Science.gov

Sample records for activated lymphoid cells

  1. Activation of intraislet lymphoid cells causes destruction of islet cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, P. E.; Finke, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    In vitro culture of rat islets at 24 degrees C for 7 days in tissue culture medium CMRL 1066 almost completely eliminated lymphoid cells from the islets. Immunostaining of the islets with monoclonal antibody OX4 for demonstration of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-expressing cells revealed a decrease from 13.1 +/- 0.6 positive cells per islet on day 0 to 0.7 +/- 0.1 cells per islet on day 7. A comparable decrease was found using OX1 for demonstration of all leukocytes. In contrast, culture of rat islets at 24 degrees C for 7 days with tissue culture Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium was not as effective in eliminating lymphoid cells as in medium CMRL 1066 (3.0 +/- 0.2 class II MHC positive cells per islet at 7 days). Effective elimination of intraislet lymphoid cells apparently is due to the combined effect of low temperature culture and the tissue culture medium CMRL-1066. The second goal of the study was to determine whether the destructive effect of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on rat islets in culture was due to intraislet lymphoid cells. In vitro culture of rat islets with IFN-gamma (1000 units/ml) at 37 degrees C caused almost complete destruction of the islets at 7 days. If intraislet lymphoid cells were eliminated from the islets by in vitro culture at 24 degrees C followed by exposure to IFN-gamma (1000 units/ml) for 7 days at 37 degrees C, then IFN-gamma did not cause destruction of the islets and transplants of the treated islets produced normoglycemia in diabetic recipient mice. These findings indicate that intraislet lymphoid cells are responsible for destruction of islet cells when these cells (presumably macrophages) are activated by IFN-gamma. Intraislet lymphoid cells may play a significant role in destroying islet cells in autoimmune diabetes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1902627

  2. Calpain secreted by activated human lymphoid cells degrades myelin.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-10-01

    Calpain secreted by lymphoid (MOLT-3, M.R.) or monocytic (U-937, THP-1) cell lines activated with PMA and A23187 degraded myelin antigens. The degradative effect of enzymes released in the extracellular medium was tested on purified myelin basic protein and rat central nervous system myelin in vitro. The extent of protein degradation was determined by SDS-PAGE and densitometric analysis. Various proteinase inhibitors were used to determine to what extent protein degradation was mediated by calpain and/or other enzymes. Lysosomal and serine proteinase inhibitors inhibited 20-40% of the myelin-degradative activity found in the incubation media of cell lines, whereas the calcium chelator (EGTA), the calpain-specific inhibitor (calpastatin), and a monoclonal antibody to m calpain blocked myelin degradation by 60-80%. Since breakdown products of MBP generated by calpain may include fragments with antigenic epitopes, this enzyme may play an important role in the initiation of immune-mediated demyelination. PMID:8568927

  3. Activated Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells regulate Beige Fat Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Woo; Odegaard, Justin I.; Mukundan, Lata; Qiu, Yifu; Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Yun, Karen; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), an innate source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and -13, participate in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Although type 2 immunity is critically important for mediating metabolic adaptations to environmental cold, the functions of ILC2s in beige or brown fat development are poorly defined. We report here that activation of ILC2s by IL-33 is sufficient to promote the growth of functional beige fat in thermoneutral mice. Mechanistically, ILC2 activation results in the proliferation of bipotential adipocyte precursors (APs) and their subsequent commitment to the beige fat lineage. Loss- and gain-of-function studies reveal that ILC2-and eosinophil-derived type 2 cytokines stimulate signaling via the IL-4Rα in PDGFRα+ APs to promote beige fat biogenesis. Together, our results highlight a critical role for ILC2s and type 2 cytokines in the regulation of adipocyte precursor numbers and fate, and as a consequence, adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:25543153

  4. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment. PMID:26084784

  5. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. PMID:27088915

  6. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain. PMID:7852311

  7. Mechanisms of Innate Lymphoid Cell and Natural Killer T Cell Activation during Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Altmayer, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces in the airways and the gastrointestinal tract are critical for the interactions of the host with its environment. Due to their abundance at mucosal tissue sites and their powerful immunomodulatory capacities, the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer T (NKT) cells in the maintenance of mucosal tolerance has recently moved into the focus of attention. While NKT cells as well as ILCs utilize distinct transcription factors for their development and lineage diversification, both cell populations can be further divided into three polarized subpopulations reflecting the distinction into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in the adaptive immune system. While bystander activation through cytokines mediates the induction of ILC and NKT cell responses, NKT cells become activated also through the engagement of their canonical T cell receptors (TCRs) by (glyco)lipid antigens (cognate recognition) presented by the atypical MHC I like molecule CD1d on antigen presenting cells (APCs). As both innate lymphocyte populations influence inflammatory responses due to the explosive release of copious amounts of different cytokines, they might represent interesting targets for clinical intervention. Thus, we will provide an outlook on pathways that might be interesting to evaluate in this context. PMID:24987710

  8. STAT5 regulation of BCL10 parallels constitutive NFκB activation in lymphoid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna S; LeBaron, Matthew J; Ross, Jeremy A; Mitra, Abhisek; Rui, Hallgeir; Kirken, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 A and B (STAT5) are key survival factors in cells of the lymphoid lineage. Identification of novel, tissue-specific STAT5 regulated genes would advance the ability to combat diseases due to aberrant STAT5 signaling. In the present work a library of human STAT5 bound genomic elements was created and validated. Results Of several STAT5 responsive genomic regulatory elements identified, one was located within the first intron of the human BCL10 gene. Chromatin immuno-precipitation reactions confirmed constitutive in vivo STAT5 binding to this intronic fragment in various human lymphoid tumor cell lines. Interestingly, non-phosphorylated STAT5 was found in the nuclei of Kit225 and YT cells in the absence of cytokine stimulation that paralleled constitutive NFκB activation. Inhibition of the hyperactive JAK3/STAT5 pathway in MT-2 cells via the Mannich-base, NC1153, diminished the constitutive in vivo occupancy of BCL10-SBR by STAT5, reduced NFκB activity and BCL10 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, depletion of STAT5 via selective antisense oligonucleotide treatment similarly resulted in decreased BCL10 mRNA and protein expression, cellular viability and impaired NFκB activity independent of IL-2. Conclusion These results suggest that the NFκB regulator BCL10 is an IL-2-independent STAT5 target gene. These findings proffer a model in which un-activated STAT5 can regulate pathways critical for lymphoid cell survival and inhibitors that disrupt STAT5 function independent of tyrosine phosphorylation may be therapeutically effective in treating certain leukemias/lymphomas. PMID:19709433

  9. Oxysterol gradient generation by lymphoid stromal cells guides activated B cell movement during humoral responses

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tangsheng; Wang, Xiaoming; Kelly, Lisa M.; An, Jinping; Xu, Ying; Sailer, Andreas W.; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Russel, David W.; Cyster, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC) is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor EBI2 (GPR183); however, the cellular sources of this oxysterol are undefined. 7α,25-OHC is synthesized from cholesterol by the stepwise actions of two enzymes, CH25H and CYP7B1, and is metabolized to a 3-oxo derivative by HSD3B7. We show that all three enzymes control EBI2-ligand concentration in lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid stromal cells are the main CH25H and CYP7B1-expressing cells required for positioning of B cells and they also mediate 7α,25-OHC inactivation. CH25H and CYP7B1 are abundant at the follicle perimeter whereas CH25H expression by follicular dendritic cells is repressed. CYP7B1-, CH25H- and HSD3B7-deficiencies each result in defective T-cell dependent plasma cell responses. These findings establish that CYP7B1 and HSD3B7, as well as CH25H, have essential roles in controlling oxysterol production in lymphoid tissues and they suggest that differential enzyme expression in stromal cell subsets establishes 7α,25-OHC gradients required for B cell responses. PMID:22999953

  10. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages. PMID:27168240

  11. Neuropilin-1 expression characterizes T follicular helper (Tfh) cells activated during B cell differentiation in human secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Renand, Amédée; Milpied, Pierre; Rossignol, Julien; Bruneau, Julie; Lemonnier, François; Dussiot, Michael; Coulon, Séverine; Hermine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play an essential role in the development of antigen-specific B cell immunity. Tfh cells regulate the differentiation and survival of activated B cells outside and inside germinal centers (GC) of secondary lymphoid organs. They act through cognate contacts with antigen-presenting B cells, but there is no current marker to specifically identify those Tfh cells which productively interact with B cells. Here we show that neuropilin 1 (Nrp1), a cell surface receptor, is selectively expressed by a subset of Tfh cells in human secondary lymphoid organs. Nrp1 expression on Tfh cells correlates with B cell differentiation in vivo and in vitro, is transient, and can be induced upon co-culture with autologous memory B cells in a cell contact-dependent manner. Comparative analysis of ex vivo Nrp1(+) and Nrp1(-) Tfh cells reveals gene expression modulation during activation. Finally, Nrp1 is expressed by malignant Tfh-like cells in a severe case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) associated with elevated terminal B cell differentiation. Thus, Nrp1 is a specific marker of Tfh cells cognate activation in humans, which may prove useful as a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target in neoplastic diseases associated with Tfh cells activity. PMID:24386482

  12. Immunoregulatory function of human intestinal mucosa lymphoid cells: evidence for enhanced suppressor cell activity in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchi, C; Youngman, K R; Farmer, R G

    1983-01-01

    Abnormalities in immune regulation at the gut level may be relevant to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, but little is known about the immunoregulatory properties of intestinal mononuclear cells. Therefore, we wished to see if lymphoid cells derived from the lamina propria of surgically resected bowel specimens have any modulatory effect upon the immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. When autologous peripheral blood and intestinal lamina propria lymphoid cells were mixed at different ratios and cultured in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin, we were able to show that intestinal mononuclear cells had the capacity to modify the mitogenic response of the cultured cells. These intestinal immunoregulatory cells, when obtained from mucosa affected by inflammatory bowel disease, express a significantly enhanced suppressor cell activity as compared with those from non-inflamed control mucosa. Such suppressor cell activity varies with cell concentration and requires cell proliferation, but it is independent of anatomical origin (small vs large bowel), type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis vs Crohn's disease) or immunosuppressive therapy. These findings point to an important functional difference between inflammatory bowel disease and control intestinal mucosa mononuclear cells. The enhanced suppressor activity of lamina propria mononuclear cells may be associated with impairment of cell-mediated immunity at the gut level. This may be related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease by leading to defective intestinal immune regulatory events, which may not be detectable at the peripheral level. PMID:6223862

  13. Lymphoid cells in the spleens of woodchuck hepatitis virus-infected woodchucks are a site of active viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Korba, B E; Wells, F; Tennant, B C; Cote, P J; Gerin, J L

    1987-01-01

    Lymphoid cells were purified from the spleens of 15 woodchucks and examined for the presence of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV). Lymphoid cells from the spleens of eight of eight chronically infected animals contained high levels of WHV RNA and DNA. A 100-fold lower level of WHV DNA was found in the spleen from one of five animals that had recovered from acute WHV infections 2 years before this analysis. No WHV nucleic acids were observed in either of two uninfected animals. WHV DNA patterns in the lymphoid cells from the spleens of the chronically infected animals, which included the presence of single-stranded DNA and RNA-DNA hybrid molecules, were identical to those observed in WHV-infected liver. WHV DNA in these cells was present in intact, 27-nm core particles which also contained the endogenous DNA polymerase activity. These results indicate that the spleen is a site of active WHV DNA replication and is most likely a major source of WHV-infected cells in the circulating lymphoid cell population. Images PMID:3573141

  14. ATM kinase activity modulates Fas sensitivity through the regulation of FLIP in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Stagni, Venturina; di Bari, Maria Giovanna; Cursi, Silvia; Condò, Ivano; Cencioni, Maria Teresa; Testi, Roberto; Lerenthal, Yaniv; Cundari, Enrico; Barilà, Daniela

    2008-01-15

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare cancer-predisposing genetic disease, caused by the lack of functional ATM kinase, a major actor of the double strand brakes (DSB) DNA-damage response. A-T patients show a broad and diverse phenotype, which includes an increased rate of lymphoma and leukemia development. Fas-induced apoptosis plays a fundamental role in the homeostasis of the immune system and its defects have been associated with autoimmunity and lymphoma development. We therefore investigated the role of ATM kinase in Fas-induced apoptosis. Using A-T lymphoid cells, we could show that ATM deficiency causes resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis. A-T cells up-regulate FLIP protein levels, a well-known inhibitor of Fas-induced apoptosis. Reconstitution of ATM kinase activity was sufficient to decrease FLIP levels and to restore Fas sensitivity. Conversely, genetic and pharmacologic ATM kinase inactivation resulted in FLIP protein up-regulation and Fas resistance. Both ATM and FLIP are aberrantly regulated in Hodgkin lymphoma. Importantly, we found that reconstitution of ATM kinase activity decreases FLIP protein levels and restores Fas sensitivity in Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cells. Overall, these data identify a novel molecular mechanism through which ATM kinase may regulate the immune system homeostasis and impair lymphoma development. PMID:17932249

  15. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  16. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsunaka, Misae; Arai, Reina; Ohashi, Ayaka; Koyama, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox) led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia), and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:27504186

  17. Development of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of immune effector cells that have important roles in host defense, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair but can also contribute to inflammatory diseases such as asthma and colitis. These cells can be categorized into three groups on the basis of the transcription factors that direct their function and the cytokines they produce, which parallel the effector functions of T lymphocytes. The hierarchy of cell-fate-restriction events that occur as common lymphoid progenitors become committed to each of the ILC lineages further underscores the relationship between these innate immune cells and T lymphocytes. In this Review we discuss the developmental program of ILCs and transcription factors that guide ILC lineage specification and commitment. PMID:27328007

  18. Activity of interferon-dependent 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in rat lymphoid cells under transformed environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchenko, L. I.; Mikhailik, I. V.; Prokopova, K. V.

    It is detected that interferon-dependent 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase is a sensitive index of immunocompetent cells functional state under transformed environment conditions. Microgravitation and ionising radiation induce increase of investigated enzyme activity in rat lymphocytes, which can be a result of lymphoid cells compensatory mechanisms starting in response to stress factors action. Administration of interferon inductors permits to stimulate the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, which enables one to correct pathological changes in the cells and to intensify adaptive reactions of immune systems.

  19. Uncoupling JAK3 activation induces apoptosis in human lymphoid cancer cells via regulating critical survival pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna S.; Ross, Jeremy A.; Rodriguez, Georgialina; Bader, Julia; Dimmock, Jonathan; Kirken, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, we report that specific inhibition of JAK3 via NC1153 induces apoptosis of certain leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. Affymetrix microarray profiling following NC1153 treatment unveiled JAK3 dependent survival modulating pathways (p53, TGF-β, TNFR and ER stress) in Kit225 cells. IL-2 responsive NC1153 target genes were regulated in human JAK3 positive, but not in JAK3 negative lymphoid tumor cells. Moreover, primary lymphoma samples revealed that a number of these genes were reciprocally regulated during disease progression and JAK3 inhibition suggesting that downstream targets of JAK3 could be exploited in the development of novel cancer treatment regimes. PMID:20211620

  20. Tissue residency of innate lymphoid cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiger, Georg; Fan, Xiying; Dikiy, Stanislav; Lee, Sue Y.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) contribute to barrier immunity, tissue homeostasis, and immune regulation at various anatomical sites throughout the body. How ILCs maintain their presence in lymphoid and peripheral tissues is currently unknown. We found that in the lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs of adult mice, ILC are tissue-resident cells that were maintained and expanded locally under physiologic conditions, upon systemic perturbation of immune homeostasis, and during acute helminth infection. However, at later time points post-infection, cells from hematogenous sources helped to partially replenish the pool of resident ILCs. Thus, ILC are maintained by self-renewal in broadly different microenvironments and physiological settings. Such an extreme “sedentary” lifestyle is consistent with the proposed roles of ILCs as sentinels and local keepers of tissue function. PMID:26472762

  1. RORγt⁺ innate lymphoid cells acquire a proinflammatory program upon engagement of the activating receptor NKp44.

    PubMed

    Glatzer, Timor; Killig, Monica; Meisig, Johannes; Ommert, Isabelle; Luetke-Eversloh, Merlin; Babic, Marina; Paclik, Daniela; Blüthgen, Nils; Seidl, Rainer; Seifarth, Claudia; Gröne, Jörn; Lenarz, Minoo; Stölzel, Katharina; Fugmann, Dominik; Porgador, Angel; Hauser, Anja; Karlas, Alexander; Romagnani, Chiara

    2013-06-27

    RORγt⁺ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are crucial players of innate immune responses and represent a major source of interleukin-22 (IL-22), which has an important role in mucosal homeostasis. The signals required by RORγt⁺ ILCs to express IL-22 and other cytokines have been elucidated only partially. Here we showed that RORγt⁺ ILCs can directly sense the environment by the engagement of the activating receptor NKp44. NKp44 triggering in RORγt⁺ ILCs selectively activated a coordinated proinflammatory program, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), whereas cytokine stimulation preferentially induced IL-22 expression. However, combined engagement of NKp44 and cytokine receptors resulted in a strong synergistic effect. These data support the concept that NKp44⁺ RORγt⁺ ILCs can be activated without cytokines and are able to switch between IL-22 or TNF production, depending on the triggering stimulus. PMID:23791642

  2. Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nair, Meera G; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein. PMID:26928141

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) isoforms control lymphoid cancer cell proliferation through differentially regulating tumor suppressor p53 activity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Gloria; Sarkar, Krishnakali; Mendez, Omayra; Wright, Casey W.

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is involved in xenobiotic and hypoxic responses, and we previously showed that ARNT also regulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling by altering the DNA binding activity of the RelB subunit. However, our initial study of ARNT-mediated RelB modulation was based on simultaneous suppression of the two ARNT isoforms, isoform 1 and 3, and precluded the examination of their individual functions. We find here that while normal lymphocytes harbor equal levels of isoform 1 and 3, lymphoid malignancies exhibit a shift to higher levels of ARNT isoform 1. These elevated levels of ARNT isoform 1 are critical to the proliferation of these cancerous cells, as suppression of isoform 1 in a human multiple myeloma (MM) cell line, and an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell line, triggered S-phase cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis, and sensitized cells to doxorubicin treatment. Furthermore, co-suppression of RelB or p53 with ARNT isoform 1 prevented cell cycle arrest and blocked doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Together our findings reveal that certain blood cancers rely on ARNT isoform 1 to potentiate proliferation by antagonizing RelB and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Significantly, our results identify ARNT isoform 1 as a potential target for anticancer therapies. PMID:26909609

  4. Prostaglandin D2 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells through chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Luzheng; Salimi, Maryam; Panse, Isabel; Mjösberg, Jenny M.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Spits, Hergen; Klenerman, Paul; Ogg, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Activation of the group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) population leads to production of the classical type 2 cytokines, thus promoting type 2 immunity. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is expressed by human ILC2s. However, the function of CRTH2 in these cells is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine the role of PGD2 and CRTH2 in human ILC2s and compare it with that of the established ILC2 activators IL-25 and IL-33. Methods The effects of PGD2, IL-25, and IL-33 on the cell migration, cytokine production, gene regulation, and receptor expression of ILC2s were measured with chemotaxis, ELISA, Luminex, flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR, and QuantiGene assays. The effects of PGD2 under physiologic conditions were evaluated by using the supernatant from activated mast cells. Results PGD2 binding to CRTH2 induced ILC2 migration and production of type 2 cytokines and many other cytokines. ILC2 activation through CRTH2 also upregulated the expression of IL-33 and IL-25 receptor subunits (ST2 and IL-17RA). The effects of PGD2 on ILC2s could be mimicked by the supernatant from activated human mast cells and inhibited by a CRTH2 antagonist. Conclusions PGD2 is an important and potent activator of ILC2s through CRTH2 mediating strong proallergic inflammatory responses. Through IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, these innate cells can also contribute to adaptive type 2 immunity; thus CRTH2 bridges the innate and adaptive pathways in human ILC2s. PMID:24388011

  5. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. PMID:26378073

  6. Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Kurman, C.C.; Fritz, M.E.; Biddison, W.E.; Boutin, B.; Yarchoan, R.; Nelson, D.L.

    1985-11-01

    With the use of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to measure soluble human interleukin 2 receptors (IL 2R), certain human T cell leukemia virus I (HTLV I)-positive T cell lines were found to spontaneously release large quantities of IL 2R into culture supernatants. This was not found with HTLV I-negative and IL 2 independent T cell lines, and only one of seven B cell-derived lines examined produced small amounts of IL 2R. In addition to this constitutive production of soluble IL 2R by certain cell lines, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be induced to release soluble IL 2R by plant lectins, the murine monoclonal antibody OKT3, tetanus toxoid, and allogeneic cells. Such activated cells also expressed cellular IL 2R measurable in detergent solubilized cell extracts. The generation of cellular and supernatant IL 2R was: dependent on cellular activation, rapid, radioresistant (3000 rad), and inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of soluble IL 2R demonstrated molecules of apparent Mr = 35,000 to 40,000, and 45,000 to 50,000, respectively, somewhat smaller than the mature surface receptor on these cells. The release of soluble IL 2R appears to be a characteristic marker of T lymphocyte activation and might serve an immunoregulatory function during both normal and abnormal cell growth and differentiation.

  7. A stromal cell niche for human and mouse type 3 innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R.; Coles, Mark C.; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells (MRC). Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mouse to human and co-localize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult MRC and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. PMID:26378073

  8. Differential distribution of calpain in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1993-07-01

    Calpain, a calcium-activated neutral proteinase, is ubiquitously present in human tissues. To determine if lymphoid cells implicated in pathogenesis of demyelination may harbor calpain in a functionally active form, we determined both muCalpain and mCalpain activities in human lymphoid cell lines. DEAE-cellulose and phenylsepharose column chromatography were used to isolate the enzyme from the natural inhibitor, calpastatin. Lymphocytic lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-3, MOLT-4, M.R.) showed predominance of muCalpain (55-80%) whereas the monocytic line (U-937) showed predominance of mCalpain (77%). Proportion and subcellular distribution of both isoforms varied among cell lines. Calpains isolated from U-937 cells degraded myelin basic protein. These results indicate that human lymphoid cells harbor functionally active calpain that can degrade myelin components in vitro. The study suggests a degradative role for calpain in demyelinating diseases. PMID:7690115

  9. Pro-Apoptotic Activity of New Honokiol/Triphenylmethane Analogues in B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mędra, Aleksandra; Witkowska, Magdalena; Majchrzak, Agata; Cebula-Obrzut, Barbara; Bonner, Michael Y; Robak, Tadeusz; Arbiser, Jack L; Smolewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Honokiol and triphenylmethanes are small molecules with anti-tumor properties. Recently, we synthesized new honokiol analogues (HAs) that possess common features of both groups. We assessed the anti-tumor effectiveness of HAs in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells, namely in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells ex vivo and in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Nalm-6), Burkitt lymphoma (BL; Raji), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; Toledo) and multiple myeloma (MM; RPMI 8226) cell lines. Four of these compounds appeared to be significantly active against the majority of cells examined, with no significant impact on healthy lymphocytes. These active HAs induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, causing significant deregulation of several apoptosis-regulating proteins. Overall, these compounds downregulated Bcl-2 and XIAP and upregulated Bax, Bak and survivin proteins. In conclusion, some of the HAs are potent tumor-selective inducers of apoptosis in ex vivo CLL and in BL, DLBCL and MM cells in vitro. Further preclinical studies of these agents are recommended. PMID:27483232

  10. Ly-1 B cells and disease activity in (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 mice. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farinas, M.C.; Stall, A.M.; Solovera, J.J.; Tarlinton, D.M.; Herzenberg, L.A.; Strober, S. )

    1990-04-01

    The treatment of female (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 mice with total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a prolonged remission of autoimmune disease activity. Total lymphoid irradiation-treated mice also showed a marked reduction of Ly-1 B cells, which lasted up to 3 months. The subsequent return of Ly-1 B cells to preirradiation levels was not associated with a simultaneous return of disease when measured by parameters such as IgG anti-DNA antibodies and spontaneous secretion of IgG by splenic cells. In cell sorting experiments, most of the cells spontaneously secreting IgG were found within the Ly-1- (CD5-) splenic B cell population.

  11. The evolution of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Eric; van de Pavert, Serge A; Cooper, Max D; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered group of immune cells. Understanding their biology poses many challenges. We discuss here the current knowledge on the appearance of ILC subsets during evolution and propose how the connection between ILCs and T cells contributes to the robustness of immunity and hence to the fitness of the hosts. PMID:27328009

  12. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. PMID:27183576

  13. Differentiation of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

    PubMed

    Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, a high complexity in innate lymphoid lineages now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been revealed. ILCs can be grouped according to their effector functions and transcriptional requirements into three main groups, termed group 1, 2 and 3 ILCs. The differentiation of ILC lineages from hematopoietic precursors and the molecular switches guiding their developmental fate have started to be characterized both in mice and humans. In this review, we discuss the origin, differentiation stages and plasticity of human ILC subsets as well as the signals that drive ILC lineage commitment and acquisition of their unique effector programs. PMID:26707651

  14. Natural cytotoxicity of haemopoietic cell populations against murine lymphoid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, R. C.; Grail, D.; Warner, N. L.

