332

  14. Luciferase expression and bioluminescence does not affect tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tiffen, Jessamy C; Bailey, Charles G; Ng, Cynthia; Rasko, John E J; Holst, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Live animal imaging is becoming an increasingly common technique for accurate and quantitative assessment of tumor burden over time. Bioluminescence imaging systems rely on a bioluminescent signal from tumor cells, typically generated from expression of the firefly luciferase gene. However, previous reports have suggested that either a high level of luciferase or the resultant light reaction produced upon addition of D-luciferin substrate can have a negative influence on tumor cell growth. To address this issue, we designed an expression vector that allows simultaneous fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we generated clonal cell populations from a human breast cancer (MCF-7) and a mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cell line that stably expressed different levels of luciferase. We then compared the growth capabilities of these clones in vitro by MTT proliferation assay and in vivo by bioluminescence imaging of tumor growth in live mice. Surprisingly, we found that neither the amount of luciferase nor biophotonic activity was sufficient to inhibit tumor cell growth, in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that luciferase toxicity is not a necessary consideration when designing bioluminescence experiments, and therefore our approach can be used to rapidly generate high levels of luciferase expression for sensitive imaging experiments. PMID:21092230

  15. Comparison of chemical-activated luciferase gene expression bioassay and gas chromatography for PCB determination in human serum and follicular fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, A; Cenijn, P H; Schepens, P J; Brouwer, A

    2000-01-01

    We assessed exposure to dioxin-like compounds using chemical and bioassay analysis in different matrices in a female population. A total of 106 serum and 9 follicular fluid samples were collected from infertile women attending Centers for Reproductive Medicine in Belgium from 1996 to 1998. Major polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified by chemical analysis using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, and the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bioassay was used to determine the total dioxin-like toxic equivalence (TEQ) of mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in body fluids, such as serum and follicular fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to determine TEQ values by the CALUX bioassay in follicular fluid. The TEQ levels in both matrices are well correlated (r = 0.83, p = 0.02). As the chemical and bioassay analysis executed in this study do not cover the same span of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, we did not expect totally correlated results. Moreover, the sample workup and quantification of the analytes differed completely. Nonetheless, the TEQ values in human extracts correlated well with the sum of four major PCB congeners chemically determined in both serum and follicular fluid. These results indicate that the CALUX bioassay may serve as a simple, relatively inexpensive prescreening tool for exposure assessment in epidemiologic surveys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10856030

  16. Fe65 does not stabilize AICD during activation of transcription in a luciferase assay

    SciTech Connect

    Huysseune, Sandra; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Octave, Jean-Noel . E-mail: octave@nchm.ucl.ac.be

    2007-09-21

    The APP intracellular domain (AICD) could be involved in signaling via interaction with the adaptor protein Fe65, and with the histone acetyl transferase Tip60. However, the real function of AICD and Fe65 in regulation of transcription remains controversial. In this study, the human APPGal4 fusion protein was expressed in CHO cells and the transcriptional activity of AICDGal4 was measured in a luciferase-based reporter assay. AICDGal4 was stabilized by expression of Fe65 and levels of AICDGal4 controlled luciferase activity. On the contrary, when human APP was expressed in CHO cells, coexpression of Fe65 increased luciferase activity without affecting the amount of AICD fragment. AICD produced from APP was protected from degradation by orthophenanthroline, but not by lactacystine, indicating that AICD is not a substrate of the chymotryptic activity of the proteasome. It is concluded that Fe65 can control luciferase activity without stabilizing the labile AICD fragment.

  17. Use of Luciferase Chimaera to Monitor PLCζ Expression in Mouse Eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Karl; Campbell, Karen; Yu, Yuansong; Saunders, Christopher; Lai, F. Anthony

    The microinjection of cRNA encoding phospholipase Cζ (PLC zeta) causes Ca2+ oscillations and the activation of development in mouse eggs. The PLCζ protein that is expressed in eggs after injection of cRNA is effective in causing Ca2+ oscillations at very low concentrations. In order to measure the amount and timecourse of protein expression we have tagged PLCζ with firefly luciferase. The expression of the luciferase protein tag in eggs is then measured by incubation in luciferin combined with luminescence imaging, or by the lysis of eggs in the presence of Mg-ATP and luciferin in a luminometer. The use of luciferase to monitor protein expression after injection of cRNA is a sensitive and effective method that efficiently allows for sets of eggs to be used for PLCζ quantitation, Ca2+ imaging, and studies of embryo development.

  18. Click beetle luciferases as dual reporters of gene expression in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kapitan, Mario; Eichhof, Isabel; Lagadec, Quentin; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic genes encoding functional luciferases of the click beetle (CB) Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus have been expressed in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Both green- and red-emitting CB luciferases (CaCBGluc and CaCBRluc) were produced with high efficiency in transformants under transcriptional control of the growth-dependent ACT1 promoter, as well as by the HWP1 and UME6 promoters, which are upregulated during hyphal morphogenesis, as well as by the YWP1 and EFG1 promoters, which are downregulated. For all hyphally regulated genes, relative bioluminescence values derived from promoter fusions approximated relative transcript levels of native genes, although downregulation of YWP1 promoter activity required correction for the stability of CB luciferases (approximate half-lives 30 min for CaCBRluc and 80 min for CaCBGluc, as determined by immunoblotting). Importantly, the activity of both luciferases could be separately monitored in a single strain, in intact cells, in lysed cells or in cell extracts using luciferin as single substrate and inhibition of hypha formation by farnesol could be easily detected by the HWP1p-CaCBRluc fusion. The results suggest that CB luciferases are convenient tools to measure gene expression in C. albicans and may facilitate screenings for antifungal compounds. PMID:27339610

  19. The smallest natural high-active luciferase: cloning and characterization of novel 16.5-kDa luciferase from copepod Metridia longa.

    PubMed

    Markova, Svetlana V; Larionova, Marina D; Burakova, Ludmila P; Vysotski, Eugene S

    2015-01-30

    Coelenterazine-dependent copepod luciferases containing natural signal peptide for secretion are a very convenient analytical tool as they enable monitoring of intracellular events with high sensitivity, without destroying cells or tissues. This property is well suited for application in biomedical research and development of cell-based assays for high throughput screening. We report the cloning of cDNA gene encoding a novel secreted non-allelic 16.5-kDa isoform (MLuc7) of Metridia longa luciferase, which, in fact, is the smallest natural luciferase of known for today. Despite the small size, isoform contains 10 conservative Cys residues suggesting the presence of up to 5 SS bonds. This hampers the efficient production of functionally active recombinant luciferase in bacterial expression systems. With the use of the baculovirus expression system, we produced substantial amounts of the proper folded MLuc7 luciferase with a yield of ∼3 mg/L of a high purity protein. We demonstrate that MLuc7 produced in insect cells is highly active and extremely thermostable, and is well suited as a secreted reporter when expressed in mammalian cells ensuring higher sensitivity of detection as compared to another Metridia luciferase isoform (MLuc164) which is widely employed in real-time imaging. PMID:25543059

  20. Opiate analgesics' dual role in firefly luciferase activity.

    PubMed

    Sudhaharan, T; Reddy, A R

    1998-03-31

    The effects of three opiate analgesics, isolated from opium, on the firefly luciferase enzyme have been studied. Morphine (MN), 6-acetylmorphine (MAM), and diacetylmorphine (DAM) inhibited the enzyme activity at different levels. At lower concentrations, MN and MAM enhanced enzyme activity, effecting inhibition at higher concentrations. However, DAM inhibited the enzyme activity at all concentrations investigated. The stimulating activity of MN and MAM is attributed to the hydrophilic interaction of the proton donor-acceptor type with the polar regions of the luciferase located outside the binding pocket of the active site. The inhibition at higher concentrations of MN and MAM and at all concentrations of DAM is found to be competitive in nature, with the analgesics competing for the binding of the enzyme's natural substrate luciferin. The binding site of the luciferase could accommodate only one analgesic molecule. Binding constants determined from bioluminescence studies showed that the inhibitor binding site is hydrophobic in nature. The inhibition constants of analgesics are in the order MN > MAM > DAM. The greater binding of DAM to luciferase is attributed to its ability to form a ground state complex with ATP and greater hydrophobicity. At higher concentrations of ATP, the binding constants increased. The results obtained are explained assuming that the firefly luciferase acts as a subtype mu-opioid receptor model.

  1. A Luciferase Reporter Gene System for High-Throughput Screening of γ-Globin Gene Activators.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wensheng; Silvers, Robert; Ouellette, Michael; Wu, Zining; Lu, Quinn; Li, Hu; Gallagher, Kathleen; Johnson, Kathy; Montoute, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Luciferase reporter gene assays have long been used for drug discovery due to their high sensitivity and robust signal. A dual reporter gene system contains a gene of interest and a control gene to monitor non-specific effects on gene expression. In our dual luciferase reporter gene system, a synthetic promoter of γ-globin gene was constructed immediately upstream of the firefly luciferase gene, followed downstream by a synthetic β-globin gene promoter in front of the Renilla luciferase gene. A stable cell line with the dual reporter gene was cloned and used for all assay development and HTS work. Due to the low activity of the control Renilla luciferase, only the firefly luciferase activity was further optimized for HTS. Several critical factors, such as cell density, serum concentration, and miniaturization, were optimized using tool compounds to achieve maximum robustness and sensitivity. Using the optimized reporter assay, the HTS campaign was successfully completed and approximately 1000 hits were identified. In this chapter, we also describe strategies to triage hits that non-specifically interfere with firefly luciferase. PMID:27316998

  2. In vivo bioimaging with tissue-specific transcription factor activated luciferase reporters

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Suzanne M. K.; Delhove, Juliette M. K. M.; Perocheau, Dany P.; Karda, Rajvinder; Rahim, Ahad A.; Howe, Steven J.; Ward, Natalie J.; Birrell, Mark A.; Belvisi, Maria G.; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Johnson, Mark R.; Waddington, Simon N.; McKay, Tristan R.

    2015-01-01

    The application of transcription factor activated luciferase reporter cassettes in vitro is widespread but potential for in vivo application has not yet been realized. Bioluminescence imaging enables non-invasive tracking of gene expression in transfected tissues of living rodents. However the mature immune response limits luciferase expression when delivered in adulthood. We present a novel approach of tissue-targeted delivery of transcription factor activated luciferase reporter lentiviruses to neonatal rodents as an alternative to the existing technology of generating germline transgenic light producing rodents. At this age, neonates acquire immune tolerance to the conditionally responsive luciferase reporter. This simple and transferrable procedure permits surrogate quantitation of transcription factor activity over the lifetime of the animal. We show principal efficacy by temporally quantifying NFκB activity in the brain, liver and lungs of somatotransgenic reporter mice subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. This response is ablated in Tlr4−/− mice or when co-administered with the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone. Furthermore, we show the malleability of this technology by quantifying NFκB-mediated luciferase expression in outbred rats. Finally, we use somatotransgenic bioimaging to longitudinally quantify LPS- and ActivinA-induced upregulation of liver specific glucocorticoid receptor and Smad2/3 reporter constructs in somatotransgenic mice, respectively. PMID:26138224

  3. Expression vectors for the use of eukaryotic luciferases as bacterial markers with different colors of luminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Cebolla, A; Vázquez, M E; Palomares, A J

    1995-01-01

    An easy way to identify microorganisms is to provide them with gene markers that confer a unique phenotype. Several genetic constructions were developed to use eukaryotic luciferase genes for bacterial tagging. The firefly and click bettle luciferase genes, luc and lucOR, respectively, were cloned under constitutive control and regulated control from different transcriptional units driven by P1, lambda PR, and Ptrc promoters. Comparison of the expression of each gene in Escherichia coli cells from identical promoters showed that bioluminescence produced by luc could be detected luminometrically in a more sensitive manner. In contrast, luminescence from intact lucOR-expressing cells was much more stable and resistant to high temperatures than that from luc-expressing cells. To analyze the behavior of these constructions in other gram-negative bacteria, gene fusions with luc genes were cloned on broad-host-range vectors. Measurements of light emission from Rhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Pseudomonas putida cells indicated that both luciferases were poorly expressed from P1 in most bacterial hosts. In contrast, the lambda promoter PR yielded constitutively high levels of luciferase expression in all bacterial species tested. PR activity was not regulated by temperature when the thermosensitive repressor cI857 was present in the bacterial species tested, except for E. coli. In contrast, the regulated lacIq-Ptrc::lucOR fusion expression system behaved in a manner similar to that observed in E. coli cells. After IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside) induction, this system produced the highest levels of lucOR expression in all bacterial species tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574604

  4. A destabilized bacterial luciferase for dynamic gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael S; Wilgus, John R; Chewning, Christopher S; Sayler, Gary S; Simpson, Michael L

    2007-03-01

    Fusions of genetic regulatory elements with reporter genes have long been used as tools for monitoring gene expression and have become a major component in synthetic gene circuit implementation. A major limitation of many of these systems is the relatively long half-life of the reporter protein(s), which prevents monitoring both the initiation and the termination of transcription in real-time. Furthermore, when used as components in synthetic gene circuits, the long time constants associated with reporter protein decay may significantly degrade circuit performance. In this study, short half-life variants of LuxA and LuxB from Photorhabdus luminescens were constructed in Escherichia coli by inclusion of an 11-amino acid carboxy-terminal tag that is recognized by endogenous tail-specific proteases. Results indicated that the addition of the C-terminal tag affected the functional half-life of the holoenzyme when the tag was added to luxA or to both luxA and luxB, but modification of luxB alone did not have a significant effect. In addition, it was also found that alteration of the terminal three amino acid residues of the carboxy-terminal tag fused to LuxA generated variants with half-lives of intermediate length in a manner similar to that reported for GFP. This report is the first instance of the C-terminal tagging approach for the regulation of protein half-life to be applied to an enzyme or monomer of a multi-subunit enzyme complex and will extend the utility of the bacterial luciferase reporter genes for the monitoring of dynamic changes in gene expression. PMID:19003433

  5. [Expression of thermostable recombiant Luciola lateralis luciferase and development of heat-stable pyrosequencing system].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Zou, Bingjie; Wang, Jianping; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Guohua

    2012-06-01

    Pyrosequencing is a tool based on bioluminescence reaction for real-time analyzing DNA sequences. The sensitivity of pyrosequencing mainly depends on luciferase in reaction mixture. However, the instability of pyrosequencing reagents caused by fragile wild Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpL) in conventional pyrosequencing usually leads to unsatisfied results, which limits the application of pyrosequencing. In order to improve the stability of pyrosequencing reagents, the coding sequences of mutant thermostable Luciola lateralis luciferase (rt-LlL) was synthesized, and inserted into the plasmid of pET28a(+) to express the thermostable rt-LlL with a 6 x His-tag in the N terminal. The purified rt-LlL with the molecular mass of 60 kDa was obtained by Ni-affinity chromatography. The specific activity of rt-LlL was determined as 4.29 x 10(10) RLU/mg. Moreover, the thermostability of rt-LlL was investigated, and the results showed that rt-LlL had activity at 50 degrees C, and remained 90% of activity after incubated at 40 degrees C for 25 min. Finally, rt-LlL was used to substitute commercial Photinus pyralis luciferase in conventional pyrosequencing reagent to get thermostable pyrosequencing reagent. Comparing with conventional pyrosequencing reagent, the thermostable pyrosequencing reagent is more stable, and it's activity would not lose when incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. This study laid foundation of establishing reliable and stable pyrosequencing system which would be applied in Point-of-Care Testing. PMID:23016312

  6. The use of a real-time luciferase assay to quantify gene expression dynamics in the living yeast cell.

    PubMed

    Rienzo, Alessandro; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2012-06-01

    A destabilized version of firefly luciferase was used in living yeast cells as a real-time reporter for gene expression. This highly sensitive and non-invasive system can be simultaneously used upon many different experimental conditions in small culture aliquots. This allows the dose-response behaviour of gene expression driven by any yeast promoter to be reported and can be used to quantify important parameters, such as the threshold, sensitivity, response time, maximal activity and synthesis rate for a given stimulus. We applied the luciferase assay to the nutrient-regulated GAL1 promoter and the stress-responsive GRE2 promoter. We find that luciferase expression driven by the GAL1 promoter responds dynamically to growing galactose concentrations, with increasing synthesis rates determined by the light increment in the initial linear phase of activation. In the case of the GRE2 promoter, we demonstrate that the very short-lived version of luciferase used here is an excellent tool to quantitatively describe transient transcriptional activation. The luciferase expression controlled by the GRE2 promoter responds dynamically to a gradual increase of osmotic or oxidative stress stimuli, which is mainly based on the progressive increase of the time the promoter remains active. Finally, we determined the dose-response behaviour of a single transcription factor binding site in a synthetic promoter context, using the stress response element (STRE) as an example. Taken together, the luciferase assay described here is an attractive tool to rapidly and precisely determine and compare kinetic parameters of gene expression.

  7. Mechanism of PTC124 activity in cell-based luciferase assays of nonsense codon suppression.

    PubMed

    Auld, Douglas S; Thorne, Natasha; Maguire, William F; Inglese, James

    2009-03-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays used in drug discovery frequently use reporter enzymes such as firefly luciferase (FLuc) as indicators of target activity. An important caveat to consider, however, is that compounds can directly affect the reporter, leading to nonspecific but highly reproducible assay signal modulation. In rare cases, this activity appears counterintuitive; for example, some FLuc inhibitors, acting through posttranslational Fluc reporter stabilization, appear to activate gene expression. Previous efforts to characterize molecules that influence luciferase activity identified a subset of 3,5-diaryl-oxadiazole-containing compounds as FLuc inhibitors. Here, we evaluate a number of compounds with this structural motif for activity against FLuc. One such compound is PTC124 {3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid}, a molecule originally identified in a cell-based FLuc assay as having nonsense codon suppression activity [Welch EM, et al., Nature (2007) 447:87-91]. We find that the potency of FLuc inhibition for the tested compounds strictly correlates with their activity in a FLuc reporter cell-based nonsense codon assay, with PTC124 emerging as the most potent FLuc inhibitor (IC(50) = 7 +/- 1 nM). However, these compounds, including PTC124, fail to show nonsense codon suppression activity when Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc) is used as a reporter and are inactive against the RLuc enzyme. This suggests that the initial discovery of PTC124 may have been biased by its direct effect on the FLuc reporter, implicating firefly luciferase as a molecular target of PTC124. Our results demonstrate the value of understanding potential interactions between reporter enzymes and chemical compounds and emphasize the importance of implementing the appropriate control assays before interpreting HTS results.

  8. High-throughput titration of luciferase-expressing recombinant viruses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Vanessa; Krishnan, Ramya; Davis, Colin; Batenchuk, Cory; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Abdelbary, Hesham; Diallo, Jean-Simon

    2014-01-01

    Standard plaque assays to determine infectious viral titers can be time consuming, are not amenable to a high volume of samples, and cannot be done with viruses that do not form plaques. As an alternative to plaque assays, we have developed a high-throughput titration method that allows for the simultaneous titration of a high volume of samples in a single day. This approach involves infection of the samples with a Firefly luciferase tagged virus, transfer of the infected samples onto an appropriate permissive cell line, subsequent addition of luciferin, reading of plates in order to obtain luminescence readings, and finally the conversion from luminescence to viral titers. The assessment of cytotoxicity using a metabolic viability dye can be easily incorporated in the workflow in parallel and provide valuable information in the context of a drug screen. This technique provides a reliable, high-throughput method to determine viral titers as an alternative to a standard plaque assay.

  9. Improvement of thermostability and activity of firefly luciferase through [TMG][Ac] ionic liquid mediator.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Heydari, Akbar; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Akbari, Jafar

    2012-10-01

    Firefly luciferase catalyzes production of light from luciferin in the presence of Mg(2+)-ATP and oxygen. This enzyme has wide range of applications in biotechnology and development of biosensors. The low thermal stability of wild-type firefly luciferase is a limiting factor in most applications. Improvements in activity and stability of few enzymes in the presence of ionic liquids were shown in many reports. In this study, kinetic and thermal stability of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis in the presence of three tetramethylguanidine-based ionic liquids was investigated. The enzyme has shown improved activity in the presence of [1, 1, 3, 3-tetramethylguanidine][acetate], but in the presence of [TMG][trichloroacetate] and [TMG][triflouroacetate] activity, it decreased or unchanged significantly. Among these ionic liquids, only [TMG][Ac] has increased the thermal stability of luciferase. Incubation of [TMG][Ac] with firefly luciferase brought about with decrease of K(m) for ATP.

  10. Proteasome inhibitors reduce luciferase and beta-galactosidase activity in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed

    Deroo, Bonnie J; Archer, Trevor K

    2002-06-01

    Reporter enzymes are commonly used in cell biology to study transcriptional activity of genes. Recently, reporter enzymes in combination with compounds that inhibit proteasome function have been used to study the effect of blocking transcription factor degradation on gene activation. While investigating the effect of proteasome inhibition on steroid receptor activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, we found that treatment with proteasome inhibitors enhanced glucocorticoid activation of the promoter attached to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter, but inhibited activation of MMTV attached to a firefly luciferase or beta-galactosidase reporter. MMTV RNA levels under these conditions correlated with the promoter activity observed using the CAT reporter, suggesting that proteasome inhibitor treatment interfered with luciferase or beta-galactosidase reporter assays. Washout experiments demonstrated that the majority of luciferase activity was lost if the proteasome inhibitor was added at the same time luciferase was produced, not once the functional protein was made, suggesting that proteasome inhibition interferes with production of luciferase protein. Indeed, we found that proteasome inhibitor treatment dramatically reduced the levels of luciferase and beta-galactosidase protein produced, as determined by Western blot. Thus, treatment with proteasome inhibitors interferes with luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter assays, possibly by inhibiting production of a functional reporter protein.

  11. Gaussia-luciferase as a sensitive reporter gene for monitoring promoter activity in the nucleus of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, Ovidiu; Zillner, Karina; Groebner-Ferreira, Regina; Heitzer, Markus

    2008-08-01

    For the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a codon-adapted gene variant of the extracellular luciferase of Gaussia princeps was generated as a sensitive molecular tool to study gene expression from the nuclear genome. In the past, monitoring promoter activity in Chlamydomonas employing the commonly used luciferase encoded by Renilla reniformis was hampered due to the detection limit of the reporter assay, especially if analyzing weak promoters. In this work, the expression of Gaussia-luciferase from such promoters resulted in an average luminescent activity at least 500 times higher than that detected for the Renilla enzyme. The wildtype signal peptide of Gaussia princeps efficiently mediated the export of the luciferase into the culture medium of Chlamydomonas strain cw15arg ( - ), and the characterization of the secreted protein showed an unexpected temperature instability, probably arising from post-translational modifications made by the algae. To further test the utility of Gaussia-luciferase, promoter sequences originating from different viral genomes were analyzed for their ability to drive transgene expression in Chlamydomonas. Solely, the 35S-promoter of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) displayed a significant transcriptional activity and this happened only when the shunting region of the 5'-untranslated region of the 35S-sequence was omitted from the luciferase expression cassette. Gaussia-luciferase proved to be a superior quantifiable reporter gene for the analysis of constitutive promoter sequences in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  12. Use of new T-cell-based cell lines expressing two luciferase reporters for accurately evaluating susceptibility to anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drugs.

    PubMed

    Chiba-Mizutani, Tomoko; Miura, Hideka; Matsuda, Masakazu; Matsuda, Zene; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Nishizawa, Masako; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sugiura, Wataru

    2007-02-01

    Two new T-cell-based reporter cell lines were established to measure human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity. One cell line naturally expresses CD4 and CXCR4, making it susceptible to X4-tropic viruses, and the other cell line, in which a CCR5 expression vector was introduced, is susceptible to both X4- and R5-tropic viruses. Reporter cells were constructed by transfecting the human T-cell line HPB-Ma, which demonstrates high susceptibility to HIV-1, with genomes expressing two different luciferase reporters, HIV-1 long terminal repeat-driven firefly luciferase and cytomegalovirus promoter-driven renilla luciferase. Upon HIV infection, the cells expressed firefly luciferase at levels that were highly correlated (r2=0.91 to 0.98) with the production of the capsid antigen p24. The cells also constitutively expressed renilla luciferase, which was used to monitor cell numbers and viability. The reliability of the cell lines for two in vitro applications, drug resistance phenotyping and drug screening, was confirmed. As HIV-1 efficiently replicated in these cells, they could be used for multiple-round replication assays as an alternative method to a single-cycle replication protocol. Coefficients of variation for drug susceptibility evaluated with the cell lines ranged from 17 to 41%. The new cell lines were beneficial for evaluating antiretroviral drug resistance. Firefly luciferase gave a wider dynamic range for evaluating virus infectivity, and the introduction of renilla luciferase improved assay reproducibility. The cell lines were also beneficial for screening new antiretroviral agents, as false inhibition caused by the cytotoxicity of test compounds was easily detected by monitoring renilla luciferase activity.

  13. Co-expression of CYP27B1 enzyme with the 1.5kb CYP27B1 promoter-luciferase transgene in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul H; Hendrix, Ivanka; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Zarrinkalam, Reza; Manavis, Jim; Sarvestani, Ghafar T; May, Brian K; Morris, Howard A

    2008-03-26

    The renal enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), responsible for the synthesis of circulating. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), is also expressed in a number of non-renal tissues. The regulation of CYP27B1 expression by the short flanking promoter outside the kidney is, however, largely unknown. We have used a transgenic mice expressing the 1.5kb promoter of the human CYP27B1 gene fused to the firefly luciferase gene in order to investigate tissue-specific CYP27B1 expression. These transgenic animals demonstrated co-localised luciferase and endogenous CYP27B1 expression in kidney proximal convoluted tubular cells. Strong co-expression of luciferase and CYP27B1 also occurred in neurons and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testes. Other tissues to exhibit CYP27B1-promoter directed luciferase activity included lung, prostate, trabecular bone and jejunum as well as the choroid epithelium. The tissue specific changes in luciferase activity were age-related. These findings demonstrate that the proximal 1.5kb 5' flanking region of the CYP27B1 gene directs the expression of CYP27B1 in a number of known and novel tissues in a specific manner. PMID:18313834

  14. Establishment of a transient transfection system and expression of firefly luciferase in Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishant; Ojha, Sandeep; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2012-05-01

    Entamoeba invadens is used as a model system to study trophozoite to cyst differentiation since Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis cannot encyst in culture. However, a system for introduction of cloned genes in E. invadens is not available. Here we report an electroporation-based method for transfection of E. invadens tophozoites and demonstrate the expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene driven from the E. invadens ribosomal protein L3 promoter. The efficiency of luciferase expression driven from the promoters of three different E. invadens genes (rpl3, rps10 and h2b) was tested and found to correlate with the in vivo expression levels of the respective gene. This system will permit the analysis of regulatory elements required for gene expression in E. invadens.

  15. Generation of a Gaussia luciferase-expressing endotheliotropic cytomegalovirus for screening approaches and mutant analyses.

    PubMed

    Falk, Jessica J; Laib Sampaio, Kerstin; Stegmann, Cora; Lieber, Diana; Kropff, Barbara; Mach, Michael; Sinzger, Christian

    2016-09-01

    For many questions in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) research, assays are desired that allow robust and fast quantification of infection efficiencies under high-throughput conditions. The secreted Gaussia luciferase has been demonstrated as a suitable reporter in the context of a fibroblast-adapted HCMV strain, which however is greatly restricted in the number of cell types to which it can be applied. We inserted the Gaussia luciferase expression cassette into the BAC-cloned virus strain TB40-BAC4, which displays the natural broad cell tropism of HCMV and hence allows application to screening approaches in a variety of cell types including fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. Here, we applied the reporter virus TB40-BAC4-IE-GLuc to identify mouse hybridoma clones that preferentially neutralize infection of endothelial cells. In addition, as the Gaussia luciferase is secreted into culture supernatants from infected cells it allows kinetic analyses in living cultures. This can speed up and facilitate phenotypic characterization of BAC-cloned mutants. For example, we analyzed a UL74 stop-mutant of TB40-BAC4-IE-GLuc immediately after reconstitution in transfected cultures and found the increase of luciferase delayed and reduced as compared to wild type. Phenotypic monitoring directly in transfected cultures can minimize the risk of compensating mutations that might occur with extended passaging. PMID:27326666

  16. Recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressing luciferase genes provide a new indication of viral propagation in both permissive and target cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Qu, Zehui; Li, Liwei; Yu, Lingxue; Jiang, Yifeng; Zhou, Yanjun; Yang, Shen; Zheng, Hao; Huang, Qinfeng; Tong, Wu; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a condensed single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that contains several overlapping regions. The transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) is the important cis-acting element participating in PRRSV discontinuous transcription process. Based on reverse genetic system of type 2 highly pathogenic PRRSV cell-passage attenuated strain pHuN4-F112, firefly luciferase or Renilla luciferase genes were inserted between ORF1b and ORF2. An extra TRS6 was embedded behind the foreign luciferase genes. pA-Fluc and pA-Rluc were constructed and successfully rescued in MARC-145 cells. The phenotypical characteristics of the progeny virus were indistinguishable from those of vHuN4-F112 and were genetically stable for at least 25 cell passages. Mutant virus-infected cells were lysed at different time points to assess luciferase activities and measure foreign gene expression levels. The results showed identical variations in the luciferase activities of the recombinants in MARC-145 cells, indicating that they were suitable for monitoring viral propagation in PRRSV-permissive cell cultures. They were also used to infect pulmonary alveolar macrophages, which yielded similar variations in luciferase activities. Therefore, vA-Fluc and vA-Rluc present powerful new tools to monitor PRRSV propagation in both passaged and target cells. PMID:27473986

  17. Bioluminescence determination of enzyme activity of firefly luciferase in the presence of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Trajkovska, Snezana; Tosheska, Katerina; Aaron, Jean Jacques; Spirovski, Filip; Zdravkovski, Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Firefly luciferase (EC 1.13.12.5) (FL) is the key enzyme in the firefly bioluminescence method (FB), which is widely used to determine the viability of living cells. The FB method can also be applied to monitoring the influence of different pollutants, such as pesticides. Firefly luciferase is a hydrophobic enzyme and its activity depends on the type of solvent, pH and substances present in the reaction mixture. The influence of three aromatic pesticides, including fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (I), diclofop-methyl (II) and metsulfuron methyl (III), on the enzyme activity was indirectly evaluated through the measurement of emitted light in the bioluminescence reaction, expressed in relative luminescence units (RLU). The reaction mixture used in the bioluminescence measurements consisted of: Tris buffer (pH 7.75), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ATP monitoring reagent, where FL is present. Ethanol-water solutions of each pesticide were then added at concentrations of 2.4 x 10(-4)-2.4 x 10(-8) mol/L. The FL activity inhibition factors (FL In%) were determined. The FL activity was maximally inhibited in the presence of all pesticides under study at a concentration of 2.4 x 10(-4) mol/L and was lowered by about 15-26% for pesticide I at concentrations of 2.4 x 10(-5)-2.4 x 10(-8) mol/L, whereas pesticides II and III, applied in the same concentration range, showed smaller FL inhibition values (5.3-20%). The pesticide degradation products (obtained after a 1 month period), measured in the same experimental conditions, in most cases exhibited a much less inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity than the corresponding initial pesticide.

  18. Monitoring cell-autonomous circadian clock rhythms of gene expression using luciferase bioluminescence reporters.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Khan, Sanjoy K; Kathale, Nimish D; Xu, Haiyan; Liu, Andrew C

    2012-09-27

    In mammals, many aspects of behavior and physiology such as sleep-wake cycles and liver metabolism are regulated by endogenous circadian clocks (reviewed). The circadian time-keeping system is a hierarchical multi-oscillator network, with the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizing and coordinating extra-SCN and peripheral clocks elsewhere. Individual cells are the functional units for generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms, and these oscillators of different tissue types in the organism share a remarkably similar biochemical negative feedback mechanism. However, due to interactions at the neuronal network level in the SCN and through rhythmic, systemic cues at the organismal level, circadian rhythms at the organismal level are not necessarily cell-autonomous. Compared to traditional studies of locomotor activity in vivo and SCN explants ex vivo, cell-based in vitro assays allow for discovery of cell-autonomous circadian defects. Strategically, cell-based models are more experimentally tractable for phenotypic characterization and rapid discovery of basic clock mechanisms. Because circadian rhythms are dynamic, longitudinal measurements with high temporal resolution are needed to assess clock function. In recent years, real-time bioluminescence recording using firefly luciferase as a reporter has become a common technique for studying circadian rhythms in mammals, as it allows for examination of the persistence and dynamics of molecular rhythms. To monitor cell-autonomous circadian rhythms of gene expression, luciferase reporters can be introduced into cells via transient transfection or stable transduction. Here we describe a stable transduction protocol using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery. The lentiviral vector system is superior to traditional methods such as transient transfection and germline transmission because of its efficiency and versatility: it permits efficient delivery and stable integration into the host

  19. Extended-release PEG-luciferin allows for long-term imaging of firefly luciferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sachin S; Williams, Simon A; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2009-01-01

    Bioluminescence has gained favour in the last decade as an approach for observing tumours in vivo in a non-destructive manner. This very sensitive technique is based on light emission by the reaction of luciferin with the enzyme luciferase, as measured by a photodetector. Ever since the development of recombinant tumour cell lines that have been engineered to produce luciferase, a vast number of experiments have been carried out examining tumour growth, tumour metastasis and the effect of therapeutic regimens in such cases. A primary stumbling block, however, is the relatively short circulatory half-life of luciferin. In this paper, we propose the PEGylation of 6-amino-D-luciferin to extend its in vivo circulatory half-life, thus making the possibility of long-term observations in animals possible. The covalent attachment was through a carbamate linker that is known to hydrolyse in vivo, releasing the parent compound. Based on our studies, longer emission of the PEGylated luciferin was observed, as compared to free luciferin in mice bearing PC3 prostate tumours expressing luciferase. This result suggests that this reagent can be used in applications requiring extended monitoring of luciferase activation in vivo. PMID:18780328

  20. Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G + C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred

  1. Effect of antiangiogenic therapy on luciferase activity in a cytomegalovirus- or HSP70-promoter-transfected M21 tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundt, Walter; Schink, Christian; Steinbach, Silke; O'Connell-Rodwell, Caitlin E.; Kiessling, Andreas; Librizzi, Damiano; Burbelko, Mykhaylo; Guccione, Samira

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effect of targeted gene therapy on heat shock protein 70 expression (Hsp70) and protein production (HSP70) in a melanoma tumor model (M21; M21-L). M21 and M21-L cells transfected with a plasmid containing the Hsp70 (Hspa1b) or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the luciferase reporter gene were injected into mice; the resulting tumors grew to a size of 650 mm3. Mice (five per group) were intravenously treated with an Arg-Gly-Asp peptide-nanoparticle/Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein complex [RGD-NP/RAF(-)] or with a nanoparticle control. Bioluminescence imaging (IVIS®, Xenogen, USA) was performed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after the treatment cycle. Western blot analysis of HSP70 protein was performed to monitor protein expression. The size of the treated M21 tumors remained fairly constant (647.8+/-103.4 mm2 at the beginning versus 704.8+/-94.4 mm3 at the end of the experiment). The size of the M21-L tumors increased, similar to the untreated control tumors. Bioluminescent imaging demonstrated that when transcription was controlled by the CMV promoter, luciferase activity decreased to 17.9%+/-4.3% of baseline values in the treated M21 tumors. When transcription was controlled by the Hsp70 promoter, the highest luciferase activity (4.5+/-0.7-fold increase over base-line values) was seen 24 h after injection in the M21 tumors; however, no luciferase activity was seen in the M21-L tumors. In accordance with bioluminescent imaging, western blot analysis showed a peak in HSP70 production at 24 h after the injection of the RGD-NP/RAF(-) complex in the M21 tumors; however, no HSP70 protein induction was seen in the M21-L tumors. Thus, targeted antiangiogenic therapy can induce Hsp70 expression and HSP70 protein in melanoma tumors.

  2. Replication competent molecular clones of HIV-1 expressing Renilla luciferase facilitate the analysis of antibody inhibition in PBMC.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Tara G; Ding, Haitao; Yuan, Xing; Wei, Qing; Smith, Kendra S; Conway, Joan A; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Brown, Bruce; Polonis, Victoria; West, John T; Montefiori, David C; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2010-12-01

    Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a Renilla luciferase (LucR) expressing HIV-1 proviral backbone. LucR was inserted into pNL4-3 DNA, preserving all viral open reading frames. The proviral genome was engineered to facilitate expression of diverse HIV-1 env sequences, allowing analysis in an isogenic background. The resulting Env-IMC-LucR viruses are infectious, and LucR is stably expressed over multiple replications in PBMC. HIV-1 neutralization, targeting TZM-bl cells, was highly correlative comparing virus (LucR) and cell (firefly luciferase) readouts. In PBMC, NAb activity can be analyzed either within a single or multiple cycles of replication. These results represent advancement toward a standardizable PBMC-based neutralization assay for assessing HIV-1 vaccine immunogen efficacy.

  3. Replication Competent Molecular Clones of HIV-1 Expressing Renilla Luciferase Facilitate the Analysis of Antibody Inhibition in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Tara G.; Ding, Haitao; Yuan, Xing; Wei, Qing; Smith, Kendra S.; Conway, Joan A.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Brown, Bruce; Polonis, Victoria; West, John T.; Montefiori, David C.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a Renilla luciferase (LucR) expressing HIV-1 proviral backbone. LucR was inserted into pNL4-3 DNA, preserving all viral open reading frames. The proviral genome was engineered to facilitate expression of diverse HIV-1 env sequences, allowing analysis in an isogenic background. The resulting Env-IMC-LucR viruses are infectious, and LucR is stably expressed over multiple replications in PBMC. HIV-1 neutralization, targeting TZM-bl cells, was highly correlative comparing virus (LucR) and cell (firefly luciferase) readouts. In PBMC, NAb activity can be analyzed either within a single or multiple cycles of replication. These results represent advancement toward a standardizable PBMC-based neutralization assay for assessing HIV-1 vaccine immunogen efficacy. PMID:20863545

  4. Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) Expressing Firefly Luciferase Effectively Screened for CRISPR/Cas9 Single Guide RNAs and Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Ji-Ting; Fang, Qiong-Qiong; Wang, Tong-Yun; Sun, Ming-Xia; An, Tong-Qing; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui

    2016-04-01

    A Pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has emerged in China since 2011 that is not protected by commercial vaccines, and has not been well studied. The PRV genome is large and difficult to manipulate, but it is feasible to use clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology. However, identification of single guide RNA (sgRNA) through screening is critical to the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and is traditionally time and labor intensive, and not suitable for rapid and high throughput screening of effective PRV sgRNAs. In this study, we developed a recombinant PRV strain expressing firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter virus for PRV-specific sgRNA screens and rapid evaluation of antiviral compounds. Luciferase activity was apparent as soon as 4 h after infection and was stably expressed through 10 passages. In a proof of the principle screen, we were able to identify several PRV specific sgRNAs and confirmed that they inhibited PRV replication using traditional methods. Using the reporter virus, we also identified PRV variants lacking US3, US2, and US9 gene function, and showed anti-PRV activity for chloroquine. Our results suggest that the reporter PRV strain will be a useful tool for basic virology studies, and for developing PRV control and prevention measures. PMID:27043610

  5. Improved luciferase gene expression using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction therapy in swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Misty L.; Song, Shuxian; Sun, Ryan R.; Fan, Luping; DiBlasi, Robert M.; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen; Loeb, Keith R.; Miao, Carol H.

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound (US) targeted microbubble (MB) destruction (UTMD) has been shown to be an effective method in delivering drugs and plasmid DNA (pDNA) into cells. We previously reported successful gene transfection of a reporter luciferase gene, pGL4, into livers of mice and rats using UTMD. The challenge is to translate and achieve similar gene expression in large animals, like swine, where the treated tissue volume is substantially larger. The scale-up study requires proportionally increased amount of pDNA/MBs delivered to tissues and an equivalent increase in US energy. We use different MBs and surgical strategies to retain most of pDNA/MB locally during US application in order to maximize the effect of UTMD in gene transfection. Our results show significant increase in luciferase expression in swine injected with MBs and exposed to 2.7 MPa US. We obtained up to 1800-fold enhancement in the pig experiment using Definity® MBs, and 2000-fold and 6300-fold enhancement in two pig studies using RN18 MBs compared to sham. These results represent an important developmental step towards US mediated gene delivery in large animals and clinical trials.

  6. Luciferase NanoLuc as a reporter for gene expression and protein levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Anna E.; Kandasamy, Ganapathi; Kaimal, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reporter proteins are essential tools in the study of biological processes and are employed to monitor changes in gene expression and protein levels. Luciferases are reporter proteins that enable rapid and highly sensitive detection with an outstanding dynamic range. Here we evaluated the usefulness of the 19 kDa luciferase NanoLuc (Nluc), derived from the deep sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris, as a reporter protein in yeast. Cassettes with codon‐optimized genes expressing yeast Nluc (yNluc) or its destabilized derivative yNlucPEST have been assembled in the context of the dominant drug resistance marker kanMX. The reporter proteins do not impair the growth of yeast cells and exhibit half‐lives of 40 and 5 min, respectively. The commercial substrate Nano‐Glo® is compatible with detection of yNluc bioluminescence in < 50 cells. Using the unstable yNlucPEST to report on the rapid and transient expression of a heat‐shock promoter (PCYC1–HSE), we found a close match between the intensity of the bioluminescent signal and mRNA levels during both induction and decay. We demonstrated that the bioluminescence of yNluc fused to the C‐terminus of a temperature‐sensitive protein reports on its protein levels. In conclusion, yNluc and yNlucPEST are valuable new reporter proteins suitable for experiments with yeast using standard commercial substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26860732

  7. Continuous monitoring of ATP levels in living insulin secreting cells expressing cytosolic firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Maechler, P; Wang, H; Wollheim, C B

    1998-02-01

    The second messenger role of ATP in insulin secretion was investigated in living INS-1 insulinoma cells. ATP-dependent luminescence was monitored in cells expressing high levels of firefly luciferase under the control of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. The calibration of luminescence in permeabilized cells yielded similar ATP levels as those obtained in cell extracts with a conventional ATP assay. Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose or methyl-succinate was correlated with rises of cellular ATP in simultaneous measurements. ATP generation was decreased by inhibition of the ADP-ATP translocase. This approach demonstrates the feasibility of defining the dynamic relationship between ATP and other parameters involved in metabolism-secretion coupling.

  8. Latent luciferase activity in the fruit fly revealed by a synthetic luciferin

    PubMed Central

    Mofford, David M.; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Beetle luciferases are thought to have evolved from fatty acyl-CoA synthetases present in all insects. Both classes of enzymes activate fatty acids with ATP to form acyl-adenylate intermediates, but only luciferases can activate and oxidize d-luciferin to emit light. Here we show that the Drosophila fatty acyl-CoA synthetase CG6178, which cannot use d-luciferin as a substrate, is able to catalyze light emission from the synthetic luciferin analog CycLuc2. Bioluminescence can be detected from the purified protein, live Drosophila Schneider 2 cells, and from mammalian cells transfected with CG6178. Thus, the nonluminescent fruit fly possesses an inherent capacity for bioluminescence that is only revealed upon treatment with a xenobiotic molecule. This result expands the scope of bioluminescence and demonstrates that the introduction of a new substrate can unmask latent enzymatic activity that differs significantly from an enzyme’s normal function without requiring mutation. PMID:24616520

  9. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng . E-mail: Dongfeng_pan@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10{sup 9} PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases.

  10. GENERATION OF TWO NOVEL CELL LINES THAT STABLY EXPRESS HAR AND FIREFLY LUCIFERASE GENES FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of Two Novel Cell Lines that Stably Express hAR and Firefly Luciferase Genes for Endocrine Screening
    K.L. Bobseine*1, W.R. Kelce2, P.C. Hartig*1, and L.E. Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC, 2Searle, Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  11. A novel Ebola virus expressing luciferase allows for rapid and quantitative testing of antivirals.

    PubMed

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Callison, Julie; Takada, Ayato; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 90%, for which no antiviral therapies are available. Antiviral screening is hampered by the fact that development of cytopathic effect, the easiest means to detect infection with wild-type EBOV, is relatively slow. To overcome this problem we generated a recombinant EBOV carrying a luciferase reporter. Using this virus we show that EBOV entry is rapid, with viral protein expression detectable within 2 h after infection. Further, luminescence-based assays were developed to allow highly sensitive titer determination within 48 h. As a proof-of-concept for its utility in antiviral screening we used this virus to assess neutralizing antibodies and siRNAs, with significantly faster screening times than currently available wild-type or recombinant viruses. The availability of this recombinant virus will allow for more rapid and quantitative evaluation of antivirals against EBOV, as well as the study of details of the EBOV life cycle.

  12. Analysis of structural changes in active site of luciferase adsorbed on nanofabricated hydrophilic Si surface by molecular-dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Tadatsugu

    2007-05-21

    Interactions between luciferase and a nanofabricated hydrophilic Si surface were explored by molecular-dynamics simulations. The structural changes in the active-site residues, the residues affecting the luciferin binding, and the residues affecting the bioluminescence color were smaller on the nanofabricated hydrophilic Si surface than on both a hydrophobic Si surface and a hydrophilic Si surface. The nanofabrication and wet-treatment techniques are expected to prevent the decrease in activity of luciferase on the Si surface.

  13. A plant 35S CaMV promoter induces long-term expression of luciferase in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Seternes, Tore; Tonheim, Tom C; Myhr, Anne I; Dalmo, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    The long-term persistence and activity of a naked plasmid DNA (pGL3-35S) containing a luc gene (reporter gene) controlled by a plant 35S CaMV promoter was studied in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) after injection. Atlantic salmon (mean weight 70 grams) were injected intramuscularly with 100 μg of plasmid DNA. Blood, different tissues and organs were sampled at different time points up to day 535 after injection. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of extra-chromosomally open circular, linear and supercoiled topoforms of pGL3-35S at day 150 after injection. At day 536 open circular and supercoiled topoforms were detected. Luciferase activity was detected at the injection site up to 536 days post-injection of pGL3-35S, where it peaked at day 150 and decreased to approximately 17% of its maximum activity by day 536. Our study demonstrated that a plasmid containing the 35S promoter was able to induce expression of a reporter gene/protein in fish in vivo and that the plasmid DNA persisted for a prolonged time after intramuscular injection. PMID:27114167

  14. A plant 35S CaMV promoter induces long-term expression of luciferase in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Seternes, Tore; Tonheim, Tom C.; Myhr, Anne I.; Dalmo, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    The long-term persistence and activity of a naked plasmid DNA (pGL3-35S) containing a luc gene (reporter gene) controlled by a plant 35S CaMV promoter was studied in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) after injection. Atlantic salmon (mean weight 70 grams) were injected intramuscularly with 100 μg of plasmid DNA. Blood, different tissues and organs were sampled at different time points up to day 535 after injection. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of extra-chromosomally open circular, linear and supercoiled topoforms of pGL3-35S at day 150 after injection. At day 536 open circular and supercoiled topoforms were detected. Luciferase activity was detected at the injection site up to 536 days post-injection of pGL3-35S, where it peaked at day 150 and decreased to approximately 17% of its maximum activity by day 536. Our study demonstrated that a plasmid containing the 35S promoter was able to induce expression of a reporter gene/protein in fish in vivo and that the plasmid DNA persisted for a prolonged time after intramuscular injection. PMID:27114167

  15. Epirubicin, Identified Using a Novel Luciferase Reporter Assay for Foxp3 Inhibitors, Inhibits Regulatory T Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hajime; Momose, Fumiyasu; Umehara, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Nao; Ogo, Naohisa; Muraoka, Daisuke; Shiku, Hiroshi; Harada, Naozumi; Asai, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein p3 (Foxp3) is crucial to the development and suppressor function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that have a significant role in tumor-associated immune suppression. Development of small molecule inhibitors of Foxp3 function is therefore considered a promising strategy to enhance anti-tumor immunity. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay system in which the NF-κB luciferase reporter signal is suppressed by the co-expressed Foxp3 protein. Using this system, we screened our chemical library consisting of approximately 2,100 compounds and discovered that a cancer chemotherapeutic drug epirubicin restored the Foxp3-inhibited NF-κB activity in a concentration-dependent manner without influencing cell viability. Using immunoprecipitation assay in a Treg-like cell line Karpas-299, we found that epirubicin inhibited the interaction between Foxp3 and p65. In addition, epirubicin inhibited the suppressor function of murine Tregs and thereby improved effector T cell stimulation in vitro. Administration of low dose epirubicin into tumor-bearing mice modulated the function of immune cells at the tumor site and promoted their IFN-γ production without direct cytotoxicity. In summary, we identified the novel action of epirubicin as a Foxp3 inhibitor using a newly established luciferase-based cellular screen. Our work also demonstrated our screen system is useful in accelerating discovery of Foxp3 inhibitors. PMID:27284967

  16. Expression, purification and luminescence properties of coelenterazine-utilizing luciferases from Renilla, Oplophorus and Gaussia: comparison of substrate specificity for C2-modified coelenterazines.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Satoshi; Sahara-Miura, Yuiko; Sato, Jun-ichi; Iimori, Rie; Yoshida, Suguru; Hosoya, Takamitsu

    2013-03-01

    The cold-induced expression system in Escherichia coli is useful and we have applied this system to prepare the coelenterazine-utilizing luciferases including Renilla luciferase (RLase), a red-shifted variant of Renilla luciferase (RLase-547), the catalytic domain of Oplophorus luciferase (19kOLase) and Gaussia luciferase (GLase). The luminescence properties of the purified luciferases were characterized by using 10 kinds of C2-modified coelenterazine analogues as a substrate. The order of the maximal luminescence intensity for native coelenterazine was GLase (100%)>RLase (8.0%)>RLase-547 (0.73%)>19kOLase (0.09%) under our assay conditions. The substrate specificities of coelenterazine-utilizing luciferases for the C2-modified analogues showed significant differences, but the emission peaks catalyzed by coelenterazine-utilizing luciferases were not affected by the C2-substituted coelenterazine. These results suggest that the catalytic environment for the oxygenation process of coelenterazine and the excited species of coelenteramide might be different among coelenterazine-utilizing luciferases. PMID:23274053

  17. Fimbrolide Natural Products Disrupt Bioluminescence of Vibrio By Targeting Autoinducer Biosynthesis and Luciferase Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weining; Lorenz, Nicola; Jung, Kirsten; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-18

    Vibrio is a model organism for the study of quorum sensing (QS) signaling and is used to identify QS-interfering drugs. Naturally occurring fimbrolides are important tool compounds known to affect QS in various organisms; however, their cellular targets have so far remained elusive. Here we identify the irreversible fimbrolide targets in the proteome of living V. harveyi and V. campbellii via quantitative mass spectrometry utilizing customized probes. Among the major hits are two protein targets with essential roles in Vibrio QS and bioluminescence. LuxS, responsible for autoinducer 2 biosynthesis, and LuxE, a subunit of the luciferase complex, were both covalently modified at their active-site cysteines leading to inhibition of activity. The identification of LuxE unifies previous reports suggesting inhibition of bioluminescence downstream of the signaling cascade and thus contributes to a better mechanistic understanding of these QS tool compounds.

  18. A highly sensitive assay of IRE1 activity using the small luciferase NanoLuc: Evaluation of ALS-related genetic and pathological factors.

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Takahiro; Norisada, Junpei; Hirata, Yoko; Okuda, Kensuke; Nagasawa, Hideko; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Sobue, Gen; Kiuchi, Kazutoshi; Oh-hashi, Kentaro

    2015-08-01

    Activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) due to abnormal conditions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for the cleavage of an unspliced form of X-box binding protein 1 (uXBP1), producing its spliced form (sXBP1). To estimate IRE1 activation, several analytical procedures using green fluorescence protein and firefly luciferase have been developed and applied to clarify the roles of IRE1-XBP1 signaling pathways during development and disease progression. In this study, we established a highly sensitive assay of IRE1 activity using a small luciferase, NanoLuc, which has approximately 100-fold higher activity than firefly luciferase. The NanoLuc reporter, which contained a portion of the spliced region of XBP1 upstream of NanoLuc, was highly sensitive and compatible with several types of cell lines. We found that NanoLuc was secreted into the extracellular space independent of the ER-Golgi pathway. The NanoLuc activity of an aliquot of culture medium from the neuroblastoma-spinal neuron hybrid cell line NSC-34 reflected the toxic stimuli-induced elevation of intracellular activity well. Using this technique, we evaluated the effects of several genetic and pathological factors associated with the onset and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on NanoLuc reporter activity. Under our experimental conditions, inhibition of ER-Golgi transport by the overexpression of mutant Sar1 activated luciferase activity, whereas the co-expression of mutant SOD1 or the C-terminal fragment of TDP-43 (TDP-25) did not. The addition of homocysteine elevated the reporter activity; however, we did not observe any synergistic effect due to the overexpression of the mutant genes described above. Taken together, these data show that our analytical procedure is highly sensitive and convenient for screening useful compounds that modulate IRE1-XBP1 signaling pathways as well as for estimating IRE1 activation in several pathophysiological diseases.

  19. Determination of relative assay response factors for toxic chlorinated and bromiated dioxins/furans using an enyme immunoassay (EIA) and a chemically-activated luciferase gene expression cell bioassay (CALUX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of dioxin-like activity requires knowledge of both the concentration and toxicity to evaluate the risk of adverse human health and environmental effects. The dioxin-like response of several polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDDs/Fs) and polybrominated/chlori...

  20. Luminescent and substrate binding activities of firefly luciferase N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Zako, Tamotsu; Ayabe, Keiichi; Aburatani, Takahide; Kamiya, Noriho; Kitayama, Atsushi; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2003-07-30

    Firefly luciferase catalyzes highly efficient emission of light from the substrates luciferin, Mg-ATP, and oxygen. A number of amino acid residues are identified to be important for the luminescent activity, and almost all the key residues are thought to be located in the N-terminal domain (1-437), except one in the C-terminal domain, Lys529, which is thought to be critical for efficient substrate orientation. Here we show that the purified N-terminal domain still binds to the substrates luciferin and ATP with reduced affinity, and retains luminescent activity of up to 0.03% of the wild-type enzyme (WT), indicating that all the essential residues for the activity are located in the N-terminal domain. Also found is low luminescence enhancement by coenzyme A (CoA), which implies a lower product inhibition than in the WT enzyme. These findings have interesting implications for the light emission reaction mechanism of the enzyme, such as reaction intermediates, product inhibition, and the role of the C-terminal domain.

  1. Discovery, adaptation and transcriptional activity of two tick promoters: Construction of a dual luciferase reporter system for optimization of RNA interference in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual luciferase reporter systems are valuable tools for functional genomic studies, but have not previously been developed for use in tick cell culture. We evaluated expression of available luciferase constructs in tick cell cultures derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an important vec...

  2. Interaction of firefly luciferase and silver nanoparticles and its impact on enzyme activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käkinen, Aleksandr; Ding, Feng; Chen, Pengyu; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-08-01

    We report on the dose-dependent inhibition of firefly luciferase activity induced by exposure of the enzyme to 20 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The inhibition mechanism was examined by characterizing the physicochemical properties and biophysical interactions of the enzyme and the AgNPs. Consistently, binding of the enzyme induced an increase in zeta potential from -22 to 6 mV for the AgNPs, triggered a red-shift of 44 nm in the absorbance peak of the AgNPs, and rendered a ‘protein corona’ of 20 nm in thickness on the nanoparticle surfaces. However, the secondary structures of the enzyme were only marginally affected upon formation of the protein corona, as verified by circular dichroism spectroscopy measurement and multiscale discrete molecular dynamics simulations. Rather, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement revealed a significant ion release from the AgNPs. The released silver ions could readily react with the cysteine residues and N-groups of the enzyme to alter the physicochemical environment of their neighboring catalytic site and subsequently impair the enzymatic activity.

  3. Interaction of firefly luciferase and silver nanoparticles and its impact on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Käkinen, Aleksandr; Ding, Feng; Chen, Pengyu; Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-08-30

    We report on the dose-dependent inhibition of firefly luciferase activity induced by exposure of the enzyme to 20 nm citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The inhibition mechanism was examined by characterizing the physicochemical properties and biophysical interactions of the enzyme and the AgNPs. Consistently, binding of the enzyme induced an increase in zeta potential from -22 to 6 mV for the AgNPs, triggered a red-shift of 44 nm in the absorbance peak of the AgNPs, and rendered a 'protein corona' of 20 nm in thickness on the nanoparticle surfaces. However, the secondary structures of the enzyme were only marginally affected upon formation of the protein corona, as verified by circular dichroism spectroscopy measurement and multiscale discrete molecular dynamics simulations. Rather, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement revealed a significant ion release from the AgNPs. The released silver ions could readily react with the cysteine residues and N-groups of the enzyme to alter the physicochemical environment of their neighboring catalytic site and subsequently impair the enzymatic activity.

  4. Generation of a recombinant classical swine fever virus stably expressing the firefly luciferase gene for quantitative antiviral assay.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Li, Yongfeng; Chen, Jianing; Li, Chao; Huang, Junhua; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Li, Su; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious swine disease leading to significant economic losses worldwide. Vaccines are widely used to control the disease, and no CSFV-specific antivirals are currently available. To facilitate anti-CSFV molecule discovery, we developed a reporter virus CSFV-N(pro)Fluc stably expressing the firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene in the N(pro) gene. The reporter virus enabled more sensitive and convenient detection of the N(pro) protein expression and the viral replication by luciferase reporter assay than by traditional methods. The CSFV N(pro) protein was detectable as early as 4.5h post-infection. As a proof-of-concept for its utility in rapid antiviral screening, this reporter virus was used to quantify anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies of 50 swine sera and to assess 12 small interfering RNAs targeting different regions of the CSFV genome. The results were comparable to those obtained by traditional methods. Taken together, the reporter virus CSFV-N(pro)Fluc represents a useful tool for rapid and quantitative screening and evaluation of antivirals against CSFV.

  5. Novel application of pH-sensitive firefly luciferases as dual reporter genes for simultaneous ratiometric analysis of intracellular pH and gene expression/location.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Gabriele V M; Viviani, Vadim R

    2014-12-01

    Firefly luciferases are widely used as bioluminescent reporter genes for bioimaging and biosensors. Aiming at simultaneous analyses of different gene expression and cellular events, luciferases and GFPs that exhibit distinct bioluminescence and fluorescence colors have been coupled with each promoter, making dual and multicolor reporter systems. Despite their wide use, firefly luciferase bioluminescence spectra are pH-sensitive, resulting in a typical large red shift at acidic pH, a side-effect that may affect some bioanalytical purposes. Although some intracellular pH-indicators employ dual color and fluorescent dyes, none has been considered to benefit from the characteristic spectral pH-sensitivity of firefly luciferases to monitor intracellular pH-associated stress, an important indicator of cell homeostasis. Here we demonstrate a linear relationship between the ratio of intensities in the green and red regions of the bioluminescence spectra and pH using firefly luciferases cloned in our laboratory (Macrolampis sp2 and Cratomorphus distinctus), allowing estimation of E. coli intracellular pH, thus providing a new analytical method for ratiometric intracellular pH-sensing. This is the first dual reporter system that employs a single luciferase gene to simultaneously monitor intracellular pH using spectral changes, and gene expression and/or ATP concentration using the bioluminescence intensity, showing great potential for real time bioanalysis of intracellular processes associated with metabolic changes such as apoptosis, cell death, inflammation and tissue acidification, among the other physiological changes.

  6. Evaluation of a bioluminescent mouse model expressing aromatase PII-promoter-controlled luciferase as a tool for the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rivest, Patricia Devine, Patrick J. Sanderson, J. Thomas

    2010-11-15

    Dysfunction of the enzyme aromatase (CYP19) is associated with endocrine pathologies such as osteoporosis, impaired fertility and development of hormone-dependent cancers. Certain endocrine disrupting chemicals affect aromatase expression and activity in vitro, but little is known about their ability to do so in vivo. We evaluated a bioluminescent mouse model (LPTA (registered)) CD-1-Tg(Cyp19-luc)-Xen) expressing luciferase under control of the gonadal aromatase pII promoter as an in vivo screening tool for chemicals that may affect aromatase expression. We studied the effects of forskolin, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and atrazine in this model (atrazine was previously shown to induced pII-promoter-driven aromatase expression in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells). About 2-4 out of every group of 10 male or female Cyp19-luc mice injected i.p. with 10 mg/kg forskolin had increased gonadal bioluminescence after 3-5 days compared to controls; the others appeared non-responsive. Similarly, about 4 per group of 9 individual females injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin had increased ovarian bioluminescence after 24 h. There was a statistically significant correlation between ovarian bioluminescence and plasma estradiol concentrations (n = 14; p = 0.022). Males exposed to a single dose of 100 mg/kg or males and females exposed to 5 daily injections of 30 mg/kg atrazine showed no change in gonadal bioluminescence over a 7 day period, but a significant interaction was found between atrazine (100 mg/kg) and time in female mice (p < 0.05; two-way ANOVA). Ex vivo luciferase activity in dissected organs was increased by forskolin in testis, epididymis and ovaries. Atrazine (30 mg/kg/day) increased (30%) luciferase activity significantly in epididymis only. In conclusion, certain individual Cyp19-luc mice are highly responsive to aromatase inducers, suggesting this model, with further optimization, may have potential as an in vivo screening tool for

  7. Bortezomib and ixazomib protect firefly luciferase from degradation and can flaw respective reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonas Philipp; Clemens, Jannick Robert; Theile, Dirk; Weiss, Johanna

    2016-09-15

    Firefly luciferase-based reporter gene assays are the most commonly used assays to investigate the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, direct interaction of tested compounds with the firefly luciferase leading to altered enzymatic activity may lead to misinterpretation of experimental data. When investigating the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, we observed increased luminescence for bortezomib and ixazomib, but not for carfilzomib, in a pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) reporter gene assay, which was inconsistent with the mRNA expression levels of the main PXR target gene CYP3A4. To further scrutinize this phenomenon, we performed experiments with constitutively expressed firefly luciferase and demonstrated that the increase in cellular firefly luciferase activity is independent from PXR activation or CYP3A4 promoter. Using cell-free assays with recombinant firefly luciferase enzyme, we made the counterintuitive observation that firefly luciferase activity is inhibited by bortezomib and ixazomib in a reversible and competitive manner. This inhibition stabilizes the firefly luciferase enzyme against proteolytic degradation (e.g., toward trypsin), thereby increasing its half-life with subsequent enhancement of total cellular luminescence that eventually mimicked PXR-driven luciferase induction. These data show that particular compounds can strikingly interfere with firefly luciferase and once more illustrate the importance of careful interpretation of data obtained from luciferase-based assays. PMID:27325500

  8. Bortezomib and ixazomib protect firefly luciferase from degradation and can flaw respective reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonas Philipp; Clemens, Jannick Robert; Theile, Dirk; Weiss, Johanna

    2016-09-15

    Firefly luciferase-based reporter gene assays are the most commonly used assays to investigate the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, direct interaction of tested compounds with the firefly luciferase leading to altered enzymatic activity may lead to misinterpretation of experimental data. When investigating the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, we observed increased luminescence for bortezomib and ixazomib, but not for carfilzomib, in a pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) reporter gene assay, which was inconsistent with the mRNA expression levels of the main PXR target gene CYP3A4. To further scrutinize this phenomenon, we performed experiments with constitutively expressed firefly luciferase and demonstrated that the increase in cellular firefly luciferase activity is independent from PXR activation or CYP3A4 promoter. Using cell-free assays with recombinant firefly luciferase enzyme, we made the counterintuitive observation that firefly luciferase activity is inhibited by bortezomib and ixazomib in a reversible and competitive manner. This inhibition stabilizes the firefly luciferase enzyme against proteolytic degradation (e.g., toward trypsin), thereby increasing its half-life with subsequent enhancement of total cellular luminescence that eventually mimicked PXR-driven luciferase induction. These data show that particular compounds can strikingly interfere with firefly luciferase and once more illustrate the importance of careful interpretation of data obtained from luciferase-based assays.