    1978-01-01

    Homozygous nude and normal mice of 3 strains, BALB/c, CBA and C57BL, were used as sources of nucleated haemopoietic "natural killer" (NK) cells. These killer cells could lyse a wide range of syngeneic and allogeneic lymphoid tumour cell lines in vitro, and it was found that cell suspensions from nude mice were always significantly more active than those from normal mice, and that the most active effector population was a polymorph-enriched peritoneal-exudate cell suspension. Eosinophils did not appear to be involved in the phenomenon, and mononuclear peritoneal-exudate cell suspensions were actually highly inhibitory. Three non-lymphoid tumours, a carcinoma, a fibrosarcoma and a mastocytoma, were totally resistant to in vitro lysis. Although all susceptible tumour cell lines were C-type virus-associated, not all of these tumours were killed by all strain sources of spleen cells, indicating a specificity of killing. PMID:656308

  15. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. PMID:26283536

  16. Innate lymphoid cells in the airways.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer A; McKenzie, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The airways, similar to other mucosal surfaces, are continuously exposed to the outside environment and a barrage of antigens, allergens, and microorganisms. Of critical importance therefore is the ability to mount rapid and effective immune responses to control commensal and pathogenic microbes, while simultaneously limiting the extent of these responses to prevent immune pathology and chronic inflammation. The function of the adaptive immune response in controlling these processes at mucosal surfaces has been well documented but the important role of the innate immune system, particularly the recently identified family of innate lymphoid cells, has only lately become apparent. In this review, we give an overview of the innate lymphoid cells that exist in the airways and examine the evidence pertaining to their emerging roles in airways immunity, inflammation, and homeostasis. PMID:22678892

  17. Properties of a novel gene isolated from a Hodgkin's disease cell line that is expressed early during lymphoid cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.S.; Tredway, T.L.; Dizikes, G.J.; Nawrocki, J.F. Hines Veterans Administration Hospital, IL )

    1994-03-01

    The authors have isolated a novel 667-bp cDNA clone, designated epag, from a Hodgkin's-disease cell line-derived library that is expressed in association with T cell activation and which is not related to any known gene family. By using reverse transcription/PCR, the authors have demonstrated that epag mRNA is expressed as early as 1 h after stimulation of normal PBMCs with anti-CD3. The levels of mRNA peaked by 4 h, and no expression was detectable by 12 h postactivation or in resting cells incubated in culture without activation. Expression of epag was also detected in PMA- and PHA-stimulated, but not in nonstimulated Jurkat cells, and overall its expression in transformed cell lines of hemopoietic origin is highly restricted. Sequence analysis of multiple independent cDNA clones showed that epag expressed in the Hodgkin's-disease cell line L428 is identical to the gene expressed in normal activated PBMC. Epag expression was detected by reverse transcription/PCR in RNA preparations made from various normal nonlymphoid tissues. Computer analysis of the sequence identified an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 13.2 kDa initiating at a CUG translational codon. In vitro translation and Western blot analysis with anti-peptide serum supported this analysis. The authors hypothesize that epag functions as an early signal that helps mediate the activation of T cells. 63 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Disulfiram targeting lymphoid malignant cell lines via ROS-JNK activation as well as Nrf2 and NF-kB pathway inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disulfiram (DS), an anti-alcoholism drug, demonstrates strong antitumor activity in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of DS/Cu complex in lymphoid malignant cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Method Raji cells were subjected to different treatments and thereafter MTT assay, flow cytometry were used to determine IC50 and apoptotic status. We also tested the cytotoxicity of DS/Cu in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt4 in vitro. In vivo experiments were also performed to demonstrate the anticancer efficacy of DS/Cu in Raji cells xenografted nude mice. Results In combination with a low concentration (1 μM) of Cu2+, DS induced cytotoxicity in Raji cells with an IC50 of 0.085 ± 0.015 μM and in Molt4 cells with an IC50 of 0.435 ± 0.109 μM. The results of our animal experiments also showed that the mean tumor volume in DS/Cu-treated mice was significantly smaller than that in DS or control group, indicating that DS/Cu inhibits the proliferation of Raji cells in vivo. DS/Cu also induced apoptosis in 2 lymphoid malignant cell lines. After exposure to DS (3.3 μM)/Cu (1 μM) for 24 hours, apoptosis was detected in 81.03 ± 7.91% of Raji cells. DS/Cu induced significant apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest apoptotic proportion (DS/Cu: 89.867 ± 4.69%) at a concentration of 2 μM in Molt4 cells. After 24 h exposure, DS/Cu inhibits Nrf2 expression. Flow cytometric analysis shows that DS/Cu induced ROS generation. DS/Cu induced phosphorylation of JNK and inhibits p65 expression as well as Nrf2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, can partially attenuate DS/Cu complex-induced apoptosis and block JNK activation in vitro. In addition, NAC is able to restore Nrf2 nuclear translocation and p65 expression. Conclusion Our study manifests that DS/Cu complex targets lymphoid malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. Generation of ROS might

  19. In vitro Differentiation of Murine Innate Lymphoid Cells from Common Lymphoid Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey; Kaye, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Subtypes of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), defined based on their cytokine secretion profiles and transcription factor expression, are important for host protection from pathogens and maintaining tissue homeostasis. ILCs develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) in the bone marrow. Using the methods described here, we have previously shown that loss of the transcriptional regulator TOX (Thymocyte-selection associated HMG-box protein) leads to specific changes in ILC development and differentiation. Here, we describe how to obtain ILCs from in vivo isolated CLP grown in vitro. PMID:27239483

  20. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  1. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Luca; Brendolan, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  2. [Lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, P; Pellegrino, P; Tallone, M V; Biarese, V; La Rosa, G F

    1977-05-26

    By lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukaemia or tricholeukaemia is meant an unusual haemopathic condition known only for the past few years. It is characterized pathognomonically by the presence of lymphocyte type cells with villous extroflexions, hence the name "hairy cell". Clinically the disease presents as an involutive myelopathy associated with splenomegaly, generally without any particular lymph gland involvement. The attention of students today is concentrated on the nature of the hairy cells; while some are inclined to admit their monocyte or histiocyte derivation, others consider that they derive from B lymphocytes. Therapeutically, almost everybody agrees that splenectomy is the only valid step. A case of H.C.L., which was typical from the clinical and laboratory viewpoints is reported. It is probable that certain haemopathic pictures once classified among atypical leucoses and lymphomas, would today be more correctly classed as hairy cell leukaemia. PMID:327348

  3. T cell engraftment in lymphoid tissues of human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituted SCID mice with or without prior activation of cells.

    PubMed

    Olive, C; Cheung, C; Falk, M C

    1998-12-01

    The reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with human PBL (Hu-PBL-SCID) was assessed using fresh unstimulated PBL and anti-CD3-stimulated PBL. Mice were reconstituted with PBL by intraperitoneal injection of 1-2.5 x 107 PBL in PBS; controls received PBS. Successful engraftment of human PBL in SCID mice was determined by measurement of human IgG in mouse sera, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of human-specific HLA-DRbeta DNA in SCID periphery, and immunohistochemical staining of mouse tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, liver and lung) with antibodies specific for human CD45 and CD3. Human IgG was detected 1 week after reconstitution in sera of all animals that received at least 1 x 107 PBL and continued to increase for 8 weeks. Human-specific HLA-DRbeta DNA was detected in the majority of mice 3 weeks after reconstitution but not in controls. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of Hu-PBL-SCID mouse tissues revealed the presence of human CD45+ cells in all tissues examined. CD3+ T cell engraftment was observed in lymphoid tissues irrespective of whether PBL had been activated prior to transfer or not. PMID:9893029

  4. Immunoglobulin Expression in Non-Lymphoid Lineage and Neoplastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengshan; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Gu, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    It has traditionally been believed that the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules is restricted to B lineage cells. However, immunoglobulin genes and proteins have been recently found in a variety of types of cancer cells, as well as some proliferating epithelial cells and neurons. The immunoglobulin molecules expressed by these cells consist predominantly of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and the light chains expressed are mainly kappa chains. Recombination activating genes 1 and 2, which are required for V(D)J recombination, are also expressed in these cells. Knowledge about the function of these non-lymphoid cell-derived immunoglobulins is limited. Preliminary data suggests that Ig secreted by epithelial cancer cells has some unidentified capacity to promote the growth and survival of tumor cells. As immunoglobulins are known to have a wide spectrum of important functions, the discovery of non-lymphoid cells and cancers that produce immunoglobulin calls for in-depth investigation of the functional and pathological significance of this previously unrecognized phenomenon. PMID:19246641

  5. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  6. HMGB1: The Central Cytokine for All Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanqiao; Liang, Xiaoyan; Lotze, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a leaderless cytokine, like the IL-1 and FGF family members, that has primary roles within the nucleus and the cytosol. Within the nucleus, it serves as another guardian of the genome, protecting it from oxidant injury and promoting access to transcriptional complexes such as nuclear hormone/nuclear hormone receptors and p53/p73 complexes. Within the cytosol it promotes autophagy and recruitment of the myddosome to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 vesicular compartments. Outside of the cell, it can either bind to specific receptors itself, or with high affinity to DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1β, lipopolysaccharide, and lipoteichoic acid to mediate responses in specific physiological or pathological conditions. Currently identified receptors include TLR2, TLR4, the receptor for advanced glycation end products, CD24-Siglec G/10, chemokine CXC receptor 4, and TIM-3. In terms of its effects or functions within lymphoid cells, HMGB1 is principally secreted from mature dendritic cells (DCs) to promote T-cell and B-cell reactivity and expansion and from activated natural killer cells to promote DC maturation during the afferent immune response. Some studies suggest that its primary role in the setting of chronic inflammation is to promote immunosuppression. As such, HMGB1 is a central cytokine for all lymphoid cells playing a role complementary to its better studied role in myeloid cells. PMID:23519706

  7. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Hiroki; Moro, Kazuyo; Koyasu, Shigeo; Asano, Koichiro

    2015-07-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recently identified cell populations that produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Although ILC2s were initially reported to play a key role in the anti-helminth innate immunity, we now have greater interest in their role in asthma and other allergic diseases. In various asthma mouse models, ILC2s provoke eosinophilic inflammation accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness independent of acquired immunity. Moreover, recent mouse studies show that ILC2s also promote acquired immunity and Th2 polarization, and various cytokines and lipid mediators influence the functions of ILC2s. Although ILC2s have also been identified in humans, studies on the role of human ILC2s in asthma are very limited. Thus far, human studies have shown that there is a slight difference in responsiveness and production of cytokines between mouse and human ILC2s, and it has been suggested that ILC2s are involved in allergic-type asthma and the exacerbation of asthma. In this review, we focus on mouse and human ILC2s, and discuss their role in asthma. PMID:26117253

  8. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development. PMID:26779601

  9. Immunophenotypic characterization of lymphoid cell infiltrates in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sosa, S; Aguirre-Lombardo, M; Jimenez-Brito, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of vitiligo is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the nature of lymphoid cells infiltrating depigmented areas of skin in vitiligo. Immunochemical procedures were carried out in biopsies from 20 patients with active lesions to search for cells expressing CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD25, CD30, CD56, CD68 and CD79a. Results indicate that early lesions are infiltrated mainly by dendritic cells, whereas older lesions display significantly lower proportions of these cells and increased percentages of mature T cells. This finding might suggest that the autoimmune reactivity towards melanocyte antigens might be T cell-dependent and antigen-driven. It is possible that a non-immune offence of melanocytes is responsible for the exposure of intracellular antigens, while autoreactivity might be a secondary, self-perpetuating mechanism. PMID:23607858

  10. Human Lymphoid Tissues Harbor a Distinct CD69+CXCR6+ NK Cell Population.

    PubMed

    Lugthart, Gertjan; Melsen, Janine E; Vervat, Carly; van Ostaijen-Ten Dam, Monique M; Corver, Willem E; Roelen, Dave L; van Bergen, Jeroen; van Tol, Maarten J D; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of human NK cells is based primarily on conventional CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells from blood. However, most cellular immune interactions occur in lymphoid organs. Based on the coexpression of CD69 and CXCR6, we identified a third major NK cell subset in lymphoid tissues. This population represents 30-60% of NK cells in marrow, spleen, and lymph node but is absent from blood. CD69(+)CXCR6(+) lymphoid tissue NK cells have an intermediate expression of CD56 and high expression of NKp46 and ICAM-1. In contrast to circulating NK cells, they have a bimodal expression of the activating receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1. CD69(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells do not express the early markers c-kit and IL-7Rα, nor killer cell Ig-like receptors or other late-differentiation markers. After cytokine stimulation, CD69(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells produce IFN-γ at levels comparable to CD56(dim) NK cells. They constitutively express perforin but require preactivation to express granzyme B and exert cytotoxicity. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, CD69(+)CXCR6(+) lymphoid tissue NK cells do not exhibit the hyperexpansion observed for both conventional NK cell populations. CD69(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells constitute a separate NK cell population with a distinct phenotype and function. The identification of this NK cell population in lymphoid tissues provides tools to further evaluate the cellular interactions and role of NK cells in human immunity. PMID:27226093

  11. Innate Lymphoid Cells: The Innate Counterpart to T Helper Cells.

    PubMed

    Padro Dietz, Caroline; Luong, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently discovered subset of innate immune cells that are capable of secreting great amounts of cytokines that have been found to influence effector cell activity. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the absence (CRSsNP) or presence (CRSwNP) of nasal polyps has been characterized as type 1- and type 2-skewed, respectively, based on the presence of cytokines characteristic of type 1 and 2 immune responses. Based on the ability of type 1 ILCs to secrete interferon-x03B3;, a type 1 cytokine found elevated in CRSsNP and type 2 ILCs to secrete IL-5 and IL-13, type 2 cytokines found elevated in CRSwNP, it is essential to examine the role that ILCs may play in the pathogenesis of CRS. This chapter introduces each subset of ILC (type 1-3) and the non-CRS pathologies they have been associated with in both mouse and human models. It will discuss the current research into ILCs in CRS, particularly ILC2s and NK cells in CRSwNP. Finally, the chapter will consider the therapeutic implications of ILC involvement in CRS and highlight the needs for future research into the role that ILCs play in CRS. PMID:27466847

  12. Transcription factors controlling development and function of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Tanriver, Yakup; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphocytes, which play an important role in tissue homeostasis at epithelial surfaces. They are scarce in spleen and lymph nodes, but substantial numbers can be found in the intestinal mucosa even at steady state. There, they represent the first line of defence against invading pathogens and contribute to lymphorganogenesis, tissue repair and, when inappropriately activated, immune pathology. Lineage-specific development, function and maintenance of these cells depend on a restricted set of transcription factors that partially emerged as a result of diversification and selection during vertebrate evolution. The differential expression of transcription factors regulates unique developmental programs, which endow the different ILC subsets with specific effector functions. Despite this division of labour, ILCs are considered to share a common origin, as they all are progeny of the common lymphoid progenitor, rely on the common γ-chain (γc) used by various cytokine receptors and show a developmental requirement for the transcriptional regulator Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2). Here, we review the transcriptional programs required for the development and function of ILCs and give an overview of the evolution of transcription factors and cytokines expressed by ILCs. PMID:24585669

  13. Suppressor cell activity following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), bone marrow (BM) injection, and kidney transplantation in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, J.A.; Myburgh, J.A.; Hill, R.R.H.; Browde, S.

    1981-03-01

    Induction of specific tissue transplantation tolerance by fractionated TLI was first described in adult mice, rats, and dogs. The method was equally effective in inducing unresponsiveness in outbred baboons, and irradiation given in fractions was confirmed to be more efficient than single dose. This study investigated the cumulative effect of 600 to 2400 rad TLI on the immune response of baboons treated according to a schedule applicable to patients awaiting renal transplantation. The possible mechanisms involved in tolerogenesis include the following: broad nonspecific nonreactivity, clonal deletion, suppressor cell activity, and enhancement.

  14. mTOR Regulation of Lymphoid Cells in Immunity to Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Rachael; McGargill, Maureen Ann

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to pathogens exists as a fine balance between promoting activation and expansion of effector cells, while simultaneously limiting normal and aberrant responses. These seemingly opposing functions are kept in check by immune regulators. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that senses nutrient availability and, in turn, regulates cell metabolism, growth, and survival accordingly. mTOR plays a pivotal role in facilitating immune defense against invading pathogens by regulating the differentiation, activation, and effector functions of lymphoid cells. Here, we focus on the emerging and sometimes contradictory roles of mTOR in orchestrating lymphoid cell-mediated host immune responses to pathogens. A thorough understanding of how mTOR impacts lymphoid cells in pathogen defense will provide the necessary base for developing therapeutic interventions for infectious diseases. PMID:27242787

  15. mTOR Regulation of Lymphoid Cells in Immunity to Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Keating, Rachael; McGargill, Maureen Ann

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to pathogens exists as a fine balance between promoting activation and expansion of effector cells, while simultaneously limiting normal and aberrant responses. These seemingly opposing functions are kept in check by immune regulators. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that senses nutrient availability and, in turn, regulates cell metabolism, growth, and survival accordingly. mTOR plays a pivotal role in facilitating immune defense against invading pathogens by regulating the differentiation, activation, and effector functions of lymphoid cells. Here, we focus on the emerging and sometimes contradictory roles of mTOR in orchestrating lymphoid cell-mediated host immune responses to pathogens. A thorough understanding of how mTOR impacts lymphoid cells in pathogen defense will provide the necessary base for developing therapeutic interventions for infectious diseases. PMID:27242787

  16. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  17. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types. PMID:26751596

  18. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A suppresses murine innate allergic inflammation by blocking group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) activation

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Shinji; Goleniewska, Kasia; Reiss, Sara; Zhou, Weisong; Newcomb, Dawn C; Bloodworth, Melissa H; Stier, Matthew T; Boyd, Kelli L; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Subramaniam, Sriram; Peebles, R Stokes

    2016-01-01

    Background Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are an important source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 that are critical to the allergic airway phenotype. Previous studies reported that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA) downregulated adaptive allergic immune responses; however, the effect of HDAC inhibition on the early innate allergic immune response is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of TSA on innate airway inflammation mediated by ILC2 activation. Methods BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with Alternaria extract, exogenous recombinant mouse IL-33 (rmIL-33) or the respective vehicles for four consecutive days following TSA or vehicle treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and lungs were harvested 24 h after the last challenge. Results We found that TSA treatment significantly decreased the number of ILC2 expressing IL-5 and IL-13 in the lungs challenged with Alternaria extract or rmIL-33 compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). TSA treatment significantly decreased protein expression of IL-5, IL-13, CCL11 and CCL24 in the lung homogenates from Alternaria extract-challenged mice or rmIL-33-challenged mice compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). Further, TSA treatment significantly decreased the number of perivascular eosinophils and mucus production in the large airways that are critical components of the asthma phenotype (p<0.05). TSA did not change early IL-33 release in the BAL fluids; however, TSA decreased lung IL-33 expression from epithelial cells 24 h after last Alternaria extract challenge compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions These results reveal that TSA reduces allergen-induced ILC2 activation and the early innate immune responses to an inhaled protease-containing aeroallergen. PMID:27071418

  19. Suppression of HIV Replication by Lymphoid Tissue CD8+ Cells Correlates with the Clinical State of HIV-Infected Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackbourn, David J.; Mackewicz, Carl E.; Barker, Edward; Hunt, Thomas K.; Herndier, Brian; Haase, Ashley T.; Levy, Jay A.

    1996-11-01

    Lymphoid tissues from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, as compared with symptomatic HIV-infected subjects, show limited histopathological changes and lower levels of HIV expression. In this report we correlate the control of HIV replication in lymph nodes to the non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity of lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells. Five subjects at different stages of HIV-related disease were studied and the ability of their CD8+ cells, isolated from both lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood, to inhibit HIV replication was compared. CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of two HIV-infected long-term survivors suppressed HIV replication at a low CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.1. The CD8+ cells from the lymphoid tissue of a third asymptomatic subject suppressed HIV replication at a CD8+:CD4+ cell ratio of 0.25; the subject's peripheral blood CD8+ cells showed this antiviral response at a lower ratio of 0.05. The lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells from two AIDS patients were not able to suppress HIV replication, and the peripheral blood CD8+ cells of only one of them suppressed HIV replication. The plasma viremia, cellular HIV load as well as the extent of pathology and virus expression in the lymphoid tissue of the two long-term survivors, were reduced compared with these parameters in the three other subjects. The data suggest that the extent of anti-HIV activity by CD8+ cells from lymphoid tissue relative to peripheral blood correlates best with the clinical state measured by lymphoid tissue pathology and HIV burden in lymphoid tissues and blood. The results and further emphasis to the importance of this cellular immune response in controlling HIV pathogenesis.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    PubMed

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25287236

  1. IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ or TNF-α enhances BAFF-stimulated cell viability and survival by activating Erk1/2 and S6K1 pathways in neoplastic B-lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Gui, Lin; Zeng, Qingyu; Xu, Zhigang; Zhang, Hai; Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Chunxiao; Xu, Chong; Qian, Zhou; Zhang, Shuangquan; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2016-08-01

    B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) has been documented to act as a critical factor in the development of aggressive B lymphocytes and autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of various cytokines on BAFF-elicited neoplastic B-lymphoid cells is not known. In this study, we exhibited that administration of human soluble BAFF (hsBAFF), IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, or TNF-α alone increased cell viability and survival in Raji cells concentration-dependently, yet a more robust viability/survival was seen in the cells co-treatment of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, or TNF-α with hsBAFF, respectively. Further research revealed that both Erk1/2 and S6K1 signaling pathways were essential for IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, or TNF-α enhancement of the viability/survival in the hsBAFF-stimulated cells, as inhibition of Erk1/2 with U0126 or down-regulation of Erk1/2, or blockage of S6K1 with rapamycin or silencing S6K1, or silencing S6K1/Erk1/2, respectively, reduced the cell viability/survival in the cells treated with/without hsBAFF±IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, or TNF-α. These findings indicate that IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ or TNF-α enhances BAFF-stimulated cell viability/survival by activating Erk1/2 and S6K1 signaling in neoplastic B-lymphoid cells. Our data suggest that modulation of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and/or TNF-α levels, or inhibitors of Erk1/2 or S6K1 may be a new approach to prevent BAFF-induced aggressive B-cell malignancies. PMID:27235588

  2. Developmental Acquisition of Regulomes Underlies Innate Lymphoid Cell Functionality.

    PubMed

    Shih, Han-Yu; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Mikami, Yohei; Guo, Liying; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Fred P; Kanno, Yuka; O'Shea, John J

    2016-05-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis and mirror adaptive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usage of effector molecules and transcription factors. To better understand the relationship between ILC subsets and their Th cell counterparts, we measured genome-wide chromatin accessibility. We find that chromatin in proximity to effector genes is selectively accessible in ILCs prior to high-level transcription upon activation. Accessibility of these regions is acquired in a stepwise manner during development and changes little after in vitro or in vivo activation. Conversely, dramatic chromatin remodeling occurs in naive CD4(+) T cells during Th cell differentiation using a type-2-infection model. This alteration results in a substantial convergence of Th2 cells toward ILC2 regulomes. Our data indicate extensive sharing of regulatory circuitry across the innate and adaptive compartments of the immune system, in spite of their divergent developing pathways. PMID:27156451

  3. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Mildenstein, Kurt; Hunter, Kordell; Tkachenko, Olena; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 exhibited higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases. The results suggest the hypothesis that the more aggressive behavior of Ly6a/Sca-1 expressing leukemias is due at least in part to greater capacity to degrade microenvironmental stroma and invade tissues. PMID:24586463

  4. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells license dendritic cells to potentiate memory T helper 2 cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Timotheus YF; Hwang, You Yi; Scanlon, Seth T; Zaghouani, Habib; Garbi, Natalio; Fallon, Padraic G; McKenzie, Andrew NJ

    2015-01-01

    Rapid memory CD4+ T helper 2 (TH2) cell activation during allergic inflammation requires their recruitment into the affected tissue. Here we demonstrate that group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) play a critical role in memory TH2 cell responses, with targeted ILC2 depletion profoundly impairing TH2 cell localization to the lungs and skin of sensitized mice after allergen re-challenge. ILC2-derived interleukin-13 (IL-13) is critical for eliciting IRF4+CD11b+CD103− dendritic cells (DCs) to produce the TH2 cell-attracting chemokine CCL17. Consequently, the sentinel function of DCs is contingent on ILC2s for the generation of an efficient memory TH2 cell response. These results elucidate a key new innate mechanism in the regulation of the immune memory response to allergens. PMID:26523868

  5. Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takashi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Lamichhane, Aayam; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kamioka, Mariko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Matsuki, Takahiro; Setoyama, Hiromi; Imaoka, Akemi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Domino, Steven E; Kulig, Paulina; Becher, Burkhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-12

    Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation. PMID:25214634

  6. Type-2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Asthma and Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) belong to an expanding family of innate lymphocytes that provide a potent source of immune effector cytokines at the initiation of immune responses. ILC2 arise, under the control of the transcription factors RORα and GATA3, from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow, to secrete type-2 cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13. Using experimental models, ILC2 have been implicated in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, but also in metabolic homeostasis. Furthermore, recent reports have indicated that ILC2 not only play roles at the initiation of type-2 immunity but can also contribute to chronic pathology, such as fibrosis, and can impact on the priming of the adaptive T-cell response. The identification of ILC2 in patients with allergic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis indicates that these cells may represent new therapeutic targets. PMID:25525730

  7. Innate lymphoid cell function in the context of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Bando, Jennifer K; Colonna, Marco

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of innate immune cells that have diverse functions during homeostasis and disease. Subsets of ILCs have phenotypes that mirror those of polarized helper T cell subsets in their expression of core transcription factors and effector cytokines. Given the similarities between these two classes of lymphocytes, it is important to understand which functions of ILCs are specialized and which are redundant with those of T cells. Here we discuss genetic mouse models that have been used to delineate the contributions of ILCs versus those of T cells and review the current understanding of the specialized in vivo functions of ILCs. PMID:27328008

  8. The proto-oncogene c-ets is preferentially expressed in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J H

    1985-01-01

    The transforming sequences of the avian acute leukemia virus, E26, contain two distinct oncogenes, v-mybE and v-ets, fused together. By using a probe containing v-ets sequences, polyadenylated transcripts of the c-ets proto-oncogene were detected in avian tissues; they included a major 7.0-kilobase and a minor 2.0-kilobase species. These c-ets mRNAs were detected at high levels only in lymphoid organs and in avian T and B lymphoid cell lines. A similar pattern of c-ets transcription was observed in human hematopoietic cell lines, with transcripts detected in lymphoid B and T cells but not in erythroid or myeloid cells. The E26 oncogene was inserted into an inducible expression vector, and a 90-kilodalton protein (bp90) was produced in bacteria. Rabbit antisera raised to purified bp90 precipitated P135gag-mybE-ets, the v-mybE-ets polyprotein expressed in E26-transformed cells, and also reacted with p50v-mybA, the transforming protein of the avian myeloblastosis virus. Antiserum to bp90 was absorbed with a bacterially synthesized v-mybA protein to remove anti-myb activity. The absorbed anti-bp90 serum retained the ability to immunoprecipitate P135gag-mybE-ets from E26-transformed cells and specifically reacted with a 56-kilodalton polypeptide (p56) detected in chicken lymphoid organs and in T and B lymphocytes of both avian and human origin. The data suggest that p56 is a translational product of the c-ets proto-oncogene and imply that p56 may be involved in regulating the growth of lymphoid cells. Images PMID:3018492

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of 1,2-furanonaphthoquinones tethered to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Mariana F C; Rodrigues, Patrícia C; Oliveira, Maria Eduarda I M; Gama, Ivson L; da Silva, Illana M C B; Santos, Isabela O; Rocha, David R; Pinho, Rosa T; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria Cecília B V; da Silva, Fernando de C; Silva-Jr, Floriano Paes

    2014-09-12

    Leukemia is the most common blood cancer, and its development starts at diverse points, leading to distinct subtypes that respond differently to therapy. This heterogeneity is rarely taken into account in therapies, so it is still essential to look for new specific drugs for leukemia subtypes or even for therapy-resistant cases. Naphthoquinones (NQ) are considered privileged structures in medicinal chemistry due to their plethora of biological activities, including antimicrobial and anticancer effects. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as 1,2,3-1H-triazoles have been identified as general scaffolds for generating glycosidase inhibitors. In the present study, the NQ and 1,2,3-1H-triazole cores have been combined to chemically synthesize 18 new 1,2-furanonaphthoquinones tethered to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles (1,2-FNQT). Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against four different leukemia cell lines, including MOLT-4 and CEM (lymphoid cell lines) and K562 and KG1 (myeloid cell lines), as well as normal human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs). The new 1,2-FNQT series showed high cytotoxic potential against all leukemia cell lines tested, and some compounds (12o and 12p) showed even better results than the classical therapeutic compounds such as doxorubicin or cisplatin. Others compounds, such as 12b, are promising because of their high selectivity against lymphoblastic leukemia and their low activity against normal hematopoietic cells. The cells of lymphoid origin (MOLT and CEM) were generally more sensitive than the myeloid cell lines to this series of compounds, and most of the compounds that showed the highest cytotoxicity were similarly active against both cell lines. PMID:25064348

  10. Peripheral Tissue Homing Receptor Control of Naïve, Effector, and Memory CD8 T Cell Localization in Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, C. Colin; Peske, J. David; Engelhard, Victor Henry

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation induces homing receptors that bind ligands on peripheral tissue vasculature, programing movement to sites of infection and injury. There are three major types of CD8 effector T cells based on homing receptor expression, which arise in distinct lymphoid organs. Recent publications indicate that naïve, effector, and memory T cell migration is more complex than once thought; while many effectors enter peripheral tissues, some re-enter lymph nodes (LN), and contain central memory precursors. LN re-entry can depend on CD62L or peripheral tissue homing receptors. Memory T cells in LN tend to express the same homing receptors as their forebears, but often are CD62Lneg. Homing receptors also control CD8 T cell tumor entry. Tumor vasculature has low levels of many peripheral tissue homing receptor ligands, but portions of it resemble high endothelial venules (HEV), enabling naïve T cell entry, activation, and subsequent effector activity. This vasculature is associated with positive prognoses in humans, suggesting it may sustain ongoing anti-tumor responses. These findings reveal new roles for homing receptors expressed by naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in controlling entry into lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. PMID:23966998

  11. Peripheral tissue homing receptor control of naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cell localization in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, C Colin; Peske, J David; Engelhard, Victor Henry

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation induces homing receptors that bind ligands on peripheral tissue vasculature, programing movement to sites of infection and injury. There are three major types of CD8 effector T cells based on homing receptor expression, which arise in distinct lymphoid organs. Recent publications indicate that naïve, effector, and memory T cell migration is more complex than once thought; while many effectors enter peripheral tissues, some re-enter lymph nodes (LN), and contain central memory precursors. LN re-entry can depend on CD62L or peripheral tissue homing receptors. Memory T cells in LN tend to express the same homing receptors as their forebears, but often are CD62Lneg. Homing receptors also control CD8 T cell tumor entry. Tumor vasculature has low levels of many peripheral tissue homing receptor ligands, but portions of it resemble high endothelial venules (HEV), enabling naïve T cell entry, activation, and subsequent effector activity. This vasculature is associated with positive prognoses in humans, suggesting it may sustain ongoing anti-tumor responses. These findings reveal new roles for homing receptors expressed by naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in controlling entry into lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. PMID:23966998

  12. Complementarity and redundancy of IL-22-producing innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Lucille C; Girard-Madoux, Mathilde J H; Seillet, Cyril; Mielke, Lisa A; Kerdiles, Yann; Fenis, Aurore; Wieduwild, Elisabeth; Putoczki, Tracy; Mondot, Stanislas; Lantz, Olivier; Demon, Dieter; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Smyth, Gordon K; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Carotta, Sebastian; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Shi, Wei; Carpentier, Sabrina; Soos, Tim; Arendt, Christopher; Ugolini, Sophie; Huntington, Nicholas D; Belz, Gabrielle T; Vivier, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal T cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 cells) control the composition of the microbiota and gut immune responses. Within the gut, ILC3 subsets coexist that either express or lack the natural cytoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp46. We identified here the transcriptional signature associated with the transcription factor T-bet-dependent differentiation of NCR(-) ILC3 cells into NCR(+) ILC3 cells. Contrary to the prevailing view, we found by conditional deletion of the key ILC3 genes Stat3, Il22, Tbx21 and Mcl1 that NCR(+) ILC3 cells were redundant for the control of mouse colonic infection with Citrobacter rodentium in the presence of T cells. However, NCR(+) ILC3 cells were essential for cecal homeostasis. Our data show that interplay between intestinal ILC3 cells and adaptive lymphocytes results in robust complementary failsafe mechanisms that ensure gut homeostasis. PMID:26595889

  13. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Graft‐Versus‐Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mjösberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are lymphocytes lacking rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. ILC are important effector and regulatory cells of the innate immune system, controlling lymphoid organogenesis, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The family of ILC consists of cytotoxic NK cells and the more recently described noncytotoxic group 1, 2, and 3 ILC. The classification of noncytotoxic ILC—in many aspects—mirrors that of T helper cells, which is based on the expression of master transcription factors and signature cytokines specific for each subset. The IL‐22 producing RORγt+ ILC3 subset was recently found to be critical in the prevention of intestinal graft‐versus‐host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) via strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this review, we summarize the current view of the immunological functions of human noncytotoxic ILC subsets and discuss the potentially beneficial features of IL‐22 producing ILC3 in improving allo‐HCT efficacy by attenuating susceptibility to GVHD. In addition, we explore the possibility of other ILC subsets playing a role in GVHD. PMID:26228632

  14. Enhanced isolation of lymphoid cells from human skin.

    PubMed

    Salimi, M; Subramaniam, S; Selvakumar, T; Wang, X; Zemenides, S; Johnson, D; Ogg, G

    2016-07-01

    Studying skin immune cells under various pathophysiological conditions is vital for understanding the nature of cutaneous inflammatory responses. Available methods of isolating cells from the skin have relatively low yield or require in vitro culture. To increase the effective isolation of skin immune cells, we used collagenase P treatment. The number of T cells obtained ex vivo using this technique was dramatically greater than that obtained with conventional methods, without the need for long-term culture. The phenotype and function of isolated cells were comparable with those of cells isolated by EDTA treatment. Collagenase P-based methods will enhance the ability to investigate lymphoid cell function in both healthy and diseased skin. PMID:26805629

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of novel ethyl 4-[4-(4-substitutedpiperidin-1-yl)]benzyl-phenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-carboxylate derivatives in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Desplat, Vanessa; Vincenzi, Marian; Lucas, Romain; Moreau, Stéphane; Savrimoutou, Solène; Pinaud, Noël; Lesbordes, Jordi; Peyrilles, Elodie; Marchivie, Mathieu; Routier, Sylvain; Sonnet, Pascal; Rossi, Filomena; Ronga, Luisa; Guillon, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Leukemia is the most common blood cancer, and its development starts at diverse points, leading to distinct subtypes that respond differently to therapy. This heterogeneity is rarely taken into account in therapies, so it is still essential to look for new specific drugs for leukemia subtypes or even for therapy-resistant cases. Among heterocyclic compounds that attracted a lot of attention because of its wide spread biological activities, the pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline heterocyclic framework has been identified as interesting scaffolds for antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines. In the present study, novel ethyl 4-[4-(4-substitutedpiperidin-1-yl)]benzyl-phenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-carboxylate derivatives 1a-l have been designed and synthesized. Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against five different leukemia cell lines, including Jurkat and U266 (lymphoid cell lines), and K562, U937, HL60 (myeloid cell lines), as well as normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Then, apoptosis study was performed with the more interesting compounds. The new pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline series showed promising cytotoxic potential against all leukemia cell lines tested, and some compounds showed better results than the reference compound A6730. Some compounds, such as 1a, 1e, 1g and 1h are promising because of their high activity against leukemia and their low activity against normal hematopoietic cells. Structure-activity relationships of these new synthetic compounds 1a-l are here also discussed. PMID:26945110

  16. IL-33 promotes ST2-dependent lung fibrosis by the induction of alternatively activated macrophages and innate lymphoid cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Besnard, Anne-Gaëlle; Komai-Koma, Mousa; Jabir, Majid S.; Zhang, Li; Graham, Gerard J.; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Liew, Foo Y.; McSharry, Charles; Xu, Damo

    2014-01-01

    Background The initiation and regulation of pulmonary fibrosis are not well understood. IL-33, an important cytokine for respiratory diseases, is overexpressed in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Objectives We aimed to determine the effects and mechanism of IL-33 on the development and severity of pulmonary fibrosis in murine bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Methods Lung fibrosis was induced by bleomycin in wild-type or Il33r (St2)−/− C57BL/6 mice treated with the recombinant mature form of IL-33 or anti–IL-33 antibody or transferred with type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The development and severity of fibrosis was evaluated based on lung histology, collagen levels, and lavage cytology. Cytokine and chemokine levels were quantified by using quantitative PCR, ELISA, and cytometry. Results IL-33 is constitutively expressed in lung epithelial cells but is induced in macrophages by bleomycin. Bleomycin enhanced the production of the mature but reduced full-length form of IL-33 in lung tissue. ST2 deficiency, anti–IL-33 antibody treatment, or alveolar macrophage depletion attenuated and exogenous IL-33 or adoptive transfer of ILC2s enhanced bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. These pathologic changes were accompanied, respectively, by reduced or increased IL-33, IL-13, TGF-β1, and inflammatory chemokine production in the lung. Furthermore, IL-33 polarized M2 macrophages to produce IL-13 and TGF-β1 and induced the expansion of ILC2s to produce IL-13 in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions IL-33 is a novel profibrogenic cytokine that signals through ST2 to promote the initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis by recruiting and directing inflammatory cell function and enhancing profibrogenic cytokine production in an ST2- and macrophage-dependent manner. PMID:24985397

  17. Suppression of OVA-alum induced allergy by Heligmosomoides polygyrus products is MyD88-, TRIF-, regulatory T- and B cell-independent, but is associated with reduced innate lymphoid cell activation.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Henry J; Blair, Natalie F; Robertson, Elaine; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    The murine intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus exerts multiple immunomodulatory effects in the host, including the suppression of allergic inflammation in mice sensitized to allergen presented with alum adjuvant. Similar suppression is attained by co-administration of H. polygyrus excretory/secretory products (HES) with the sensitizing dose of ovalbumin (OVA) in alum. We investigated the mechanism of suppression by HES in this model, and found it was maintained in MyD88xTRIF-deficient mice, implying no role for helminth- or host-derived TLR ligands, or IL-1 family cytokines that signal in a MyD88- or TRIF-dependent manner. We also found suppression was unchanged in µMT mice, which lack B2 B cells, and that suppression was not abrogated when regulatory T cells were depleted in Foxp3.LuciDTR-4 mice. However, reduced IL-5 production was seen in the first 12 h after injection of OVA-alum when HES was co-administered, associated with reduced activation of IL-5(+) and IL-13(+) group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Thus, the suppressive effects of HES on alum-mediated OVA sensitization are reflected in the very earliest innate response to allergen exposure in vivo. PMID:25728231

  18. Runx3 specifies lineage commitment of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Takashi; Song, Christina; Ryu, Stacy H.; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Yang, Liping; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram; Bern, Michael D.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Colonna, Marco; Egawa, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside in the mucosa and regulate immune responses against external pathogens. While ILCs can be phenotypically classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 cells, the transcriptional control of lineage commitment for each ILC subset is incompletely understood. Here we report that the transcription factor Runx3 was essential for normal development of ILC1 and ILC3, but not ILC2 cells. Runx3 controlled the survival of ILC1, but not ILC3 cells. Runx3 was required for the expression of RORγt and its downstream target, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, in ILC3 cells. The absence of Runx3 in ILCs exacerbated C. rodentium infections. Therefore, our data establish Runx3 as a key transcription factor for lineage-specific differentiation of ILC1 and ILC3 cells. PMID:26414766

  19. The induction of human peripheral blood lymphoid colonies by conditioned media from human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Vesole, D H; Moore, G E

    1980-01-01

    Conditioned medium (CM) from 29 human tumour cell lines and 3 malignant pleural fluids were tested for their ability to stimulate lymphoid colony formation in semi-solid agar; 9 of 14 malignant melanomas, 3 of 6 colonic carcinomas, 2 of 5 ovarian carcinomas, 3 of 4 breast carcinomas and 1 of 3 pleural fluids from breast cancer patients contained colony-stimulating activity (CSA) for human peripheral blood lymphoid cells (PBL) in semi-solid agar. Conditioned media also stimulated PBL proliferation in liquid medium; these effects were dose dependent. With the exception of one pleural fluid, extensive dialysis of CM did not significantly increase colony formation; CM from two tumour cell lines demonstrated a significant decrease in the induction of colony formation after dialysis. PMID:6970165

  20. Alterations of circulating lymphoid committed progenitor cellular metabolism after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in humans.

    PubMed

    Glauzy, Salomé; Peffault de Latour, Régis; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Lachuer, Joël; Servais, Sophie; Socié, Gérard; Clave, Emmanuel; Toubert, Antoine

    2016-09-01

    Lymphoid-committed CD34(+)lin(-)CD10(+)CD24(-) progenitors undergo a rebound at month 3 after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in the absence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Here, we analyzed transcriptional programs of cell-sorted circulating lymphoid-committed progenitors and CD34(+)Lin(-)CD10(-) nonlymphoid progenitors in 11 allo-HSCT patients who had (n = 5) or had not (n = 6) developed grade 2 or 3 aGVHD and in 7 age-matched healthy donors. Major upregulated pathways include protein synthesis, energy production, cell cycle regulation, and cytoskeleton organization. Notably, genes from protein biogenesis, translation machinery, and cell cycle (CDK6) were overexpressed in progenitors from patients in the absence of aGVHD compared with healthy donors and patients affected by aGVHD. Expression of many genes from the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway leading to ATP production were more specifically increased in lymphoid-committed progenitors in the absence of aGVHD. This was also the case for genes involved in cell mobilization such as those regulating Rho GTPase activity. In all, we found that circulating lymphoid-committed progenitors undergo profound changes in metabolism, favoring cell proliferation, energy production, and cell mobilization after allo-HSCT in humans. These mechanisms are abolished in the case of aGVHD or its treatment, indicating a persistent cell-intrinsic defect after exit from the bone marrow. PMID:27321893

  1. NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense.

    PubMed

    Spits, Hergen; Bernink, Jochem H; Lanier, Lewis

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are effectors and regulators of innate immunity and tissue modeling and repair. Researchers have identified subsets of ILCs with differing functional activities, capacities to produce cytokines and transcription factors required for development and function. Natural killer (NK) cells represent the prototypical member of the ILC family. Together with ILC1s, NK cells constitute group 1 ILCs, which are characterized by their capacity to produce interferon-γ and their functional dependence on the transcription factor T-bet. NK cells and ILC1s are developmentally distinct but share so many features that they are difficult to distinguish, particularly under conditions of infection and inflammation. Here we review current knowledge of NK cells and the various ILC1 subsets. PMID:27328005

  2. Cumulative mechanisms of lymphoid tissue fibrosis and T cell depletion in HIV-1 and SIV infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Smith, Anthony J.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Southern, Peter J.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Burton, Gregory F.; Silvestri, Guido; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2011-01-01

    The hallmark of HIV-1 and SIV infections is CD4+ T cell depletion. Both direct cell killing and indirect mechanisms related to immune activation have been suggested to cause the depletion of T cells. We have now identified a mechanism by which immune activation-induced fibrosis of lymphoid tissues leads to depletion of naive T cells in HIV-1 infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The T regulatory cell response to immune activation increased procollagen production and subsequent deposition as fibrils via the TGF-β1 signaling pathway and chitinase 3-like-1 activity in fibroblasts in lymphoid tissues from patients infected with HIV-1. Collagen deposition restricted T cell access to the survival factor IL-7 on the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network, resulting in apoptosis and depletion of T cells, which, in turn, removed a major source of lymphotoxin-β, a survival factor for FRCs during SIV infection in rhesus macaques. The resulting loss of FRCs and the loss of IL-7 produced by FRCs may thus perpetuate a vicious cycle of depletion of T cells and the FRC network. Because this process is cumulative, early treatment and antifibrotic therapies may offer approaches to moderate T cell depletion and improve immune reconstitution during HIV-1 infection. PMID:21393864

  3. Gastric LTi cells promote lymphoid follicle formation but are limited by IRAK-M and do not alter microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Shiu, J; Piazuelo, M B; Ding, H; Czinn, S J; Drakes, M L; Banerjee, A; Basappa, N; Kobayashi, K S; Fricke, W F; Blanchard, T G

    2015-09-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are activated by accessory cell IL-23, and promote lymphoid tissue genesis and antibacterial peptide production by the mucosal epithelium. We investigated the role of LTi cells in the gastric mucosa in the context of microbial infection. Mice deficient in IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, were investigated for increased LTi cell activity, and antibody mediated LTi cell depletion was used to analyze LTi cell dependent antimicrobial activity. H. pylori infected IRAK-M deficient mice developed increased gastric IL-17 and lymphoid follicles compared to wild type mice. LTi cells were present in naive and infected mice, with increased numbers in IRAK-M deficient mice by two weeks. Helicobacter and Candida infection of LTi cell depleted rag1(-/-) mice demonstrated LTi-dependent increases in calprotectin but not RegIII proteins. However, pathogen and commensal microbiota populations remained unchanged in the presence or absence of LTi cell function. These data demonstrate LTi cells are present in the stomach and promote lymphoid follicle formation in response to infection, but are limited by IRAK-M expression. Additionally, LTi cell mediated antimicrobial peptide production at the gastric epithelium is less efficacious at protecting against microbial pathogens than has been reported for other tissues. PMID:25603827

  4. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analyses Reveal Heterogeneous Responsiveness of Fetal Innate Lymphoid Progenitors to Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chea, Sylvestre; Schmutz, Sandrine; Berthault, Claire; Perchet, Thibaut; Petit, Maxime; Burlen-Defranoux, Odile; Goldrath, Ananda W; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Cumano, Ana; Golub, Rachel

    2016-02-16

    T and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) share some aspects of their developmental programs. However, although Notch signaling is strictly required for T cell development, it is dispensable for fetal ILC development. Constitutive activation of Notch signaling, at the common lymphoid progenitor stage, drives T cell development and abrogates ILC development by preventing Id2 expression. By combining single-cell transcriptomics and clonal culture strategies, we characterize two heterogeneous α4β7-expressing lymphoid progenitor compartments. αLP1 (Flt3(+)) still retains T cell potential and comprises the global ILC progenitor, while αLP2 (Flt3(-)) consists of ILC precursors that are primed toward the different ILC lineages. Only a subset of αLP2 precursors is sensitive to Notch signaling required for their proliferation. Our study identifies, in a refined manner, the diversity of transitional stages of ILC development, their transcriptional signatures, and their differential dependence on Notch signaling. PMID:26832410

  5. Phosphatidylazidothymidine and phosphatidyl-ddC: assessment of uptake in mouse lymphoid tissues and antiviral activities in human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells and in Rauscher leukemia virus-infected mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, K Y; Richman, D D; Sridhar, C N; Felgner, P L; Felgner, J; Ricci, J; Gardner, M F; Selleseth, D W; Ellis, M N

    1994-01-01

    During the early stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although symptoms are absent and viral replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is low, substantial levels of HIV replication can be documented in lymphoid tissue [G. Pantaleo, C. Graziosi, J.F. Demarest, L. Butini, M. Montroni, C.H. Fox, J.M. Orenstein, D.P. Kotler, and A.S. Fauci, Nature (London) 362:355-358, 1993, and J. Embretsen, M. Zupancic, J.L. Ribas, A. Burke, P. Racz, K. Tenner-Tacz, and A.T. Haase, Nature (London) 362:359-362, 1993]. This observation suggests that earlier treatment of HIV infection may be indicated and that strategies for enhancing drug targeting to the lymphoid tissue reservoris of HIV infection may be beneficial. To address this issue, we synthesized dioleoylphosphatidyl-ddC (DOP-ddC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (DPP-AZT), phospholipid prodrugs which form lipid bilayers and which are readily incorporated into liposomes. The anti-HIV activity of DOP-ddC was similar to that of ddC in HIV type 1-infected HT4-6C cells, but DPP-AZT was considerably less active than AZT in HT4-6C cells. Liposomes containing DOP-[3H]ddC or DPP-[3H]AZT administered intraperitoneally to mice produced greater levels of total radioactivity over time in plasma, spleen, and lymphoid tissue relative to the results with [3H]ddC and [3H]AZT, respectively. DPP-AZT administered intraperitoneally in liposomes as a single daily dose to mice infected with Rauscher leukemia virus prevented increased spleen weight and reverse transcriptase levels in serum with a dose-response roughly comparable to that of AZT given continuously in the drinking water. DOP-ddC, DPP-AZT, and lipid conjugates of other antiretroviral nucleosides may provide higher levels of drug over time in plasma and in lymph nodes and spleen, important reservoirs of HIV infection, and may represent an interesting alternative approach to antiviral nucleoside treatment of AIDS. PMID:7695264

  6. Complementarity and redundancy of IL-22-producing innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Lucille C.; Girard-Madoux, Mathilde J. H.; Seillet, Cyril; Mielke, Lisa A.; Kerdiles, Yann; Fenis, Aurore; Wieduwild, Elisabeth; Putoczki, Tracy; Mondot, Stanislas; Lantz, Olivier; Demon, Dieter; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Carotta, Sebastian; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Shi, Wei; Carpentier, Sabrina; Soos, Tim; Arendt, Christopher; Ugolini, Sophie; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Vivier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal T cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) control the composition of the microbiota and gut immune responses. Within the gut there coexists ILC3 subsets which either express or lack the Natural cytoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp46. We identify here the transcriptional signature associated with the T-bet-dependent differentiation of NCR− ILC3 into NCR+ ILC3. Contrary to the prevailing view, we show by conditional deletion of the key ILC3 genes Stat3, Il22, Tbx21 and Mcl1 that NCR+ ILC3 were redundant for the control of mouse colonic infections with Citrobacter rodentium in the presence of T cells. However, NCR+ ILC3 were essential for cecum homeostasis. Our data show that interplay between intestinal ILC3 and adaptive lymphocytes results in robust complementary fail-safe mechanisms ensuring gut homeostasis. PMID:26595889

  7. Germinal centre protein HGAL promotes lymphoid hyperplasia and amyloidosis via BCR-mediated Syk activation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lu, Xiaoqing; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Flores, Teresa; Garcia, Juan Luis; McNamara, George; Kunder, Christian; Zhao, Shuchun; Segura, Victor; Fontan, Lorena; Martínez-Climent, Jose A.; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; Theis, Jason D.; Dogan, Ahmet; Campos-Sánchez, Elena; Green, Michael R.; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2012-01-01

    The human germinal centre associated lymphoma (HGAL) gene is specifically expressed in germinal centre B-lymphocytes and germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but its function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that HGAL directly binds Syk in B-cells, increases its kinase activity upon B-cell receptor stimulation and leads to enhanced activation of Syk downstream effectors. To further investigate these findings in vivo, HGAL transgenic mice were generated. Starting from 12 months of age these mice developed polyclonal B-cell lymphoid hyperplasia, hypergammaglobulinemia and systemic reactive AA amyloidosis, leading to shortened survival. The lymphoid hyperplasia in the HGAL transgenic mice are likely attributable to enhanced B-cell receptor signalling as shown by increased Syk phosphorylation, ex vivo B-cell proliferation and increased RhoA activation. Overall, our study shows for the first time that the germinal centre protein HGAL regulates B-cell receptor signalling in B-lymphocytes which, without appropriate control, may lead to B-cell lymphoproliferation. PMID:23299888

  8. Survival in rectal cancer is predicted by T cell infiltration of tumour-associated lymphoid nodules

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, T P W; Lai, R; Dabbagh, L; Wallace, T M; de Gara, C J

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid nodules are a normal component of the mucosa of the rectum, but little is known about their function and whether they contribute to the host immune response in malignancy. In rectal cancer specimens from patients with local (n = 18), regional (n = 12) and distant (n = 10) disease, we quantified T cell (CD3, CD25) and dendritic cell (CD1a, CD83) levels at the tumour margin as well as within tumour-associated lymphoid nodules. In normal tissue CD3+, but not CD25+, T cells are concentrated at high levels within lymphoid nodules, with significantly fewer cells found in surrounding normal mucosa (P = 0·001). Mature (CD83), but not immature (CD1a), dendritic cells in normal tissue are also found clustered almost exclusively within lymphoid nodules (P = < 0·0001). In rectal tumours, both CD3+ T cells (P = 0·004) and CD83+ dendritic cells (P = 0·0001) are also localized preferentially within tumour-associated lymphoid nodules. However, when comparing tumour specimens to normal rectal tissue, the average density of CD3+ T cells (P = 0·0005) and CD83+ dendritic cells (P = 0·0006) in tumour-associated lymphoid nodules was significantly less than that seen in lymphoid nodules in normal mucosa. Interestingly, regardless of where quantified, T cell and dendritic cell levels did not depend upon the stage of disease. Increased CD3+ T cell infiltration of tumour-associated lymphoid nodules predicted improved survival, independent of stage (P = 0·05). Other T cell (CD25) markers and different levels of CD1a+ or CD83+ dendritic cells did not predict survival. Tumour-associated lymphoid nodules, enriched in dendritic cells and T cells, may be an important site for antigen presentation and increased T cell infiltration may be a marker for improved survival. PMID:20408858

  9. NK Cells and Other Innate Lymphoid Cells in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Paola; Montaldo, Elisa; Croxatto, Daniele; Moretta, Francesca; Bertaina, Alice; Vitale, Chiara; Locatelli, Franco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in the T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) to cure high-risk leukemias. NK cells belong to the expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). At variance with NK cells, the other ILC populations (ILC1/2/3) are non-cytolytic, while they secrete different patterns of cytokines. ILCs provide host defenses against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, drive lymphoid organogenesis, and contribute to tissue remodeling. In haplo-HSCT patients, the extensive T-cell depletion is required to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but increases risks of developing a wide range of life-threatening infections. However, these patients may rely on innate defenses that are reconstituted more rapidly than the adaptive ones. In this context, ILCs may represent important players in the early phases following transplantation. They may contribute to tissue homeostasis/remodeling and lymphoid tissue reconstitution. While the reconstitution of NK cell repertoire and its role in haplo-HSCT have been largely investigated, little information is available on ILCs. Of note, CD34(+) cells isolated from different sources of HSC may differentiate in vitro toward various ILC subsets. Moreover, cytokines released from leukemia blasts (e.g., IL-1β) may alter the proportions of NK cells and ILC3, suggesting the possibility that leukemia may skew the ILC repertoire. Further studies are required to define the timing of ILC development and their potential protective role after HSCT. PMID:27242795

  10. NK Cells and Other Innate Lymphoid Cells in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Paola; Montaldo, Elisa; Croxatto, Daniele; Moretta, Francesca; Bertaina, Alice; Vitale, Chiara; Locatelli, Franco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in the T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) to cure high-risk leukemias. NK cells belong to the expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). At variance with NK cells, the other ILC populations (ILC1/2/3) are non-cytolytic, while they secrete different patterns of cytokines. ILCs provide host defenses against viruses, bacteria, and parasites, drive lymphoid organogenesis, and contribute to tissue remodeling. In haplo-HSCT patients, the extensive T-cell depletion is required to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but increases risks of developing a wide range of life-threatening infections. However, these patients may rely on innate defenses that are reconstituted more rapidly than the adaptive ones. In this context, ILCs may represent important players in the early phases following transplantation. They may contribute to tissue homeostasis/remodeling and lymphoid tissue reconstitution. While the reconstitution of NK cell repertoire and its role in haplo-HSCT have been largely investigated, little information is available on ILCs. Of note, CD34+ cells isolated from different sources of HSC may differentiate in vitro toward various ILC subsets. Moreover, cytokines released from leukemia blasts (e.g., IL-1β) may alter the proportions of NK cells and ILC3, suggesting the possibility that leukemia may skew the ILC repertoire. Further studies are required to define the timing of ILC development and their potential protective role after HSCT. PMID:27242795

  11. In vitro and in vivo activity of 4-thio-uridylate against JY cells, a model for human acute lymphoid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Berenyi, Erika; Benko, Ilona; Vamosi, Gyoergy; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, 98 Nagyerdei Krt., Debrecen 4032 ; Geresi, Krisztina; Tarkanyi, Ilona; Szegedi, Istvan; Lukacs, Levente; Juhasz, Istvan; Kiss, Csongor; Fesues, Laszlo; Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, 98 Nagyerdei Krt., Debrecen 4032 ; and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} s{sup 4}UMP a naturally occurring thiolated nucleotide, effectively inhibited the proliferation of JY cells in vitro and in vivo. {yields} s{sup 4}UMP decreased the cell number and colony forming activity of leukemia cells in SCID mice. {yields} The effect of s{sup 4}UMP was undetectable on the bone marrow of healthy mice. {yields} The biochemical changes of the treated cells suggested that s{sup 4}UMP induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: We have previously reported the in vitro anti-proliferative effect of 4-thio-uridylate (s{sup 4}UMP) on OCM-1 uveal melanoma cells. Here, we assessed the efficacy of s{sup 4}UMP on JY cells. Treatment of JY cells with s{sup 4}UMP suppressed their colony forming activity and induced apoptosis; healthy human bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells were 14-fold less sensitive to the nucleotide. In vivo effectiveness of s{sup 4}UMP was determined using xenograft SCID mouse model. s{sup 4}UMP decreased the cell number and colony forming activity of the total cell content of the femur of SCID mice transplanted with JY cells without affecting the bone marrow of healthy mice. These results suggest that s{sup 4}UMP alone or in combination with other clinically approved anti-leukemic remedies should be further explored as a potential novel therapeutic agent.

  12. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  13. Choreography of Cell Motility and Interaction Dynamics Imaged by Two-Photon Microscopy in Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Cahalan, Michael D.; Parker, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The immune system is the most diffuse cellular system in the body. Accordingly, long-range migration of cells and short-range communication by local chemical signaling and by cell-cell contacts are vital to the control of an immune response. Cellular homing and migration within lymphoid organs, antigen recognition, and cell signaling and activation are clearly vital during an immune response, but these events had not been directly observed in vivo until recently. Introduced to the field of immunology in 2002, two-photon microscopy is the method of choice for visualizing living cells deep within native tissue environments, and it is now revealing an elegant cellular choreography that underlies the adaptive immune response to antigen challenge. We review cellular dynamics and molecular factors that contribute to basal motility of lymphocytes in the lymph node and cellular interactions leading to antigen capture and recognition, T cell activation, B cell activation, cytolytic effector function, and antibody production. PMID:18173372

  14. Follicular dendritic cells, conduits, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules in tertiary lymphoid organs: Parallels with lymph node stroma

    PubMed Central

    Stranford, Sharon; Ruddle, Nancy H.