  9. Analysis of LPS-induced, NFκB-dependent interleukin-8 transcription in kidney embryonic cell line expressing TLR4 using luciferase assay.

    PubMed

    Yunusova, Tamara; Akhtar, Mumtaz; Poltoratsky, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is orchestrated by a complex network of signal transduction pathways that typically originate on cell surface receptors and culminate in DNA-binding transcription factors, which translocate to the nucleus and bind cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions of genes, thereby inducing de novo synthesis of the nascent RNA transcripts and their splicing. Gene expression arrays monitor abundance of the matured, spliced cDNA, which undergoes additional posttranscriptional modifications that greatly affect the half-life of the cDNA. Thus, the relative abundance of cDNA is not necessarily commensurable with the activity of promoters of the corresponding genes. In contrast, reporter gene assays provide valuable insight into the regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription and allow for discerning the contribution of individual transcription factors into changes in gene expression. Here, we describe a robust reporter gene assay method that is useful for exploration of transcription regulatory network, which regulates gene expression in response to inflammation. The method is exemplified by using the promoter region of the prototypic pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8), which plays an important role in immune response as well as carcinogenesis. Using the luciferase reporter gene assay, we analyze the activation status of the IL-8 promoter in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human embryonic kidney cells. PMID:24908317

  10. Analysis of LPS-induced, NFκB-dependent interleukin-8 transcription in kidney embryonic cell line expressing TLR4 using luciferase assay.

    PubMed

    Yunusova, Tamara; Akhtar, Mumtaz; Poltoratsky, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is orchestrated by a complex network of signal transduction pathways that typically originate on cell surface receptors and culminate in DNA-binding transcription factors, which translocate to the nucleus and bind cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions of genes, thereby inducing de novo synthesis of the nascent RNA transcripts and their splicing. Gene expression arrays monitor abundance of the matured, spliced cDNA, which undergoes additional posttranscriptional modifications that greatly affect the half-life of the cDNA. Thus, the relative abundance of cDNA is not necessarily commensurable with the activity of promoters of the corresponding genes. In contrast, reporter gene assays provide valuable insight into the regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription and allow for discerning the contribution of individual transcription factors into changes in gene expression. Here, we describe a robust reporter gene assay method that is useful for exploration of transcription regulatory network, which regulates gene expression in response to inflammation. The method is exemplified by using the promoter region of the prototypic pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8), which plays an important role in immune response as well as carcinogenesis. Using the luciferase reporter gene assay, we analyze the activation status of the IL-8 promoter in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human embryonic kidney cells.

  11. Establishment of Green Fluorescent Protein and Firefly Luciferase Expressing Mouse Primary Macrophages for In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Lin, Tzu-hua; Sato, Taishi; Loi, Florence; Yao, Zhenyu; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in tissue homeostasis as well as in a range of pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmunity. Many aspects of their in vivo behavior are, however, poorly understood. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase (FLUC) labelled autologous reporter macrophages could potentially offer a powerful tool to study macrophage biology, but this approach has been hindered by the relative difficulty of efficient gene transfer into primary macrophages. Here we describe a straightforward method for producing large numbers of GFP/FLUC expressing mouse primary macrophages utilizing lentivirus vector, cyclosporine, and a double infection strategy. Using this method we achieved up to 60% of macrophages to express GFP with correspondingly high FLUC signal. When injected into the circulation using a mouse model of local biomaterial induced inflammation and osteolysis, macrophages were initially detectable within the lungs, followed by systemic homing to the local area of chronic inflammation in the distal femur. In addition, transduced macrophages maintained their ability to assume M1 and M2 phenotypes although the GFP/FLUC expression was altered by the polarizing signals. These reporter macrophages could prove to be valuable tools to study the role of macrophages in health and disease. PMID:26555613

  12. Design of disulfide bridge as an alternative mechanism for color shift in firefly luciferase and development of secreted luciferase.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mahboobeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2011-07-01

    The bioluminescence reaction, which uses luciferin, Mg(2+)-ATP and molecular oxygen to yield an electronically excited oxyluciferin, is carried out by luciferase and emits visible light. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase structure and assay conditions. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make three separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Moreover, C(81)-A(105)C mutant luciferase was modified and successfully secreted to the extracellular medium. By introduction of disulfide bridges using site-directed mutagenesis in Photinus pyralis luciferase the color of emitted light was changed to red and the optimum temperature of activity was also increased (up to 10 °C more than wild type). Amongst mutants with a disulfide bridge, P(451)C-V(469)C and L(306)C-L(309)C mutants exhibit a single peak in the red region of the spectrum at pH 7.8. It is worthwhile to note that with the design of a secreted luciferase, the increased optimum temperature, thermostability and emission of red light might make mutant luciferase suitable reporters for the study of gene expression in high through-put screening.

  13. GENERATION OF TWO STABLE CELL LINES THAT EXPRESS HER-ALPHA OR HER-ALPHA AND -BETA AND FIREFLY LUCIFERASE GENES FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of Two Stable Cell Lines that Express hERa or
    hERa and b and Firefly Luciferase Genes for Endocrine Screening

    K.L. Bobseine*1, W.R. Kelce2, P.C. Hartig*1, and L.E. Gray, Jr.1

    1USEPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC, 2Searle, Reprod...

  14. Sonodelivery Facilitates Sustained Luciferase Expression from an Episomal Vector in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Manoel Figueiredo; Letteri, Rachel; Chan-Seng, Delphine; Emrick, Todd; Figueiredo, Marxa L.

    2015-01-01

    Successful gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a desirable goal, not only for treating muscle diseases, but also for immunization, treatment of metabolic disorders, and/or delivering gene expression that can treat systemic conditions, such as bone metastatic cancer, for example. Although naked DNA uptake into skeletal muscle is possible, it is largely inefficient in the absence of additional chemical or physical delivery methods. We describe a system for delivery of non-viral or plasmid DNA to skeletal muscle using ultrasound-assisted sonoporation of a nanoplex combining plasmid DNA and a branched polymer based on poly(cyclooctene-graft-oligopeptide). The materials and methods described herein promise to advance the field of sonodelivery and of gene delivery to muscle for therapeutic applications since a simple system is presented that enables long-term gene expression in vivo with the promise of a minimal inflammatory gene expression profile. PMID:26834950

  15. The dark and bright sides of an enzyme: a three dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of Zophobas morio luciferase-like enzyme, inferences on the biological function and origin of oxygenase/luciferase activity.

    PubMed

    Prado, R A; Santos, C R; Kato, D I; Murakami, M T; Viviani, V R

    2016-05-11

    Beetle luciferases, the enzymes responsible for bioluminescence, are special cases of CoA-ligases which have acquired a novel oxygenase activity, offering elegant models to investigate the structural origin of novel catalytic functions in enzymes. What the original function of their ancestors was, and how the new oxygenase function emerged leading to bioluminescence remains unclear. To address these questions, we solved the crystal structure of a recently cloned Malpighian luciferase-like enzyme of unknown function from Zophobas morio mealworms, which displays weak luminescence with ATP and the xenobiotic firefly d-luciferin. The three dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain showed the expected general fold of CoA-ligases, with a unique carboxylic substrate binding pocket, permitting the binding and CoA-thioesterification activity with a broad range of carboxylic substrates, including short-, medium-chain and aromatic acids, indicating a generalist function consistent with a xenobiotic-ligase. The thioesterification activity with l-luciferin, but not with the d-enantiomer, confirms that the oxygenase activity emerged from a stereoselective impediment of the thioesterification reaction with the latter, favoring the alternative chemiluminescence oxidative reaction. The structure and site-directed mutagenesis support the involvement of the main-chain amide carbonyl of the invariant glycine G323 as the catalytic base for luciferin C4 proton abstraction during the oxygenase activity in this enzyme and in beetle luciferases (G343).

  16. The dark and bright sides of an enzyme: a three dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of Zophobas morio luciferase-like enzyme, inferences on the biological function and origin of oxygenase/luciferase activity.

    PubMed

    Prado, R A; Santos, C R; Kato, D I; Murakami, M T; Viviani, V R

    2016-05-11

    Beetle luciferases, the enzymes responsible for bioluminescence, are special cases of CoA-ligases which have acquired a novel oxygenase activity, offering elegant models to investigate the structural origin of novel catalytic functions in enzymes. What the original function of their ancestors was, and how the new oxygenase function emerged leading to bioluminescence remains unclear. To address these questions, we solved the crystal structure of a recently cloned Malpighian luciferase-like enzyme of unknown function from Zophobas morio mealworms, which displays weak luminescence with ATP and the xenobiotic firefly d-luciferin. The three dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain showed the expected general fold of CoA-ligases, with a unique carboxylic substrate binding pocket, permitting the binding and CoA-thioesterification activity with a broad range of carboxylic substrates, including short-, medium-chain and aromatic acids, indicating a generalist function consistent with a xenobiotic-ligase. The thioesterification activity with l-luciferin, but not with the d-enantiomer, confirms that the oxygenase activity emerged from a stereoselective impediment of the thioesterification reaction with the latter, favoring the alternative chemiluminescence oxidative reaction. The structure and site-directed mutagenesis support the involvement of the main-chain amide carbonyl of the invariant glycine G323 as the catalytic base for luciferin C4 proton abstraction during the oxygenase activity in this enzyme and in beetle luciferases (G343). PMID:27101527

  17. Firefly luciferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Leitão, João M M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-10-01

    Firefly luciferase (Luc) is the most studied of the luciferase enzymes and the mechanism and kinetics of the reactions catalyzed by this enzyme have been relatively well characterized. Luc catalyzes the bioluminescent reaction involving firefly luciferin (D-LH(2)), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), magnesium ion and molecular oxygen with the formation of an electronically excited species (oxyluciferin), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), carbon dioxide and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Luc also catalyzes other non-luminescent reactions, which can interfere with the light production mechanism. Following electronic relaxation, the excited oxyluciferin emits radiation in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (550-570 nm). Among the various possible compounds, several classes of inhibitory substances interfere with the activity of this enzyme: here, we consider substrate-related compounds, intermediates or products of the Luc catalyzed reactions, in addition to anesthetics and, fatty acids. This review summarizes the main inhibitors of Luc and the corresponding inhibition kinetic parameters.

  18. A New Screen for Tuberculosis Drug Candidates Utilizing a Luciferase-Expressing Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guéren

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Masayuki; Doe, Matsumi; Tamaru, Aki; Kinoshita, Naoko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Sawa, Ryuichi; Umekita, Maya; Enany, Shymaa; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Niki, Mamiko; Tateishi, Yoshitaka; Hatano, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease caused by a bacterial pathogen. Mortality from tuberculosis was estimated at 1.5 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Development of new TB drugs is needed to not only to shorten the medication period but also to treat multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) grows slowly and only multiplies once or twice per day. Therefore, conventional drug screening takes more than 3 weeks. Additionally, a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) facility is required. Thus, we developed a new screening method to identify TB drug candidates by utilizing luciferase-expressing recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guéren (rBCG). Using this method, we identified several candidates in 4 days in a non-BSL-3 facility. We screened 10,080 individual crude extracts derived from Actinomyces and Streptomyces and identified 137 extracts which possessed suppressive activity to the luciferase of rBCG. Among them, 41 compounds inhibited the growth of both Mtb H37Rv and the extensively drug-resistant Mtb (XDR-Mtb) strains. We purified the active substance of the 1904–1 extract, which possessed strong activity toward rBCG, Mtb H37Rv, and XDR-Mtb but was harmless to the host eukaryotic cells. The MIC of this substance was 0.13 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml, and 2.0–7.5 μg/ml against rBCG, H37Rv, and 2 XDR-strains, respectively. Its efficacy was specific to acid-fast bacterium except for the Mycobacterium avium intracellular complex. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that the active substance of 1904–1 was cyclomarin A. To confirm the mode of action of the 1904-1-derived compound, resistant BCG clones were used. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis showed that these clones contained a mutation in the clpc gene which encodes caseinolytic protein, an essential component of an ATP-dependent proteinase, and the likely target of the active substance of 1904–1. Our method provides a

  19. A Luciferase-Expressing Leishmania braziliensis Line That Leads to Sustained Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Allows Monitoring of Miltefosine Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Adriano C.; Oliveira, Jordana C.; Espada, Caroline R.; Reimão, Juliana Q.; Trinconi, Cristiana T.; Uliana, Silvia R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania braziliensis is the most prevalent species isolated from patients displaying cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, there are difficulties for studying L. braziliensis pathogenesis or response to chemotherapy in vivo due to the natural resistance of most mouse strains to infection with these parasites. The aim of this work was to develop an experimental set up that could be used to assess drug efficacy against L. braziliensis. The model was tested using miltefosine. Methodology/Principal Findings A L. braziliensis line, originally isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, was passaged repeatedly in laboratory rodents and further genetically manipulated to express luciferase. Once collected from a culture of parasites freshly transformed from amastigotes, 106 wild type or luciferase-expressing stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated subcutaneously in young BALB/c mice or golden hamsters. In both groups, sustained cutaneous lesions developed at the site of inoculation, no spontaneous self- healing being observed 4 months post-inoculation, if left untreated. Compared to the wild type line features, no difference was noted for the luciferase-transgenic line. Infected animals were treated with 5 or 15 mg/kg/day miltefosine orally for 15 days. At the end of treatment, lesions had regressed and parasites were not detected. However, relapses were observed in animals treated with both doses of miltefosine. Conclusions/Significance Here we described experimental settings for a late-healing model of cutaneous leishmaniasis upon inoculation of a luciferase-expressing L. braziliensis line that can be applied to drug development projects. These settings allowed the monitoring of the transient efficacy of a short-term miltefosine administration. PMID:27144739

  20. Development of Neh2-Luciferase Reporter and Its Application for High Throughput Screening and Real-Time Monitoring of Nrf2 Activators

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Natalya A.; Haskew-Layton, Renee E.; Basso, Manuela; Hushpulian, Dmitry M.; Payappilly, Jimmy B.; Speer, Rachel E.; Ahn, Young-Hoon; Rakhman, Ilay; Cole, Philip A.; Pinto, John T.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Gazaryan, Irina G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant defense and detoxification. To directly monitor stabilization of Nrf2, we fused its Neh2 domain, responsible for the interaction with its nucleocytoplasmic regulator, Keap1, to firefly luciferase (Neh2-luciferase). We show that Neh2 domain is sufficient for recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation of Neh2-luciferase fusion protein. The Neh2-luc reporter system allows direct monitoring of the adaptive response to redox stress and classification of drugs based on the time course of reporter activation. The reporter was used to screen the Spectrum library of 2000 biologically active compounds to identify activators of Nrf2. The most robust and yet nontoxic Nrf2 activators found—nordihydroguaiaretic acid, fisetin, and gedunin—induced astrocyte-dependent neuroprotection from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. PMID:21700211

  1. Development of Neh2-luciferase reporter and its application for high throughput screening and real-time monitoring of Nrf2 activators.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalya A; Haskew-Layton, Renee E; Basso, Manuela; Hushpulian, Dmitry M; Payappilly, Jimmy B; Speer, Rachel E; Ahn, Young-Hoon; Rakhman, Ilay; Cole, Philip A; Pinto, John T; Ratan, Rajiv R; Gazaryan, Irina G

    2011-06-24

    The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant defense and detoxification. To directly monitor stabilization of Nrf2, we fused its Neh2 domain, responsible for the interaction with its nucleocytoplasmic regulator, Keap1, to firefly luciferase (Neh2-luciferase). We show that Neh2 domain is sufficient for recognition, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation of Neh2-luciferase fusion protein. The Neh2-luc reporter system allows direct monitoring of the adaptive response to redox stress and classification of drugs based on the time course of reporter activation. The reporter was used to screen the Spectrum library of 2000 biologically active compounds to identify activators of Nrf2. The most robust and yet nontoxic Nrf2 activators found--nordihydroguaiaretic acid, fisetin, and gedunin--induced astrocyte-dependent neuroprotection from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. PMID:21700211

  2. [Subunit interactions in luciferase from the firefly Luciola mingrelica. Their role in the manifestation of enzyme activity and during thermoinactivation].

    PubMed

    Brovko, L Iu; Beliaeva, E I; Ugarova, N N

    1982-05-01

    It was shown that the dimers of the firefly luciferase possess the catalytic activity, whereas the monomers do not. The dissociation constant (Kd) for active dimers was determined at pH 7.0--8.4 within the temperature range of 15--35 degrees and at MgSO4 and Na2SO4 concentrations varying from 37 to 370 mM and 49 to 490 mM, respectively. Under variable conditions the Kd value changed only insignificantly and made up to 13 nm. The substitution of Na2SO4 for MgSO4 decreased Kd 2.5 times. The effective rate constant for the enzyme inactivation (kin) was increased more than 5-fold, when the luciferase concentration was decreased from 200 down to 3.5 nM in the presence of 37 mM MgSO4. When the concentration of the latter was increased up to 185 mM, the value of kin ceased to depend on the enzyme concentration. The decrease of kin was also observed at an increase in Na2SO4. An inactivation pattern for the enzyme in solution was determined both for the monomer and for the dimer of the enzyme. The equations allowing to calculate the inactivation constant for the monomer (Ki) and dimer (k2) at different pH values, temperatures and salt concentrations were obtained. The enzyme was found to be stabilized by salts more than 10-fold, the stabilizing effect being far more pronounced for the enzyme monomer than for the dimer. The dependence of the effective kin value on pH and temperature was primarily influenced by the dependence of the inactivation rate constant for the dimer. PMID:7093378

  3. Superinduction of estrogen receptor mediated gene expression in luciferase based reporter gene assays is mediated by a post-transcriptional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sotoca, A M; Bovee, T F H; Brand, W; Velikova, N; Boeren, S; Murk, A J; Vervoort, J; Rietjens, I M C M

    2010-10-01

    Several estrogenic compounds including the isoflavonoid genistein have been reported to induce a higher maximal response than the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol in in vitro luciferase based reporter gene bioassays for testing estrogenicity. The phenomenon has been referred to as superinduction. The mechanism underlying this effect and thus also its biological relevance remain to be elucidated. In the present study several hypotheses for the possible mechanisms underlying this superinduction were investigated using genistein as the model compound. These hypotheses included (i) a non-estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated mechanism, (ii) a role for an ER activating genistein metabolite with higher ER inducing activity than genistein itself, and (iii) a post-transcriptional mechanism that is not biologically relevant but specific for the luciferase based reporter gene assays. The data presented in this study indicate that induction and also superinduction of the reporter gene is ER-mediated, and that superinduction by genistein could be ascribed to stabilization of the firefly luciferase reporter enzyme increasing the bioluminescent signal during the cell-based assay. This indicates that the phenomenon of superinduction may not be biologically relevant but may rather represent a post-transcriptional effect on enzyme stability.

  4. A real-time bioluminescent HTS method for measuring protein kinase activity influenced neither by ATP concentration nor by luciferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Arne; Eriksson, Jonas

    2008-08-01

    The firefly luciferin-luciferase reaction has been used to set up an assay for protein kinase based on measuring ATP consumption rate as the first-order rate constant for the kinase reaction. The assay obviates the problems encountered with previous bioluminescent protein kinase assays such as interference with the luciferase reaction from library compounds, nonlinear standard curves, and limited dynamic ranges. In the assay described in the present paper luciferase and luciferin are present during the entire kinase reaction, and the light emission can be measured continuously. In an HTS situation the light emission is measured only twice, i.e., initially and after a predetermined time. After a fivefold reduction of the ATP concentration a Z' value of 0.96 was obtained. Light emission data from samples with kinase are normalized with light emission data from blanks without kinase. First-order rate constants for the kinase reaction calculated from normalized light emission are not affected by a moderate degree of inactivation of luciferase and luciferin during the measuring time. The constants have the same value at all ATP concentrations much lower than the K(m) of the luciferase and the kinase. These factors make the assay very robust and influenced neither by ATP concentration nor by luciferase inhibition. The measuring time depends on the kinase activity and can be varied from minutes to more than 8 h provided the kinase is stable and the evaporation of water from the wells is acceptable. The assay is linear with respect to kinase activity over three orders of magnitude. The new reagents also allowed us to determine K(m) values for ATP and for Kemptide.

  5. Novel Luciferase-Based Reporter System to Monitor Activation of ErbB2/Her2/neu Pathway Noninvasively During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Frank; Li Wenrong; Li Fang; Li Chuanyuan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a split-luciferase-based reporter system that allows for noninvasive monitoring of activation of the Her2/neu pathway in vivo in a quantitative and sensitive manner. Methods and Materials: Fusion proteins of the ErbB2/Her2/neu receptor to the N-terminal fragment of luciferase and of its downstream binding partner Shc to the C-terminal fragment of luciferase have been engineered owing to the rationale that on activation and binding of the Her2 receptor molecule to Shc, luciferase function will be reconstituted. Thus, the resulting bioluminescence signals can serve as a surrogate measure of receptor activation. Results: We have shown that our reporter systems functions well in vitro in breast cancer cells and in vivo in xenograft tumors. In particular, the activities of Her2/neu in xenograft tumors could be monitored serially for an extended period after radiotherapy. Conclusions: We believe that the novel ErbB2/Her2/neu reporter we have presented is a powerful tool to study the biology of the Her2-neu pathway in vitro and in vivo. It should also facilitate the development and rapid evaluation of new Her2/neu-targeted therapeutic agents.

  6. A novel luciferase based reporter system to monitor activation of the ErbB2/Her2/neu pathway non-invasively during radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Frank; Li, Wenrong; Li, Fang; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop a split-luciferase based reporter system that allows for non-invasive monitoring of activation of the Her2/neu pathway in vivo in a quantitative and sensitive manner. Methods and Materials Fusion proteins of the ErbB2/Her2/neu receptor to the N-terminal fragment of luciferase as well as of its downstream binding partner Shc to the C-terminal fragment of luciferase have been engineered based on the rationale that upon activation and binding of the Her2 receptor molecule to Shc, luciferase function will be reconstituted. Thus the resulting bioluminescence signals can serve as a surrogate measure of receptor activation. Results We show that our reporter systems functions well in vitro in breast cancer cells and in vivo in xenograft tumors. In particular, the activities of Her2/neu in xenograft tumors could be monitored serially for an extended period of time after radiotherapy. Conclusions We believe that the novel ErbB2/Her2/neu reporter presented here is a powerful tool to study the biology of the Her2-neu pathway in vitro as well as in vivo. It should also facilitate the development and rapid evaluation of new Her2/neu targeted therapeutics. PMID:20934271

  7. Knock-in Luciferase Reporter Mice for In Vivo Monitoring of CREB Activity.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, Dmitry; Rajendran, Kavitha; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Maria G; Berdeaux, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is induced during fasting in the liver, where it stimulates transcription of rate-limiting gluconeogenic genes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Adenoviral and transgenic CREB reporters have been used to monitor hepatic CREB activity non-invasively using bioluminescence reporter imaging. However, adenoviral vectors and randomly inserted transgenes have several limitations. To overcome disadvantages of the currently used strategies, we created a ROSA26 knock-in CREB reporter mouse line (ROSA26-CRE-luc). cAMP-inducing ligands stimulate the reporter in primary hepatocytes and myocytes from ROSA26-CRE-luc animals. In vivo, these animals exhibit little hepatic CREB activity in the ad libitum fed state but robust induction after fasting. Strikingly, CREB was markedly stimulated in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, after overnight voluntary wheel-running exercise, uncovering differential regulation of CREB in these tissues under catabolic states. The ROSA26-CRE-luc mouse line is a useful resource to study dynamics of CREB activity longitudinally in vivo and can be used as a source of primary cells for analysis of CREB regulatory pathways ex vivo. PMID:27336479

  8. Knock-in Luciferase Reporter Mice for In Vivo Monitoring of CREB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akhmedov, Dmitry; Rajendran, Kavitha; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is induced during fasting in the liver, where it stimulates transcription of rate-limiting gluconeogenic genes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Adenoviral and transgenic CREB reporters have been used to monitor hepatic CREB activity non-invasively using bioluminescence reporter imaging. However, adenoviral vectors and randomly inserted transgenes have several limitations. To overcome disadvantages of the currently used strategies, we created a ROSA26 knock-in CREB reporter mouse line (ROSA26-CRE-luc). cAMP-inducing ligands stimulate the reporter in primary hepatocytes and myocytes from ROSA26-CRE-luc animals. In vivo, these animals exhibit little hepatic CREB activity in the ad libitum fed state but robust induction after fasting. Strikingly, CREB was markedly stimulated in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, after overnight voluntary wheel-running exercise, uncovering differential regulation of CREB in these tissues under catabolic states. The ROSA26-CRE-luc mouse line is a useful resource to study dynamics of CREB activity longitudinally in vivo and can be used as a source of primary cells for analysis of CREB regulatory pathways ex vivo. PMID:27336479

  9. Thermostability of firefly luciferases affects efficiency of detection by in vivo bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baggett, Brenda; Roy, Rupali; Momen, Shafinaz; Morgan, Sherif; Tisi, Laurence; Morse, David; Gillies, Robert J

    2004-10-01

    Luciferase from the North American firefly (Photinis pyralis) is a useful reporter gene in vivo, allowing noninvasive imaging of tumor growth, metastasis, gene transfer, drug treatment, and gene expression. Luciferase is heat labile with an in vitro halflife of approximately 3 min at 37 degrees C. We have characterized wild type and six thermostabilized mutant luciferases. In vitro, mutants showed half-lives between 2- and 25-fold higher than wild type. Luciferase transfected mammalian cells were used to determine in vivo half-lives following cycloheximide inhibition of de novo protein synthesis. This showed increased in vivo thermostability in both wild-type and mutant luciferases. This may be due to a variety of factors, including chaperone activity, as steady-state luciferase levels were reduced by geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor. Mice inoculated with tumor cells stably transfected with mutant or wild-type luciferases were imaged. Increased light production and sensitivity were observed in the tumors bearing thermostable luciferase. Thermostable proteins increase imaging sensitivity. Presumably, as more active protein accumulates, detection is possible from a smaller number of mutant transfected cells compared to wild-type transfected cells.

  10. Supramolecular Control over Split-Luciferase Complementation.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Ralph P G; Briels, Jeroen M; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; de Greef, Tom F A; Merkx, Maarten; Brunsveld, Luc

    2016-07-25

    Supramolecular split-enzyme complementation restores enzymatic activity and allows for on-off switching. Split-luciferase fragment pairs were provided with an N-terminal FGG sequence and screened for complementation through host-guest binding to cucurbit[8]uril (Q8). Split-luciferase heterocomplex formation was induced in a Q8 concentration dependent manner, resulting in a 20-fold upregulation of luciferase activity. Supramolecular split-luciferase complementation was fully reversible, as revealed by using two types of Q8 inhibitors. Competition studies with the weak-binding FGG peptide revealed a 300-fold enhanced stability for the formation of the ternary heterocomplex compared to binding of two of the same fragments to Q8. Stochiometric binding by the potent inhibitor memantine could be used for repeated cycling of luciferase activation and deactivation in conjunction with Q8, providing a versatile module for in vitro supramolecular signaling networks.

  11. Establishment and evaluation of a new highly metastatic tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Masamoto, Kazuto; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Imamura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Although advances in diagnostic imaging for early detection, surgical techniques and chemotherapy have improved overall survival, the prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer remains poor. Understanding cancer cell dynamics in the metastatic process is important to develop new therapeutic strategies. Experimental animal models and imaging would be powerful tools for understanding of the molecular events of multistep process of metastasis. In the present study, to develop a new cancer cell line that is applicable to bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we transfected the expression vector of a green fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 into a metastatic cell line 5a-D-Luc, which is a subclone of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing luciferase, and established a new tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and ZsGreen1. The 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells proliferate more rapidly and have a more invasive phenotype compared with 5a-D-Luc cells following intracardiac injection. Metastasis sites were easily detected in the whole body by bioluminescence imaging and in excised tissues by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells was not lost after formalin fixation and decalcification. It enabled us to easily evaluate tumor spread and localization at the cellular level in microscopic analysis. The strong fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells allowed for real-time imaging of circulating tumor cells in cerebral blood vessels of live animals immediately after intracardiac injection of cells using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. These findings suggest that the 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells would be a useful tool for research on mechanisms of metastatic process in animal models. PMID:26691676

  12. Establishment and evaluation of a new highly metastatic tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Masamoto, Kazuto; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Imamura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Although advances in diagnostic imaging for early detection, surgical techniques and chemotherapy have improved overall survival, the prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer remains poor. Understanding cancer cell dynamics in the metastatic process is important to develop new therapeutic strategies. Experimental animal models and imaging would be powerful tools for understanding of the molecular events of multistep process of metastasis. In the present study, to develop a new cancer cell line that is applicable to bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we transfected the expression vector of a green fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 into a metastatic cell line 5a-D-Luc, which is a subclone of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing luciferase, and established a new tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and ZsGreen1. The 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells proliferate more rapidly and have a more invasive phenotype compared with 5a-D-Luc cells following intracardiac injection. Metastasis sites were easily detected in the whole body by bioluminescence imaging and in excised tissues by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells was not lost after formalin fixation and decalcification. It enabled us to easily evaluate tumor spread and localization at the cellular level in microscopic analysis. The strong fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells allowed for real-time imaging of circulating tumor cells in cerebral blood vessels of live animals immediately after intracardiac injection of cells using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. These findings suggest that the 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells would be a useful tool for research on mechanisms of metastatic process in animal models.

  13. Bioluminescent Mycobacterium aurum expressing firefly luciferase for rapid and high throughput screening of antimycobacterial drugs in vitro and in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Deb, D K; Srivastava, K K; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, B S

    2000-12-20

    The slow growth and highly infectious nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a limiting factor in its use as test organism in high throughput screening for inhibitory compounds. To overcome these problems, use of surrogate strains and reporter genes have been considered. In this study, we have investigated the application of a fast growing nonpathogenic M. aurum expressing firefly luciferase in rapid screening of antituberculosis compounds in vitro and in infected macrophages using bioluminescence assay. The assay is based on luminescence determination using luciferin as substrate. Inhibition of bioluminescence was obtained with frontline antimycobacterial drugs like streptomycin, rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin at their reported MICs. Inhibition could be observed as early as 2 h in vitro and within 24 h in infected macrophages. The system can reliably be used in high throughput screening.

  14. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells. PMID:15936841

  15. Creation of High Efficient Firefly Luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsu, Toru

    Firefly emits visible yellow-green light. The bioluminescence reaction is carried out by the enzyme luciferase. The bioluminescence of luciferase is widely used as an excellent tool for monitoring gene expression, the measurement of the amount of ATP and in vivo imaging. Recently a study of the cancer metastasis is carried out by in vivo luminescence imaging system, because luminescence imaging is less toxic and more useful for long-term assay than fluorescence imaging by GFP. However the luminescence is much dimmer than fluorescence. Then bioluminescence imaging in living organisms demands the high efficient luciferase which emits near infrared lights or enhances the emission intensity. Here I introduce an idea for creating the high efficient luciferase based on the crystal structure.

  16. Aminoluciferins extend firefly luciferase bioluminescence into the near-infrared and can be preferred substrates over D-luciferin.

    PubMed

    Mofford, David M; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2014-09-24

    Firefly luciferase adenylates and oxidizes d-luciferin to chemically generate visible light and is widely used for biological assays and imaging. Here we show that both luciferase and luciferin can be reengineered to extend the scope of this light-emitting reaction. D-Luciferin can be replaced by synthetic luciferin analogues that increase near-infrared photon flux >10-fold over that of D-luciferin in live luciferase-expressing cells. Firefly luciferase can be mutated to accept and utilize rigid aminoluciferins with high activity in both live and lysed cells yet exhibit 10,000-fold selectivity over the natural luciferase substrate. These new luciferin analogues thus pave the way to an extended family of bioluminescent reporters.

  17. Superluminescent variants of marine luciferases for bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bae; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Sato, Moritoshi; Tao, Hiroaki

    2011-11-15

    In this study, a rational synthesis of superluminescent variants from marine luciferases with prolonged bioluminescence has been demonstrated. A putative active site of a model marine luciferase, Gaussia princeps Luciferase (GLuc), was assigned and modified by a site-directed mutagenesis. The potent variants were found to generate up to 10 times stronger bioluminescence, emitting red shifts of up to 33 nm with natural coelenterazine than native GLuc, rendering an efficient optical signature in bioassays. The advantageous properties were demonstrated with mammalian two-hybrid assays, single-chain probes, and metastases of murine B16 melanoma in BALB/c nude mice. The unique ideas for engineering GLuc are proved to be valid even for other marine luciferases. PMID:21951281

  18. The stem-loop luciferase assay for polyadenylation (SLAP) method for determining CstF-64-dependent polyadenylation activity.

    PubMed

    Hockert, J Andrew; Macdonald, Clinton C

    2014-01-01

    Polyadenylation is an essential cellular process in eukaryotic cells (Edmonds M and Abrams R, J Biol Chem 235, 1142-1149, 1960; Zhao J et al., Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63, 405-445, 1999; Edmonds M, Progr Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 71, 285-389, 2002). For this reason, it has been difficult to examine the functions of specific polyadenylation proteins in vivo. Here, we describe a cell culture assay that allows structure-function experiments on CstF-64, a protein that binds to pre-mRNAs downstream of the cleavage site for accurate and efficient polyadenylation. We also demonstrate that the stem-loop luciferase assay for polyadenylation (SLAP) accurately reflects CstF-64-dependent polyadenylation. This assay could be easily adapted to the study of other important RNA-binding proteins in polyadenylation.

  19. In Vivo Determination of Mitochondrial Function Using Luciferase-Expressing Caenorhabditis elegans: Contribution of Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glycolysis, and Fatty Acid Oxidation to Toxicant-Induced Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Luz, Anthony L; Lagido, Cristina; Hirschey, Matthew D; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are a target of many drugs and environmental toxicants; however, how toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the progression of human disease remains poorly understood. To address this issue, in vivo assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial function need to be developed. Here, using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we describe how to rapidly assess the in vivo role of the electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation in energy metabolism following toxicant exposure, using a luciferase-expressing ATP reporter strain. Alterations in mitochondrial function subsequent to toxicant exposure are detected by depleting steady-state ATP levels with inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation. Differential changes in ATP following short-term inhibitor exposure indicate toxicant-induced alterations at the site of inhibition. Because a microplate reader is the only major piece of equipment required, this is a highly accessible method for studying toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Use of bacterial and firefly luciferases as reporter genes in DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pazzagli, M; Devine, J H; Peterson, D O; Baldwin, T O

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different luciferase genes by placing them in a single reporter vector and expressing them in the same mammalian cell type. The luciferase genes investigated were the luc genes from the fireflies Photinus pyralis (PP) and Luciola mingrelica (LM) and the lux AB5 gene, a translational fusion of the two subunits of the bacterial luciferase from Vibrio harveyi (VH). The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was also included in this study for comparison. The performances of the assay methods of the corresponding enzymes were evaluated using reference materials and the results of the expressed enzymes following transfection were calculated using calibration curves. All of the bioluminescent assays possess high reproducibility both within and between the batches (less than 15%). The comparison of the assay methods shows that firefly luciferases have the highest detection sensitivity (0.05 and 0.08 amol for PP and LM, respectively) whereas the VH bacterial luciferase has 5 amol and CAT 100 amol. On the other hand, the transfection of the various plasmids shows that the content of the expressed enzyme within the cells is much higher for CAT than for the other luciferase genes. VH luciferase is expressed at very low levels in mammalian cells due to the relatively high temperature of growing of the mammalian cells that seems to impair the correct folding of the active enzyme. PP and LM luciferases are both expressed at picomolar level but usually 10 to 70 times less in content with respect to CAT within the transfected cells. On the basis of these results the overall improvement in sensitivity related to the use of firefly luciferases as reporter genes in mammalian cells is about 30 to 50 times with respect to that of CAT. PMID:1443530

  1. Luciferase reporter assay in Drosophila and mammalian tissue culture cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Luciferase reporter gene assays are one of the most common methods for monitoring gene activity. Because of their sensitivity, dynamic range, and lack of endogenous activity, luciferase assays have been particularly useful for functional genomics in cell-based assays, such as RNAi screening. This unit describes delivery of two luciferase reporters with other nucleic acids (siRNA /dsRNA), measurement of the dual luciferase activities, and analysis of data generated. The systematic query of gene function (RNAi) combined with the advances in luminescent technology have made it possible to design powerful whole genome screens to address diverse and significant biological questions. PMID:24652620

  2. Molecular Cloning of Secreted Luciferases from Marine Planktonic Copepods.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ikeo, Kazuho; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Secreted luciferases isolated from copepod crustaceans are frequently used for nondisruptive reporter-gene assays, such as the continuous, automated and/or high-throughput monitoring of gene expression in living cells. All known copepod luciferases share highly conserved amino acid residues in two similar, repeated domains in the sequence. The similarity in the domains are ideal nature for designing PCR primers to amplify cDNA fragments of unidentified copepod luciferases from bioluminescent copepod crustaceans. Here, we introduce how to establish a cDNA encoding novel copepod luciferases from a copepod specimen by PCR with degenerated primers.

  3. Firefly Luciferase Mutants Allow Substrate-Selective Bioluminescence Imaging in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Spencer T; Mofford, David M; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Miller, Stephen C

    2016-04-11

    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful approach for visualizing specific events occurring inside live mice. Animals can be made to glow in response to the expression of a gene, the activity of an enzyme, or the growth of a tumor. But bioluminescence requires the interaction of a luciferase enzyme with a small-molecule luciferin, and its scope has been limited by the mere handful of natural combinations. Herein, we show that mutants of firefly luciferase can discriminate between natural and synthetic substrates in the brains of live mice. When using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to express luciferases in the brain, we found that mutant luciferases that are inactive or weakly active with d-luciferin can light up brightly when treated with the aminoluciferins CycLuc1 and CycLuc2 or their respective FAAH-sensitive luciferin amides. Further development of selective luciferases promises to expand the power of bioluminescence and allow multiple events to be imaged in the same live animal.

  4. Firefly Luciferase Mutants Allow Substrate-Selective Bioluminescence Imaging in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Spencer T; Mofford, David M; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Miller, Stephen C

    2016-04-11

    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful approach for visualizing specific events occurring inside live mice. Animals can be made to glow in response to the expression of a gene, the activity of an enzyme, or the growth of a tumor. But bioluminescence requires the interaction of a luciferase enzyme with a small-molecule luciferin, and its scope has been limited by the mere handful of natural combinations. Herein, we show that mutants of firefly luciferase can discriminate between natural and synthetic substrates in the brains of live mice. When using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to express luciferases in the brain, we found that mutant luciferases that are inactive or weakly active with d-luciferin can light up brightly when treated with the aminoluciferins CycLuc1 and CycLuc2 or their respective FAAH-sensitive luciferin amides. Further development of selective luciferases promises to expand the power of bioluminescence and allow multiple events to be imaged in the same live animal. PMID:26991209

  5. Coelenterazine-dependent luciferases.

    PubMed

    Markova, S V; Vysotski, E S

    2015-06-01

    Bioluminescence is a widespread natural phenomenon. Luminous organisms are found among bacteria, fungi, protozoa, coelenterates, worms, molluscs, insects, and fish. Studies on bioluminescent systems of various organisms have revealed an interesting feature - the mechanisms underlying visible light emission are considerably different in representatives of different taxa despite the same final result of this biochemical process. Among the several substrates of bioluminescent reactions identified in marine luminous organisms, the most commonly used are imidazopyrazinone derivatives such as coelenterazine and Cypridina luciferin. Although the substrate used is the same, bioluminescent proteins that catalyze light emitting reactions in taxonomically remote luminous organisms do not show similarity either in amino acid sequences or in spatial structures. In this review, we consider luciferases of various luminous organisms that use coelenterazine or Cypridina luciferin as a substrate, as well as modifications of these proteins that improve their physicochemical and bioluminescent properties and therefore their applicability in bioluminescence imaging in vivo. PMID:26531017

  6. Cellular Immune Response Against Firefly Luciferase After Sleeping Beauty–Mediated Gene Transfer In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M.; Vezys, Vaiva; Somia, Nikunj V.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to mediate new gene sequence integration resulting in long-term expression. Here the effectiveness of hyperactive SB100X transposase was tested, and we found that hydrodynamic co-delivery of a firefly luciferase transposon (pT2/CaL) along with SB100X transposase (pCMV-SB100X) resulted in remarkably sustained, high levels of luciferase expression. However, after 4 weeks there was a rapid, animal-by-animal loss of luciferase expression that was not observed in immunodeficient mice. We hypothesized that this sustained, high-level luciferase expression achieved using the SB100X transposase elicits an immune response in pT2/CaL co-administered mice, which was supported by the rapid loss of luciferase expression upon challenge of previously treated animals and in naive animals adoptively transferred with splenocytes from previously treated animals. Specificity of the immune response to luciferase was demonstrated by increased cytokine expression in splenocytes after exposure to luciferase peptide in parallel with MHC I–luciferase peptide tetramer binding. This anti-luciferase immune response observed following continuous, high-level luciferase expression in vivo clearly impacts its use as an in vivo reporter. As both an immunogen and an extremely sensitive reporter, luciferase is also a useful model system for the study of immune responses following in vivo gene transfer and expression. PMID:25093708

  7. Relevance of Frank's solvent classification as typically aqueous and typically non-aqueous to activities of firefly luciferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alpha-chymotrypsin in aqueous binaries.

    PubMed

    Fadnavis, Nitin Wasantrao; Seshadri, Ramanujam; Sheelu, Gurrala; Madhuri, Kallakunta Vasantha

    2005-01-15

    Effects of cosolvent concentration on activity of fire fly luciferase, alpha-chymotrypsin, and alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been studied for several solvents with varying hydrophobicities (logP from +1.0 to -1.65) and polarities (dielectric constant from 7.4 to 109). The inhibitory effect of the cosolvent is examined in light of Frank's classification of solvents into 'typically aqueous (TA)' and 'typically non-aqueous (TNA).' The solvent concentration at which the enzyme activity decreases to half, the C(50) values, for TA solvents such as 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 2-butoxyethanol, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, tetrahydrofuran, t-butanol, and ethanol correlate quite well with their critical hydrophobic interaction concentration, rather than logP, while those for TNA solvents such as acetonitrile, dimethyl formamide, formamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide correlate well with logP. The interactions of TA solvents with proteins appear to be governed mainly by hydrophobic interactions while both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions play important role in case of TNA solvents.

  8. Making temporal maps using bacterial luciferase: Bacteriophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan; Broza, Rachel; Verkin, Ekaterina

    2004-06-01

    A method for making temporal maps in bacteria, plasmids and bacteriophages is described. A cassette containing both the genes for bacterial luciferase and kanamycin resistance can be introduced at precise sites. The technique involves clonging followed by genetic recombination. The result is formation of structures that have the luciferase genes in place of the normal DNA and this allows the very precise measurement of transcription/translation of the substituted regions. Very low levels of transcription as well as the kinetics of induction can be easily ascertained. As a specific demonstration of this general method, the technique was used with bacteriophage λ, one of the best known organisms. By measuring light emission, the expression of luciferase was followed after induction for both early and late genes. The exact timing of initial expression of genes was also determined by sampling at very short intervals. The results show that the early genes express almost without delay implying that the function of the N antitermination system is not temporal regulation.

  9. Glu311 and Arg337 Stabilize a Closed Active-site Conformation and Provide a Critical Catalytic Base and Countercation for Green Bioluminescence in Beetle Luciferases.

    PubMed

    Viviani, V R; Simões, A; Bevilaqua, V R; Gabriel, G V M; Arnoldi, F G C; Hirano, T

    2016-08-30

    Beetle luciferases elicit the emission of different bioluminescence colors from green to red. Whereas firefly luciferases emit yellow-green light and are pH-sensitive, undergoing a typical red-shift at acidic pH and higher temperatures and in the presence of divalent heavy metals, click beetle and railroadworm luciferases emit a wider range of colors from green to red but are pH-independent. Despite many decades of study, the structural determinants and mechanisms of bioluminescence colors and pH sensitivity remain enigmatic. Here, through modeling studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and spectral and kinetic studies using recombinant luciferases from the three main families of bioluminescent beetles that emit different colors of light (Macrolampis sp2 firefly, Phrixotrix hirtus railroadworm, and Pyrearinus termitilluminans click beetle), we investigated the role of E311 and R337 in bioluminescence color determination. All mutations of these residues in firefly luciferase produced red mutants, indicating that the preservation of opposite charges and the lengths of the side chains of E311 and R337 are essential for keeping a salt bridge that stabilizes a closed hydrophobic conformation favorable for green light emission. Kinetic studies indicate that residue R337 is important for binding luciferin and creating a positively charged environment around excited oxyluciferin phenolate. In Pyrearinus green-emitting luciferase, the R334A mutation causes a 27 nm red-shift, whereas in Phrixotrix red-emitting luciferase, the L334R mutation causes a blue-shift that is no longer affected by guanidine. These results provide compelling evidence that the presence of arginine at position 334 is essential for blue-shifting the emission spectra of most beetle luciferases. Therefore, residues E311 and R337 play both structural and catalytic roles in bioluminescence color determination, by stabilizing a closed hydrophobic conformation favorable for green light emission, and also

  10. Glu311 and Arg337 Stabilize a Closed Active-site Conformation and Provide a Critical Catalytic Base and Countercation for Green Bioluminescence in Beetle Luciferases.

    PubMed

    Viviani, V R; Simões, A; Bevilaqua, V R; Gabriel, G V M; Arnoldi, F G C; Hirano, T

    2016-08-30

    Beetle luciferases elicit the emission of different bioluminescence colors from green to red. Whereas firefly luciferases emit yellow-green light and are pH-sensitive, undergoing a typical red-shift at acidic pH and higher temperatures and in the presence of divalent heavy metals, click beetle and railroadworm luciferases emit a wider range of colors from green to red but are pH-independent. Despite many decades of study, the structural determinants and mechanisms of bioluminescence colors and pH sensitivity remain enigmatic. Here, through modeling studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and spectral and kinetic studies using recombinant luciferases from the three main families of bioluminescent beetles that emit different colors of light (Macrolampis sp2 firefly, Phrixotrix hirtus railroadworm, and Pyrearinus termitilluminans click beetle), we investigated the role of E311 and R337 in bioluminescence color determination. All mutations of these residues in firefly luciferase produced red mutants, indicating that the preservation of opposite charges and the lengths of the side chains of E311 and R337 are essential for keeping a salt bridge that stabilizes a closed hydrophobic conformation favorable for green light emission. Kinetic studies indicate that residue R337 is important for binding luciferin and creating a positively charged environment around excited oxyluciferin phenolate. In Pyrearinus green-emitting luciferase, the R334A mutation causes a 27 nm red-shift, whereas in Phrixotrix red-emitting luciferase, the L334R mutation causes a blue-shift that is no longer affected by guanidine. These results provide compelling evidence that the presence of arginine at position 334 is essential for blue-shifting the emission spectra of most beetle luciferases. Therefore, residues E311 and R337 play both structural and catalytic roles in bioluminescence color determination, by stabilizing a closed hydrophobic conformation favorable for green light emission, and also

  11. Chaperones rescue luciferase folding by separating its domains.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Zackary N; Yang, Weitao; Marszalek, Piotr E

    2014-10-10

    Over the last 50 years, significant progress has been made toward understanding how small single-domain proteins fold. However, very little is known about folding mechanisms of medium and large multidomain proteins that predominate the proteomes of all forms of life. Large proteins frequently fold cotranslationally and/or require chaperones. Firefly (Photinus pyralis) luciferase (Luciferase, 550 residues) has been a model of a cotranslationally folding protein whose extremely slow refolding (approximately days) is catalyzed by chaperones. However, the mechanism by which Luciferase misfolds and how chaperones assist Luciferase refolding remains unknown. Here we combine single-molecule force spectroscopy (atomic force microscopy (AFM)/single-molecule force spectroscopy) with steered molecular dynamic computer simulations to unravel the mechanism of chaperone-assisted Luciferase refolding. Our AFM and steered molecular dynamic results show that partially unfolded Luciferase, with the N-terminal domain remaining folded, can refold robustly without chaperones. Complete unfolding causes Luciferase to get trapped in very stable non-native configurations involving interactions between N- and C-terminal residues. However, chaperones allow the completely unfolded Luciferase to refold quickly in AFM experiments, strongly suggesting that chaperones are able to sequester non-natively contacting residues. More generally, we suggest that many chaperones, rather than actively promoting the folding, mimic the ribosomal exit tunnel and physically separate protein domains, allowing them to fold in a cotranslational-like sequential process.

  12. Highly sensitive luciferase reporter assay using a potent destabilization sequence of calpain 3.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Mayu; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Abe, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nishii, Shigeaki; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Noguchi, Takako; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-20

    Reporter assays that use luciferases are widely employed for monitoring cellular events associated with gene expression in vitro and in vivo. To improve the response of the luciferase reporter to acute changes of gene expression, a destabilization sequence is frequently used to reduce the stability of luciferase protein in the cells, which results in an increase of sensitivity of the luciferase reporter assay. In this study, we identified a potent destabilization sequence (referred to as the C9 fragment) consisting of 42 amino acid residues from human calpain 3 (CAPN3). Whereas the half-life of Emerald Luc (ELuc) from the Brazilian click beetle Pyrearinus termitilluminans was reduced by fusing PEST (t1/2=9.8 to 2.8h), the half-life of C9-fused ELuc was significantly shorter (t1/2=1.0h) than that of PEST-fused ELuc when measurements were conducted at 37°C. In addition, firefly luciferase (luc2) was also markedly destabilized by the C9 fragment compared with the humanized PEST sequence. These results indicate that the C9 fragment from CAPN3 is a much more potent destabilization sequence than the PEST sequence. Furthermore, real-time bioluminescence recording of the activation kinetics of nuclear factor-κB after transient treatment with tumor necrosis factor α revealed that the response of C9-fused ELuc is significantly greater than that of PEST-fused ELuc, demonstrating that the use of the C9 fragment realizes a luciferase reporter assay that has faster response speed compared with that provided by the PEST sequence. PMID:25528501

  13. A novel dual luciferase assay for the simultaneous monitoring of HIV infection and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Mitsuki, Yu-Ya; Yamamoto, Takuya; Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Momota, Masatoshi; Terahara, Kazutaka; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Harada, Shigeyoshi; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko

    2016-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reporter cell lines are critical tools for drug development. However, one disadvantage of HIV-1 reporter cell lines is that reductions in reporter gene activity need to be normalized to cytotoxicity, i.e., live cell numbers. Here, we developed a dual luciferase assay based on a R. reniformis luciferase (hRLuc)-expressing R5-type HIV-1 (NLAD8-hRLuc) and a CEM cell line expressing CCR5 and firefly luciferase (R5CEM-FiLuc). The NLAD8-hRLuc reporter virus was replication competent in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The level of hRLuc was correlated with p24 antigen levels (p<0.001, R=0.862). The target cell line, R5CEM-FiLuc, stably expressed the firefly luciferase (FiLuc) reporter gene and allowed the simultaneous monitoring of compound cytotoxicity. The dual reporter assay combining a NLAD8-hRLuc virus with R5CEM-FiLuc cells permitted the accurate determination of drug susceptibility for entry, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease inhibitors at different multiplicities of infection. This dual reporter assay provides a rapid and direct method for the simultaneous monitoring of HIV infection and cell viability. PMID:26898957

  14. Liganded thyroid hormone receptor inhibits phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate-13-acetate-induced enhancer activity via firefly luciferase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Ohba, Kenji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Shingo; Ishizuka, Keiko; Oki, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and regulates the transcription of its target genes in a thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent manner. While the detail of transcriptional activation by T3 (positive regulation) has been clarified, the mechanism of T3-dependent repression (negative regulation) remains to be determined. In addition to naturally occurring negative regulations typically found for the thyrotropin β gene, T3-bound TR (T3/TR) is known to cause artificial negative regulation in reporter assays with cultured cells. For example, T3/TR inhibits the transcriptional activity of the reporter plasmids harboring AP-1 site derived from pUC/pBR322-related plasmid (pUC/AP-1). Artificial negative regulation has also been suggested in the reporter assay with firefly luciferase (FFL) gene. However, identification of the DNA sequence of the FFL gene using deletion analysis was not performed because negative regulation was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of FFL protein. Thus, there remains the possibility that the inhibition by T3 is mediated via a DNA sequence other than FFL cDNA, for instance, pUC/AP-1 site in plasmid backbone. To investigate the function of FFL cDNA as a transcriptional regulatory sequence, we generated pBL-FFL-CAT5 by ligating FFL cDNA in the 5' upstream region to heterologous thymidine kinase promoter in pBL-CAT5, a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)-based reporter gene, which lacks pUC/AP-1 site. In kidney-derived CV1 and choriocarcinoma-derived JEG3 cells, pBL-FFL-CAT5, but not pBL-CAT5, was strongly activated by a protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate-13-acetate (TPA). TPA-induced activity of pBL-FFL-CAT5 was negatively regulated by T3/TR. Mutation of nt. 626/640 in FFL cDNA attenuated the TPA-induced activation and concomitantly abolished the T3-dependent repression. Our data demonstrate that FFL cDNA sequence mediates the TPA-induced transcriptional activity

  15. Engineering an enhanced, thermostable, monomeric bacterial luciferase gene as a reporter in plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Cui, Boyu; Zhang, Lifeng; Song, Yunhong; Wei, Jinsong; Li, Changfu; Wang, Tietao; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Tianyong; Shen, Xihui

    2014-01-01

    The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The fused luxAB gene was mutated by error prone PCR or chemical mutagenesis and screened for enhanced luciferase activity utilizing decanal as substrate. Positive luxAB mutants with superior quantum yield were subsequently shuffled by DNase I digestion and PCR assembly for generation of recombinants with additional increases in luciferase activity in bacteria. The coding sequence of the best recombinant, called eluxAB, was then optimized further to conform to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) codon usage. A plant expression vector of the final, optimized eluxAB gene (opt-eluxAB) was constructed and transformed into protoplasts of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Luciferase activity was dramatically increased for opt-eluxAB compared to the original luxAB in Arabidopsis and maize cells. The opt-eluxAB driven by two copies of the 35S promoter expresses significantly higher than that driven by a single copy. These results indicate that the eluxAB gene can be used as a reporter in plant protoplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report to engineer the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase luxAB as a reporter by directed evolution which paved the way for further improving the luxAB reporter in the future.

  16. Rational and random mutagenesis of firefly luciferase to identify an efficient emitter of red bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, Bruce R.; Southworth, Tara L.; Khattak, Neelum F.; Murtiashaw, Martha H.; Fleet, Sarah E.

    2004-06-01

    Firefly luciferase, which emits yellow-green (557 nm) light, and the corresponding cDNA have been used successfully as a bioluminescence reporter of gene expression. One particularly exciting application is in the area of in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Our interest is in developing improved reagents by identifying Photinus pyralis luciferase mutants that efficiently emit red bioluminescence. In this way, the proven advantages of the P. pyralis protein can be combined with the potential advantages of a red-shifted emitter. Using site-directed mutagenesis techniques, we have identified many mutants emitting red bioluminescence. Unfortunately, these enzymes generally have significantly decreased bioluminescence activity. Interestingly, we discovered a mutation, Ile351Ala, that produced a moderate 16 nm red-shift, while maintaining excellent bioluminescence activity. We then undertook a random mutagenesis approach to identify luciferase mutants that emit further red-shifted bioluminescence with minimal loss of activity. Libraries of mutants were created using an error-prone PCR method and the Ile351Ala luciferase mutant as the template DNA. The libraries were screened by in vivo bacterial assays and the promising mutants were purified to enable accurate determination of bioluminescence emission spectra and total bioluminescence activity. We will report the characterization results, including the identification of the randomly altered amino acids, of several mutants that catalyze bioluminescence with emission maxima of approximately 600 nm.

  17. Visualization of Malaria Parasites in the Skin Using the Luciferase Transgenic Parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Ryuta; Arai, Meiji; Hirai, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    We produced a transgenic rodent malaria parasite (Plasmodium berghei) that contained the luciferase gene under a promoter region of elongation factor-1α. These transgenic (TG) parasites expressed luciferase in all stages of their life cycle, as previously reported. However, we were the first to succeed in observing sporozoites as a mass in mouse skin following their deposition by the probing of infective mosquitoes. Our transgenic parasites may have emitted stronger bioluminescence than previous TG parasites. The estimated number of injected sporozoites by mosquitoes was between 34 and 775 (median 80). Since luciferase activity diminished immediately after the death of the parasites, luciferase activity could be an indicator of the existence of live parasites. Our results indicated that sporozoites survived at the probed site for more than 42 hours. We also detected sporozoites in the liver within 15 min of the intravenous injection. Bioluminescence was not observed in the lung, kidney or spleen. We confirmed the observation that the liver was the first organ in which malaria parasites entered and increased in number.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids improve firefly luciferase properties.

    PubMed

    Noori, Ali Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ghiasi, Parisa; Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar

    2014-03-01

    Ionic liquids as neoteric solvents, microwave irradiation, and alternative energy source are becoming as a solvent for many enzymatic reactions. We recently showed that the incubation of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis with various ionic liquids increased the activity and stability of luciferase. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids have been obtained by covalent bonding of ionic liquids-silane on magnetic silica nanoparticles. In the present study, the effects of [γ-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImCl] and [γ-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImI] were investigated on the structural properties and function of luciferase using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bioluminescence assay. Enzyme activity and structural stability increased in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids. Furthermore, the effect of ingredients which were used was not considerable on K(m) value of luciferase for adenosine-5'-triphosphate and also K(m) value for luciferin.

  19. Phytochemicals Mediate the Expression and Activity of OCTN2 as Activators of the PPARγ/RXRα Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Qu, Jian; Yang, Rui; Ge, Meng-Xue; Mei, Yin; Zhou, Bo-Ting; Qu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Many phytochemicals exert activities as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). This study aims to investigate whether phytochemicals are agonists of the PPARγ/RXRα pathway and modulate the target gene OCTN2. In this study, a luciferase reporter gene system was used to screen novel OCTN2 activators from 39 phytochemicals. Kaempferol, curcumin, and puerarin were found to show the significant PPRE-mediated luciferase activities (>150%) at 20 μM and showed a dose-dependent manner. Phytochemicals also elevated the mRNA and protein expression of OCTN2 in a dose-dependent fashion in colorectal cancer SW480 cells. These induction effects were gradually inhibited by PPARγ antagonist GW9662 in the luciferase reporter gene system and in SW480 cells. Moreover, the results of cell viability assay imply that three phytochemicals probably induce OCTN2 expression leading to the enhanced uptake of its substrate, oxaliplatin, thereby making cells more sensitive to oxaliplatin. The molecular docking study showed the possible binding sites of phytochemicals in PPARγ protein, and all of the docked phytochemicals fitted the same active pocket in PPARγ as troglitazone. All three phytochemicals exhibited hydrogen bonds between their polar moieties and the amino acid residues. Thus, we identified three phytochemicals as PPARγ ligands, which potentiated the expression and activity of OCTN2. PMID:27445823

  20. Phytochemicals Mediate the Expression and Activity of OCTN2 as Activators of the PPARγ/RXRα Pathway.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Qu, Jian; Yang, Rui; Ge, Meng-Xue; Mei, Yin; Zhou, Bo-Ting; Qu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Many phytochemicals exert activities as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). This study aims to investigate whether phytochemicals are agonists of the PPARγ/RXRα pathway and modulate the target gene OCTN2. In this study, a luciferase reporter gene system was used to screen novel OCTN2 activators from 39 phytochemicals. Kaempferol, curcumin, and puerarin were found to show the significant PPRE-mediated luciferase activities (>150%) at 20 μM and showed a dose-dependent manner. Phytochemicals also elevated the mRNA and protein expression of OCTN2 in a dose-dependent fashion in colorectal cancer SW480 cells. These induction effects were gradually inhibited by PPARγ antagonist GW9662 in the luciferase reporter gene system and in SW480 cells. Moreover, the results of cell viability assay imply that three phytochemicals probably induce OCTN2 expression leading to the enhanced uptake of its substrate, oxaliplatin, thereby making cells more sensitive to oxaliplatin. The molecular docking study showed the possible binding sites of phytochemicals in PPARγ protein, and all of the docked phytochemicals fitted the same active pocket in PPARγ as troglitazone. All three phytochemicals exhibited hydrogen bonds between their polar moieties and the amino acid residues. Thus, we identified three phytochemicals as PPARγ ligands, which potentiated the expression and activity of OCTN2. PMID:27445823

  1. Thermostabilization of firefly luciferase by in vivo directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Koksharov, Mikhail I; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2011-11-01

    Firefly luciferase is widely used in a number of areas of biotechnology and molecular biology. However, rapid inactivation of wild-type (WT) luciferases at elevated temperatures often hampers their application. A simple non-lethal in vivo screening scheme was used to identify thermostable mutants of luciferase in Escherichia coli colonies. This scheme allowed carrying out each cycle of mutagenesis in a rapid and efficient manner. Four rounds of directed evolution were conducted on a part of the gene coding for amino acid residues 130-390 of Luciola mingrelica luciferase. The resultant mutant designated 4TS had a half-life of 10 h at 42°C, which is 65-fold higher compared with the WT luciferase. Moreover, the mutant 4TS showed a 1.9-fold increase in specific activity, 5.7-fold reduction of K(m) for ATP and a higher-temperature optimum compared with the WT enzyme. 4TS contains eight mutations, four of which are suggested to be mainly responsible for the enhancement of thermostability: R211L, A217V, E356K and S364C. Thus, directed evolution with non-lethal colony screening for in vivo bioluminescence activity proved to be an effective and efficient approach for increasing thermal stability of luciferase while retaining high catalytic activity.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of Human MDR1 Transcription in the Brain and Spine of MDR1-Luciferase Reporter Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Lin, Yvonne S.; Scheib, Rachel; Ganguly, Samit; Thirumaran, Ranjit K.; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kim, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ∼10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation. PMID:26281846

  3. In Vivo Imaging of Human MDR1 Transcription in the Brain and Spine of MDR1-Luciferase Reporter Mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kazuto; Cline, Cynthia; Lin, Yvonne S; Scheib, Rachel; Ganguly, Samit; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Kim, Richard B; Schuetz, Erin G

    2015-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) [the product of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene] at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits central nervous system (CNS) entry of many prescribed drugs, contributing to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates. Modulating Pgp expression could improve drug delivery into the brain; however, assays to predict regulation of human BBB Pgp are lacking. We developed a transgenic mouse model to monitor human MDR1 transcription in the brain and spinal cord in vivo. A reporter construct consisting of ∼10 kb of the human MDR1 promoter controlling the firefly luciferase gene was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (MDR1-luc). Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the MDR1-luciferase transgene on chromosome 3. Reporter gene expression was monitored with an in vivo imaging system following D-luciferin injection. Basal expression was detectable in the brain, and treatment with activators of the constitutive androstane, pregnane X, and glucocorticoid receptors induced brain and spinal MDR1-luc transcription. Since D-luciferin is a substrate of ABCG2, the feasibility of improving D-luciferin brain accumulation (and luciferase signal) was tested by coadministering the dual ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar. The brain and spine MDR1-luc signal intensity was increased by elacridar treatment, suggesting enhanced D-luciferin brain bioavailability. There was regional heterogeneity in MDR1 transcription (cortex > cerebellum) that coincided with higher mouse Pgp protein expression. We confirmed luciferase expression in brain vessel endothelial cells by ex vivo analysis of tissue luciferase protein expression. We conclude that the MDR1-luc mouse provides a unique in vivo system to visualize MDR1 CNS expression and regulation.

  4. Dual-color bioluminescence imaging assay using green- and red-emitting beetle luciferases at subcellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Mayu; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is widely used to monitor cellular events, including gene expression in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, recent advances in luciferase technology have made possible imaging at the single-cell level. To improve the bioluminescence imaging system, we have developed a dual-color imaging system in which the green-emitting luciferase from a Brazilian click beetle (Emerald Luc, ELuc) and the red-emitting luciferase from a railroad worm (Stable Luciferase Red, SLR) were used as reporters, which were localized to the peroxisome and the nucleus, respectively. We clearly captured simultaneously the subcellular localization of ELuc in the peroxisome and SLR in the nucleus of a single cell using a high-magnification objective lens with 3-min exposure time without binning using a combination of optical filters. Furthermore, to apply this system to quantitative time-lapse imaging, the activation of nuclear factor triggered by tumor necrosis factor α was measured using nuclear-targeted SLR and peroxisome-targeted ELuc as the test and internal control reporters, respectively. We successfully quantified the kinetics of activation of nuclear factor κB using nuclear-targeted SLR and the transcriptional change of the internal control promoter using peroxisome-targeted ELuc simultaneously in a single cell, and showed that the activation kinetics, including activation rate and amplitude, differed among cells. The results demonstrated that this imaging system can visualize the subcellular localization of reporters and track the expressions of two genes simultaneously at subcellular resolution. PMID:25015042

  5. Dual-color bioluminescence imaging assay using green- and red-emitting beetle luciferases at subcellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Mayu; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is widely used to monitor cellular events, including gene expression in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, recent advances in luciferase technology have made possible imaging at the single-cell level. To improve the bioluminescence imaging system, we have developed a dual-color imaging system in which the green-emitting luciferase from a Brazilian click beetle (Emerald Luc, ELuc) and the red-emitting luciferase from a railroad worm (Stable Luciferase Red, SLR) were used as reporters, which were localized to the peroxisome and the nucleus, respectively. We clearly captured simultaneously the subcellular localization of ELuc in the peroxisome and SLR in the nucleus of a single cell using a high-magnification objective lens with 3-min exposure time without binning using a combination of optical filters. Furthermore, to apply this system to quantitative time-lapse imaging, the activation of nuclear factor triggered by tumor necrosis factor α was measured using nuclear-targeted SLR and peroxisome-targeted ELuc as the test and internal control reporters, respectively. We successfully quantified the kinetics of activation of nuclear factor κB using nuclear-targeted SLR and the transcriptional change of the internal control promoter using peroxisome-targeted ELuc simultaneously in a single cell, and showed that the activation kinetics, including activation rate and amplitude, differed among cells. The results demonstrated that this imaging system can visualize the subcellular localization of reporters and track the expressions of two genes simultaneously at subcellular resolution.

  6. Doubly catalytic sensing of HIV-1-related CCR5 sequence in prokaryotic cell-free translation system using riboregulator-controlled luciferase activity.

    PubMed

    Sando, Shinsuke; Narita, Atsushi; Abe, Kenji; Aoyama, Yasuhiro

    2005-04-20

    A molecular-beacon-type riboregulator (mRNA) was applied to multiply catalytic gene sensing. It consists of a reporter gene for firefly protein luciferase and, upstream thereof, a regulator hairpin domain composed of an RBS/anti-RBS stem (RBS = ribosome binding site) and a loop which is complementary to the target. The hairpin and, hence, the RBS are rendered open upon binding of a target oligonucleotide of the human CC chemokine receptor 5 sequence in a prokaryotic cell-free translation system (10 muL) to ignite ribosomal catalytic translation, or transcription/translation when using a DNA form of the probe, to produce luciferase, which is assayed by a catalytic chemiluminescence reaction. The sensing, using an unmodified RNA or even dsDNA as a probe with a chemiluminescence output, is thus doubly catalytic or amplifiable with a sensitivity at

  7. Detection of neuroendocrine tumors using promoter-specific secreted Gaussia luciferase.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Alan Wei-Shun; Akerstrom, Victoria; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate detection of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors is critically important for better prognosis and treatment outcomes in patients. To demonstrate the efficacy of using an adenoviral vector for the detection of NE tumors, we have constructed a pair of adenoviral vectors which, in combination, can conditionally replicate and release Gaussia luciferase into the circulation after infecting the NE tumors. The expression of these two vectors is regulated upstream by an INSM1-promoter (insulinoma-associated-1) that is specifically active in NE tumors and developing NE tissues, but silenced in normal adult tissues. In order to retain the tumor-specificity of the INSM1 promoter, we have modified the promoter using the core insulator sequence from the chicken β-globin HS4 insulator and the neuronal restrictive silencing element (NRSE). This modified INSM1-promoter can retain NE tumor specificity in an adenoviral construct while driving a mutated adenovirus E1A gene (∆24E1A), the Metridia, or Gaussia luciferase gene. The in vitro cell line and mouse xenograft human tumor studies revealed the NE specificity of the INSM1-promoter in NE lung cancer, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, and insulinoma. When we combined the INSM1-promoter driven Gaussia luciferase with ∆24E1A, the co-infected NE tumor secreted higher levels of Gaussia luciferase as compared to the INSM1p-Gaussia virus alone. In a mouse subcutaneous xenograft tumor model, the combination viruses secreted detectable level of Gaussia luciferase after infecting an INSM1-positive NE lung tumor for ≥12 days. Therefore, the INSM1-promoter specific conditional replicating adenovirus represents a sensitive diagnostic tool to aid clinicians in the detection of NE tumors. PMID:26530405

  8. Transgenic mouse model harboring the transcriptional fusion ccl20-luciferase as a novel reporter of pro-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Crispo, Martina; Van Maele, Laurye; Tabareau, Julien; Cayet, Delphine; Errea, Agustina; Ferreira, Ana María; Rumbo, Martin; Sirard, Jean Claude

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CCL20, the unique ligand of CCR6 functions as an attractant of immune cells. Expression of CCL20 is induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling or proinflammatory cytokine stimulation. However CCL20 is also constitutively produced at specific epithelial sites of mucosa. This expression profile is achieved by transcriptional regulation. In the present work we characterized regulatory features of mouse Ccl20 gene. Transcriptional fusions between the mouse Ccl20 promoter and the firefly luciferase (luc) encoding gene were constructed and assessed in in vitro and in vivo assays. We found that liver CCL20 expression and luciferase activity were upregulated by systemic administration of the TLR5 agonist flagellin. Using shRNA and dominant negative form specific for mouse TLR5, we showed that this expression was controlled by TLR5. To address in situ the regulation of gene activity, a transgenic mouse line harboring a functional Ccl20-luc fusion was generated. The luciferase expression was highly concordant with Ccl20 expression in different tissues. Our data indicate that the transgenic mouse model can be used to monitor activation of innate response in vivo.

  9. Transgenic Mouse Model Harboring the Transcriptional Fusion Ccl20-Luciferase as a Novel Reporter of Pro-Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Crispo, Martina; Van Maele, Laurye; Tabareau, Julien; Cayet, Delphine; Errea, Agustina; Ferreira, Ana María; Rumbo, Martin; Sirard, Jean Claude

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CCL20, the unique ligand of CCR6 functions as an attractant of immune cells. Expression of CCL20 is induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling or proinflammatory cytokine stimulation. However CCL20 is also constitutively produced at specific epithelial sites of mucosa. This expression profile is achieved by transcriptional regulation. In the present work we characterized regulatory features of mouse Ccl20 gene. Transcriptional fusions between the mouse Ccl20 promoter and the firefly luciferase (luc) encoding gene were constructed and assessed in in vitro and in vivo assays. We found that liver CCL20 expression and luciferase activity were upregulated by systemic administration of the TLR5 agonist flagellin. Using shRNA and dominant negative form specific for mouse TLR5, we showed that this expression was controlled by TLR5. To address in situ the regulation of gene activity, a transgenic mouse line harboring a functional Ccl20-luc fusion was generated. The luciferase expression was highly concordant with Ccl20 expression in different tissues. Our data indicate that the transgenic mouse model can be used to monitor activation of innate response in vivo. PMID:24265691

  10. Phytol directly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) and regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Egawa, Kahori; Ebisu, Shogo; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Fushiki, Tohru; Kawada, Teruo . E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-18

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is one of the indispensable transcription factors for regulating lipid metabolism in various tissues. In our screening for natural compounds that activate PPAR using luciferase assays, a branched-carbon-chain alcohol (a component of chlorophylls), phytol, has been identified as a PPAR{alpha}-specific activator. Phytol induced the increase in PPAR{alpha}-dependent luciferase activity and the degree of in vitro binding of a coactivator, SRC-1, to GST-PPAR{alpha}. Moreover, the addition of phytol upregulated the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes at both mRNA and protein levels in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. These findings indicate that phytol is functional as a PPAR{alpha} ligand and that it stimulates the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes in intact cells. Because PPAR{alpha} activation enhances circulating lipid clearance, phytol may be important in managing abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  11. Use of firefly luciferase in ATP-related assays of biomass, enzymes, and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of ATP reagents not affected by product inhibition or other forms of inactivation of luciferase during the measurement time has been clarified. Under these conditions the decay rate of the light emission expressed as percentage per minute is a measure of luciferase activity and can be given as the rate constant k (min-1), directly reflecting the degradation of ATP in the luciferase reaction. Three types of reagents with different analytical characteristics and different application possibilities have been identified. Stable light-emitting reagents are suitable for measurements of ATP down to 1000 amol. This is the only type of reagent suitable for monitoring ATP-converting reactions, i.e., assays of enzymes or metabolites, assays of oxidative phosphorylation, photophosphorylation, and so on. A higher luciferase activity resulting in a slow decay of the light emission by approximately 10% per minute (k = 0.1 min-1) gives a reagent suitable for measurements down to 10-100 amol. The slow decay of light emission allows use of manual luminometers without reagent dispensers. A further increase of the luciferase activity resulting in a decay rate of approximately 235% per min (k = 2.35 min-1) and only 10% of the light emission remaining after 1 min is suitable for measurements down to 1 amol corresponding to half a bacterial cell. With this type of flash reagent the total light emission can be calculated from two measurements of the light intensity on the decay part of the light emission curve. This new measure is not affected by moderate variations in luciferase activity, but only by changes in quantum yield and self-absorption of the light in the sample. Flash-type reagents require the use of reagent dispensers. The stringent requirements for ATP-free cuvettes, pipette tips, and contamination-free laboratory techniques make it unlikely that flash reagents would be useful in nonlaboratory surroundings. A potential application for this type of reagent is

  12. Crystal structure of native and a mutant of Lampyris turkestanicus luciferase implicate in bioluminescence color shift.

    PubMed

    Kheirabadi, Mitra; Sharafian, Zohreh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Heineman, Udo; Gohlke, Ulrich; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2013-12-01

    Firefly bioluminescence reaction in the presence of Mg(2+), ATP and molecular oxygen is carried out by luciferase. The luciferase structure alterations or modifications of assay conditions determine the bioluminescence color of firefly luciferase. Among different beetle luciferases, Phrixothrix hirtus railroad worm emits either yellow or red bioluminescence color. Sequence alignment analysis shows that the red-emitter luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus has an additional arginine residue at 353 that is absent in other firefly luciferases. It was reported that insertion of Arg in an important flexible loop350-359 showed changes in bioluminescence color from green to red and the optimum temperature activity was also increased. To explain the color tuning mechanism of firefly luciferase, the structure of native and a mutant (E354R/356R/H431Y) of Lampyris turkestanicus luciferase is determined at 2.7Å and 2.2Å resolutions, respectively. The comparison of structure of both types of Lampyris turkestanicus luciferases reveals that the conformation of this flexible loop is significantly changed by addition of two Arg in this region. Moreover, its surface accessibility is affected considerably and some ionic bonds are made by addition of two positive charge residues. Furthermore, we noticed that the hydrogen bonding pattern of His431 with the flexible loop is changed by replacing this residue with Tyr at this position. Juxtaposition of a flexible loop (residues 351-359) in firefly luciferase and corresponding ionic and hydrogen bonds are essential for color emission.

  13. Identification, characterization and use of two tick promoters for construction of a dual luciferase reporter vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual luciferase reporter systems are valuable tools for functional genomic studies, but have not previously been developed for use in tick cell culture. We evaluated expression of available luciferase constructs in tick cell cultures derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, an important vec...

  14. A NOVEL CELL LINE THAT STABLY EXPRESSES AN ANDROGEN RESPONSIVE LUCIFERASE REPORTER FOR THE DETECTION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of in vitro assays to screen chemicals for estrogen receptor (ER) and AR mediated actions is being evaluated by the USEPA for use in a Tier I screening battery to detect endocrine active chemicals. We have developed a stable cell line, MDA-MB-453-KB2, for screening of and...

  15. A NOVEL CELL LINE THAT STABLY EXPRESSES AN ANDROGEN RESPONSIVE LUCIFERASE REPORTER FOR THE DETECTION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) AGONIST AND ANTAGONISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of in vitro assays to screen chemicals for estrogen receptor (ER) and AR mediated actions is being evaluated by the USEPA for use in a Tier I screening battery to detect endocrine active chemicals. We have developed a stable cell line, MDA-MB-453-KB2, for screening of and...

  16. A combined luciferase-expressing Leishmania imaging/RT-qPCR assay provides new insights into the sequential bilateral processes deployed in the ear pinna of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Emilie; Lecoeur, Hervé; Rouault, Eline; Goyard, Sophie; Milon, Geneviève; Lang, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania/L. major was identified as the etiological agent of human localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. L. major metacyclic promastigotes/MP - the infectious form transmitted by sand flies - were enriched from axenically-derived cultures and inoculated into the dermis of mice (10(3) or 10(4) luciferase-expressing L. major MP inoculated into the C57BL/6 mouse ear pinna). Quantitative readout assays were then combined with imaging of this L. major-hosting skin site and established i) that a specific period of time - depending upon the L. major load used for the inoculation - is required for the L. major-hosting ear pinna to be continuously populated by a balanced population of functional regulatory and effector T lymphocytes, and that ii) this balance coincides with persisting low numbers of amastigotes in more or less rapidly healing skin. This approach also established that, whatever the MP inoculum load delivered to the primary site, the immune processes that reduce the L. major amastigote population also account for concomitant immunity, namely remodelling of the secondary site - where 10(4) MP were delivered - as a clinically silent niche hosting a small L. major population.

  17. A mutagenesis study of the putative luciferin binding site residues of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce R; Southworth, Tara L; Murtiashaw, Martha H; Boije, Henrik; Fleet, Sarah E

    2003-09-01

    Firefly luciferase catalyzes the highly efficient emission of yellow-green light from substrate firefly luciferin by a sequence of reactions that require Mg-ATP and molecular oxygen. We had previously developed [Branchini, B. R., Magyar, R. A., Murtiashaw, M. H., Anderson, S. M., and Zimmer, M. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 15311-15319] a molecular graphics-based working model of the luciferase active site starting with the first X-ray structure [Conti, E., Franks, N. P., and Brick, P. (1996) Structure 4, 287-298] of the enzyme without bound substrates. In our model, the luciferin binding site contains 15 residues that are within 5 A of the substrate. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we made changes at all of these residues and report here the characterization of the corresponding expressed and purified proteins. Of the 15 residues studied, 12 had a significantly (>or=4-fold K(m) difference) altered binding affinity for luciferin and seven residues, spanning the primary sequence region Arg218-Ala348, had substantially (>or=30 nm) red-shifted bioluminescence emission maxima when mutated. We report here an interpretation of the roles of the mutated residues in substrate binding and bioluminescence color determination. The results of this study generally substantiate the accuracy of our model and provide the foundation for future experiments designed to alter the substrate specificity of firefly luciferase. PMID:12950169

  18. Comparative spectrochronography of different types of luciferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednikova, E. Y.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Dement'eva, E. I.; Kosobokova, O. V.

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the dynamic properties of two firefly luciferases: Luciola Mingrelica, that contains the only tryptophan residue and Photinus Pyralis, that contains two tryptophan residues by means of fluorescence spectrochronography method. Relaxation time of protein matrix for Luciola mingrelica is estimated to be 2 ns. The dynamic properties of luciferases differ in spite of similar composition. We investigated also the influence of microenvironment on spectral and kinetic properties of luciferin. Fluorescence decay curves and stationary spectra were measured in 7 different solvents and in complex with luciferase. The closest coincidence of decay curves in the solvents with the decay curve in the complex with luciferase was obtained in water. It means that microenvironment of luciferase is not hydrophobic, as it had been determined earlier.

  19. Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Omokoko, Tana A; Luxemburger, Uli; Bardissi, Shaheer; Simon, Petra; Utsch, Magdalena; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as an effective treatment option for many cancers. With the emerging fields of cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays that efficiently analyze immune effector functions. The gold standard (51)Cr-release assay is very accurate but has the major disadvantage of being radioactive. We reveal the development of a versatile and nonradioactive firefly luciferase in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA-based assay. Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. Together with the long-lasting expression and minimal background, the direct measurement of intracellular luciferase activity of living cells allows for the monitoring of killing kinetics and displays paramount sensitivity. The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. Results generated were comparable to the (51)Cr release and further confirmed the assay's ability to measure antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The assay's combined simplicity, practicality, and efficiency tailor it for the analysis of antigen-specific cellular and humoral effector functions during the development of novel immunotherapies. PMID:27057556

  20. Luciferase mRNA Transfection of Antigen Presenting Cells Permits Sensitive Nonradioactive Measurement of Cellular and Humoral Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Omokoko, Tana A.; Luxemburger, Uli; Bardissi, Shaheer; Simon, Petra; Utsch, Magdalena; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as an effective treatment option for many cancers. With the emerging fields of cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, there is an increasing demand for high-throughput in vitro cytotoxicity assays that efficiently analyze immune effector functions. The gold standard 51Cr-release assay is very accurate but has the major disadvantage of being radioactive. We reveal the development of a versatile and nonradioactive firefly luciferase in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA-based assay. Demonstrating high efficiency, consistency, and excellent target cell viability, our optimized luciferase IVT RNA is used to transfect dividing and nondividing primary antigen presenting cells. Together with the long-lasting expression and minimal background, the direct measurement of intracellular luciferase activity of living cells allows for the monitoring of killing kinetics and displays paramount sensitivity. The ability to cotransfect the IVT RNA of the luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest into the antigen presenting cells and its simple read-out procedure render the assay high-throughput in nature. Results generated were comparable to the 51Cr release and further confirmed the assay's ability to measure antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The assay's combined simplicity, practicality, and efficiency tailor it for the analysis of antigen-specific cellular and humoral effector functions during the development of novel immunotherapies. PMID:27057556

  1. Construction and characterization of a red-emitting luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eames, Brian F.; Benaron, David A.; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    Red light is transmitted through live tissue more efficiently than other wavelengths of visible light, thus by red-shifting the emission of bioluminescent reporters, we may enhance their utility for in vivo monitoring of biological processes. Codon changes at positions that may shift the yellow-green emission to red, based on studies of a related luciferase, were introduced into a variant of the North American firefly luciferase. Clones containing the desired mutation were selected based on the introduction of unique restriction enzyme sites and transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. Expression levels were evaluated using an intensified charge coupled device camera. Upon spectral analysis, all mutant luciferases demonstrated red-orange emission. Two emission peaks were detected in each spectrum, each clone with different peak heights at 560 nm and 610 nm. Sequence analyses of the compete coding region of several clones confirmed the presence of the target mutations, although sequence variation was observed at several secondary sites, likely resulting from the infidelity of Taq polymerase used in the mutagenesis protocol. A clone that demonstrated a strong 610 nm peak with a minimum shoulder at 560 nm was selected for use in animals. In summary, a red-shifted mutant of a well-characterized luciferase reporter gene was generated. Red light from this enzyme may both penetrate mammalian tissues to a greater extent and provide a tool for multicolor biological assays.

  2. TGEV infection up-regulates FcRn expression via activation of NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinyue; Li, Fei; Qian, Shaoju; Bi, Dingren; He, Qigai; Jin, Hui; Luo, Rui; Li, Shaowen; Meng, Xianrong; Li, Zili

    2016-01-01

    It has been well characterized that the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) transports maternal IgG to a fetus or newborn and protects IgG from degradation. We previously reported that FcRn is expressed in a model of normal porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Transmissible gastroenteritis is an acute enteric disease of swine that is caused by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). How porcine FcRn (pFcRn) expression is regulated by pathogenic infection remains unknown. Our research shows that IPEC-J2 cells infected with TGEV had up-regulated pFcRn expression. In addition, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in IPEC-J2 cells by TGEV infection. Furthermore, treatment of TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082 resulted in down-regulation of pFcRn expression. Transient transfection of pFcRn promoter luciferase report plasmids with overexpression of NF-κB p65 transcription factor enhanced the activation of the luciferase report plasmids. We identified four NF-κB transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of this gene using luciferase reporter system, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electromobility shift assay, and supershift analysis. Together, the data provide the first evidence that TGEV infection up-regulates pFcRn expression via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:27555521

  3. CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED LUCIFASE GENE EXPRESSION (CALUX) CELL BIOASSAY ANALYSIS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIOXIN-LIKE ACTIVITIY: CRITICAL PARAMETERS OF THE CALUX PROCEDURE THAT IMPACT ASSAY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemically Activated Luciferase gene expression (CALUX) in vitro cell bioassay is an emerging bioanalytical tool that is increasingly being used for the screening and relative quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Since CALUX analyses provide a biological respo...

  4. Engineered luciferase reporter from a deep sea shrimp utilizing a novel imidazopyrazinone substrate.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary P; Unch, James; Binkowski, Brock F; Valley, Michael P; Butler, Braeden L; Wood, Monika G; Otto, Paul; Zimmerman, Kristopher; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Machleidt, Thomas; Robers, Matthew B; Benink, Hélène A; Eggers, Christopher T; Slater, Michael R; Meisenheimer, Poncho L; Klaubert, Dieter H; Fan, Frank; Encell, Lance P; Wood, Keith V

    2012-11-16

    Bioluminescence methodologies have been extraordinarily useful due to their high sensitivity, broad dynamic range, and operational simplicity. These capabilities have been realized largely through incremental adaptations of native enzymes and substrates, originating from luminous organisms of diverse evolutionary lineages. We engineered both an enzyme and substrate in combination to create a novel bioluminescence system capable of more efficient light emission with superior biochemical and physical characteristics. Using a small luciferase subunit (19 kDa) from the deep sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris, we have improved luminescence expression in mammalian cells ~2.5 million-fold by merging optimization of protein structure with development of a novel imidazopyrazinone substrate (furimazine). The new luciferase, NanoLuc, produces glow-type luminescence (signal half-life >2 h) with a specific activity ~150-fold greater than that of either firefly (Photinus pyralis) or Renilla luciferases similarly configured for glow-type assays. In mammalian cells, NanoLuc shows no evidence of post-translational modifications or subcellular partitioning. The enzyme exhibits high physical stability, retaining activity with incubation up to 55 °C or in culture medium for >15 h at 37 °C. As a genetic reporter, NanoLuc may be configured for high sensitivity or for response dynamics by appending a degradation sequence to reduce intracellular accumulation. Appending a signal sequence allows NanoLuc to be exported to the culture medium, where reporter expression can be measured without cell lysis. Fusion onto other proteins allows luminescent assays of their metabolism or localization within cells. Reporter quantitation is achievable even at very low expression levels to facilitate more reliable coupling with endogenous cellular processes. PMID:22894855

  5. Creating a mutant luciferase resistant to HPV chemical inhibition by random mutagenesis and colony-level screening.

    PubMed

    Kim-Choi, Eileen; Danilo, Christiane; Kelly, Jeffrey; Carroll, Ronnie; Shonnard, David; Rybina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Firefly luciferase covers a wide range of applications. One common usage of the bioluminescence assay is the measurement of intracellular concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cell viability. However, inhibition of the enzyme reaction by chemicals in the assay has so far limited the application of luciferase for high production volume (HPV) chemical testing. The objective of this research was to obtain a mutant luciferase with increased stability to inhibition by HPV chemicals, yet retaining specific activity comparable to, or better than, wild-type luciferase. The enzymatic properties of the wild-type luciferase were improved by random mutagenesis and colony-level screening. In this paper, the detailed process of creating mutant luciferases for testing the toxicity of HPV chemicals is described. As a result, two mutant luciferases were created, with different degrees of improved tolerance to inhibition by chloroform and other HPV chemicals.

  6. The nuclear factor κB inhibitor (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene inhibits firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Vetter, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Photinus pyralis (firefly) luciferase is widely used as a reporter system to monitor alterations in gene promoter and/or signalling pathway activities in vitro. The enzyme catalyses the formation of oxyluciferin from D-luciferin in an ATP-consuming reaction involving photon emission. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the luciferase-inhibiting potential of (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, which is known as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway that is used to modulate the NF-κB signalling pathway in vitro. Results show that (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene effectively inhibits firefly luciferase activity in cell lysates and living cells in a non-competitive manner with respect to the luciferase substrates D-luciferin and ATP. By contrast, the compound has no effect on Renilla and Gaussia luciferases. The mechanism of firefly luciferase inhibition by (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, as well as its potency is comparable to its structure analogue resveratrol. The in vitro use of trans-stilbenes such as (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene or resveratrol compromises firefly luciferase reporter assays as well as ATP/luciferase-based cell viability assays.

  7. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies.

  8. Bioanalytical systems based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer using firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Darya V; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2015-01-01

    Bioanalytical systems based on the Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) are widely used in fundamental biochemical studies, as well as for screening and analysis of biologically active compounds. The Renilla luciferase is the most often used energy donor in this system despite the fact that it has low bioluminescence quantum yield and demonstrates not so stable luminescence in time as the firefly luciferase. Moreover, the bioluminescence λmax is observed in the green region of the spectrum, which complicates signal recording in tissues during in vivo experiments. The firefly luciferases do not have such drawbacks and show great promise for applications in BRET systems. Different versions of BRET systems based on firefly luciferases and the methods for increasing their efficiency are considered in this review; examples of the use of BRET systems based on the firefly luciferases for highly sensitive determination of proteases and for homogeneous immunoassays are presented. PMID:26377546

  9. Hydrophobin-1 promotes thermostability of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Lohrasbi-Nejad, Azadeh; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2016-07-01

    The thermal sensitivity of firefly luciferase limits its use in certain applications. Firefly luciferase has hydrophobic sites on its surface, which lead to aggregation and inactivation of the enzyme at temperatures over 30 °C. We have successfully stabilized firefly luciferase at high temperatures with the assistance of a unique protein, hydrophobin-1 (HFB1). HFB1 is a small secretory protein belonging to class II of hydrophobins with a low molecular weight (7.5 kDa) and distinct functional hydrophobic patch on its surface. The interaction of HFB1 with hydrophobic sites on the surface of luciferase was confirmed by extrinsic fluorescence studies using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) as a hydrophobic reporter probe. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters of heat inactivation of luciferase shows that conformational changes and flexibility of enzyme decreased in the presence of HFB1, and thermostability of the HFB1-treated enzyme increased. Furthermore, the addition of HFB1 into the enzymatic solution leads to an increase in catalytic efficiency of luciferase and subsequently improves the utility of the enzyme as an ATP detector. PMID:27191938

  10. Hydrophobin-1 promotes thermostability of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Lohrasbi-Nejad, Azadeh; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2016-07-01

    The thermal sensitivity of firefly luciferase limits its use in certain applications. Firefly luciferase has hydrophobic sites on its surface, which lead to aggregation and inactivation of the enzyme at temperatures over 30 °C. We have successfully stabilized firefly luciferase at high temperatures with the assistance of a unique protein, hydrophobin-1 (HFB1). HFB1 is a small secretory protein belonging to class II of hydrophobins with a low molecular weight (7.5 kDa) and distinct functional hydrophobic patch on its surface. The interaction of HFB1 with hydrophobic sites on the surface of luciferase was confirmed by extrinsic fluorescence studies using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) as a hydrophobic reporter probe. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters of heat inactivation of luciferase shows that conformational changes and flexibility of enzyme decreased in the presence of HFB1, and thermostability of the HFB1-treated enzyme increased. Furthermore, the addition of HFB1 into the enzymatic solution leads to an increase in catalytic efficiency of luciferase and subsequently improves the utility of the enzyme as an ATP detector.

  11. Firefly luciferase as the reporter for transcriptional response to the environment in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ryo, Masashi; Oshikoshi, Yuta; Doi, Shosei; Motoki, Shogo; Niimi, Atsuko; Aoki, Setsuyuki

    2013-12-15

    We demonstrate that firefly luciferase is a good reporter in Escherichia coli for transcription dynamics in response to the environment. E. coli strains, carrying a fusion of the promoter of the ycgZ gene and the coding region of the luciferase gene, showed transient bioluminescence on receiving blue light. This response was compromised in mutants lacking known regulators in manners consistent with each regulator's function. We also show that relA, a gene encoding a (p)ppGpp synthetase, affects ycgZ dynamics when nullified. Moreover, two unstable luciferase variants showed improved response dynamics and should be useful to study quick changes of gene expression.

  12. [Construction and function identification of luciferase reporter gene vectors containing SNPs in NFKBIA gene 3'UTR].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Li, Jia-li; Bi, Hui-chang; Zhou, Shou-ning; Liu, Xiao-man; Zeng, Hang; Hu, Bing-fang; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the function of two SNPs (rs8904C > T and rs696G >A) in 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of NFKBIA gene by constructing luciferase reporter gene. A patient's genomic DNA with rs8904 CC and rs696 GA genotype was used as the PCR template. Full-length 3'UTR of NFKBIA gene was amplified by different primers. After sequencing validation, these fragments were inserted to the luciferase reporter vector, pGL3-promoter to construct recombinant plasmids containing four kinds of haplotypes, pGL3-rs8904C/rs696G, pGL3-rs8904C/rs696A, pGL3-rs8904T/rs696G and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696A. Then these plasmids were transfected into LS174T cells and the luciferase activity was detected. Compared with pGL3-vector transfected cells (negative control), the luciferase activity of the four kinds of recombinant plasmids was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). For rs696G > A, the luciferase activity of the recombinant plasmids containing A allele (pGL3-rs8904C/rs696A and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696A) was about 45.1% (P < 0.05) and 56.1% (P < 0.001) lower than those containing G allele (pGL3-rs8904C/rs696G and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696G), respectively. For rs8904C > T, there were no significant differences in the luciferase activity between the recombinant plasmids containing T allele and those with C allele. Together, the luciferase reporter gene vectors containing SNPs in NFKBIA gene 3'UTR were constructed successfully and rs696G > A could decrease the luciferase activity while rs8904C >T didn't have much effect on the luciferase activity. PMID:27405166

  13. [Construction and function identification of luciferase reporter gene vectors containing SNPs in NFKBIA gene 3'UTR].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Li, Jia-li; Bi, Hui-chang; Zhou, Shou-ning; Liu, Xiao-man; Zeng, Hang; Hu, Bing-fang; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the function of two SNPs (rs8904C > T and rs696G >A) in 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of NFKBIA gene by constructing luciferase reporter gene. A patient's genomic DNA with rs8904 CC and rs696 GA genotype was used as the PCR template. Full-length 3'UTR of NFKBIA gene was amplified by different primers. After sequencing validation, these fragments were inserted to the luciferase reporter vector, pGL3-promoter to construct recombinant plasmids containing four kinds of haplotypes, pGL3-rs8904C/rs696G, pGL3-rs8904C/rs696A, pGL3-rs8904T/rs696G and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696A. Then these plasmids were transfected into LS174T cells and the luciferase activity was detected. Compared with pGL3-vector transfected cells (negative control), the luciferase activity of the four kinds of recombinant plasmids was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). For rs696G > A, the luciferase activity of the recombinant plasmids containing A allele (pGL3-rs8904C/rs696A and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696A) was about 45.1% (P < 0.05) and 56.1% (P < 0.001) lower than those containing G allele (pGL3-rs8904C/rs696G and pGL3-rs8904T/rs696G), respectively. For rs8904C > T, there were no significant differences in the luciferase activity between the recombinant plasmids containing T allele and those with C allele. Together, the luciferase reporter gene vectors containing SNPs in NFKBIA gene 3'UTR were constructed successfully and rs696G > A could decrease the luciferase activity while rs8904C >T didn't have much effect on the luciferase activity.

  14. Amplification of transgene expression in vitro and in vivo using a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Yamano, T; Ura, K; Morishita, R; Nakajima, H; Monden, M; Kaneda, Y

    2000-06-01

    Enhancement of transgene expression is an important issue in human gene therapy. Here we describe a novel system for enhancing transgene expression by cointroduction of plasmid DNA with FR901228, a water-soluble histone deacetylase inhibitor. When a luciferase expression vector was cointroduced into cells with FR901228, luciferase gene expression was enhanced 50-fold in the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F1 and 5200-fold in NIH3T3 cells in comparison to cells without the drug. Luciferase gene expression enhancement was dependent on both drug dose and treatment time. Acetylated histones increased in accordance with drug dose, and the activation of gene expression occurred at the transcriptional level. The stimulation of luciferase gene expression by FR901228 was also observed in a B16-F1 clone stably expressing luciferase. Cointroduction of the luciferase plasmid with FR901228 into a B16-F1 tumor mass activated luciferase gene expression 3- to 4-fold. Thus, activation of transgene expression by FR901228 may serve as a new tool for gene therapy. PMID:10933982

  15. Cloning and characterization of the homologous genes of firefly luciferase in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Oba, Y; Sato, M; Inouye, S

    2006-06-01

    Three homologous genes of firefly luciferase were cloned from the non-luminous beetle Tenebrio molitor. Three gene products for homologues, TmLL-1, TmLL-2 and TmLL-3, showed fatty acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetic activity, but not luciferase activity with firefly luciferin. The transcripts were detected through the developmental stages in T. molitor. These results suggested that firefly luciferase was evolved from a fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase by gene duplications in the insect.

  16. Firefly luciferase and RLuc8 exhibit differential sensitivity to oxidative stress in apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Czupryna, Julie; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, firefly Luciferase (fLuc) has been used in a wide range of biological assays, providing insight into gene regulation, protein-protein interactions, cell proliferation, and cell migration. However, it has also been well established that fLuc activity can be highly sensitive to its surrounding environment. In this study, we found that when various cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7, and 293T) stably expressing fLuc were treated with staurosporine (STS), there was a rapid loss in bioluminescence. In contrast, a stable variant of Renilla luciferase (RLuc), RLuc8, exhibited significantly prolonged functionality under the same conditions. To identify the specific underlying mechanism(s) responsible for the disparate sensitivity of RLuc8 and fLuc to cellular stress, we conducted a series of inhibition studies that targeted known intracellular protein degradation/modification pathways associated with cell death. Interestingly, these studies suggested that reactive oxygen species, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), was responsible for the diminution of fLuc activity. Consistent with these findings, the direct application of H(2)O(2) to HeLa cells also led to a reduction in fLuc bioluminescence, while H(2)O(2) scavengers stabilized fLuc activity. Comparatively, RLuc8 was far less sensitive to ROS. These observations suggest that fLuc activity can be substantially altered in studies where ROS levels become elevated and can potentially lead to ambiguous or misleading findings.

  17. Luciferase inhibition by a novel naphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Rebecca; LePage, Daniel; Hoffmann, Rachel; Kennedy, Steven; Gutschenritter, Tyler; Bull, Lauren; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; DiCesare, John C; Sheaff, Robert J

    2012-02-01

    The novel naphthoquinone 12,13-dihydro-N-methyl-6,11,13-trioxo-5H-benzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]naphthalen-5,12-imine (hereafter called TU100) was created as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Previous work showed it is an irreversible inhibitor of type I and II topoisomerases that alkylates specific enzyme thiols. While analyzing the effect of TU100 on cancer cells, we discovered it is a potent inhibitor of luciferase derived from both Photinus pyralis (fireflies) and Renilla reniformis (sea pansy). Pre-incubation experiments showed that TU100 does not irreversibly inactivate luciferase, indicating its mechanism is different from that observed with topoisomerases. Firefly luciferase generates light using ATP and luciferin as substrates (bioluminescence). An examination of TU100 inhibition at varying substrate concentrations revealed the drug is uncompetitive with respect to ATP and competitive with respect to luciferin. The TU100 binding constant (K(I)) is 2.5±0.7 μM as determined by Dixon plot analysis. These data suggest TU100 specifically binds the luciferase-ATP complex and prevents its interaction with luciferin. Given the novel structure of TU100, unique mechanism of action, and ability to target luciferase from different species, these results identify TU100 as an important new reagent for investigating and regulating bioluminescent enzymes.

  18. Engineering luciferase enzymes and substrates for novel assay capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Keith V.

    2004-06-01

    In the development of HTS as a central paradigm of drug discovery, fluorescent reporter molecules have generally been adopted as the favored signal transducer. Nevertheless, luminescence has maintained a prominent position among certain methodologies, most notably genetic reporters. Recently, there has been growing partiality for luminescent assays across a broader range of applications due to their sensitivity, extensive linearity, and robustness to library compounds and complex biological samples. This trend has been fostered by development several new assay designs for diverse targets such as kinases, cytochrome p450's, proteases, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. This review addresses recent progress made in the use of bioluminescent assays for drug discovery, highlighting new detection capabilities brought about by engineering luciferase enzymes and substrates. In reporter gene applications, modified luciferases have provided greatly improved expression efficiency in mammalian cells, improved responsiveness to changes of transcriptional rate, and increased the magnitude of the reporter response. Highly stabilized luciferase mutants have enabled new assays strategies for high-throughput screening based on detection of ATP and luciferin. Assays based on ATP support rapid analysis of cell metabolism and enzymatic processes coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Although luciferin is found natively only in luminous beetles, coupled assays have been designed using modified forms of luciferin requiring the action of second enzyme to yield luminescence. Due to the very low inherent background and protection of the photon-emitter afforded by the enzyme, bioluminescent assays often outperform the analogous fluorescent assays for analyses performed in multiwell plates.

  19. Truncated Variants of Gaussia Luciferase with Tyrosine Linker for Site-Specific Bioconjugate Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Eric A.; Moutsiopoulou, Angeliki; Ioannou, Stephanie; Ahern, Katelyn; Woodward, Kristen; Dikici, Emre; Daunert, Sylvia; Deo, Sapna K.

    2016-01-01

    Gaussia luciferase (Gluc)—with its many favorable traits such as small size, bright emission, and exceptional stability—has become a prominent reporter protein for a wide range of bioluminescence-based detection applications. The ten internal cysteine residues crucial to functional structure formation, however, make expression of high quantities of soluble protein in bacterial systems difficult. In addition to this challenge, the current lack of structural data further complicates the use of Gluc for in vitro applications, such as biosensors, or cellular delivery, both of which rely heavily on robust and reproducible bioconjugation techniques. While Gluc is already appreciably small for a luciferase, a reduction in size that still retains significant bioluminescent activity, in conjunction with a more reproducible bioorthogonal method of chemical modification and facile expression in bacteria, would be very beneficial in biosensor design and cellular transport studies. We have developed truncated variants of Gluc, which maintain attractive bioluminescent features, and have characterized their spectral and kinetic properties. These variants were purified in high quantities from a bacterial system. Additionally, a C-terminal linker has been incorporated into these variants that can be used for reliable, specific modification through tyrosine-based bioconjugation techniques, which leave the sensitive network of cysteine residues undisturbed. PMID:27271118

  20. Genetic modification in organ transplantation and in vivo luciferase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Takashi; Inoue, Sei-ichiro; Sato, Yuki; Ajiki, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    The genetic modification for organ transplantation is one of the most promising strategies to regulate allogeneic immune response. Organ-selective gene transfer has especially benefit to control local immune responses. Based on the catheter technique, we tested to deliver naked plasmid DNA to target graft organs of rats (liver and limbs) by a rapid injection (hydrodynamics-based transfection). Recent advances in transplantation have been achieved by visualization of cellular process and delivered gene expression during the inflammatory process by using non-invasive in vivo imaging. Herein, we examined the fate of genetically modified grafts using a firefly luciferase expression plasmid. For liver modification before transplantation, 6.25% of body weight PBS containing plasmid DNA was injected into the liver through the inferior vena cava using a catheter, and the liver was subsequently transplanted to the recipient rat. For limb modification, the femoral caudal epigastric vein was used. In the rat liver transplantation model, substantial luciferase expression was visualized and sustained for only a few days in the grafted liver. We also addressed stress responses by this hydrodynamics procedure using reporter plasmids containing cis-acting enhancer binding site such as NF-kappa B, cAMP, or heat shock response element. In contrast to hepatic transduction, this genetic limb targeting achieved long lasting luciferase expression in the muscle for 2 months or more. Thus, our results suggest that this catheter-based in vivo transfection technique provides an effective strategy for organ-selective gene modification in transplantation, and the bioluminescent imaging is broadening its potential for evaluation to various preclinical studies.

  1. Firefly luciferase genes from the subfamilies Psilocladinae and Ototretinae (Lampyridae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Yoshida, Mayumi; Shintani, Takeru; Furuhashi, Mana; Inouye, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Firefly luciferase genes have been isolated from approximately 20 species of Lampyrinae, Luciolinae, and Photurinae. These are mostly nocturnal luminescent species that use light signals for sexual communication. In this study, we isolated three cDNAs for firefly luciferase from Psilocladinae (Cyphonocerus ruficollis) and Ototretinae (Drilaster axillaris and Stenocladius azumai), which are diurnal non-luminescent or weakly luminescent species that may use pheromones for communication. The amino acid sequences deduced from the three cDNAs showed 81-89% identities to each other and 60-81% identities with known firefly luciferases. The three purified recombinant proteins showed luminescence and fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activities, as observed in other firefly luciferases. The emission maxima by the three firefly luciferases (λmax, 545-546nm) were shorter than those by known luciferases from the nocturnal fireflies (λmax, 550-568nm). These results suggest that the primary structures and enzymatic properties of luciferases are conserved in Lampyridae, but the luminescence colors were red-shifted in nocturnal species compared to diurnal species.

  2. Cancer-specific binary expression system activated in mice by bacteriophage HK022 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Amer; Spector, Itay; Sogolovsky-Bard, Ilana; Gritsenko, Natalia; Rask, Lene; Mainbakh, Yuli; Zilberstein, Yael; Yagil, Ezra; Kolot, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems based on site-specific recombination have been used for tumor specific transcription targeting of suicide genes in animal models. In these binary systems a site specific recombinase or integrase that is expressed from a tumor specific promoter drives tumor specific expression of a cytotoxic gene. In the present study we developed a new cancer specific binary expression system activated by the Integrase (Int) of the lambdoid phage HK022. We demonstrate the validity of this system by the specific expression of a luciferase (luc) reporter in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and in a lung cancer mouse model. Due to the absence viral vectors and of cytotoxicity the Int based binary system offers advantages over previously described counterparts and may therefore be developed into a safer cancer cell killing system. PMID:27117628

  3. An alternative mechanism of bioluminescence color determination in firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce R; Southworth, Tara L; Murtiashaw, Martha H; Magyar, Rachelle A; Gonzalez, Susan A; Ruggiero, Maria C; Stroh, Justin G

    2004-06-15

    Beetle luciferases (including those of the firefly) use the same luciferin substrate to naturally display light ranging in color from green (lambda(max) approximately 530 nm) to red (lambda(max) approximately 635 nm). In a recent communication, we reported (Branchini, B. R., Murtiashaw, M. H., Magyar, R. A., Portier, N. C., Ruggiero, M. C., and Stroh, J. G. (2002) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2112-2113) that the synthetic adenylate of firefly luciferin analogue D-5,5-dimethylluciferin was transformed into the emitter 5,5-dimethyloxyluciferin in bioluminescence reactions catalyzed by luciferases from Photinus pyralis and the click beetle Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus. 5,5-Dimethyloxyluciferin is constrained to exist in the keto form and fluoresces mainly in the red. However, bioluminescence spectra revealed that green light emission was produced by the firefly enzyme, and red light was observed with the click beetle protein. These results, augmented with steady-state kinetic studies, were taken as experimental support for mechanisms of firefly bioluminescence color that require only a single keto form of oxyluciferin. We report here the results of mutagenesis studies designed to determine the basis of the observed differences in bioluminescence color with the analogue adenylate. Mutants of P. pyralis luciferase putative active site residues Gly246 and Phe250, as well as corresponding click beetle residues Ala243 and Ser247 were constructed and characterized using bioluminescence emission spectroscopy and steady state kinetics with adenylate substrates. Based on an analysis of these and recently reported (Branchini, B. R., Southworth, T. L., Murtiashaw, M. H., Boije, H., and Fleet, S. E. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 10429-10436) data, we have developed an alternative mechanism of bioluminescence color. The basis of the mechanism is that luciferase modulates emission color by controlling the resonance-based charge delocalization of the anionic keto form of the oxyluciferin excited

  4. Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis in Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts by Split Firefly Luciferase Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Feng; Bush, Jenifer; Xiong, Yan; Li, Lei; McCormack, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute the regulatory network that coordinates diverse cellular functions. There are growing needs in plant research for creating protein interaction maps behind complex cellular processes and at a systems biology level. However, only a few approaches have been successfully used for large-scale surveys of PPIs in plants, each having advantages and disadvantages. Here we present split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) as a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique for in planta PPI investigation. In this assay, the separate halves of a firefly luciferase can come into close proximity and transiently restore its catalytic activity only when their fusion partners, namely the two proteins of interest, interact with each other. This assay was conferred with quantitativeness and high throughput potential when the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system and a microplate luminometer were employed for protein expression and luciferase measurement, respectively. Using the SFLC assay, we could monitor the dynamics of rapamycin-induced and ascomycin-disrupted interaction between Arabidopsis FRB and human FKBP proteins in a near real-time manner. As a proof of concept for large-scale PPI survey, we further applied the SFLC assay to testing 132 binary PPIs among 8 auxin response factors (ARFs) and 12 Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the SFLC assay is ideal for in vivo quantitative PPI analysis in plant cells and is particularly powerful for large-scale binary PPI screens. PMID:22096563

  5. Firefly luciferase inhibitor-conjugated peptide quenches bioluminescence: a versatile tool for real time monitoring cellular uptake of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Pekka K; Rönkkö, Teemu; Hinkkanen, Ari E; Palvimo, Jorma J; Närvänen, Ale; Turhanen, Petri; Laatikainen, Reino; Weisell, Janne; Pulkkinen, Juha T

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, novel firefly luciferase-specific inhibitor compounds (FLICs) are evaluated as potential tools for cellular trafficking of transporter conjugates. As a proof-of-concept, we designed FLICs that were suitable for solid phase peptide synthesis and could be covalently conjugated to peptides via an amide bond. The spacer between inhibitor and peptide was optimized to gain efficient inhibition of recombinant firefly luciferase (FLuc) without compromising the activity of the model peptides. The hypothesis of using FLICs as tools for cellular trafficking studies was ensured with U87Fluc glioblastoma cells expressing firefly luciferase. Results show that cell penetrating peptide (penetratin) FLIC conjugate 9 inhibited FLuc penetrated cells efficiently (IC50 = 1.6 μM) and inhibited bioluminescence, without affecting the viability of the cells. Based on these results, peptide-FLIC conjugates can be used for the analysis of cellular uptake of biomolecules in a new way that can at the same time overcome some downsides seen with other methods. Thus, FLICs can be considered as versatile tools that broaden the plethora of methods that take advantage of the bioluminescence phenomena.

  6. Regulation of tyrosinase expression and activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abul-Hassan, K; Walmsley, R; Tombran-Tink, J; Boulton, M

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation of tyrosinase gene expression and activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The tyrosinase promoter (Ty.prom) region (400 bp) was PCR amplified and cloned into a modified mammalian expression vector (pcDNA3.1) upstream of a firefly luciferase (Luc) cDNA and was designated 'pcDNA3.1-Ty.prom.Luc'. The plasmid was co-transfected into RPE cells with a second mammalian expression plasmid (pRL-TK) containing a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter region upstream of Renilla Luc in a protocol designated the 'dual luciferase assay' (DLA). After co-transfection, cells were treated with a range of potential melanogenic agents; basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), methyl methane sulphonate, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, verapamil, phorbol myristate acetate, cholera toxin (CT), pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), and L-tyrosine. The expression of tyrosinase promoter and enzymatic activities were determined 48 hr post-transfection using the DLA and DOPA oxidase assays, respectively. Tyrosinase activity could not be detected in RPE cells with any of the treatments. Tyrosinase promoter activity was significantly up-regulated in RPE cells treated with bFGF, PEDF, verapamil, CT and tyrosine compared with control cells. In conclusion, the tyrosinase gene is not only expressed but can be regulated in response to different chemicals in cultured human RPE cells. However, it appears that RPE cells in culture lack a post-transcriptional and/or translational modification point(s), which are necessary for tyrosinase enzymic activity. PMID:11153695

  7. Effects of 940 Hz EMF on luciferase solution: structure, function, and dielectric studies.

    PubMed

    Sefidbakht, Yahya; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Tavakkolnia, Iman; Khellat, Mohammad R; Shakiba-Herfeh, Mahdi; Saviz, Mehrdad; Faraji-Dana, Reza; Saboury, Ali A; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2013-09-01

    We designed a rectangular waveguide exposure system to study the effects of mobile phone frequency (940 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on luciferase structure and activity. The luciferase activity of exposed samples was significantly higher than that of unexposed samples. Dynamic light scattering of the exposed samples showed smaller hydrodynamic radii compared to unexposed samples (20 nm vs. 47 nm ± 5%). The exposed samples also showed less tendency to form aggregates, monitored by turbidity measurements at l = 360 nm. A microwave dielectric measurement was performed to study the hydration properties of luciferase solutions with a precision network analyzer over frequency ranges from 0.2 to 20 GHz before and after exposure. The change in the dielectric properties of the exposed luciferase solution was related to the disaggregation potency of the applied field. Together, our results suggested that direct interactions with luciferase molecules and its dipole moment were responsible for the reduced aggregation and enhanced luciferase activity upon exposure to the EMF. PMID:23633149

  8. Suitability of Macrolampis firefly and Pyrearinus click beetle luciferases for bacterial light off toxicity biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Gabriele V M; Lopes, P S; Viviani, V R

    2014-01-15

    Bioluminescence is widely used in biosensors. For water toxicity analysis, the naturally bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri have been used extensively. We investigated the suitability of two new beetle luciferases for Escherichia coli light off biosensors: Macrolampis firefly and Pyrearinus termitilluminans click beetle luciferases. The bioluminescence detection assay using this system is very sensitive, being comparable or superior to V. fischeri. The luciferase of P. termitilluminans produces a strong and sustained bioluminescence that is useful for less sensitive and inexpensive assays that require integration of the emission, whereas Macrolampis luciferase displays a flash-like luminescence that is useful for fast and more sensitive assays. The effect of heavy metals and sanitizing agents was analyzed. Zinc, copper, 1-propanol, and iodide had inhibitory effects on bioluminescence and growth assays; however, in these cases the bioluminescence was not a very reliable indicator of cell growth and metabolic activity because these agents also inhibited the luciferase. On the other hand, mercury and silver strongly affected cell bioluminescence and growth but not the luciferase activity, indicating that bioluminescence was a reliable indicator of cell growth and metabolic activity in this case. Finally, bioluminescent E. coli immobilized in agarose matrix gave a more stable format for environmental assays.

  9. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin inhibits plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and secretion in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Laumen, Helmut; Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans

    2008-02-01

    Human preadipocytes and adipocytes are known to produce the proatherogenic factor PAI-1 and proinflammatory cytokines, and obesity was found to be state of increased adipose production of these factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on the regulation of PAI-1 gene expression in human adipocytes. Human preadipocytes, adipocytes in primary culture and the SGBS cell line were used as cell models. Cells were transfected using various constructs and promoter activity was measured as luciferase activity. PAI-1 expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Rosuvastatin inhibited PAI-1 mRNA expression and secretion of the protein in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by isoprenoids. Addition of MEK-inhibitors and NFkappaB inhibitors also reduced PAI-1 expression and PAI-1 promoter luciferase activity. Further experiments revealed that rosuvastatin down-regulated the MEKK-1 mediated activation of the PAI-1 promoter. In conclusion our data suggest that rosuvastatin inhibits PAI-1 expression and release from human adipocytes via a MEKK-1-dependent but not a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism.

  10. Mechanism-based design of a photoactivatable firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Lin, Shixian; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Peng R

    2013-05-22

    We developed a photoactivatable firefly luciferase (pfLuc) whose activation can be controlled by light. A photocaged Lys analogue was site-specifically incorporated into fLuc to replace its key catalytic Lys residue, Lys529, rendering fLuc inactive until light-triggered removal of the caging group. This photoinduced gain of luminescence provides a facile approach for assessing the photolysis efficiency of this valuable photosensitive Lys analogue within the context of its carrier protein in vitro and in living cells. We further took advantage of the spatial and temporal activation feature of pfLuc for intracellular measurement of labile ATP levels without impairment of cellular physiology.

  11. Evaluation of an Hprt-Luciferase Reporter Gene on a Mammalian Artificial Chromosome in Response to Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takeshi; Noda, Natsumi; Kuromi, Yasushi; Kokura, Kenji; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) is known as a house-keeping gene, and has been used as an internal control for real-time quantitative RT-PCR and various other methods of gene expression analysis. To evaluate the Hprt mRNA levels as a reference standard, we engineered a luciferase reporter driven by a long Hprt promoter and measured its response to cytotoxicity. Methods We constructed a reporter vector that harbored a phiC31 integrase recognition site and a mouse Hprt promoter fused with green-emitting luciferase (SLG) coding sequence. The Hprt-SLG vector was loaded onto a mouse artificial chromosome containing a multi-integrase platform using phiC31 integrase in mouse A9 cells. We established three independent clones. Results The established cell lines had similar levels of expression of the Hprt-SLG reporter gene. Hprt-SLG activity increased proportionately under growth conditions and decreased under cytotoxic conditions after blasticidin or cisplatin administration. Similar increases and decreases in the SLG luminescent were observed under growth and cytotoxic conditions, respectively, to those in the fluorescent obtained using the commercially available reagent, alamarBlue. Conclusion By employing a reliable and stable expression system in a mammalian artificial chromosome, the activity of an Hprt-SLG reporter can reflect cell numbers under cell growth condition and cell viability in the evaluation of cytotoxic conditions. PMID:27493490

  12. Quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions by split firefly luciferase complementation in plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan

    2014-07-01

    This unit describes the split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) assay, a high-throughput quantitative method that can be used to investigate protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in plant mesophyll protoplasts. In SFLC, the two proteins to be tested for interaction are expressed as chimeric proteins, each fused to a different half of firefly luciferase. If the proteins interact, a functional luciferase can be transitorily reconstituted, and is detected using the cell-permeable substrate D-luciferin. An advantage of the SFLC assay is that dynamic changes in PPIs in a cell can be detected in a near real-time manner. Another advantage is the unusually high DNA co-transfection and protein expression efficiencies that can be achieved in plant protoplasts, thereby enhancing the throughput of the method.

  13. Inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on firefly luciferase bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2004-10-15

    Lipoic acid was found to inhibit the firefly luciferin-luciferase reaction. The inhibition is competitive and is the strongest known (Ki = 0.026 +/- 0.013 microM) compared with other reported inhibitors. Considering the structure-activity correlations, the mechanism of inhibition may originate from the sulfur atom and carboxyl moiety of lipoic acid giving it structural specificity. Subsequent addition of lipoic acid and nitric oxide accelerated the inhibition in vitro, suggesting that lipoic acid may have a functional role in regulating firefly bioluminescence.

  14. A Cytoplasmic Form of Gaussia luciferase Provides a Highly Sensitive Test for Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Saori; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya; Yamakage, Kohji; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tada, Masako

    2016-01-01

    The elimination of unfavorable chemicals from our environment and commercial products requires a sensitive and high-throughput in vitro assay system for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Some previous methods for evaluating hepatotoxicity measure the amounts of cytoplasmic enzymes secreted from damaged cells into the peripheral blood or culture medium. However, most of these enzymes are proteolytically digested in the extracellular milieu, dramatically reducing the sensitivity and reliability of such assays. Other methods measure the decrease in cell viability following exposure to a compound, but such endpoint assays are often confounded by proliferation of surviving cells that replace dead or damaged cells. In this study, with the goal of preventing false-negative diagnoses, we developed a sensitive luminometric cytotoxicity test using a stable form of luciferase. Specifically, we converted Gaussia luciferase (G-Luc) from an actively secreted form to a cytoplasmic form by adding an ER-retention signal composed of the four amino acids KDEL. The bioluminescent signal was >30-fold higher in transgenic HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells expressing G-Luc+KDEL than in cells expressing wild-type G-Luc. Moreover, G-Luc+KDEL secreted from damaged cells was stable in culture medium after 24 hr at 37°C. We evaluated the accuracy of our cytotoxicity test by subjecting identical samples obtained from chemically treated transgenic HepG2 cells to the G-Luc+KDEL assay and luminometric analyses based on secretion of endogenous adenylate kinase or cellular ATP level. Time-dependent accumulation of G-Luc+KDEL in the medium increased the sensitivity of our assay above those of existing tests. Our findings demonstrate that strong and stable luminescence of G-Luc+KDEL in human hepatocyte-like cells, which have high levels of metabolic activity, make it suitable for use in a high-throughput screening system for monitoring time-dependent cytotoxicity in a limited number of cells. PMID

  15. A Cytoplasmic Form of Gaussia luciferase Provides a Highly Sensitive Test for Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Saori; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya; Yamakage, Kohji; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tada, Masako

    2016-01-01

    The elimination of unfavorable chemicals from our environment and commercial products requires a sensitive and high-throughput in vitro assay system for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Some previous methods for evaluating hepatotoxicity measure the amounts of cytoplasmic enzymes secreted from damaged cells into the peripheral blood or culture medium. However, most of these enzymes are proteolytically digested in the extracellular milieu, dramatically reducing the sensitivity and reliability of such assays. Other methods measure the decrease in cell viability following exposure to a compound, but such endpoint assays are often confounded by proliferation of surviving cells that replace dead or damaged cells. In this study, with the goal of preventing false-negative diagnoses, we developed a sensitive luminometric cytotoxicity test using a stable form of luciferase. Specifically, we converted Gaussia luciferase (G-Luc) from an actively secreted form to a cytoplasmic form by adding an ER-retention signal composed of the four amino acids KDEL. The bioluminescent signal was >30-fold higher in transgenic HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells expressing G-Luc+KDEL than in cells expressing wild-type G-Luc. Moreover, G-Luc+KDEL secreted from damaged cells was stable in culture medium after 24 hr at 37°C. We evaluated the accuracy of our cytotoxicity test by subjecting identical samples obtained from chemically treated transgenic HepG2 cells to the G-Luc+KDEL assay and luminometric analyses based on secretion of endogenous adenylate kinase or cellular ATP level. Time-dependent accumulation of G-Luc+KDEL in the medium increased the sensitivity of our assay above those of existing tests. Our findings demonstrate that strong and stable luminescence of G-Luc+KDEL in human hepatocyte-like cells, which have high levels of metabolic activity, make it suitable for use in a high-throughput screening system for monitoring time-dependent cytotoxicity in a limited number of cells. PMID

  16. Seminal vesicles and urinary bladder as sites of aromatization of androgens in men, evidenced by a CYP19A1-driven luciferase reporter mouse and human tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Leena; Rantakari, Pia; Sjögren, Klara; Salminen, Anu; Lauren, Eve; Kallio, Jenny; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Boström, Minna; Boström, Peter J; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Zhang, FuPing; Kujala, Paula; Ohlsson, Claes; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti

    2013-04-01

    The human CYP19A1 gene is expressed in various tissues by the use of tissue-specific promoters, whereas the rodent cyp19a1 gene is expressed mainly in the gonads and brain. We generated a transgenic mouse model containing a >100-kb 5' region of human CYP19A1 gene connected to a luciferase reporter gene. The luciferase activity in mouse tissues mimicked the CYP19A1 gene expression pattern in humans. Interestingly, the reporter gene activity was 16 and 160 times higher in the urinary bladder and seminal vesicles, respectively, as compared with the activity in the testis. Accordingly, CYP19A1 gene and P450arom protein expression was detected in those human tissues. Moreover, the data revealed that the expression of CYP19A1 gene is driven by promoters PII, I.4, and I.3 in the seminal vesicles, and by promoters PII and I.4 in the urinary bladder. Furthermore, the reporter gene expression in the seminal vesicles was androgen dependent: Castration decreased the expression ∼20 times, and testosterone treatment restored it to the level of an intact mouse. This reporter mouse model facilitates studies of tissue-specific regulation of the human CYP19A1 gene, and our data provide evidence for seminal vesicles as important sites for estrogen production in males.

  17. Refolding of firefly luciferase immobilized on agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Zako, T; Deguchi, H; Kitayama, A; Ueda, H; Nagamune, T

    2000-03-01

    The renaturation yield of the denatured firefly luciferase decreased strongly with increasing protein concentration in a renaturation buffer, because of aggregation. In this study, firefly luciferase was immobilized on agarose beads at a high concentration. Although the protein concentration was extremely high (about 100-fold) compared to that of soluble luciferase, the renaturation yield was comparable with that for the soluble one. Thus, immobilization was shown to be effective for avoiding aggregation of firefly luciferase. It was also shown that the optimum buffer conditions for renaturation of the immobilized luciferase were the same as those for the renaturation in solution. Also, it was indicated that electrostatic interactions between a protein and the matrix have a negative effect on renaturation of the immobilized luciferase since the renaturation yield decreased at acidic pH only for the immobilized luciferase. These novel observations are described in detail in this paper.

  18. Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Do, Minh Truong; Choi, Jae Ho; Won, Seong Su; Kang, Wonku; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-05-15

    Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor α (ERα), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ERα knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ERα-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ERα activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ERα phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • Leptin activated ERK and Akt kinases related to ERα phosphorylation. • Leptin induces phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167. • Leptin induces ERE-luciferase activity.