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, the contribution of stromal, or non-hematopoietic, cells to the structure and function of lymph nodes (LNs), as canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), is compared to that of tertiary lymphoid tissue or organs (TLOs), also known as ectopic lymphoid tissues. TLOs can arise in non-lymphoid organs during chronic inflammation, as a result of autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infection, and cancer. The stromal components found in SLOs including follicular dendritic cells, fibroblast reticular cells, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules and possibly conduits are present in TLOs; their molecular regulation mimics that of LNs. Advances in visualization techniques and the development of transgenic mice that permit in vivo real time imaging of these structures will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions in the context of chronic inflammation. A clearer understanding of the inflammatory signals that drive non-lymphoid stromal cells to reorganize into TLO should allow the design of therapeutic interventions to impede the progression of autoimmune activity, or alternatively, to enhance anti-tumor responses. PMID:23230435

  15. Transcriptional Regulatory Network for the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chao; Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have expanded our knowledge about the innate arm of the immune system. Helper-like ILCs share both the “innate” feature of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and the “helper” feature of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. With this combination, helper-like ILCs are capable of initiating early immune responses similar to cNK cells, but via secretion of a set of effector cytokines similar to those produced by Th cells. Although many studies have revealed the functional similarity between helper-like ILCs and Th cells, some aspects of ILCs including the development of this lineage remain elusive. It is intriguing that the majority of transcription factors involved in multiple stages of T cell development, differentiation, and function also play critical roles during ILC development. Regulators such as Id2, GATA-3, Nfil3, TOX, and TCF-1 are expressed and function at various stages of ILC development. In this review, we will summarize the expression and functions of these transcription factors shared by ILCs and Th cells. We will also propose a complex transcriptional regulatory network for the lineage commitment of ILCs. PMID:26379372

  16. The tryptophan derivative, tranilast, and conditioned medium with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing cells inhibit the proliferation of lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Shihoko; Kasubata, Aya; Kato, Miyu; Iida, Megumi; Watanabe, Ken; Miura, Osamu; Fukuda, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that catalyzes tryptophan degradation and induces immunosuppression. Although IDO is an important factor that allows tumors to escape from immunological attack, its effect on lymphoid malignancies has not been fully revealed. We evaluated the expression of IDO in samples from patients with B-cell malignancies. The IDO expression in the tumor samples was comparable to those in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and had mainly originated from non-B cell populations. We introduced IDO gene into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We then cultured various cell lines using CHO- or CHO-IDO-conditioned medium. Compared with the CHO medium (CHO-CM), the CHO-IDO medium (IDO-CM) decreased the viability of lymphoid cell lines but not those of the non-lymphoid lines. Next, we examined the effects of tryptophan metabolites on lymphoid tumors, and revealed that the drug N-[3',4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl] anthranilic acid (tranilast), a synthetic derivative of the tryptophan metabolite, was able to repress proliferation and dose-dependently induce cell death of lymphoid cell lines. Tranilast induced the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which is activated by cellular stress, in lymphoid cells. The effect of tranilast on lymphoid cells was independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) although tranilast has been reported to be an AhR agonist. Finally, the administration of tranilast decreased murine lymphoid tumor progression in vivo. These results indicated that IDO and tryptophan derivatives, particularly tranilast, can be tools for the therapy for lymphoid malignancies. PMID:25572287

  17. Immunohistological recognition of cyclin D1 expression by non-lymphoid cells among lymphoid neoplastic cells.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Zainalabideen; Turley, Helen; Gatter, Kevin; Pezzella, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Cyclin D1 immunostaining of non-neoplastic cells has been a source of diagnostic confusion especially in lymphoproliferative lesions. This study has reviewed these in two hundred and thirty-one haematopathological samples stained for cyclin D1. Most cases were formalin-fixed except for a few bone marrow trephines, which were B-5 fixed, and EDTA decalcified. Overall, 94% (216/231) of cases showed one or more types of non-neoplastic cells expressing Cyclin D1 of variable intensity. Endothelial cells and histiocytes were the most commonly identified Cyclin D1 positive cells being positive in 92% (214/231) of cases. Other normal cell types identified included fat cells, stromal fibroblasts, glial cells, spermatocytes, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts and where present epithelial cells. Many normal cell types can express cyclinD1. Knowledge of these is useful to prevent misinterpretation of cyclin D1 positive tumours. PMID:23758159

  18. Regulation of metabolic health and adipose tissue function by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Kelly M; Molofsky, Ari B

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is home to an abundance of immune cells. With chronic obesity, inflammatory immune cells accumulate and promote insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, recent studies have highlighted the regulation and function of immune cells in lean, healthy AT, including those associated with type 2 or "allergic" immunity. Although traditionally activated by infection with multicellular helminthes, AT type 2 immunity is active independently of infection, and promotes tissue homeostasis, AT "browning," and systemic insulin sensitivity, protecting against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are integral regulators of AT type 2 immunity, producing the cytokines interleukin-5 and IL-13, promoting eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, and cooperating with and promoting AT regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in our understanding of group 2 innate lymphoid cell cells and type 2 immunity in AT metabolism and homeostasis. PMID:27120716

  19. Ectopic expression of B-lymphoid kinase in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Vetter-Kauczok, Claudia S.; Woetmann, Anders; Kneitz, Hermann; Eriksen, Karsten W.; Lovato, Paola; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Geisler, Carsten; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Becker, Juergen C.

    2009-01-01

    B-lymphoid kinase (Blk) is exclusively expressed in B cells and thymocytes. Interestingly, transgenic expression of a constitutively active form of Blk in the T-cell lineage of mice results in the development of T-lymphoid lymphomas. Here, we demonstrate nuclear factor–kappa B (NF-κB)–mediated ectopic expression of Blk in malignant T-cell lines established from patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Importantly, Blk is also expressed in situ in lesional tissue specimens from 26 of 31 patients with CTCL. Already in early disease the majority of epidermotropic T cells express Blk, whereas Blk expression is not observed in patients with benign inflammatory skin disorders. In a longitudinal study of an additional 24 patients biopsied for suspected CTCL, Blk expression significantly correlated with a subsequently confirmed diagnosis of CTCL. Blk is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated in malignant CTCL cell lines and spontaneously active in kinase assays. Furthermore, targeting Blk activity and expression by Src kinase inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibit the proliferation of the malignant T cells. In conclusion, this is the first report of Blk expression in CTCL, thereby providing new clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:19351960

  20. Role of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Marashian, Sayed Mehran; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Jamaati, Hamid Reza; Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Kiani, Arda; Abedini, Atefeh; Garssen, Johan; Adcock, Ian M; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2015-08-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are identified as novel population of hematopoietic cells which protect the body by coordinating the innate immune response against a wide range of threats including infections, tissue damages and homeostatic disturbances. ILCs, particularly ILC2 cells, are found throughout the body including the brain. ILCs are morphologically similar to lymphocytes, express and release high levels of T-helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines but do not express classical cell-surface markers that are associated with other immune cell lineages. Three types of ILCs (ILC1, 2 & 3) have been reported depending upon the cytokines produced. ILC1 cells encompass natural killer (NK) cells and interferon (IFN)-g releasing cells; ILC2 cells release the Th2 cytokines, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 in response to IL-25 and IL-33; and ILC3 cells which release IL-17 and IL-22. ILC2 cells have been implicated inmucosal reactions occurring in animal models of allergic asthma and virus-induced lung disorders resulting in the regulation of airway remodeling and tissue homeostasis. There is evidence for increased ILC2 cell numbers in allergic responses in man but little is known about the role of ILCs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Further understanding of the characteristics of ILCs such as their origin, location and phenotypes and function would help to clarify the role of these cells in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases. In this review we will focus on the role of ILC2 cells and consider their origin, function,location and possible role in the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma and COPD. PMID:26547702

  1. A Progenitor Cell Expressing Transcription Factor RORγt Generates All Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Scoville, Steven D; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Zhang, Michael H; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xiaoli; Keller, Karen A; Hughes, Tiffany; Chen, Luxi; Cheng, Stephanie; Bergin, Stephen M; Mao, Hsiaoyin C; McClory, Susan; Yu, Jianhua; Carson, William E; Caligiuri, Michael A; Freud, Aharon G

    2016-05-17

    The current model of murine innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development holds that mouse ILCs are derived downstream of the common lymphoid progenitor through lineage-restricted progenitors. However, corresponding lineage-restricted progenitors in humans have yet to be discovered. Here we identified a progenitor population in human secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) that expressed the transcription factor RORγt and was unique in its ability to generate all known ILC subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells, but not other leukocyte populations. In contrast to murine fate-mapping data, which indicate that only ILC3s express Rorγt, these human progenitor cells as well as human peripheral blood NK cells and all mature ILC populations expressed RORγt. Thus, all human ILCs can be generated through an RORγt(+) developmental pathway from a common progenitor in SLTs. These findings help establish the developmental signals and pathways involved in human ILC development. PMID:27178467

  2. Activation of pp70/85 S6 kinases in interleukin-2-responsive lymphoid cells is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and inhibited by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Monfar, M; Lemon, K P; Grammer, T C; Cheatham, L; Chung, J; Vlahos, C J; Blenis, J

    1995-01-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and activation of the 70/85-kDa S6 protein kinases (alpha II and alpha I isoforms, referred to collectively as pp70S6k) have been independently linked to the regulation of cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these kinases lie on the same signalling pathway and that PI3K mediates the activation of pp70 by the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). We also show that the activation of pp70S6k can be blocked at different points along the signalling pathway by using specific inhibitors of T-cell proliferation. Inhibition of PI3K activity with structurally unrelated but highly specific PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin or LY294002) results in inhibition of IL-2-dependent but not phorbol ester (conventional protein kinase C [cPKC])-dependent pp70S6k activation. The T-cell immunosuppressant rapamycin potently antagonizes IL-2-(PI3K)- and phorbol ester (cPKC)-mediated activation of pp70S6k. Thus, wortmannin and rapamycin antagonize IL-2-mediated activation of pp70S6k at distinct points along the PI3K-regulated signalling pathway, or rapamycin antagonizes another pathway required for pp70S6k activity. Agents that raise the concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also inhibit IL-2-dependent activation of pp70S6k. In this case, inhibition appears to occur at least two points in this signalling path. Like rapamycin, PKA appears to act downstream of cPKC-mediated pp70S6k activation, and like wortmannin, PKA antagonizes IL-2-dependent activation of PI3K. The results with rapamycin and wortmannin are of added interest since the yeast and mammalian rapamycin targets resemble PI3K in the catalytic domain. PMID:7528328

  3. Notch signaling in group 3 innate lymphoid cells modulates their plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chea, Sylvestre; Perchet, Thibaut; Petit, Maxime; Verrier, Thomas; Guy-Grand, Delphine; Banchi, Elena-Gaia; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Di Santo, James P; Cumano, Ana; Golub, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is conserved throughout evolution, and it controls various processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, and proliferation. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells lacking antigen receptors that fulfill effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. Type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) reinforce the epithelial barrier and maintain homeostasis with intestinal microbiota. We demonstrated that the population of natural cytotoxicity receptor-positive (NCR(+)) ILC3s in mice is composed of two subsets that have distinct developmental requirements. A major subset depended on the activation of Notch2 in NCR(-) ILC3 precursors in the lamina propria of the small intestine to stimulate expression of the genes encoding the transcription factors T-bet, RORγt, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Notch signaling contributed to the transition of NCR(-) cells into NCR(+) cells, the more proinflammatory subset, in a cell-autonomous manner. In the absence of Notch signaling, this subset of NCR(-) ILC3s did not acquire the gene expression profile of NCR(+) ILC3s. A second subset of NCR(+) ILC3s did not depend on Notch for their development or for increased transcription factor abundance; however, their production of cytokines and cell surface abundance of NCRs were decreased in the absence of Notch signaling. Together, our data suggest that Notch is a regulator of the plasticity of ILC3s by controlling NCR(+) cell fate. PMID:27141929

  4. Natural killer cell function and lymphoid subpopulations in acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia in complete remission.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzolo, G.; Trentin, L.; Vinante, F.; Agostini, C.; Zambello, R.; Masciarelli, M.; Feruglio, C.; Dazzi, F.; Todeschini, G.; Chilosi, M.

    1988-01-01

    A long term follow-up study has been undertaken in 33 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (ANLL) in order to establish whether a correlation exists between the clinical course and the immunologic pattern of lymphoid subpopulations. Peripheral blood lymphoid cells have been investigated longitudinally (each 1 to 4 months) during complete remission (CR), by morphologic, phenotypic and functional analyses. Particular attention has been paid to the evaluation of the natural killer (NK) cell compartment, by the detection of cells expressing an NK-related phenotype and by NK in vitro assay. Among the patients so far evaluable, 20 relapsed (R) and 10 are long survivors in CR 'off therapy' (LS). The most relevant finding was represented by statistically higher values of NK activity observed in LS vs. R patients (P less than 0.01). The removal of adherent cells before the NK assay, performed to investigate the possible inhibitory effect on NK function played by the macrophage component, abolished this difference, due to a selective increase of NK function in the R group. The longitudinal study revealed that NK activity tended to decrease in individual patients who subsequently relapsed. These data suggest a possible role of NK cells in the relapse control of ANLL, although it cannot be excluded that the low level of NK activity observed in the R group is the result of impending relapse rather than its cause. PMID:3179190

  5. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  6. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  7. Composition, Development, and Function of Uterine Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balmas, Elisa; Boulenouar, Selma; Gaynor, Louise M.; Kieckbusch, Jens; Gardner, Lucy; Hawkes, Delia A.; Barbara, Cynthia F.; Sharkey, Andrew M.; Brady, Hugh J. M.; Brosens, Jan J.; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including NK cells, contribute to barrier immunity and tissue homeostasis. In addition to the role of uterine NK cells in placentation and fetal growth, other uterine ILCs (uILCs) are likely to play roles in uterine physiology and pathology. In this article, we report on the composition of uILCs in the endometrium during the luteal phase and in the decidua during early pregnancy. Whereas nonkiller uILC1s and uILC2s are barely detectable in mouse and not detected in humans, a sizeable population of uILC3s is found in human endometrium and decidua, which are mostly NCR+ and partially overlap with previously described IL-22–producing uterine NK cells. Development of mouse uILC3 is Nfil3 independent, suggesting unique features of uILCs. Indeed, although the cytokine production profile of mouse uILCs recapitulates that described in other tissues, IL-5, IL-17, and IL-22 are constitutively produced by uILC2s and uILC3s. This study lays the foundation to understand how ILCs function in the specialized uterine mucosa, both in tissue homeostasis and barrier immunity and during pregnancy. PMID:26371244

  8. Ozone-Induced Nasal Type 2 Immunity in Mice Is Dependent on Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Li, Ning; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated ambient concentrations of ozone are associated with activation of eosinophils in the nasal airways of atopic and nonatopic children. Mice repeatedly exposed to ozone develop eosinophilic rhinitis and type 2 immune responses. In this study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis by using lymphoid-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, Rag2(-/-) mice that are devoid of T cells and B cells, and Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice that are depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs. The animals were exposed to 0 or 0.8 ppm ozone for 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Mice were killed 24 hours after exposure, and nasal tissues were selected for histopathology and gene expression analysis. ILC-sufficient C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice exposed to ozone developed marked eosinophilic rhinitis and epithelial remodeling (e.g., epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia). Chitinase-like proteins and alarmins (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) were also increased morphometrically in the nasal epithelium of ozone-exposed C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. Ozone exposure elicited increased expression of Il4, Il5, Il13, St2, eotaxin, MCP-2, Gob5, Arg1, Fizz1, and Ym2 mRNA in C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. In contrast, ozone-exposed ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice had no nasal lesions or overexpression of Th2- or ILC2-related transcripts. These results indicate that ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis, nasal epithelial remodeling, and type 2 immune activation are dependent on ILCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that ILCs play an important role in the nasal pathology induced by repeated ozone exposure. PMID:26559808

  9. Production of Multiple Brain-Like Ganglioside Species Is Dispensable for Fas-Induced Apoptosis of Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Stéphane; Levade, Thierry; Cuvillier, Olivier; Portoukalian, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Activation of an acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) leading to a biosynthesis of GD3 disialoganglioside has been associated with Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of this enzyme in the generation of gangliosides during apoptosis triggered by Fas ligation. The issue was addressed by using aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected cell lines derived from Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) patients. Fas cross-linking elicited a rapid production of large amounts of complex a- and b-series species of gangliosides with a pattern and a chromatographic behavior as single bands reminiscent of brain gangliosides. The gangliosides were synthesized within the first ten minutes and completely disappeared within thirty minutes after stimulation. Noteworthy is the observation that GD3 was not the only ganglioside produced. The production of gangliosides and the onset of apoptotic hallmarks occurred similarly in both aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected NPD lymphoid cells, indicating that aSMase activation is not accountable for ganglioside generation. Hampering ganglioside production by inhibiting the key enzyme glucosylceramide synthase did not abrogate the apoptotic process. In addition, GM3 synthase-deficient lymphoid cells underwent Fas-induced apoptosis, suggesting that gangliosides are unlikely to play an indispensable role in transducing Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. PMID:21629700

  10. Production of multiple brain-like ganglioside species is dispensable for fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Popa, Iuliana; Therville, Nicole; Carpentier, Stéphane; Levade, Thierry; Cuvillier, Olivier; Portoukalian, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Activation of an acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) leading to a biosynthesis of GD3 disialoganglioside has been associated with Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of this enzyme in the generation of gangliosides during apoptosis triggered by Fas ligation. The issue was addressed by using aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected cell lines derived from Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) patients. Fas cross-linking elicited a rapid production of large amounts of complex a- and b-series species of gangliosides with a pattern and a chromatographic behavior as single bands reminiscent of brain gangliosides. The gangliosides were synthesized within the first ten minutes and completely disappeared within thirty minutes after stimulation. Noteworthy is the observation that GD3 was not the only ganglioside produced. The production of gangliosides and the onset of apoptotic hallmarks occurred similarly in both aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected NPD lymphoid cells, indicating that aSMase activation is not accountable for ganglioside generation. Hampering ganglioside production by inhibiting the key enzyme glucosylceramide synthase did not abrogate the apoptotic process. In addition, GM3 synthase-deficient lymphoid cells underwent Fas-induced apoptosis, suggesting that gangliosides are unlikely to play an indispensable role in transducing Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. PMID:21629700

  11. Pip, a novel IRF family member, is a lymphoid-specific, PU.1-dependent transcriptional activator.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeis, C F; Singh, H; Storb, U

    1995-06-01

    The immunoglobulin light-chain gene enhancers E kappa 3', E lambda 2-4, and E lambda 3-1 contain a conserved cell type-specific composite element essential for their activities. This element binds a B cell-specific heterodimeric protein complex that consists of the Ets family member PU.1 and a second factor (NF-EM5), whose participation in the formation of the complex is dependent on the presence of DNA-bound PU.1. In this report we describe the cloning and characterization of Pip (PU.1 interaction partner), a lymphoid-specific protein that is most likely NF-EM5. As expected, the Pip protein binds the composite element only in the presence of PU.1; furthermore, the formation of this ternary complex is critically dependent on phosphorylation of PU.1 at serine-148. The Pip gene is expressed specifically in lymphoid tissues in both B- and T-cell lines. When coexpressed in NIH-3T3 cells, Pip and PU.1 function as mutually dependent transcription activators of the composite element. The amino-terminal DNA-binding domain of Pip exhibits a high degree of homology to the DNA-binding domains of members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, which includes IRF-1, IRF-2, ICSBP, and ISGF3 gamma. PMID:7797077

  12. Pyrimidine starvation induced by adenosine in fibroblasts and lymphoid cells: role of adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Green, H; Chan, T

    1973-11-23

    In the presence of 10(-4) to 10(-5) molar adenosine, established cell lines of fibroblastic or lymphoid origin die of pyrimidine starvation. Less than lethal concentrations inhibit cell growth. Over a broad concentration range, the effects of adenosine are prevented by providing a suitable pyrimidine source. We suggest that the recently described immune deficiency disease associated with absence of adenosine deaminase may be the result of pyrimidine starvation induced by adenosine nucleotides in cells of the lymphoid system. PMID:4795749

  13. Ozone-Induced Type 2 Immunity in Nasal Airways. Development and Lymphoid Cell Dependence in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chee Bing; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Brooks, Phillip T; Brandenberger, Christina; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Nault, Rance; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation exposures to ozone commonly encountered in photochemical smog cause airway injury and inflammation. Elevated ambient ozone concentrations have been epidemiologically associated with nasal airway activation of neutrophils and eosinophils. In the present study, we elucidated the temporal onset and lymphoid cell dependency of eosinophilic rhinitis and associated epithelial changes in mice repeatedly exposed to ozone. Lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0 or 0.5 parts per million (ppm) ozone for 1, 2, 4, or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Lymphoid cell-deficient, Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice were similarly exposed for 9 weekdays. Nasal tissues were taken at 2 or 24 hours after exposure for morphometric and gene expression analyses. C57BL/6 mice exposed to ozone for 1 day had acute neutrophilic rhinitis, with airway epithelial necrosis and overexpression of mucosal Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl11 (eotaxin), Cxcl1 (KC), Cxcl2 (MIP-2), Hmox1, Il1b, Il5, Il6, Il13, and Tnf mRNA. In contrast, 9-day ozone exposure elicited type 2 immune responses in C57BL/6 mice, with mucosal mRNA overexpression of Arg1, Ccl8 (MCP-2), Ccl11, Chil4 (Ym2), Clca1 (Gob5), Il5, Il10, and Il13; increased density of mucosal eosinophils; and nasal epithelial remodeling (e.g., hyperplasia/hypertrophy, mucous cell metaplasia, hyalinosis, and increased YM1/YM2 proteins). Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice exposed to ozone for 9 days, however, had no nasal pathology or overexpression of transcripts related to type 2 immunity. These results provide a plausible paradigm for the activation of eosinophilic inflammation and type 2 immunity found in the nasal airways of nonatopic individuals subjected to episodic exposures to high ambient ozone. PMID:26203683

  14. Peripheral Lymphoid Volume Expansion and Maintenance Are Controlled by Gut Microbiota via RALDH+ Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongde; Li, Jianjian; Zheng, Wencheng; Zhao, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Yaqian; Qin, Chuan; Shi, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Lymphocyte homing to draining lymph nodes is critical for the initiation of immune responses. Secondary lymphoid organs of germ-free mice are underdeveloped. How gut commensal microbes remotely regulate cellularity and volume of secondary lymphoid organs remains unknown. We report here that, driven by commensal fungi, a wave of CD45(+)CD103(+)RALDH(+) cells migrates to the peripheral lymph nodes after birth. The arrival of these cells introduces high amounts of retinoic acid, mediates the neonatal to adult addressin switch on endothelial cells, and directs the homing of lymphocytes to both gut-associated lymphoid tissues and peripheral lymph nodes. In adult mice, a small number of these RALDH(+) cells might serve to maintain the volume of secondary lymphoid organs. Homing deficiency of these cells was associated with lymph node attrition in vitamin-A-deficient mice, suggesting a perpetual dependence on retinoic acid signaling for structural and functional maintenance of peripheral immune organs. PMID:26885858

  15. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey R.; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4+ T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development. PMID:26556952

  16. Identification of dendritic cells, B cell and T cell subsets in Tasmanian devil lymphoid tissue; evidence for poor immune cell infiltration into devil facial tumors.

    PubMed

    Howson, Lauren J; Morris, Katrina M; Kobayashi, Takumi; Tovar, Cesar; Kreiss, Alexandre; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Corcoran, Lynn; Belov, Katherine; Woods, Gregory M

    2014-05-01

    The Tasmanian devil is under threat of extinction due to the transmissible devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). This fatal tumor is an allograft that does not induce an immune response, raising questions about the activity of Tasmanian devil immune cells. T and B cell analysis has been limited by a lack of antibodies, hence the need to produce such reagents. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG were closely related to other marsupials. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG by generating bacterial fusion proteins. These, and commercial antibodies against CD1a and CD83, identified T cells, B cells and dendritic cells by immunohistochemistry. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were identified in pouch young thymus, adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Their anatomical distribution was characteristic of mammalian lymphoid tissues with more CD4(+) than CD8(+) cells in lymph nodes and splenic white pulp. IgM(+) and IgG(+) B cells were identified in adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, with more IgM(+) than IgG(+) cells. Dendritic cells were identified in lymph node, spleen and skin. This distribution is consistent with eutherian mammals and other marsupials, indicating they have the immune cell subsets for an anti-tumor immunity. Devil facial tumor disease tumors contained more CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells, but in low numbers. There were also low numbers of CD1a(+) and MHC class II(+) cells, but no CD83(+) IgM(+) or IgG(+) B cells, consistent with poor immune cell infiltration. PMID:24664954

  17. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of cell proliferation is studied in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose-rate of 10 roentgens per day for 105 days. Autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine were utilized. It was found that at least four compensatory mechanisms maintained a near-steady state of cellular growth: (1) an increase in the proportion of PAS-positive cells which stimulate mitotic activity, (2) maturation arrest of proliferating and differentiating cells which tend to replenish the cells damaged or destroyed by irradiation, (3) an increase in the proportion of cells proliferating, and (4) an increase in the proportion of precursor cells. The results are compared to previous findings observed in the thymus.