  19. Development of a high-throughput screening cancer cell-based luciferase refolding assay for identifying Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sadikot, Takrima; Swink, Megan; Eskew, Jeffery D; Brown, Douglas; Zhao, Huiping; Kusuma, Bhaskar R; Rajewski, Roger A; Blagg, Brian S J; Matts, Robert L; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Vielhauer, George A

    2013-10-01

    The 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) and other cochaperones allow for proper folding of nascent or misfolded polypeptides. Cancer cells exploit these chaperones by maintaining the stability of mutated and misfolded oncoproteins and allowing them to evade proteosomal degradation. Inhibiting Hsp90 is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy, as the concomitant degradation of multiple oncoproteins may lead to effective anti-neoplastic agents. Unfortunately, early clinical trials have been disappointing with N-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors, as it is unclear whether the problems that plague current Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical trials are related to on-target or off-target activity. One approach to overcome these pitfalls is to identify structurally diverse scaffolds that improve Hsp90 inhibitory activity in the cancer cell milieu. Utilizing a panel of cancer cell lines that express luciferase, we have designed an in-cell Hsp90-dependent luciferase refolding assay. The assay was optimized using previously identified Hsp90 inhibitors and experimental novobiocin analogues against prostate, colon, and lung cancer cell lines. This assay exhibits good interplate precision (% CV), a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ≥7, and an approximate Z-factor ranging from 0.5 to 0.7. Novobiocin analogues that revealed activity in this assay were examined via western blot experiments for client protein degradation, a hallmark of Hsp90 inhibition. Subsequently, a pilot screen was conducted using the Prestwick library, and two compounds, biperiden and ethoxyquin, revealed significant activity. Here, we report the development of an in-cell Hsp90-dependent luciferase refolding assay that is amenable across cancer cell lines for the screening of inhibitors in their specific milieu. PMID:24127661

  20. Luciferase from Fulgeochlizus bruchi (Coleoptera:Elateridae), a Brazilian click-beetle with a single abdominal lantern: molecular evolution, biological function and comparison with other click-beetle luciferases.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Danilo T; Prado, Rogilene A; Viviani, Vadim R

    2012-07-01

    Bioluminescent click-beetles emit a wide range of bioluminescence colors (λ(Max) = 534-594 nm) from thoracic and abdominal lanterns, which are used for courtship. Only the luciferases from Pyrophorus and Pyrearinus species were cloned and sequenced. The Brazilian Fulgeochlizus bruchi click-beetle, which inhabits the Central-west Cerrado (Savannas), is noteworthy because, differently from other click-beetles, the adult stage displays only a functional abdominal lantern, which produces a bright green bioluminescence for sexual attraction purposes, and lacks functional thoracic lanterns. We cloned the cDNA for the abdominal lantern luciferase of this species. Notably, the primary sequence of this luciferase showed slightly higher identity with the green emitting dorsal lantern luciferases of the Pyrophorus genus instead of the abdominal lanterns luciferases. This luciferase displays a blue-shifted spectrum (λ(Max) = 540 nm), which is pH-insensitive from pH 7.5 to 9.5 and undergoes a slight red shift and broadening above this pH; the lowest K(M) for luciferin among studied click-beetle luciferases, and the highest optimum pH (9.0) ever reported for a beetle luciferase. At pH 9.0, the K(M) for luciferin increases, showing a decrease of affinity for this substrate, despite the higher activity. The slow luminescence decay rate of F. bruchi luciferase in vitro reaction could be an adaptation of this luciferase for the long and sustained in vivo luminescence display of the click-beetle during the courtship, and could be useful for in vivo intracellular imaging.

  1. Comparative theoretical study of the binding of luciferyl-adenylate and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate to firefly luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Vieira, João; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a study employing a computational approach to study the binding of (D/L)-luciferyl-adenlyates and dehydroluciferyl-adenylate to firefly luciferase. A semi-empirical/molecular mechanics methodology was used to study the interaction between these ligands and active site molecules. All adenylates are complexed with the enzyme, mostly due to electrostatic interactions with cationic residues. Dehydroluciferyl-adenylate is expected to be a competitive inhibitor of luciferyl-adenylate, as their binding mechanism and affinity to luciferase are very similar. Both luciferyl-adenylates adopt the L-orientation in the active site of luciferase.

  2. Posttranslationally caused bioluminescence burst of the Escherichia coli luciferase reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Yamato; Oshikoshi, Yuta; Ryo, Masashi; Motoki, Shogo; Kuwano, Takashi; Tezuka, Takafumi; Aoki, Setsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We continuously monitored bioluminescence from a wild-type reporter strain of Escherichia coli (lacp::luc+/WT), which carries the promoter of the lac operon (lacp) fused with the firefly luciferase gene (luc+). This strain showed a bioluminescence burst when shifted into the stationary growth phase. Bioluminescence profiles of other wild-type reporter strains (rpsPp::luc+ and argAp::luc+) and gene-deletion reporter strains (lacp::luc+/crp- and lacp::luc+/lacI-) indicate that transcriptional regulation is not responsible for generation of the burst. Consistently, changes in the luciferase protein levels did not recapitulate the profile of the burst. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen levels increased over the period across the burst, suggesting that the burst is, at least partially, caused by an increase in intracellular oxygen levels. We discuss limits of the firefly luciferase when used as a reporter for gene expression and its potential utility for monitoring metabolic changes in cells.

  3. Comparison of red-shifted firefly luciferase Ppy RE9 and conventional Luc2 as bioluminescence imaging reporter genes for in vivo imaging of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yajie; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2012-01-01

    One critical issue for noninvasive imaging of transplanted bioluminescent cells is the large amount of light absorption in tissue when emission wavelengths below 600 nm are used. Luciferase with a red-shifted spectrum can potentially bypass this limitation. We assessed and compared a mutant of firefly luciferase (Ppy RE9, PRE9) against the yellow luciferase luc2 gene for use in cell transplantation studies. C17.2 neural stem cells expressing PRE9-Venus and luc2-Venus were sorted by flow cytometry and assessed for bioluminescence in vitro in culture and in vivo after transplantation into the brain of immunodeficient Rag2-/- mice. We found that the luminescence from PRE9 was stable, with a peak emission at 620 nm, shifted to the red compared to that of luc2. The emission peak for PRE9 was pH-independent, in contrast to luc2, and much less affected by tissue absorbance compared to that of luc2. However, the total emitted light radiance from PRE9 was substantially lower than that of luc2, both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that PRE9 has favorable properties as compared to luc2 in terms of pH independence, red-shifted spectrum, tissue light penetration, and signal quantification, justifying further optimization of protein expression and enzymatic activity.

  4. Multiplex detection of protein-protein interactions using a next generation luciferase reporter.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Lisette G G C; Mattioli, Michela; Ricci, Fernanda; Li, Yao-Cheng; Wade, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Cell-based assays of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) using split reporter proteins can be used to identify PPI agonists and antagonists. Generally, such assays measure one PPI at a time, and thus counterscreens for on-target activity must be run in parallel or at a subsequent stage; this increases both the cost and time during screening. Split luciferase systems offer advantages over those that use split fluorescent proteins (FPs). This is since split luciferase offers a greater signal:noise ratio and, unlike split FPs, the PPI can be reversed upon small molecule treatment. While multiplexed PPI assays using luciferase have been reported, they suffer from low signal:noise and require fairly complex spectral deconvolution during analysis. Furthermore, the luciferase enzymes used are large, which limits the range of PPIs that can be interrogated due to steric hindrance from the split luciferase fragments. Here, we report a multiplexed PPI assay based on split luciferases from Photinus pyralis (firefly luciferase, FLUC) and the deep-sea shrimp, Oplophorus gracilirostris (NanoLuc, NLUC). Specifically, we show that the binding of the p53 tumor suppressor to its two major negative regulators, MDM2 and MDM4, can be simultaneously measured within the same sample, without the requirement for complex filters or deconvolution. We provide chemical and genetic validation of this system using MDM2-targeted small molecules and mutagenesis, respectively. Combined with the superior signal:noise and smaller size of split NanoLuc, this multiplexed PPI assay format can be exploited to study the induction or disruption of pairwise interactions that are prominent in many cell signaling pathways. PMID:26646257

  5. A Photinus pyralis and Luciola italica chimeric firefly luciferase produces enhanced bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce R; Southworth, Tara L; Fontaine, Danielle M; Davis, Audrey L; Behney, Curran E; Murtiashaw, Martha H

    2014-10-14

    We report the enhanced bioluminescence properties of a chimeric enzyme (PpyLit) that contains the N-domain of recombinant Photinus pyralis luciferase joined to the C-domain of recombinant Luciola italica luciferase. Compared to the P. pyralis enzyme, the novel PpyLit chimera exhibited 1.8-fold enhanced flash-height specific activity, 2.0-fold enhanced integration-based specific activity, 2.9-fold enhanced catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km), and a 1.4-fold greater bioluminescence quantum yield. The results of this study provide an underlying basis of this unusual example of a chimeric enzyme with enhanced catalytic properties that are not simply the sum of the contributions of the two luciferases.

  6. Illuminating insights into firefly luciferase and other bioluminescent reporters used in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Natasha; Inglese, James; Auld, Douglas S

    2010-06-25

    Understanding luciferase enzymology and the structure of compounds that modulate luciferase activity can be used to improve the design of luminescence-based assays. This review provides an overview of these popular reporters with an emphasis on the commonly used firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis (FLuc). Large-scale chemical profile studies have identified a variety of scaffolds that inhibit FLuc. In some cell-based assays, these inhibitors can act in a counterintuitive way, leading to a gain in luminescent signal. Although formerly attributed to transcriptional activation, intracellular stabilization of FLuc is the primary mechanism underlying this observation. FLuc inhibition and stabilization can be complex, as illustrated by the compound PTC124, which is converted by FLuc in the presence of ATP to a high affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor, PTC124-AMP. The potential influence these findings can have on drug discovery efforts is provided here.

  7. Development of HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assays in human cells for assessing the oxidative damage induced by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Zhang, Leshuai W; Che, Bizhong; Dong, Guangzhu; Fan, Guoqiang; Cheng, Kaiming

    2016-08-01

    The exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products requires novel tools for rapid and cost-effective toxicology screening. In order to assess the oxidative damage induced by nanoparticles, toxicity test systems based on a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter in HepG2, LO2, A549, and HBE cells were established. After treated with heat shock and a group of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different primary particle sizes, the cell viability, oxidative damage, and luciferase activity were determined. The time-dependent Ag(+) ions release from AgNPs in cell medium was also evaluated. Our results showed that heat shock produced a strong time-dependent induction of relative luciferase activity in the four luciferase reporter cells. Surprisingly, at 4h of recovery, the relative luciferase activity was >98× the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells. Exposure to different sizes of AgNPs resulted in activation of the HSPA1A promoter in a dose-dependent manner, even at low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic doses. The smaller (5nm) AgNPs were more potent in luciferase induction than the larger (50 and 75nm) AgNPs. These results were generally in accordance with the oxidative damage indicated by malondialdehyde concentration, reactive oxygen species induction and glutathione depletion, and Ag(+) ions release in cell medium. Compared with the other three luciferase reporter cells, the luciferase signal in HepG2-luciferase cells is obviously more sensitive and stable. We conclude that the luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a valuable tool for rapid screening of the oxidative damage induced by AgNPs.

  8. A basis for reduced chemical library inhibition of firefly luciferase obtained from directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Auld, Douglas S; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Southall, Noel T; Rai, Ganesha; Landsman, Marc; MacLure, Jennifer; Langevin, Daniel; Thomas, Craig J; Austin, Christopher P; Inglese, James

    2009-03-12

    We measured the "druggability" of the ATP-dependent luciferase derived from the firefly Photuris pennsylvanica that was optimized using directed evolution (Ultra-Glo, Promega). Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) was used to determine IC(50)s of 198899 samples against a formulation of Ultra-Glo luciferase (Kinase-Glo). We found that only 0.1% of the Kinase-Glo inhibitors showed an IC(50) < 10 microM compared to 0.9% found from a previous qHTS against the firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis (lucPpy). Further, the maximum affinity identified in the lucPpy qHTS was 50 nM, while for Kinase-Glo this value increased to 600 nM. Compounds with interactions stretching outside the luciferin binding pocket were largely lost with Ultra-Glo luciferase. Therefore, Ultra-Glo luciferase will show less compound interference when used as an ATP sensor compared to lucPpy. This study demonstrates the power of large-scale quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships (>100K compounds) in addressing important questions such as a target's druggability.

  9. How to Fabricate Functional Artificial Luciferases for Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Fujii, Rika

    2016-01-01

    The present protocol introduces fabrication of artificial luciferases (ALuc(®)) by extracting the consensus amino acids from the alignment of copepod luciferase sequences. The made ALucs have unique sequential identities that are phylogenetically distinctive from those of any existing copepod luciferase. Some ALucs exhibited heat stability, and strong and greatly prolonged optical intensities. The made ALucs are applicable to various bioassays as an optical readout, including live cell imaging, single-chain probes, and bioluminescent tags of antibodies. The present protocol guides on how to fabricate a unique artificial luciferase with designed optical properties and functionalities. PMID:27424894

  10. Dual-Color Luciferase Complementation for Chemokine Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptors may share common ligands, setting up potential competition for ligand binding, and association of activated receptors with downstream signaling molecules such as β-arrestin. Determining the "winner" of competition for shared effector molecules is essential for understanding integrated functions of chemokine receptor signaling in normal physiology, disease, and response to therapy. We describe a dual-color click beetle luciferase complementation assay for cell-based analysis of interactions of two different chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and ACKR3, with the intracellular scaffolding protein β-arrestin 2. This assay provides real-time quantification of receptor activation and signaling in response to chemokine CXCL12. More broadly, this general imaging strategy can be applied to quantify interactions of any set of two proteins that interact with a common binding partner.

  11. In vivo imaging of farnesoid X receptor activity reveals the ileum as the primary bile acid signaling tissue.

    PubMed

    Houten, Sander M; Volle, David H; Cummins, Carolyn L; Mangelsdorf, David J; Auwerx, Johan

    2007-06-01

    We generated and characterized a firefly luciferase reporter mouse for the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). This FXR reporter mouse has basal luciferase expression in the terminal ileum, an organ with well-characterized FXRalpha signaling. In vivo luciferase activity reflected the diurnal activity pattern of the mouse, and is regulated by both natural (bile acids, chenodeoxycholic acid) and synthetic (GW4064) FXRalpha ligands. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro analysis showed luciferase activity after GW4064 administration in the liver, kidney, and adrenal gland, indicating that FXRalpha signaling is functional in these tissues. Hepatic luciferase activity was robustly induced in cholestatic mice, showing that FXRalpha signaling pathways are activated in this disease. In conclusion, we have developed an FXR reporter mouse that is useful to monitor FXRalpha signaling in vivo in health and disease. The use of this animal could facilitate the development of new therapeutic compounds that target FXRalpha in a tissue-specific manner.

  12. Immobilization of Firefly Luciferase on PVA-co-PE Nanofibers Membrane as Biosensor for Bioluminescent Detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qinghua; Luo, Mengying; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen

    2015-09-16

    The bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase has become widely established as an outstanding analytical system for assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When in solution, the luciferase is unstable and cannot be reused. The problem can be partially solved by immobilizing the luciferase on solid substrates. The poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibers membrane has abundant active hydroxyl groups on the surface. The PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was first activated by cyanuric chloride with triazinyl group. Then the activated PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was subsequently reacted with 1,3-propanediamine and biotin. The firefly luciferase was immobilized onto the surface of 1,3-propanediamine- and biotin-functionalized membranes. The surface chemical structure and morphologies of nanofibers membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR spectra and SEM. The hydrophilicity of membranes was tested by water contact angle measurements. The detection of fluorescence intensity displayed that the firefly-luciferase-immobilized PVA-co-PE nanofibers membranes indicated high catalytic activity and efficiency. Especially, the firefly-luciferase-immobilized nanofiber membrane which was functionalized by biotin can be a promising candidate as biosensor for bioluminescent detection of ATP because of its high detection sensitivity. PMID:26275118

  13. Immobilization of Firefly Luciferase on PVA-co-PE Nanofibers Membrane as Biosensor for Bioluminescent Detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qinghua; Luo, Mengying; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen

    2015-09-16

    The bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase has become widely established as an outstanding analytical system for assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When in solution, the luciferase is unstable and cannot be reused. The problem can be partially solved by immobilizing the luciferase on solid substrates. The poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibers membrane has abundant active hydroxyl groups on the surface. The PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was first activated by cyanuric chloride with triazinyl group. Then the activated PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was subsequently reacted with 1,3-propanediamine and biotin. The firefly luciferase was immobilized onto the surface of 1,3-propanediamine- and biotin-functionalized membranes. The surface chemical structure and morphologies of nanofibers membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR spectra and SEM. The hydrophilicity of membranes was tested by water contact angle measurements. The detection of fluorescence intensity displayed that the firefly-luciferase-immobilized PVA-co-PE nanofibers membranes indicated high catalytic activity and efficiency. Especially, the firefly-luciferase-immobilized nanofiber membrane which was functionalized by biotin can be a promising candidate as biosensor for bioluminescent detection of ATP because of its high detection sensitivity.

  14. Comparison of human optimized bacterial luciferase, firefly luciferase, and green fluorescent protein for continuous imaging of cell culture and animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Dan M.; Hahn, Ruth E.; Patterson, Stacey S.; Baek, Seung J.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2011-04-01

    Bioluminescent and fluorescent reporter systems have enabled the rapid and continued growth of the optical imaging field over the last two decades. Of particular interest has been noninvasive signal detection from mammalian tissues under both cell culture and whole animal settings. Here we report on the advantages and limitations of imaging using a recently introduced bacterial luciferase (lux) reporter system engineered for increased bioluminescent expression in the mammalian cellular environment. Comparison with the bioluminescent firefly luciferase (Luc) system and green fluorescent protein system under cell culture conditions demonstrated a reduced average radiance, but maintained a more constant level of bioluminescent output without the need for substrate addition or exogenous excitation to elicit the production of signal. Comparison with the Luc system following subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection into nude mice hosts demonstrated the ability to obtain similar detection patterns with in vitro experiments at cell population sizes above 2.5 × 104 cells but at the cost of increasing overall image integration time.

  15. Inhibition of firefly luciferase by alkane analogues.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kô; Kamaya, Hiroshi; Ueda, Issaku

    2005-01-18

    We reported that anesthetics increased the partial molal volume of firefly luciferase (FFL), while long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) decreased it. The present study measured the actions of dodecanol (neutral), dodecanoic acid (negatively charged), and dodecylamine (positively charged) hydrophobic molecules on FFL. The interaction modes are measured by (1) ATP-induced bioluminescence of FFL and (2) fluorescence of 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS). TNS fluoresces brightly in hydrophobic media. It competes with the substrate luciferin on the FFL binding. From the Scatchard plot of TNS titration, the maximum binding number of TNS was 0.83, and its binding constant was 8.27 x 10(5) M(-1). Job's plot also showed that the binding number is 0.89. From the TNS titration of FFL, the binding constant was estimated to be 8.8 x 10(5) M(-1). Dodecanoic acid quenched the TNS fluorescence entirely. Dodecanol quenched about 25% of the fluorescence, whereas dodecylamine increased it. By comparing the fluorescence of TNS and bioluminescence of FFL, the binding modes and the inhibition mechanisms of these dodecane analogues are classified in three different modes: competitive (dodecanoic acid), noncompetitive (dodecylamine), and mixed (dodecanol).

  16. Topoisomerase inhibition accelerates gene expression after adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the mammalian heart.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Konkal-Matt R; Xu, Yaqin; Yang, Zequan; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Berr, Stuart S; French, Brent A

    2007-04-01

    Utility of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors for cardiac gene therapy is limited by the prolonged lag phase before maximal gene expression. Topoisomerase inhibition can induce AAV2-mediated gene expression in vivo, but with variable success in different tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that topoisomerase inhibition can accelerate AAV2-mediated gene expression in the mouse heart. We used an AAV2 vector expressing firefly luciferase and monitored expression kinetics using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. In the group receiving vector alone, cardiac luciferase activity was evident from week 2 onward and increased progressively to reach a steady plateau by 9 weeks postinjection. In the group receiving vector and camptothecine (CPT), luciferase expression was evident from days 2 to 4 onward and increased rapidly to reach a steady plateau by 3-4 weeks postinjection, nearly three times faster than in the absence of CPT (P<0.05). Southern blot analysis of AAV2 genomes in cardiac tissue showed rapid conversion of the AAV2 genome from its single-stranded to double-stranded form in CPT-treated mice. Non-invasive determinations of luciferase expression correlated well with in vitro luciferase assays. Direct injection of the AAV2 vector and long-term luciferase gene expression had no detectable effects on normal cardiac function as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Endoglin regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Jerkic, Mirjana; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; Santibanez, Juan F; Prieto, Marta; Rodríguez-Barbero, Alicia; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Pericacho, Miguel; Arévalo, Miguel; Vary, Calvin P H; Letarte, Michelle; Bernabeu, Carmelo; López-Novoa, Jose M

    2006-08-01

    The endoglin heterozygous (Eng(+/-)) mouse, which serves as a model of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), was shown to express reduced levels of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) with impaired activity. Because of intricate changes in vasomotor function in the Eng(+/-) mice and the potential interactions between the NO- and prostaglandin-producing pathways, we assessed the expression and function of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms. A specific upregulation of COX-2 in the vascular endothelium and increased urinary excretion of prostaglandin E(2) were observed in the Eng(+/-) mice. Specific COX-2 inhibition with parecoxib transiently increased arterial pressure in Eng(+/-) but not in Eng(+/+) mice. Transfection of endoglin in L6E9 myoblasts, shown previously to stimulate eNOS expression, led to downregulation of COX-2 with no change in COX-1. In addition, COX-2 promoter activity and protein levels were inversely correlated with endoglin levels, in doxycyclin-inducible endothelial cells. Chronic NO synthesis inhibition with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester induced a marked increase in COX-2 only in the normal Eng(+/+) mice. N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester also increased COX-2 expression and promoter activity in doxycyclin-inducible endoglin expressing endothelial cells, but not in control cells. The level of COX-2 expression following transforming growth factor-beta1 treatment was less in endoglin than in mock transfected L6E9 myoblasts and was higher in human endothelial cells silenced for endoglin expression. Our results indicate that endoglin is involved in the regulation of COX-2 activity. Furthermore, reduced endoglin levels and associated impaired NO production may be responsible, at least in part, for augmented COX-2 expression and activity in the Eng(+/-) mice. PMID:16840721

  18. Dual luciferase labelling for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging of mesenchymal stromal cell chondrogenic differentiation in demineralized bone matrix scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Marta; Jorgensen, Christian; Dégano, Irene R; Chernajovsky, Yuti; Gould, David; Noël, Danièle; Andrades, José A; Becerra, José; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo

    2009-10-01

    Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to monitor changes in gene expression of cells implanted in live animals should facilitate the development of biomaterial scaffolds for tissue regeneration. We show that, in vitro, induction of chondrogenic differentiation in mouse bone marrow stromal cell line (CL1) and human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs), permanently transduced with a procollagen II (COL2A1) promoter driving a firefly luciferase gene reporter (PLuc) (COL2A1p.PLuc), induces PLuc expression in correlation with increases in COL2A1 and Sox9 mRNA expression and acquisition of chondrocytic phenotype. To be able to simultaneously monitor in vivo cell differentiation and proliferation, COL2A1p.PLuc labelled cells were also genetically labelled with a renilla luciferase (RLuc) gene driven by a constitutively active cytomegalovirus promoter, and then seeded in demineralized bone matrix (DBM) subcutaneously implanted in SCID mice. Non-invasive BLI monitoring of the implanted mice showed that the PLuc/RLuc ratio reports on gene expression changes indicative of cell differentiation. Large (CL1) and moderated (hAMSCs) changes in the PLuc/RLuc ratio over a 6 week period, revealed different patterns of in vivo chondrogenic differentiation for the CL1 cell line and primary MSCs, in agreement with in vitro published data and our results from histological analysis of DBM sections. This double bioluminescence labelling strategy together with BLI imaging to analyze behaviour of cells implanted in live animals should facilitate the development of progenitor cell/scaffold combinations for tissue repair.

  19. Novel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assay.

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Ichiro; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Matsui, Takashi; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the melanin content by using B16 melanoma cells is generally applied to find novel skin-whitening agents. However, this measurement method using B16 melanoma cells has such disadvantages, as the time taken, its sensitivity, and troublesomeness. We therefore attempted in the present study to establish a reporter assay system by measuring the tyrosinase promoter activity to use for convenient, high-throughput screening of new melanogenesis inhibitors. We first confirmed the validity of this reporter assay system by using such known skin-whitening agents, as arbutin, sulforaphane, and theaflavin 3,3'-digallate. We then compared the effect of 56 compounds on the tyrosinase promoter activity to test this reporter assay system. Carnosol, and rottlerin strongly inhibited the tyrosinase promoter activity. Moreover, carnosol and rottlerin decreased melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression in a dose-dependent manner when using B16 melanoma cells. These results indicate this new luciferase reported assay system to be an effective and convenient method for screening potential skin-whitening compounds. PMID:21071833

  20. BRET-linked ATP assay with luciferase.

    PubMed

    Borghei, Golnaz; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2014-09-01

    Taking advantage of BRET, a mutant firefly luciferase with higher pH- and thermo-stability than the wild-type could be coupled with the red-emitting fluorescent protein of mCherry in both a fused and unfused format. The BRET pair allows >40% of the light emitted to be red shifted over 600 nm to the mCherry acceptor wavelength. Taking the expected quantum yield for mCherry (0.22), a good fit to predicted light transfer is shown, with no other losses. Two measurements are considered for ATP determination: (a) a ratiometric technique for ATP measurement using both donor and acceptor emission intensities, making the calibration slope independent of protein concentration in a broad range. This measurement was limited by the BRET efficiency and the low quantum yield of the mCherry acceptor, but this detection limit might be improved with other fluorescent proteins with higher quantum yield. The fused BRET pair also resulted in a small increase in the BRET ratio. (b) An ATP dependent shift in the wavelength maximum using just the acceptor mCherry emission was also proposed for ATP determination. This did not require a high BRET efficiency and only uses emission above 600 nm to obtain the acceptor emission maximum, but not its intensity; it is independent of protein concentration across a broad range. This offers a novel and robust method for determination of ATP between 10(-11) to 10(-5) M with an easy baseline calibration with ATP concentration >10(-4) M.

  1. Luciferase-dependent oxygen consumption by bioluminescent vibrios

    SciTech Connect

    Makemson, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    Oxygen uptake due to luciferase in two luminous Vibrio species was estimated in vivo by utilizing inhibitors having specificities for luciferase (decanol) and cytochromes (cyanide). Cyanide titration of respiration revealed a component of oxygen uptake less sensitive to cyanide which was completely inhibitable by low concentrations of decanol. From this it was estimated that in vivo luciferase is responsible for less than 12% (Vibrio harveyi) or 20% (Vibrio fischeri) of the total respiration. From these data in vivo bioluminescent quantum yields are estimated to be not lower than 1.7 and 2.6%, respectively.

  2. Increased dietary sodium induces COX2 expression by activating NFκB in renal medullary interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjuan; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Min; Davis, Linda S; Blackwell, Timothy S; Yull, Fiona; Breyer, Matthew D; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2014-02-01

    High salt diet induces renal medullary cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Selective blockade of renal medullary COX2 activity in rats causes salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting a role for renal medullary COX2 in maintaining systemic sodium balance. The present study characterized the cellular location of COX2 induction in the kidney of mice following high salt diet and examined the role of NFκB in mediating this COX2 induction in response to increased dietary salt. High salt diet (8 % NaCl) for 3 days markedly increased renal medullary COX2 expression in C57Bl/6 J mice. Co-immunofluorescence using a COX2 antibody and antibodies against aquaporin-2, ClC-K, aquaporin-1, and CD31 showed that high salt diet-induced COX2 was selectively expressed in renal medullary interstitial cells. By using NFκB reporter transgenic mice, we observed a sevenfold increase of luciferase activity in the renal medulla of the NFκB-luciferase reporter mice following high salt diet, and a robust induction of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression mainly in renal medullary interstitial cells of the NFκB-EGFP reporter mice following high salt diet. Treating high salt diet-fed C57Bl/6 J mice with selective IκB kinase inhibitor IMD-0354 (8 mg/kg bw) substantially suppressed COX2 induction in renal medulla, and also significantly reduced urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). These data therefore suggest that renal medullary interstitial cell NFκB plays an important role in mediating renal medullary COX2 expression and promoting renal PGE2 synthesis in response to increased dietary sodium.

  3. Codon optimization of genes for efficient protein expression in mammalian cells by selection of only preferred human codons.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Satoshi; Sahara-Miura, Yuiko; Sato, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Takahiro

    2015-05-01

    A simple design method for codon optimization of genes to express a heterologous protein in mammalian cells is described. Codon optimization was performed by choosing only codons preferentially used in humans and with over 60% GC content, and the method was named the "preferred human codon-optimized method." To test our simple rule for codon optimization, the preferred human codon-optimized genes for six proteins containing photoproteins (aequorin and clytin II) and luciferases (Gaussia luciferase, Renilla luciferase, and firefly luciferases from Photinus pyralis and Luciola cruciata) were chemically synthesized and transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. All preferred human codon-optimized genes showed higher luminescence activity than the corresponding wild-type genes. Our simple design method could be used to improve protein expression in mammalian cells efficiently.

  4. Imaging CXCR4 signaling with firefly luciferase complementation.

    PubMed

    Luker, Kathryn E; Gupta, Mudit; Luker, Gary D

    2008-07-15

    Chemokines and their cognate receptors have key functions in cell growth, survival, and tissue-specific homing of cells. While these functions first were identified in normal immune cells, cancer cells may co-opt chemokine receptor signaling to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. Our knowledge of signaling by chemokines and chemokine receptors in cancer is lacking, particularly as this signaling occurs in vivo. New insights into chemokine receptor signaling in cancer are needed to understand molecular regulation of primary and metastatic disease and develop targeted therapies to improve patient survival. To meet this need, we have developed a molecular imaging reporter to investigate activation of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor that regulates tumor growth and metastasis in a variety of common cancers. The reporter system uses a firefly luciferase-based protein fragment complementation assay to detect interactions between CXCR4 and beta-arrestin molecules, a common early step in chemokine receptor signaling. In cell-based assays, incubation with the chemokine ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1) produced dose-dependent increases in bioluminescence with >7-fold induction above basal levels of association between these proteins. Reporter activation could be blocked with specific inhibitors of CXCR4 signaling. These reporters enabled in vivo imaging of CXCR4 activation and inhibition in living mice. Overall, this research establishes a new imaging reporter for probing CXCR4 signaling in cancer and other diseases regulated by this chemokine receptor.

  5. Glucocorticoid activation of chromogranin A gene expression. Identification and characterization of a novel glucocorticoid response element.

    PubMed Central

    Rozansky, D J; Wu, H; Tang, K; Parmer, R J; O'Connor, D T

    1994-01-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate catecholamine biosynthesis and storage at several sites. Chromogranin A, an abundant protein complexed with catecholamines in secretory vesicles of chromaffin cells and sympathetic axons, is also augmented by glucocorticoids. This study reports isolation of the rat chromogranin A promoter to elucidate transcriptional regulation of chromogranin A biosynthesis by glucocorticoids in neuroendocrine cells. Endogenous chromogranin A gene expression was activated up to 3.5-fold in chromaffin cells by glucocorticoid, in time-dependent fashion. Inhibition of new protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not alter the rise in chromogranin A mRNA, suggesting that glucocorticoids directly activate the chromogranin A promoter; nuclear runoff assays confirmed a 3.3-fold increased rate of initiation of new chromogranin A transcripts after glucocorticoid. Transfected rat chromogranin A promoter/luciferase reporter constructs were activated 2.6-3.1-fold by glucocorticoid, and selective agonist/antagonist studies determined that dexamethasone effects were mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Both rat and mouse chromogranin A promoter/luciferase reporter constructs were activated by glucocorticoid. A series of promoter deletions narrowed the region of glucocorticoid action to a 93-bp section of the promoter, from position -526 to -619 bp upstream of the cap site. A 15-bp sequence ([-583 bp] 5'-ACATGAGTGTGTCCT-3' [-597 bp]) within this region showed partial homology to a glucocorticoid response element (GRE; half-site in italics) consensus sequence, and several lines of experimental evidence confirmed its function as a GRE: (a) site-directed mutation of this GRE prevented glucocorticoid activation of a chromogranin A promoter/reporter; (b) transfer of this GRE to a heterologous (thymidine kinase) promoter/reporter conferred activation by glucocorticoid, in copy number-dependent and orientation-independent fashion; and (c) electrophoretic gel mobility shifts

  6. Expression of the human Hand1 gene in trophoblastic cells is transcriptionally regulated by activating and repressing specificity protein (Sp)-elements.

    PubMed

    Vasicek, Richard; Meinhardt, Gudrun; Haidweger, Eva; Rotheneder, Hans; Husslein, Peter; Knöfler, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix protein Hand1 is essential for the formation of trophoblast giant cells of the murine placenta. In humans, Hand1 is detectable in trophoblastic tumour cells suggesting an equivalent role in trophoblast differentiation. To understand its mode of expression we have cloned and characterized the human Hand1 gene promoter. Primer extension analyses suggest that transcription initiates 19 nucleotides downstream of the TATA element of the proximal 5' flanking region. Expression of luciferase reporter constructs harboring deletions of the 9.5 kb Hand1 5' flanking sequence defines a promoter region within 274 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Compared to a reporter bearing only the TATA box, the proximal promoter activates transcription up to 30-fold. However, transcriptional activity of the region was observed in both Hand1-expressing and non-expressing cell lines. Sequencing, DNAseI footprint analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the presence of four GC-rich sequences, which show different affinities to the endogenous specificity proteins (Sp), and a CCAAT box. In vitro, the Sp-elements mainly interact with Sp1 and Sp3 while the CCAAT element is recognized by the alpha CAAT binding factor protein. Mutant luciferase reporters bearing single active or inactive recognition sites demonstrate that two of the four Sp-binding sites (I and IV) contribute little to the overall transcription rate. The two other Sp-cognate sequences, II and III, downregulate and activate reporter expression 2.3- and 2.6-fold, respectively. Co-transfections of Sp1/Sp3 expression vectors and mutated reporter constructs in Sp-deficient SL2 cells indicate that the Sp-binding site II and III indeed function as repressing and activating enhancer sequences. In summary, the data suggest that constitutive expression of the Hand1 gene in cultured cells is regulated by a complex interplay of Sp-proteins interacting with activator and

  7. AAV-mediated in vivo knockdown of luciferase using combinatorial RNAi and U1i.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, A; van Logtenstein, R; Timmermans, E; Pisas, L; Blits, B; Abad, X; Fortes, P; Petry, H; Konstantinova, P; Ritsema, T

    2011-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been successfully employed for specific inhibition of gene expression; however, safety and delivery of RNAi remain critical issues. We investigated the combinatorial use of RNAi and U1 interference (U1i). U1i is a gene-silencing technique that acts on the pre-mRNA by preventing polyadenylation. RNAi and U1i have distinct mechanisms of action in different cellular compartments and their combined effect allows usage of minimal doses, thereby avoiding toxicity while retaining high target inhibition. As a proof of concept, we investigated knockdown of the firefly luciferase reporter gene by combinatorial use of RNAi and U1i, and evaluated their inhibitory potential both in vitro and in vivo. Co-transfection of RNAi and U1i constructs showed additive reduction of luciferase expression up to 95% in vitro. We attained similar knockdown when RNAi and U1i constructs were hydrodynamically transfected into murine liver, demonstrating for the first time successful in vivo application of U1i. Moreover, we demonstrated long-term gene silencing by AAV-mediated transduction of murine muscle with RNAi/U1i constructs targeting firefly luciferase. In conclusion, these results provide a proof of principle for the combinatorial use of RNAi and U1i to enhance target gene knockdown in vivo.

  8. Targeting HCCR expression resensitizes gastric cancer cells to chemotherapy via down-regulating the activation of STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Ling; Liu, Xiang-Zheng; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Guo-Wei; Jiang, Yong; Qiao, Shu-Kai; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yi-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Cun

    2016-01-01

    The human cervical cancer oncogene (HCCR) has been found to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, the level of expression of HCCR and its biological function in gastric cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated HCCR expression in several gastric cancer cell lines and in one normal gastric mucosal cell line. We established a 5-FU-resistant gastric cancer cell subline, and we evaluated its HCCR expression. HCCR expression levels were high in gastric cancer lines, and expression was significantly increased in the 5-FU-resistant cancer cell subline. HCCR expression affected cell growth by regulating apoptosis in the cancer cells, and it had a positive correlation with p-STAT3 expression. Western blot and luciferase reporter assays showed that the activation of STAT3 upregulated HCCR expression in a positive feedback loop model. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that HCCR plays an important role in the apoptosis induced by 5-FU. Our data demonstrate that HCCR is probably involved in apoptosis and cancer growth and that it functions as a p-STAT3 stimulator in a positive feedback loop model. In gastric cancer cells, HCCR confers a more aggressive phenotype and resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:27052330

  9. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by plasmid expressed alphaMSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Etemad-Moghadam, Bijan; Chen, Hongmin; Yin, Peng; Aziz, Nazneen; Hedley, Mary Lynne

    2002-04-01

    Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (alphaMSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory peptide with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. Daily or twice daily administration of the peptide reduces the symptoms of several inflammatory animal disease models and the peptide has demonstrated safety in human trials. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetics of peptide delivery are not favorable from the pharmaceutical perspective. For this reason, plasmid-based vectors were created that constitutively express the immunomodulatory peptide. The fusion constructs encode the 13 amino acids of alphaMSH in frame with the first domain of serum albumin, separated by a linker and furin cleavage sites. The fusion proteins were expressed and processed in human fetal kidney (293) cells. Supernatant from B16/F10 cells transfected with the constructs stimulated secretion of melanin from melanocytes. Furthermore, transfected cytoskeletal muscle (Sol8) cells secreted bioactive alphaMSH that reduced NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activation of a luciferase reporter gene. The activity of these vectors provides tools and the impetus for testing the constructs in several animal models of chronic inflammation. PMID:11960637

  10. Expression and Activity of Metalloproteinases in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bobińska, Kinga; Szemraj, Janusz; Czarny, Piotr; Gałecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and often co-exists with somatic diseases. The most probable cause of comorbidity is a generalized inflammatory process that occurs in both depression and somatic diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases MMPs play a role in modulating inflammation and their impact in many inflammatory diseases has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gene expression for selected polymorphisms of MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), and MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T), which have been confirmed to participate in development of depression, and TIMP-2 (G-418C, tissue inhibitor of MMP). Activity variability of pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 was measured in a group of people with depression and a group of healthy individuals. Material/Methods The examined population comprised 142 individuals suffering from depression and 100 individuals who formed a control group (CG). Designations were carried out for MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T), and TIMP-2 (G-418C). Results For all examined and tested MMPs and for TIMP-2, gene expression at the mRNA level was higher in patients with depression than in the CG. Similar results were recorded for gene expression at the protein level, while expression on the protein level for TIMP-2 was higher in the CG. Change in activity of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2 was statistically more significant in the group with depression. The opposite result was recorded for MMP-9 and pro-MMP-9, in which the change in activity was statistically more significant in the CG. Conclusions Changes in MMPs and TIMP expression may be a common element in, or perhaps even a marker for, recurrent depressive disorders and somatic diseases. PMID:27098106

  11. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this microorganism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the phenolic substrate, pH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration used. It was demonstrated that three different PPOs are expressed. The genes coding for the enzymes were unambiguously correlated with the enzymatic activities detected by generation of null mutations in the genes by using insertional mutagenesis with a suicide plasmid and estimating the changes in the levels of enzymatic activities compared to the levels in the wild-type strain. The protein encoded by the RSp1530 locus is a multicopper protein with laccase activity. Two other genes, RSc0337 and RSc1501, code for nonblue copper proteins exhibiting homology to tyrosinases. The product of RSc0337 has strong tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and it has been shown that this enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis by R. solanacearum. The product of the RSc1501 gene is an enzyme that shows a clear preference for oxidation of o-diphenols. Preliminary characterization of the mutants obtained indicated that PPOs expressed by R. solanacearum may participate in resistance to phenolic compounds since the mutants exhibited higher sensitivity to l-tyrosine than the wild-type strain. These results suggest a possible role in the pathogenic process to avoid plant resistance mechanisms involving the participation of phenolic compounds. PMID:16269713

  12. [Cloning of mouse adam10 gene promoter and construction and identification of dual luciferase reporter system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Huan-Xin; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Wu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Kai; Zang, Yu; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to clone mouse adam10 gene promoter and construct its dual luciferase report vector, and to investigate its transcriptional activity. Total DNA was extracted from mouse brain and used for amplifying the fragment containing adam10 gene promoter by PCR. The amplified product was inserted into pGL-4.10 vector to construct pGL4.10-adam10. The pGL4.10-adam10 and control plasmid pGL4.74 were co-transfected into HEK293 FT cells by lipofectamine 2000. The activity of adam10 gene promoter was assayed by luciferase system. The results showed that the recombinant plasmid pGL4.10-adam10 containing promoter of mouse adam10 was correctly constructed. The method was optimized by changing ratio of two plasmids. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of pGL4.10-adam10 stimulated by ionomycin increased. It is concluded that the dual luciferase reporter system is successfully established, which is useful in bioluminescence imaging technology in vitro. The effect of ionomycin can enhance the transcriptional activity of adam10 gene promoter.

  13. Intrinsic HER4/4ICD transcriptional activation domains are required for STAT5A activated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen; Sfondouris, Mary E; Semmes, Eleanor C; Meyer, Alicia M; Jones, Frank E

    2016-10-30

    The epidermal growth factor receptor family member HER4 undergoes proteolytic processing at the cell surface to release the HER4 intracellular domain (4ICD) nuclear protein. Interestingly, 4ICD directly interacts with STAT5 and functions as an obligate STAT5 nuclear chaperone. Once in the nucleus 4ICD binds with STAT5 at STAT5 target genes, dramatically potentiating STAT5 transcriptional activation. These observations raise the possibility that 4ICD directly coactivates STAT5 gene expression. Using both yeast and mammalian transactivation reporter assays, we performed truncations of 4ICD fused to a GAL4 DNA binding domain and identified two independent 4ICD transactivation domains located between residues 1022 and 1090 (TAD1) and 1192 and 1225 (TAD2). The ability of the 4ICD DNA binding domain fusions to transactivate reporter gene expression required deletion of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain. In addition, we identified the 4ICD carboxyl terminal TVV residues, a PDZ domain binding motif (PDZ-DBM), as a potent transcriptional repressor. The transactivation activity of the HER4 carboxyl terminal domain lacking the tyrosine kinase (CTD) was significantly lower than similar EGFR or HER2 CTD. However, deletion of the HER4 CTD PDZ-DBM enhanced HER4 CTD transactivation to levels equivalent to the EGFR and HER2 CTDs. To determine if 4ICD TAD1 and TAD2 have a physiologically relevant role in STAT5 transactivation, we coexpressed 4ICD or 4ICD lacking TAD2 or both TAD1 and TAD2 with STAT5 in a luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrate that each 4ICD TAD contributes additively to STAT5A transactivation and the ability of STAT5A to transactivate the β-casein promoter requires the 4ICD TADs. Taken together, published data and our current results demonstrate that both 4ICD nuclear chaperone and intrinsic coactivation activities are essential for STAT5 regulated gene expression. PMID:27502417

  14. An enhanced chimeric firefly luciferase-inspired enzyme for ATP detection and bioluminescence reporter and imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce R; Southworth, Tara L; Fontaine, Danielle M; Kohrt, Dawn; Talukder, Munya; Michelini, Elisa; Cevenini, Luca; Roda, Aldo; Grossel, Martha J

    2015-09-01

    Firefly luciferases, which emit visible light in a highly specific ATP-dependent process, have been adapted for a variety of applications, including gene reporter assays, whole-cell biosensor measurements, and in vivo imaging. We previously reported the approximately 2-fold enhanced activity and 1.4-fold greater bioluminescence quantum yield properties of a chimeric enzyme that contains the N-domain of Photinus pyralis luciferase joined to the C-domain of Luciola italica luciferase. Subsequently, we identified 5 amino acid changes based on L. italica that are the main determinants of the improved bioluminescence properties. Further engineering to enhance thermal and pH stability produced a novel luciferase called PLG2. We present here a systematic comparison of the spectral and physical properties of the new protein with P. pyralis luciferase and demonstrate the potential of PLG2 for use in assays based on the detection of femtomole levels of ATP. In addition, we compared the performance of a mammalian codon-optimized version of the cDNA for PLG2 with the luc2 gene in HEK293T cells. Using an optimized low-cost assay system, PLG2 activity can be monitored in mammalian cell lysates and living cells with 4.4-fold and approximately 3.0-fold greater sensitivity, respectively. PLG2 could be an improved alternative to Promega's luc2 for reporter and imaging applications.

  15. High-Throughput Screening of Effective siRNAs Using Luciferase-Linked Chimeric mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Shen; Pokomo, Lauren; Chen, Kevin; Kamata, Masakazu; Mao, Si-Hua; Zhang, Hong; Razi, Elliot; An, Dong Sung; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The use of siRNAs to knock down gene expression can potentially be an approach to treat various diseases. To avoid siRNA toxicity the less transcriptionally active H1 pol III promoter, rather than the U6 promoter, was proposed for siRNA expression. To identify highly efficacious siRNA sequences, extensive screening is required, since current computer programs may not render ideal results. Here, we used CCR5 gene silencing as a model to investigate a rapid and efficient screening approach. We constructed a chimeric luciferase-CCR5 gene for high-throughput screening of siRNA libraries. After screening approximately 900 shRNA clones, 12 siRNA sequences were identified. Sequence analysis demonstrated that most (11 of the 12 sequences) of these siRNAs did not match those identified by available siRNA prediction algorithms. Significant inhibition of CCR5 in a T-lymphocyte cell line and primary T cells by these identified siRNAs was confirmed using the siRNA lentiviral vectors to infect these cells. The inhibition of CCR5 expression significantly protected cells from R5 HIV-1JRCSF infection. These results indicated that the high-throughput screening method allows efficient identification of siRNA sequences to inhibit the target genes at low levels of expression. PMID:24831610

  16. Kinetic characterization and in vitro toxicity evaluation of a luciferase less susceptible to HPV chemical inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim-Choi, Eileen; Danilo, Christiane; Kelly, Jeffrey; Carroll, Ronnie; Shonnard, David; Rybina, Irina

    2006-12-01

    Enzyme-based in vitro toxicity assays are often susceptible to inhibition by test compounds. A mutant luciferase selected to be less susceptible to inhibition by chloroform (CNBLuc03-06) and other high production volume (HPV) chemicals, consisting of three point mutations was created and characterized. The mutant luciferase was less inhibited by chloroform, other HPV chemicals and common surfactant release reagents (Triton-X and SDS) compared to the wild-type. Inhibition was shown to be competitive. CNBLuc03-06 was a factor of 1.5-3.2 more active than wild type and exhibited a much higher affinity for ATP. CNBLuc03-06 was more thermostable than wild-type and also more active at pH values higher than 10. Both luciferases exhibited a significant tradeoff between activation and susceptibility to chemical inhibition in the presences of the reducing agent DTT. Inhibition to HPV chemicals was eliminated using an "optimum" formulation of DTT and co-solvent ethanol. The performance of CNBLuc03-06 in cell-based in vitro toxicity assays was shown to be superior to the current commercial formulation.

  17. False positives in a reporter gene assay: identification and synthesis of substituted N-pyridin-2-ylbenzamides as competitive inhibitors of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Laura H; van Veldhoven, Jacobus P D; Zweemer, Annelien M; Ye, Kai; Brussee, Johannes; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2008-08-14

    Luciferase reporter-gene assays are a commonly used technique in high-throughput screening campaigns. In this study, we report on a luciferase inhibitor (1), which emerged from an antagonistic G protein-coupled receptor luciferase reporter-gene assay screen. Instead of displaying receptor activity, compound 1 was shown to potently inhibit luciferase in an in vitro enzymatic assay with an IC50 value of 1.7 +/- 0.1 microM. In addition, 1 was a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate luciferin. A database search yielded another inhibitor (3) with a similar N-pyridin-2-ylbenzamide core. Subsequently, several analogues were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships of these luciferase inhibitors. This yielded the most potent inhibitor of this series (6) with an IC50 value of 0.069 +/- 0.01 microM. Further molecular modeling studies suggested that 6 can be accommodated in the luciferin binding site. This paper is meant to alert users of luciferase reporter-gene assays for possible false positive hits including highly "druglike" molecules due to direct luciferase inhibition.

  18. Dual-color click beetle luciferase heteroprotein fragment complementation assays.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Victor; Naik, Snehal; Bruinsma, Monique; Dothager, Robin S; Pan, Mei-Hsiu; Samrakandi, Mustapha; Moss, Britney; Elhammali, Adnan; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2010-09-24

    Understanding the functional complexity of protein interactions requires mapping biomolecular complexes within the cellular environment over biologically relevant time scales. Herein, we describe a set of reversible multicolored heteroprotein complementation fragments based on various firefly and click beetle luciferases that utilize the same substrate, D-luciferin. Luciferase heteroprotein fragment complementation systems enabled dual-color quantification of two discrete pairs of interacting proteins simultaneously or two distinct proteins interacting with a third shared protein in live cells. Using real-time analysis of click beetle green and click beetle red luciferase heteroprotein fragment complementation applied to β-TrCP, an E3-ligase common to the regulation of both β-catenin and IκBα, GSK3β was identified as a candidate kinase regulating IκBα processing. These dual-color protein interaction switches may enable directed dynamic analysis of a variety of protein interactions in living cells.

  19. Generation of a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Bioluminescent Monitoring of Survivin Gene Activity in Vivo at Various Pathophysiological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengzhi; Cheng, Qiuying; Ling, Xiang; Stablewski, Aimee; Tang, Lei; Foster, Barbara A.; Johnson, Candace S.; Rustum, Youcef M.; Porter, Carl W.

    2010-01-01

    Survival has been implicated to play an important role in various pathophysiological processes. However, because of a lack of appropriate animal models, the role and dynamic expression of survivin during pathophysiology are not well defined. We generated a human survivin gene promoter-driven luciferase transgenic mouse model (SPlucTg) so that dynamic survivin gene activity can be monitored during various pathophysiological conditions using in vivo imaging. Our results show that, consistent with survivin positivity in testis, luciferase activity in normal SPlucTg mice was detected in the testis of male mice. Furthermore, similar to the known requirement of transient expression of survivin for pathophysiological responses, we observed a transient luciferase expression in castrated SPlucTg male mice after supplement of androgen. Significantly, it was reported that survivin expression turns on during mouse liver injury and regeneration; a transient and dose-dependent luciferase expression in the mouse liver was observed after administration of carbon tetrachloride into SPlucTg mice. We further demonstrated that luciferase activity closely correlates with endogenous survivin expression. We also demonstrated that only a subset of cells expresses survivin, and its expression overlaps with the expression of several stem cell markers tested. Thus, we have generated a unique animal model for analysis of diverse pathophysiological processes and possible stem cell distribution/activity in vivo. PMID:20133811

  20. Implication of an unfavorable residue (Thr346) in intrinsic flexibility of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Maryam; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Emamzadeh, Rahman

    2012-09-10

    In order to better understand the functional role of an unusual residue (Thr346) of firefly luciferase mutagenesis at this residue was performed. Firefly luciferase, catalyzes the bioluminescence reaction and is an excellent tool as a reporter in nano-system biology studies. Nonetheless, the enzyme rapidly loses its activity at temperatures above 30 °C and this leads to reduced sensitivity and precision in analytical applications. Residue Thr346 in a connecting loop (341-348) of firefly luciferase is located in a disallowed region of Ramachandran plot. In this study, we have substituted this residue (T346) with anomalous dihedral angles with Val, Gly and Pro to clarify the role of this residue in structure and function of the enzyme using site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of this unfavorable residue (T346) with atypical dihedral angles (ψ, φ) with other residues brought about an increase of thermostability and decrease of specific activity. Structural and functional properties of the mutants were analyzed using different spectroscopic methods. It seems that this residue is a critically conserved residue to support the functional flexibility for a fast kinetic bioluminescence reaction at the expense of lower stability.

  1. Transcription Factor ZBED6 Mediates IGF2 Gene Expression by Regulating Promoter Activity and DNA Methylation in Myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Liang-Zhi; Lai, Xin-Sheng; Li, Ming-Xun; Sun, Yu-Jia; Li, Cong-Jun; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were upregulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status in beef cattle (P < 0.05). A luciferase assay for the IGF2 intron 3 and P3 promoter showed that the mutant-type 439 A-SNP-pGL3 in driving reporter gene transcription is significantly higher than that of the wild-type 439 G-SNP-pGL3 construct (P < 0.05). An over-expression assay revealed that ZBED6 regulate IGF2 expression and promote myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of ZBED6 led to IGF2 expression change in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that ZBED6 inhibits IGF2 activity and expression via a G to A transition disrupts the interaction. Thus, we propose that ZBED6 plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation.

  2. Dynamics of firefly luciferase inhibition by general anesthetics: Gaussian and anisotropic network analyses.

    PubMed

    Szarecka, Agnieszka; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2007-09-15

    The new crystal structures of the product-bound firefly luciferase combined with the previously determined substrate-free structures allow for a detailed analysis of the dynamics basis for the luciferase enzymatic activities. Using the Gaussian network model and the anisotropic network model, we show here that the superposition of the three slowest anisotropic network model modes, consisting of the bending, rotating, and rocking motions of the C-domain, accounts for large rearrangement of domains from the substrate-free (open) to product-bound (closed) conformation and thus constitutes a critical component of the enzyme's functions. The analysis also offers a unique platform to reexamine the molecular mechanism of the anesthetic inhibition of the firefly luciferase. Through perturbing the protein backbone network by introducing additional nodes to represent anesthetics, we found that the presence of two representative anesthetics, halothane and n-decanol, in different regions of luciferase had distinctively different effects on the protein's global motion. Only at the interface of the C- and N-domains did the anesthetics cause the most profound reduction in the overall flexibility of the C-domain and the concomitant increase in the flexibility of the loop, where the substitution of a conserved lysine residue was found experimentally to lead to >2-3 orders of magnitude reduction in activity. These anesthetic-induced dynamics changes can alter the normal function of the protein, appearing as an epiphenomenon of an "inhibition". The implication of the study is that a leading element for general anesthetic action on proteins is to disrupt the modes of motion essential to protein functions.

  3. Spatiotemporal Control of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Using a Heat-Shock-Activated, Rapamycin-Dependent Gene Switch

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Voellmy, Richard; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A major challenge in regenerative medicine is to develop methods for delivering growth and differentiation factors in specific spatial and temporal patterns, thereby mimicking the natural processes of development and tissue repair. Heat shock (HS)-inducible gene expression systems can respond to spatial information provided by localized heating, but are by themselves incapable of sustained expression. Conversely, gene switches activated by small molecules provide tight temporal control and sustained expression, but lack mechanisms for spatial targeting. Here we combine the advantages of HS and ligand-activated systems by developing a novel rapamycin-regulated, HS-inducible gene switch that provides spatial and temporal control and sustained expression of transgenes such as firefly luciferase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This gene circuit exhibits very low background in the uninduced state and can be repeatedly activated up to 1 month. Furthermore, dual regulation of VEGF induction in vivo is shown to stimulate localized vascularization, thereby providing a route for temporal and spatial control of angiogenesis. PMID:23527589

  4. Elevated SP-1 transcription factor expression and activity drives basal and hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Karl; Onion, David; Kumari, Rajendra; Watson, Susan A; Knox, Alan J

    2012-11-16

    VEGF plays a central role in angiogenesis in cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors have increased microvascular density, localized hypoxia, and high VEGF expression levels; however, there is a lack of understanding of how oncogenic and tumor microenvironment changes such as hypoxia lead to greater VEGF expression in lung and other cancers. We show that NSCLC cells secreted higher levels of VEGF than normal airway epithelial cells. Actinomycin D inhibited all NSCLC VEGF secretion, and VEGF minimal promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were constitutively active until the last 85 base pairs before the transcription start site containing three SP-1 transcription factor-binding sites; mutation of these VEGF promoter SP-1-binding sites eliminated VEGF promoter activity. Furthermore, dominant negative SP-1, mithramycin A, and SP-1 shRNA decreased VEGF promoter activity, whereas overexpression of SP-1 increased VEGF promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated SP-1, p300, and PCA/F histone acetyltransferase binding and histone H4 hyperacetylation at the VEGF promoter in NSCLC cells. Cultured NSCLC cells expressed higher levels of SP-1 protein than normal airway epithelial cells, and double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed a strong correlation between SP-1 and VEGF in human NSCLC tumors. In addition, hypoxia-driven VEGF expression in NSCLC cells was SP-1-dependent, with hypoxia increasing SP-1 activity and binding to the VEGF promoter. These studies are the first to demonstrate that overexpression of SP-1 plays a central role in hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion. PMID:22992725

  5. Development of red-shifted mutants derived from luciferase of Brazilian click beetle Pyrearinus termitilluminans.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Yamada, Toshimichi; Nasu, Yusuke; Ito, Mashiho; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-10-01

    Luciferase, a bioluminescent protein, has been used as an analytical tool to visualize intracellular phenomena. Luciferase with red light emission is particularly useful for bioluminescence imaging because of its high transmittance in mammalian tissues. However, the luminescence intensity of existing luciferases with their emission over 600 nm is insufficient for imaging studies because of their weak intensities. We developed mutants of Emerald luciferase (Eluc) from Brazilian click beetle (Pyrearinus termitilluminans), which emits the strongest bioluminescence among beetle luciferases. We successively introduced four amino acid mutations into the luciferase based on a predicted structure of Eluc using homology modeling. Results showed that quadruple mutations R214K/H241K/S246H/H347A into the beetle luciferase emit luminescence with emission maximum at 626 nm, 88-nm red-shift from the wild-type luciferase. This mutant luciferase is anticipated for application in in vivo multicolor imaging in living samples. PMID:26313214

  6. Development of red-shifted mutants derived from luciferase of Brazilian click beetle Pyrearinus termitilluminans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Yamada, Toshimichi; Nasu, Yusuke; Ito, Mashiho; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-10-01

    Luciferase, a bioluminescent protein, has been used as an analytical tool to visualize intracellular phenomena. Luciferase with red light emission is particularly useful for bioluminescence imaging because of its high transmittance in mammalian tissues. However, the luminescence intensity of existing luciferases with their emission over 600 nm is insufficient for imaging studies because of their weak intensities. We developed mutants of Emerald luciferase (Eluc) from Brazilian click beetle (Pyrearinus termitilluminans), which emits the strongest bioluminescence among beetle luciferases. We successively introduced four amino acid mutations into the luciferase based on a predicted structure of Eluc using homology modeling. Results showed that quadruple mutations R214K/H241K/S246H/H347A into the beetle luciferase emit luminescence with emission maximum at 626 nm, 88-nm red-shift from the wild-type luciferase. This mutant luciferase is anticipated for application in in vivo multicolor imaging in living samples.

  7. Distinct expression and activity profiles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptors in response to estradiol and nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Blum, Jason L; Kroll, Kevin J; Patel, Vishal; Birkholz, Detlef; Szabo, Nancy J; Fisher, Suzanne Z; McKenna, Robert; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Denslow, Nancy D

    2007-10-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) signaling cascade is a vulnerable target of exposure to environmental xenoestrogens, like nonylphenol (NP), which are causally associated with impaired health status. However, the impact of xenoestrogens on the individual receptor isotypes (alpha, beta a, and beta b) is not well understood. The goal of these studies was to determine the impact of NP on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ER isotype expression and activity. Here, we show that hepatic expression levels of three receptors are not equivalent in male largemouth bass exposed to NP by injection. Transcript levels of the ER alpha subtype were predominantly induced in concert with vitellogenin similarly to fish exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) as measured by quantitative real-time PCR. NP also induced circulating plasma levels of estrogen, which may contribute to overall activation of the ERs. To measure the activation of each receptor isotype by E(2) and NP, we employed reporter assays using an estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase construct. Results from these studies show that ER alpha had the greatest activity following exposure to E(2) and NP. This activity was inhibited by the antagonists ICI 182 780 and ZM 189 154. Furthermore, both beta b and beta a subtypes depressed ER alpha activation, suggesting that the cellular composition of receptor isotypes may contribute to the overall actions of estrogen and estrogenic contaminants via the receptors. Results from these studies collectively reveal the differential response of fish ER isotypes in response to xenoestrogens.

  8. Non-invasive activation of optogenetic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Elisabeth; Berglund, Ken; Klein, Marguerita E.; Augustine, George J.; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2014-03-01

    The manipulation of genetically targeted neurons with light (optogenetics) continues to provide unprecedented avenues into studying the function of the mammalian brain. However, potential translation into the clinical arena faces a number of significant hurdles, foremost among them the need for insertion of optical fibers into the brain to deliver light to opsins expressed on neuronal membranes. In order to overcome these hardware-related problems, we have developed an alternative strategy for delivering light to opsins which does not involve fiber implants. Rather, the light is produced by a protein, luciferase, which oxidizes intravenously applied substrate, thereby emitting bioluminescence. In proof-ofprinciple studies employing a fusion protein of a light-generating luciferase to a light-sensing opsin (luminopsin), we showed that light emitted by Gaussia luciferase is indeed able to activate channelrhodopsin, allowing modulation of neuronal activity when expressed in cultured neurons. Here we assessed applicability of the concept in vivo in mice expressing luminopsins from viral vectors and from genetically engineered transgenes. The experiments demonstrate that intravenously applied substrate reaches neurons in the brain, causing the luciferase to produce bioluminescence which can be imaged in vivo, and that activation of channelrhodopsin by bioluminescence is sufficient to affect behavior. Further developments of such technology based on combining optogenetics with bioluminescence - i.e. combining lightsensing molecules with biologically produced light through luciferases - should bring optogenetics closer to clinical applications.