  18. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells in human allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jillian L.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent decades have seen allergic diseases become endemic in a number of developed countries. Understanding the inflammatory processes that dictate these allergic responses is therefore important. Recent findings Critical to many allergic responses is the inappropriate release of the type-2 immune-regulatory cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-9, and interleukin-13. The study of these inflammatory mediators has led directly to the development of two new asthma treatments: anti-interleukin-5 and anti-interleukin-13. Until recently, T helper 2 cells were considered to be the major cellular source of type-2 cytokines; however, a paradigm shift occurred with the discovery of a novel population, type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), that can produce huge levels of type-2 cytokines and are sufficient to induce allergy in mice. This discovery raises interesting questions about how innate and adaptive type-2 immunity might interact to induce relapsing and remitting episodes of allergy in patients. Summary It is essential that alongside the mechanistic investigation using model organisms, the roles of ILC2s in human disease be explored. Here, we discuss how ILC2 traits, discovered in mouse models, have informed research in humans and how newly identified human ILC2 pathways might provide potential therapeutic benefits in the future. PMID:25115682

  19. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  20. Lymphoid precursors are directed to produce dendritic cells as a result of TLR9 ligation during herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Welner, Robert S; Pelayo, Rosana; Nagai, Yoshinori; Garrett, Karla P; Wuest, Todd R; Carr, Daniel J; Borghesi, Lisa A; Farrar, Michael A; Kincade, Paul W

    2008-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were previously found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), suggesting that bacterial/viral products may influence blood cell formation. We now show that common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) from mice with active HSV-1 infection are biased to dendritic cell (DC) differentiation, and the phenomenon is largely TLR9 dependent. Similarly, CLPs from mice treated with the TLR9 ligand CpG ODN had little ability to generate CD19+ B lineage cells and had augmented competence to generate DCs. TNFalpha mediates the depletion of late-stage lymphoid progenitors from bone marrow in many inflammatory conditions, but redirection of lymphopoiesis occurred in TNFalpha-/- mice treated with CpG ODN. Increased numbers of DCs with a lymphoid past were identified in Ig gene recombination substrate reporter mice treated with CpG ODN. TLR9 is highly expressed on lymphoid progenitors, and culture studies revealed that those receptors, rather than inflammatory cytokines, accounted for the production of several types of functional DCs. Common myeloid progenitors are normally a good source of DCs, but this potential was reduced by TLR9 ligation. Thus, alternate differentiation pathways may be used to produce innate effector cells in health and disease. PMID:18552210

  1. An in vitro model of innate lymphoid cell function and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Allan, D S J; Kirkham, C L; Aguilar, O A; Qu, L C; Chen, P; Fine, J H; Serra, P; Awong, G; Gommerman, J L; Zúñiga-Pflücker, J C; Carlyle, J R

    2015-03-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are RAG-independent lymphocytes with important roles in innate immunity, and include group-1 (natural killer (NK) cell, ILC1), group-2 (ILC2), and group-3 (lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi), NCR(+) ILC3) subsets. Group-3 ILC express Rorγt, produce interleukin (IL)-22, and are critically important in the normal function of mucosal tissues. Here, we describe a novel model cell line for the study of ILC function and differentiation. The parental MNK cell line, derived from NKR-P1B(+) fetal thymocytes, shows a capacity to differentiate in γc cytokines. One IL-7-responsive subline, designated MNK-3, expresses Rorγt and produces high levels of IL-22 in response to IL-23 and IL-1β stimulation. MNK-3 cells display surface markers and transcript expression characteristic of group-3 ILC, including IL-7Rα (CD127), c-kit (CD117), CCR6, Thy1 (CD90), RANK, RANKL, and lymphotoxin (LTα1β2). Using an in vitro assay of LTi cell activity, MNK-3 cells induce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on stromal cells in a manner dependent upon LTα1β2 expression. A second IL-2-responsive subline, MNK-1, expresses several NK cell receptors, perforin and granzymes, and shows some cytotoxic activity. Thus, MNK-1 cells serve as a model of ILC1/NK development and differentiation, whereas MNK-3 cells provide an attractive in vitro system to study the function of ILC3/LTi cells. PMID:25138665

  2. Nucleotide Analog Prodrug, Tenofovir Disoproxil, Enhances Lymphoid Cell Loading Following Oral Administration in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Gasselin, Lucie; Van Rompay, Koen K.A.; Vela, Jennifer E.; Henne, Ilana N.; Lee, William A.; Rhodes, Gerry R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2009-01-01

    The antiviral drug tenofovir (TFV) is orally administered as the fumarate salt of its disoproxil prodrug (TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF)). TFV is a di-anion at physiological pH and, as a result, has poor lipid membrane permeability. Administration of the lipophilic and cell permeable prodrug, TFV disoproxil, enhances the oral absorption of TFV. In order to determine if oral administration of TDF also increases distribution to sites of viral infection, the plasma and circulating lymphoid cell pharmacokinetics of TFV and its phosphorylated metabolites were assessed following a single oral TDF or subcutaneous TFV administration at doses yielding equivalent plasma exposures to TFV in macaques. Despite TFV disoproxil’s lack of plasma stability and undetectable levels in the first plasma samples taken, oral administration of TDF resulted in 7.9-fold higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell exposures to the active metabolite, TFV-diphosphate. The apparent plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) of TFV was also longer following oral TDF relative to subcutaneous TFV administration (median t1/2 of 15.3 and 3.9 h, respectively), suggesting broader distribution to cells and tissues outside of the central plasma compartment. In conclusion, the disoproxil pro-moiety not only enhances the oral absorption of TFV but also tissue and lymphoid cell loading. These results illustrate that administration of even a fleeting prodrug can increase target tissue loading and gives valuable insight for future prodrug development. PMID:19545170

  3. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production1

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defence, epithelial repair and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged antigen-specific receptors, and while many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of ILC1 and ILC3 and thought to be important for their effector function, but have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking antibody and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis; and incubation of keratinocytes with pro-inflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6 leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  4. Pathway interactions between MAPKs, mTOR, PKA, and the glucocorticoid receptor in lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron L; Garza, Anna S; Johnson, Betty H; Thompson, E Brad

    2007-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids are frequently used as a primary chemotherapeutic agent in many types of human lymphoid malignancies because they induce apoptosis through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, with subsequent alteration of a complex network of cellular mechanisms. Despite clinical usage for over fifty years, the complete mechanism responsible for glucocorticoid-related apoptosis or resistance remains elusive. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is a signal transduction network that influences a variety of cellular responses through phosphorylation of specific target substrates, including the glucocorticoid receptor. In this study we have evaluated the pharmaceutical scenarios which converge on the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway to alter glucocorticoid sensitivity in clones of human acute lymphoblastic CEM cells sensitive and refractory to apoptosis in response to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Results The glucocorticoid-resistant clone CEM-C1-15 displays a combination of high constitutive JNK activity and dexamethasone-induced ERK activity with a weak induction of p38 upon glucocorticoid treatment. The cells become sensitive to glucocorticoid-evoked apoptosis after: (1) inhibition of JNK and ERK activity, (2) stimulation of the cAMP/PKA pathway with forskolin, or (3) inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin. Treatments 1–3 in combination with dexamethasone alter the intracellular balance of phospho-MAPKs by lowering JNK phosphorylation and increasing the level of glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylated at serine 211, a modification known to enhance receptor activity. Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that mitogen-activated protein kinases influence the ability of certain malignant lymphoid cells to undergo apoptosis when treated with glucocorticoid. Activated/phosphorylated JNK and ERK appear to counteract corticoid-dependent apoptosis. Inhibiting these MAPKs restores corticoid sensitivity to a resistant clone of

  5. G9a regulates group 2 innate lymphoid cell development by repressing the group 3 innate lymphoid cell program.

    PubMed

    Antignano, Frann; Braam, Mitchell; Hughes, Michael R; Chenery, Alistair L; Burrows, Kyle; Gold, Matthew J; Oudhoff, Menno J; Rattray, David; Halim, Timotheus Y; Cait, Alissa; Takei, Fumio; Rossi, Fabio M; McNagny, Kelly M; Zaph, Colby

    2016-06-27

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important regulators of homeostatic and disease-associated immune processes. Despite recent advances in defining the molecular pathways that control development and function of ILCs, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate ILC biology are unknown. Here, we identify a role for the lysine methyltransferase G9a in regulating ILC2 development and function. Mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of G9a (Vav.G9a(-/-) mice) have a severe reduction in ILC2s in peripheral sites, associated with impaired development of immature ILC2s in the bone marrow. Accordingly, Vav.G9a(-/-) mice are resistant to the development of allergic lung inflammation. G9a-dependent dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is a repressive histone mark that is associated with gene silencing. Genome-wide expression analysis demonstrated that the absence of G9a led to increased expression of ILC3-associated genes in developing ILC2 populations. Further, we found high levels of G9a-dependent H3K9me2 at ILC3-specific genetic loci, demonstrating that G9a-mediated repression of ILC3-associated genes is critical for the optimal development of ILC2s. Together, these results provide the first identification of an epigenetic regulatory mechanism in ILC development and function. PMID:27298444

  6. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. PMID:26851220

  7. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. PMID:24411493

  8. Glial-cell-derived neuroregulators control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and gut defence.

    PubMed

    Ibiza, Sales; García-Cassani, Bethania; Ribeiro, Hélder; Carvalho, Tânia; Almeida, Luís; Marques, Rute; Misic, Ana M; Bartow-McKenney, Casey; Larson, Denise M; Pavan, William J; Eberl, Gérard; Grice, Elizabeth A; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2016-07-21

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are major regulators of inflammation and infection at mucosal barriers. ILC3 development is thought to be programmed, but how ILC3 perceive, integrate and respond to local environmental signals remains unclear. Here we show that ILC3 in mice sense their environment and control gut defence as part of a glial–ILC3–epithelial cell unit orchestrated by neurotrophic factors. We found that enteric ILC3 express the neuroregulatory receptor RET. ILC3-autonomous Ret ablation led to decreased innate interleukin-22 (IL-22), impaired epithelial reactivity, dysbiosis and increased susceptibility to bowel inflammation and infection. Neurotrophic factors directly controlled innate Il22 downstream of the p38 MAPK/ERK-AKT cascade and STAT3 activation. Notably, ILC3 were adjacent to neurotrophic-factor-expressing glial cells that exhibited stellate-shaped projections into ILC3 aggregates. Glial cells sensed microenvironmental cues in a MYD88-dependent manner to control neurotrophic factors and innate IL-22. Accordingly, glial-intrinsic Myd88 deletion led to impaired production of ILC3-derived IL-22 and a pronounced propensity towards gut inflammation and infection. Our work sheds light on a novel multi-tissue defence unit, revealing that glial cells are central hubs of neuron and innate immune regulation by neurotrophic factor signals. PMID:27409807

  9. Arginase 1 is an innate lymphoid-cell-intrinsic metabolic checkpoint controlling type 2 inflammation.

    PubMed

    Monticelli, Laurel A; Buck, Michael D; Flamar, Anne-Laure; Saenz, Steven A; Tait Wojno, Elia D; Yudanin, Naomi A; Osborne, Lisa C; Hepworth, Matthew R; Tran, Sara V; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Shah, Hardik; Cross, Justin R; Diamond, Joshua M; Cantu, Edward; Christie, Jason D; Pearce, Erika L; Artis, David

    2016-06-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) regulate tissue inflammation and repair after activation by cell-extrinsic factors such as host-derived cytokines. However, the cell-intrinsic metabolic pathways that control ILC2 function are undefined. Here we demonstrate that expression of the enzyme arginase-1 (Arg1) during acute or chronic lung inflammation is a conserved trait of mouse and human ILC2s. Deletion of mouse ILC-intrinsic Arg1 abrogated type 2 lung inflammation by restraining ILC2 proliferation and dampening cytokine production. Mechanistically, inhibition of Arg1 enzymatic activity disrupted multiple components of ILC2 metabolic programming by altering arginine catabolism, impairing polyamine biosynthesis and reducing aerobic glycolysis. These data identify Arg1 as a key regulator of ILC2 bioenergetics that controls proliferative capacity and proinflammatory functions promoting type 2 inflammation. PMID:27043409

  10. Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immune signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells

    PubMed Central

    Bascones, Sabrina; Mortha, Arthur; Puga, Irene; Cassis, Linda; Barra, Carolina M.; Comerma, Laura; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Gentile, Maurizio; Llige, David; Cols, Montserrat; Serrano, Sergi; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Juan, Manel; Yagüe, Jordi; Merad, Miriam; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Cerutti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal, epithelial and immune cells, but their impact on B cells remains unclear. We identified RORγt+ ILCs nearby the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment containing innate-like B cells that respond to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Spenic ILCs established a bidirectional crosstalk with MAdCAM-1+ marginal reticular cells by providing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin, and activated MZ B cells via BAFF, CD40 ligand and the Notch ligand, Delta-like 1. Splenic ILCs further helped MZ B cells and their plasma cell progeny by co-opting neutrophils through the release of GM-CSF. Consequently, ILC depletion impaired both pre- and post-immune TI antibody responses. Thus, ILCs integrate stromal and myeloid signals to orchestrate innate-like antibody production at the interface between the immune and circulatory systems. PMID:24562309

  11. Ectopic lymphoid structures function as microniches for tumor progenitor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Finkin, Shlomi; Yuan, Detian; Stein, Ilan; Taniguchi, Koji; Weber, Achim; Unger, Kristian; Browning, Jeffrey L; Goossens, Nicolas; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Schwartz, Myron E; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Berger, Michael; Pappo, Orit; Rajewsky, Klaus; Hoshida, Yujin; Karin, Michael; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Pikarsky, Eli

    2015-12-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) are often observed in cancer, yet their function is obscure. Although ELSs signify good prognosis in certain malignancies, we found that hepatic ELSs indicated poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied an HCC mouse model that displayed abundant ELSs and found that they constituted immunopathological microniches wherein malignant hepatocyte progenitor cells appeared and thrived in a complex cellular and cytokine milieu until gaining self-sufficiency. The egress of progenitor cells and tumor formation were associated with the autocrine production of cytokines previously provided by the niche. ELSs developed via cooperation between the innate immune system and adaptive immune system, an event facilitated by activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and abolished by depletion of T cells. Such aberrant immunological foci might represent new targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26502405

  12. Circulating innate lymphoid cells are unchanged in response to DAC HYP therapy.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Geoffrey O; Saenz, Steven A; Huss, David J; Fontenot, Jason D

    2016-05-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in immunity, inflammation, and tissue remodeling and their dysregulation is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. We analyzed the impact of daclizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody, on circulating natural killer (NK) cells and ILCs in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients. An increase in CD56(bright) NK cells and CD56(hi)CD16(intermediate) transitional NK cells was observed. No significant change in total ILCs or major ILC subpopulations was observed. These results refine our understanding of the impact of daclizumab on innate lymphoid cell populations. PMID:27138097

  13. Phenotypic and Functional Plasticity of Murine Intestinal NKp46+ Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Thomas; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Serafini, Nicolas; Marie, Solenne; Di Santo, James P; Vosshenrich, Christian A J

    2016-06-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) actively participate in mucosal defense and homeostasis through prompt secretion of IL-17A, IL-22, and IFN-γ. Reports identify two ILC3 lineages: a CCR6(+)T-bet(-) subset that appears early in embryonic development and promotes lymphoid organogenesis and a CCR6(-)T-bet(+) subset that emerges after microbial colonization and harbors NKp46(+) ILC3. We demonstrate that NKp46 expression in the ILC3 subset is highly unstable. Cell fate mapping using Ncr1(CreGFP) × Rosa26(RFP) mice revealed the existence of an intestinal RFP(+) ILC3 subset (Ncr1(FM)) lacking NKp46 expression at the transcript and protein levels. Ncr1(FM) ILC3 produced more IL-22 and were distinguishable from NKp46(+) ILC3 by differential CD117, CD49a, DNAX accessory molecule-1, and, surprisingly, CCR6 expression. Ncr1(FM) ILC3 emerged after birth and persisted in adult mice following broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. These results identify an unexpected phenotypic instability within NKp46(+) ILC3 that suggests a major role for environmental signals in tuning ILC3 functional plasticity. PMID:27183613

  14. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    PubMed Central

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O’Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the nutritional status during foetal life in the overall health of adults has been recognised1. However dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed2,3. SLO formation dependents on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells2,3,4,5. Here we show that foetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero pre-setting the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and foetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, while RA receptors directly regulated the Rorc locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring. PMID:24670648

  15. Adherent-phagocytic cells influence suppressed concanavalin-A induced proliferation of spleen lymphoid cells in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, T.R.; Briske-Anderson, M.; Johnson, W.T.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling male Lewis rats (N = 10/group) were fed ad-libitum for 42 days diets based on AIN standards containing 21% casein, 5% safflower oil, and deficient (0.6 ..mu..g/g) or adequate (5.6 ..mu..g/g) levels of cu. Cu-deficient rats showed typical biochemical and hematological changes. Immunological changes exhibited by Cu-deficient rats were influenced by the presence of splenic adherent-phagocytic cells (macrophage-like), but not by cytochrome-c oxidase activity of spleen lymphoid cells (SLC). Decreased proliferation was exhibited by concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulated SLC of Cu-deficient rats. Following removal of plastic-adherent phagocytic cells from the SLC suspensions, equivalent proliferation was exhibited by Con-A stimulated nonadherent-SLC of Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats. Decreased cytochrome-c oxidase activity was exhibited by both unstimulated SLC and nonadherent-SLC of Cu-deficient rats, but decreased proliferation was exhibited only in Con-A stimulated SLC of Cu-deficient rats. These findings indicate that nonadherent splenic T-lymphocytes of Cu-deficient rats are not impaired in their ability to proliferate, and that cytochrome-c oxidase activity in unstimulated lymphoid cells of Cu-deficient rats is apparently not related to levels of proliferation by the Con-A stimulated cells.

  16. T cell receptor gamma and delta rearrangements in hematologic malignancies. Relationship to lymphoid differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Griesinger, F; Greenberg, J M; Kersey, J H

    1989-01-01

    We have studied recombinatorial events of the T cell receptor delta and gamma chain genes in hematopoietic malignancies and related these to normal stages of lymphoid differentiation. T cell receptor delta gene recombinatorial events were found in 91% of acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemia, 68% of non-T, non-B lymphoid precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 80% of mixed lineage acute leukemias. Mature B-lineage leukemias and acute nonlymphocytic leukemias retained the T-cell receptor delta gene in the germline configuration. The incidence of T cell receptor gamma and delta was particularly high in CD10+CD19+ non-T, non-B lymphoid precursor ALL. In lymphoid precursor ALL, T cell receptor delta was frequently rearranged while T cell receptor gamma was in the germline configuration. This suggests that TCR delta rearrangements may precede TCR gamma rearrangements in lymphoid ontogeny. In T-ALL, only concordant T cell receptor delta and gamma rearrangements were observed. Several distinct rearrangements were defined using a panel of restriction enzymes. Most of the rearrangements observed in T-ALL represented joining events of J delta 1 to upstream regions. In contrast, the majority of rearrangements in lymphoid precursor ALL most likely represented D-D or V-D rearrangements, which have been found to be early recombinatorial events of the TCR delta locus. We next analyzed TCR delta rearrangements in five CD3+TCR gamma/delta+ ALL and cell lines. One T-ALL, which demonstrated a different staining pattern with monoclonal antibodies against the products of the TCR gamma/delta genes than the PEER cell line, rearranges J delta 1 to a currently unidentified variable region. Images PMID:2547833

  17. Epigenetic Regulation of Non-Lymphoid Cells by Bisphenol A, a Model Endocrine Disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Deena; Ahmed, S. Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA) have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth, and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation, and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight the BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system. PMID:26097467

  18. Innate lymphoid cell development requires TOX-dependent generation of a common ILC progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey R.; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D.; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A.; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined, based on effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways leading to ILC lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that transcriptional regulator TOX is required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors to ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrates that TOX deficiency results in early defects in progenitor cell survival or expansion as well as later stage ILC differentiation. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors reveals that TOX-deficient cells fail to upregulate many aspects of the ILC gene program, including Notch gene targets, implicating TOX as a key determinant of early ILC lineage specification. PMID:25915732

  19. Skewed B cell differentiation affects lymphoid organogenesis but not T cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Colombo, E; Tentorio, P; Musio, S; Rajewsky, K; Pedotti, R; Casola, S; Farina, C

    2014-04-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signalling determines B cell differentiation and may potentially alter T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study we used two transgenic strains of BCR-deficient mice expressing Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP)2A in B cells, where either follicular and marginal zone differentiation (D(H)LMP2A mice) or B-1 cell development (V(H)LMP2A mice) were supported, and evaluated the effects of skewed B lymphocyte differentiation on lymphoid organogenesis and T cell responses in vivo. Compared to wild-type animals, both transgenic strains displayed alterations in the composition of lymphoid organs and in the dynamics of distinct immune cell subsets following immunization with the self-antigen PLP₁₈₅₋₂₀₆. However, ex-vivo T cell proliferation to PLP₁₈₅₋₂₀₆ peptide measured in immunized D(H)LMP2A and V(H)LMP2A mice was similar to that detected in immunized control mice. Further, clinical expression of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in both LMP2A strains was identical to that of wild-type mice. In conclusion, mice with skewed B cell differentiation driven by LMP2A expression in BCR-negative B cells do not show changes in the development of a T cell mediated disease model of autoimmunity, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms support the generation of T cell responses. PMID:24325711

  20. Cooperation between Monocyte-Derived Cells and Lymphoid Cells in the Acute Response to a Bacterial Lung Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew S.; Yang, Chao; Fung, Ka Yee; Bachem, Annabell; Bourges, Dorothée; Bedoui, Sammy; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; van Driel, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. Alveolar macrophages support intracellular replication of L. pneumophila, however the contributions of other immune cell types to bacterial killing during infection are unclear. Here, we used recently described methods to characterise the major inflammatory cells in lung after acute respiratory infection of mice with L. pneumophila. We observed that the numbers of alveolar macrophages rapidly decreased after infection coincident with a rapid infiltration of the lung by monocyte-derived cells (MC), which, together with neutrophils, became the dominant inflammatory cells associated with the bacteria. Using mice in which the ability of MC to infiltrate tissues is impaired it was found that MC were required for bacterial clearance and were the major source of IL12. IL12 was needed to induce IFNγ production by lymphoid cells including NK cells, memory T cells, NKT cells and γδ T cells. Memory T cells that produced IFNγ appeared to be circulating effector/memory T cells that infiltrated the lung after infection. IFNγ production by memory T cells was stimulated in an antigen-independent fashion and could effectively clear bacteria from the lung indicating that memory T cells are an important contributor to innate bacterial defence. We also determined that a major function of IFNγ was to stimulate bactericidal activity of MC. On the other hand, neutrophils did not require IFNγ to kill bacteria and alveolar macrophages remained poorly bactericidal even in the presence of IFNγ. This work has revealed a cooperative innate immune circuit between lymphoid cells and MC that combats acute L. pneumophila infection and defines a specific role for IFNγ in anti-bacterial immunity. PMID:27300652

  1. A novel lymphoid progenitor cell population (LSK(low)) is restricted by p18(INK4c).

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Hao, Sha; Ma, Shihui; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Yajie; Zhou, Wen; Yuan, Weiping; Ema, Hideo; Cheng, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN2C (p18(INK4c)) restrains self-renewal in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and participates in the development and maturation of lymphoid cells. Deficiency in p18 predisposes mice and humans to hematopoietic lymphoid malignancies such as T-cell leukemia and multiple myeloma. However, the mechanism by which p18 regulates differentiation from HSCs to lymphoid cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found that a progenitor population characterized by its expression of surface markers, Lin(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(low) (LSK(low)), was markedly expanded in the bone marrow of p18 knock-out (p18(-/-)) mice. This novel population possessed lymphoid differentiation potential, but not myeloid differentiation potential, both in vitro and in vivo. Whereas LSK(low) cells and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) overlapped functionally in generating lymphoid cells, they were distinct cell populations, because they had different gene expression profiles. Unlike CLPs, LSK(low) cells did not express the interleukin-7 receptor. LSK(low) cells were derived from HSCs and were independent of the p18-deleted microenvironment. This cell population may represent a previously unappreciated transitional stage from HSCs to lymphoid progenitors that is strictly restricted by p18 under physiological conditions. Likewise, LSK(low) might serve as a new cellular target of lymphoid malignances in the absence of p18. PMID:27287689

  2. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-1 Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression.

    PubMed

    Kløverpris, Henrik N; Kazer, Samuel W; Mjösberg, Jenny; Mabuka, Jenniffer M; Wellmann, Amanda; Ndhlovu, Zaza; Yadon, Marisa C; Nhamoyebonde, Shepherd; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Simoni, Yannick; Andersson, Frank; Kuhn, Warren; Garrett, Nigel; Burgers, Wendy A; Kamya, Philomena; Pretorius, Karyn; Dong, Krista; Moodley, Amber; Newell, Evan W; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Goulder, Philip; Shalek, Alex K; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Leslie, Alasdair

    2016-02-16

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-1 on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood ILCs were severely depleted during acute viremic HIV-1 infection and that ILC numbers did not recover after resolution of peak viremia. ILC numbers were preserved by antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only if initiated during acute infection. Transcriptional profiling during the acute phase revealed upregulation of genes associated with cell death, temporally linked with a strong IFN acute-phase response and evidence of gut barrier breakdown. We found no evidence of tissue redistribution in chronic disease and remaining circulating ILCs were activated but not apoptotic. These data provide a potential mechanistic link between acute HIV-1 infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction. PMID:26850658

  3. Regulation of protein biosynthesis by non-lymphoid cells requires the participation of receptors, which recognize the same protein through a center analogous to the antibody active center

    SciTech Connect

    Kul'berg, A.Y.; Ivanovska, N.D.; Tarkhanova, I.A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper studies the mechanism for regulating the biosynthesis of one of the complement components (anti-idiotypic antibodies CI /SUB q/ ) by macrophages. The experiments were conducted on mouse resident peritoneal macrophages cultivated in medium containing C 14-glycine. The synthesis of CI /SUB q/ was evaluated according to the content of protein which was bound by rabbit antibodies against mouse CI /SUB q/ immobilized on bromocyan-Sepharose 4B. The study of the kinetics of the biosynthesis of CI /SUB q/ by propagated macrophages shows that the biosynthesis was initially recorded and in the subsequent period the culture contained no other cells apart from macrophages.

  4. Epigenetic alteration by DNA-demethylating treatment restores apoptotic response to glucocorticoids in dexamethasone-resistant human malignant lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often included in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies because they kill several types of malignant lymphoid cells. GCs activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), to regulate a complex genetic network, culminating in apoptosis. Normal lymphoblasts and many lymphoid malignancies are sensitive to GC-driven apoptosis. Resistance to GCs can be a significant clinical problem, however, and correlates with resistance to several other major chemotherapeutic agents. Methods We analyzed the effect of treatment with the cytosine analogue 5 aza-2’ deoxycytidine (AZA) on GC resistance in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T or pre-T ALL) cell lines- CEM and Molt-4- and a (B-cell) myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226. Methods employed included tissue culture, flow cytometry, and assays for clonogenicity, cytosine extension, immunochemical identification of proteins, and gene transactivation. High throughput DNA sequencing was used to confirm DNA methylation status. Conclusions Treatment of these cells with AZA resulted in altered DNA methylation and restored GC-evoked apoptosis in all 3 cell lines. In CEM cells the altered epigenetic state resulted in site-specific phosphorylation of the GR, increased GR potency, and GC-driven induction of the GR from promoters that lie in CpG islands. In RPMI 8226 cells, expression of relevant coregulators of GR function was altered. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is central to a feed-forward mechanism of site-specific GR phosphorylation and ultimately, apoptosis, occurred in all 3 cell lines. These data show that in certain malignant hematologic B- and T-cell types, epigenetically controlled GC resistance can be reversed by cell exposure to a compound that causes DNA demethylation. The results encourage studies of application to in vivo systems, looking towards eventual clinical applications. PMID:24795534

  5. Expression Profiles of Cloned Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Lymphoid Cell Lines and Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal channel catfish lymphoid cell lines and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) have proven extremely useful in examining immune responses at the cellular and molecular levels. To date clonal catfish cell lines and MLC have been biologically and phenotypically characterized using a variety of techniq...

  6. Differentiation and diversity of subsets in group 1 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Seillet, Cyril; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-01-01

    NK cells were first identified in 1975 and represent the prototypical group 1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC). More recently, the discovery of new members of the ILC family has highlighted the complexity of this innate lymphoid lineage. Importantly, it has been recognized that different subsets exist within the group 1 ILC, which have potential roles in mediating immune protection and immunosurveillance, and in regulating tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we review the developmental relationships between the different group 1 ILC, which have been identified to date and discuss how heterogeneity within this expanding family may have arisen. PMID:26346810

  7. Stimulators and inhibitors of lymphocyte DNA synthesis in supernatants from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vesole, D H; Goust, J M; Fett, J W; Fudenberg, H H

    1979-09-01

    Some T and B lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were found to secrete into their supernatants a substance able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. This substance produced an increase in [3H]thymidine uptake by mononuclear cells when added to unstimulated cultures (mitogenic effect) or when added to cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (potentiating effect). When complete supernatants were used, the potentiating effect was sometimes masked by an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Fractionation on Sephadex G-100 separated these two activities. The stimulatory substance eluted at a m.w. range of 15,000 to 30,000, and the inhibitor eluted with the albumin peak. B cells with or without monocytes were the most sensitive to the mitogenic effect, whereas T cells were unaffected. Responses to PHA and PWM were potentiated when T cells were present, but the maximum effect was observed when the proportion of T cells was less than 50%. The stimulatory material may be similar to lymphocyte mitogenic factor and may function as a T cell-replacing factor in B cell stimulation. PMID:313950

  8. Ectopic lymphoid structures function as microniches for tumor progenitor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Finkin, Shlomi; Yuan, Detian; Stein, Ilan; Taniguchi, Koji; Weber, Achim; Unger, Kristian; Browning, Jeffrey L.; Goossens, Nicolas; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Schwartz, Myron E.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Berger, Michael; Pappo, Orit; Rajewsky, Klaus; Hoshida, Yujin; Karin, Michael; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Pikarsky, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELS) are often observed in cancer, yet their function is obscure. Although ELSs signify good prognosis in certain malignancies, we found that hepatic ELSs indicate poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied an HCC mouse model, displaying abundant ELSs and found that they constitute immunopathological microniches, wherein progenitor malignant hepatocytes appear and thrive in a complex cellular and cytokine milieu until gaining self-sufficiency. Progenitor egression and tumor formation is associated with autocrine production of cytokines previously provided by the niche. ELSs develop upon cooperation between the innate and adaptive immune system which is facilitated by NF-κB activation and abolished by T cell depletion. These aberrant immune foci could be new targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26502405

  9. Nfil3 is required for the development of all innate lymphoid cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Seillet, Cyril; Rankin, Lucille C.; Groom, Joanna R.; Mielke, Lisa A.; Tellier, Julie; Chopin, Michael; Huntington, Nicholas D.

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations protect against infection and are essential for lymphoid tissue formation and tissue remodeling after damage. Nfil3 is implicated in the function of adaptive immune lineages and NK cell development, but it is not yet known if Nfil3 regulates other innate lymphoid lineages. Here, we identify that Nfil3 is essential for the development of Peyer’s patches and ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. Loss of Nfil3 selectively reduced Peyer’s patch formation and was accompanied by impaired recruitment and distribution of lymphocytes within the patches. ILC subsets exhibited high Nfil3 expression and genetic deletion of Nfil3 severely compromised the development of all subsets. Subsequently, Nfil3−/− mice were highly susceptible to disease when challenged with inflammatory or infectious agents. Thus, we demonstrate that Nfil3 is a key regulator of the development of ILC subsets essential for immune protection in the lung and gut. PMID:25092873

  10. Susceptibility of chicken lymphoid cells to infectious bursal disease virus does not correlate with the presence of specific binding sites.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1996-06-01

    Pathogenic serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replicate efficiently in lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius of chicken. Lymphoid cells in other organs are not susceptible. Apathogenic serotype 2 strains do not replicate in lymphoid bursa cells or in other lymphoid cells. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), however, efficiently replicate strains of either serotype. Binding studies showed that strains of both IBDV serotypes bind to lymphoid cells isolated from the bursa, thymus or spleen, indicating that restriction of IBDV replication to lymphoid B cells is not determined by the presence of specific receptor sites. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by saturation and competition experiments. These revealed the presence of different receptors: CEF had receptors common to both serotypes and specific ones for each serotype. Receptor sites common to both serotypes were also present on lymphoid cells; however, additional serotype-specific sites were only demonstrated for the apathogenic serotype 2 strain. Strains of both serotypes specifically bound to proteins with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 46 kDa, exposed on the surface of CEF and lymphoid cells. Competition experiments indicated that these proteins might represent the common receptor sites of IBDV. PMID:8683211

  11. B cell-specific S1PR1 deficiency blocks prion dissemination between secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Mok, Simon W F; Proia, Richard L; Brinkmann, Volker; Mabbott, Neil A

    2012-05-15

    Many prion diseases are peripherally acquired (e.g., orally or via lesions to skin or mucous membranes). After peripheral exposure, prions replicate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the draining lymphoid tissue before infecting the brain. However, after replication upon FDC within the draining lymphoid tissue, prions are subsequently propagated to most nondraining secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), including the spleen, by a previously underdetermined mechanism. The germinal centers in which FDC are situated produce a population of B cells that can recirculate between SLO. Therefore, we reasoned that B cells were ideal candidates by which prion dissemination between SLO may occur. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)1 stimulation controls the egress of T and B cells from SLO. S1PR1 signaling blockade sequesters lymphocytes within SLO, resulting in lymphopenia in the blood and lymph. We show that, in mice treated with the S1PR modulator FTY720 or with S1PR1 deficiency restricted to B cells, the dissemination of prions from the draining lymph node to nondraining SLO is blocked. These data suggest that B cells interacting with and acquiring surface proteins from FDC and recirculating between SLO via the blood and lymph mediate the initial propagation of prions from the draining lymphoid tissue to peripheral tissues. PMID:22504650

  12. Transcription factor networks in B-cell differentiation link development to acute lymphoid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Rajesh; Prasad, Mahadesh A. J.; Ungerbäck, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    B-lymphocyte development in the bone marrow is controlled by the coordinated action of transcription factors creating regulatory networks ensuring activation of the B-lymphoid program and silencing of alternative cell fates. This process is tightly connected to malignant transformation because B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells display a pronounced block in differentiation resulting in the expansion of immature progenitor cells. Over the last few years, high-resolution analysis of genetic changes in leukemia has revealed that several key regulators of normal B-cell development, including IKZF1, TCF3, EBF1, and PAX5, are genetically altered in a large portion of the human B-lineage acute leukemias. This opens the possibility of directly linking the disrupted development as well as aberrant gene expression patterns in leukemic cells to molecular functions of defined transcription factors in normal cell differentiation. This review article focuses on the roles of transcription factors in early B-cell development and their involvement in the formation of human leukemia. PMID:25990863

  13. RANKL regulates differentiation of microfold cells in mouse nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT).

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Mami; Kimura, Shunsuke; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Hisamoto, Meri; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Iida, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    Murine nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), located at the base of the nasal cavity, serves as a major site for the induction of mucosal immune responses against airway antigens. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the luminal surface of NALT is characterized by the presence of microfold cells (M cells), which take up and transport luminal antigens to lymphocytes. Glycoprotein 2 (GP2) has recently been identified as a reliable marker for M cells in Peyer's patches of the intestine. However, the expression of GP2 and other functional molecules in the M cells of NALT has not yet been examined. We have immunohistochemically detected GP2-expressing cells in the FAE of NALT and the simultaneous expression of other intestinal M-cell markers, namely Tnfaip2, CCL9, and Spi-B. These cells have been further identified as M cells because of their higher uptake capacity of luminal microbeads. Electron microscopic observations have shown that GP2-expressing cells on the FAE display morphological features typical of M cells: they possess short microvilli and microfolds on the luminal surface and are closely associated with intraepithelial lymphocytes. We have also found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is expressed by stromal cells underneath the FAE, which provides its receptor RANK. The administration of RANKL markedly increases the number of GP2(+)Tnfaip2(+) cells on the NALT FAE and that of intestinal M cells. These results suggest that GP2(+)Tnfaip2(+) cells in NALT are equivalent to intestinal M cells, and that RANKL-RANK signaling induces their differentiation. PMID:26553655

  14. Kinetics of antigen-sensitive cells in the lymphoid organs of rats during allotransplantation reaction.

    PubMed

    Koníková, E; Klobusická, M

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of antigen-sensitive cells in the peripheral blood, spleens, regional lymph nodes, and thymuses of rats was investigated at different time intervals after immunization with allogeneic lymph node cells or after immunization with allogeneic skin or tumour grafts. The lytic effect of the immunizing antigen in vitro was estimated by the percentage of surviving cells after 24 h incubation with the specific antigen prepared from the lymph nodes of graft donors. The percentage of active lymphocytes in individual lymphoid organs of rats immunized with allogenic lymphocyte suspensions was determined by the nucleolar test. Regional lymph node enlargement was evaluated by determining lymph node relative weights and enlargement indices. An immunologically specific enlargement of the regional lymph nodes, increased numbers of ASC and increased percentage of active lymphocytes were seen as early as 24 h after immunization with allogeneic lymph node cells. At this time, the number of ASC in the peripheral blood was reduced and the percentage of active lymphocytes was low. After immunization with allogeneic skin and tumour grafts, ASC were detected first in the peripheral blood, then in the regional lymph nodes as late as 8 days after immunization, and after 10 days in the spleens. PMID:7016602

  15. IL-1 is a critical regulator of group 2 innate lymphoid cell function and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ohne, Yoichiro; Silver, Jonathan S; Thompson-Snipes, LuAnn; Collet, Magalie A; Blanck, Jean Philippe; Cantarel, Brandi L; Copenhaver, Alan M; Humbles, Alison A; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are important for type 2 immune responses and are activated by the epithelial cytokines interleukin 33 (IL-33), IL-25 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Here we demonstrated that IL-1β was a critical activator of ILC2 cells, inducing proliferation and cytokine production and regulating the expression of epithelial cytokine receptors. IL-1β also governed ILC2 plasticity by inducing low expression of the transcription factor T-bet and the cytokine receptor chain IL-12Rβ2, which enabled the conversion of these cells into an ILC1 phenotype in response to IL-12. This transition was marked by an atypical chromatin landscape characterized by the simultaneous transcriptional accessibility of the locus encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and the loci encoding IL-5 and IL-13. Finally, IL-1β potentiated ILC2 activation and plasticity in vivo, and IL-12 acted as the switch that determined an ILC2-versus-ILC1 response. Thus, we have identified a previously unknown role for IL-1β in facilitating ILC2 maturation and plasticity. PMID:27111142

  16. Ikaros Inhibits Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Development and Function by Suppressing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyang; Heller, Jennifer J; Bostick, John W; Lee, Aileen; Schjerven, Hilde; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan; Chen, Zongming E; Zhou, Liang

    2016-07-19

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) expressing the transcription factor (TF) RORγt are important for the defense and homeostasis of host intestinal tissues. The zinc finger TF Ikaros, encoded by Ikzf1, is essential for the development of RORγt(+) fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and lymphoid organogenesis, but its role in postnatal ILC3s is unknown. Here, we show that small-intestinal ILC3s had lower Ikaros expression than ILC precursors and other ILC subsets. Ikaros inhibited ILC3s in a cell-intrinsic manner through zinc-finger-dependent inhibition of transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a key regulator of ILC3 maintenance and function. Ablation of Ikzf1 in RORγt(+) ILC3s resulted in increased expansion and cytokine production of intestinal ILC3s and protection against infection and colitis. Therefore, in contrast to being required for LTi development, Ikaros inhibits postnatal ILC3 development and function to regulate gut immune responses at steady state and in disease. PMID:27438771

  17. Lymphocyte culture: induction of colonies by conditioned medium from human lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R M; Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The presence of phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in agar is known to stimulate the formation of lymphoid colonies. We now report that similar colonies can be induced in the absence of plant lectins upon addition of filtered and ultracentrifuged conditioned medium (CM) obtained from certain human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Colony formation required at least 6 X 10(5) mononuclear cells per milliliter, and optimum results were obtained at concentrations of 1 X 10(6) cells/ml in the presence of 20% CM (50-500 colonies per 10(6) cells cultured). Individual cells within colonies displayed uniform morphological characteristics of lymphoid cells, and the majority formed rosettes with sheep erythrocytes, suggesting that they were of T-cell type. PMID:303689

  18. The serologic behaviour of neuraminidase-treated lymphoid cells: alloantigenicity and complement sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ray, P. K.; Gewurz, H.; Simmons, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) renders mouse lymphoid cells highly susceptible to the cytolytic effects of alloantibody and complement (C). This increased susceptibility to lysis is not due to unmasking of alloantigens since no increase in alloantibody-binding capacity of VCN-treated cells could be detected. However, VCN-treated cells can be lysed by normal rabbit serum, human serum, and guinea-pig serum even if specific antibody is not added to the incubation mixture. VCN, therefore, while not unmasking strong H-2 histocompatibility antigens, may be capable of unmasking other antigens with which heterologous sera can react. The increased susceptibility to immune cytolysis of VCN-treated cells appears to be related, at least partially, to its extreme susceptibility to C. Complement inactivation by heat totally abrogated the lytic effect, as did C inactivation by ammonium hydroxide, viscarin, and zymosan. In addition, activation of the autologous serum C within the fluid phase by cobra venom factor produced cytolysis only in VCN-treated cells. Thus, VCN renders nucleated cells highly susceptible to lysis by C. PMID:5042921

  19. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: New Players in Human Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, TA; Broide, DH

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by tissue eosinophilia, mucus secretion, IgE production, and activation of mast cells and TH2 cells. Production of TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 has mainly been attributed to CD4+ TH2 cells. However, the recent discovery of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in humans and findings from experimental disease models have challenged conventional concepts associated with the contribution of specific cells to type 2 inflammation in allergic diseases. ILC2s produce high levels of TH2 cytokines and have been detected in human lung tissue, peripheral blood, the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and sinonasal tissue, suggesting that ILC2s could contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal allergic disease. Moreover, depletion of ILC2s in animal models suggests a role for these cells in atopic dermatitis and asthma. This review will focus on the role of ILC2s in human allergy and asthma and provide a mechanistic insight from animal models. PMID:25898689

  20. Insights into Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Human Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Karta, Maya R; Broide, David H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2016-01-01

    Recent discoveries have led to the identification of a novel group of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The members of this group are divided into three subpopulations: ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s. ILC2s produce Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, upon activation by epithelial cell-derived cytokines, lipid mediators (cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2), and TNF family member TL1A and promote structural and immune cell responses in the airways after antigen exposure. In addition, ILC2 function is also influenced by inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS)/ICOS-ligand (ICOS-L) interactions via direct contact between immune cells. The most common airway antigens are allergens and viruses which are highly linked to the induction of airway diseases with underlying type 2 inflammation including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Based on recent findings linking ILC2s and airway Th2 responses, there is intensive investigation into the role of ILC2s in human disease with the hope of a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the discovery of novel potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the recent advances made in elucidating ILC2 involvement in human Th2 airway disease. PMID:26746844

  1. Neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, Masao; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2008-12-12

    Antigen-transporting cells take up pathogens, and then migrate from sites of inflammation to secondary lymphoid tissues to induce an immune response. Among antigen-transporting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be the most potent and professional antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate naive T cells. However, the cells that transport antigens, tumor cell antigens in particular, have not been clearly identified. In this study we have analyzed what types of cells transport tumor cell antigens to secondary lymphoid tissues. We show that neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages but not DCs engulf X-irradiated P388 leukemic cells after their injection into the peritoneal cavity, and that neutrophils and monocytes but not macrophages migrate to the parathymic lymph nodes (pLN), the blood, and then the spleen. The monocytes in the pLN comprise Gr-1{sup -} and Gr-1{sup +} ones, and some of these cells express CD11c. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  2. Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid tissue-derived CD4 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Kathryn M.; Yang, Zhiyuan; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Levy, David N; Greene, Warner C.

    2015-01-01

    The progressive depletion of CD4 T cells underlies clinical progression to AIDS in untreated HIV-infected subjects. Most dying CD4 T cells correspond to resting nonpermissive cells residing in lymphoid tissues. Death is due to an innate immune response against the incomplete cytosolic viral DNA intermediates accumulating in these cells. The viral DNA is detected by the IFI16 sensor leading to inflammasome assembly, caspase 1 activation, and the induction of pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death. We now show that cell-to-cell transmission of HIV is obligatorily required for activation of this death pathway. Cell-free HIV-1 virions, even when added in large quantities, fail to activate pyroptosis. These findings underscore the infected CD4 T cells as the major killing units promoting progression to AIDS and highlight a previously unappreciated role for the virological synapse in HIV pathogenesis. PMID:26321639

  3. Interferon-γ constrains cytokine production of group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Fujimi; Ikutani, Masashi; Seki, Yoichi; Otsubo, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yuki I; Dohi, Taeko; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Nakae, Susumu; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Takaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce a significant amount of interleukin-5 (IL-5), which supports eosinophil responses in various tissues; they also produce IL-13, which induces mucus production and contributes to tissue repair or fibrosis. The ILC2s are activated by alarmins, such as IL-33 released from epithelia, macrophages and natural killer T (NKT) cells in response to infection and allergen exposure, leading to epithelial injury. We examined gene expression in lung ILC2s and found that ILC2s expressed Ifngr1, the receptor for interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Interferon-γ severely inhibited IL-5 and IL-13 production by lung and kidney ILC2s. To evaluate the effects in vivo, we used α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to induce NKT cells to produce IL-33 and IFN-γ. Intraperitoneal injection of α-GalCer in mice induced NKT cell activation resulting in IL-5 and IL-13 production by ILC2s. Administration of anti-IFN-γ together with α-GalCer significantly enhanced the production of IL-5 and IL-13 by ILC2s in lung and kidney. Conversely, cytokine production from ILC2s was markedly suppressed after injection of exogenous IL-33 in Il33(-/-) mice pre-treated with α-GalCer. Hence, IFN-γ induced or already present in tissues can impact downstream pleiotropic functions mediated by ILC2s, such as inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:26425820

  4. T cell-recruiting triplebody 19-3-19 mediates serial lysis of malignant B-lymphoid cells by a single T cell

    PubMed Central

    Roskopf, Claudia C.; Schiller, Christian B.; Braciak, Todd A.; Kobold, Sebastian; Schubert, Ingo A.; Fey, Georg H.; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Oduncu, Fuat S.

    2014-01-01

    Triplebody 19-3-19, an antibody-derived protein, carries three single chain fragment variable domains in tandem in a single polypeptide chain. 19-3-19 binds CD19-bearing lymphoid cells via its two distal domains and primary T cells via its CD3-targeting central domain in an antigen-specific manner. Here, malignant B-lymphoid cell lines and primary cells from patients with B cell malignancies were used as targets in cytotoxicity tests with pre-stimulated allogeneic T cells as effectors. 19-3-19 mediated up to 95% specific lysis of CD19-positive tumor cells and, at picomolar EC50 doses, had similar cytolytic potency as the clinically successful agent BlinatumomabTM. 19-3-19 activated resting T cells from healthy unrelated donors and mediated specific lysis of both autologous and allogeneic CD19-positive cells. 19-3-19 led to the elimination of 70% of CD19-positive target cells even with resting T cells as effectors at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 1 : 10. The molecule is therefore capable of mediating serial lysis of target cells by a single T cell. These results highlight that central domains capable of engaging different immune effectors can be incorporated into the triplebody format to provide more individualized therapy tailored to a patient’s specific immune status. PMID:25115385

  5. T Cell Contamination in Flow Cytometry Gating Approaches for Analysis of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Sabrina; Becher, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) differ from T and B cells as they do not express genetically rearranged antigen receptors. The most prominent member of this group, NK cells, can be identified by numerous surface receptors such as natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs). However, novel groups of ILCs have recently been described and classified based on fate-determining transcription factors and cytokines being produced, similarly to T helper cells. Due to the lack of exclusive markers, ILCs are primarily defined by the paucity of lineage markers. Using RORc-fate-mapping mice, we found that the common lineage exclusion using CD3 yields an ILC population containing a large proportion of T cells with recombined TCR loci and low expression of CD3. Thus, we suggest adding CD5 as a marker for thorough elimination of T cells to avoid erroneous interpretations of ILC function in immunity. PMID:24759759

  6. KAP1 regulates gene networks controlling mouse B lymphoid cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    de Sio, Francesca R. Santoni; Massacand, Joanna; Barde, Isabelle; Offner, Sandra; Corsinotti, Andrea; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Bojkowska, Karolina; Dagklis, Antonis; Fernandez, Marylise; Ghia, Paolo; Thomas, James H.; Pinschewer, Daniel; Harris, Nicola; Trono, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling is fundamental for B cell differentiation. Here, we explored the role in this process of KAP1, the cofactor of KRAB-ZFP transcriptional repressors. B lymphoid-specific Kap1 knockout mice displayed reduced numbers of mature B cells, lower steady-state levels of antibodies and accelerated rates of decay of neutralizing antibodies following viral immunization. Transcriptome analyses of Kap1-deleted B splenocytes revealed an upregulation of PTEN, the enzymatic counter-actor of PIK3 signaling, and of genes encoding DNA damage response factors, cell-cycle regulators and chemokine receptors. ChIP/seq studies established that KAP1 bound at or close to a number of these genes, and controlled chromatin status at their promoters. Genome-wide, KAP1-binding sites avoided active B cell-specific enhancers and were enriched in repressive histone marks, further supporting a role for this molecule in gene silencing in vivo. Likely responsible for tethering KAP1 to at least some of these targets, a discrete subset of KRAB-ZFPs is enriched in B lymphocytes. This work thus reveals the role of KRAB/KAP1-mediated epigenetic regulation in B cell development and homeostasis. PMID:22452978

  7. Stearidonic acid, a plant-based dietary fatty acid, enhances the chemosensitivity of canine lymphoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Ferniany, Glennie; Ashraf, Farah; Abbott, Kodye L; Smith, Bruce F; Coleman, Elaine S; Mansour, Mahmoud; Bird, R Curtis; Smith, Annette N; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-05-15

    Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and humans, with similar pathogenesis and therapeutic responses. Anticancer drugs like vincristine (VCR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are often used in treating lymphoma. However, the cure rate is generally poor due to chemoresistance. Here, we sought to determine whether stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based dietary fatty acid, sensitizes chemoresistant canine lymphoid-tumor cells. GL-1 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were found to be highly sensitive to the antitumor-activity of VCR and DOX, while OSW T-cell and 17-71 B-cell lymphoid-tumor cells were moderately and fully resistant, respectively. SDA, at its non-toxic concentrations, significantly promoted the antitumor action of VCR and DOX in both OSW and 17-71 cells. SDA-mediated chemosensitization was associated with SDA inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. This was confirmed in HEK293 cells stably expressing P-gp as well as by increased binding-affinity of SDA to P-gp in P-gp docking analysis. SDA at its chemosensitizing concentrations did not affect the viability of healthy dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that SDA is non-toxic to normal dog peripheral blood leucocytes at its chemosensitizing concentrations. Our study identifies a novel dietary fatty acid that may be used as a dietary supplement in combination with chemotherapy to promote the antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapy drugs in dogs and possibly in humans with chemoresistant lymphoma. PMID:25847597

  8. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote an Early Antibody Response to a Respiratory Antigen in Mice.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Bartemes, Kathleen; Kita, Hirohito

    2016-08-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new family of immune cells that play important roles in innate immunity in mucosal tissues, and in the maintenance of tissue and metabolic homeostasis. Recently, group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) were found to promote the development and effector functions of Th2-type CD4(+) T cells by interacting directly with T cells or by activating dendritic cells, suggesting a role for ILC2s in regulating adaptive immunity. However, our current knowledge on the role of ILCs in humoral immunity is limited. In this study, we found that ILC2s isolated from the lungs of naive BALB/c mice enhanced the proliferation of B1- as well as B2-type B cells and promoted the production of IgM, IgG1, IgA, and IgE by these cells in vitro. Soluble factors secreted by ILC2s were sufficient to enhance B cell Ig production. By using blocking Abs and ILC2s isolated from IL-5-deficient mice, we found that ILC2-derived IL-5 is critically involved in the enhanced production of IgM. Furthermore, when adoptively transferred to Il7r(-/-) mice, which lack ILC2s and mature T cells, lung ILC2s promoted the production of IgM Abs to a polysaccharide Ag, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl Ficoll, within 7 d of airway exposure in vivo. These findings add to the growing body of literature regarding the regulatory functions of ILCs in adaptive immunity, and suggest that lung ILC2s promote B cell production of early Abs to a respiratory Ag even in the absence of T cells. PMID:27421480

  9. Induction of mixed-function oxidase activity in mouse lymphoid tissues by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Egan, B.Z.; Lee, N.E.; Burtis, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure can cause mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme induction in certain tissues of various organisms. Measurements of such induction might serve as a useful bioindicator of human exposure to PAHs, provided readily obtainable human tissues can be utilized for such measurements. The authors have investigated the MFO activity in various lymphoid tissues of the C3H mouse as a model system and have studied the effect of systemic PAH treatment on such enzyme activity. An MFO enzyme assay was used to measure the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin deethylase, an enzyme activity that may be specific for the cytochrome P-448 subset of MFO enzymes (those enzymes that are induced in cells or tissues following PAH administration). Intraperitoneal injection of mice with 180 mg/kg (4.6 mg) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 160 mg/kg (4.0 mg) 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) produced a significant induction in MFO activity in mouse spleen S9 fractions 48 h after the injection. Induction ratios (induced activity/control activity) between 4 and 5 were seen with BaP; MC produced induction ratios of 2.5-3.0. Enzyme activity was not induced in the spleen within 16 h following BaP or MC administration. Other experiments indicated that MFO activity could be induced in thymus cells 48 h after either BaP or MC treatment. Treatment with BaP or MC did produce significant enzyme induction in the liver and lung tissues from the animals both 16 and 48 h after chemical treatment.

  10. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  11. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  12. Transmembrane adaptor molecules: a new category of lymphoid-cell markers.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Sara; Paterson, Jennifer C; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Natkunam, Yasodha; Rüdiger, Thomas; Angelisova, Pavla; Du, Ming Q; Roberton, Helen; Roncador, Giovanna; Sanchez, Lydia; Pozzobon, Michela; Masir, Noraidah; Barry, Richard; Pileri, Stefano; Mason, David Y; Marafioti, Teresa; Horejsí, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (of which 7 have been identified so far) are involved in receptor signaling in immune cells. They have only a short extracellular region, with most of the molecule comprising a substantial intracytoplasmic region carrying multiple tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by Src- or Syk-family kinases. In this paper, we report an immunohistologic study of 6 of these molecules in normal and neoplastic human tissue sections and show that they are restricted to subpopulations of lymphoid cells, being present in either T cells (LAT, LIME, and TRIM), B cells (NTAL), or subsets of both cell types (PAG and SIT). Their expression in neoplastic lymphoid cells broadly reflects that of normal lymphoid tissue, including the positivity of plasma cells and myeloma/plasmacytoma for LIME, NTAL, PAG, and SIT. However, this study also revealed some reactions that may be of diagnostic/prognostic value. For example, lymphocytic lymphoma and mantle-cell lymphoma showed similar profiles but differed clearly from follicle-center lymphoma, whereas PAG tended to be selectively expressed in germinal center-derived subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These molecules represent a potentially important addition to the panel of immunophenotypic markers detectable in routine biopsies that can be used in hematopathologic studies. PMID:16160011

  13. The Roles of Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Development of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yeonduk; Jeong, Dongjin; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common pulmonary disease with several different forms. The most studied form of asthma is the allergic form, which is mainly related to the function of Th2 cells and their production of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in association with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Recently, there have been many advances in understanding non-allergic asthma, which seems to be related to environmental factors such as air pollution, infection, or even obesity. Cells of the innate immune system, including macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer T cells as well as the newly described innate lymphoid cells, are effective producers of a variety of cytokines and seem to play important roles in the development of non-allergic asthma. In this review, we focus on recent findings regarding innate lymphoid cells and their roles in asthma. PMID:25177249

  14. Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Magri, Giuliana; Miyajima, Michio; Bascones, Sabrina; Mortha, Arthur; Puga, Irene; Cassis, Linda; Barra, Carolina M; Comerma, Laura; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Gentile, Maurizio; Llige, David; Cols, Montserrat; Serrano, Sergi; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Juan, Manel; Yagüe, Jordi; Merad, Miriam; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Cerutti, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal cells, epithelial cells and cells of the immune system, but their effect on B cells remains unclear. Here we identified RORγt(+) ILCs near the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment that contains innate-like B cells highly responsive to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Splenic ILCs established bidirectional crosstalk with MAdCAM-1(+) marginal reticular cells by providing tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin, and they stimulated MZ B cells via B cell-activation factor (BAFF), the ligand of the costimulatory receptor CD40 (CD40L) and the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Splenic ILCs further helped MZ B cells and their plasma-cell progeny by coopting neutrophils through release of the cytokine GM-CSF. Consequently, depletion of ILCs impaired both pre- and post-immune TI antibody responses. Thus, ILCs integrate stromal and myeloid signals to orchestrate innate-like antibody production at the interface between the immune system and circulatory system. PMID:24562309

  15. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Express Functional NKp30 Receptor Inducing Type 2 Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defense, epithelial repair, and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged Ag-specific receptors, and although many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with the microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of group 1 ILC and group 3 ILC and thought to be important for their effector function, but they have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human ILC2. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking Ab and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis, and incubation of keratinocytes with proinflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6, leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  16. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection. PMID:27484190

  17. Comparative analysis of mononuclear cells isolated from mucosal lymphoid follicles of the human ileum and colon

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Y; Bode, H; Wahnschaffe, U; Kroesen, A; Loddenkemper, C; Duchmann, R; Zeitz, M; Ullrich, R

    2009-01-01

    Studies of human mucosal lymphoid follicles are rare and have been limited to children's Peyer's patches, which are visible at endoscopy. We investigated lymphoid follicles in ileum biopsies of 87 patients and surgical colon specimens from 66 cancer patients, and examined phenotype and function of isolated follicular immune cells. Two (0–10) and 12 (0–117) follicles per patient were found in ileum and colon samples respectively (P < 0·001). The number of lymphoid follicles mononuclear cells (LFMC) that could be isolated per patient was higher from colon compared with ileum specimens [725 000 (0–23 Mio) versus 100 000 (0–1·3 Mio), P < 0·001]. T cells were predominant in both LFMC and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC), but B cells were more and plasma cells less frequent in LFMC. T cells from mucosal follicles were more frequently CD4-positive and CD62L-positive, but less frequently CD8-positive, CD103-positive and CD69-positive than lamina propria T cells. LFMC from ileum compared with colon showed no differences in mononuclear cell composition. Anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation induced similar proliferation of LFMC and LPMC from ileum and colon, as well as secretion of high levels of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-2, but lower levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. LFMC from colon secreted more IL-2 than those from ileum. Our study shows that mucosal lymphoid follicles can be identified clearly in adult human colon and yield viable immune cells sufficient for phenotypical and functional analysis. The cellular composition of LFMC from ileum and colon is similar, and both secrete predominantly T helper type 1 cytokines. PMID:19250280

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation leads to transient depletion of the mouse thymic medulla and persistent abnormalities among medullary stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.; Gandour, D.; Strober, S.; Weissman, I.