  9. Regulation of Aicda expression and AID activity.

    PubMed

    Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is expressed in a B cell differentiation stage-specific fashion and is essential for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). CSR and SHM play a central role in the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. AID displays a mutagenic activity by catalyzing targeted deamination of deoxycytidine (dC) residues in DNA resulting in dU:dG mismatches, which are processed into point-mutations in SHM or double-strand breaks (DSBs) in CSR. Although AID specifically targets the Ig gene loci (IgH, Igκ and Igλ), it can also home into a wide array of non-Ig genes in B-and non-B-cell backgrounds. Aberrant expression of AID is associated with multiple diseases such as allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. In autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus, dysregulated AID expression underpins increased CSR, SHM and autoantibody production. As a potent mutator, AID is under stringent transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. AID is also regulated in its targeting and enzymatic function. In resting naïve or memory B cells, AID transcripts and protein are undetectable. These, however, are readily and significantly up-regulated in B cells induced to undergo CSR and/or SHM. Transcription factors, such as HoxC4 and NF-κB, which are up-regulated in a B cell lineage-and/or differentiation stage-specific manner, regulate the induction of AID. HoxC4 induces AID expression by directly binding to the AID gene promoter through an evolutionarily conserved 5'-ATTT-3' motif. HoxC4 is induced by the same stimuli that induce AID and CSR. It is further up-regulated by estrogen through three estrogen responsive elements in its promoter region. The targeting of AID to switch (S) regions is mediated by 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, which specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats that are exist at high frequency in S region cores. Like HoxC4, 14-3-3 adaptors are induced

  10. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient γ-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-06-01

    Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2 kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion

  11. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient γ -ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Timothy O.; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2 kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M2 seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione

  12. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient γ-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-06-01

    Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2 kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion

  13. Inhibition of Myo6 gene expression by co‑expression of a mutant of transcription factor POU4F3 (BRN‑3C) in hair cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deng-Bin; Chen, Jie; Xia, Yang; Zhu, Guang-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Han; Gu, Ya-Jun; Yu, Chen-Jie; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Qian, Xiao-Yun; Gao, Xia

    2014-04-01

    An eight‑base pair (bp) deletion in the Pou4f3 gene in hair cells is associated with DFNA15, a hereditary form of hearing loss. To explore the pathological mechanisms underlying the development of DFNA15, the effect of the mutation in Pou4f3 on the activity of the myosin VI (Myo6) promoter, was investigated. The upstream regulatory sequence of Myo6 (2625 bp), consisting of an 1899 bp upstream sequence and a 727 bp intron 1 sequence, was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and subcloned into the pGL3‑Basic vector expressing firefly luciferase. For verification of inserted fragments, plasmids were subjected to restriction analysis and then sequenced. HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells were transiently transfected with renilla luciferase‑thymidine kinase vectors expressing Renilla luciferase and the Myo6 promoter‑driven firefly luciferase expressing vectors along with pIRES2‑enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)‑Pou4f3 (expressing wild‑type Pou4f3) or pIRES2‑EGFP‑Pou4f3 (expressing the truncation mutant of Pou4f3). The relative luciferase activities were measured to determine the activity of the Myo6 promoter. The Myo6 promoter activity was not affected by co‑expression of wild‑type Pou4f3, as indicated by the comparable relative luciferase activities in the presence of the pIRES2‑EGFP‑Pou4f3 and the empty control vectors. However, co‑expression of mutated Pou4f3 significantly inhibited the activity of the Myo6 promoter to almost half of that of the control (P<0.001). The data suggests that mutated Pou4f3 has a negative role in the promoter activity of Myo6, and by extension, the expression of myosin VI, and this may be an underlying mechanism of DFNA15 hearing loss.

  14. Activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling induces CD46 expression and protects human cancer cells from complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Ralf; Huang, Mei; Gritsko, Tanya; Karras, Jim; Enkemann, Steve; Mesa, Tania; Nam, Sangkil; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2007-08-01

    CD46 is one of the complement-regulatory proteins expressed on the surface of normal and tumor cells for protection against complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Cancer cells need to access the blood circulation for continued growth and metastasis, thus exposing themselves to destruction by complement system components. Previous studies have established that the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor is persistently activated in a wide variety of human cancer cells and primary tumor tissues compared with their normal counterparts. Using microarray gene expression profiling, we identified the CD46 gene as a target for activated STAT3 signaling in human breast and prostate cancer cells. The CD46 promoter contains two binding sites for activated STAT3 and mutations introduced into the major site abolished STAT3 binding. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirms binding of STAT3 to the CD46 promoter. CD46 promoter activity is induced by activation of STAT3 and blocked by a dominant-negative form of STAT3 in luciferase reporter assays. CD46 mRNA expression is induced by interleukin-6 and by transient transfection of normal human epithelial cells with a persistently active mutant construct of STAT3, STAT3C. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of STAT3-mediated CD46 cell surface expression sensitizes DU145 prostate cancer cells to cytotoxicity in an in vitro complement lysis assay using rabbit anti-DU145 antiserum and rabbit complement. These results show that activated STAT3 signaling induces the CD46 promoter and protects human cancer cells from complement-dependent cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential mechanism whereby oncogenic signaling contributes to tumor cell evasion of antibody-mediated immunity.

  15. Pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines as inhibitors of firefly luciferase: their Cu-mediated synthesis and evaluation as false positives in a reporter gene assay.

    PubMed

    Nakhi, Ali; Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Kishore, Ravada; Meda, Chandana Lakshmi T; Deora, Girdhar Singh; Parsa, Kishore V L; Pal, Manojit

    2012-10-15

    2-Substituted pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines having free NH were prepared directly from 3-alkynyl-2-chloroquinoxalines in a single pot by using readily available and inexpensive methane sulfonamide (or p-toluene sulfonamide) as an ammonia surrogate. The reaction proceeded in the presence of Cu(OAc)(2) affording the desired product in moderate yield. The crystal structure analysis of a representative compound and its supramolecular interactions are presented. Some of the compounds synthesized exhibited inhibitory activities against luciferase that was supported by the predictive binding mode of these compounds with luciferase enzyme through molecular docking studies. The key observations disclosed here can alert users of luciferase reporter gene assays for possible false positive results due to the direct inhibition of luciferase.

  16. The regulation of gene expression in transformed maize aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. Analysis of promoter activity, intron enhancement, and mRNA untranslated regions on expression.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Young, T E

    1994-11-01

    Gene expression in the aleurone and endosperm is highly regulated during both seed development and germination. Studies of alpha-amylase expression in the aleurone of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have generated the current paradigm for hormonal control of gene expression in germinating cereal grain. Gene expression studies in both the aleurone and endosperm tissues of maize (Zea mays) seed have been hampered because of a lack of an efficient transformation system. We report here the rapid isolation of protoplasts from maize aleurone and endosperm tissue, their transformation using polyethylene glycol or electroporation, and the regulation of gene expression in these cells. Adh1 promoter activity was reduced relative to the 35S promoter in aleurone and endosperm protoplasts compared to Black Mexican Sweet suspension cells in which it was nearly as strong as the 35S promoter. Intron-mediated stimulation of expression was substantially higher in transformed aleurone or endosperm protoplasts than in cell-suspension culture protoplasts, and the data suggest that the effect of an intron may be affected by cell type. To examine cytoplasmic regulation, the 5' and 3' untranslated regions from a barley alpha-amylase were fused to the firefly luciferase-coding region, and their effect on translation and mRNA stability was examined following the delivery of in vitro synthesized mRNA to aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. The alpha-amylase untranslated regions regulated translational efficiency in a tissue-specific manner, increasing translation in aleurone or endosperm protoplasts but not in maize or carrot cell-suspension protoplasts, in animal cells, or in in vitro translation lysates.

  17. Tracking of dendritic cell migration into lymph nodes using molecular imaging with sodium iodide symporter and enhanced firefly luciferase genes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Won; Yoon, Seung Yun; Singh, Thoudam Debraj; Choi, Yoon Ju; Lee, Hong Je; Park, Ji Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Jaetae

    2015-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the feasibility of molecular imaging using the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene as a reporter, in addition to the enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene, for tracking dendritic cell (DCs) migration in living mice. A murine dendritic cell line (DC2.4) co-expressing hNIS and effluc genes (DC/NF) was established. For the DC-tracking study, mice received either parental DCs or DC/NF cells in the left or right footpad, respectively, and combined I-124 PET/CT and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) were performed. In vivo PET/CT imaging with I-124 revealed higher activity of the radiotracer in the draining popliteal lymph nodes (DPLN) of the DC/NF injection site at day 1 than DC injection site (p < 0.05). The uptake value further increased at day 4 (p < 0.005). BLI also demonstrated migration of DC/NF cells to the DPLNs at day 1 post-injection, and signals at the DPLNs were much higher at day 4. These data support the feasibility of hNIS reporter gene imaging in the tracking of DC migration to lymphoid organs in living mice. DCs expressing the NIS reporter gene could be a useful tool to optimize various strategies of cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:25974752

  18. Regulation of in vitro gene expression using antisense oligonucleotides or antisense expression plasmids transfected using starburst PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed Central

    Bielinska, A; Kukowska-Latallo, J F; Johnson, J; Tomalia, D A; Baker, J R

    1996-01-01

    Starburst polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are a new type of synthetic polymer characterized by a branched spherical shape and a high density surface charge. We have investigated the ability of these dendrimers to function as an effective delivery system for antisense oligonucleotides and 'antisense expression plasmids' for the targeted modulation of gene expression. Dendrimers bind to various forms of nucleic acids on the basis of electrostatic interactions, and the ability of DNA-dendrimer complexes to transfer oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA to mediate antisense inhibition was assessed in an in vitro cell culture system. Cell lines that permanently express luciferase gene were developed using dendrimer mediated transfection. Transfections of antisense oligonucleotides or antisense cDNA plasmids into these cell lines using dendrimers resulted in a specific and dose dependent inhibition of luciferase expression. This inhibition caused approximately 25-50% reduction of baseline luciferase activity. Binding of the phosphodiester oligonucleotides to dendrimers also extended their intracellular survival. While dendrimers were not cytotoxic at the concentrations effective for DNA transfer, some non-specific suppression of luciferase expression was observed. Our results indicate that Starburst dendrimers can be effective carriers for the introduction of regulatory nucleic acids and facilitate the suppression of the specific gene expression. PMID:8668551

  19. Hypoxia/ischemia promotes CXCL10 expression in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells by NFkB activation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing-Bo; Liu, Guang-Hui; Chen, Zhuo-Ying; Mao, Cheng-Zhou; Zhou, Deng-Cheng; Wu, Hai-Yan; Park, Kyu-Sang; Zhao, Hui; Kim, Soo-Ki; Cai, Dong-Qing; Qi, Xu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    CXCL10, the chemokine with potent chemotactic activity on immune cells and other non-immune cells expressing its receptor CXCR3, has been demonstrated to involve in myocardial infarction, which was resulted from hypoxia/ischemia. The cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) are the first cell type which is implicated by hypoxia/ischemia. However, the potential molecular mechanism by which hypoxia/ischemia regulates the expression of CXCL10 in CMECs remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of CXCL10 was firstly examined by real-time PCR and ELISA analysis. Several potential binding sites (BS) for transcription factors including NF-kappaB (NFkB), HIF1 alpha (HIF1α) and FoxO3a were identified in the promoter region of CXCL10 gene from -2000 bp to -1 bp using bioinformatics software. Luciferase reporter gene vectors for CXCL10 promoter and for activation of above transcription factors were constructed. The activation of NFkB, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and FoxO3a was also analyzed by Western blotting. It was shown that the production of CXCL10 in CMECs was significantly increased by hypoxia/ischemia treatment, in parallel with the activation of CXCL10 promoter examined by reporter gene vector system. Furthermore, transcription factors including NFkB, HIF1α and FoxO3a were activated by hypoxia/ischemia in CMECs. However, over-expression of NFkB, but not that of HIF1α or FoxO3a, significantly promoted the activation of CXCL10 promoter reporter gene. These findings indicated that CXCL10 production in CMECs was significantly increased by hypoxia/ischemia, at least in part, through activation of NFkB pathway and subsequently binding to CXCL10 promoter, finally promoted the transcription of CXCL10 gene.

  20. Laboratory procedures manual for the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Knust, E. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Vance, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A manual on the procedures and instruments developed for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luciferase assay is presented. Data cover, laboratory maintenance, maintenance of bacterial cultures, bacteria measurement, reagents, luciferase procedures, and determination of microbal susceptibility to antibiotics.

  1. ATP-Releasing Nucleotides: Linking DNA Synthesis to Luciferase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Debin; Mohsen, Michael G; Harcourt, Emily M; Kool, Eric T

    2016-02-01

    A new strategy is reported for the production of luminescence signals from DNA synthesis through the use of chimeric nucleoside tetraphosphate dimers in which ATP, rather than pyrophosphate, is the leaving group. ATP-releasing nucleotides (ARNs) were synthesized as derivatives of the four canonical nucleotides. All four derivatives are good substrates for DNA polymerase, with Km values averaging 13-fold higher than those of natural dNTPs, and kcat values within 1.5-fold of those of native nucleotides. Importantly, ARNs were found to yield very little background signal with luciferase. DNA synthesis experiments show that the ATP byproduct can be harnessed to elicit a chemiluminescence signal in the presence of luciferase. When using a polymerase together with the chimeric nucleotides, target DNAs/RNAs trigger the release of stoichiometrically large quantities of ATP, thereby allowing sensitive isothermal luminescence detection of nucleic acids as diverse as phage DNAs and short miRNAs.

  2. Optimization of the firefly luciferase reaction for analytical purposes.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of assays has two purposes: (1) to increase the sensitivity of the assay so that low levels of the analyte can be determined; and (2) to prevent small changes of the reaction conditions from having a large impact on the outcome of the assay. The two purposes are usually equally important, as has been recognized in well-established branches of analytical chemistry, such as clinical chemistry. The firefly luciferase reaction can be used for many types of assays. The way to optimize these assays is not trivial, as there are many parameters to consider. Furthermore, as there are now several types of recombinant luciferases available, one has to decide which is the most suitable for each individual assay. The optimization is influenced by the conditions and requirements under which the assay is performed. Special attention is given to ways to calibrate assays. Examples on optimization are mainly taken from the author's own work during 40 years using assays based on the firefly luciferase reaction.

  3. Luciferase as a reporter of gene activity in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since their development and introduction in the early days of plant genetic engineering, reporter genes have established a proven track record as effective tools for exploring the molecular underpinnings of gene regulation. When driven by appropriate genetic control systems (e.g. transcriptional pr...

  4. A novel luciferase fusion protein for highly sensitive optical imaging: from single-cell analysis to in vivo whole-body bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, Laura; Blankevoort, Vicky; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Kaijzel, Eric L

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the application. Bioluminescence imaging is now the most sensitive optical technique for tracking cells, promoter activity studies, or for longitudinal in vivo preclinical studies. Far-red and near-infrared fluorescence imaging have the advantage of being suitable for both ex vivo and in vivo analysis and have translational potential, thanks to the availability of very sensitive imaging instrumentation. Here, we report the development and validation of a new luciferase fusion reporter generated by the fusion of the firefly luciferase Luc2 to the far-red fluorescent protein TurboFP635 by a 14-amino acid linker peptide. Expression of the fusion protein, named TurboLuc, was analyzed in human embryonic kidney cells, (HEK)-293 cells, via Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo optical imaging. The created fusion protein maintained the characteristics of the original bioluminescent and fluorescent protein and showed no toxicity when expressed in living cells. To assess the sensitivity of the reporter for in vivo imaging, transfected cells were subcutaneously injected in animals. Detection limits of cells were 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells for bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging, respectively. In addition, hydrodynamics-based in vivo gene delivery using a minicircle vector expressing TurboLuc allowed for the analysis of luminescent signals over time in deep tissue. Bioluminescence could be monitored for over 30 days in the liver of animals. In conclusion, TurboLuc combines the advantages of both bioluminescence and fluorescence and allows for highly sensitive optical imaging ranging from single-cell analysis to in vivo whole-body bioluminescence imaging.

  5. Identification and synthesis of substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as novel firefly luciferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Jianping; Cai, Haiyan; Xiao, Fei; Ding, Kan; Hu, Youhong

    2012-09-15

    A novel firefly luciferase inhibitor (3a) with a pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine core was identified in a cell-based NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay. It potently inhibited the firefly luciferase derived from Photinus pyralis with an IC(50) value of 0.36 ± 0.05 μM. Kinetic analysis of 3a inhibition showed that it is predominantly competitive with respect to D-luciferin and uncompetitive with respect to ATP. Therefore, several pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine analogues were prepared to further investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for luciferase inhibition. The most potent inhibitor of this series was 4c, which showed an IC(50) value of 0.06 ± 0.01 μM. In addition, molecular docking studies suggested that both 3a and 4c could be accommodated in the D-luciferin binding pocket, which is expected for a predominantly competitive inhibitor with respect to D-luciferin.

  6. PPARα (Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α) Activation Reduces Hepatic CEACAM1 Protein Expression to Regulate Fatty Acid Oxidation during Fasting-refeeding Transition.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Khuder, Saja S; Al-Share, Qusai Y; Russo, Lucia; Abdallah, Simon L; Patel, Payal R; Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T; Mopidevi, Brahma R; Oyarce, Ana Maria; Shah, Yatrik M; Sanchez, Edwin R; Najjar, Sonia M

    2016-04-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is expressed at high levels in the hepatocyte, consistent with its role in promoting insulin clearance in liver. CEACAM1 also mediates a negative acute effect of insulin on fatty acid synthase activity. Western blot analysis reveals lower hepatic CEACAM1 expression during fasting. Treating of rat hepatoma FAO cells with Wy14,643, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), rapidly reduces Ceacam1 mRNA and CEACAM1 protein levels within 1 and 2 h, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay shows a decrease in the promoter activity of both rat and mouse genes by Pparα activation, and 5'-deletion and block substitution analyses reveal that the Pparα response element between nucleotides -557 and -543 is required for regulation of the mouse promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrates binding of liganded Pparα toCeacam1promoter in liver lysates ofPparα(+/+), but notPparα(-/-)mice fed a Wy14,643-supplemented chow diet. Consequently, Wy14,643 feeding reduces hepatic Ceacam1 mRNA and CEACAM1 protein levels, thus decreasing insulin clearance to compensate for compromised insulin secretion and maintain glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in wild-type mice. Together, the data show that the low hepatic CEACAM1 expression at fasting is mediated by Pparα-dependent mechanisms. Changes in CEACAM1 expression contribute to the coordination of fatty acid oxidation and insulin action in the fasting-refeeding transition.

  7. Photodynamic therapy using luciferase nanoconjugate as a treatment for colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koritarov, Tamara

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has proven itself in previous studies to be a successful therapeutic treatment for surface tumors, but its effectiveness is limited to only shallow depths that allow for the penetration of light. This study demonstrates that we have improved upon the conventional method of PDT and have overcome the previous depth limitation by creating the light at the location of the tumor in situ. We conjugated a bioluminescent protein, Luciferase, to a semiconductor nanoparticle, TiO2, and with a cell specific antibody, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody C225. The nanoconjugate, TiDoL-C225, was then activated by ATP and Luciferin in a reaction that creates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces apoptosis in the tumor cells. We created the optimal nanoconjugate synthesis protocol to make TiDoL and TiDoL-C225 for use in the PDT treatment. The TiDoL-C225 nanoconjugate is able to bind specifically to colon caner cells as the C225 antibody recognizes EGFR expressed at the surface of the cells, and further, when activated it will react only with the tumor cells. The optimal cell staining protocols were developed to visualize the treatment process and later analyze with the laser confocal microscope. The TiDoL nanoconjugate was found to only be operational and effective at killing tumor cells after being activated by Luciferin and ATP, which then enhances the control we have over the therapy. The TiDoL-C225 nanoconjugate increases the efficacy of binding to tumor cells and the speed of the reaction in the cells to begin apoptosis, even in lower concentrations when compared to the free TiDoL nanoconjugate. Finally, our PDT technique allowed us to monitor the tumor cells as they begin to undergo apoptosis in less than five minutes after the Luciferin was added to activate the reaction. The advantage of our method of PDT with the TiDoL-C225 nanoconjugate is that it can be used for early detection as well as developed into an effective treatment for cancers in all

  8. Elemental sulfur: toxicity in vivo and in vitro to bacterial luciferase, in vitro yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, and bovine liver catalase.

    PubMed

    Cetkauskaite, Anolda; Pessala, Piia; Södergren, Anders

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the effects and the modes of action of elemental sulfur (S(0)) in bioluminescence and respiration of Vibrio fischeri cells and the enzymes crude luciferase, pure catalase, and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Metallic copper removed sulfur and reduced the toxicity of acetone extracts of sediment samples analyzed in the bioluminescence test. The sulfur inhibition of cell bioluminescence was noncompetitive with decanal, the luciferase substrate; reversible, with maximum toxicity after 15 min (EC(50) = 11.8 microg/L); and almost totally recovered after 2 h. In vitro preincubation of crude luciferase extract with sulfur (0.28 ppm) weakly inhibited bioluminescence at 5 min, but at 30 min the inhibition reached 60%. Increasing the concentration of sulfur in the parts per million concentration range in vitro decreased bioluminescence, which was not constant, but depended on exposure time, and no dead-end/total inhibition was observed. The redox state of enzymes in the in vitro system significantly affected inhibition. Hydrogen peroxide restored fully and the reducing agent dithiothreitol, itself toxic, restored only partially luciferase activity in the presence of sulfur. Sulfur (5.5 ppm) slightly inhibited ADH and catalase, and dithiothreitol enhanced sulfur inhibition. High sulfur concentrations (2.2 ppm) inhibited the bioluminescence and enhanced the respiration rate of V. fischeri cells. Elemental sulfur data were interpreted to show that sulfur acted on at least a few V. fischeri cell sites: reversibly modifying luciferase at sites sensitive to/protected by oxidative and reducing agents and by affecting electron transport processes, resulting in enhanced oxygen consumption. Sulfur together with an enzyme reducing agent inhibited the oxidoreductive enzymes ADH and catalase, which have --SH groups, metal ion cofactors, or heme, respectively, in their active centers. PMID:15269910

  9. CD11c gene expression in hairy cell leukemia is dependent upon activation of the proto-oncogenes ras and junD.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Fotini; Teodoridis, Jens M; Park, Heiyoung; Georgakis, Alexander; Farokhzad, Omid C; Böttinger, Erwin P; Da Silva, Nicolas; Rousselot, Philippe; Chomienne, Christine; Ferenczi, Katalin; Arnaout, M Amin; Shelley, C Simon

    2003-05-15

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disease, the cause of which is unknown. Diagnostic of HCL is abnormal expression of the gene that encodes the beta2 integrin CD11c. In order to determine the cause of CD11c gene expression in HCL the CD11c gene promoter was characterized. Transfection of the CD11c promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene indicated that it is sufficient to direct expression in hairy cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated that of predominant importance to the activity of the CD11c promoter is its interaction with the activator protein-1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors. Comparison of nuclear extracts prepared from hairy cells with those prepared from other cell types indicated that hairy cells exhibit abnormal constitutive expression of an AP-1 complex containing JunD. Functional inhibition of AP-1 expressed by hairy cells reduced CD11c promoter activity by 80%. Inhibition of Ras, which represents an upstream activator of AP-1, also significantly inhibited the CD11c promoter. Furthermore, in the hairy cell line EH, inhibition of Ras signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) reduced not only CD11c promoter activity but also reduced both CD11c surface expression and proliferation. Expression in nonhairy cells of a dominant-positive Ras mutant activated the CD11c promoter to levels equivalent to those in hairy cells. Together, these data indicate that the abnormal expression of the CD11c gene characteristic of HCL is dependent upon activation of the proto-oncogenes ras and junD.

  10. Stable Tagging of Rhizobium meliloti with the Firefly Luciferase Gene for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cebolla, Angel; Ruiz-Berraquero, Francisco; Palomares, Antonio Jose

    1993-01-01

    A system for stable tagging of gram-negative bacteria with the firefly luciferase gene, luc, is described. A previously constructed fusion constitutively expressing luc from the λpR promoter was used. Stable integration into the bacterial genome was achieved by use of mini-Tn5 delivery vectors. The procedure developed was applied for tagging of representative gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Rhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas putida, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The system permitted the detection of tagged R. meliloti in the presence of more than 105 CFU per plate without the use of any selective markers (such as antibiotic resistance genes). No significant differences in growth rates or soil survival were found between the marked strain and the wild-type strain. Studies of bioluminescent R. meliloti also revealed a good correlation between cell biomass and bioluminescence. The firefly luciferase tagging system is an easy, safe, and sensitive method for the detection and enumeration of bacteria in the environment. Images PMID:16349015

  11. Global DNA Methylation Detection System Using MBD-Fused Luciferase Based on Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Baba, Yuji; Karube, Isao

    2016-09-20

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. In normal cells, transposable elements that constitute approximately 45% of the human genome are highly methylated to silence their expression. In cancer cells, transposable elements are hypomethylated; therefore, global DNA methylation level is considered as a biomarker for cancer diagnostics. In this study, a homogeneous assay for measuring global DNA methylation level based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) was developed using methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD)-fused luciferase. In this assay, the MBD-luciferase recognizes methylated CpG, thus, BRET between the luciferase and fluorescent DNA intercalating dye is detected. We demonstrated that the BRET signal depended on the DNA methylation level of the target DNA. Moreover, the BRET signal was correlated with the LINE1 DNA methylation level on human genomic DNA, as determined by the bisulfite method. These results indicate that the global DNA methylation level of human genomic DNA could be detected simply by measuring the BRET signal. PMID:27541340

  12. The effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1 gene expression and adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ozel Demiralp, Duygu; Aktas, Huseyin; Akar, Nejat

    2008-10-01

    Obesity is a complex, multifactorial chronic disease frequently associated with cardiovascular risks, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high blood pressure, and the insulin resistance that appears to be central to the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression induced in differentiating adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis and obesity is poorly understood. Circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels are elevated at an early stage of impaired glucose tolerance, resulting in diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels are also significantly elevated in the plasma of obese individuals and in adipose tissues of obese mice and humans. Some investigators proposed that the -675 4G/5G polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter caused overexpression of this gene and predisposed carriers to obesity. In this study, we investigated the role of -675 4G/5G polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter in the expression of this gene and the contribution of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 to adipogenesis. Using a dual-luciferase promoter assay, we determined that the -675 4G/5G polymorphism contributes significantly to overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the course of adipogenesis. The antidiabetic agents troglitazone and ciglitazone inhibited reporter gene expression driven by wild-type and -675 4G/5G mutant promoter, as well as the expression of endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, indicating that suppression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression may contribute to antidiabetic effects of these agents. The results indicate that absence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adipocytes may protect the cells against insulin resistance by promoting glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation via a decrease in the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma expression that modulates the adipocyte

  13. ERK/MAPK regulates ERRγ expression, transcriptional activity and receptor-mediated tamoxifen resistance in ER+ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Heckler, Mary M; Thakor, Hemang; Schafer, Cara C; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2014-05-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen (TAM) significantly improve breast cancer-specific survival for women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) disease. However, resistance to TAM remains a major clinical problem. The resistant phenotype is usually not driven by loss or mutation of the estrogen receptor; instead, changes in multiple proliferative and/or survival pathways over-ride the inhibitory effects of TAM. Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that promotes TAM resistance in ER+ breast cancer cells. This study sought to clarify the mechanism(s) by which this orphan nuclear receptor is regulated, and hence affects TAM resistance. mRNA and protein expression/phosphorylation were monitored by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt consensus extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) target sites. Cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression were measured by flow cytometric methods. ERRγ transcriptional activity was assessed by dual-luciferase promoter-reporter assays. We show that ERRγ protein levels are affected by the activation state of ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase, and mutation of consensus ERK target sites impairs ERRγ-driven transcriptional activity and TAM resistance. These findings shed new light on the functional significance of ERRγ in ER+ breast cancer, and are the first to demonstrate a role for kinase regulation of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  14. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  15. Rapid and scalable assembly of firefly luciferase substrates.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, David C; Porterfield, William B; Prescher, Jennifer A

    2015-02-21

    Bioluminescence imaging with luciferase-luciferin pairs is a popular method for visualizing biological processes in vivo. Unfortunately, most luciferins are difficult to access and remain prohibitively expensive for some imaging applications. Here we report cost-effective and efficient syntheses of d-luciferin and 6'-aminoluciferin, two widely used bioluminescent substrates. Our approach employs inexpensive anilines and Appel's salt to generate the luciferin cores in a single pot. Additionally, the syntheses are scalable and can provide multi-gram quantities of both substrates. The streamlined production and improved accessibility of luciferin reagents will bolster in vivo imaging efforts.

  16. Rapid and scalable assembly of firefly luciferase substrates†

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, David C.; Porterfield, William B.; Prescher, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging with luciferase-luciferin pairs is a popular method for visualizing biological processes in vivo. Unfortunately, most luciferins are difficult to access and remain prohibitively expensive for some imaging applications. Here we report cost-effective and efficient syntheses of D-luciferin and 6′-aminoluciferin, two widely used bioluminescent substrates. Our approach employs inexpensive anilines and Appel's salt to generate the luciferin cores in a single pot. Additionally, the syntheses are scalable and can provide multi-gram quantities of both substrates. The streamlined production and improved accessibility of luciferin reagents will bolster in vivo imaging efforts. PMID:25525906

  17. Matriptase Expression and Zymogen Activation in Human Pilosebaceous Unit

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bai-Yao; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Hsiao, Hui-Chung; Chiu, Han; Chen, Chi-Yung; Yeo, Yee Hui; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Chen, Ya-Wen; Kaul, Malvika; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Johnson, Michael D.; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human genetic disorders and mouse models reveal the important roles of matriptase in hair growth. Here, we investigate matriptase expression and zymogen activation in hair follicles. We show: 1) layer-dependent distribution patterns, with much higher matriptase expression in cells of the outer root sheath and matrix cells of the hair bulb than in cells of the inner root sheath; 2) cycle-dependent expression patterns, with matriptase expressed in the anagen and catagen phases of the hair lifecycle, but not in the telogen phase; 3) reduced expression of the matriptase inhibitor, HAI-1, in the catagen phase, suggesting increased proteolytic activity in this phase; and 4) definitive matriptase zymogen activation patterns, with the highest matriptase activation observed in matrix cells and outer root sheath cells in the isthmus/bulge region. In sebaceous glands, matriptase is highly expressed in basal and ductal cells, with much lower expression in the differentiated, lipid-filled cells of the interior. We also show that matriptase potently activates hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in vitro, and that the HGF receptor, c-Met, is co-expressed in those cells that express activated matriptase. Our observations suggest that the matriptase-HGF-c-MET pathway has the potential to be engaged, primarily in proliferative cells rather than terminally differentiated epithelial cells of the human pilosebaceous unit. PMID:24004857

  18. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.

  19. Hypoxia induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression via HIF-1-dependent mechanisms in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Ze; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Guo-Min; Ma, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Feng-Lin; Chen, Ming-Tai; Zhao, Hua-Lu; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Jun-Wu

    2014-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) can activate expression of a broad range of genes in response to hypoxia. It has been shown that the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) are influenced by changes in oxygen tension, and PPARγ plays a critical role in metabolism regulation and cancers. In this research, we observed an increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in company with increased HIF-1 protein levels in HepG2 cells in hypoxia as compared with in normoxia. Enforced expression of HIF-1α induced PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 expression, while knockdown of HIF-1α by small interference RNA deduced PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 expression in HepG2 cells under hypoxic conditions. By dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we confirmed a functional hypoxic response element (HRE) localized at 684bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (TSS) of PPARγ1 and a functional HRE localized at 204bp downstream of the TSS of PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells. Additionally we observed an increase and co-presence of PPARγ and HIF-1α, and a highly positive correlation between PPARγ expression and HIF-1α expression (r=0.553, p<0.0001), in the same tumor tissue areas of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Our data suggested a new mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma cells response to hypoxia.

  20. Identification of Follistatin-Like 1 by Expression Cloning as an Activator of the Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Gene and a Prognostic Biomarker in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Kempf, Tibor; Korf-Klingebiel, Mortimer; Fiedler, Beate; Sharma, Sarita; Katus, Hugo A.; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Shimano, Masayuki; Walsh, Kenneth; Wollert, Kai C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-responsive cytokine and biomarker that is produced after myocardial infarction and that is related to prognosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesized that secreted proteins that activate GDF15 production may represent new ACS biomarkers. METHODS We expressed clones from an infarcted mouse heart cDNA library in COS1 cells and assayed for activation of a luciferase reporter gene controlled by a 642-bp fragment of the mouse growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) gene promoter. We measured the circulating concentrations of follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) and GDF15 in 1369 patients with ACS. RESULTS One cDNA clone that activated the GDF15 promoter–luciferase reporter encoded the secreted protein FSTL1. Treatment with FSTL1 activated GDF15 production in cultured cardiomyocytes. Transgenic production of FSTL1 stimulated GDF15 production in the murine heart, whereas cardiomyocyte-selective deletion of FSTL1 decreased production of GDF15 in cardiomyocytes, indicating that FSTL1 is sufficient and required for GDF15 production. In ACS, FSTL1 emerged as the strongest independent correlate of GDF15 (partial R2 = 0.26). A total of 106 patients died of a cardiovascular cause during a median follow-up of 252 days. Patients with an FSTL1 concentration in the top quartile had a 3.7-fold higher risk of cardiovascular death compared with patients in the first 3 quartiles (P < 0.001). FSTL1 remained associated with cardiovascular death after adjustment for clinical, angiographic, and biochemical variables. CONCLUSIONS Our study is the first to use expression cloning for biomarker discovery upstream of a gene of interest and to identify FSTL1 as an independent prognostic biomarker in ACS. PMID:22675198

  1. β₂ adrenergic receptor activation suppresses bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Moriya, Shuichi; Shirakawa, Jumpei; Notomi, Takuya; Arayal, Smriti; Kawasaki, Makiri; Izu, Yayoi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    β adrenergic stimulation suppresses bone formation in vivo while its actions in osteoblastic differentiation are still incompletely understood. We therefore examined the effects of β2 adrenergic stimulation on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells focusing on BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. Morphologically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced increase in the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive small foci in the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells. Biochemically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner. Isoproterenol suppression of alkaline phosphatase activity is observed even when the cells are treated with high concentrations of BMP. With respect to cell density, isoproterenol treatment tends to suppress BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression more in osteoblasts cultured at higher cell density. In terms of treatment protocol, continuous isoproterenol treatment is compared to cyclic treatment. Continuous isoproterenol treatment is more suppressive against BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression than cyclic regimen. At molecular level, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enhancement of alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. Regarding the mode of isoproterenol action, isoproterenol suppresses BMP-induced BRE-luciferase activity. These data indicate that isoproterenol regulates BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells.

  2. Construction of a cytosolic firefly luciferase reporter cassette for use in PCR-mediated gene deletion and fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, W B; Rome, C M; Hjortsø, M A; Benton, M G

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring promoter response to environmental changes using reporter systems has provided invaluable information regarding cellular state. With the development of in vivo luciferase reporter systems, inexpensive, sensitive and accurate promoter assays have been developed without the variability reported between in vitro samplings. Current luciferase reporter systems, however, are largely inflexible to modifications to the promoter of interest. To overcome problems in flexibility and stability of these expression vectors, we report the creation of a novel vector system which introduces a cytosol-localized Photinus pyralis luciferase [LUC*(-SKL)] capable of one-step, in vivo measurements into a promoter-reporter system via PCR-based gene deletion and fusion. After introduction of the reporter under HUG1 promoter control, cytosolic localization was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The dose-response of this novel construct was then compared with that of a similar HUG1Δ::yEGFP1 promoter-reporter system and shown to give a similar response pattern.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist troglitazone suppresses transforming growth factor-β1 signalling through miR-92b upregulation-inhibited Axl expression in human keloid fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Bai, Wen-Dong; Li, Jun; Tao, Ke; Wang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xue-Kang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Yun-Chuan; He, Ting; Xie, Song-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Keloid, a skin benign tumor, is characterized by overgrowth of fibroblasts and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in wounded skin. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist was recently evaluated to inhibit fibrosis. This study explored the underlying mechanisms. Fibroblasts isolated from 25 keloid patients (KFs) and fibroblasts isolated from healthy controls (NSFBs) were also subjected to treatment with PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone and antagonist GW9662 or for transfection with miR-92 mimics or inhibitor, Axl siRNA, and miR-92b or Axl promoter constructs, as well as being subjected to qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, protein array, luciferase, and ChIP assays. The data demonstrated that TGF-β1 and Axl proteins were significantly elevated in samples from keloid patients, while troglitazone treatment significantly reduced levels of TGF-β1 and Axl mRNA and proteins in KFs. Moreover, knockdown of Axl expression reduced expression of TGF-β1 and its pathway genes (such as α-SMA and Snail). PPAR-γ regulation of Axl expression was through transcriptional activation of miR-92b. miR-92b expression downregulated Axl expression at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GW9662 completely reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-92b mimics on Axl expression. Gene ontology analysis of miR-92b targeting genes showed that TGF-β and Axl were both potential targets of miR-92b, as confirmed by luciferase assay. These findings demonstrated that PPAR-γ-induced miR-92b expression inhibited Axl expression and in turn reduced expression of TGF-β1 and the downstream genes in KFs, suggesting that targeting of this novel gene pathway may be useful for therapeutic control of fibrosis or keloid.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist troglitazone suppresses transforming growth factor-β1 signalling through miR-92b upregulation-inhibited Axl expression in human keloid fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Bai, Wen-Dong; Li, Jun; Tao, Ke; Wang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xue-Kang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Yun-Chuan; He, Ting; Xie, Song-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Keloid, a skin benign tumor, is characterized by overgrowth of fibroblasts and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in wounded skin. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist was recently evaluated to inhibit fibrosis. This study explored the underlying mechanisms. Fibroblasts isolated from 25 keloid patients (KFs) and fibroblasts isolated from healthy controls (NSFBs) were also subjected to treatment with PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone and antagonist GW9662 or for transfection with miR-92 mimics or inhibitor, Axl siRNA, and miR-92b or Axl promoter constructs, as well as being subjected to qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, protein array, luciferase, and ChIP assays. The data demonstrated that TGF-β1 and Axl proteins were significantly elevated in samples from keloid patients, while troglitazone treatment significantly reduced levels of TGF-β1 and Axl mRNA and proteins in KFs. Moreover, knockdown of Axl expression reduced expression of TGF-β1 and its pathway genes (such as α-SMA and Snail). PPAR-γ regulation of Axl expression was through transcriptional activation of miR-92b. miR-92b expression downregulated Axl expression at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GW9662 completely reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-92b mimics on Axl expression. Gene ontology analysis of miR-92b targeting genes showed that TGF-β and Axl were both potential targets of miR-92b, as confirmed by luciferase assay. These findings demonstrated that PPAR-γ-induced miR-92b expression inhibited Axl expression and in turn reduced expression of TGF-β1 and the downstream genes in KFs, suggesting that targeting of this novel gene pathway may be useful for therapeutic control of fibrosis or keloid. PMID:27648136

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist troglitazone suppresses transforming growth factor-β1 signalling through miR-92b upregulation-inhibited Axl expression in human keloid fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Bai, Wen-Dong; Li, Jun; Tao, Ke; Wang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xue-Kang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Wang, Yun-Chuan; He, Ting; Xie, Song-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Keloid, a skin benign tumor, is characterized by overgrowth of fibroblasts and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in wounded skin. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist was recently evaluated to inhibit fibrosis. This study explored the underlying mechanisms. Fibroblasts isolated from 25 keloid patients (KFs) and fibroblasts isolated from healthy controls (NSFBs) were also subjected to treatment with PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone and antagonist GW9662 or for transfection with miR-92 mimics or inhibitor, Axl siRNA, and miR-92b or Axl promoter constructs, as well as being subjected to qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, protein array, luciferase, and ChIP assays. The data demonstrated that TGF-β1 and Axl proteins were significantly elevated in samples from keloid patients, while troglitazone treatment significantly reduced levels of TGF-β1 and Axl mRNA and proteins in KFs. Moreover, knockdown of Axl expression reduced expression of TGF-β1 and its pathway genes (such as α-SMA and Snail). PPAR-γ regulation of Axl expression was through transcriptional activation of miR-92b. miR-92b expression downregulated Axl expression at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GW9662 completely reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-92b mimics on Axl expression. Gene ontology analysis of miR-92b targeting genes showed that TGF-β and Axl were both potential targets of miR-92b, as confirmed by luciferase assay. These findings demonstrated that PPAR-γ-induced miR-92b expression inhibited Axl expression and in turn reduced expression of TGF-β1 and the downstream genes in KFs, suggesting that targeting of this novel gene pathway may be useful for therapeutic control of fibrosis or keloid. PMID:27648136

  6. Detection of bacteriuria by luciferase assay of adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Thore, A; Anséhn, S; Lundin, A; Bergman, S

    1975-01-01

    A selective method for distinguishing bacterial and nonbacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in clinical bacteriological specimens was studied. The method involved incubation of samples with the detergent Triton X-100 and the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme apyrase. The incubation selectively destroyed ATP in suspensions of various human cells while not affecting the ATP content in microbial cells. ATP remaining in the sample after incubation was extracted in boiling buffer and assayed by the firefly luciferase assay. Application of the method to 469 clinical urine specimens showed that the ATP level after treatment with Triton/apyrase was correlated to bacterial counts and that the sensitivity of the assay was sufficient for the detection of 10(5) bacteria/ml. The ATP levels per bacterial cell remaining in the urine specimen after treatment with Triton/apyrase were close to values observed in laboratory-grown cultures. The specificity and sensitivity of the luciferase assay for the detection of urinary bacteria and its possible use as a bacteriuria screening method are discussed. PMID:1100645

  7. Stimulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression by PMA requires JNK1-dependent and -independent signaling modules.

    PubMed

    Gum, R; Juarez, J; Allgayer, H; Mazar, A; Wang, Y; Boyd, D

    1998-07-16

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) has been implicated in tumor progression, and previous studies have shown that the expression of this gene is strongly up-regulated by PMA. Although the signaling mechanism by which PMA modulates u-PAR expression is not known, the effect of this phorbol ester on the expression of other genes has been ascribed to activation of the c-Raf-1-ERK signaling pathway. However, in the current study we examined an alternate possibility that the inductive effect of PMA on u-PAR expression also required a JNK1-dependent signaling cascade usually associated with stress-inducing stimuli. PMA treatment of the u-PAR-deficient OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells, which contain low JNK activities, resulted in a rapid (5 min) increase in JNK activity. Maximal JNK activity (12-fold induction) occurred after 30 min; this preceding the earliest detected rise in u-PAR protein (2 h). Dose-response studies with PMA also indicated that the increased JNK activity was tightly correlated with elevated u-PAR protein levels. The stimulation of u-PAR promoter activity by PMA required an intact upstream AP-1 motif (-184) and in PMA-treated cells this motif was bound with c-Jun as indicated from mobility shift assays. PMA up-regulated the c-Jun trans acting activity as indicated by the higher activity of a GAL4-regulated luciferase reporter in phorbol-ester-treated cells co-transfected with an expression vector encoding the c-Jun transactivation domain fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. The ability of PMA to stimulate u-PAR promoter activity was effectively titrated out by the co-expression of either a kinase-defective JNK1 or a dominant negative MEKK1 the latter being an upstream activator of JNK1. Conversely, u-PAR promoter activity was stimulated by the co-expression of a constitutively active MEKK1 and this induction was antagonized by the inclusion of the kinase-defective JNK1 plasmid. We also determined the biological significance of the

  8. A Luciferase-Based Quick Potency Assay to Predict Chondrogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Oberbauer, Eleni; Steffenhagen, Carolin; Feichtinger, Georg; Hildner, Florian; Hacobian, Ara; Danzer, Martin; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Wolbank, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) is challenging but highly promising for cartilage repair. Large donor variability of chondrogenic differentiation potential raises the risk for transplantation of cells with reduced efficacy and a low chondrogenic potential. Therefore, quick potency assays are required to control the potency of the isolated cells before cell transplantation. Current in vitro methods to analyze the differentiation capacity are time-consuming, and thus, a novel enhancer and tissue-specific promoter combination was used for the detection of chondrogenic differentiation of ASC in a novel quick potency bioassay. Human primary ASC were cotransfected with the Metridia luciferase-based collagen type II reporter gene pCMVE_ACDCII-MetLuc together with a Renilla control plasmid and analyzed for their chondrogenic potential. On day 3 after chondrogenic induction, the luciferase activity was induced in all tested donors under three-dimensional culture conditions and, in a second approach, also under two-dimensional (2D) culture conditions. With our newly developed quick potency bioassay, we can determine chondrogenic potential already after 3 days of chondrogenic induction and under 2D culture conditions. This will enhance the efficiency of testing cell functionality, which should allow in the future to predict the suitability of cells derived from individual patients for cell therapies in a very short time and at low costs. PMID:27019357

  9. Implication of Arg213 and Arg337 on the kinetic and structural stability of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Riahi-Madvar, Ali; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Rezaee, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Possible roles of two different Arginine (Arg; R) 213 and 337 on kinetic and structural stability of Photinus pyralis luciferase have been investigated using thermal and chemical denaturation studies. This enzyme is highly sensitive to protease digestion and temperature, which limits its fieldability, particularly for in vivo imaging. In order to generate more stable luciferases against trypsin digestion, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to block two representative tryptic sites on the surface of N-terminal domain, via substitution of Arg213 and Arg337 by methionine (Met; M) and glutamine (Gln; Q), respectively [A. Riahi-Madvar, S. Hosseinkhani, Protein engineering, design and selection 22 (2009) 655-663]. The improvement of mutant enzymes stability against protease hydrolysis may be attributed to the more rigidity of the enzyme structure upon mutations, as can be deducted from elevated levels of m(U-N) values and decrease of activation energy. Furthermore, mutation at position 337 which is accompanied with more alteration on the basic kinetic properties relative to mutation at position 213, revealed the high values of the ΔG(H(2)O), half-time of inactivation at 30°C and T(m) for R337Q where Arg213 is maintained in structure. Based on the results, it can be concluded that whilst Arg213 affects structural stability, Arg337 is critical for kinetic stability.

  10. Luciferase-based assay for adenosine: application to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Emmanuel S; Gulab, Shivali A; Cassera, María B; Schramm, Vern L

    2012-04-17

    S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) catalyzes the reversible conversion of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) to adenosine (ADO) and L-homocysteine, promoting methyltransferase activity by relief of SAH inhibition. SAH catabolism is linked to S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, and the development of SAHH inhibitors is of interest for new therapeutics with anticancer or cholesterol-lowering effects. We have developed a continuous enzymatic assay for adenosine that facilitates high-throughput analysis of SAHH. This luciferase-based assay is 4000-fold more sensitive than former detection methods and is well suited for continuous monitoring of ADO formation in a 96-well-plate format. The high-affinity adenosine kinase from Anopheles gambiae efficiently converts adenosine to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in the presence of guanosine triphosphate. AMP is converted to adenosine triphosphate and coupled to firefly luciferase. With this procedure, kinetic parameters (K(m), k(cat)) for SAHH were obtained, in good agreement with literature values. Assay characteristics include sustained light output combined with ultrasensitive detection (10(-7) unit of SAHH). The assay is documented with the characterization of slow-onset inhibition for inhibitors of the hydrolase. Application of this assay may facilitate the development of SAHH inhibitors and provide an ultrasensitive detection for the formation of adenosine from other biological reactions.

  11. Evaluation of viral and mammalian promoters for driving transgene expression in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Zhang Guisheng; Knapp, Joseph E.; Liu Dexi . E-mail: dliu@pitt.edu

    2006-01-13

    Fifteen luciferase plasmid constructs driven by various promoters including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), human serum albumin (SA), {alpha}-1 antitrypsin (AAT), cytochrome P450 CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, mouse CYP2b10, human amyloid precursor protein (APP), chicken {beta} actin (ACT), nuclear factor {kappa} B (NF{kappa}B), and heat shock protein 70 (HS) promoters were hydrodynamically introduced into mouse hepatocytes, and the level and persistence of luciferase gene expression were examined. Eight hours post-gene transfer, the CMV and AAT promoters showed the highest activity, followed by the CYP2D6, HS, and RSV promoters which were slightly less active. The human serum albumin promoter exhibited the lowest activity among the promoters examined. The time course of gene expression showed a two-phase decline in luciferase activity with a rapid phase within First 5-7 days and a slower decline thereafter. Results from Southern and Northern blot analyses revealed a good correlation between the decline of luciferase activity and the decrease in mRNA level, suggesting promoter silencing as the possible mechanism for the observed transient luciferase gene expression. Inclusion of EBN1 and oriP sequences of Epstein-Barr virus into the plasmid extended the period of active transcription for about one week. These results provide important information concerning the role of promoters in regulating transgene expression and for the proper design of plasmids for gene expression and gene therapy.

  12. Individual subunits of bacterial luciferase are molten globules and interact with molecular chaperones.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, G C; Beckers, C J; Baase, W A; Dahlquist, F W

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the assembly of a large heterodimeric protein, bacterial luciferase, by mixing purified subunits expressed separately in bacteria. The individual subunits alpha and beta contain much (66% and 50%, respectively) of the alpha-helix content of the native heterodimer as measured by circular dichroism, yet the alpha subunit lacks observable tertiary structure as measured by NMR. These results are consistent with the alpha subunit existing in a molten globule or collapsed form prior to assembly. The molecular chaperone GroEL binds reversibly to both subunits prior to assembly. Since these observations were obtained under physiological conditions, we propose that the molten globule exists as a stable form during folding or assembly in the cell. Either the molten globule form of the subunits is an authentic folding intermediate or it is in rapid equilibrium with one. GroEL may function by facilitating assembly through stabilization of these incompletely folded subunits. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7902573

  13. Design and introduction of a disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase: increase of thermostability and decrease of pH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Imani, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ahmadian, Shahin; Nazari, Mahboobeh

    2010-08-01

    The thermal sensitivity and pH-sensitive spectral properties of firefly luciferase have hampered its application in a variety of fields. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make two separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Even though the A103C/S121C mutant showed remarkable thermal stability, its specific activity decreased, whereas the A296C/A326C mutant showed tremendous thermal stability, relative pH insensitivity and 7.3-fold increase of specific activity. Moreover, the bioluminescence emission spectrum of A296C/A326C was resistant against higher temperatures (37 degrees C). Far-UV CD analysis showed slight secondary structure changes for both mutants. Thermal denaturation analysis showed that conformational stabilities of A103C/S121C and A296C/A326C are more than native firefly luciferase. It is proposed that since A296 and A326 are situated in the vicinity of the enzyme active site microenvironment in comparison with A103 and S121, the formation of a disulfide bridge in this region has more impact on enzyme kinetic characteristics.

  14. Regulation of intestine-specific spatiotemporal expression by the rat lactase promoter.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Wang, Zhi; Lin, Chun-Ku; Contag, Christopher H; Olds, Lynne C; Cooper, Allen D; Sibley, Eric

    2002-04-12

    Lactase gene transcription is spatially restricted to the proximal and middle small intestine of the developing mouse. To identify regions of the lactase gene involved in mediating the spatiotemporal expression pattern, transgenic mice harboring 0.8-, 1.3-, and 2.0-kb fragments of the 5'-flanking region cloned upstream of a firefly-luciferase reporter were generated. Transgene expression was assessed noninvasively in living mice using a sensitive low light imaging system. Two independent, 1.3- and 2.0-kb, lactase promoter-reporter transgenic lines expressed appropriate high levels of luciferase activity in the small intestine (300-3,000 relative light units/microg) with maximal expression in the middle segments. Post-weaned 30-day transgenic offspring also demonstrated an appropriate 4-fold maturational decline in luciferase expression in the small intestine. The pattern of the 2.0-kb promoter transgene mRNA abundance most closely mimicked that of the endogenous lactase gene with respect to spatiotemporal restriction. In contrast, a 0.8-kb promoter-reporter construct expressed low level luciferase activity (<25 relative light units/microg) in multiple organs and throughout the gastrointestinal tract in transgenic mice. Thus, a distinct 5'-region of the lactase promoter directs intestine-specific expression in the small intestine of transgenic mice, and regulatory sequences have been localized to a 1.2-kb region upstream of the lactase transcription start site. In addition, we have demonstrated that in vivo bioluminescence imaging can be utilized for assessment of intestinal expression patterns of a luciferase reporter gene driven by lactase promoter regions in transgenic mice.

  15. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks. PMID:24088795

  16. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks.

  17. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  18. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberger, T.; Flint, Y.B.; Blank, M.; Etkin, S.; Lavi, S.

    1988-03-01

    The authors report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later.

  19. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  20. Immune response to firefly luciferase as a naked DNA.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong Hyun; Choi, Yun; Kang, Joo Hyun; Kim, Chul Woo; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2007-05-01

    Firefly luciferase (Fluc) has been widely used as a reporter gene. The aim of this study was to investigate immune response to luciferase protein after an intradermal injection of pcDNA3.1-Fluc in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. We observed bioluminescence at injection sites from one to seven days post-injection when pcDNA3.1-Fluc was intradermally injected into ear-pinnae. To observe induced immune response, the percentages of CD8+IFNgamma+ cells in the draining lymphoid cells of immunocompetent BALB/c mice immunized by pcDNA3.1-Fluc were measured. And the tumor growths of CT26/Fluc in pcDNA3.1-Fluc group were monitored by observing bioluminescent signals and measuring tumor mass, and these were compared with those of the pcDNA3.1 group in immunocompetent BALB/c mice and immunodeficient Nu/Nu mice. In the immunocompetent BALB/c mice, percentages of CD8+IFNgamma+ cells in the pcDNA3.1-Fluc group were higher than those in the pcDNA3.1 group. Ten days after tumor inoculation, tumor growth inhibition was found in the pcDNA3.1-Fluc group, but not in the pcDNA3.1 group in the immunocompetent BALB/c mice. No significant difference in tumor growth inhibition was observed when CT26/Fluc was injected into immunodeficient Nu/Nu mice. In terms of cytokine profiles of draining lymphoid cells of immunized mice, IFNgamma protein levels in the pcDNA3.1-Fluc group were higher than in pcDNA3.1 group animals among the immunocompetent BALB/c mice. In conclusion, Fluc induced a Th1 immune response to Fluc protein delivered by injecting pcDNA3.1-Fluc into immunocompetent BALB/c mice. We suggest that immune response to the Fluc gene is cautionary in preclinical or clinical trials involving the Fluc gene, and that the immunologic potential of firefly luciferase as a naked DNA may be useful in cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of PCFT by KLF4, HNF4α, CDX2 and C/EBPα: implication in its site-specific expression in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Furumiya, Mai; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Ohta, Kinya; Hayashi, Yayoi; Yuasa, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    Proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), which is responsible for the intestinal uptake of folates and analogs, is expressed only in the proximal region in the small intestine. The present study was to examine its transcriptional regulation, which may be involved in such a unique expression profile and potentially in its alteration, using dual-luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The luciferase activity derived from the reporter construct containing the 5'-flanking sequence of -1695/+96 of the human PCFT gene was enhanced most extensively by the introduction of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). The KLF4-induced luciferase activity was further enhanced by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) synergistically. To the contrary, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) extensively suppressed the luciferase activity induced by KLF4 alone and also that induced by KLF4 and HNF4α. Western blot analysis using the rat small intestine indicated uniform expression of KLF4 along the intestinal tract, proximal-oriented expression of HNF4α, distal-oriented expression of CDX2 and C/EBPα. These results suggest that the activity of PCFT promoter is basically induced by KLF4 and the gradiented expression profile of PCFT may be at least in part accounted for by those of HNF4α, CDX2 and C/EBPα. PMID:23313509

  2. Distal Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Response Element of Human Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) Binds Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) Transcription Factors and Regulates Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Schmucker, Adam C.; Wright, Jason B.; Cole, Michael D.; Brinckerhoff, Constance E.

    2012-01-01

    The collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the destruction of cartilage in arthritic joints. MMP-13 expression is strongly up-regulated in arthritis, largely because of stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Treatment of chondrocytes with IL-1β induces transcription of MMP-13 in vitro. IL-1β signaling converges upon the activator protein-1 transcription factors, which have been shown to be required for IL-1β-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we detected activator protein-1 binding within an evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence ∼20 kb 5′ relative to the MMP-13 transcription start site (TSS). Also using ChIP, we detected histone modifications and binding of RNA polymerase II within this conserved region, all of which are consistent with transcriptional activation. Chromosome conformation capture indicates that chromosome looping brings this region in close proximity with the MMP-13 TSS. Finally, a luciferase reporter construct driven by a component of the conserved region demonstrated an expression pattern similar to that of endogenous MMP-13. These data suggest that a conserved region at 20 kb upstream from the MMP-13 TSS includes a distal transcriptional response element of MMP-13, which contributes to MMP-13 gene expression. PMID:22102411

  3. Perfluorooctanoic acid enhances colorectal cancer DLD-1 cells invasiveness through activating NF-κB mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chen; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Yajie; Chu, Yimin; Li, Ji; Kuai, Rong; Wang, Saiyu; Peng, Haixia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widely used in consumer products and detected in human serum. Our study meant to elucidate the uncovered molecular mechanisms underlying the PFOA induced colorectal cancer cell DLD-1 invasion and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression. Methods and results: Trans-well filter assay appeared that PFOA treatment stimulated DLD-1 cells invasion significantly. Meanwhile, the results of luciferase reporter, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and gelatin zymography showed that PFOA induced MMP-2/-9 expression and enzyme activation levels consistently (P < 0.05 each). Subsequently, western blotting and immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that PFOA could enhance nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity by stimulating NF-κB translocation into nuclear in DLD-1 cells. Furthermore, JSH-23, a well-known NF-κB inhibitor, could reverse the PFOA induced colorectal cancer cell invasion and MMP-2/-9 expression. Conclusions: Our study confirmed that PFOA could induce colorectal cancer cell DLD-1 invasive ability and MMP-2/-9 expression through activating NF-κB, which deserves more concerns on environmental pollutant-resulted public health risk. PMID:26617761

  4. Sensitive and convenient yeast reporter assay for high-throughput analysis by using a secretory luciferase from Cypridina noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Tochigi, Yuki; Sato, Natsuko; Sahara, Takehiko; Wu, Chun; Saito, Shinya; Irie, Tsutomu; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Goda, Takako; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Ohgiya, Satoru

    2010-07-01

    The yeast reporter assay has been widely used in various applications such as detection of endocrine disruptors and analysis of protein-protein interactions by the yeast two-hybrid system. The molecular characteristics of the reporter enzyme are critical determinants for this assay. We herein report the establishment of a novel yeast reporter assay using a secretory luciferase, Cypridina noctiluca luciferase (CLuc), as an alternative to the conventional beta-galactosidase. The CLuc reporter assay in yeast is more sensitive and convenient than the conventional assay. A yeast high-throughput reporter assay was established with a laboratory automation system, and the transcriptional activity of hundreds of yeast promoter fragments was comprehensively determined. Our results indicate that the yeast CLuc reporter assay is a promising tool for large-scale and sensitive analysis in the development of new drugs and in various fields of biotechnology research.

  5. Enhancer/Promoter Activities of the Long/Middle Wavelength-Sensitive Opsins of Vertebrates Mediated by Thyroid Hormone Receptor β2 and COUP-TFII

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Atsumi; Itoh, Toshio; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Cone photopigments (opsins) are crucial elements of, and the first detection module in, color vision. Individual opsins have different wavelength sensitivity patterns, and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of opsins are unique and stringently regulated. Long and middle wavelength-sensitive (L/M) opsins are of the same phylogenetic type. Although the roles of thyroid hormone/TRß2 and COUP-TFs in the transcriptional regulation of L/M opsins have been explored, the detailed mechanisms, including the target sequence in the enhancer of L/M opsins, have not been revealed. We aimed to reveal molecular mechanisms of L/M opsins in vertebrates. Using several human red opsin enhancer/promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, we found that TRß2 increased luciferase activities through the 5′-UTR and intron 3–4 region, whereas the presence of T3 affected only the intron 3–4 region-dependent luciferase activity. Furthermore, COUP-TFII suppressed intron 3–4 region-dependent luciferase activities. However, luciferase expression driven by the mouse M opsin intron 3–4 region was only slightly increased by TRß2, and rather enhanced by COUP-TFII. To determine whether these differential responses reflect differences between primates and rodents, we examined the enhancer/promoter region of the red opsin of the common marmoset. Interestingly, while TRß2 increased 5′-UTR- or intron 3–4 region-driven luciferase expression, as observed for the human red opsin, expression of the latter luciferase was not suppressed by COUP-TFII. In fact, immunostaining of common marmoset retinal sections revealed expression of COUP-TFII and red opsin in the cone cells. PMID:24058409

  6. Cells die with increased cytosolic ATP during apoptosis: a bioluminescence study with intracellular luciferase.

    PubMed

    Zamaraeva, M V; Sabirov, R Z; Maeno, E; Ando-Akatsuka, Y; Bessonova, S V; Okada, Y

    2005-11-01

    Apoptosis is a distinct form of cell death, which requires energy. Here, we made real-time continuous measurements of the cytosolic ATP level throughout the apoptotic process in intact HeLa, PC12 and U937 cells transfected with the firefly luciferase gene. Apoptotic stimuli (staurosporine (STS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), etoposide) induced significant elevation of the cytosolic ATP level. The cytosolic ATP level remained at a higher level than in the control for up to 6 h during which activation of caspase-3 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation took place. When the STS-induced ATP response was abolished by glucose deprivation-induced inhibition of glycolysis, both caspase activation and DNA laddering were completely inhibited. Annexin V-binding induced by STS or TNFalpha was largely suppressed by glycolysis inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that the cells die with increased cytosolic ATP, and elevation of cytosolic ATP level is a requisite to the apoptotic cell death process.

  7. High-throughput assay for the identification of Hsp90 inhibitors based on Hsp90-dependent refolding of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Galam, Lakshmi; Hadden, M Kyle; Ma, Zeqiang; Ye, Qi-Zhuang; Yun, Bo-Geon; Blagg, Brian S J; Matts, Robert L

    2007-03-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that the renaturation of heat denatured firefly luciferase is dependent upon the activity of Hsp90 in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Here, we demonstrate that this assay may identify inhibitors that obstruct the chaperone activity of Hsp90 either by direct binding to its N-terminal or C-terminal nucleotide binding sites or by interference with the ability of the chaperone to switch conformations. The assay was adapted and optimized for high-throughput screening. Greater than 20,000 compounds were screened to demonstrate the feasibility of using this assay on a large scale. The assay was reproducible (av Z-factor=0.62) and identified 120 compounds that inhibited luciferase renaturation by greater than 70% at a concentration of 12.5 microg/mL. IC50 values for twenty compounds with varying structures were determined for inhibition of luciferase refolding and in cell-based assays for Hsp90 inhibition. Several compounds had IC50 values <10 microM and represent a number of new lead structures with the potential for further development and optimization as potent Hsp90 inhibitors.