    1988-05-15

    Mice given multiple doses of sublethal irradiation to both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid tissues showed major transient, and some persistent disruptions in general thymic architecture and in thymic stromal components. At 2 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), the thymus lacked identifiable medullary regions by immunohistochemical analyses. Medullary stromal cells expression MHC Ag or a medullary epithelial cell Ag, as well as medullary macrophages, were undetectable. Instead, the processes of cortical epithelial cells were observed throughout the entire thymus. Strikingly, thymocyte subsets with mature phenotypes (CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+) were present in the apparent absence of a medulla. This early, gross effect was rapidly reversed such that by 1 to 2 mo after TLI, medullary areas with MHC Ag-positive cells were evident. However, abnormalities in a subset of medullary stromal cells appeared to be more persistent. Medullary epithelial cells, identified by the MD1 mAb, were greatly reduced in number and abnormally organized for at least 4 mo after TLI. In addition, macrophages containing endogenous peroxidase activity, normally abundant in medullary regions, were undetectable at all times examined after TLI. Therefore, this irradiation regimen induced both transient and long term effects in the thymus, primarily in medullary regions. These results suggest that TLI may be used as an experimental tool for studying the impact of selective depletion of medullary stromal cells on the development of specific T cell functions.

  19. Ezrin and Moesin Are Required for Efficient T Cell Adhesion and Homing to Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Emily J. H.; Shaffer, Meredith H.; Williamson, Edward K.; Huang, Yanping; Burkhardt, Janis K.

    2013-01-01

    T cell trafficking between the blood and lymphoid organs is a complex, multistep process that requires several highly dynamic and coordinated changes in cyto-architecture. Members of the ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) family of actin-binding proteins have been implicated in several aspects of this process, but studies have yielded conflicting results. Using mice with a conditional deletion of ezrin in CD4+ cells and moesin-specific siRNA, we generated T cells lacking ERM proteins, and investigated the effect on specific events required for T cell trafficking. ERM-deficient T cells migrated normally in multiple in vitro and in vivo assays, and could undergo efficient diapedesis in vitro. However, these cells were impaired in their ability to adhere to the β1 integrin ligand fibronectin, and to polarize appropriately in response to fibronectin and VCAM-1 binding. This defect was specific for β1 integrins, as adhesion and polarization in response to ICAM-1 were normal. In vivo, ERM-deficient T cells showed defects in homing to lymphoid organs. Taken together, these results show that ERM proteins are largely dispensable for T cell chemotaxis, but are important for β1 integrin function and homing to lymphoid organs. PMID:23468835

  20. Differentiation and function of group 3 innate lymphoid cells, from embryo to adult.

    PubMed

    van de Pavert, Serge A; Vivier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) represent a heterogeneous population of cells that share the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt) as a master regulator for differentiation and function. ILC3 can be divided into two major subsets based on the cell surface expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR), NKp46. A subset of NCR(-) ILC3 includes the previously known lymphoid-tissue inducer cells that are essential for the embryonic formation of peripheral lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. After birth, the NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 contribute to the maintenance of health but also to inflammation in mucosal tissues. This review will describe the differentiation pathways of ILC3, their involvement in the development of the adaptive immune system and their role in the establishment and maintenance of gut immunity. PMID:26374472

  1. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

  2. Back to the drawing board: Understanding the complexity of hepatic innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Marotel, Marie; Hasan, Uzma; Viel, Sébastien; Marçais, Antoine; Walzer, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of immune populations in nonlymphoid organs have highlighted the great diversity of the innate lymphoid system. It has also become apparent that mouse and human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have distinct phenotypes and properties. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Harmon et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 2111-2120] characterized human hepatic NK-cell subsets. The authors report that hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells resemble mouse liver ILC1s in that they express CXCR6 and have an immature phenotype. However, unlike mouse ILC1s, they express high levels of Eomes and low levels of T-bet, and upon stimulation with tumor cells, secrete low amounts of cytokines. These unexpected findings further support the differences between human and mouse immune populations and prompt the study of the role of hepatic ILC subsets in immune responses. PMID:27600673

  3. Interaction of mature CD3+CD4+ T cells with dendritic cells triggers the development of tertiary lymphoid structures in the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Tatjana; Garin, Alexandre; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Fu, Yang-Xin; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Furtado, Glaucia C.; Lira, Sergio A.

    2006-01-01

    Ectopic expression of CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) in the thyroid leads to development of lymphoid structures that resemble those observed in Hashimoto thyroiditis. Deletion of the inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) gene, essential for generation of CD3–CD4+ lymphoid tissue–inducer (LTi) cells and development of secondary lymphoid organs, did not affect formation of tertiary lymphoid structures. Rather, mature CD3+CD4+ T cells were critical for the development of tertiary lymphoid structures. The initial stages of this process involved interaction of CD3+CD4+ T cells with DCs, the appearance of peripheral-node addressin–positive (PNAd+) vessels, and production of chemokines that recruit lymphocytes and DCs. These findings indicate that the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures does not require Id2-dependent conventional LTis but depends on a program initiated by mature CD3+CD4+ T cells. PMID:16998590

  4. Lymphoid lineage differentiation potential of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eslami-Arshaghi, Tarlan; Salehi, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud; Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher; Mossahebi-Mohammadi, Majid; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Rajabi, Hoda

    2015-09-01

    Stem cells therapy is considered as an efficient strategy for the treatment of some diseases. Nevertheless, some obstacles such as probability of rejection by the immune system limit applications of this strategy. Therefore, several efforts have been made to overcome this among which using the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell (nt-ESCs) are the most efficient strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differentiation potential of the nt-ESCs to lymphoid lineage in the presence of IL-7, IL-3, FLT3-ligand and TPO growth factors in vitro. To this end, the nt-ESCs cells were prepared and treated with aforementioned growth factors for 7 and 14 days. Then, the cells were examined for expression of lymphoid markers (CD3, CD25, CD127 and CD19) by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and flow cytometry. An increased expression of CD19 and CD25 markers was observed in the treated cells compared with the negative control samples by day 7. After 14 days, the expression level of all the tested CD markers significantly increased in the treated groups in comparison with the control. The current study reveals the potential of the nt-ESCs in differentiation to lymphoid lineage in the presence of defined growth factors. PMID:26239678

  5. CXCR4-Related Increase of Circulating Human Lymphoid Progenitors after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Glauzy, Salomé; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Larghero, Jérôme; Ezine, Sophie; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Moins-Teisserenc, Hélène; Servais, Sophie; Robin, Marie; Socié, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Immune recovery after profound lymphopenia is a major challenge in many clinical situations, such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Recovery depends, in a first step, on hematopoietic lymphoid progenitors production in the bone marrow (BM). In this study, we characterized CD34+Lin−CD10+ lymphoid progenitors in the peripheral blood of allo-HSCT patients. Our data demonstrate a strong recovery of this population 3 months after transplantation. This rebound was abolished in patients who developed acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). A similar recovery profile was found for both CD24+ and CD24− progenitor subpopulations. CD34+lin−CD10+CD24− lymphoid progenitors sorted from allo-HSCT patients preserved their T cell potentiel according to in vitro T-cell differentiation assay and the expression profile of 22 genes involved in T-cell differentiation and homing. CD34+lin−CD10+CD24− cells from patients without aGVHD had reduced CXCR4 gene expression, consistent with an enhanced egress from the BM. CCR7 gene expression was reduced in patients after allo-HSCT, as were its ligands CCL21 and CCL19. This reduction was particularly marked in patients with aGVHD, suggesting a possible impact on thymic homing. Thus, the data presented here identify this population as an important early step in T cell reconstitution in humans and so, an important target when seeking to enhance immune reconstitution. PMID:24621606

  6. Tertiary lymphoid structures are confined to patients presenting with unifocal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Quispel, Willemijn T; Steenwijk, Eline C; van Unen, Vincent; Santos, Susy J; Koens, Lianne; Mebius, Reina; Egeler, R Maarten; van Halteren, Astrid G S

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites. We analyzed the presence and clinical relevance of TLS in n = 104 H&E-stained, therapy-naive LCH lesions of non-lymphoid origin and applied immunohistochemistry to a smaller series. Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were detected in 34/104 (33%) lesions. In line with the lymphocyte recruitment capacity of MECA-79(+) high endothelial venules (HEVs), MECA-79(+)-expressing-LCH lesions (37/77, 48%) contained the most CD3(+) T-lymphocytes (p = 0.003). TLS were identified in 8/15 lesions and contained T-and B-lymphocytes, Follicular Dendritic Cells (FDC), HEVs and the chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21 representing key cellular components and TLS-inducing factors in conventional lymph nodes (LN). Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were most frequently detected in patients presenting with unifocal LCH (24/70, 34%) as compared to patients with poly-ostotic or multi-system LCH (7/30, 23%, p = 0.03). In addition, patients with lymphoid-follicular aggregates-containing lesions had the lowest risk to develop new LCH lesions (p = 0.04). The identification of various stages of TLS formation within LCH lesions may indicate a key role for the immune system in controlling aberrant histiocytes which arise in peripheral tissues. PMID:27622056

  7. Long non-coding RNA profiling of human lymphoid progenitor cells reveals transcriptional divergence of B cell and T cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Casero, David; Sandoval, Salemiz; Seet, Christopher S; Scholes, Jessica; Zhu, Yuhua; Ha, Vi Luan; Luong, Annie; Parekh, Chintan; Crooks, Gay M

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate the transcriptional 'landscape' that regulates human lymphoid commitment during postnatal life, we used RNA sequencing to assemble the long non-coding transcriptome across human bone marrow and thymic progenitor cells spanning the earliest stages of B lymphoid and T lymphoid specification. Over 3,000 genes encoding previously unknown long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were revealed through the analysis of these rare populations. Lymphoid commitment was characterized by lncRNA expression patterns that were highly stage specific and were more lineage specific than those of protein-coding genes. Protein-coding genes co-expressed with neighboring lncRNA genes showed enrichment for ontologies related to lymphoid differentiation. The exquisite cell-type specificity of global lncRNA expression patterns independently revealed new developmental relationships among the earliest progenitor cells in the human bone marrow and thymus. PMID:26502406

  8. Anti-DNA autoantibody-producing hybridomas of normal human lymphoid cell origin.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, E; Block, J; Bell, D A

    1984-01-01

    Fusion of human myeloma cell line GM 4672 and tonsillar lymphoid cells from a normal donor resulted in 13 primary hybridomas, which produced IgM anti-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) antibodies, as determined in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nine of these primary hybridomas have been cloned and a total of 34 clones were obtained. Supernatants of these cloned hybridomas were tested for binding to ssDNA, native DNA, RNA, low molecular weight supernatant DNA, polydeoxyguanylate-polydeoxycitidylate, polydeoxyadenylate-thymidylate sodium salt, and cardiolipin. Supernatants from all clones but one showed polyspecificity when reacting with the antigens tested. That the clones were true hybridomas rather than transformed lymphoid cells was evidence by IgM anti-DNA antibody secretion, karyotype analysis, and HLA typing. These studies imply that immunoglobulin genes encoding for anti-DNA autoantibodies with a spectrum of nucleic acid specificities similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, exist among normal B lymphocytes. PMID:6470143

  9. Stem cell biology is population biology: differentiation of hematopoietic multipotent progenitors to common lymphoid and myeloid progenitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system is a demand control system, with the demand coming from the organism, since the products of the common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor (CMP, CLP respectively) cells are essential for activity and defense against disease. We show how ideas from population biology (combining population dynamics and evolutionary considerations) can illuminate the feedback control of the HSC system by the fully differentiated products, which has recently been verified experimentally. We develop models for the penultimate differentiation of HSC Multipotent Progenitors (MPPs) into CLP and CMP and introduce two concepts from population biology into stem cell biology. The first concept is the Multipotent Progenitor Commitment Response (MPCR) which is the probability that a multipotent progenitor cell follows a CLP route rather than a CMP route. The second concept is the link between the MPCR and a measure of Darwinian fitness associated with organismal performance and the levels of differentiated lymphoid and myeloid cells. We show that many MPCRs are consistent with homeostasis, but that they will lead to different dynamics of cells and signals following a wound or injury and thus have different consequences for Darwinian fitness. We show how coupling considerations of life history to dynamics of the HSC system and its products allows one to compute the selective pressures on cellular processes. We discuss ways that this framework can be used and extended. PMID:23327512

  10. The influence of gut function on lymphoid cell populations in the intestinal mucosa of lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J D; Morris, B

    1983-01-01

    The number and type of lymphoid cells in the intestinal mucosa of lambs change during the first weeks after birth. The influence of gut function on these changes was examined by comparing the evolution of lymphoid cell populations in normal ileum with that in lengths of ileum which had been isolated surgically from the functional intestinal tract of the lamb before birth. The isolated lengths of ileum had a normal blood and nerve supply and they remained healthy throughout a period of at least 2 years, although they did not have a normal histological development. In comparison with normal ileum, the villi of the isolated ileal segments were much smaller and there were many fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes; the lamina propria had significantly fewer lymphocytes than the functional ileum and only a few plasma cells. When isolated ileal segments were reconnected into the intestinal tract after having been isolated from it for 1-3 months, the histology of the mucosa reverted to that of the normal gut, with the same number and types of lymphoid cells. Radiolabelled lymphoblasts collected from intestinal lymph and injected intravenously accumulated to only a small extent in isolated segments of ileum compared with either the normal or the reconnected segments of ileum. This suggested that the paucity of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the isolated segments was due to a reduced extravasation of these cells there. The influence which the gut contents exert on the lymphoid cell population in the mucosa is probably associated with antigenic stimulation but may also be related to other factors concerned in the normal digestive functions of the gut. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6862523

  11. Cancer Immunosurveillance by Tissue-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells and Innate-like T Cells.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Saïda; Chhangawala, Sagar; Whitlock, Benjamin M; Franklin, Ruth A; Luo, Chong T; Oh, Soyoung A; Toure, Ahmed; Pritykin, Yuri; Huse, Morgan; Leslie, Christina S; Li, Ming O

    2016-01-28

    Malignancy can be suppressed by the immune system in a process termed immunosurveillance. However, to what extent immunosurveillance occurs in spontaneous cancers and the composition of participating cell types remains obscure. Here, we show that cell transformation triggers a tissue-resident lymphocyte response in oncogene-induced murine cancer models. Non-circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes, derived from innate, T cell receptor (TCR)αβ, and TCRγδ lineages, expand in early tumors. Characterized by high expression of NK1.1, CD49a, and CD103, these cells share a gene-expression signature distinct from those of conventional NK cells, T cells, and invariant NKT cells. Generation of these lymphocytes is dependent on the cytokine IL-15, but not the transcription factor Nfil3 that is required for the differentiation of tumor-infiltrating NK cells, and IL-15 deficiency, but not Nfil3 deficiency, results in accelerated tumor growth. These findings reveal a tumor-elicited immunosurveillance mechanism that engages unconventional type-1-like innate lymphoid cells and type 1 innate-like T cells. PMID:26806130

  12. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J.; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M.; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Objectives Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Methods Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. Results The linage-negative, CD127+, CD161+ lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid–related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ+RORγt+CD3− cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. Conclusions An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. PMID:26542033

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Infectivity and Pathogenicity of the Lymphoid Cell-Derived Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Yuan-Yee; Michalak, Tomasz I.

    2001-01-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and human hepatitis B virus are closely related, highly hepatotropic mammalian DNA viruses that also replicate in the lymphatic system. The infectivity and pathogenicity of hepadnaviruses propagating in lymphoid cells are under debate. In this study, hepato- and lymphotropism of WHV produced by naturally infected lymphoid cells was examined in specifically established woodchuck hepatocyte and lymphoid cell cultures and coculture systems, and virus pathogenicity was tested in susceptible animals. Applying PCR-based assays discriminating between the total pool of WHV genomes and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), combined with enzymatic elimination of extracellular viral sequences potentially associated with the cell surface, our study documents that virus replicating in woodchuck lymphoid cells is infectious to homologous hepatocytes and lymphoid cells in vitro. The productive replication of WHV from lymphoid cells in cultured hepatocytes was evidenced by the appearance of virus-specific DNA, cccDNA, and antigens, transmissibility of the virus through multiple passages in hepatocyte cultures, and the ability of the passaged virus to infect virus-naive animals. The data also revealed that WHV from lymphoid cells can initiate classical acute viral hepatitis in susceptible animals, albeit small quantities (∼103 virions) caused immunovirologically undetectable (occult) WHV infection that engaged the lymphatic system but not the liver. Our results provide direct in vitro and in vivo evidence that lymphoid cells in the infected host support propagation of infectious hepadnavirus that has the potential to induce hepatitis. They also emphasize a principal role of the lymphatic system in the maintenance and dissemination of hepadnavirus infection, particularly when infection is induced by low virus doses. PMID:11160675

  14. Tertiary Lymphoid Structure-Associated B Cells are Key Players in Anti-Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Claire; Gnjatic, Sacha; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It is now admitted that the immune system plays a major role in tumor control. Besides the existence of tumor-specific T cells and B cells, many studies have demonstrated that high numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with good clinical outcome. In addition, not only the density but also the organization of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been shown to determine patient survival. Indeed, more and more studies describe the development within the tumor microenvironment of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), whose presence has a positive impact on tumor prognosis. TLS are transient ectopic lymphoid aggregates displaying the same organization and functionality as canonical secondary lymphoid organs, with T-cell-rich and B-cell-rich areas that are sites for the differentiation of effector and memory T cells and B cells. However, factors favoring the emergence of such structures within tumors still need to be fully characterized. In this review, we survey the state of the art of what is known about the general organization, induction, and functionality of TLS during chronic inflammation, and more especially in cancer, with a particular focus on the B-cell compartment. We detail the role played by TLS B cells in anti-tumor immunity, both as antigen-presenting cells and tumor antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells, and raise the question of the capacity of chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents to induce the development of TLS within tumors. Finally, we explore how to take advantage of our knowledge on TLS B cells to develop new therapeutic tools. PMID:25755654

  15. Tertiary Lymphoid Structure-Associated B Cells are Key Players in Anti-Tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Germain, Claire; Gnjatic, Sacha; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It is now admitted that the immune system plays a major role in tumor control. Besides the existence of tumor-specific T cells and B cells, many studies have demonstrated that high numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with good clinical outcome. In addition, not only the density but also the organization of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been shown to determine patient survival. Indeed, more and more studies describe the development within the tumor microenvironment of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), whose presence has a positive impact on tumor prognosis. TLS are transient ectopic lymphoid aggregates displaying the same organization and functionality as canonical secondary lymphoid organs, with T-cell-rich and B-cell-rich areas that are sites for the differentiation of effector and memory T cells and B cells. However, factors favoring the emergence of such structures within tumors still need to be fully characterized. In this review, we survey the state of the art of what is known about the general organization, induction, and functionality of TLS during chronic inflammation, and more especially in cancer, with a particular focus on the B-cell compartment. We detail the role played by TLS B cells in anti-tumor immunity, both as antigen-presenting cells and tumor antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells, and raise the question of the capacity of chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents to induce the development of TLS within tumors. Finally, we explore how to take advantage of our knowledge on TLS B cells to develop new therapeutic tools. PMID:25755654

  16. B cell clonality in gastric lymphoid tissues of patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraccioli, G F; Sorrentino, D; De Vita, S; Casatta, L; Labombarda, A; Avellini, C; Dolcetti, R; Di Luca, D; Beltrami, C A; Boiocchi, M; Bartoli, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the stomach and of a possible antigen driven proliferation, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Twenty one patients with primary SS and 80 dyspeptic controls underwent upper endoscopy. Lymphoid tissue and Helicobacter pylori were assessed by histopathological analysis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) genome were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification. Two PCR VDJ procedures were used to detect immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement. RESULTS: Organised MALT was found in 33.3% of the patients, compared with 21.5% of the controls (NS). H pylori infection was seen in 71% of patients and 63% of controls. Genomic EBV or HHV-6 was found in a minor portion of SS gastric tissues. B cell expansion was detected in nine of the 21 patients. Infectious agents in the stomach might have contributed to B cell clonality only in 55.5% of the cases. No strict relationship was found between lymphoid follicles and clonality. CONCLUSION: Lymphoid accumulation in the gastric mucosa is common in Sjögren's syndrome, but full evidence for an antigen driven B cell expansion could not be demonstrated. Only a portion of those with clonal B cell expansion had evidence of an infectious agent. Other unknown infectious agents or factors related to the underlying disease (autoantigen) and its tissue environment may have a further role as possible causes of B clonal expansion in the gastric mucosa. Images PMID:8660105

  17. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ermak, T. H.; Steger, H. J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2923183

  18. The requirement of membrane lymphotoxin for the presence of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, J; Hedgeman, E O; Browning, J L; Fu, Y X

    1999-09-01

    Although several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), can promote the growth of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, the cytokines that naturally regulate DC development and function in vivo have not been well defined. Here, we report that membrane lymphotoxin (LT), instead of TNF, regulates the migration of DCs in the spleen. LTalpha(-/-) mice, lacking membrane LTalpha/beta and LTalpha(3), show markedly reduced numbers of DCs in the spleen. Unlike wild-type mice and TNF(-/-) mice that have densely clustered DCs in the T cell zone and around the marginal zone, splenic DCs in LTalpha(-/-) mice are randomly distributed. The reduced number of DCs in lymphoid tissues of LTalpha(-/-) mice is associated with an increased number of DCs in nonlymphoid tissues. The number of splenic DCs in LTalpha(-/-) mice is restored when additional LT-expressing cells are provided. Blocking membrane LTalpha/beta in wild-type mice markedly diminishes the accumulation of DCs in lymphoid tissues. These data suggest that membrane LT is an essential ligand for the presence of DCs in the spleen. Mice deficient in TNF receptor, which is the receptor for both soluble LTalpha(3) and TNF-alpha(3) trimers, have normal numbers of DCs. However, LTbetaR(-/-) mice show reduced numbers of DCs, similar to the mice lacking membrane LT alpha/beta. Taken together, these results support the notion that the signaling via LTbetaR by membrane LTalpha/beta is required for the presence of DCs in lymphoid tissues. PMID:10477548

  19. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: at the cross-roads in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Leonie; von Richthofen, Helen; van Ree, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways that affects millions of people worldwide. Allergic asthma is a T helper 2 cell (Th2)-mediated disease, in which Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are closely associated with the symptoms. IL-4 is needed by B cells to switch toward an IgE response, IL-5 recruits and activates eosinophils while IL-13 increases mucus production. The identification of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), which are able to rapidly produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial derived cytokines, implicated a new key player besides Th2 cells. ILCs constitute a family of innate lymphocytes distinct from T and B cells. ILC2s are located in various epithelial compartments in mice and human, including the lung. The recent finding of increased numbers of ILC2s in the airways of severe asthma patients prompts further research to clarify their immunological function. Murine studies have shown that ILC2s are an early innate source of IL-5 and IL-13 after allergen exposure, which induce airway eosinophilic infiltration, mucus hyperproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness but not allergen-specific IgE production. ILC2s contribute to the initiation as well as to the maintenance of the adaptive type 2 immune response. Here, we review the recent progress on our understanding of the role of ILC2s in the immunopathology of allergic asthma, in particular by studies using murine models which have elucidated fundamental mechanisms by which ILC2s act. PMID:26965110

  20. Lymphoid reconstitution after transplantation of congenic hematopoietic cells in busulfan-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Yeager, A M; Shinn, C; Pardoll, D M

    1991-12-15

    The effects of pretransplant conditioning with high-dose busulfan, a myeloablative but nonimmunosuppressive alkylating agent, on reconstitution of lymphoid tissues by donor cells after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has not been extensively examined. We used flow cytometric analyses to study the kinetics and extent of lymphocyte repopulation in C57BL/6 mice (immunophenotype Ly-5.2) given graded doses of busulfan (10 to 100 mg/kg) or total body irradiation (TBI; 900 rad) and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT; transplantation of bone marrow and spleen cells) from congenic Ly-5.1 donors. Mice transplanted after 10 mg/kg of busulfan had slow and incomplete lymphoid engraftment; only 6% to 11% of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and spleen were positive for Ly-5.1 at 30 days after transplant, slightly increased to 13% to 20% at 60 days, and stabilized at 40% to 46% by 180 days after HCT. Higher doses of busulfan (20 to 100 mg/kg) provided dose-dependent congenic lymphoid reconstitution. Thirty days after HCT, the range of Ly-5.1 cells in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen of Ly-5.2 recipient mice was 43% to 54% after 20 mg/kg of busulfan, 66% to 71% after 50 to 80 mg/kg, and 77% to 85% after 100 mg/kg. Sixty days after transplant, lymphoid chimerism increased to 57% to 68% in 20 mg/kg recipients, 72% to 79% after 35 mg/kg, and 75% to 90% in animals given 50 mg/kg or greater, as seen in radiation chimeras. Despite slower early reconstitution after lower doses of busulfan, donor lymphocytes exceeded 90% to 95% by 90 to 120 days after HCT in all mice given at least 20 mg/kg. Even though busulfan lacks directly immunosuppressive properties, virtually complete sustained lymphoid reconstitution by transplanted congenic donor stem cells occurs after its administration. These observations suggest that pretreatment with busulfan may be effective in gene therapy strategies that involve infusion of autologous marrow cells into which functional genes have been

  1. An In vitro reaction between lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells: A possible model for in vivo rejection of haemopoietic allografts*

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, Eric; Bennett, Michael

    1971-01-01

    An in vitro reaction between mouse lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells in wells of microtest plates is described, which appears to simulate the in vivo rejection of haemopoietic allografts. Lymphoid cells from non-immunized mice were incubated with L929 or skeletal muscle fibroblasts, the latter from mouse embryos, in 0.02 ml volumes for 18–24 hours. Cell detachment was the measure of cytotoxicity, as the remaining adherent fibroblastic cells were enumerated in plates stained with Giemsa's stain. Cytotoxicity was related to the ratio of lymphoid cells to target cells plated (250:1 was the minimal ratio resulting in consistent cell damage) and to the length of time the two cell populations were incubated together. Neither extrinsic complement nor phytohaemagglutinin was necessary for the response. The lymphoid cells remained cytotoxic following exposure to 1000 R of X-radiation and were only slightly inhibited by rabbit antimouse thymocyte serum. Lymphoid cells from suckling mice were less effective than those from adults. Cyclophosphamide treatment suppressed the function and/or numbers of effective lymphoid cells. Differentiation of competent lymphoid cells from transplanted marrow stem cells was not inhibited by previous thymectomy of the recipient mice. Lymphoid cells were not cytotoxic for syngeneic target cells and were cytotoxic for allogeneic target cells. (C3H/He × C57BL/10Cz) F1 lymphoid cells were effective against C57BL/10Cz, but not C3H/He, target fibroblastic cells, demonstrating immunogenetic specific `hybrid resistance'. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 6 PMID:4934136