  8. Isorhamnetin protects against oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and inducing the expression of its target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ji Hye; Shin, Bo Yeon; Han, Jae Yun; Kim, Mi Gwang; Wi, Ji Eun; Kim, Young Woo; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Sang Chan; Shin, Sang Mi; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-15

    Isorhamentin is a 3′-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, the effects of isorhamnetin on Nrf2 activation and on the expressions of its downstream genes in hepatocytes have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isorhamnetin has the ability to activate Nrf2 and induce phase II antioxidant enzyme expression, and to determine the protective role of isorhamnetin on oxidative injury in hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, isorhamnetin increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and consistently, increased antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter gene activity and the protein levels of hemeoxygenase (HO-1) and of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which resulted in intracellular GSH level increases. The specific role of Nrf2 in isorhamnetin-induced Nrf2 target gene expression was verified using an ARE-deletion mutant plasmid and Nrf2-knockout MEF cells. Deletion of the ARE in the promoter region of the sestrin2 gene, which is recently identified as the Nrf2 target gene by us, abolished the ability of isorhamnetin to increase luciferase activity. In addition, Nrf2 deficiency completely blocked the ability of isorhamnetin to induce HO-1 and GCL. Furthermore, isorhamnetin pretreatment blocked t-BHP-induced ROS production and reversed GSH depletion by t-BHP and consequently, due to reduced ROS levels, decreased t-BHP-induced cell death. In addition isorhamnetin increased ERK1/2, PKCδ and AMPK phosphorylation. Finally, we showed that Nrf2 deficiency blocked the ability of isorhamnetin to protect cells from injury induced by t-BHP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that isorhamnetin is efficacious in protecting hepatocytes against oxidative stress by Nrf2 activation and in inducing the expressions of its downstream genes. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of isorhamnetin on Nrf2 activation. • Isorhamnetin increased Nrf2

  9. Molecular basis for the high-affinity binding and stabilization of firefly luciferase by PTC124

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, Douglas S.; Lovell, Scott; Thorne, Natasha; Lea, Wendy A.; Maloney, David J.; Shen, Min; Rai, Ganesha; Battaile, Kevin P.; Thomas, Craig J.; Simeonov, Anton; Hanzlik, Robert P.; Inglese, James

    2010-04-07

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc), an ATP-dependent bioluminescent reporter enzyme, is broadly used in chemical biology and drug discovery assays. PTC124 Ataluren; (3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid) discovered in an FLuc-based assay targeting nonsense codon suppression, is an unusually potent FLuc-inhibitor. Paradoxically, PTC124 and related analogs increase cellular FLuc activity levels by posttranslational stabilization. In this study, we show that FLuc inhibition and stabilization is the result of an inhibitory product formed during the FLuc-catalyzed reaction between its natural substrate, ATP, and PTC124. A 2.0 {angstrom} cocrystal structure revealed the inhibitor to be the acyl-AMP mixed-anhydride adduct PTC124-AMP, which was subsequently synthesized and shown to be a high-affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor (MAI; KD = 120 pM) of FLuc. Biochemical assays, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and near-attack conformer modeling demonstrate that formation of this novel MAI is absolutely dependent upon the precise positioning and reactivity of a key meta-carboxylate of PTC124 within the FLuc active site. We also demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of PTC124-AMP is relieved by free coenzyme A, a component present at high concentrations in luciferase detection reagents used for cell-based assays. This explains why PTC124 can appear to increase, instead of inhibit, FLuc activity in cell-based reporter gene assays. To our knowledge, this is an unusual example in which the 'off-target' effect of a small molecule is mediated by an MAI mechanism.

  10. Molecular basis for the high-affinity binding and stabilization of firefly luciferase by PTC124.

    PubMed

    Auld, Douglas S; Lovell, Scott; Thorne, Natasha; Lea, Wendy A; Maloney, David J; Shen, Min; Rai, Ganesha; Battaile, Kevin P; Thomas, Craig J; Simeonov, Anton; Hanzlik, Robert P; Inglese, James

    2010-03-16

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc), an ATP-dependent bioluminescent reporter enzyme, is broadly used in chemical biology and drug discovery assays. PTC124 (Ataluren; (3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid) discovered in an FLuc-based assay targeting nonsense codon suppression, is an unusually potent FLuc-inhibitor. Paradoxically, PTC124 and related analogs increase cellular FLuc activity levels by posttranslational stabilization. In this study, we show that FLuc inhibition and stabilization is the result of an inhibitory product formed during the FLuc-catalyzed reaction between its natural substrate, ATP, and PTC124. A 2.0 A cocrystal structure revealed the inhibitor to be the acyl-AMP mixed-anhydride adduct PTC124-AMP, which was subsequently synthesized and shown to be a high-affinity multisubstrate adduct inhibitor (MAI; K(D) = 120 pM) of FLuc. Biochemical assays, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and near-attack conformer modeling demonstrate that formation of this novel MAI is absolutely dependent upon the precise positioning and reactivity of a key meta-carboxylate of PTC124 within the FLuc active site. We also demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of PTC124-AMP is relieved by free coenzyme A, a component present at high concentrations in luciferase detection reagents used for cell-based assays. This explains why PTC124 can appear to increase, instead of inhibit, FLuc activity in cell-based reporter gene assays. To our knowledge, this is an unusual example in which the "off-target" effect of a small molecule is mediated by an MAI mechanism.

  11. Restoration of the CCAAT box or insertion of the CACCC motif activates [corrected] delta-globin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tang, D C; Ebb, D; Hardison, R C; Rodgers, G P

    1997-07-01

    Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2), which contains delta-globin as its non-alpha-globin, represents a minor fraction of the Hb found in normal adults. It has been shown recently that HbA2 is as potent as HbF in inhibiting intracellular deoxy-HbS polymerization, and its expression is therefore relevant to sickle cell disease treatment strategies. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the low-level expression of the delta-globin gene in adult erythroid cells, we first compared promoter sequences and found that the delta-globin gene differs from the beta-globin gene in the absence of an erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) binding site, the alteration of the CCAAT box to CCAAC, and the presence of a GATA-1 binding site. Second, serial deletions of the human delta-globin promoter sequence fused to a luciferase (LUC) reporter gene were transfected into K562 cells. We identified both positive and negative regulatory regions in the 5' flanking sequence. Furthermore, a plasmid containing a single base pair (bp) mutation in the CCAAC box of the delta promoter, restoring the CCAAT box, caused a 5.6-fold and 2.4-fold (P < .05) increase of LUC activity in transfected K562 cells and MEL cells, respectively, in comparison to the wild-type delta promoter. A set of substitutions that create an EKLF binding site centered at -85 bp increased the expression by 26.8-fold and 6.5-fold (P < .05) in K562 and MEL cells, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the restoration of either an EKLF binding site or the CCAAT box can increase delta-globin gene expression, with potential future clinical benefit.

  12. Endothelin‑1 induces oncostatin M expression in osteoarthritis osteoblasts by trans‑activating the oncostatin M gene promoter via Ets‑1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren; Wang, Wanchun; Huang, Guoliang; Mao, Xinzhan; Chen, You; Tang, Qi; Liao, Lele

    2016-04-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) contributes to cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA) and was demonstrated to be expressed in OA osteoblasts. Endothelin‑1 (ET‑1) is implicated in the degradation of OA articular cartilage, and osteoblast proliferation and bone development. In the present study, the effects of ET‑1 on OSM expression in human OA osteoblasts were investigated, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Primary human OA osteoblasts were treated with ET‑1 (1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nM) for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h with or without the selective ETA receptor (ETAR) antagonist, BQ123, ETB receptor antagonist, BQ788 or the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, BKM120. ET‑1 treatment induced OSM mRNA expression, and the intracellular and secreted protein levels of OA osteoblasts in a dose‑dependent manner. This effect was suppressed by BQ123 and BKM120, but not BQ788 administration. In combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assays, deletional and mutational analyses on the activity of a human OSM promoter/luciferase reporter demonstrated that ET‑1 induced OSM expression in OA osteoblasts by trans‑activating the OSM gene promoter through specific binding of Ets‑1 to an Ets‑1 binding site in the OSM promoter in an ETAR‑ and PI3K‑dependent manner. Furthermore, ET‑1 treatment increased the expression of Ets‑1 in a dose‑dependent manner, however the knockdown of Ets‑1 suppressed the ET1‑induced expression of OSM in OA osteoblasts. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ET‑1 induces the expression of OSM in OA osteoblasts by trans‑activating the OSM gene promoter primarily through increasing the expression level of Ets‑1 in an ETAR‑ and PI3K‑dependent manner. The current study suggested novel insights into the mechanistic role of ET‑1 in the pathophysiology of OA. PMID:26934912

  13. High glucose enhances microRNA-26a to activate mTORC1 for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nirmalya; Bera, Amit; Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    High glucose milieu inhibits PTEN expression to activate Akt kinase and induces glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression in diabetic nephropathy. Specific mechanism by which high glucose inhibits PTEN expression is not clear. We found that high glucose increased the expression of the microRNA-26a (miR-26a) in mesangial cells. Using a sensor plasmid with 3’UTR-driven luciferase, we showed PTEN as a target of miR-26a in response to high glucose. Overexpression of miR-26a reduced the PTEN protein levels resulting in increased Akt kinase activity similar to high glucose treatment. In contrast, anti-miR-26a reversed high glucose-induced suppression of PTEN with concomitant inhibition of Akt kinase activity. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of tuberin and PRAS40 regulates mTORC1, which is necessary for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression. Inhibition of high glucose-induced miR-26a blocked phosphorylation of tuberin and PRAS40, which lead to suppression of phosphorylation of S6 kinase and 4EBP-1, two substrates of mTORC1. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-26a induced mesangial cell hypertrophy and increased fibronectin and collagen I (α2) expression similar to that observed with the cells incubated with high glucose. Anti-miR-26a inhibited these phenomena in response to high glucose. Together our results provide the first evidence for the involvement of miR-26a in high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression. These data indicate the potential therapeutic utility of anti-miR-26a for the complications of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:25797045

  14. MiR-146a activates WAVE2 expression and enhances phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongwei; Yao, Qunyan; Zhang, Shuncai

    2015-01-01

    MiR-146a has been shown to play a critical role in cell immunity and phagocytosis, processes that require rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. However, the detailed mechanism by which miR-146a regulates these events remains elusive. Here, we used luciferase reporter and protein assays to show that the cytoskeleton-regulatingprotein verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2), is a direct target of miR-146a. MiR-146a overexpression resulted in a decrease in WAVE2 protein expression under endotoxin-free culture conditions. Unexpectedly, however, miR-146a activated rather than repressed the expression of WAVE2 in macrophage RAW264.7 cells when cultured continuously in the presence of endotoxin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-146a induced WAVE2 expression and enhanced phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharide- induced miR146a indirectly activates WAVE2 expression; thus, facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization and phagocytosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. PMID:26396677

  15. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of luciferase gene mRNA requires CRM1/Exportin1 and RanGTPase.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tominori; Hashimoto, Iwao; Nishikawa, Masao; Yamada, Hisao

    2009-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev (regulator of the expression of the virion) protein was shown to reduce the expression level of the co-transfected luciferase reporter gene (luc+) introduced to monitor transfection efficiency. We studied the mechanism of the inhibitory Rev effect. The effect, caused by nuclear retention of luc+ mRNA, was reversed if rev had a point mutation that makes its nuclear export signal (NES) unable to associate with cellular transport factors. The Rev NES receptor CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-specific inhibitor, leptomycin B, blocked luc+ mRNA export. This finding was also supported by the overexpression of delta CAN, another specific CRM1 inhibitor that caused inhibition of luciferase gene expression. Experiments involving tsBN2 cells, which have a temperature-sensitive RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation 1) allele, demonstrated that luc+ expression required generation of the GTP-bound form of RanGTPase (RanGTP) by RCC1. The constitutive transport element (CTE)-mediated nuclear export of luc+ mRNA was found to also depend upon RanGTP. Nuclear export of luc+ mRNA is thus suggested to involve CRM1 and RanGTP, which Rev employs to transport viral mRNA. The Rev effect is therefore considered to involve competition between two molecules for common transport factors.

  16. Learning Multiscale Active Facial Patches for Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin; Liu, Qingshan; Yang, Peng; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new idea to analyze facial expression by exploring some common and specific information among different expressions. Inspired by the observation that only a few facial parts are active in expression disclosure (e.g., around mouth, eye), we try to discover the common and specific patches which are important to discriminate all the expressions and only a particular expression, respectively. A two-stage multitask sparse learning (MTSL) framework is proposed to efficiently locate those discriminative patches. In the first stage MTSL, expression recognition tasks are combined to located common patches. Each of the tasks aims to find dominant patches for each expression. Secondly, two related tasks, facial expression recognition and face verification tasks, are coupled to learn specific facial patches for individual expression. The two-stage patch learning is performed on patches sampled by multiscale strategy. Extensive experiments validate the existence and significance of common and specific patches. Utilizing these learned patches, we achieve superior performances on expression recognition compared to the state-of-the-arts. PMID:25291808

  17. Correlating gene-specific DNA methylation changes with expression and transcriptional activity of astrocytic KCNJ10 (Kir4.1)

    PubMed Central

    Nwaobi, Sinifunanya E.; Olsen, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Short abstract DNA methylation is capable of maintaining stable levels of gene expression as well as allowing for dynamic changes in gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli. We detail techniques that allow the study of gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and the effect of these changes on gene expression. Long abstract DNA methylation serves to regulate gene expression through the covalent attachment of a methyl group onto the C5 position of a cytosine in a cytosine-guanine dinucleotide. While DNA methylation provides long-lasting and stable changes in gene expression, patterns and levels of DNA methylation are also subject to change based on a variety of signals and stimuli. As such, DNA methylation functions as a powerful and dynamic regulator of gene expression. The study of neuroepigenetics has revealed a variety of physiological and pathological states that are associated with both global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation. Specifically, striking correlations between changes in gene expression and DNA methylation exist in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, during synaptic plasticity, and following CNS injury. However, as the field of neuroepigenetics continues to expand its understanding of the role of DNA methylation in CNS physiology, delineating causal relationships in regards to changes in gene expression and DNA methylation are essential. Moreover, in regards to the larger field of neuroscience, the presence of vast region and cell-specific differences requires techniques that address these variances when studying the transcriptome, proteome, and epigenome. Here we describe FACS sorting of cortical astrocytes that allows for subsequent examination of a both RNA transcription and DNA methylation. Furthermore, we detail a technique to examine DNA methylation, methylation sensitive high resolution melt analysis (MS-HRMA) as well as a luciferase promoter assay. Through the use of these combined techniques one is able

  18. Full color modulation of firefly luciferase through engineering with unified Stark effect.

    PubMed

    Cai, Duanjun; Marques, Miguel A L; Nogueira, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    The firefly luciferase has been a unique marking tool used in various bioimaging techniques. Extensive color modulation is strongly required to meet special marking demands; however, intentional and accurate wavelength tuning has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that the color shift of the firefly chromophore (OxyLH2-1) by internal and external fields can be described as a unified Stark shift. Electrostatic microenvironmental effects on fluorescent spectroscopy are modeled in vacuo through effective electric fields by using time-dependent density functional theory. A complete visible fluorescence spectrum of firefly chromophore is depicted, which enables one to control the emission in a specific color. As an application, the widely observed pH-correlated color shift is proved to be associated with the local Stark field generated by the trace water-ions (vicinal hydronium and hydroxide ions) at active sites close to the OxyLH2-1.

  19. SpyTag/SpyCatcher Cyclization Enhances the Thermostability of Firefly Luciferase

    PubMed Central

    Si, Meng; Xu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    SpyTag can spontaneously form a covalent isopeptide bond with its protein partner SpyCatcher. Firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis was cyclized in vivo by fusing SpyCatcher at the N terminus and SpyTag at the C terminus. Circular LUC was more thermostable and alkali-tolerant than the wild type, without compromising the specific activity. Structural analysis indicated that the cyclized LUC increased the thermodynamic stability of the structure and remained more properly folded at high temperatures when compared with the wild type. We also prepared an N-terminally and C-terminally shortened form of the SpyCatcher protein and cyclization using this truncated form led to even more thermostability than the original form. Our findings suggest that cyclization with SpyTag and SpyCatcher is a promising and effective strategy to enhance thermostability of enzymes. PMID:27658030

  20. Human CCT4 and CCT5 Chaperonin Subunits Expressed in Escherichia coli Form Biologically Active Homo-oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, Oksana A.; Chen, Bo; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Ludtke, Steven J.; Chiu, Wah; King, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Chaperonins are a family of chaperones that encapsulate their substrates and assist their folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), is a hetero-oligomeric complex composed of two rings, each formed from eight different CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1) subunits. Each CCT subunit may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. We have expressed each human CCT subunit individually in Escherichia coli to investigate whether they form chaperonin-like double ring complexes. CCT4 and CCT5, but not the other six CCT subunits, formed high molecular weight complexes within the E. coli cells that sedimented about 20S in sucrose gradients. When CCT4 and CCT5 were purified, they were both organized as two back-to-back rings of eight subunits each, as seen by negative stain and cryo-electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the hetero-oligomeric double-ring TRiC purified from bovine testes and HeLa cells. Both CCT4 and CCT5 homo-oligomers hydrolyzed ATP at a rate similar to human TRiC and were active as assayed by luciferase refolding and human γD-crystallin aggregation suppression and refolding. Thus, both CCT4 and CCT5 homo-oligomers have the property of forming 8-fold double rings absent the other subunits, and these complexes carry out chaperonin reactions without other partner subunits. PMID:23612981

  1. Point mutations in firefly luciferase C-domain demonstrate its significance in green color of bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Modestova, Yulia; Koksharov, Mikhail I; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2014-09-01

    Firefly luciferase is a two-domain enzyme that catalyzes the bioluminescent reaction of firefly luciferin oxidation. Color of the emitted light depends on the structure of the enzyme, yet the exact color-tuning mechanism remains unknown by now, and the role of the C-domain in it is rarely discussed, because a very few color-shifting mutations in the C-domain were described. Recently we reported a strong red-shifting mutation E457K in the C-domain; the bioluminescence spectra of this enzyme were independent of temperature or pH. In the present study we investigated the role of the residue E457 in the enzyme using the Luciola mingrelica luciferase with a thermostabilized N-domain as a parent enzyme for site-directed mutagenesis. We obtained a set of mutants and studied their catalytic properties, thermal stability and bioluminescence spectra. Experimental spectra were represented as a sum of two components (bioluminescence spectra of putative "red" and "green" emitters); λmax of these components were constant for all the mutants, but the ratio of these emitters was defined by temperature and mutations in the C-domain. We suggest that each emitter is stabilized by a specific conformation of the active site; thus, enzymes with two forms of the active site coexist in the reactive media. The rigid structure of the C-domain is crucial for maintaining the conformation corresponding to the "green" emitter. We presume that the emitters are the keto- and enol forms of oxyluciferin.

  2. Characterizing DNA methyltransferases with an ultrasensitive luciferase-linked continuous assay.

    PubMed

    Hemeon, Ivan; Gutierrez, Jemy A; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Schramm, Vern L

    2011-06-15

    DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (DNMTs) catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the 5-position of cytosine residues and thereby silence transcription of regulated genes. DNMTs are important epigenetic targets. However, isolated DNMTs are weak catalysts and are difficult to assay. We report an ultrasensitive luciferase-linked continuous assay that converts the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine product of DNA methylation to a quantifiable luminescent signal. Results with this assay are compared with the commonly used DNA labeling from [methyl-(3)H]AdoMet. A 5'-methylthioadenosine-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase is used to hydrolyze AdoHcy to adenine. Adenine phosphoribosyl transferase converts adenine to AMP and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase converts AMP to ATP. Firefly luciferase gives a stable luminescent signal that results from continuous AMP recycling to ATP. This assay exhibits a broad dynamic range (0.1-1000 pmol of AdoHcy). The rapid response time permits continuous assays of DNA methylation detected by light output. The assay is suitable for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries for DNMT inhibition activity. The kinetic properties of human and bacterial CpG methyltransferases are characterized using this assay. Human catalytic domain DNMT3b activation by DNMT3L is shown to involve two distinct kinetic states that alter k(cat) but not K(m) for AdoMet. The assay is shown to be robust in the presence of high concentrations of the pyrimidine analogues 5-azacytidine and 5-azacytosine.

  3. Codon Usage in Signal Sequences Affects Protein Expression and Secretion Using Baculovirus/Insect Cell Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shiheng; Chen, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    By introducing synonymous mutations into the coding sequences of GP64sp and FibHsp signal peptides, the influences of mRNA secondary structure and codon usage of signal sequences on protein expression and secretion were investigated using baculovirus/insect cell expression system. The results showed that mRNA structural stability of the signal sequences was not correlated with the protein production and secretion levels, and FibHsp was more tolerable to codon changes than GP64sp. Codon bias analyses revealed that codons for GP64sp were well de-optimized and contained more non-optimal codons than FibHsp. Synonymous mutations in GP64sp sufficiently increased its average codon usage frequency and resulted in dramatic reduction of the activity and secretion of luciferase. Protein degradation inhibition assay with MG-132 showed that higher codon usage frequency in the signal sequence increased the production as well as the degradation of luciferase protein, indicating that the synonymous codon substitutions in the signal sequence caused misfolding of luciferase instead of slowing down the protein production. Meanwhile, we found that introduction of more non-optimal codons into FibHsp could increase the production and secretion levels of luciferase, which suggested a new strategy to improve the production of secretory proteins in insect cells. PMID:26697848

  4. Hypoxia inhibits Moloney murine leukemia virus expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Maura; Bosco, Maria Carla; Federico, Maurizio; Pastorino, Sandra; Varesio, Luigi

    2007-02-01

    Hypoxia, a local decrease in oxygen tension, occurring in many pathological processes, modifies macrophage (Mphi) gene expression and function. Here, we provide the first evidence that hypoxia inhibits transgene expression driven by the Moloney murine leukemia virus-long terminal repeats (MoMLV-LTR) in IFN-gamma-activated Mphi. Hypoxia silenced the expression of several MoMLV-LTR-driven genes, including v-myc, enhanced green fluorescence protein, and env, and was effective in different mouse Mphi cell lines and on distinct MoMLV backbone-based viruses. Down-regulation of MoMLV mRNA occurred at the transcriptional level and was associated with decreased retrovirus production, as determined by titration experiments, suggesting that hypoxia may control MoMLV retroviral spread through the suppression of LTR activity. In contrast, genes driven by the CMV or the SV40 promoter were up-regulated or unchanged by hypoxia, indicating a selective inhibitory activity on the MoMLV promoter. It is interesting that hypoxia was ineffective in suppressing MoMLV-LTR-controlled gene expression in T or fibroblast cell lines, suggesting a Mphi lineage-selective action. Finally, we found that MoMLV-mediated gene expression in Mphi was also inhibited by picolinic acid, a tryptophan catabolite with hypoxia-like activity and Mphi-activating properties, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this molecule in viral resistance and its possible use as an antiviral agent.

  5. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  6. MiR-99a Antitumor Activity in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Targeting of mTOR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Zhu, Qin; Tang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in human tumorigenesis as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. miR-99a has been reported as a tumor suppressor gene in various cancers in humans. However, only limited information about the function of miR-99a in human breast cancers is available. Here we investigated the expression of miR-99a in breast cancer tissue specimens and its antitumor activity in breast cancer cells. We initially identified that the expression of miR-99a was significantly reduced in four breast cancer cell lines. More importantly, we found downregulation of miR-99a in breast cancer specimens from ten different patients. We then analyzed the mechanism of miR-99a in inhibiting tumorigenesis. Cell-based assays that showed overexpression of miR-99a not only reduced breast cancer cell viability by inducing accumulation of cells at sub-G1 phase and cell apoptosis, but also inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo. As a critical miR-99a target, we have shown that the function of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was greatly inhibited by miR-99a-based Luciferase report assay; overexpression of miR-99a reduced the expression of mTOR and its downstream phosphorylated proteins (p-4E-BP1 and p-S6K1). Similar to restoring miR-99a expression, mTOR downregulation suppressed cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, whereas restoration of mTOR expression significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-99a on the mTOR/p-4E-BP1/p-S6K1 signal pathway and the miR-99a antitumor activity. In clinical specimens and cell lines, mTOR was commonly overexpressed and its protein levels were statistically inversely correlated with miR-99a expression. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that miR-99a antitumor activity is achieved by targeting the mTOR/p-4E-BP1/p-S6K1 pathway in human breast cancer cells. This study suggests a potential therapeutic strategy to effectively control breast cancer development. PMID:24637915

  7. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  8. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production.

  9. Patterned electrical activity modulates sodium channel expression in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joshua P; Tendi, Elisabetta A; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Fields, R Douglas; Waxman, Stephen G

    2003-10-15

    Peripheral nerve injury induces changes in the level of gene expression for sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability, ectopic neuronal discharge, and neuropathic pain. The mechanism of this change in sodium channel expression is unclear. Decreased availability of neurotrophic factors following axotomy contributes to these changes in gene transcription, but the question of whether changes in intrinsic neuronal activity levels alone can trigger changes in the expression of these sodium channels has not been addressed. We examined the effect of electrical stimulation on the expression of Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 by using cultured embryonic mouse sensory neurons under conditions in which nerve growth factor (NGF) was not limiting. Expression of Nav1.3 was not significantly changed following stimulation. In contrast, we observed activity-dependent down-regulation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA and protein levels after stimulation, as demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. These results show that a change in neuronal activity can alter the expression of sodium channel genes in a subtype-specific manner, via a mechanism independent of NGF withdrawal. PMID:14515348

  10. Proposed ionic bond between Arg300 and Glu270 and Glu271 are not involved in inactivation of a mutant firefly luciferase (LRR).

    PubMed

    Sobhani-Damavandifar, Zahra; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Sajedi, Reza H

    2016-05-01

    The weakness of firefly luciferase is its rapid inactivation. Many studies have been done to develop thermostable luciferases. One of these modifications was LRR mutant in which the Leu300 was substituted with Arg in the E(354)RR(356)Lampyris turkestanicus luciferase as template. LRR was more thermostable than the wild type but with only 0.02% activity. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to change the proposed ionic bond between the Arg and two neighboring residues (Glu270 and Glu271), to understand if the induced interactions were responsible for inactivation in LRR. Our results showed that substitution of Glu270 and 271 with Ala removed the interactions but the activity of enzyme did not return. The E270A mutant was more active than LRR but the E271A and E270A/E271A mutants were inactive. Fluorescence and CD measurements showed that these mutations were accompanied by conformational changes. Extrinsic fluorescence measurement and obtained quenching data by KI and acrylamide also confirmed that the mutants were less compact than the LRR enzyme. In conclusion, in LRR, the interactions between Arg300 and Glu270 and Glu271 were not responsible for the enzyme inactivation and it is proposed that the enzyme inactivation is due to conformational changes of LRR mutant of firefly luciferase. PMID:26992788

  11. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takako; Ikeda, Masaaki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc) and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR), respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that this co

  12. Luciferase labeling for multipotent stromal cell tracking in spinal fusion versus ectopic bone tissue engineering in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Geuze, Ruth E; Prins, Henk-Jan; Öner, F Cumhur; van der Helm, Yvonne J M; Schuijff, Leontine S; Martens, Anton C; Kruyt, Moyo C; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J A

    2010-11-01

    Tissue engineering of bone, by combining multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) with osteoconductive scaffolds, has not yet yielded any clinically useful applications so far. The fate and contribution of the seeded cells are not sufficiently clarified, especially at clinically relevant locations. Therefore, we investigated cell proliferation around the spine and at ectopic sites using noninvasive in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) in relation to new bone formation. Goat MSCs were lentivirally transduced to express luciferase. After showing both correlation between MSC viability and BLI signal as well as survival and osteogenic capacity of these cells ectopically in mice, they were seeded on ceramic scaffolds and implanted in immunodeficient rats at two levels in the spine for spinal fusion as well as subcutaneously. Nontransduced MSCs were used as a control group. All rats were monitored at day 1 and after that weekly until termination at week 7. In mice a BLI signal was observed during the whole observation period, indicating survival of the seeded MSCs, which was accompanied by osteogenic differentiation in vivo. However, these same MSCs showed a different response in the rat model, where the BLI signal was present until day 14, both in the spine and ectopically, indicating that MSCs were able to survive at least 2 weeks of implantation. Only when the signal was still present after the total implantation period ectopically, which only occurred in one rat, new bone was formed extensively and the implanted MSCs were responsible for this bone formation. Ectopically, neither a reduced proliferative group (irradiated) nor a group in which the cells were devitalized by liquid nitrogen and the produced extracellular matrix remained (matrix group) resulted in bone formation. This suggests that the release of soluble factors or the presence of an extracellular matrix is not enough to induce bone formation. For the spinal location, the question remains whether the implanted

  13. A minimal cytomegalovirus intron A variant can improve transgene expression in different mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quilici, L S; Silva-Pereira, I; Andrade, A C; Albuquerque, F C; Brigido, M M; Maranhão, A Q

    2013-01-01

    The expression enhancement by cytomegalovirus promoter and different intron A (IA) variants were evaluated in CHO-K1, HepG2, HEK-293 and COS-7 cells by assessing the levels of luciferase activity. This data along with mRNA levels measurement indicated that the construct harboring an IA variant with a 200-nucleotide deletion (Δ200) had the greatest impact on increasing luciferase expression among all constructs evaluated. Based on these results, we redesigned pCMV-IA variants and cloned them into plasmids expressing a humanized antibody. These plasmids were then used to transfect CHO-K1 cells. Production of the antibody was not augmented with the Δ200 promoter variant. The 600-nucleotide deletion (Δ600) and whole IA promoter variants expressed similar levels of the recombinant protein. These data indicate that the IA-based enhanced expression of transgenes depends on a small region within the intron.

  14. Searching for biomarkers: humoral response profiling with luciferase immunoprecipitation systems.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Bren, Kathleen E; Iadarola, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    B-cell-mediated humoral responses are triggered in many human diseases, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and neurologic and infectious diseases. However, the full exploitation of the information contained within a patient's antibody repertoire for diagnosis, monitoring and even disease prediction has been limited due to the poor diagnostic performance of many immunoassay formats. We have developed luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) that harnesses light-emitting proteins to generate high-definition antibody profiles that are optimal for both diagnostics and biomarker discovery. Here, we describe the results and implications from a range of LIPS-antibody profiling studies performed in our laboratory. These include highly sensitive diagnostics for domestic and global pathogens, insights into infection-related diseases, discovery of new biomarkers for human diseases, subcategorization of symptoms and identification of pathogenic autoantibodies against self-proteins. These investigations highlight the types of humoral response profiles associated with different diseases, provide new information related to disease pathogenesis and offer a framework for incorporating LIPS antibody profiling into global health initiatives and disease monitoring. PMID:21679112

  15. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor-Dependent Activation of mTORC1/Pax6 Signaling Drives Tbr2 Expression and Basal Progenitor Expansion in the Developing Mouse Cortex.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Aguado, Tania; de Salas-Quiroga, Adán; Ortega, Zaira; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2015-09-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor regulates cortical progenitor proliferation during embryonic development, but the molecular mechanism of this action remains unknown. Here, we report that CB1-deficient mouse embryos show premature cell cycle exit, decreased Pax6- and Tbr2-positive cell number, and reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation in the ventricular and subventricular cortical zones. Pharmacological stimulation of the CB1 receptor in cortical slices and progenitor cell cultures activated the mTORC1 pathway and increased the number of Pax6- and Tbr2-expressing cells. Likewise, acute CB1 knockdown in utero reduced mTORC1 activation and cannabinoid-induced Tbr2-positive cell generation. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the CB1 receptor drives Tbr2 expression downstream of Pax6 induction in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the CB1 receptor tunes dorsal telencephalic progenitor proliferation by sustaining the transcriptional activity of the Pax6-Tbr2 axis via the mTORC1 pathway, and suggest that alterations of CB1 receptor signaling, by producing the missexpression of progenitor identity determinants may contribute to neurodevelopmental alterations.

  16. In vivo import of firefly luciferase into the glycosomes of Trypanosoma brucei and mutational analysis of the C-terminal targeting signal.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, J M; Cheng, Q L; Keller, G A; Wang, C C

    1992-01-01

    The compartmentalization of glycolytic enzymes into specialized organelles, the glycosomes, allows the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei to rely solely on glycolysis for its energy production. The biogenesis of glycosomes in these parasites has been studied intensively as a potential target for chemotherapy. We have adapted the recently developed methods for stable transformation of T. brucei to the in vivo analysis of glycosomal protein import. Firefly luciferase, a peroxisomal protein in the lantern of the insect, was expressed in stable transformants of the procyclic form of T. brucei, where it was found to accumulate inside the glycosomes. Mutational analysis of the peroxisomal targeting signal serine-lysine-leucine (SKL) located at the C-terminus of luciferase showed that replacement of the serine residue (Serine548) with a small neutral amino acid (A, C, G, H, N, P, T) still resulted in an import efficiency of 50-100% of the wild-type luciferase. Lysine549 could be substituted with an amino acid capable of hydrogen bonding (H, M, N, Q, R, S), whereas the C-terminal leucine550 could be replaced with a subset of hydrophobic amino acids (I, M, Y). Thus, a peroxisome-like C-terminal SKL-dependent targeting mechanism may function in T. brucei to import luciferase into the glycosomes. However, a few significant differences exist between the glycosomal targeting signals identified here and the tripeptide sequences that direct proteins to mammalian or yeast peroxisomes. Images PMID:1515676

  17. Energy Restriction-mimetic Agents Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells in Part through Epigenetic Activation of KLF6 Tumor Suppressor Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Han; Huang, Po-Hsien; Chu, Po-Chen; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Chou, Chih-Chien; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Teng, Che-Ming; Wang, Qianben; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Although energy restriction has been recognized as an important target for cancer prevention, the mechanism by which energy restriction-mimetic agents (ERMAs) mediate apoptosis remains unclear. By using a novel thiazolidinedione-derived ERMA, CG-12 (Wei, S., Kulp, S. K., and Chen, C. S. (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 9780–9791), vis-à-vis 2-deoxyglucose and glucose deprivation, we obtain evidence that epigenetic activation of the tumor suppressor gene Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) plays a role in ERMA-induced apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. KLF6 regulates the expression of many proapoptotic genes, and shRNA-mediated KLF6 knockdown abrogated the ability of ERMAs to induce apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that this KLF6 transcriptional activation was associated with increased histone H3 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation occupancy at the promoter region. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the enhancing effect of ERMAs on these active histone marks was mediated through transcriptional repression of histone deacetylases and H3 lysine 4 demethylases by down-regulating Sp1 expression. First, putative Sp1-binding elements are present in the promoters of the affected histone-modifying enzymes, and luciferase reporter assays indicate that site-directed mutagenesis of these Sp1 binding sites significantly diminished the promoter activities. Second, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Sp1 mimicked the repressive effect of energy restriction on these histone-modifying enzymes. Third, ectopic Sp1 expression protected cells from the repressive effect of CG-12 on these histone-modifying enzymes, thereby abolishing the activation of KLF6 expression. Together, these findings underscore the intricate relationship between energy restriction and epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor gene expression, which has therapeutic relevance to foster novel strategies for prostate cancer therapy. PMID:21282102

  18. Transforming growth factor β signaling upregulates the expression of human GDP-fucose transporter by activating transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ma, Anna; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no information is available regarding its transcriptional regulation. Here, by using human cells, we show that TGF-β1 specifically induces the GDP-fucose transporter expression, but not other transporters tested such as CMP-sialic acid transporter, suggesting a diversity of regulatory pathways for the expression of these transporters. The regulatory elements that are responsive to the TGF-β1 stimulation are present in the region between bp -330 and -268 in the GDP-fucose transporter promoter. We found that this region contains two identical octamer GC-rich motifs (GGGGCGTG) that were demonstrated to be essential for the transporter expression. We also show that the transcription factor Sp1 specifically binds to the GC-rich motifs in vitro and Sp1 coupled with phospho-Smad2 is associated with the promoter region covering the Sp1-binding motifs in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, we further confirmed that Sp1 is essential for the GDP-fucose transporter expression stimulated by TGF-β1 using a luciferase reporter system. These results highlight the role of TGF-β signaling in regulation of the GDP-fucose transporter expression via activating Sp1. This is the first transcriptional study for any nucleotide sugar transporters that have been identified so far. Notably, TGF-β1 receptor itself is known to be modified by fucosylation. Given the essential role of GDP-fucose transporter in fucosylation, the finding that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of

  19. Activation of delta-globin gene expression by erythroid Krupple-like factor: a potential approach for gene therapy of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Donze, D; Jeancake, P H; Townes, T M

    1996-11-15

    Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2; alpha 2 delta 2) is a powerful inhibitor of HbS (alpha 2 beta 2(3)) polymerization. However, HbA2 levels are normally low in sickle cell patients. We show that a major reason for low delta-globin gene expression is the defective CACCC box at -90 in the delta-globin promoter. When the CACCC box defect in delta is corrected, expression of an HS2 delta /Luciferase reporter is equivalent to HS2 beta /Luciferase. Erythroid Krupple-like factor (EKLF), which binds to the CACCC box of the beta-globin gene and activates high-level expression, does not bind to the normal delta-globin promoter. Our goal is to design a modified EKLF that binds to the defective delta-globin promoter and enhances delta-globin gene expression. To test the feasibility of this strategy, we inserted the beta-globin CACCC box at -90 of the delta-globin gene promoter to produce an HS2 delta CAC-beta construct and quantitated human delta- and beta-globin mRNA in stably transformed murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. delta- Globin mRNA in these cells was 22.0% +/- 9.0% of total human globin mRNA (delta/delta + beta) as compared with 3.0% +/- 1.3% in the HS2 delta-beta control. In a second set of experiments a GAL4 DNA-binding site was inserted at -90 of the delta-globin gene to produce an HS2 delta GAL4-beta construct. This construct and a GAL4(1-147)/EKLF expression vector were stably transfected into MEL cells. delta-Globin mRNA in these cells was 27.8% +/- 7.1% of total human globin mRNA as compared with 9.9% +/- 2.5% in the HS2 delta GAL4-beta plus GAL4(1-147) control. These results show that delta-globin gene expression can be significantly increased by a modified EKLF. Based on these results, we suggest that modified EKLFs, which contain zinc fingers designed to bind specifically to the defective delta-globin CACCC box, may be useful in gene therapy approaches to increase HbA2 levels and inhibit HbS polymerization.

  20. PPAR-β/δ activation promotes phospholipid transfer protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chehaibi, Khouloud; Cedó, Lídia; Metso, Jari; Palomer, Xavier; Santos, David; Quesada, Helena; Naceur Slimane, Mohamed; Wahli, Walter; Julve, Josep; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2015-03-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-β/δ has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating dyslipidemia, including beneficial effects on HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). In the current study, we determined the effects of the PPAR-β/δ agonist GW0742 on HDL composition and the expression of liver HDL-related genes in mice and cultured human cells. The experiments were carried out in C57BL/6 wild-type, LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice and PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice treated with GW0742 (10mg/kg/day) or a vehicle solution for 14 days. GW0742 upregulated liver phospholipid transfer protein (Pltp) gene expression and increased serum PLTP activity in mice. When given to wild-type mice, GW0742 significantly increased serum HDL-C and HDL phospholipids; GW0742 also raised serum potential to generate preβ-HDL formation. The GW0742-mediated effects on liver Pltp expression and serum enzyme activity were completely abolished in PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice. GW0742 also stimulated PLTP mRNA expression in mouse J774 macrophages, differentiated human THP-1 macrophages and human hepatoma Huh7. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a common transcriptional upregulation by GW0742-activated PPAR-β/δ of Pltp expression in cultured cells and in mouse liver resulting in enhanced serum PLTP activity. Our results also indicate that PPAR-β/δ activation may modulate PLTP-mediated preβ-HDL formation and macrophage cholesterol efflux.

  1. The structural origin and biological function of pH-sensitivity in firefly luciferases.

    PubMed

    Viviani, V R; Arnoldi, F G C; Neto, A J S; Oehlmeyer, T L; Bechara, E J H; Ohmiya, Y

    2008-02-01

    Firefly luciferases are called pH-sensitive because their bioluminescence spectra display a typical red-shift at acidic pH, higher temperatures, and in the presence of heavy metal cations, whereas other beetle luciferases (click beetles and railroadworms) do not, and for this reason they are called pH-insensitive. Despite many studies on firefly luciferases, the origin of pH-sensitivity is far from being understood. This subject is revised in view of recent results. Some substitutions of amino-acid residues influencing pH-sensitivity in firefly luciferases have been identified. Sequence comparison, site-directed mutagenesis and modeling studies have shown a set of residues differing between pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive luciferases which affect bioluminescence colors. Some substitutions dramatically affecting bioluminescence colors in both groups of luciferases are clustered in the loop between residues 223-235 (Photinus pyralis sequence). A network of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges involving the residues N229-S284-E311-R337 was found to be important for affecting bioluminescence colors. It is suggested that these structural elements may affect the benzothiazolyl side of the luciferin-binding site affecting bioluminescence colors. Experimental evidence suggest that the residual red light emission in pH-sensitive luciferases could be a vestige that may have biological importance in some firefly species. Furthermore, the potential utility of pH-sensitivity for intracellular biosensing applications is considered.

  2. The effects of gratitude expression on neural activity.

    PubMed

    Kini, Prathik; Wong, Joel; McInnis, Sydney; Gabana, Nicole; Brown, Joshua W

    2016-03-01

    Gratitude is a common aspect of social interaction, yet relatively little is known about the neural bases of gratitude expression, nor how gratitude expression may lead to longer-term effects on brain activity. To address these twin issues, we recruited subjects who coincidentally were entering psychotherapy for depression and/or anxiety. One group participated in a gratitude writing intervention, which required them to write letters expressing gratitude. The therapy-as-usual control group did not perform a writing intervention. After three months, subjects performed a "Pay It Forward" task in the fMRI scanner. In the task, subjects were repeatedly endowed with a monetary gift and then asked to pass it on to a charitable cause to the extent they felt grateful for the gift. Operationalizing gratitude as monetary gifts allowed us to engage the subjects and quantify the gratitude expression for subsequent analyses. We measured brain activity and found regions where activity correlated with self-reported gratitude experience during the task, even including related constructs such as guilt motivation and desire to help as statistical controls. These were mostly distinct from brain regions activated by empathy or theory of mind. Also, our between groups cross-sectional study found that a simple gratitude writing intervention was associated with significantly greater and lasting neural sensitivity to gratitude - subjects who participated in gratitude letter writing showed both behavioral increases in gratitude and significantly greater neural modulation by gratitude in the medial prefrontal cortex three months later.

  3. Freestyle Writing: A Three-Phase Expressive Writing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macciomei, Nancy R.

    1992-01-01

    A teacher describes use of a three-phase freestyle writing activity to encourage students with disabilities to develop independent expressive written language. Students develop their skills by writing for brief periods, first whatever comes to mind, then a self-selected topic, and subsequently a teacher-selected topic. (DB)

  4. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Suppresses Inflammation-Induced Expression of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 by Blocking Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunzi; Kong, Juan; Sun, Tao; Li, George; Szeto, Frances L.; Liu, Weicheng; Deb, Dilip K.; Wang, Youli; Zhao, Qun; Thadhani, Ravi; Li, Yan Chun

    2011-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is a major fibrinolytic inhibitor. High PAI-1 is associated with increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk. Previous studies demonstrated PAI-1 down-regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that exposure of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to TNFα or LPS led to a marked induction of PAI-1, which was blunted by 1,25(OH)2D3, NF-κB inhibitor or p65 siRNA, suggesting the involvement of NF-κB in 1,25(OH)2D3-induced repression. In mouse Pai-1 promoter a putative cis-κB element was identified at −299. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that TNF-α increased p65/p50 binding to this κB site, which was disrupted by 1,25(OH)2D3. Luciferase reporter assays showed that PAI-1 promoter activity was induced by TNFα or LPS, and the induction was blocked by 1,25(OH)2D3. Mutation of the κB site blunted TNFα, LPS or 1,25(OH)2D3 effects. 1,25(OH)2D3 blocked IκBα degradation and arrested p50/p65 nuclear translocation. In mice LPS stimulated PAI-1 expression in the heart and macrophages, and the stimulation was blunted by pre-treatment with a vitamin D analog. Together these data demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 down-regulates PAI-1 by blocking NF-κB activation. Inhibition of PAI-1 production may contribute to the reno- and cardio-protective effects of vitamin D. PMID:21176770

  5. Development and Characterization of a Human Reporter Cell Line for the Assessment of Thyroid Receptor Transcriptional Activity: A Case of Organotin Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Illés, Peter; Brtko, Július; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2015-08-12

    We developed and characterized the human luciferase reporter cell line PZ-TR for the assessment of thyroid receptor (TR) transcriptional activity. Triiodothyronine (T3) induced luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the sensitivity of assay allowed for the detection of nanomolar T3 concentrations. The luciferase activity was induced by a maximum of (2.42 ± 0.14)-(2.73 ± 0.23)-fold after 24 h of exposure to 10 nM T3. We did not observe a nonspecific induction of luciferase activity by other steroid hormones and VDR ligands, with the exception of partial activation by retinoic acids. Cryopreservation of PZ-TR cells did not influence their functionality, responsivity to T3, or cell morphology, even after long-term cultivation. PZ-TR cells were used to evaluate the effects of organic tin compounds on TR. We found that the tributyltin and triphenyltin derivatives induced luciferase activity and that application of organotins in combination with T3 enhanced the effect of T3. These findings indicate that organic tin compounds have potential to interfere with TR-mediated regulation of gene expression and influence the physiological activity of thyroid hormones. PMID:26208032

  6. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiang-zhou; He, Long-gang; Wang, Song; Wang, Keng; Zhang, Yue-yang; Tao, Lei; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. Methods: The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. PMID:26592521

  7. [Comparison of expression and antibacterial activities of recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in four Lactobacillus species].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Wu, Xiao; He, Jia; Qiao, Xinyuan; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2014-09-01

    The coding sequence for the mature peptide of porcine lactoferrin (Plf) was synthesized according to the codon usage of lactobacillus, to establish optimized porcine lactoferrin Lactobacillus expression system. The gene was ligated into the Xho I/BamH I site of Lactobacillus expression vector pPG612.1 and the recombinant plasmid pPG612.1-plf was transformed individually into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS1.0413, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 or Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS1.0652 by electroporation. After induction with xylose, expression of the recombinant proteins was detected by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of recombinant Plf proteins from four recombinant species was determined quantitatively by ELISA. The antibacterial activities of recombinant proteins were measured by agar diffusion method. The result shows that Plf was correctly expressed in four species of recombinant lactobacillus, with molecular weight of about 73 kDa. The expression levels in recombinant Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei were 9.6 μg/mL, 10.8 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial activity experiment shows that the recombinant proteins were active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria, Pasteurella. The recombinant Plf expressed by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum showed the best antibacterial activity among all recombinant lactobacillus species. These data represent a basis for the development and application of porcine lactoferrin from recombinant lactobacillus.

  8. Up-Regulation of CYP2C19 Expression by BuChang NaoXinTong via PXR Activation in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Huan; Qu, Qiang; Tan, Shen-Lan; Ruan, Jun-Shan; Qu, Jian; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME), which is responsible for the biotransformation of several kinds of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors, platelet aggregation inhibitors and antidepressants. Previous studies showed that Buchang NaoXinTong capsules (NXT) increased the CYP2C19 metabolic activity in vitro and enhanced the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study, we examined whether Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a role in NXT-mediated regulation of CYP2C19 expression. Methods We applied luciferase assays, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting and cell-based analysis of metabolic activity experiments to investigate the NXT regulatory effects on the CYP2C19 promoter activity, the mRNA/ protein expression and the metabolic activity. Results Our results demonstrated that NXT significantly increased the CYP2C19 promoter activity when co-transfected with PXR in HepG2 cells. Mutations in PXR responsive element abolished the NXT inductive effects on the CYP2C19 promoter transcription. Additionally, NXT incubation (150 and 250μg/mL) also markedly up-regulated endogenous CYP2C19 mRNA and protein levels in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. Correspondingly, NXT leaded to a significant enhancement of the CYP2C19 catalytic activity in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to suggest that NXT could induce CYP2C19 expression via PXR activation. PMID:27467078

  9. Glucocorticoid receptor-induced MAPK phosphatase-1 (MPK-1) expression inhibits paclitaxel-associated MAPK activation and contributes to breast cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Pew, Travis; Zou, Min; Pang, Diana; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2005-02-11

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation has recently been shown to inhibit apoptosis in breast epithelial cells. We have previously described a group of genes that is rapidly up-regulated in these cells following dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. In an effort to dissect the mechanisms of GR-mediated breast epithelial cell survival, we now examine the molecular events downstream of GR activation. Here we show that GR activation leads to both the rapid induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) mRNA and its sustained expression. Induction of the MKP-1 protein in the MCF10A-Myc and MDA-MB-231 breast epithelial cell lines was also seen. Paclitaxel treatment resulted in MAPK activation and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and both processes were inhibited by Dex pretreatment. Furthermore, induction of MKP-1 correlated with the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, whereas p38 activity was minimally affected. Blocking Dex-induced MKP-1 induction using small interfering RNA increased ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation and decreased cell survival. ERK1/2 and JNK inactivation was associated with Ets-like transcription factor-1 (ELK-1) dephosphorylation. To explore the gene expression changes that occur downstream of ELK-1 dephosphorylation, we used a combination of temporal gene expression data and promoter element analyses. This approach revealed a previously unrecognized transcriptional target of ELK-1, the human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We verified the predicted ELK-1--> tPA transcriptional regulatory relationship using a luciferase reporter assay. We conclude that GR-mediated MAPK inactivation contributes to cell survival and that the potential transcriptional targets of this inhibition can be identified from large scale gene array analysis.

  10. Using β-Lactamase and NanoLuc Luciferase Reporter Gene Assays to Identify Inhibitors of the HIF-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Khuc, Thai; Hsu, Chia-Wen Amy; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor involved in the regulation of oxygen within cellular environments. In hypoxic tissues or those with inadequate oxygen concentrations, activation of the HIF-1 transcription factor allows for subsequent activation of target gene expression implicated in cell survival. As a result, cells proliferate through formation of new blood vessels and expansion of vascular systems, providing necessary nourishment needed of cells. HIF-1 is also involved in the complex pathophysiology associated with cancer cells. Solid tumors are able to thrive in hypoxic environments by overactivating these target genes in order to grow and metastasize. Therefore, it is of high importance to identify modulators of the HIF-1 signaling pathway for possible development of anticancer drugs and to better understand how environmental chemicals cause cancer. Using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach, we are able to screen large chemical libraries to profile potential small molecule modulators of the HIF-1 signaling pathway in a 1536-well format. This chapter describes two orthogonal cell based assays; one utilizing a β-lactamase reporter gene incorporated into human ME-180 cervical cancer cells, and the other using a NanoLuc luciferase reporter system in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell viability assays for each cell line are also conducted respectively. The data from this screening platform can be used as a gateway to study mode of action (MOA) of selected compounds and drug classes. PMID:27518620

  11. Using β-Lactamase and NanoLuc Luciferase Reporter Gene Assays to Identify Inhibitors of the HIF-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Khuc, Thai; Hsu, Chia-Wen Amy; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor involved in the regulation of oxygen within cellular environments. In hypoxic tissues or those with inadequate oxygen concentrations, activation of the HIF-1 transcription factor allows for subsequent activation of target gene expression implicated in cell survival. As a result, cells proliferate through formation of new blood vessels and expansion of vascular systems, providing necessary nourishment needed of cells. HIF-1 is also involved in the complex pathophysiology associated with cancer cells. Solid tumors are able to thrive in hypoxic environments by overactivating these target genes in order to grow and metastasize. Therefore, it is of high importance to identify modulators of the HIF-1 signaling pathway for possible development of anticancer drugs and to better understand how environmental chemicals cause cancer. Using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach, we are able to screen large chemical libraries to profile potential small molecule modulators of the HIF-1 signaling pathway in a 1536-well format. This chapter describes two orthogonal cell based assays; one utilizing a β-lactamase reporter gene incorporated into human ME-180 cervical cancer cells, and the other using a NanoLuc luciferase reporter system in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell viability assays for each cell line are also conducted respectively. The data from this screening platform can be used as a gateway to study mode of action (MOA) of selected compounds and drug classes.

  12. High-Throughput Luciferase-Based Assay for the Discovery of Therapeutics That Prevent Malaria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify the most attractive starting points for drugs that can be used to prevent malaria, a diverse chemical space comprising tens of thousands to millions of small molecules may need to be examined. Achieving this throughput necessitates the development of efficient ultra-high-throughput screening methods. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a luciferase-based phenotypic screen of malaria exoerythrocytic-stage parasites optimized for a 1536-well format. This assay uses the exoerythrocytic stage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, and a human hepatoma cell line. We use this assay to evaluate several biased and unbiased compound libraries, including two small sets of molecules (400 and 89 compounds, respectively) with known activity against malaria erythrocytic-stage parasites and a set of 9886 diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS)-derived compounds. Of the compounds screened, we obtain hit rates of 12–13 and 0.6% in preselected and naïve libraries, respectively, and identify 52 compounds with exoerythrocytic-stage activity less than 1 μM and having minimal host cell toxicity. Our data demonstrate the ability of this method to identify compounds known to have causal prophylactic activity in both human and animal models of malaria, as well as novel compounds, including some exclusively active against parasite exoerythrocytic stages. PMID:27275010

  13. LAG3 Expression in Active Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Bonnie L.; Mehra, Smriti; Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Selman, Moises; Khader, Shabaana A.; Kaushal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a highly successful pathogen because of its ability to persist in human lungs for long periods of time. MTB modulates several aspects of the host immune response. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a protein with a high affinity for the CD4 receptor and is expressed mainly by regulatory T cells with immunomodulatory functions. To understand the function of LAG3 during MTB infection, a nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis, which recapitulates key aspects of natural human infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), was used. We show that the expression of LAG3 is highly induced in the lungs and particularly in the granulomatous lesions of macaques experimentally infected with MTB. Furthermore, we show that LAG3 expression is not induced in the lungs and lung granulomas of animals exhibiting latent tuberculosis infection. However, simian immunodeficiency virus–induced reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection results in an increased expression of LAG3 in the lungs. This response is not observed in nonhuman primates infected with non-MTB bacterial pathogens, nor with simian immunodeficiency virus alone. Our data show that LAG3 was expressed primarily on CD4+ T cells, presumably by regulatory T cells but also by natural killer cells. The expression of LAG3 coincides with high bacterial burdens and changes in the host type 1 helper T-cell response. PMID:25549835

  14. LAG3 expression in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bonnie L; Mehra, Smriti; Ahsan, Muhammad H; Selman, Moises; Khader, Shabaana A; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a highly successful pathogen because of its ability to persist in human lungs for long periods of time. MTB modulates several aspects of the host immune response. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) is a protein with a high affinity for the CD4 receptor and is expressed mainly by regulatory T cells with immunomodulatory functions. To understand the function of LAG3 during MTB infection, a nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis, which recapitulates key aspects of natural human infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), was used. We show that the expression of LAG3 is highly induced in the lungs and particularly in the granulomatous lesions of macaques experimentally infected with MTB. Furthermore, we show that LAG3 expression is not induced in the lungs and lung granulomas of animals exhibiting latent tuberculosis infection. However, simian immunodeficiency virus-induced reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection results in an increased expression of LAG3 in the lungs. This response is not observed in nonhuman primates infected with non-MTB bacterial pathogens, nor with simian immunodeficiency virus alone. Our data show that LAG3 was expressed primarily on CD4(+) T cells, presumably by regulatory T cells but also by natural killer cells. The expression of LAG3 coincides with high bacterial burdens and changes in the host type 1 helper T-cell response.

  15. Erythropoietin-mediated expression of placenta growth factor is regulated via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and post-transcriptionally by miR-214 in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Caryn S; Li, Chen; Mpollo, Marthe-Sandrine Eiymo Mwa; Pullarkat, Vinod; Malik, Punam; Tahara, Stanley M; Kalra, Vijay K

    2015-06-15

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) plays an important role in various pathological conditions and diseases such as inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis and sickle cell disease (SCD). Abnormally high PlGF levels in SCD patients are associated with increased inflammation and pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and reactive airway disease; however, the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating PlGF expression are not well defined. Herein, we show that treatment of human erythroid cells and colony forming units with erythropoietin (EPO) increased PlGF expression. Our studies showed EPO-mediated activation of HIF-1α led to subsequent binding of HIF-1α to hypoxia response elements (HREs) within the PlGF promoter, as demonstrated by luciferase transcription reporter assays and ChIP analysis of the endogenous gene. Additionally, we showed miR-214 post-transcriptionally regulated the expression of PlGF as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assays using wild-type (wt) and mutant PlGF-3'-UTR constructs. Furthermore, synthesis of miR-214, located in an intron of DNM3 (dynamin 3), was transcriptionally regulated by transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). These results were corroborated in vivo wherein plasma from SCD patients and lung tissues from sickle mice showed an inverse correlation between PlGF and miR-214 levels. Finally, we observed that miR-214 expression could be induced by fenofibrate, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved PPARα agonist, thus revealing a potential therapeutic approach for reduction in PlGF levels by increasing miR-214 transcription. This strategy has potential clinical implications for several pathological conditions including SCD.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum transfected with ultra bright NanoLuc luciferase offers high sensitivity detection for the screening of growth and cellular trafficking inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mauro F; Nie, Catherine Q; Elsworth, Brendan; Charnaud, Sarah C; Sanders, Paul R; Crabb, Brendan S; Gilson, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Drug discovery is a key part of malaria control and eradication strategies, and could benefit from sensitive and affordable assays to quantify parasite growth and to help identify the targets of potential anti-malarial compounds. Bioluminescence, achieved through expression of exogenous luciferases, is a powerful tool that has been applied in studies of several aspects of parasite biology and high throughput growth assays. We have expressed the new reporter NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase in Plasmodium falciparum and showed it is at least 100 times brighter than the commonly used firefly luciferase. Nluc brightness was explored as a means to achieve a growth assay with higher sensitivity and lower cost. In addition we attempted to develop other screening assays that may help interrogate libraries of inhibitory compounds for their mechanism of action. To this end parasites were engineered to express Nluc in the cytoplasm, the parasitophorous vacuole that surrounds the intraerythrocytic parasite or exported to the red blood cell cytosol. As proof-of-concept, these parasites were used to develop functional screening assays for quantifying the effects of Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of protein secretion, and Furosemide, an inhibitor of new permeation pathways used by parasites to acquire plasma nutrients. PMID:25392998

  17. EBV-Encoded LMP1 Upregulates Igκ 3′Enhancer Activity and Igκ Expression in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells by Activating the Ets-1 through ERKs Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Hu, Duosha; Li, Ming; Tao, Yongguang; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Cao, Ya

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial cancer cells, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, express immunoglobulins (Igs). We previously found that the expression of the kappa light chain protein in NPC cells can be upregulated by the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In the present study, we used NPC cell lines as models and found that LMP1-augmented kappa production corresponds with elevations in ERKs phosphorylation. PD98059 attenuates LMP1-induced ERKs phosphorylation resulting in decreased expression of the kappa light chain. ERK-specific small interfering RNA blunts LMP1-induced kappa light chain gene expression. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that immunoglobulin κ 3′ enhancer (3′Eκ) is active in Igκ-expressing NPC cells and LMP1 upregulates the activity of 3′Eκ in NPC cells. Moreover, mutation analysis of the PU binding site in 3′Eκ and inhibition of the MEK/ERKs pathway by PD98059 indicate that the PU site is functional and LMP1-enhanced 3′Eκ activity is partly regulated by this site. PD98059 treatment also leads to a concentration-dependent inhibition of LMP1-induced Ets-1 expression and phosphorylation, which corresponds with a dose-dependent attenuation of LMP1-induced ERK phosphorylation and kappa light chain expression. Suppression of endogenous Ets-1 by small interfering RNA is accompanied by a decrease of Ig kappa light chain expression. Gel shift assays using nuclear extracts of NPC cells indicate that the transcription factor Ets-1 is recruited by LMP1 to the PU motif within 3′Eκ in vitro. ChIP assays further demonstrate Ets-1 binding to the PU motif of 3′Eκ in cells. These results suggest that LMP1 upregulates 3′Eκ activity and kappa gene expression by activating the Ets-1 transcription factor through the ERKs signaling pathway. Our studies provide evidence for a novel regulatory mechanism of kappa expression, by which virus-encoded proteins activate the kappa 3′ enhancer through

  18. Melatonin modulates aromatase activity and expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-García, Virginia; González, Alicia; Martínez-Campa, Carlos; Alonso-González, Carolina; Cos, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    Melatonin is known to suppress the development of endocrine-responsive breast cancers by interacting with the estrogen signaling pathways. Paracrine interactions between malignant epithelial cells and proximal stromal cells are responsible for local estrogen biosynthesis. In human breast cancer cells and peritumoral adipose tissue, melatonin downregulates aromatase, which transforms androgens into estrogens. The presence of aromatase on endothelial cells indicates that endothelial cells may contribute to tumor growth by producing estrogens. Since human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) express both aromatase and melatonin receptors, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of melatonin to regulate the activity and expression of aromatase on endothelial cells, thus, modulating local estrogen biosynthesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that melatonin inhibits the growth of HUVECs and reduces the local biosynthesis of estrogens through the downregulation of aromatase. These results are supported by three lines of evidence. Firstly, 1 mM of melatonin counteracted the testosterone-induced cell proliferation of HUVECs, which is dependent on the local biosynthesis of estrogens from testosterone by the aromatase activity of the cells. Secondly, we found that 1 mM of melatonin reduced the aromatase activity of HUVECs. Finally, by real‑time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that melatonin significantly downregulated the expression of aromatase as well as its endothelial-specific aromatase promoter region I.7. We conclude that melatonin inhibits aromatase activity and expression in HUVECs by regulating gene expression of specific aromatase promoter regions, thereby reducing the local production of estrogens. PMID:23450505

  19. Dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Werner, John H; Lee, Donghoon; Sheppard, Aaron D; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to fatty liver disease. Our studies revealed that the hepatic circadian clock is disturbed in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, and effects of chronic alcohol administration upon the clock itself may contribute to steatosis. We extended these findings to explore the effects of chronic alcohol treatment on daily feeding and locomotor activity patterns. Mice were chronically pair-fed ad libitum for 4 weeks using the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, with calorie-controlled liquid and standard chow diets as control groups. Locomotor activity, feeding activity, and real-time bioluminescence recording of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression in tissue explants were measured. Mice on liquid control and chow diets exhibited normal profiles of locomotor activity, with a ratio of 22:78% day/night activity and a peak during early night. This pattern was dramatically altered in alcohol-fed mice, marked by a 49:51% ratio and the absence of a distinct peak. While chow-diet fed mice had a normal 24:76% ratio of feeding activity, with a peak in the early night, this pattern was dramatically altered in both liquid-diet groups: mice had a 43:57% ratio, and an absence of a distinct peak. Temporal differences were also observed between the two liquid-diet groups during late day. Cosinor analysis revealed a ∼4-h and ∼6-h shift in the alcohol-fed group feeding and locomotor activity rhythms, respectively. Analysis of hepatic PER2 expression revealed that the molecular clock in alcohol-fed and control liquid-diet mice was shifted by ∼11 h and ∼6 h, respectively. No differences were observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus explants, suggesting that changes in circadian phase in the liver were generated independently from the central clock. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption and a liquid diet can differentially modulate the daily rhythmicity of locomotor and feeding behaviors, aspects that might contribute to disturbances in the circadian

  20. Disturbance of firefly luciferase-based bioassays by different aluminum species.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Caroline; Sieg, Holger; Lampen, Alfonso; Braeuning, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Luciferase-dependent assays, important for biochemical analyses of cytotoxicity and reporter genes, may be perturbed by compounds interfering with the luciferase reaction. We analyzed the impact of different aluminum (Al) species on a luciferase-based assay for determination of cellular adenosine triphosphate. Al(0) nanoparticles (Al(0)-NPs) but not Al2O3-NPs decreased luminescence, correlated to high absorbance of Al(0)-NPs. By contrast, Al ions increased the luminescent signal. Data demonstrate that luciferase-dependent assays can be reciprocally disturbed by Al-NPs or Al ions in a specific manner, depending on the particular Al species. Careful interpretation of data from such experiments is essential in order to obtain conclusive results. PMID:27059752

  1. Prednisone inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 in HEI-OC1 murine auditory cells through the inhibition of ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hua; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2014-12-01

    Hearing loss can be induced by multiple causes, including cochlear inflammation. Prednisone (PDN) is a well-known steroid clinically used in the treatment of hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and the mechanisms of action of PDN on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an inflammatory enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins (PGs), in House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells (a murine auditory cell line) treated with the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β. The exposure of HEI-OC1 cells to IL-1β increased COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity and COX-2 enzymatic activity [as indicated by the increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite]. However, PDN markedly inhibited the IL-1β-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, COX-2 promoter activity and PGE2 production in the HEI-OC1 cells without affecting COX-2 protein and mRNA stability. PDN further inhibited the IL-1β-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-1, but had no effect on the cytokine-induced activation of p38 MAPK and proteolysis of IκB-α, a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitory protein. PDN also partially suppressed the IL-1β‑induced activation of activator protein (AP)-1 (but not that of NF-κB) promoter-driven luciferase activity. Of note, the inhibitory effects of PDN on the IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and the activation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1 in the HEI-OC1 cells were significantly diminished by RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, suggesting that PDN exerts its inhibitory effects through GR. To the best of our knowledge, our study demonstrates for the first time that PDN inhibits the IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression and activity in HEI-OC1 cells by COX-2 transcriptional repression, which is partly associated with the inhibition of ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and AP-1 activation.

  2. Activating frataxin expression by repeat-targeted nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Liande; Matsui, Masayuki; Corey, David R

    2016-02-04

    Friedreich's ataxia is an incurable genetic disorder caused by a mutant expansion of the trinucleotide GAA within an intronic FXN RNA. This expansion leads to reduced expression of frataxin (FXN) protein and evidence suggests that transcriptional repression is caused by an R-loop that forms between the expanded repeat RNA and complementary genomic DNA. Synthetic agents that increase levels of FXN protein might alleviate the disease. We demonstrate that introducing anti-GAA duplex RNAs or single-stranded locked nucleic acids into patient-derived cells increases FXN protein expression to levels similar to analogous wild-type cells. Our data are significant because synthetic nucleic acids that target GAA repeats can be lead compounds for restoring curative FXN levels. More broadly, our results demonstrate that interfering with R-loop formation can trigger gene activation and reveal a new strategy for upregulating gene expression.

  3. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  4. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate Type III Interferon expression from peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M.; Fiegen, Ann; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Type I Interferon (IFN) responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of Type I IFNs. The mechanisms controlling Type I IFN-independent responses are undefined. We have found that RIG-I like Receptors (RLRs) induce Type III IFN expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate Type I and III IFN expression. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site that initiates Type III IFN expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust Type III IFN responses in human cells. These findings highlight the interconnections between innate immunity and cell biology. PMID:24952503

  5. Activation of inflammatory responses in human U937 macrophages by particulate matter collected from dairy farms: an in vitro expression analysis of pro-inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to investigate activation of inflammatory markers in human macrophages derived from the U937 cell line after exposure to particulate matter (PM) collected on dairy farms in California and to identify the most potent components of the PM. Methods PM from different dairies were collected and tested to induce an inflammatory response determined by the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, such as Interleukin (IL)-8, in U937 derived macrophages. Gel shift and luciferase reporter assays were performed to examine the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4). Results Macrophage exposure to PM derived from dairy farms significantly activated expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including IL-8, cyclooxygenase 2 and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which are hallmarks of inflammation. Acute phase proteins, such as serum amyloid A and IL-6, were also significantly upregulated in macrophages treated with PM from dairies. Coarse PM fractions demonstrated more pro-inflammatory activity on an equal-dose basis than fine PM. Urban PM collected from the same region as the dairy farms was associated with a lower concentration of endotoxin and produced significantly less IL-8 expression compared to PM collected on the dairy farms. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that the endotoxin components of the particles collected on dairies play a major role in mediating an inflammatory response through activation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling. PMID:22452745

  6. TGF-β1 Upregulates the Expression of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1 in Murine Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Li; Zhou, Yong; Dong, Liang; Chen, Rui-Qi; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Tian; Ran, Wen-Zhuo; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) increases the expression of TGF-β family genes, which are known as profibrogenic cytokines in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we determined whether TGF-β1 regulated the expression of TREM-1 in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. The expression of TGF-β1 and TREM-1 was increased on day 7, 14, and 21 after single intratracheal injection of bleomycin (BLM). And there was positive correlation between the expression of TGF-β1 and TREM-1. TGF-β1 increased expression of TREM-1 mRNA and protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner in mouse macrophages. The expression of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) was increased in lung tissues from mouse after BLM injection and in mouse macrophages after TGF-β1 treatment, respectively. TGF-β1 significantly increased the relative activity of luciferase in the cells transfected with plasmid contenting wild type-promoter of TREM-1. But TGF-β1 had no effect on the activity of luciferase in the cells transfected with a mutant-TREM1 plasmid carrying mutations in the AP-1 promoter binding site. In conclusion, we found the expression of TREM-1 was increased in lung tissues from mice with pulmonary fibrosis. TGF-β1 increased the expression of TREM-1 in mouse macrophages partly via the transcription factor AP-1. PMID:26738569

  7. JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Ji; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Choi, Myung Sook; Son, Dong Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2008-01-01

    Background Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase family is implicated in the NF-κB activation and inflammatory reaction, we further investigated whether activation of MAP kinase may be also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of melittin and bee venom. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects of melittin and bee venom were investigated in cultured Raw 264.7 cells, THP-1 human monocytic cells and Synoviocytes. The activation of NF-κB was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined either by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay or by biochemical assay. Expression of IκB, p50, p65, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as phosphorylation of MAP kinase family was determined by Western blot. Results Melittin (0.5–5 μg/ml) and bee venom (5 and 10 μg/ml) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 μM)-induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose dependent manner. However, JNK inhibitor, anthra [1,9-cd]pyrazole-6 (2H)-one (SP600215, 10–50 μM) dose dependently suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on NF-κB dependent luciferase and DNA binding activity via suppression of the inhibitory effect of melittin and bee venom on the LPS and SNP-induced translocation of p65 and p50 into nucleus as well as cytosolic release of IκB. Moreover, JNK inhibitor suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on iNOS and COX-2 expression, and on NO and PGE2 generation. Conclusion These data show that melittin and bee

  8. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Liu, Hui-Ju; Wen, Che-Sheng; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER α protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER α protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  9. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  10. Ethynylestradiol increases expression and activity of rat liver MRP3.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María L; Villanueva, Silvina S M; Luquita, Marcelo G; Vore, Mary; Mottino, Aldo D; Catania, Viviana A

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of ethynylestradiol (EE) administration (5 mg/kg b.wt. s.c., for 5 consecutive days) on the expression and activity of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3) in rats. Western blotting analysis revealed decreased Mrp2 (-41%) and increased Mrp3 (+200%) expression by EE. To determine the functional impact of up-regulation of Mrp3 versus Mrp2, we measured the excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide (APAP-glu), a common substrate for both transporters, into bile and perfusate in the recirculating isolated perfused liver (IPL) model. APAP-glu was generated endogenously from acetaminophen (APAP), which was administered as a tracer dose (2 micromol/ml) into the perfusate. Biliary excretion of APAP-glu after 60 min of perfusion was reduced in EE-treated rats (-80%). In contrast, excretion into the perfusate was increased by EE (+45%). Liver content of APAP-glu at the end of the experiment was reduced by 36% in the EE group. The total amount of glucuronide remained the same in both groups. Taken together, these results indicate that up-regulation of Mrp3 led to an exacerbated basolateral versus canalicular excretion of conjugated APAP in IPL. We conclude that induced expression of basolateral Mrp3 by EE may represent a compensatory mechanism to prevent intracellular accumulation of common Mrp substrates, either endogenous or exogenous, due to reduced expression and activity of apical Mrp2. PMID:16554369

  11. Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Gaussia luciferase as readout

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic outbreaks causing fever, headache, rash and severe arthralgia. So far, no specific treatment or vaccine is available. As nucleic acid amplification can only be used during the viremic phase of the disease, serological tests like neutralization assays are necessary for CHIKV diagnosis and for determination of the immune status of a patient. Furthermore, neutralization assays represent a useful tool to validate the efficacy of potential vaccines. As CHIKV is a BSL3 agent, neutralization assays with infectious virus need to be performed under BSL3 conditions. Our aim was to develop a neutralization assay based on non-infectious virus replicon particles (VRPs). Methods VRPs were produced by cotransfecting baby hamster kidney-21 cells with a CHIKV replicon expressing Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) and two helper RNAs expressing the CHIKV capsid protein or the remaining structural proteins, respectively. The resulting single round infectious particles were used in CHIKV neutralization assays using secreted Gluc as readout. Results Upon cotransfection of a CHIKV replicon expressing Gluc and the helper RNAs VRPs could be produced efficiently under optimized conditions at 32°C. Infection with VRPs could be measured via Gluc secreted into the supernatant. The successful use of VRPs in CHIKV neutralization assays was demonstrated using a CHIKV neutralizing monoclonal antibody or sera from CHIKV infected patients. Comparison of VRP based neutralization assays in 24- versus 96-well format using different amounts of VRPs revealed that in the 96-well format a high multiplicity of infection is favored, while in the 24-well format reliable results are also obtained using lower infection rates. Comparison of different readout times revealed that evaluation of the neutralization assay is already possible at the same day of infection. Conclusions A VRP based CHIKV neutralization assay using Gluc as readout

  12. Activation of interferon-stimulated response element in huh-7 cells replicating hepatitis C virus subgenomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Pai, Mirabel; Prabhu, Ramesh; Panebra, Alfredo; Nangle, Sarah; Haque, Salima; Bastian, Frank; Garry, Robert; Agrawal, Krishna; Goodbourn, Steve; Dash, Srikanta

    2005-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN(alpha)) binds to receptors on the cell surface, which initiate a cascade of signal transduction pathways that leads to transcription of selected genes. This transduction pathway involves binding of transcription factors to a common cis-acting DNA sequence called IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE). To test whether these signaling pathways are functional in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-replicating cells, we studied the regulation of ISRE-mediated transcription of firefly luciferase gene in stable replicon cell lines. A plasmid construct was prepared (pISRELuc) which contains four tandem repeats of 9-27 ISRE sequences positioned directly upstream of the herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase promoter TATA box that drives the expression of firefly luciferase. Regulation of ISRE-mediated expression of firefly luciferase by IFN(alpha) was studied by transfecting this clone into Huh-7 cells replicating HCV subgenomic HCV RNA. The significance of ISRE-mediated transcriptional activation was studied in a replicon cell line by pretreatment of cells with actinomycin D, which inhibits cellular DNA-dependent RNA transcription. IFN treatment activates ISRE-mediated expression of luciferase, indicating that this pathway is functional in Huh-7 cells. Activation of ISRE-mediated transcription of luciferase is relatively high in two Huh-7 stable cell lines replicating HCV subgenomic RNA. Inhibition of ISRE-mediated transcription of luciferase by actinomycin D also makes HCV replication totally resistant to IFN(alpha). These in vitro studies suggest that activation of IFN-inducible genes is important in mounting a successful antiviral response against HCV.

  13. Mutant luciferase enzymes from fireflies with increased resistance to benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Noriaki; Kajiyama, Naoki; Maeda, Masako; Murakami, Seiji

    2002-12-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), used to extract intracellular ATP, interferes with subsequent firefly luciferase-luciferin assays. There was a significant difference among wild-type luciferases with respect to BAC resistance. Luciola lateralis luciferase (LlL) was the most tolerant, followed by Luciola cruciata luciferase (LcL) and Photinus pyralis luciferase. Random mutagenesis of thermostable mutants of LcL showed that the Glu490Lys mutation contributes to improved resistance to BAC. The corresponding Glu490Lys mutation was introduced into thermostable mutants of LlL by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the resultant LlL-217L490K mutant, having both an Ala217Leu and a Glu490Lys mutation, showed the highest resistance to BAC, with an initial remaining bioluminescence intensity of 87.4% and a decay rate per minute of 29.6% in the presence of 0.1% BAC. The Glu490Lys mutation was responsible for increased resistance to inactivation but not inhibition by BAC. The LlL-217L490K had identical thermostability and pH stability to the parental thermostable mutant. From these results, it was concluded that the LlL-217L490K enzyme is advantageous for hygiene monitoring and biomass assays based on the ATP-bioluminescence methodology. This is the first report demonstrating improved resistance to BAC of the firefly luciferase enzyme.

  14. Cycloheximide- and puromycin-induced heat resistance: different effects on cytoplasmic and nuclear luciferases.

    PubMed

    Michels, A A; Kanon, B; Konings, A W; Bensaude, O; Kampinga, H H

    2000-07-01

    Inhibition of translation can result in cytoprotection against heat shock. The mechanism of this protection has remained elusive so far. Here, the thermoprotective effects of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) and puromycin were investigated, using as reporter firefly luciferase localized either in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. A short preincubation of O23 cells with either translation inhibitor was found to attenuate the heat inactivation of a luciferase directed into the cytoplasm, whereas the heat sensitivity of a nuclear-targeted luciferase remained unaffected. After a long-term CHX pretreatment, both luciferases were more heat resistant. Both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear luciferase are protected against heat-induced inactivation in thermotolerant cells and in cells overexpressing heat shock protein (Hsp)70. CHX incubations further attenuated cytoplasmic luciferase inactivation in thermotolerant and in Hsp70 overexpressing cells, even when Hsp70-mediated protection was saturated. It is concluded that protection by translation inhibition is unlikely due to an increase in the pool of free Hsps normally engaged in translation and released from the nascent polypeptide chains on the ribosomes. Rather, a decrease in nascent chains and thermolabile polypeptides may account for the heat resistance promoted by inhibitors of translation.

  15. Matrix attachment regions and regulated transcription increase and stabilize transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Abranches, Rita; Shultz, Randall W; Thompson, William F; Allen, George C

    2005-09-01

    Transgene silencing has been shown to be associated with strong promoters, but it is not known whether the propensity for silencing is caused by the level of transcription, or some other property of the promoter. If transcriptional activity fosters silencing, then transgenes with inducible promoters may be less susceptible to silencing. To test this idea, a doxycycline-inducible luciferase transgene was transformed into an NT1 tobacco suspension culture cell line that constitutively expressed the tetracycline repressor. The inducible luciferase gene was flanked by tobacco Rb7 matrix attachment regions (MAR) or spacer control sequences in order to test the effects of MARs in conjunction with regulated transcription. Transformed lines were grown under continuous doxycycline (CI), or delayed doxycycline induction (DI) conditions. Delayed induction resulted in higher luciferase expression initially, but continued growth in the presence of doxycycline resulted in a reduction of expression to levels similar to those found in continuously induced lines. In both DI and CI treatments, the Rb7 MAR significantly reduced the percentage of silenced lines and increased transgene expression levels. These data demonstrate that active transcription increases silencing, especially in the absence of the Rb7 MAR. Importantly, the Rb7 MAR lines showed higher expression levels under both CI and DI conditions and avoided silencing that may occur in the absence of active transcription such as what would be expected as a result of condensed chromatin spreading. PMID:17173639

  16. Adaptation of muscle gene expression to changes in contractile activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Babij, P.; Thomason, D. B.; Wong, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the existing literature regarding the effects of different types of physical activities on the gene expression of adult skeletal muscles leads us to conclude that each type of exercise training program has, as a result, a different phenotype, which means that there are multiple mechanisms, each producing a unique phenotype. A portion of the facts which support this position is presented and interpreted here. [Abstract translated from the original French by NASA].

  17. Expression and Purification of Chaperone-Active Recombinant Clusterin

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, Rebecca A.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Clusterin was the first described secreted mammalian chaperone and is implicated as being a key player in both intra- and extracellular proteostasis. Its unique combination of structural features and biological chaperone activity has, however, previously made it very challenging to express and purify the protein in a correctly processed and chaperone-active form. While there are multiple reports in the literature describing the use of recombinant clusterin, all of these reports suffer from one or more of the following shortcomings: details of the methods used to produce the protein are poorly described, the product is incompletely (if at all) characterised, and purity (if shown) is in many cases inadequate. The current report provides the first well validated method to economically produce pure chaperone-active recombinant clusterin. The method was developed after trialling expression in cultured bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian cells, and involves the expression of recombinant clusterin from stably transfected HEK293 cells in protein-free medium. The product is expressed at between 7.5 and 10 µg/ml of culture, and is readily purified by a combination of immunoaffinity, cation exchange and size exclusion chromatography. The purified product was shown to be glycosylated, correctly proteolytically cleaved into α- and β-subunits, and have chaperone activity similar to that of human plasma clusterin. This new method creates the opportunity to use mutagenesis and metabolic labelling approaches in future studies to delineate functionally important sites within clusterin, and also provides a theoretically unlimited supply of recombinant clusterin which may in the future find applications in the development of therapeutics. PMID:24466307

  18. Expression and activation of proteases in co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study concerned the expression and activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPA/uPAR) system in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids (HT29, LS180, SW948) with human normal colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr), myofibroblasts (CCD-18Co) and endothelial cells (HUVEC). Additionally, the influence of monensin on the production and function of the proteases was tested. Tumor cells expressed small amounts of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA. Normal cells generally produced proportionally higher concentrations of these proteases (especially MMP-2, compared with significantly smaller yields of MMP-9 and significantly lower amounts of uPAR than tumors. In co-cultures of tumor spheroids with normal cell monolayers, the concentration of the proteases was equal to the sum of the enzymes produced in monocultures of both types of cells. The highest activity of uPA, measured as the reduction of the chromogenic substrate (S-2444), was detected in supernatants and lysates of endothelial cells. Interestingly, in normal cells, the higher expression of proteases, mainly uPA, measured as the level of protein concentration, was closely linked with their lower activity and inversely, in tumor cells, the low level of the expression of the enzymes correlated with their high enzymatic activity. In zymography analysis, mainly pro-MMPs were detected both in culture supernatants and cell lysates. The highest amounts of active forms of the MMPs were detected in tumor spheroids co-cultured with endothelial cells. Monensin inhibited MMPs and uPA secretion but significantly increased uPAR release, mainly from normal cells. In conclusion, during direct interactions of tumor cells with normal cells, MMPs and the uPA/uPAR system play an important role in the degradation of ECM and tumor development, but as we found, there is a reverse relationship between the concentration and the

  19. Cloning and expression of buffalo active chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Juan Andres; Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomas G

    2008-11-26

    To date, only recombinant chymosin has been obtained in its active form from supernatants of filamentous fungi, which are not as good candidates as yeasts for large-scale fermentations. Since Bos taurus chymosin was cloned and expressed, the world demand for this protease has increased to such an extent that the cheesemaking industry has been looking for novel sources of chymosin. In this sense because buffalo chymosin has properties that are more stable than those of B. taurus chymosin, it may occupy a space of its own in the chymosin market. The main objective of the present work was the production of active recombinant buffalo chymosin in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris . This yeast has demonstrated its usefulness as an excellent large-scale fermentation tool for the secretion of recombinant foreign proteins. RNA was extracted from the abomasum of a suckling calf water buffalo ( Bubalus arnee bubalis ). Preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin DNA sequences were isolated and expressed into P. pastoris. Only the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the prochymosin sequence gene were able to secrete the active form of the chymosin to the culture supernatant. This paper describes for the first time the production of active recombinant chymosin in P. pastoris without the need of a previous in vitro activation. The new recombinant yeast strain could represent a novel and excellent source of rennet for the cheesemaking industry.

  20. Luminopsins integrate opto- and chemogenetics by using physical and biological light sources for opsin activation.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Ken; Clissold, Kara; Li, Haofang E; Wen, Lei; Park, Sung Young; Gleixner, Jan; Klein, Marguerita E; Lu, Dongye; Barter, Joseph W; Rossi, Mark A; Augustine, George J; Yin, Henry H; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2016-01-19

    Luminopsins are fusion proteins of luciferase and opsin that allow interrogation of neuronal circuits at different temporal and spatial resolutions by choosing either extrinsic physical or intrinsic biological light for its activation. Building on previous development of fusions of wild-type Gaussia luciferase with channelrhodopsin, here we expanded the utility of luminopsins by fusing bright Gaussia luciferase variants with either channelrhodopsin to excite neurons (luminescent opsin, LMO) or a proton pump to inhibit neurons (inhibitory LMO, iLMO). These improved LMOs could reliably activate or silence neurons in vitro and in vivo. Expression of the improved LMO in hippocampal circuits not only enabled mapping of synaptic activation of CA1 neurons with fine spatiotemporal resolution but also could drive rhythmic circuit excitation over a large spatiotemporal scale. Furthermore, virus-mediated expression of either LMO or iLMO in the substantia nigra in vivo produced not only the expected bidirectional control of single unit activity but also opposing effects on circling behavior in response to systemic injection of a luciferase substrate. Thus, although preserving the ability to be activated by external light sources, LMOs expand the use of optogenetics by making the same opsins accessible to noninvasive, chemogenetic control, thereby allowing the same probe to manipulate neuronal activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26733686

  1. Luminopsins integrate opto- and chemogenetics by using physical and biological light sources for opsin activation

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Ken; Clissold, Kara; Li, Haofang E.; Wen, Lei; Park, Sung Young; Gleixner, Jan; Klein, Marguerita E.; Lu, Dongye; Barter, Joseph W.; Rossi, Mark A.; Augustine, George J.; Yin, Henry H.; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Luminopsins are fusion proteins of luciferase and opsin that allow interrogation of neuronal circuits at different temporal and spatial resolutions by choosing either extrinsic physical or intrinsic biological light for its activation. Building on previous development of fusions of wild-type Gaussia luciferase with channelrhodopsin, here we expanded the utility of luminopsins by fusing bright Gaussia luciferase variants with either channelrhodopsin to excite neurons (luminescent opsin, LMO) or a proton pump to inhibit neurons (inhibitory LMO, iLMO). These improved LMOs could reliably activate or silence neurons in vitro and in vivo. Expression of the improved LMO in hippocampal circuits not only enabled mapping of synaptic activation of CA1 neurons with fine spatiotemporal resolution but also could drive rhythmic circuit excitation over a large spatiotemporal scale. Furthermore, virus-mediated expression of either LMO or iLMO in the substantia nigra in vivo produced not only the expected bidirectional control of single unit activity but also opposing effects on circling behavior in response to systemic injection of a luciferase substrate. Thus, although preserving the ability to be activated by external light sources, LMOs expand the use of optogenetics by making the same opsins accessible to noninvasive, chemogenetic control, thereby allowing the same probe to manipulate neuronal activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26733686

  2. Upregulation of endothelial heme oxygenase-1 expression through the activation of the JNK pathway by sublethal concentrations of acrolein

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.C.; Hsieh, C.W.; Lai, P.H.; Lin, J.B.; Liu, Y.C.; Wung, B.S. . E-mail: bswung@mail.ncyu.edu.tw

    2006-08-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehyde that is present in cigarette smoke. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme activated by various such electrophilic compounds. In this study, the regulatory effects of acrolein upon the expression of HO-1 were investigated in endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrate that acrolein induces the elevation of HO-1 protein levels, and subsequent enzyme activity, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. An additional {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, was also found to increase HO-1 expression and have less cytotoxicity than acrolein. Moreover, acrolein-mediated HO-1 induction is abrogated in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Nrf2 is a transcription factor involved in the induction of HO-1 through an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We show that acrolein induces Nrf2 translocation and ARE-luciferase reporter activity. Acrolein was also found to induce the production of both superoxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at levels greater than 100 {mu}M. However, with the exception of NAC, no antioxidant generated any effect upon acrolein-dependent HO-1 expression in ECs. Our present findings suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may not be a major modulator for HO-1 induction. Using buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH levels further enhanced the effects of acrolein. We also found that cellular GSH level was rapidly reduced after both 10 and 100 {mu}M acrolein treatment. However, after 6 h of exposure to ECs, only 10 {mu}M acrolein treatment increases GSH level. In addition, only the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein had any significant inhibitory impact upon the upregulation of HO-1 by acrolein. Pretreatment with a range of other PI3 kinase inhibitors, including wortmannin and LY294002, showed no effects. Hence, we show in our current experiments that a sublethal concentration of

  3. trans activation of gene expression by v-myb.

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez, C E; Lipsick, J S

    1990-01-01

    The v-myb oncogene causes acute myelomonocytic leukemia in chickens and transforms avian myeloid cells in vitro. Its product, p48v-myb, is a short-lived nuclear protein which binds DNA. We demonstrate that p48v-myb can function as a trans activator of gene expression in transient DNA transfection assays. trans activation requires the highly conserved amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and the less highly conserved carboxyl-terminal domain of p48v-myb, both of which are required for transformation. Multiple copies of a consensus sequence for DNA binding by p48v-myb inserted upstream of a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter are strongly stimulatory for transcriptional activation by a v-myb-VP16 fusion protein but not by p48v-myb itself, suggesting that the binding of p48v-myb to DNA may not be sufficient for trans activation. Images PMID:2325652

  4. Bioorthogonal Catalysis: A General Method To Evaluate Metal-Catalyzed Reactions in Real Time in Living Systems Using a Cellular Luciferase Reporter System.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiao-Tieh; Trantow, Brian M; Waymouth, Robert M; Wender, Paul A

    2016-02-17

    The development of abiological catalysts that can function in biological systems is an emerging subject of importance with significant ramifications in synthetic chemistry and the life sciences. Herein we report a biocompatible ruthenium complex [Cp(MQA)Ru(C3H5)](+)PF6(-) 2 (Cp = cyclopentadienyl, MQA = 4-methoxyquinoline-2-carboxylate) and a general analytical method for evaluating its performance in real time based on a luciferase reporter system amenable to high throughput screening in cells and by extension to evaluation in luciferase transgenic animals. Precatalyst 2 activates alloc-protected aminoluciferin 4b, a bioluminescence pro-probe, and releases the active luminophore, aminoluciferin (4a), in the presence of luciferase-transfected cells. The formation and enzymatic turnover of 4a, an overall process selected because it emulates pro-drug activation and drug turnover by an intracellular target, is evaluated in real time by photon counting as 4a is converted by intracellular luciferase to oxyaminoluciferin and light. Interestingly, while the catalytic conversion (activation) of 4b to 4a in water produces multiple products, the presence of biological nucleophiles such as thiols prevents byproduct formation and provides almost exclusively luminophore 4a. Our studies show that precatalyst 2 activates 4b extracellularly, exhibits low toxicity at concentrations relevant to catalysis, and is comparably effective in two different cell lines. This proof of concept study shows that precatalyst 2 is a promising lead for bioorthogonal catalytic activation of pro-probes and, by analogy, similarly activatable pro-drugs. More generally, this study provides an analytical method to measure abiological catalytic activation of pro-probes and, by analogy with our earlier studies on pro-Taxol, similarly activatable pro-drugs in real time using a coupled biological catalyst that mediates a bioluminescent readout, providing tools for the study of imaging signal amplification

  5. Bioorthogonal Catalysis: A General Method To Evaluate Metal-Catalyzed Reactions in Real Time in Living Systems Using a Cellular Luciferase Reporter System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of abiological catalysts that can function in biological systems is an emerging subject of importance with significant ramifications in synthetic chemistry and the life sciences. Herein we report a biocompatible ruthenium complex [Cp(MQA)Ru(C3H5)]+PF6–2 (Cp = cyclopentadienyl, MQA = 4-methoxyquinoline-2-carboxylate) and a general analytical method for evaluating its performance in real time based on a luciferase reporter system amenable to high throughput screening in cells and by extension to evaluation in luciferase transgenic animals. Precatalyst 2 activates alloc-protected aminoluciferin 4b, a bioluminescence pro-probe, and releases the active luminophore, aminoluciferin (4a), in the presence of luciferase-transfected cells. The formation and enzymatic turnover of 4a, an overall process selected because it emulates pro-drug activation and drug turnover by an intracellular target, is evaluated in real time by photon counting as 4a is converted by intracellular luciferase to oxyaminoluciferin and light. Interestingly, while the catalytic conversion (activation) of 4b to 4a in water produces multiple products, the presence of biological nucleophiles such as thiols prevents byproduct formation and provides almost exclusively luminophore 4a. Our studies show that precatalyst 2 activates 4b extracellularly, exhibits low toxicity at concentrations relevant to catalysis, and is comparably effective in two different cell lines. This proof of concept study shows that precatalyst 2 is a promising lead for bioorthogonal catalytic activation of pro-probes and, by analogy, similarly activatable pro-drugs. More generally, this study provides an analytical method to measure abiological catalytic activation of pro-probes and, by analogy with our earlier studies on pro-Taxol, similarly activatable pro-drugs in real time using a coupled biological catalyst that mediates a bioluminescent readout, providing tools for the study of imaging signal amplification and

  6. Pharmacological and Genetic Modulation of REV-ERB Activity and Expression Affects Orexigenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Ariadna; Wang, Yongjun; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kameneka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of the circadian rhythm and various metabolic processes. The circadian rhythm is an endogenous mechanism, which generates entrainable biological changes that follow a 24-hour period. It regulates a number of physiological processes, including sleep/wakeful cycles and feeding behaviors. We recently demonstrated that REV-ERB-specific small molecules affect sleep and anxiety. The orexinergic system also plays a significant role in mammalian physiology and behavior, including the regulation of sleep and food intake. Importantly, orexin genes are expressed in a circadian manner. Given these overlaps in function and circadian expression, we wanted to determine whether the REV-ERBs might regulate orexin. We found that acute in vivo modulation of REV-ERB activity, with the REV-ERB-specific synthetic ligand SR9009, affects the circadian expression of orexinergic genes in mice. Long term dosing with SR9009 also suppresses orexinergic gene expression in mice. Finally, REV-ERBβ-deficient mice present with increased orexinergic transcripts. These data suggest that the REV-ERBs may be involved in the repression of orexinergic gene expression. PMID:26963516

  7. Identifying a kinase network regulating FGF14:Nav1.6 complex assembly using split-luciferase complementation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Nenov, Miroslav N; Shavkunov, Alexander; Panova, Neli; Zhan, Ming; Laezza, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Kinases play fundamental roles in the brain. Through complex signaling pathways, kinases regulate the strength of protein:protein interactions (PPI) influencing cell cycle, signal transduction, and electrical activity of neurons. Changes induced by kinases on neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and brain connectivity are linked to complex brain disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these cellular events remain for the most part elusive. To further our understanding of brain disease, new methods for rapidly surveying kinase pathways in the cellular context are needed. The bioluminescence-based luciferase complementation assay (LCA) is a powerful, versatile toolkit for the exploration of PPI. LCA relies on the complementation of two firefly luciferase protein fragments that are functionally reconstituted into the full luciferase enzyme by two interacting binding partners. Here, we applied LCA in live cells to assay 12 kinase pathways as regulators of the PPI complex formed by the voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.6, a transmembrane ion channel that elicits the action potential in neurons and mediates synaptic transmission, and its multivalent accessory protein, the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14). Through extensive dose-dependent validations of structurally-diverse kinase inhibitors and hierarchical clustering, we identified the PI3K/Akt pathway, the cell-cycle regulator Wee1 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC) as prospective regulatory nodes of neuronal excitability through modulation of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis shows convergence of these pathways on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and functional assays demonstrate that inhibition of GSK3 impairs excitability of hippocampal neurons. This combined approach provides a versatile toolkit for rapidly surveying PPI signaling, allowing the discovery of new modular pathways centered on GSK3 that might be the basis for functional alterations between the normal and

  8. Effect of 60 Hz magnetic fields on the activation of hsp70 promoter in cultured INER-37 and RMA E7 cells.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Rojas, J Antonio; Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham Octavio; Alcocer González, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that 50-60 Hz magnetic fields (MF) with flux densities ranging from microtesla to millitesla are able to induce heat shock factor or heat shock proteins in various cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal MF at 8 and 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labeled as electromagnetic field-plasmid (pEMF). This gene construct contains the specific sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by MF, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was transfected into INER-37 and RMA E7 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). Cells that received the MF or TS treatments and their controls were processed according to the luciferase assay system for evaluate luciferase activity. An increased luciferase gene expression was observed in INER-37 cells exposed to MF and TS compared with controls (p < 0.05), but MF exposure had no effect on the RMA E7 cell line.

  9. Characterization and isolation of a T-DNA tagged banana promoter active during in vitro culture and low temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Efrén; Remy, Serge; Thiry, Els; Windelinckx, Saskia; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2009-01-01

    Background Next-generation transgenic plants will require a more precise regulation of transgene expression, preferably under the control of native promoters. A genome-wide T-DNA tagging strategy was therefore performed for the identification and characterization of novel banana promoters. Embryogenic cell suspensions of a plantain-type banana were transformed with a promoterless, codon-optimized luciferase (luc+) gene and low temperature-responsive luciferase activation was monitored in real time. Results Around 16,000 transgenic cell colonies were screened for baseline luciferase activity at room temperature 2 months after transformation. After discarding positive colonies, cultures were re-screened in real-time at 26°C followed by a gradual decrease to 8°C. The baseline activation frequency was 0.98%, while the frequency of low temperature-responsive luciferase activity was 0.61% in the same population of cell cultures. Transgenic colonies with luciferase activity responsive to low temperature were regenerated to plantlets and luciferase expression patterns monitored during different regeneration stages. Twenty four banana DNA sequences flanking the right T-DNA borders in seven independent lines were cloned via PCR walking. RT-PCR analysis in one line containing five inserts allowed the identification of the sequence that had activated luciferase expression under low temperature stress in a developmentally regulated manner. This activating sequence was fused to the uidA reporter gene and back-transformed into a commercial dessert banana cultivar, in which its original expression pattern was confirmed. Conclusion This promoter tagging and real-time screening platform proved valuable for the identification of novel promoters and genes in banana and for monitoring expression patterns throughout in vitro development and low temperature treatment. Combination of PCR walking techniques was efficient for the isolation of candidate promoters even in a multicopy T

  10. Endothelial cell activation and proliferation modulate NKG2D activity by regulating MICA expression and shedding.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Annabelle; Tonnerre, Pierre; Pabois, Angélique; Gavlovsky, Pierre-Jean; Chatelais, Mathais; Coupel, Stéphanie; Charreau, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    MICA are major histocompatibility complex class I-related molecules, expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), that may be targets for alloantibodies and NKG2D-expressing natural killer (NK) and T effector cells in organ allografts. This study shows that basal levels of MICA expressed on vascular ECs is sufficient to functionally modulate the expression and activity of the immunoreceptor NKG2D in allogeneic NK cells. We found that MICA expression is differentially regulated at the EC surface in response to cytokines. TNFα upregulates MICA while IFNγ significantly decreases MICA at the EC surface. Both cytokines induce the release of soluble MICA by ECs. Modulation of NKG2D correlates with the MICA level on the EC surface. Glycosylation and metalloproteinase activities account for major post-transcriptional mechanisms controlling MICA level and the function in ECs. Our results indicate that, in addition to the NFκB pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 are key signaling pathways in the control of MICA by the cytokines. Finally, we show that EC proliferation mediated by FGF-2 or wound healing increases the MICA level. Together, our data suggest that inflammation and proliferation regulate endothelial MICA expression and shedding, enabling ECs to modulate NKG2D activity on effector NK and T cells, and provide further evidence of a role for ECs in immunoregulation.

  11. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies. PMID:27466384

  12. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies.

  13. Bixin regulates mRNA expression involved in adipogenesis and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PPAR{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Katoh, Sota; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ohyane, Chie; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Young-il; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka; Kawada, Teruo

    2009-12-25

    Insulin resistance is partly due to suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake into adipocytes. The uptake is dependent on adipocyte differentiation, which is controlled at mRNA transcription level. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, is involved in the differentiation. Many food-derived compounds serve as ligands to activate or inactivate PPAR. In this study, we demonstrated that bixin and norbixin (annatto extracts) activate PPAR{gamma} by luciferase reporter assay using GAL4-PPAR chimera proteins. To examine the effects of bixin on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bixin or norbixin. The treatment induced mRNA expression of PPAR{gamma} target genes such as adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adiponectin in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake. The observations indicate that bixin acts as an agonist of PPAR{gamma} and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that bixin is a valuable food-derived compound as a PPAR ligand to regulate lipid metabolism and to ameliorate metabolic syndrome.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of PCFT by KLF4, HNF4α, CDX2 and C/EBPα: Implication in its site-specific expression in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Furumiya, Mai; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Ohta, Kinya; Hayashi, Yayoi; Yuasa, Hiroaki

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► We examined transcription factors that may regulate PCFT expression in the intestine. ► PCFT promoter activity is basically induced by KLF4. ► KLF4-induced PCFT promoter activity is enhanced by HNF4α synergistically. ► CDX2 and C/EBPα suppress PCFT promoter activity induced by KLF4 and HNF4α. -- Abstract: Proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), which is responsible for the intestinal uptake of folates and analogs, is expressed only in the proximal region in the small intestine. The present study was to examine its transcriptional regulation, which may be involved in such a unique expression profile and potentially in its alteration, using dual-luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The luciferase activity derived from the reporter construct containing the 5′-flanking sequence of −1695/+96 of the human PCFT gene was enhanced most extensively by the introduction of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). The KLF4-induced luciferase activity was further enhanced by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) synergistically. To the contrary, caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) extensively suppressed the luciferase activity induced by KLF4 alone and also that induced by KLF4 and HNF4α. Western blot analysis using the rat small intestine indicated uniform expression of KLF4 along the intestinal tract, proximal-oriented expression of HNF4α, distal-oriented expression of CDX2 and C/EBPα. These results suggest that the activity of PCFT promoter is basically induced by KLF4 and the gradiented expression profile of PCFT may be at least in part accounted for by those of HNF4α, CDX2 and C/EBPα.

  15. Regulation of estrogen sulfotransferase expression by confluence of MCF10A breast epithelial cells: role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiaqi; Fang, Hailin; Paulsen, Michelle; Ljungman, Mats; Kocarek, Thomas A; Runge-Morris, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) catalyzes the sulfonation of estrogens, which limits estrogen mitogenicity. We recently reported that SULT1E1 expression is low in preconfluent MCF10A human breast epithelial cells but increases when the cells become confluent. Pulse-chase labeling experiments with 5-bromouridine demonstrated that the confluence-mediated increase in SULT1E1 expression was due to increased mRNA synthesis. Because aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation has been shown to suppress SULT1E1 expression and loss of cell-cell contact has been shown to activate the AhR in other cell types, we tested whether the confluence-associated changes in SULT1E1 expression were mediated by the AhR. Relative to confluent MCF10A cells, preconfluent cells had higher levels of CYP1A1 mRNA and greater activation of an AhR-responsive luciferase reporter, demonstrating that the AhR was active in the preconfluent cells. AhR and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator mRNA and protein levels were also higher in preconfluent than in confluent cultures. Treatment of preconfluent cells with the AhR antagonist, 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (MNF), or AhR knockdown significantly increased SULT1E1 expression. MCF10A cells stably transfected with a luciferase reporter containing ∼7 kilobases of the SULT1E1 5'-flanking region showed both MNF- and confluence-inducible luciferase expression. Preconfluent cells transiently transfected with the reporter showed both MNF treatment- and AhR knockdown-mediated luciferase induction, but mutation of a computationally predicted dioxin response element (DRE) at nucleotide (nt) -3476 did not attenuate these effects. These results demonstrate that SULT1E1 expression in MCF10A cells is transcriptionally regulated by confluence through a suppressive action of the AhR, which is not mediated through a DRE at nt -3476.

  16. Long-term Physiologically Regulated Expression of the Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor In Vivo Using Genomic DNA Mini-gene Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Hibbitt, Olivia C; McNeil, Eileen; Lufino, Michele MP; Seymour, Len; Channon, Keith; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a condition caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Expression of LDLR is highly regulated and excess receptor expression is cytotoxic. To incorporate essential gene regulation into a gene therapy vector for FH, we generated vectors in which the expression of therapeutic human LDLR gene, or luciferase reporter gene, is driven by 10 kb of human LDLR genomic DNA encompassing the promoter region including elements essential for physiologically regulated expression. Using luciferase expression and specific LDL binding and internalization assays, we have shown in vitro that the genomic promoter element confers long-term, physiologically regulated gene expression and complementation of receptor deficiency in culture for 240 cell-generations. This was demonstrated in the presence of sterols or statins, modifiers of LDLR promoter activity. In vivo, we demonstrate efficient liver-specific delivery and expression of luciferase following hydrodynamic tail-vein injection and confirm that expression from the LDLR promoter element is sensitive to statin administration. We also demonstrate long-term LDLR expression from the 10-kb promoter element up to 9 months following delivery. The vector system that we describe provides the efficient delivery, long-term expression, and physiological regulation required for a successful gene therapy intervention for FH. PMID:19861949

  17. Transgene expression study of CXCR4 active mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Menka; Afrin, Farhat; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta

    2014-01-01

    Homing and engraftment, a determining factor in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation success is defined as a process through which hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) lodge recipient bone marrow. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis acts as a principle regulator in homing and engraftment, however, CXCR4 signaling is dependent upon expression of CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1, which is highly dynamic. Hence, present investigation was aimed to explore the potential of CXCR4 constitutive active mutants (CXCR4-CAMs) in overcoming the limitation of CXCR4 signaling and up-modulate its efficiency in homing and engraftment. Regulated transgene expression study of these mutants revealed their significantly enhanced cell adhesion efficiency to endothelium and extracellular matrix protein. This altogether indicates promising prospects of CXCR4-CAMs in research aimed to improve HSPCs engraftment efficiency. PMID:25482641

  18. SIRT1 Suppresses Activator Protein-1 Transcriptional Activity and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, Jin-Jing; Jia, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Yang, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    SIRT1 (Sirtuin type 1), a mammalian orthologue of yeast SIR2 (silent information regulator 2), has been shown to mediate a variety of calorie restriction (CR)-induced physiological events, such as cell fate regulation via deacetylation of the substrate proteins. However, whether SIRT1 deacetylates activator protein-1 (AP-1) to influence its transcriptional activity and target gene expression is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 directly interacts with the basic leucine zipper domains of c-Fos and c-Jun, the major components of AP-1, by which SIRT1 suppressed the transcriptional activity of AP-1. This process requires the deacetylase activity of SIRT1. Notably, SIRT1 reduced the expression of COX-2, a typical AP-1 target gene, and decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs). pMΦs with SIRT1 overexpression displayed improved phagocytosis and tumoricidal functions, which are associated with depressed PGE2. Furthermore, SIRT1 protein level was up-regulated in CR mouse pMΦs, whereas elevated SIRT1 decreased COX-2 expression and improved PGE2-related macrophage functions that were reversed following inhibition of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. Thus, our results indicate that SIRT1 may be a mediator of CR-induced macrophage regulation, and its deacetylase activity contributes to the inhibition of AP-1 transcriptional activity and COX-2 expression leading to amelioration of macrophage function. PMID:20042607

  19. Probing Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Quantum Rod-Luciferase Nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Alam, Rabeka; Karam, Liliana M; Doane, Tennyson L; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Fontaine, Danielle M; Branchini, Bruce R; Maye, Mathew M

    2016-02-23

    We describe the necessary design criteria to create highly efficient energy transfer conjugates containing luciferase enzymes derived from Photinus pyralis (Ppy) and semiconductor quantum rods (QRs) with rod-in-rod (r/r) microstructure. By fine-tuning the synthetic conditions, CdSe/CdS r/r-QRs were prepared with two different emission colors and three different aspect ratios (l/w) each. These were hybridized with blue, green, and red emitting Ppy, leading to a number of new BRET nanoconjugates. Measurements of the emission BRET ratio (BR) indicate that the resulting energy transfer is highly dependent on QR energy accepting properties, which include absorption, quantum yield, and optical anisotropy, as well as its morphological and topological properties, such as aspect ratio and defect concentration. The highest BR was found using r/r-QRs with lower l/w that were conjugated with red Ppy, which may be activating one of the anisotropic CdSe core energy levels. The role QR surface defects play on Ppy binding, and energy transfer was studied by growth of gold nanoparticles at the defects, which indicated that each QR set has different sites. The Ppy binding at those sites is suggested by the observed BRET red-shift as a function of Ppy-to-QR loading (L), where the lowest L results in highest efficiency and furthest shift. PMID:26760436

  20. NanoLuc: A Small Luciferase Is Brightening Up the Field of Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2016-05-18

    The biomedical field has greatly benefited from the discovery of bioluminescent proteins. Currently, scientists employ bioluminescent systems for numerous biomedical applications, ranging from highly sensitive cellular assays to bioluminescence-based molecular imaging. Traditionally, these systems are based on Firefly and Renilla luciferases; however, the applicability of these enzymes is limited by their size, stability, and luminescence efficiency. NanoLuc (NLuc), a novel bioluminescence platform, offers several advantages over established systems, including enhanced stability, smaller size, and >150-fold increase in luminescence. In addition, the substrate for NLuc displays enhanced stability and lower background activity, opening up new possibilities in the field of bioluminescence imaging. The NLuc system is incredibly versatile and may be utilized for a wide array of applications. The increased sensitivity, high stability, and small size of the NLuc system have the potential to drastically change the field of reporter assays in the future. However, as with all such technology, NLuc has limitations (including a nonideal emission for in vivo applications and its unique substrate) which may cause it to find restricted use in certain areas of molecular biology. As this unique technology continues to broaden, NLuc may have a significant impact in both preclinical and clinical fields, with potential roles in disease detection, molecular imaging, and therapeutic monitoring. This review will present the NLuc technology to the scientific community in a nonbiased manner, allowing the audience to adopt their own views of this novel system. PMID:27045664

  1. Identification of agents that promote endoplasmic reticulum stress using an assay that monitors luciferase secretion

    PubMed Central

    Doudican, Nicole A.; Wen, Shih Ya; Mazumder, Amitabha; Orlow, Seth J.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of protein processing in the secretory pathway is a measurable hallmark of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of ER stress-mediated pathways has been implicated in numerous diseases including cancer. To identify agents that induce ER stress, we established a screen for compounds that reduce secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (GLUC). Given the clinically validated importance of targeting ER stress-mediated pathways in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), we used this hematological malignancy as a model for validating our screening system. From a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and natural compounds in KMS11 and ARP1 MM cells, we identified 97 agents that reduced GLUC secretion in both cell lines by at least 30%. In order to confirm inducers of ER stress, we applied a secondary screen that assessed splicing of the unfolded protein response (UPR) transcription factor XBP1. One agent, theaflavin-3,3′–digallate (TF-3), was chosen based on its history of safe human consumption and further validated through studies of ER stress-related pathways including the UPR and apoptosis. Given these promising results, this screen could be a useful tool to identify agents targeting ER stress-related mechanisms in other cellular systems wherein ER stress plays a role in disease etiology. PMID:24371212

  2. NanoLuc: A Small Luciferase Is Brightening Up the Field of Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2016-05-18

    The biomedical field has greatly benefited from the discovery of bioluminescent proteins. Currently, scientists employ bioluminescent systems for numerous biomedical applications, ranging from highly sensitive cellular assays to bioluminescence-based molecular imaging. Traditionally, these systems are based on Firefly and Renilla luciferases; however, the applicability of these enzymes is limited by their size, stability, and luminescence efficiency. NanoLuc (NLuc), a novel bioluminescence platform, offers several advantages over established systems, including enhanced stability, smaller size, and >150-fold increase in luminescence. In addition, the substrate for NLuc displays enhanced stability and lower background activity, opening up new possibilities in the field of bioluminescence imaging. The NLuc system is incredibly versatile and may be utilized for a wide array of applications. The increased sensitivity, high stability, and small size of the NLuc system have the potential to drastically change the field of reporter assays in the future. However, as with all such technology, NLuc has limitations (including a nonideal emission for in vivo applications and its unique substrate) which may cause it to find restricted use in certain areas of molecular biology. As this unique technology continues to broaden, NLuc may have a significant impact in both preclinical and clinical fields, with potential roles in disease detection, molecular imaging, and therapeutic monitoring. This review will present the NLuc technology to the scientific community in a nonbiased manner, allowing the audience to adopt their own views of this novel system.

  3. The proto-oncogene Myc drives expression of the NK cell-activating NKp30 ligand B7-H6 in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Textor, Sonja; Bossler, Felicitas; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Pollmann, Julia; Fiegler, Nathalie; Arnold, Annette; Westermann, Frank; Waldburger, Nina; Breuhahn, Kai; Golfier, Sven; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2016-07-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate effector cells that are able to recognize and eliminate tumor cells through engagement of their surface receptors. NKp30 is a potent activating NK cell receptor that elicits efficient NK cell-mediated target cell killing. Recently, B7-H6 was identified as tumor cell surface expressed ligand for NKp30. Enhanced B7-H6 mRNA levels are frequently detected in tumor compared to healthy tissues. To gain insight in the regulation of expression of B7-H6 in tumors, we investigated transcriptional mechanisms driving B7-H6 expression by promoter analyses. Using luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation we mapped a functional binding site for Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in certain tumors, in the B7-H6 promoter. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA/shRNA-mediated knock-down of c-Myc or N-Myc significantly decreased B7-H6 expression on a variety of tumor cells including melanoma, pancreatic carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. In tumor cell lines from different origin and primary tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lymphoma and neuroblastoma, mRNA levels of c-Myc positively correlated with B7-H6 expression. Most importantly, upon inhibition or knock-down of c-Myc in tumor cells impaired NKp30-mediated degranulation of NK cells was observed. Thus, our data imply that Myc driven tumors could be targets for cancer immunotherapy exploiting the NKp30/B7-H6 axis.

  4. The proto-oncogene Myc drives expression of the NK cell-activating NKp30 ligand B7-H6 in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Textor, Sonja; Bossler, Felicitas; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Pollmann, Julia; Fiegler, Nathalie; Arnold, Annette; Westermann, Frank; Waldburger, Nina; Breuhahn, Kai; Golfier, Sven; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2016-07-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate effector cells that are able to recognize and eliminate tumor cells through engagement of their surface receptors. NKp30 is a potent activating NK cell receptor that elicits efficient NK cell-mediated target cell killing. Recently, B7-H6 was identified as tumor cell surface expressed ligand for NKp30. Enhanced B7-H6 mRNA levels are frequently detected in tumor compared to healthy tissues. To gain insight in the regulation of expression of B7-H6 in tumors, we investigated transcriptional mechanisms driving B7-H6 expression by promoter analyses. Using luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation we mapped a functional binding site for Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in certain tumors, in the B7-H6 promoter. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA/shRNA-mediated knock-down of c-Myc or N-Myc significantly decreased B7-H6 expression on a variety of tumor cells including melanoma, pancreatic carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. In tumor cell lines from different origin and primary tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lymphoma and neuroblastoma, mRNA levels of c-Myc positively correlated with B7-H6 expression. Most importantly, upon inhibition or knock-down of c-Myc in tumor cells impaired NKp30-mediated degranulation of NK cells was observed. Thus, our data imply that Myc driven tumors could be targets for cancer immunotherapy exploiting the NKp30/B7-H6 axis. PMID:27622013

  5. [Photoreactivation of UV-irradiated Escherichia coli K12 AB1886 uvrA6 with assistance of luminescence of Photobacterium leiognathi Luciferase].

    PubMed

    Melkina, O E; Kotova, V Yu; Konopleva, M N; Manukhov, I V; Pustovoit, K S; Zavilgelsky, G B

    2015-01-01

    The bioluminescence induced by luciferases of marine bacteria promotes repair of UV damaged DNA of Escherichia coli AB1886 uvrA6. It is shown that bacterial photolyase that implements photoreactivation activity is the major contributor to DNA repair. However, the intensity of bioluminescence increasing induced by UV-irradiation (SOS-induction) in bacterial cells is not enough for efficient photoreactivation. PMID:26710787

  6. Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Secretion in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Roles for AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Akt, and FOXO1

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Chad E. N.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, promotes vasodilation by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase to stimulate production of nitric oxide. Reduction in endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis may also increase bioavailability of nitric oxide. We hypothesized that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent transcription factor FOXO1 may mediate effects of EGCG to regulate expression of ET-1 in endothelial cells. EGCG treatment (10 μm, 8 h) of human aortic endothelial cells reduced expression of ET-1 mRNA, protein, and ET-1 secretion. We identified a putative FOXO binding domain in the human ET-1 promoter 51 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Trans-activation of a human ET-1 (hET-1) promoter luciferase reporter was enhanced by coexpression of a constitutively nuclear FOXO1 mutant, whereas expression of a mutant FOXO1 with disrupted DNA binding domain did not trans-activate the hET-1 promoter. Disrupting the hET-1 putative FOXO binding domain by site-directed mutagenesis ablated promoter activity in response to overexpression of wild-type FOXO1. EGCG stimulated time-dependent phosphorylation of Akt (S473), FOXO1 (at Akt phosphorylation site T24), and AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) (T172). EGCG-induced nuclear exclusion of FOXO1, FOXO1 binding to the hET-1 promoter, and reduction of ET-1 expression was partially inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Basal ET-1 protein expression was enhanced by short interfering RNA knock-down of Akt and reduced by short interfering RNA knock-down of FOXO1 or adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant-negative Foxo1. We conclude that EGCG decreases ET-1 expression and secretion from endothelial cells, in part, via Akt- and AMPK-stimulated FOXO1 regulation of the ET-1 promoter. These findings may be relevant to beneficial cardiovascular actions of green tea. PMID:19887561

  7. Sex determines the expression level of one third of the actively expressed genes in bovine blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Alvarez, P.; Rizos, D.; Rath, D.; Lonergan, P.; Gutierrez-Adan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although genetically identical for autosomal Chrs (Chr), male and female preimplantation embryos could display sex-specific transcriptional regulation. To illustrate sex-specific differences at the mRNA level, we compared gene-expression patterns between male and female blastocysts by DNA microarray comparison of nine groups of 60 bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts of each sex. Almost one-third of the transcripts detected showed sexual dimorphism (2,921 transcripts; false-discovery rate, P < 0.05), suggesting that in the absence of hormonal influences, the sex Chrs impose an extensive transcriptional regulation upon autosomal genes. Six genes were analyzed by qPCR in in vivo-derived embryos, which displayed similar sexual dimorphism. Ontology analysis suggested a higher global transcriptional level in females and a more active protein metabolism in males. A gene homolog to an X-linked gene involved in network interactions during spliceosome assembly was found in the Y-Chr. Most of the X-linked-expressed transcripts (88.5%) were up-regulated in females, but most of them (70%) exhibited fold-changes lower than 1.6, suggesting that X-Chr inactivation is partially achieved at the blastocyst stage. Almost half of the transcripts up-regulated in female embryos exhibiting more than 1.6-fold change were present in the X-Chr and eight of them were selected to determine a putative paternal imprinting by gene expression comparison with parthenogenetic embryos. Five (BEX, CAPN6, BEX2, SRPX2, and UBE2A) exhibited a higher expression in females than in parthenotes, suggesting that they are predominantly expressed by the paternal inherited X-Chr and that imprinting may increase the transcriptional skew caused by double X-Chr dosage. PMID:20133684

  8. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues. PMID:27424898

  9. Firefly Luciferase-Based Sequential Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET)-Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Protease Assays.

    PubMed

    Branchini, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of ratiometric luminescent probes that contain two well-separated emission peaks produced by a sequential bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. The probes are single soluble fusion proteins consisting of a thermostable firefly luciferase variant that catalyzes yellow-green (560 nm maximum) bioluminescence and a red fluorescent protein covalently labeled with a near-Infrared fluorescent dye. The two proteins are connected by a decapeptide containing a protease recognition site specific for factor Xa, thrombin, or caspase 3. The rates of protease cleavage of the fusion protein substrates were monitored by recording emission spectra and plotting the change in peak ratios over time. Detection limits of 0.41 nM for caspase 3, 1.0 nM for thrombin, and 58 nM for factor Xa were realized with a scanning fluorometer. This method successfully employs an efficient sequential BRET-FRET energy transfer process based on firefly luciferase bioluminescence to assay physiologically important protease activities and should be generally applicable to the measurement of any endoprotease lacking accessible cysteine residues.

  10. Titration-based screening for evaluation of natural product extracts: identification of an aspulvinone family of luciferase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, P.G.; Auld, D.S.; Schultz, P.J.; Lovell, S.; Battaile, K.P.; MacArthur, R.; Shen, M.; Tamayo-Castillo, G.; Inglese, J.; Sherman, D.H.

    2011-11-28

    The chemical diversity of nature has tremendous potential for the discovery of molecular probes and medicinal agents. However, sensitivity of HTS assays to interfering components of crude extracts derived from plants, and macro- and microorganisms has curtailed their use in lead discovery. Here, we describe a process for leveraging the concentration-response curves obtained from quantitative HTS to improve the initial selection of actives from a library of partially fractionated natural product extracts derived from marine actinomycetes and fungi. By using pharmacological activity, the first-pass CRC paradigm improves the probability that labor-intensive subsequent steps of reculturing, extraction, and bioassay-guided isolation of active component(s) target the most promising strains and growth conditions. We illustrate how this process identified a family of fungal metabolites as potent inhibitors of firefly luciferase, subsequently resolved in molecular detail by X-ray crystallography.

  11. The Effect of Surface Charge Saturation on Heat-induced Aggregation of Firefly Luciferase.

    PubMed

    Gharanlar, Jamileh; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Sajedi, Reza H; Yaghmaei, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    We present here the effect of firefly luciferase surface charge saturation and the presence of some additives on its thermal-induced aggregation. Three mutants of firefly luciferase prepared by introduction of surface Arg residues named as 2R, 3R and 5R have two, three and five additional arginine residues substituted at their surface compared to native luciferase; respectively. Turbidimetric study of heat-induced aggregation indicates that all three mutants were reproducibly aggregated at higher rates relative to wild type in spite of their higher thermostability. Among them, 2R had most evaluated propensity to heat-induced aggregation. Therefore, the hydrophilization followed by appearing of more substituted arginine residues with positive charge on the firefly luciferase surface was not reduced its thermal aggregation. Nevertheless, at the same condition in the presence of charged amino acids, e.g. Arg, Lys and Glu, as well as a hydrophobic amino acid, e.g. Val, the heat-induced aggregation of wild type and mutants of firefly luciferases was markedly decelerated than those in the absence of additives. On the basis of obtained results it seems, relinquishment of variety in charge of amino acid side chains, they via local interactions with proteins cause to decrease rate and extent of their thermal aggregation.

  12. Nuclear Factor-Y is an adipogenic factor that regulates leptin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Dallner, Olof Stefan; Birsoy, Kivanc; Fayzikhodjaeva, Gulya; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Leptin gene expression is highly correlated with cellular lipid content in adipocytes but the transcriptional mechanisms controlling leptin expression in vivo are poorly understood. In this report, we set out to identify cis- and trans-regulatory elements controlling leptin expression. Methods Leptin-BAC luciferase transgenic mice combining with other computational and molecular techniques were used to identify transcription regulatory elements including a CCAAT-binding protein Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y). The function of NF-Y in adipocyte was studied in vitro with 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo with adipocyte-specific knockout of NF-Y. Results Using Leptin-BAC luciferase mice, we showed that DNA sequences between −22 kb and +8.8 kb can confer quantitative expression of a leptin reporter. Computational analysis of sequences and gel shift assays identified a 32 bp sequence (chr6: 28993820–2899385) consisting a CCAAT binding site for Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) and this was confirmed by a ChIP assay in vivo. A deletion of this 32 bp sequence in the −22 kb to +8.8 kb leptin-luciferase BAC reporter completely abrogates luciferase reporter activity in vivo. RNAi mediated knockdown of NF-Y interfered with adipogenesis in vitro and adipocyte-specific knockout of NF-Y in mice reduced expression of leptin and other fat specific genes in vivo. Further analyses of the fat specific NF-Y knockout revealed that these animals develop a moderately severe lipodystrophy that is remediable with leptin therapy. Conclusions These studies advance our understanding of leptin gene expression and show that NF-Y controls the expression of leptin and other adipocyte genes and identifies a new form of lipodystrophy. PMID:25973387

  13. Bioluminescence of beetle luciferases with 6'-amino-D-luciferin analogues reveals excited keto-oxyluciferin as the emitter and phenolate/luciferin binding site interactions modulate bioluminescence colors.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Vadim R; Neves, Deimison Rodrigues; Amaral, Danilo Trabuco; Prado, Rogilene A; Matsuhashi, Takuto; Hirano, Takashi

    2014-08-19

    Beetle luciferases produce different bioluminescence colors from green to red using the same d-luciferin substrate. Despite many studies of the mechanisms and structural determinants of bioluminescence colors with firefly luciferases, the identity of the emitters and the specific active site interactions responsible for bioluminescence color modulation remain elusive. To address these questions, we analyzed the bioluminescence spectra with 6'-amino-D-luciferin (aminoluciferin) and its 5,5-dimethyl analogue using a set of recombinant beetle luciferases that naturally elicit different colors and different pH sensitivities (pH-sensitive, Amydetes vivianii λmax=538 nm, Macrolampis sp2 λmax=564 nm; pH-insensitive, Phrixotrix hirtus λmax=623 nm, Phrixotrix vivianii λmax=546 nm, and Pyrearinus termitilluminans λmax=534 nm), a luciferase-like enzyme (Tenebrionidae, Zophobas morio λmax=613 nm), and mutants of C311 (S314). The green-yellow-emitting luciferases display red-shifted bioluminescence spectra with aminoluciferin in relation to those with D-luciferin, whereas the red-emitting luciferases displayed blue-shifted spectra. Bioluminescence spectra with 5,5-dimethylaminoluciferin, in which enolization is blocked, were almost identical to those of aminoluciferin. Fluorescence probing using 2-(4-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonate and inference with aminoluciferin confirm that the luciferin binding site of the red-shifted luciferases is more polar than in the case of the green-yellow-emitting luciferases. Altogether, the results show that the keto form of excited oxyluciferin is the emitter in beetle bioluminescence and that bioluminescence colors are essentially modulated by interactions of the 6'-hydroxy group of oxyluciferin and basic moieties under the influence of the microenvironment polarity of the active site: a strong interaction between a base moiety and oxyluciferin phenol in a hydrophobic microenvironment promotes green-yellow emission, whereas a more polar

  14. Development of a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System Assay To Detect IgG Antibodies against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sangeeta; Crim, Roberta Lynne; Kulkarni, Ashwin; Audet, Susette A.; Mdluli, Thembi; Murata, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    The nucleoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-N) is immunogenic and elicits an IgG response following infection. The RSV-N gene was cloned into a mammalian expression vector, pREN2, and the expressed luciferase-tagged protein (Ruc-N) detected anti-RSV-N-specific IgG antibodies using a high-throughput immunoprecipitation method (the luciferase immunoprecipitation system [LIPS]-NRSV assay). The specificity of the assay was evaluated using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and monospecific pre- and postimmunization rabbit antisera. Blood serum samples from chimpanzees and humans with proven/probable RSV infection were also tested. The pre- and postimmunization serum samples from rabbits given human metapneumovirus (HMPV) or measles virus were negative when tested by the LIPS-NRSV assay, while antisera obtained after immunization with either the RSV-A or RSV-B strain gave positive signals in a dose-dependent manner. RSV-N MAb 858-3 gave a positive signal in the LIPS-NRSV assay, while MAbs against other paramyxovirus nucleoproteins or RSV-F or RSV-G did not. Serum samples from chimpanzees simultaneously immunized with vaccinia-RSV-F and vaccinia-RSV-G recombinant viruses were negative in the LIPS-NRSV assay; however, anti-RSV-N IgG responses were detected following subsequent RSV challenge. Seven of the 12 infants who were seronegative at 9 months of age had detectable anti-RSV-N antibodies when they were retested at 15 to 18 months of age. The LIPS-NRSV assay detects specific anti-RSV-N IgG responses that may be used as a biomarker of RSV infection. PMID:24403526

  15. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  16. Establishment of a novel method to evaluate peritoneal microdissemination and therapeutic effect using luciferase assay.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Yokobori, Takehiko; Osone, Katsuya; Tatsuki, Hironori; Takada, Takahiro; Suto, Toshinaga; Yajima, Reina; Kato, Toshihide; Fujii, Takaaki; Tsutsumi, Souichi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Asao, Takayuki

    2016-03-01

    Peritoneal dissemination is a major cause of recurrence in patients with malignant tumors in the peritoneal cavity. Effective anticancer agents and treatment protocols are necessary to improve outcomes in these patients. However, previous studies using mouse models of peritoneal dissemination have not detected any drug effect against peritoneal micrometastasis. Here we used the luciferase assay to evaluate peritoneal micrometastasis in living animals and established an accurate mouse model of early peritoneal microdissemination to evaluate tumorigenesis and drug efficacy. There was a positive correlation between luminescence intensity in in vivo luciferase assay and the extent of tumor dissemination evaluated by ex vivo luciferase assay and mesenteric weight. This model has advantages over previous models because optimal luciferin concentration without cell damage was validated and peritoneal microdissemination could be quantitatively evaluated. Therefore, it is a useful model to validate peritoneal micrometastasis formation and to evaluate drug efficacy without killing mice. PMID:26716425

  17. Problem areas in the use of the firefly luciferase assay for bacterial detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Knust, E. A.; Tuttle, S. A.; Curtis, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    By purifying the firefly luciferase extract and adding all necessary chemicals but ATP in excess, an assay for ATP was performed by measuring the amount of light produced when a sample containing soluble ATP is added to the luciferase reaction mixture. Instrumentation, applications, and basic characteristics of the luciferase assay are presented. Effect of the growth medium and length of time grown in this medium on ATP per viable E. coli values is shown in graphic form, along with an ATP concentration curve showing relative light units versus ATP injected. Reagent functions and concentration methods are explored. Efforts to develop a fast automatable system to detect the presence of bacteria in biological fluids, especially urine, resulted in the optimization of procedures for use with different types of samples.

  18. Light without substrate amendment: the bacterial luciferase gene cassette as a mammalian bioreporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Dan M.; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby E.; Jegier, Pat; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2011-06-01

    Bioluminescent production represents a facile method for bioreporter detection in mammalian tissues. The lack of endogenous bioluminescent reactions in these tissues allows for high signal to noise ratios even at low signal strength compared to fluorescent signal detection. While the luciferase enzymes commonly employed for bioluminescent detection are those from class Insecta (firefly and click beetle luciferases), these are handicapped in that they require concurrent administration of a luciferin compound to elicit a bioluminescent signal. The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette offers the advantages common to other bioluminescent proteins, but is simultaneously capable of synthesizing its own luciferin substrates using endogenously available cellular compounds. The longstanding shortcoming of the lux cassette has been its recalcitrance to function in the mammalian cellular environment. This paper will present an overview of the work completed to date to overcome this limitation and provide examples of mammalian lux-based bioreporter technologies that could provide the framework for advanced, biomedically relevant real-time sensor development.

  19. Identification of a peroxisomal targeting signal at the carboxy terminus of firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Gould, S G; Keller, G A; Subramani, S

    1987-12-01

    Translocation of proteins across membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, and chloroplast has been shown to be mediated by targeting signals present in the transported proteins. To test whether the transport of proteins into peroxisomes is also mediated by a peptide targeting signal, we have studied the firefly luciferase gene that encodes a protein transported to peroxisomes in both insect and mammalian cells. We have identified two regions of luciferase which are necessary for transport of this protein into peroxisomes. We demonstrate that one of these, region II, represents a peroxisomal targeting signal because it is both necessary and sufficient for directing cytosolic proteins to peroxisomes. The signal is no more than twelve amino acids long and is located at the extreme carboxy-terminus of luciferase. The location of the targeting signal for translocation across the peroxisomal membrane therefore differs from the predominantly amino-terminal location of signals responsible for transport across the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast, or mitochondrion.

  20. Structural basis for the inhibition of firefly luciferase by a general anesthetic.

    PubMed

    Franks, N P; Jenkins, A; Conti, E; Lieb, W R; Brick, P

    1998-11-01

    The firefly luciferase enzyme from Photinus pyralis is probably the best-characterized model system for studying anesthetic-protein interactions. It binds a diverse range of general anesthetics over a large potency range, displays a sensitivity to anesthetics that is very similar to that found in animals, and has an anesthetic sensitivity that can be modulated by one of its substrates (ATP). In this paper we describe the properties of bromoform acting as a general anesthetic (in Rana temporaria tadpoles) and as an inhibitor of the firefly luciferase enzyme at high and low ATP concentrations. In addition, we describe the crystal structure of the low-ATP form of the luciferase enzyme in the presence of bromoform at 2.2-A resolution. These results provide a structural basis for understanding the anesthetic inhibition of the enzyme, as well as an explanation for the ATP modulation of its anesthetic sensitivity.

  1. Construction and analysis of a secreting expression vector for fish cells.

    PubMed

    Collet, Bertrand; Secombes, Christopher J

    2005-02-18

    A new expression plasmid (pcDNA3-LP) was designed to produce and secrete proteins in fish cells by fusion with the rainbow trout TGF-beta leader peptide. The luciferase reporter gene was used to test the secreting ability of this vector. Secreting (pcDNA3-LP-LUC) and non-secreting (pcDNA3-LUC) constructs were made and compared in transient transfection experiments in salmonid (RTG-2) and cyprinid (EPC) cell lines. The amount of luciferase secreted into the supernatants of RTG-2 or EPC cells transiently transfected with pcDNA3-LP-LUC relative to cells transfected with pcDNA3-LUC was 7- and 85-fold, respectively. Two stable clones of EPC transfected with pcDNA3-LUC and four clones transfected with pcDNA3-LP-LUC were isolated. Approximately 90% of the total luciferase activity produced was secreted by stable EPC clones containing pcDNA3-LP-LUC whereas only 5% of total activity was secreted by clones containing pcDNA3-LUC. The two constructs were injected intra-muscularly into rainbow trout and the luciferase activity present in the serum of fish determined. The luciferase activity in serum from fish injected with pcDNA3-LP-LUC was 2.7-fold higher (P<0.05) than that fish injected with pcDNA3-LUC. This new vector opens up opportunities in fish DNA vaccinology and in the production of fish recombinant proteins. PMID:15694505

  2. Titration-based screening for evaluation of natural product extracts: identification of an aspulvinone family of luciferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Patricia G.; Auld, Douglas S.; Schultz, Pamela J.; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; MacArthur, Ryan; Shen, Min; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Inglese, James; Sherman, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical diversity of nature has tremendous potential for discovery of new molecular probes and medicinal agents. However, sensitivity of HTS assays to interfering components of crude extracts derived from plants, macro- and microorganisms has curtailed their use in lead discovery efforts. Here we describe a process for leveraging the concentration-response curves (CRCs) obtained from quantitative HTS to improve the initial selection of “actives” from a library of partially fractionated natural product extracts derived from marine actinomycetes and fungi. By using pharmacological activity, the first-pass CRC paradigm aims to improve the probability that labor-intensive subsequent steps of re-culturing, extraction and bioassay-guided isolation of active component(s) target the most promising strains and growth conditions. We illustrate how this process identified a family of fungal metabolites as potent inhibitors of firefly luciferase, subsequently resolved in molecular detail by x-ray crystallography. PMID:22118678

  3. Thiazolidinediones repress ob gene expression in rodents via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, P; Lefebvre, A M; Miller, S G; Guerre-Millo, M; Wong, K; Saladin, R; Hamann, L G; Staels, B; Briggs, M R; Auwerx, J

    1996-01-01

    The ob gene product, leptin, is a signaling factor regulating body weight and energy balance. ob gene expression in rodents is increased in obesity and is regulated by feeding patterns and hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids. In humans with gross obesity, ob mRNA levels are higher, but other modulators of human ob expression are unknown. In view of the importance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in adipocyte differentiation, we analyzed whether ob gene expression is subject to regulation by factors activating PPARs. Treatment of rats with the PPARalpha activator fenofibrate did not change adipose tissue and body weight and had no significant effect on ob mRNA levels. However, administration of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653, a PPARgamma ligand, increased food intake and adipose tissue weight while reducing ob mRNA levels in rats in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653 on ob mRNA levels was also observed in vitro. Thiazolidinediones reduced the expression of the human ob promoter in primary adipocytes, however, in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes lacking endogenous PPARgamma, cotransfection of PPARgamma was required to observe the decrease. In conclusion, these data suggest that PPARgamma activators reduce ob mRNA levels through an effect of PPARgamma on the ob promoter. PMID:8770873

  4. Thiazolidinediones repress ob gene expression in rodents via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    De Vos, P; Lefebvre, A M; Miller, S G; Guerre-Millo, M; Wong, K; Saladin, R; Hamann, L G; Staels, B; Briggs, M R; Auwerx, J

    1996-08-15

    The ob gene product, leptin, is a signaling factor regulating body weight and energy balance. ob gene expression in rodents is increased in obesity and is regulated by feeding patterns and hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids. In humans with gross obesity, ob mRNA levels are higher, but other modulators of human ob expression are unknown. In view of the importance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in adipocyte differentiation, we analyzed whether ob gene expression is subject to regulation by factors activating PPARs. Treatment of rats with the PPARalpha activator fenofibrate did not change adipose tissue and body weight and had no significant effect on ob mRNA levels. However, administration of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653, a PPARgamma ligand, increased food intake and adipose tissue weight while reducing ob mRNA levels in rats in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653 on ob mRNA levels was also observed in vitro. Thiazolidinediones reduced the expression of the human ob promoter in primary adipocytes, however, in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes lacking endogenous PPARgamma, cotransfection of PPARgamma was required to observe the decrease. In conclusion, these data suggest that PPARgamma activators reduce ob mRNA levels through an effect of PPARgamma on the ob promoter.

  5. P2Y2 receptor activation inhibits the expression of the sodium-chloride cotransporter NCC in distal convoluted tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Gailly, P; Szutkowska, M; Olinger, E; Debaix, H; Seghers, F; Janas, S; Vallon, V; Devuyst, O

    2014-11-01

    Luminal nucleotide stimulation is known to reduce Na(+) transport in the distal nephron. Previous studies suggest that this mechanism may involve the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which plays an essential role in NaCl reabsorption in the cells lining the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Here we show that stimulation of mouse DCT (mDCT) cells with ATP or UTP promoted Ca(2+) transients and decreased the expression of NCC at both mRNA and protein levels. Specific siRNA-mediated silencing of P2Y2 receptors almost completely abolished ATP/UTP-induced Ca(2+) transients and significantly reduced ATP/UTP-induced decrease of NCC expression. To test whether local variations in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) may control NCC transcription, we overexpressed the Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin selectively in the cytosol or in the nucleus of mDCT cells. The decrease in NCC mRNA upon nucleotide stimulation was abolished in cells overexpressing cytosolic PV but not in cells overexpressing either a nuclear-targeted PV or a mutated PV unable to bind Ca(2+). Using a firefly luciferase reporter gene strategy, we observed that the activity of NCC promoter region from -1 to -2,200 bp was not regulated by changes in [Ca(2+)]i. In contrast, high cytosolic calcium level induced instability of NCC mRNA. We conclude that in mDCT cells: (1) P2Y2 receptor is essential for the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling induced by ATP/UTP stimulation; (2) P2Y2-mediated increase of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration down-regulates the expression of NCC; (3) the decrease of NCC expression occurs, at least in part, via destabilization of its mRNA.

  6. Quantum/molecular mechanics study of firefly bioluminescence on luciferase oxidative conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2014-07-01

    This is the first report of a computational study of the color tuning mechanism of firefly bioluminescence, using the oxidative conformation of luciferase. The results of these calculations demonstrated that the electrostatic field generated by luciferase is fundamental both for the emission shift and efficiency. Further calculations indicated that a shift in emission is achieved by modulating the energy, at different degrees, of the emissive and ground states. These differences in energy modulation will then lead to changes in the energy gap between the states.

  7. The vaccinia virus fusion inhibitor proteins SPI-3 (K2) and HA (A56) expressed by infected cells reduce the entry of superinfecting virus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Peter C; Moyer, Richard W

    2008-10-25

    The orthopoxvirus SPI-3 (K2) and A56 (hemagglutinin, HA) proteins interact and together prevent cell-cell fusion. SPI-3/A56 has been proposed to prevent the superinfection of previously infected cells by reducing virus-cell fusion. Binding of mature virions of vaccinia virus (VV) to VV-infected cells was unaffected by SPI-3 or A56 on the surface of infected cells. Entry of VV into infected cells was assessed using VV-P(T7)-luc carrying the luciferase reporter under T7 control. Cells infected with VV or cowpox virus (CPV) expressing T7 RNA polymerase and lacking SPI-3 and/or A56 were superinfected with VV-P(T7)-luc, and luciferase activity was measured. Inactivation of SPI-3 or A56 from the pre-infecting virus resulted in greater luciferase expression from the superinfecting VV-P(T7)-luc. Antibody against SPI-3 present during infection with wild-type CPV-T7 increased luciferase expression from superinfecting VV-P(T7)-luc. The SPI-3/A56 complex on the infected cell surface therefore appears to reduce the entry of virions into infected cells.

  8. The vaccinia virus fusion inhibitor proteins SPI-3 (K2) and HA (A56) expressed by infected cells reduce the entry of superinfecting virus

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Peter C. Moyer, Richard W.

    2008-10-25

    The orthopoxvirus SPI-3 (K2) and A56 (hemagglutinin, HA) proteins interact and together prevent cell-cell fusion. SPI-3/A56 has been proposed to prevent the superinfection of previously infected cells by reducing virus-cell fusion. Binding of mature virions of vaccinia virus (VV) to VV-infected cells was unaffected by SPI-3 or A56 on the surface of infected cells. Entry of VV into infected cells was assessed using VV-P{sub T7}-luc carrying the luciferase reporter under T7 control. Cells infected with VV or cowpox virus (CPV) expressing T7 RNA polymerase and lacking SPI-3 and/or A56 were superinfected with VV-P{sub T7}-luc, and luciferase activity was measured. Inactivation of SPI-3 or A56 from the pre-infecting virus resulted in greater luciferase expression from the superinfecting VV-P{sub T7}-luc. Antibody against SPI-3 present during infection with wild-type CPV-T7 increased luciferase expression from superinfecting VV-P{sub T7}-luc. The SPI-3/A56 complex on the infected cell surface therefore appears to reduce the entry of virions into infected cells.

  9. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  10. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders. PMID:23960123

  11. Quantitative High-Throughput Luciferase Screening in Identifying CAR Modulators.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Wang, Hongbing; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is responsible for the transcription of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. There are two possible methods of activation for CAR, direct ligand binding and a ligand-independent method, which makes this a unique nuclear receptor. Both of these mechanisms require translocation of CAR from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Interestingly, CAR is constitutively active in immortalized cell lines due to the basal nuclear location of this receptor. This creates an important challenge in most in vitro assay models because immortalized cells cannot be used without inhibiting the high basal activity. In this book chapter, we go into detail of how to perform quantitative high-throughput screens to identify hCAR1 modulators through the employment of a double stable cell line. Using this line, we are able to identify activators, as well as deactivators, of the challenging nuclear receptor, CAR. PMID:27518621

  12. CpG-free plasmid expression cassettes for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Ian A; Hyde, Stephen C; Connolly, Mary M; Lawton, Anna E; Xu, Bihui; Nunez-Alonso, Graciela; Davies, Lee A; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Gill, Deborah R

    2012-10-01

    Clinical studies are underway for the aerosol delivery of plasmid DNA complexed with Genzyme Lipid GL67A to the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Plasmid vectors contain several functional elements all of which play a role in determining the efficacy of the final clinical product. To optimise the final plasmid, variations of CpG-free 5' enhancer elements and 3'UTR regions were inserted into a common CpG-free, plasmid backbone containing Luciferase or CFTR transgenes. Plasmids were compared in immortalised cell culture, human airway liquid interface primary cell cultures, and mouse lung models to determine which design directed optimal transgene expression. Following aerosol delivery to mouse lung, plasmids containing the murine CMV enhancer showed higher peak Luciferase activity than the human CMV enhancer, but the human version resulted in persistent expression. In cell culture, the SV40 3'UTR and a novel BGH2 3'UTR exhibited up to 20-fold higher Luciferase activity than the commonly used BGH 3'UTR, but in mouse lung aerosol studies the activity and duration was greater for BGH 3'UTR. Systematic evaluation of each functional component of the plasmid has resulted in an improved design, exhibiting superior levels and duration of lung gene expression. PMID:22727465

  13. Expression and activity of a probable toxin from Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Changkun; Chen, Yongqiang; Qiu, Lihong; Pang, Yi

    2009-04-01

    As an insect pathogen, Photorhabdus luminescens possesses an arsenal of toxins. Here we cloned and expressed a probable toxin from P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii YNd185, designated as Photorhabdus insecticidal toxin (Pit). The pit gene shares 94% nucleotide and 98% predicted amino acid sequence identity with plu1537, a predicted ORF from P. luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01 and 30% predicted amino acid sequence similarity to a fragment of a 13.6 kDa insecticidal crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The pit was expressed as a GST-Pit fusion protein in E. coli, most of which was insoluble and sequestered into inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were harvested and dissolved. The resultant protein was purified and the Pit was cleaved from the fusion protein by thrombin and purified from GST then used for bioassay. Pit killed Galleria mellonella (LD(50), 30 ng/larva) and Spodoptera litura (LD(50), 191 ng/larva) via hemocoel injection. Relative to a control that lacked toxin, Pit did not significantly increase mortality of S. litura and Helicoverpa armigera when introduced orally, but the treatment did inhibit growth of the insects. The present study demonstrated that Pit possessed insecticidal activity. PMID:18409059

  14. Sodium butyrate stimulates NHE8 expression via its role on activating NHE8 basal promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; McCoy, Anthony; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2015-09-15

    Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen. It is produced from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate has been shown to stimulate electroneutral sodium absorption through its regulation on sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3). Although NHE8, the newest addition of intestinal NHE family, is involved in sodium absorption in the intestinal tract, whether butyrate modulates NHE8 expression in the intestinal epithelial cells is not known. In the current study, we showed that butyrate treatment strongly induced NHE8 protein and NHE8 mRNA expression in human intestinal epithelial cells. Transfection with the human NHE8 promoter reporter constructs showed that butyrate treatment stimulated reporter gene expression at an amount comparable with its stimulation of NHE8 mRNA expression. Interestingly, a similar result was also observed in human NHE8 promoter transfected cells after trichostatin (TSA) treatment. Gel mobility shift assay identified an enhanced Sp3 protein binding on the human NHE8 basal promoter region upon butyrate stimulation. Furthermore, Sp3 acetylation modification is involved in butyrate-mediated NHE8 activation in Caco-2 cells. Our findings suggest that the mechanism of butyrate action on NHE8 expression involves enhanced Sp3 interaction at the basal promoter region of the human NHE8 gene promoter to activate NHE8 gene transcription. Thus butyrate is involved in intestinal regulation of NHE8 resulting enhanced sodium absorption.

  15. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  16. Polyphenols from Chilean Propolis and Pinocembrin Reduce MMP-9 Gene Expression and Activity in Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Nicolás; Cuevas, Alejandro; Cavalcante, Marcela F.; Dörr, Felipe A.; Saavedra, Kathleen; Zambrano, Tomás; Abdalla, Dulcineia S. P.; Salazar, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols from diverse sources have shown anti-inflammatory activity. In the context of atherosclerosis, macrophages play important roles including matrix metalloproteinases synthesis involved in degradation of matrix extracellular components affecting the atherosclerotic plaque stability. We prepared a propolis extract and pinocembrin in ethanol solution. Propolis extract was chemically characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatments on gene expression and proteolytic activity was measured in vitro using murine macrophages activated with LPS. Cellular toxicity associated with both treatments and the vehicle was determined using MTT and apoptosis/necrosis detection assays. MMP-9 gene expression and proteolytic activity were measured using qPCR and zymography, respectively. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the propolis extract, including pinocembrin among its major components. Treatment with either ethanolic extract of propolis or pinocembrin inhibits MMP-9 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, an inhibitory effect was observed in proteolytic activity. However, the effect showed by ethanolic extract of propolis was higher than the effect of pinocembrin, suggesting that MMP-9 inhibition results from a joint contribution between the components of the extract. These data suggest a potential role of polyphenols from Chilean propolis in the control of extracellular matrix degradation in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27119082

  17. Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by regulating Bcl-2 expression and its cellular localization.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, F; Martínez-A, C; Camonis, J; Rebollo, A

    1999-01-01

    We searched for proteins that interact with Ras in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated or IL-2-deprived cells, and found that the transcription factor Aiolos interacts with Ras. The Ras-Aiolos interaction was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. Indirect immunofluorescence shows that IL-2 controls the cellular distribution of Aiolos and induces its tyrosine phosphorylation, required for dissociation from Ras. We also identified functional Aiolos-binding sites in the Bcl-2 promoter, which are able to activate the luciferase reporter gene. Mutation of Aiolos-binding sites within the Bcl-2 promoter inhibits transactivation of the reporter gene luciferase, suggesting direct control of Bcl-2 expression by Aiolos. Co-transfection experiments confirm that Aiolos induces Bcl-2 expression and prevents apoptosis in IL-2-deprived cells. We propose a model for the regulation of Bcl-2 expression via Aiolos. PMID:10369681

  18. The 5' leader sequence of mouse mammary tumor virus enhances expression of the envelope and reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Hohenadl, Christine; Gunzburg, Walter H; Salmons, Brian; Indik, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a complex betaretrovirus, which utilizes a Rev-like auxiliary protein Rem to export the unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus. MMTV env mRNA appears to be exported via a distinct, Rem-independent, mechanism. Here, we analysed the effect of an extensively folded region coinciding with the 5' leader sequence on env gene expression. We found that the presence of the 5' leader stimulates expression of the envelope protein. Enhanced Env production was accompanied by increased cytoplasmic levels of env mRNA. The 5' leader promotes nucleocytoplasmic translocation and increases stability of env mRNA. The region responsible for this effect was mapped to the distal part of the 5' leader. Furthermore, the 5' leader inserted in the sense orientation into a heterologous luciferase expression construct increased luciferase activity. PMID:22113011

  19. Lithium induces gene expression through lymphoid enhancer-binding factor/T-cell factor responsive element in rat PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Ezio; Magnani, Enrico; Terstappen, Georg C

    2002-01-01

    Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), which leads to an increase of cytoplasmic beta-catenin levels. In some cell types, but not in others, activated beta-catenin interacts with members of the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF)/T-cell factor (TCF) family of transcription factors and induces gene expression. Lithium effect on LEF/TCF-mediated gene expression has never been evaluated in cells with a neuronal phenotype. We have constructed a LEF/TCF-dependent luciferase reporter gene to investigate lithium effects on transcription in PC12 cells. In transiently transfected PC12 cells, lithium induced a time-dependent increase in LEF/TCF-mediated luciferase activity. These results are consistent with the known inhibitory effects of lithium on GSK-3 and represent the first demonstration that a LEF/TCF responsive element also mediates lithium-induced gene expression in PC12 cells.

  20. Polygonum cuspidatum and Its Active Components Inhibit Replication of the Influenza Virus through Toll-Like Receptor 9-Induced Interferon Beta Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-jen; Lin, Hui-Ju; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-An; Liu, Chin-San; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Wan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus infection is a global public health issue. The effectiveness of antiviral therapies for influenza has been limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel antiviral therapies. Here we tested the effects of 300 traditional Chinese medicines on the replication of various influenza virus strains in a lung cell line, A549, using an influenza-specific luciferase reporter assay. Of the traditional medicines tested, Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) and its active components, resveratrol and emodin, were found to attenuate influenza viral replication in A549 cells. Furthermore, they preferentially inhibited the replication of influenza A virus, including clinical strains isolated in 2009 and 2011 in Taiwan and the laboratory strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). In addition to inhibiting the expression of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, PC, emodin, and resveratrol also increased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Moreover, the anti-viral activity of IFN-β or resveratrol was reduced when the A549 cells were treated with neutralizing anti-IFN-β antibodies or a TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that IFN-β likely acts synergistically with resveratrol to inhibit H1N1 replication. This potential antiviral mechanism, involving direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host immune response, has not been previously described for a single antiviral molecule. In conclusion, our data support the use of PC, resveratrol or emodin for inhibiting influenza virus replication directly and via TLR-9–induced IFN-β production. PMID:25658356

  1. Polygonum cuspidatum and its active components inhibit replication of the influenza virus through toll-like receptor 9-induced interferon beta expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Lin, Hui-Ju; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-An; Liu, Chin-San; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Wan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus infection is a global public health issue. The effectiveness of antiviral therapies for influenza has been limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel antiviral therapies. Here we tested the effects of 300 traditional Chinese medicines on the replication of various influenza virus strains in a lung cell line, A549, using an influenza-specific luciferase reporter assay. Of the traditional medicines tested, Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) and its active components, resveratrol and emodin, were found to attenuate influenza viral replication in A549 cells. Furthermore, they preferentially inhibited the replication of influenza A virus, including clinical strains isolated in 2009 and 2011 in Taiwan and the laboratory strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). In addition to inhibiting the expression of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, PC, emodin, and resveratrol also increased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Moreover, the anti-viral activity of IFN-β or resveratrol was reduced when the A549 cells were treated with neutralizing anti-IFN-β antibodies or a TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that IFN-β likely acts synergistically with resveratrol to inhibit H1N1 replication. This potential antiviral mechanism, involving direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host immune response, has not been previously described for a single antiviral molecule. In conclusion, our data support the use of PC, resveratrol or emodin for inhibiting influenza virus replication directly and via TLR-9-induced IFN-β production. PMID:25658356

  2. Adult Schistosoma mansoni express cathepsin L proteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Dalton, J P; Clough, K A; Kilbane, C L; Harrop, S A; Hole, N; Brindley, P J

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the deduced amino acid sequence of a novel cathepsin L proteinase from Schistosoma mansoni, and describes cathepsin L-like activity in extracts of adult schistosomes. Using consensus primers specific for cysteine proteinases, gene fragments were amplified from adult S. mansoni cDNA by PCR and cloned. One of these fragments showed marked identity to Sm31, the cathepsin B cysteine proteinase of adult S. mansoni, whereas another differed from Sm31 and was employed as a probe to isolate two cDNAs from an adult S. mansoni gene library. Together these cDNAs encoded a novel preprocathepsin L of 319 amino acids; this zymogen is predicted to be processed in vivo into a mature, active cathepsin L proteinase of 215 amino acids. Closest homologies were with cathepsins L from rat, mouse, and chicken (46-47% identity). Southern hybridization analysis suggested that only one or a few copies of the gene was present per genome, demonstrated that its locus was distinct from that of Sm31, and that a homologous sequence was present in Schistosoma japonicum. Because these results indicated that schistosomes expressed a cathepsin L proteinase, extracts of adult S. mansoni were examined for acidic, cysteine proteinase activity. Based on rates of cleavage of peptidyl substrates employed to discriminate between classes of cysteine proteinases, namely cathepsin L (Z-phe-arg-AMC), cathepsin B (Z-arg-arg-AMC) and cathepsin H (Bz-arg-AMC), the extracts were found to contain vigorous cathepsin L-like activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay on Human, Murine and Rat Histamine H4 Receptor Orthologs: Correlations and Discrepancies between Distal and Proximal Readouts

    PubMed Central

    Nordemann, Uwe; Wifling, David; Schnell, David; Bernhardt, Günther; Stark, Holger; Seifert, Roland; Buschauer, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the (patho)physiological role of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) and its validation as a possible drug target in translational animal models are compromised by distinct species-dependent discrepancies regarding potencies and receptor subtype selectivities of the pharmacological tools. Such differences were extremely pronounced in case of proximal readouts, e. g. [32P]GTPase or [35S]GTPγS binding assays. To improve the predictability of in vitro investigations, the aim of this study was to establish a reporter gene assay for human, murine and rat H4Rs, using bioluminescence as a more distal readout. For this purpose a cAMP responsive element (CRE) controlled luciferase reporter gene assay was established in HEK293T cells, stably expressing the human (h), the mouse (m) or the rat (r) H4R. The potencies and efficacies of 23 selected ligands (agonists, inverse agonists and antagonists) were determined and compared with the results obtained from proximal readouts. The potencies of the examined ligands at the human H4R were consistent with reported data from [32P]GTPase or [35S]GTPγS binding assays, despite a tendency toward increased intrinsic efficacies of partial agonists. The differences in potencies of individual agonists at the three H4R orthologs were generally less pronounced compared to more proximal readouts. In conclusion, the established reporter gene assay is highly sensitive and reliable. Regarding discrepancies compared to data from functional assays such as [32P]GTPase and [35S]GTPγS binding, the readout may reflect multifactorial causes downstream from G-protein activation, e.g. activation/amplification of or cross-talk between different signaling pathways. PMID:24023919

  4. Construction of luciferase reporter bacteriophage A511::luxAB for rapid and sensitive detection of viable Listeria cells.

    PubMed Central

    Loessner, M J; Rees, C E; Stewart, G S; Scherer, S

    1996-01-01

    Specific transfer and expression of bacterial luciferase genes via bacteriophages provides an efficient way to detect and assay viable host cells. Listeria bacteriophage A511 is a genus-specific, virulent myovirus which infects 95% of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2 and 4 cells. We constructed recombinant derivative A511::luxAB, which carries the gene for a fused Vibrio harveyi LuxAB protein inserted immediately downstream of the major capsid protein gene (cps). Efficient transcription is initiated by the powerful cps promoter at 15 to 20 min postinfection. Site-specific introduction of the luciferase gene into the phage genome was achieved by homologous recombination in infected cells between a plasmid carrying A511 DNA flanking luxAB and phage DNA. Recombinants occurred in the lysate at a frequency of 5 x 10(-4) and were readily identified by the bioluminescent phenotype conferred on newly infected host cells. A511::luxAB can be used to directly detect Listeria cells. Following infection and a 2-h incubation period, numbers as low as 5 x 10(2) to 10(3) cells per ml were detected by using a single-tube luminometer. Extreme sensitivity was achieved by including an enrichment step prior to the lux phage assay; under these conditions less than 1 cell of L. monocytogenes Scott A per g of artificially contaminated salad was clearly identified. The assay is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and easy to perform. Our findings indicate that A511::luxAB is useful for routine screening of foods and environmental samples for Listeria cells. PMID:8919773

  5. The Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer from Firefly Luciferase to a Synthetic Dye and its Application for the Rapid Homogeneous Immunoassay of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Daria V; Samsonova, Jeanne V; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2016-01-01

    The sensitive BRET system for the homogeneous immunoassay of a low-molecular weight antigen was developed using progesterone as an example. Two thermostable mutants of the Luciola mingrelica firefly luciferase (Luc)-the "red" mutant with λmax.em = 590 nm (RedLuc) and the "green" mutant with λmax.em = 550 nm (GreenLuc)-were tested as the donors. The water-soluble Alexa Fluor 610× (AF) dye was selected as the acceptor because its two absorption maxima, located at 550 and 610 nm, are close to the bioluminescence maxima of the GreenLuc and RedLuc, respectively. The methods for the synthesis of the luciferase-progesterone (Luc-Pg) conjugate and the conjugate of the dye and the polyclonal antiprogesterone antibody (AF-Ab) were developed. Both conjugates retained their functional properties, had high antigen-antibody binding activity, and demonstrated a high BRET signal. The homogeneous immunoassay system based on the BRET from the firefly luciferase to the synthetic dye was established to assay progesterone as a model antigen. Optimization of the assay conditions, the composition of the reaction mixture, and the concentrations of the donor and the acceptor made it possible to reach the minimum detectable progesterone concentration of 0.5 ng mL(-1) . PMID:26650341

  6. Discovery of 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-1,4,2-dioxazoles as potent firefly luciferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Pekka K; Palvimo, Jorma J; Hinkkanen, Ari E; Valkonen, Arto; Väisänen, Topi K; Laatikainen, Reino; Pulkkinen, Juha T

    2013-02-14

    Luciferase reporter assays are commonly used in high-throughput screening methods. Here, we report new firefly luciferase (FLuc) inhibitors based on 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and 5-benzyl-3-phenyl-1,4,2-dioxazoles, which showed up as "false positives" in a luciferase reporter gene-based assay for nuclear receptor antagonists. The inhibition was shown to be noncompetitive for both natural enzyme substrates (d-luciferin and ATP) and selective to FLuc and proven to arise from a direct interaction between the enzyme and the inhibitor. Of the 63 evaluated compounds, 28 showed significantly better inhibition potency than the well-known inhibitor resveratrol (IC(50) = 59 nM), with five compounds having distinctly subnanomolar IC(50) values. The most efficient compounds inhibited the luminescence at concentrations lower than (1)/(100) in comparison to resveratrol (lowest IC(50) = 0.26 nM) and can thus be considered to belong to the most potent FLuc inhibitors reported thus far. Overall, the novel inhibitors form a unique molecular library for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses.

  7. Protein sterilization method of firefly luciferase using reduced pressure and molecular sieves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Rich, E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The sterilization of the protein fruitfly luciferase under conditions that prevent denaturation is examined. Denaturation is prevented by heating the protein in contact with molecular seives and under a reduced pressure of the order of 0.00005 millimeters of mercury.

  8. c-Src mediates thrombin-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Chin; Chen, Bing-Chang

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we examined the regulation of NF-kappaB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 expression by thrombin in human lung epithelial cells (EC). Thrombin caused a concentration-dependent increase in IL-8/CXCL8 release in a human lung EC line (A549) and primary normal human bronchial EC. In A549 cells, thrombin, SFLLRN-NH2 (a protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) agonist peptide), and GYPGQV-NH2 (a PAR4 agonist peptide), but not TFRGAP-NH2 (a PAR3 agonist peptide), induced an increase in IL-8/CXCL8-luciferase (Luc) activity. The thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 release was attenuated by D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone (a thrombin inhibitor), U73122 (a phosphoinositide-phospholipase C inhibitor), Ro-32-0432 (a protein kinsase C alpha (PKC alpha) inhibitor), an NF-kappaB inhibitor peptide, and Bay 117082 (an IkappaB phosphorylation inhibitor). Thrombin-induced increase in IL-8/CXCL8-Luc activity was inhibited by the dominant-negative mutant of c-Src and the cells transfected with the kappaB site mutation of the IL-8/CXCL8 construct. Thrombin caused time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of c-Src at tyrosine 416 and c-Src activity. Thrombin-elicited c-Src activity was inhibited by Ro-32-0432. Stimulation of cells with thrombin activated IkappaB kinase alphabeta (IKK alphabeta), IkappaB alpha phosphorylation, IkappaB alpha degradation, p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, NF-kappaB-specific DNA-protein complex formation, and kappaB-Luc activity. Pretreatment of A549 cells with Ro-32-4032 and the dominant-negative mutant of c-Src DN inhibited thrombin-induced IKK alphabeta activity, kappaB-Luc activity, and NF-kappaB-specific DNA-protein complex formation. Further studies revealed that thrombin induced PKC alpha, c-Src, and IKK alphabeta complex formation. These results show for the first time that thrombin, acting through PAR1 and PAR4, activates the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C/PKC alpha/c-Src/IKK alphabeta signaling pathway

  9. Firefly luciferase in chemical biology: A compendium of inhibitors, mechanistic evaluation of chemotypes, and suggested use as a reporter

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Natasha; Shen, Min; Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton; Lovell, Scott; Auld, Douglas S.; Inglese, James

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Firefly luciferase (FLuc) is frequently used as a reporter in high-throughput screening assays owing to the exceptional sensitivity, dynamic range, and rapid measurement that bioluminescence affords. However, interaction of small molecules with FLuc has, to some extent, confounded its use in chemical biology and drug discovery. To identify and characterize chemotypes interacting with FLuc, we determined potency values for 360,864 compounds, found in the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository, available in PubChem. FLuc inhibitory activity was observed for 12% of this library with discernible SAR. Characterization of 151 inhibitors demonstrated a variety of inhibition modes including FLuc-catalyzed formation of multisubstrate-adduct enzyme inhibitor complexes. As in some cell-based FLuc reporter assays compounds acting as FLuc inhibitors yield paradoxical luminescence increases, data on compounds acquired from FLuc-dependent assays requires careful analysis as described in this report. PMID:22921073

  10. Firefly luciferase in chemical biology: a compendium of inhibitors, mechanistic evaluation of chemotypes, and suggested use as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Natasha; Shen, Min; Lea, Wendy A; Simeonov, Anton; Lovell, Scott; Auld, Douglas S; Inglese, James

    2012-08-24

    Firefly luciferase (FLuc) is frequently used as a reporter in high-throughput screening assays, owing to the exceptional sensitivity, dynamic range, and rapid measurement that bioluminescence affords. However, interaction of small molecules with FLuc has, to some extent, confounded its use in chemical biology and drug discovery. To identify and characterize chemotypes interacting with FLuc, we determined potency values for 360,864 compounds found in the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository, available in PubChem. FLuc inhibitory activity was observed for 12% of this library with discernible SAR. Characterization of 151 inhibitors demonstrated a variety of inhibition modes, including FLuc-catalyzed formation of multisubstrate adduct enzyme inhibitor complexes. As in some cell-based FLuc reporter assays, compounds acting as FLuc inhibitors yield paradoxical luminescence increases, thus data on compounds acquired from FLuc-dependent assays require careful analysis as described here.

  11. Apoptotic cells actively inhibit the expression of CD69 on Con A activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Zhang, L; Zeng, Y; Ge, Q; Zhao, M; Gao, W

    2000-03-01

    Although apoptosis is commonly viewed as a silent cell death without damage to adjacent tissues, the effect of apoptosis on immunity has been unclear. We have investigated the influence of apoptotic cells on T-cell activation. The K562 or HL-60 human leukemia cell lines that had been induced apoptosis by FTY720 or cycloheximide (CHX) were added into the culture of mouse spleen cells stimulated with Con A. Six to 20 h later, the expression of CD69, an early T-cell activation antigen, was detected using flowcytometry. Living cells and necrotic cells served as control groups. Apoptotic K562 or HL-60 cells induced by either FTY720 or CHX unanimously inhibited CD69 expression on the CD3+ mouse T cells while living and necrotic cells did not. The inhibition was proportional to the number of apoptotic cells and was different in the T-cell subsets, showing a rapid and transient inhibition on the CD3+CD8+ T-cell activation but with a slow and continuous inhibition on CD3+CD8- T-cell activation. In conclusion, the apoptotic cells actively inhibit a T-cell activation that is independent of the cell lines or the apoptotic inducers, indicating that the apoptotic cells dominantly regulate T-cell immunity. PMID:10736091

  12. Cotton WRKY1 mediates the plant defense-to-development transition during infection of cotton by Verticillium dahliae by activating JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; He, Xin; Luo, Xiangyin; Xu, Li; Liu, Linlin; Min, Ling; Jin, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-12-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate signaling network to ensure an appropriate level of immune response to meet the differing demands of developmental processes. Previous research has demonstrated that DELLA proteins physically interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and dynamically regulate the interaction of the gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. However, whether and how the JAZ1-DELLA regulatory node is regulated at the transcriptional level in plants under normal growth conditions or during pathogen infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate multiple functions of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) GbWRKY1 in the plant defense response and during development. Although GbWRKY1 expression is induced rapidly by methyl jasmonate and infection by Verticillium dahliae, our results show that GbWRKY1 is a negative regulator of the JA-mediated defense response and plant resistance to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and V. dahliae. Under normal growth conditions, GbWRKY1-overexpressing lines displayed GA-associated phenotypes, including organ elongation and early flowering, coupled with the down-regulation of the putative targets of DELLA. We show that the GA-related phenotypes of GbWRKY1-overexpressing plants depend on the constitutive expression of Gossypium hirsutum GhJAZ1. We also show that GhJAZ1 can be transactivated by GbWRKY1 through TGAC core sequences, and the adjacent sequences of this binding site are essential for binding specificity and affinity to GbWRKY1, as revealed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, our data suggest that GbWRKY1 is a critical regulator mediating the plant defense-to-development transition during V. dahliae infection by activating JAZ1 expression.

  13. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Anna M

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called diabodies, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  14. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  15. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  16. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  17. The study of regulatory effects of Pdx-1, MafA and NeuroD1 on the activity of porcine insulin promoter and the expression of human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dan; Ruan, Jin-Xue; Xia, Ji-Han; Yang, Shu-Lin; Fan, Jun-Hua; Li, Kui

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the activation of porcine insulin promoter (PIP) by three transcription factors: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (MafA) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) in non-beta islet cells cultured in vitro. In addition, the expression of the exogenous human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) gene driving by PIP in porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells co-transfected with these transcription factors was also examined. In the present study, a series of vectors for gene overexpression were constructed, including pGL3-Pdx-1, pGL3-MafA, pGL3-NeuroD1, pGL3-PIP-LUC and pcDNA3.1-PIP-hIAPP. The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that the PIP activity was increased in PK15 cells when overexpressing the exogenous transcription factors Pdx-1, MafA and NeuroD1. Introducing the PIP-hIAPP expression vector into PK15 cells combined with exogenous Pdx-1, MafA and NeuroD1 resulted in the efficient expression of hIAPP at the gene level, but not the protein. The current systematic porcine insulin promoter analysis provided the basic information for future utilization of porcine insulin.

  18. Effect of geldanamycin on the kinetics of chaperone-mediated renaturation of firefly luciferase in rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Thulasiraman, V; Matts, R L

    1996-10-15

    Renaturation of thermally denatured firefly luciferase in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) requires hsp90, hsc70, and other as yet unidentified RRL components [Schumacher, R.J., et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 9493-9499]. Benzoquinonoid ansamycins (BAs) have recently been shown to specifically bind hsp90 and inhibit its function. In this report, we present data that indicate BAs are specific inhibitors of hsp90 function. The effects of the BA geldanamycin (GA) on the kinetics of the luciferase renaturation in RRL were examined to gain insight into the mechanism by which GA inhibits the function of the hsp90 chaperone machinery. Chaperone-mediated renaturation of luciferase obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The GA inhibited luciferase renaturation uncompetitively with respect to ATP concentration and noncompetitively with respect to luciferase concentration, indicating that GA binds after the binding of ATP and that it binds to both the hsp90 chaperone machine/ATP complex and the hsp90 chaperone machine/ATP/luciferase complex. GA markedly decreased the Kapp of the hsp90 chaperone machine for ATP, suggesting that GA increases the binding affinity of the hsp90 chaperone machinery for ATP or it slows the rate of ATP hydrolysis. Consistent with the notion that GA specifically binds hsp90 and inhibits its function, addition of hsp90, but not hsc70, p60, or p23, reversed GA-induced inhibition of luciferase renaturation in RRL. Hsp90, hsc70, and the hsp cohorts p60, p48, and p23 were coimmunoprecipitated with luciferase from RRL. GA increased the steady-state levels of luciferase associated with hsp90/hsp70 chaperone machine complexes that contain p60 and blocked the association of the hsp90 cohort p23 with chaperone-bound luciferase. The data suggest that the function of the hsp90 chaperone machinery is not specific to its previously described interaction with steroid hormone receptors, and that it carries out some more generalized function in vivo.

  19. Gene-expression reversal of lncRNAs and associated mRNAs expression in active vs latent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan; Sagar, Vidya; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between lncRNAs and mRNAs is rapidly emerging as a key epigenetic mechanism in controlling various cell functions. HIV can actively infect and/or can persist latently for years by manipulating host epigenetics; however, its molecular essence remains undiscovered in entirety. Here for the first time, we delineate the influence of HIV on global lncRNAs expression in monocytic cells lines. Our analysis revealed the expression modulation of nearly 1060 such lncRNAs which are associated with differentially expressed mRNAs in active and latent infection. This suggests a greater role of lncRNAs in regulating transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression during HIV infection. The differentially expressed mRNAs were involved in several different biological pathways where immunological networks were most enriched. Importantly, we discovered that HIV induces expression reversal of more than 150 lncRNAs between its active and latent infection. Also, hundreds of unique lncRNAs were identified in both infection conditions. The pathology specific “gene-expression reversal” and “on-and-off” switching of lncRNAs and associated mRNAs may lead to establish the relationship between active and HIV infection. PMID:27756902

  20. Expression, activation, and role of AKT isoforms in the uterus.

    PubMed

    Fabi, François; Asselin, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The three isoforms of AKT: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, are crucial regulators of both normal and pathological cellular processes. Each of these isoforms exhibits a high level of homology and functional redundancy with each other. However, while being highly similar and structurally homologous, a rising amount of evidence is showing that each isoform possesses specific targets as well as preferential subcellular localization. The role of AKT has been studied extensively in reproductive processes, but isoform-specific roles are yet to be fully understood. This review will focus on the role of AKT in the uterus and its function in processes related to cell death and proliferation such as embryo implantation, decidualization, endometriosis, and endometrial cancer in an isoform-centric manner. In this review, we will cover the activation of AKT in various settings, localization of isoforms in subcellular compartments, and the effect of isoform expression on cellular processes. To fully understand the dynamic molecular processes taking place in the uterus, it is crucial that we better understand the physiological role of AKT isoforms as well as their function in the emergence of diseases.

  1. Replication-Competent Influenza Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Luciferase Reporter Strains Engineered for Co-Infections Identify Antiviral Compounds in Combination Screens

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Weisshaar, Marco; Lamb, Kristen; Chung, Hokyung K; Lin, Michael Z; Plemper, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    Myxoviruses such as influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major human pathogens, mandating the development of novel therapeutics. To establish a high-throughput screening protocol for the simultaneous identification of pathogen- and host-targeted hit candidates against either or both pathogens, we have attempted coinfection of cells with IAV and RSV. However, viral replication kinetics were incompatible, RSV signal window was low, and an IAV-driven minireplicon reporter assay used in initial screens narrowed the host cell range and restricted to single-cycle infections. To overcome these limitations, we developed an RSV strain carrying firefly luciferase fused to an innovative universal small-molecule assisted shut-off domain, which boosted assay signal window, and a hyperactive fusion protein that synchronized IAV and RSV reporter expression kinetics and suppresses the identification of RSV entry inhibitors sensitive to a recently reported RSV pan-resistance mechanism. Combined with a replication-competent recombinant IAV strain harboring nano-luciferase, the assay performed well on a human respiratory cell line and supports multi-cycle infections. Miniaturized to 384-well format, the protocol was validated through screening of a set of the NIH Clinical Collection (NCC) in quadruplicate. These test screens demonstrated favorable assay parameters and reproducibility. Application to a LOPAC library of bioactive compounds in a proof-of-concept campaign detected licensed anti-myxovirus therapeutics, ribavirin and the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir, and identified two unexpected RSV-specific hit candidates, Fenretinide and the opioid receptor antagonist BNTX-7. Hits were evaluated in direct and orthogonal dose-response counterscreens using a standard recRSV reporter strain expressing renilla luciferase. PMID:26307636

  2. Identification of a DYRK1A Inhibitor that Induces Degradation of the Target Kinase using Co-chaperone CDC37 fused with Luciferase nanoKAZ.

    PubMed

    Sonamoto, Rie; Kii, Isao; Koike, Yuka; Sumida, Yuto; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Okuno, Yukiko; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase family includes attractive targets for drug development. Methods for screening of kinase inhibitors remain largely limited to in vitro catalytic assays. It has been shown that ATP-competitive inhibitors antagonize interaction between the target kinase and kinase-specific co-chaperone CDC37 in living cells. Here we show a cell-based method to screen kinase inhibitors using fusion protein of CDC37 with a mutated catalytic 19-kDa component of Oplophorus luciferase, nanoKAZ (CDC37-nanoKAZ). A dual-specificity kinase DYRK1A, an importance of which has been highlighted in Alzheimer's disease, was targeted in this study. We established 293T cells stably expressing CDC37-nanoKAZ, and analyzed interaction between CDC37-nanoKAZ and DYRK1A. We revealed that DYRK1A interacted with CDC37-nanoKAZ. Importantly, point mutations that affect autophosphorylation strengthened the interaction, thus improving signal/noise ratio of the interaction relative to non-specific binding of CDC37-nanoKAZ. This high signal/noise ratio enabled screening of chemical library that resulted in identification of a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A, named CaNDY. CaNDY induced selective degradation of DYRK1A, and inhibited catalytic activity of recombinant DYRK1A with IC50 value of 7.9 nM by competing with ATP. This method based on a mutant target kinase and a bioluminescence-eliciting co-chaperone CDC37 could be applicable to evaluation and development of inhibitors targeting other kinases. PMID:26234946

  3. Folding, stability, and physical properties of the alpha subunit of bacterial luciferase.

    PubMed

    Noland, B W; Dangott, L J; Baldwin, T O

    1999-12-01

    Bacterial luciferase is a heterodimeric (alphabeta) enzyme composed of homologous subunits. When the Vibrio harveyi luxA gene is expressed in Escherichia coli, the alpha subunit accumulates to high levels. The alpha subunit has a well-defined near-UV circular dichroism spectrum and a higher intrinsic fluorescence than the heterodimer, demonstrating fluorescence quenching in the enzyme which is reduced in the free subunit [Sinclair, J. F., Waddle, J. J., Waddill, W. F., and Baldwin, T. O. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 5036-5044]. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the alpha subunit has revealed a reversible monomer to dimer equilibrium with a dissociation constant of 14.9 +/- 4.0 microM at 18 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate and 100 mM NaCl, pH 7.0. The alpha subunit unfolded and refolded reversibly in urea-containing buffers by a three-state mechanism. The first transition occurred over the range of 0-2 M urea with an associated free-energy change of 2.24 +/- 0.25 kcal/mol at 18 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. The second, occurring between 2.5 and 3.5 M urea, comprised a cooperative transition with a free-energy change of 6.50 +/- 0.75 kcal/mol. The intermediate species, populated maximally at ca. 2 M urea, has defined near-UV circular dichroism spectral properties distinct from either the native or the denatured states. The intrinsic fluorescence of the intermediate suggested that, although the quantum yield had decreased, the tryptophanyl residues remained largely buried. The far-UV circular dichroism spectrum of the intermediate indicated that it had lost ca. 40% of its native secondary structure. N-Terminal sequencing of the products of limited proteolysis of the intermediate showed that the C-terminal region of the alpha subunit became protease labile over the urea concentration range at which the intermediate was maximally populated. These observations have led us to propose an unfolding model in which the first transition is the unfolding of a C

  4. Network activity-independent coordinated gene expression program for synapse assembly

    PubMed Central

    Valor, Luis M.; Charlesworth, Paul; Humphreys, Lawrence; Anderson, Chris N. G.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2007-01-01

    Global biological datasets generated by genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics provide new approaches to understanding the relationship between the genome and the synapse. Combined transcriptome analysis and multielectrode recordings of neuronal network activity were used in mouse embryonic primary neuronal cultures to examine synapse formation and activity-dependent gene regulation. Evidence for a coordinated gene expression program for assembly of synapses was observed in the expression of 642 genes encoding postsynaptic and plasticity proteins. This synaptogenesis gene expression program preceded protein expression of synapse markers and onset of spiking activity. Continued expression was followed by maturation of morphology and electrical neuronal networks, which was then followed by the expression of activity-dependent genes. Thus, two distinct sequentially active gene expression programs underlie the genomic programs of synapse function. PMID:17360580

  5. CD1d induction in solid tumor cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Pei-Jie; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2012-04-01

    CD1d is a MHC class-like molecule that presents glycolipids to natural killer T (NKT) cells, then regulates innate and adaptive immunity. The regulation of CD1d gene expression in solid tumors is still largely unknown. Gene expression can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), induced CD1d gene expression in human (A549 and NCI-H292) and mouse (TC-1 and B16/F0) cancer cells. Simultaneous knockdown of HDAC1 and 2 induced CD1d gene expression. Sp1 inhibitor mitramycin A (MTM) blocked TSA- and SAHA-induced CD1d mRNA expression and Sp1 luciferase activity. Co-transfection of GAL4-Sp1 and Fc-luciferase reporters demonstrated that TSA and SAHA induced Sp1 luciferase reporter activity by enhancing Sp1 transactivation activity. The binding of Sp1 to CD1d promoter and histone H3 acetylation on Sp1 sites were increased by TSA and SAHA. These results indicate that TSA and SAHA could up-regulate CD1d expression in tumor cells through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1. PMID:22419072

  6. Two functional polymorphisms of ROCK2 enhance arterial stiffening through inhibiting its activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Liu, Ping-Yen; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Liao, James K; Juo, Suh-Hang H

    2015-02-01

    Derangement of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) has been related to coronary artery disease and stroke. ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, plays a predominant role in vascular contractility. The present study aims to test (1) the associations between ROCK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and arterial stiffness, and (2) the molecular mechanism accounting for their effects. Stiffness parameters including beta (β), elasticity modulus (Ep) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were obtained by carotid ultrasonography. Seven tagging SNPs of ROCK2 were initially genotyped in 856 subjects and significant SNPs were replicated in another group of 527 subjects. Two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found to be significantly associated with arterial stiffness. The major alleles of rs978906 (A allele) and rs9808232 (C allele) were associated with stiffer arteries. SNP rs978906 was predicted to influence microRNA(miR)-1183 binding to ROCK2, while rs9808232 causes amino acid substitution. To determine their functional impact, plasmid constructs carrying different alleles of the significant SNPs were created. Compared to rs978906G-allele constructs, cells transfected with rs978906A-allele constructs had higher baseline luciferase activities and were less responsive to miR-1183 changes. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) suppressed miR-1183 levels and increased ROCK2 protein amounts. For rs9808232, cells transfected with C-allele constructs had significantly higher ROCK activities than those with A-allele constructs. Leukocyte ROCK activities were further measured in 52 healthy subjects. The average ROCK activity was highest in human subjects with CC genotype at rs9808232, followed by those with AC and lowest in AA. Taken together, the present study showed that two functional SNPs of ROCK2 increase susceptibility of arterial stiffness in the Chinese population. Non-synonymous SNP rs9808232 influences ROCK2 activity, while 3' UTR SNP rs978906 affects the ROCK2 protein

  7. Two functional polymorphisms of ROCK2 enhance arterial stiffening through inhibiting its activity and expression

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Liu, Ping-Yen; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Liao, James K.; Juo, Suh-Hang H.

    2016-01-01

    Derangement of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) has been related to coronary artery disease and stroke. ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, plays a predominant role in vascular contractility. The present study aims to test (1) the associations between ROCK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and arterial stiffness, and (2) the molecular mechanism accounting for their effects. Stiffness parameters including beta (β), elasticity modulus (Ep) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were obtained by carotid ultrasonography. Seven tagging SNPs of ROCK2 were initially genotyped in 856 subjects and significant SNPs were replicated in another group of 527 subjects. Two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found to be significantly associated with arterial stiffness. The major alleles of rs978906 (A allele) and rs9808232 (C allele) were associated with stiffer arteries. SNP rs978906 was predicted to influence microRNA(miR)-1183 binding to ROCK2, while rs9808232 causes amino acid substitution. To determine their functional impact, plasmid constructs carrying different alleles of the significant SNPs were created. Compared to rs978906G-allele constructs, cells transfected with rs978906A-allele constructs had higher baseline luciferase activities and were less responsive to miR-1183 changes. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) suppressed miR-1183 levels and increased ROCK2 protein amounts. For rs9808232, cells transfected with C-allele constructs had significantly higher ROCK activities than those with A-allele constructs. Leukocyte ROCK activities were further measured in 52 healthy subjects. The average ROCK activity was highest in human subjects with CC genotype at rs9808232, followed by those with AC and lowest in AA. Taken together, the present study showed that two functional SNPs of ROCK2 increase susceptibility of arterial stiffness in the Chinese population. Non-synonymous SNP rs9808232 influences ROCK2 activity, while 3' UTR SNP rs978906 affects the ROCK2 protein

  8. Anger expression and natural killer cell activity in family caregivers participating in a physical activity trial.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, S; King, A C; Vitaliano, P P; Brassington, G S

    2000-07-01

    Associations between psychological functioning and natural killer cell activity (NKA) were examined in 23 older (62.2 ± 7.5 years) family caregivers randomized to a moderate intensity four-month exercise program or to a wait-list control condition. At baseline, although NKA was related to anger-control (r = -.42; trend p < .06) and anger-out (r = .50; p < .03), it was not related to depression, anxiety, perceived stress, or caregiver burden. After controlling for baseline NKA, changes in anger-control explained 14 percent of the variance in NKA four months later. Decreases in anger-control predicted increases in NKA. Group assignment (exercise vs control) was unrelated to changes in NKA over the four-month period; however, the study was not powered to detect this effect. These results are consistent with reported relationships of anger expression with other physiological measures, and extend the importance of anger expression to immune functioning in older family caregivers.

  9. Activated human B lymphocytes express three CTLA-4 counterreceptors that costimulate T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Boussiotis, V A; Freeman, G J; Gribben, J G; Daley, J; Gray, G; Nadler, L M

    1993-01-01

    Signaling via the T-cell receptor complex is necessary but not sufficient to induce antigen-specific T lymphocytes to expand clonally. To proliferate, T cells must receive one or more costimulatory signals provided by antigen presenting cells (APCs). One such critical costimulatory signal is delivered by the CD28/CTLA-4 counterreceptor, B7, expressed on APCs. B7 costimulation induces CD28 signaling, resulting in interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion, and T-cell proliferation. Conversely, T-cell receptor signaling in the absence of B7 costimulation results in induction of antigen-specific tolerance. Here, we show that activated human B lymphocytes express two additional CTLA-4 counterreceptors also capable of providing T-cell costimulation. At 24 hr postactivation, B cells express a CTLA-4 counterreceptor not recognized by anti-B7 or -BB-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which induces detectable IL-2 secretion and T-cell proliferation. At 48 and 72 hr postactivation, B cells express both B7 and a third CTLA-4 counterreceptor identified by the anti-BB-1 mAb. BB-1 appears to be a molecule distinct from B7 by its expression on B7- cells and its capacity to induce T cells to proliferate without significant accumulation of IL-2. As observed for B7, costimulatory signals mediated by these alternative CTLA-4/CD28 counterreceptors are likely to be essential for generation of an immune response and their absence may result in antigen-specific tolerance. We propose the following terminology for these CTLA-4 counterreceptors: (i) B7, B7-1; (ii) early CTLA-4 binding counterreceptor, B7-2; and (iii) BB-1, B7-3. PMID:7504293

  10. Step-wise addition of disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase controls color shift through a flexible loop: a thermodynamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mahboobeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Hassani, Leila

    2013-02-01

    Multi-color bioluminescence is developed using the introduction of single/double disulfide bridges in firefly luciferase. The bioluminescence reaction, which uses luciferin, Mg(2+)-ATP and molecular oxygen to yield an electronically excited oxyluciferin, is carried out by the luciferase and emits visible light. The bioluminescence color of firefly luciferases is determined by the luciferase sequence and assay conditions. It has been proposed that the stability of a protein may increase through the introduction of a disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. Single and double disulfide bridges are introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make separate mutant enzymes with a single/double bridge (C(81)-A(105)C, L(306)C-L(309)C, P(451)C-V(469)C; C(81)-A(105)C/P(451)C-V(469)C, and A(296)C-A(326)C/P(451)C-V(469)C). By introduction of disulfide bridges using site-directed mutagenesis in Photinus pyralis luciferase the color of emitted light was changed to red or kept in different extents. The bioluminescence color shift occurred with displacement of a critical loop in the luciferase structure without any change in green emitter mutants. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that among mutants, L(306)C-L(309)C shows a remarkable stability against urea denaturation and also a considerable increase in kinetic stability and a clear shift in bioluminescence spectra towards red.

  11. Cytoplasmic factors that affect the intensity and stability of bioluminescence from firefly luciferase in living mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gandelman, O; Allue, I; Bowers, K; Cobbold, P

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve calibration of firefly luciferase signals obtained by injecting the enzyme into single, isolated heart and liver cells we have investigated why the luminescence from cells is greatly depressed compared with in vitro (in mammalian ionic milieu) and why the decay of the intracellular signal is remarkably slow. We have shown that inorganic pyrophosphatase greatly depresses the signal in vitro and that micromolar concentrations of inorganic pyrophosphate, comparable with that in cytoplasm, reverse this inhibition and stabilize the signal, eliminating its decay. Higher concentrations of pyrophosphate depress the signal by inhibiting ATP-binding to luciferase. Luciferase-injected cells exposed to extracellular luciferin concentrations above about 100 mumol/l (corresponding to a cytoplasmic level of c. 5-10 mumol/l because of a transplasmalemmal gradient) show a gradual, irreversible loss of signal. We attribute this phenomenon (which is not seen in vitro) to the gradual accumulation of a luminescently inactive, irreversible, luciferase-oxyluciferin complex. At low luciferin levels this complex is prevented from forming by cytoplasmic pyrophosphate. Above c. 100 mumol/l extracellular luciferin, the pyrophosphate level in the cytoplasm fails to fully prevent the complex forming. In vitro this phenomenon does not occur because the luciferase concentrations and hence oxyluciferin levels are orders of magnitude lower than in cells injected with concentrated luciferase solutions, which have a cytoplasmic luciferase concentration of approximately 2-4 mumol/l.

  12. Searching for Extant Life on Mars - The ATP-Firefly LuciferinLuciferase Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obousy, R. K.; Tziolas, A. C.; Kaltsas, K.; Sims, M. R.; Grant, W. D.

    We have investigated the use of the ATP-Firefly Luciferin/Luciferase (FFL) enzymic photoluminescent reaction as a possible means of detecting extant life in the Martian environment. Experiments carried out by the authors illustrate the capacity of the method to successfully detect extant forms of life on Mars assuming ATP is an intrinsic part of the biochemistry of such life-forms. A photodiode based apparatus, built to test the assumptions and applicability of the ATP-Firefly Luciferase/Luciferin technique to an exobiologically inclined mission to Mars, revealed the adequate resolution and reproducibility of the methodology plus areas of improvement. Also detailed are extraction, delivery and analysis system concepts, proposed for future Mars missions.

  13. Near infrared bioluminescence resonance energy transfer from firefly luciferase--quantum dot bionanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Alam, Rabeka; Karam, Liliana M; Doane, Tennyson L; Zylstra, Joshua; Fontaine, Danielle M; Branchini, Bruce R; Maye, Mathew M

    2014-12-12

    The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between firefly luciferase enzymes and semiconductive quantum dots (QDs) with near infrared emission is described. The QD were phase transferred to aqueous buffers using a histidine mediated phase transfer route, and incubated with a hexahistidine tagged, green emitting variant of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis (PPyGRTS). The PPyGRTS were bound to the QD interface via the hexahistidine tag, which effectively displaces the histidine layer and binds directly to the QD interfaces, allowing for short donor-acceptor distances (∼5.5 nm). Due to this, high BRET efficiency ratios of ∼5 were obtained. These PPyGRTS-QD bio-nano conjugates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and BRET emission studies. The final optimized conjugate was easily observable by night vision imaging, demonstrating the potential of these materials in imaging and signaling/sensing applications.