  2. Pulmonary Epithelial Cell-Derived Cytokine TGF-β1 Is a Critical Cofactor for Enhanced Innate Lymphoid Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Laura; Byrne, Adam J.; Shea, Thomas J.; Buckley, James S.; Pease, James E.; Herledan, Gaelle M.F.; Walker, Simone A.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary homeostasis and pathogen defense and play a crucial role in the initiation of allergic immune responses. Maintaining the balance between homeostasis and inappropriate immune activation and associated pathology is particularly complex at mucosal sites that are exposed to billions of potentially antigenic particles daily. We demonstrated that epithelial cell-derived cytokine TGF-β had a central role in the generation of the pulmonary immune response. Mice that specifically lacked epithelial cell-derived TGF-β1 displayed a reduction in type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), resulting in suppression of interleukin-13 and hallmark features of the allergic response including airway hyperreactivity. ILCs in the airway lumen were primed to respond to TGF-β by expressing the receptor TGF-βRII and ILC chemoactivity was enhanced by TGF-β. These data demonstrate that resident epithelial cells instruct immune cells, highlighting the central role of the local environmental niche in defining the nature and magnitude of immune reactions. PMID:26588780

  3. Innate lymphoid cells regulate CD4+ T-cell responses to intestinal commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Matthew R; Monticelli, Laurel A; Fung, Thomas C; Ziegler, Carly G K; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Mantegazza, Adriana R; Ma, Hak-Ling; Crawford, Alison; Angelosanto, Jill M; Wherry, E John; Koni, Pandelakis A; Bushman, Frederic D; Elson, Charles O; Eberl, Gérard; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2013-06-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently characterized family of immune cells that have critical roles in cytokine-mediated regulation of intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity. Alterations in ILC responses are associated with multiple chronic human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, implicating a role for ILCs in disease pathogenesis. Owing to an inability to target ILCs selectively, experimental studies assessing ILC function have predominantly used mice lacking adaptive immune cells. However, in lymphocyte-sufficient hosts ILCs are vastly outnumbered by CD4(+) T cells, which express similar profiles of effector cytokines. Therefore, the function of ILCs in the presence of adaptive immunity and their potential to influence adaptive immune cell responses remain unknown. To test this, we used genetic or antibody-mediated depletion strategies to target murine ILCs in the presence of an adaptive immune system. We show that loss of retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor-γt-positive (RORγt(+)) ILCs was associated with dysregulated adaptive immune cell responses against commensal bacteria and low-grade systemic inflammation. Remarkably, ILC-mediated regulation of adaptive immune cells occurred independently of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22 or IL-23. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and functional analyses revealed that RORγt(+) ILCs express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and can process and present antigen. However, rather than inducing T-cell proliferation, ILCs acted to limit commensal bacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. Consistent with this, selective deletion of MHCII in murine RORγt(+) ILCs resulted in dysregulated commensal bacteria-dependent CD4(+) T-cell responses that promoted spontaneous intestinal inflammation. These data identify that ILCs maintain intestinal homeostasis through MHCII-dependent interactions with CD4(+) T cells that limit pathological adaptive immune cell responses to commensal

  4. Retinoic acid differentially regulates the migration of innate lymphoid cell subsets to the gut

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung H.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Kim, Chang H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Distinct groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) such as ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 populate the intestine, but how these ILCs develop tissue tropism for this organ is unclear. We report that prior to migration to the intestine ILCs first undergo a `switch' in their expression of homing receptors from lymphoid to gut homing receptors. This process is regulated by mucosal dendritic cells and the gut-specific tissue factor retinoic acid (RA). This change in homing receptors is required for long-term population and effector function of ILCs in the intestine. Only ILC1 and ILC3, but not ILC2, undergo the RA-dependent homing receptor switch in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In contrast, ILC2 acquire gut homing receptors in a largely RA-independent manner during their development in the bone marrow and can migrate directly to the intestine. Thus, distinct programs regulate the migration of ILC subsets to the intestine for regulation of innate immunity. PMID:26141583

  5. The B cell mutator AID promotes B lymphoid blast crisis and drug-resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Lars; Duy, Cihangir; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Kuchen, Stefan; von Levetzow, Gregor; Feldhahn, Niklas; Henke, Nadine; Li, Zhiyu; Hoffmann, Thomas K.; Kim, Yong-mi; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Jumaa, Hassan; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora; Martinelli, Giovanni; Lieber, Michael R; Casellas, Rafael; Müschen, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is induced by BCR-ABL1 and can be effectively treated for many years with Imatinib until leukemia cells acquire drug resistance through BCR-ABL1 mutations and progress into fatal B lymphoid blast crisis (LBC). Despite its clinical significance, the mechanism of progression into LBC is unknown. Here we show that LBC but not CML cells express the B cell-specific mutator enzyme AID. We demonstrate that AID expression in CML cells promotes overall genetic instability by hypermutation of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes. Importantly, our data uncover a causative role of AID activity in the acquisition of BCR-ABL1 mutations leading to Imatinib-resistance, thus providing a rationale for the rapid development of drug resistance and blast crisis progression. PMID:19732723

  6. Early-life compartmentalization of human T cell differentiation and regulatory function in mucosal and lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Thome, Joseph J C; Bickham, Kara L; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Gordon, Claire; Granot, Tomer; Griesemer, Adam; Lerner, Harvey; Kato, Tomoaki; Farber, Donna L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how the immune response in early life becomes appropriately stimulated to provide protection while also avoiding excessive activation as a result of diverse new antigens. T cells are integral to adaptive immunity; mouse studies indicate that tissue localization of T cell subsets is important for both protective immunity and immunoregulation. In humans, however, the early development and function of T cells in tissues remain unexplored. We present here an analysis of lymphoid and mucosal tissue T cells derived from pediatric organ donors in the first two years of life, as compared to adult organ donors, revealing early compartmentalization of T cell differentiation and regulation. Whereas adult tissues contain a predominance of memory T cells, in pediatric blood and tissues the main subset consists of naive recent thymic emigrants, with effector memory T cells (T(EM)) found only in the lungs and small intestine. Additionally, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells comprise a high proportion (30-40%) of CD4(+) T cells in pediatric tissues but are present at much lower frequencies (1-10%) in adult tissues. Pediatric tissue T(reg) cells suppress endogenous T cell activation, and early T cell functionality is confined to the mucosal sites that have the lowest T(reg):T(EM) cell ratios, which suggests control in situ of immune responses in early life. PMID:26657141

  7. Interaction between dendritic cells and nerve fibres in lymphoid organs after oral scrapie exposure.

    PubMed

    Dorban, Gauthier; Defaweux, Valérie; Demonceau, Caroline; Flandroy, Sylvain; Van Lerberghe, Pierre-Bernard; Falisse-Poirrier, Nandini; Piret, Joëlle; Heinen, Ernst; Antoine, Nadine

    2007-12-01

    In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), the infectious agent, called PrPsc, an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein, accumulates and replicates in lymphoid organs before affecting the nervous system. To clarify the cellular requirements for the neuroinvasion of the scrapie agent from the lymphoid organs to the central nervous system, we have studied, by confocal microscopy, the innervations within Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and the spleen of mice in physiological conditions and after oral exposure to prion. Contacts between nerve fibres and PrPsc-associated cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), were evaluated in preclinical prion-infected mice. Using a double immunolabelling strategy, we demonstrated the lack of innervation of PrPsc-accumulating cells (FDCs). Contacts between nerve fibers and PrPsc-propagating cells (DCs) were detected in T-cell zones and cell-trafficking areas. This supports, for the first time, the possible implication of dendritic cells in the prion neuroinvasion process. PMID:17823814

  8. Some immunological properties of lymphoid cells from patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Melief, C. J. M.; Schweitzer, Marjan; Zeylemaker, W. P.; Verhagen, E. H.; Eijsvoogel, V. P.

    1973-01-01

    The in vitro responses of lymphoid cells from the blood of children with acute lymphatic leukaemia to stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, allogeneic lymphocytes and a cocktail of five different antigens were studied. In addition the stimulatory capacity in mixed lymphocyte culture was investigated as well as the formation of rosettes with sheep erythrocytes which were either uncoated or coated with antibody and complement. Whereas lymphocytes from acute lymphatic leukaemia patients in remission responded well to all stimuli tested, lymphoid cells from all seven patients in leukaemic stages with at least 80% lymphatic cells in the differential leucocyte count uniformly displayed strongly reduced or even absent responses. The phytohaemagglutinin response of cells from leukaemic stages was not only reduced but also delayed and the stimulatory capacity in mixed lymphocyte culture was always stronger than the responding capacity. These data indicate that the responses of cells from leukaemic stages are due to the presence of a small proportion of residual normal lymphocytes whereas the leukaemic cells themselves are unable to respond. The stimulatory capacity in mixed lymphocyte culture was reduced in four cases. The cells from two patients, however, displayed increased stimulatory capacity. The cells from different patients varied strongly with respect to the presence of surface markers as tested by rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes either uncoated or coated with antibody and complement. PMID:4520119

  9. Preparation and characterization of anti-HIV nanodrug targeted to microfold cell of gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Roy, Upal; Ding, Hong; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Raymond, Andrea D; Atluri, Venkata; Yndart, Adriana; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Batrakova, Elena; Agudelo, Marisela; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) still remains one of the leading life-threatening diseases in the world. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced disease morbidity and mortality. However, most of the drugs have variable penetrance into viral reservoir sites, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Being the largest lymphoid organ, GALT plays a key role in early HIV infection and host-pathogen interaction. Many different treatment options have been proposed to eradicate the virus from GALT. However, it becomes difficult to deliver traditional drugs to the GALT because of its complex physiology. In this regard, we developed a polymer-based Pluronic nanocarrier containing anti-HIV drug called efavirenz (EFV) targeting Microfold cells (M-cells) in the GALT. M-cells are specialized epithelial cells that are predominantly present in the GALT. In this work, we have exploited this paracellular transport property of M-cells for targeted delivery of Pluronic nanocarrier tagged EFV, bioconjugated with anti-M-cell-specific antibodies to the GALT (nanodrug). Preliminary characterization showed that the nanodrug (EFV-F12-COOH) is of 140 nm size with 0.3 polydispersion index, and the zeta potential of the particles was -19.38±2.2 mV. Further, drug dissolution study has shown a significantly improved sustained release over free drugs. Binding potential of nanodrug with M-cell was also confirmed with fluorescence microscopy and in vitro uptake and release studies. The anti-HIV activity of the nanodrug was also significantly higher compared to that of free drug. This novel formulation was able to show sustained release of EFV and inhibit the HIV-1 infection in the GALT compared to the free drug. The present study has potential for our in vivo targeted nanodrug delivery system by combining traditional enteric-coated capsule technique via oral administration. PMID:26425084

  10. Preparation and characterization of anti-HIV nanodrug targeted to microfold cell of gut-associated lymphoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Upal; Ding, Hong; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Raymond, Andrea D; Atluri, Venkata; Yndart, Adriana; Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Batrakova, Elena; Agudelo, Marisela; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) still remains one of the leading life-threatening diseases in the world. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced disease morbidity and mortality. However, most of the drugs have variable penetrance into viral reservoir sites, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Being the largest lymphoid organ, GALT plays a key role in early HIV infection and host–pathogen interaction. Many different treatment options have been proposed to eradicate the virus from GALT. However, it becomes difficult to deliver traditional drugs to the GALT because of its complex physiology. In this regard, we developed a polymer-based Pluronic nanocarrier containing anti-HIV drug called efavirenz (EFV) targeting Microfold cells (M-cells) in the GALT. M-cells are specialized epithelial cells that are predominantly present in the GALT. In this work, we have exploited this paracellular transport property of M-cells for targeted delivery of Pluronic nanocarrier tagged EFV, bioconjugated with anti-M-cell-specific antibodies to the GALT (nanodrug). Preliminary characterization showed that the nanodrug (EFV-F12-COOH) is of 140 nm size with 0.3 polydispersion index, and the zeta potential of the particles was −19.38±2.2 mV. Further, drug dissolution study has shown a significantly improved sustained release over free drugs. Binding potential of nanodrug with M-cell was also confirmed with fluorescence microscopy and in vitro uptake and release studies. The anti-HIV activity of the nanodrug was also significantly higher compared to that of free drug. This novel formulation was able to show sustained release of EFV and inhibit the HIV-1 infection in the GALT compared to the free drug. The present study has potential for our in vivo targeted nanodrug delivery system by combining traditional enteric-coated capsule technique via oral administration. PMID:26425084

  11. Exploiting the Role of Endogenous Lymphoid-Resident Dendritic Cells in the Priming of NKT Cells and CD8+ T Cells to Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Troels R.; Sika-Paotonu, Dianne; Knight, Deborah A.; Simkins, Helen M. A.; Hermans, Ian F.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of antigen between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is potentially a physiologically relevant mechanism to spread antigen to cells with specialized stimulatory functions. Here we show that specific CD8+ T cell responses induced in response to intravenous administration of antigen-loaded bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), were ablated in mice selectively depleted of endogenous lymphoid-resident langerin+ CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that the antigen is transferred from the injected cells to resident APCs. In contrast, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were primed predominantly by the injected BM-DCs, with only very weak contribution of resident APCs. Crucially, resident langerin+ CD8α+ DCs only contributed to the priming of CD8+ T cells in the presence of maturation stimuli such as intravenous injection of TLR ligands, or by loading the BM-DCs with the glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to recruit the adjuvant activity of activated invariant natural killer-like T (iNKT) cells. In fact, injection of α-GalCer-loaded CD1d−/− BM-DCs resulted in potent iNKT cell activation, suggesting that this glycolipid antigen can also be transferred to resident CD1d+ APCs. While iNKT cell activation per se was independent of langerin+ CD8α+ DCs, some iNKT cell-mediated activities were reduced, notably release of IL-12p70 and transactivation of NK cells. We conclude that both protein and glycolipid antigens can be exchanged between distinct DC species. These data suggest that the efficacy of DC-based vaccination strategies may be improved by the incorporation of a systemic maturation signal aimed to engage resident APCs in CD8+ T cell priming, and α-GalCer may be particularly well suited to this purpose. PMID:21483862

  12. Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S. Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA PRESTO, JRDC, Institute of Phical and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki ); Miyai, K. )

    1992-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4[sup +] T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8[sup +] T cells did not. CD4[sup +] T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4[sup +] T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Herpesvirus saimiri DNA in a lymphoid cell line established by in vitro transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Schirm, S; Müller, I; Desrosiers, R C; Fleckenstein, B

    1984-01-01

    A lymphoid T-cell line (H1591) was established by infecting peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a cotton top marmoset with Herpesvirus saimiri OMI. Analysis of these in vitro-immortalized cells revealed nonintegrated, covalently closed circular viral DNA molecules in high multiplicities with substantial rearrangements and large deletions in their L-DNA (unique) regions. One subline, designated H1591 Er, contained circular viral DNA with one stretch of H-DNA (repetitive) and one of L-DNA; the L-DNA segment consisted of a linear fusion of a 53.2-kilobase-pair piece of L-DNA (left half of L-DNA) with a 15.2-kilobase-pair L-DNA fragment from the right end of the L-DNA region. The other subline, H1591 S, contained two short regions of L-DNA, each derived from the extreme ends of virion L-DNA. Both L-DNA regions of H1591 S cells contained inverted repetitions (15.0 +/- 0.2 and 9.1 +/- 4.7 kilobase pairs). The extensive deletions of L-DNA sequences in cell line H1591 indicate that at least 73% of the genetic information in H. saimiri is not required to maintain the persistence of viral DNA and the state of transformation in lymphoid T-cells. Images PMID:6321774

  14. Epithelial-intrinsic IKKα expression regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell responses and antibacterial immunity

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Paul R.; Moy, Ryan H.; Noti, Mario; Osborne, Lisa C.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Alenghat, Theresa; Liu, Bigang; McCorkell, Kelly A.; Troy, Amy E.; Rak, Gregory D.; Hu, Yinling; May, Michael J.; Ma, Hak-Ling; Fouser, Lynette A.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity at mucosal surfaces; however, the tissue-specific factors that regulate ILC responses remain poorly characterized. Using mice with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)–specific deletions in either inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK)α or IKKβ, two critical regulators of NFκB activation, we demonstrate that IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression selectively regulates group 3 ILC (ILC3)–dependent antibacterial immunity in the intestine. Although IKKβΔIEC mice efficiently controlled Citrobacter rodentium infection, IKKαΔIEC mice exhibited severe intestinal inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination to peripheral organs, and increased host mortality. Consistent with weakened innate immunity to C. rodentium, IKKαΔIEC mice displayed impaired IL-22 production by RORγt+ ILC3s, and therapeutic delivery of rIL-22 or transfer of sort-purified IL-22–competent ILCs from control mice could protect IKKαΔIEC mice from C. rodentium–induced morbidity. Defective ILC3 responses in IKKαΔIEC mice were associated with overproduction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by IECs, which negatively regulated IL-22 production by ILC3s and impaired innate immunity to C. rodentium. IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression was similarly critical for regulation of intestinal inflammation after chemically induced intestinal damage and colitis. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for epithelial cell–intrinsic IKKα expression and TSLP in regulating ILC3 responses required to maintain intestinal barrier immunity. PMID:26371187

  15. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of adipose and limit obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brestoff, Jonathan R.; Kim, Brian S.; Saenz, Steven A.; Stine, Rachel R.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Thome, Joseph J.; Farber, Donna L.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Seale, Patrick; Artis, David

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Emerging studies indicate that immune cells, including monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes, regulate metabolic homeostasis and are dysregulated in obesity1,2. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can regulate adaptive immunity3,4 and eosinophil and alternatively-activated macrophage responses5, and were recently identified in murine white adipose tissue (WAT)5 where they may act to limit the development of obesity6. However, ILC2s have not been identified in human adipose tissue, and the mechanisms by which ILC2s regulate metabolic homeostasis remain unknown. Here, we identify ILC2s in human WAT and demonstrate that decreased ILC2 responses in WAT are a conserved characteristic of obesity in humans and mice. Interleukin (IL)-33 was found to be critical for the maintenance of ILC2s in WAT and in limiting adiposity in mice by increasing caloric expenditure. This was associated with recruitment of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)+ beige adipocytes in WAT, a process known as beiging or browning that regulates caloric expenditure7–9. IL-33-induced beiging was dependent on ILC2s, and IL-33 treatment or transfer of IL-33-elicited ILC2s was sufficient to drive beiging independently of the adaptive immune system, eosinophils or IL-4 receptor signaling. We found that ILC2s produce methionine-enkephalin peptides that can act directly on adipocytes to upregulate Ucp1 expression in vitro and that promote beiging in vivo. Collectively, these studies indicate that in addition to responding to infection or tissue damage, ILC2s can regulate adipose function and metabolic homeostasis in part via production of enkephalin peptides that elicit beiging. PMID:25533952

  16. Heterogeneity and diversity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells: new cells on the block.

    PubMed

    Satoh-Takayama, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly identified subset of innate cells that play fundamentally crucial roles for early immune defense at mucosal and non-mucosal sites. ILCs consist of ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s, which each have distinct transcription factors controlling their development and function. Interestingly, each of the ILC subsets represents the innate counterparts of CD4(+) helper T-cell subsets T(h1), T(h2) and T(h17) on the basis of transcriptional regulation. ILC1s that produce IFN-γ or TNF-α, ILC2s that produce T(h2)-type cytokines mainly such as IL-5 or IL-13 and ILC3s have been recently reported and reviewed in terms of IL-22- or IL-17-producing function and cell development. However, in this relatively new field, it remains likely that additional functional and regulatory mechanisms remain to be explored. More recent findings show that ILC3s are regulated by RORγt, which plays an important role for the mucosal barrier and surface protection against pathogenic bacterial infection. ILC3s might cooperate with other cells (e.g. T cells or dendritic cells) directly or indirectly, and subsequently ILC3s have impact on tissues with prompt regulation. Especially, ILC3s in mucosal site are well known to protect the intestinal surface barrier through inducible anti-microbial peptides via IL-22. Here, I will summarize and discuss the roles, function and heterogeneity of ILC3s in mucosal tissues. PMID:26462712

  17. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells continuously require the transcription factor GATA-3 after commitment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Cui, Kairong; Wilhelm, Christoph; Hu, Gangqing; Mao, Kairui; Belkaid, Yasmine; Zhao, Keji; Zhu, Jinfang

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor GATA-3 is indispensable for the development of all innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that express the interleukin 7 receptor α-chain (IL-7Rα). However, the function of low GATA-3 expression in committed group 3 ILCs (ILC3 cells) has not been identified. We found that GATA-3 regulated the homeostasis of ILC3 cells by controlling IL-7Rα expression. In addition, GATA-3 served a critical function in the development of the NKp46(+) ILC3 subset by regulating the balance between the transcription factors T-bet and RORγt. Among NKp46(+) ILC3 cells, although GATA-3 positively regulated genes specific to the NKp46(+) ILC3 subset, it negatively regulated genes specific to lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) or LTi-like ILC3 cells. Furthermore, GATA-3 was required for IL-22 production in both ILC3 subsets. Thus, despite its low expression, GATA-3 was critical for the homeostasis, development and function of ILC3 subsets. PMID:26595886

  18. Suppression of collagen induced arthritis by idiotype coupled lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler-Anderson, C.; Gurish, M.F.; Robinson, M.E.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were initiated to evaluate the regulatory influence of idiotype (Id) networks in an experimental auto-immune disease. Collagen induced arthritis is an animal model of polyarthritis induced in susceptible mice by immunization with collagen II (CII). A humoral immune response to CII appears to be critical for the development of diseases. If subpopulations of the anti-CII abs, important for the induction of arthritis, could be identified and manipulated through the presence of a major Id, it should be possible to decrease arthritis incidence by suppressing the production of these Ids. Specifically purified anti-CII abs from arthritic DBA/1 mice were coupled to syngeneic spleen cells and administered IV prior to intradermal immunization with CII. By day 34 after 1/sup 0/ immunization, 100% of control mice and 50% of treated mice had developed arthritis. Suppression of the Id population administered to the treated group was confirmed by RIA. Sera from individual mice were tested as inhibitors of binding of /sup 125/I-labelled polyclonal DBA/1 anti-CII to a rabbit anti-Id directed against polyclonal anti-CII isolated from the sera of arthritic mice. Mean percentage of inhibition of binding of /sup 125/I-Id to rabbit anti-Id by sera from non-arthritic treated mice was found to be significantly lower than that observed in the arthritic control group (p = .045), but did not correlate with total anti-CII ab titers.

  19. Extracellular matrix of secondary lymphoid organs impacts on B-cell fate and survival

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Nathalie; Ruegg, Markus A.; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Winkler, Thomas H.; Kearney, John F.; Cardell, Susanna; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We describe a unique extracellular matrix (ECM) niche in the spleen, the marginal zone (MZ), characterized by the basement membrane glycoproteins, laminin α5 and agrin, that promotes formation of a specialized population of MZ B lymphocytes that respond rapidly to blood-borne antigens. Mice with reduced laminin α5 expression show reduced MZ B cells and increased numbers of newly formed (NF) transitional B cells that migrate from the bone marrow, without changes in other immune or stromal cell compartments. Transient integrin α6β1-mediated interaction of NF B cells with laminin α5 in the MZ supports the MZ B-cell population, their long-term survival, and antibody response. Data suggest that the unique 3D structure and biochemical composition of the ECM of lymphoid organs impacts on immune cell fate. PMID:23847204

  20. Rapid preparation of plasma membranes from avian lymphoid cells and fibroblasts for virus binding studies.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1998-06-01

    A simple and rapid protocol for the preparation of plasma membranes from chicken embryo fibroblasts and chicken lymphoid cells was developed. Characterization of the preparations by morphological, biochemical and serological methods indicated the specific enrichment of the plasma membranes as well as cell surface proteins. Binding of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) particles was demonstrated after immobilization of the plasma membranes, and cell type-specific differences were observed. Although the results of these studies reflect the interaction between IBDV and isolated cells only partially, the advantages of these plasma membrane preparations, the specific enrichment of cell surface proteins, their constant quality and the possibility to store aliquots over several months, make them a useful tool for virus binding studies with avian cells. PMID:9694323

  1. Innate lymphoid cells and cytokines of the novel subtypes of helper T cells in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sherkat, Roya; Yazdani, Reza; Homayouni, Vida; Farahani, Rahim; Hosseini, Mohsen; Rezaei, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, the expression of interleukin-9 (IL-9), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-25 genes that might be the potential predisposing factors for asthma as well as count of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as another source of inflammatory cytokines have been evaluated. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of newly identified helper T cells signature cytokines and amount of ILCs. Methods Blood and sputum samples from 23 patients with moderate to severe asthma and 23 healthy volunteers were collected. The types of allergens to which our patients were sensitive were defined using immunoblotting method. Gene expression of studied cytokines was evaluated using quantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction and ILCs were counted by the flow cytometry method. Results In this research, the gene expressions of IL-9, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-25 were significantly higher in asthmatics, especially in the severe form of the disease. This increase was even higher in serum samples compared with sputum samples. Counting ILCs revealed their increase in comparison with normal people. Conclusion We showed the importance of IL-25, IL-22, IL-17, and IL-9 cytokines in patients with asthma as their expression levels are increased and these increase are correlated with the severity of the disease. We also showed that the increased amount of ILCs in asthmatics could confirm their potential role in the immunopathogenesis of asthma as another source of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25379481

  2. Nfil3 is crucial for development of innate lymphoid cells and host protection against intestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Theresa L; Abt, Michael C; Gasteiger, Georg; Firth, Matthew A; O'Connor, Margaret H; Geary, Clair D; O'Sullivan, Timothy E; van den Brink, Marcel R; Pamer, Eric G; Hanash, Alan M; Sun, Joseph C

    2014-08-25

    The bZIP transcription factor Nfil3 (also known as E4BP4) is required for the development of natural killer (NK) cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s). We find that Nfil3 plays a critical role in the development of other mucosal tissue-associated innate lymphocytes. Type 3 ILCs (ILC3s), including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells, are severely diminished in both numbers and function in Nfil3-deficient mice. Using mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, we demonstrate that Nfil3 is critical for normal development of gut-associated ILC3s in a cell-intrinsic manner. Furthermore, Nfil3 deficiency severely compromises intestinal innate immune defense against acute bacterial infection with Citrobacter rodentium and Clostridium difficile. Nfil3 deficiency resulted in a loss of the recently identified ILC precursor, yet conditional ablation of Nfil3 in the NKp46(+) ILC3 subset did not perturb ILC3 numbers, suggesting that Nfil3 is required early during ILC3 development but not for lineage maintenance. Lastly, a marked defect in type 2 ILCs (ILC2s) was also observed in the lungs and visceral adipose tissue of Nfil3-deficient mice, revealing a general requirement for Nfil3 in the development of all ILC lineages. PMID:25113970

  3. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  4. IL-25 simultaneously elicits distinct populations of innate lymphoid cells and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPPtype2) cells.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Steven A; Siracusa, Mark C; Monticelli, Laurel A; Ziegler, Carly G K; Kim, Brian S; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Peterson, Lance W; Wherry, E John; Goldrath, Ananda W; Bhandoola, Avinash; Artis, David

    2013-08-26

    The predominantly epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) can promote CD4(+) Th2 cell-dependent immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair at barrier surfaces through the induction of multiple innate immune cell populations. IL-25 and IL-33 were previously shown to elicit four innate cell populations, named natural helper cells, nuocytes, innate type 2 helper cells, and multipotent progenitor type 2 (MPP(type2)) cells, now collectively termed group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). In contrast to other types of ILC2, MPP(type2) cells exhibit multipotent potential and do not express T1/ST2 or IL-7Rα, suggesting that MPP(type2) cells may be a distinct population. Here, we show that IL-33 elicits robust ILC2 responses, whereas IL-25 predominantly promotes MPP(type2) cell responses at multiple tissue sites with limited effects on ILC2 responses. MPP(type2) cells were distinguished from ILC2 by their differential developmental requirements for specific transcription factors, distinct genome-wide transcriptional profile, and functional potential. Furthermore, IL-25-induced MPP(type2) cells promoted Th2 cytokine-associated inflammation after depletion of ILC2. These findings indicate that IL-25 simultaneously elicits phenotypically and functionally distinct innate lymphoid- and nonlymphoid-associated cell populations and implicate IL-25-elicited MPP(type2) cells and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the promotion of Th2 cytokine responses at mucosal surfaces. PMID:23960191

  5. Identification of natural RORγ ligands that regulate the development of lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R; Huang, Pengxiang; van de Pavert, Serge A; Douglass, Eugene F; Leaver, David J; Haubrich, Brad A; Keber, Rok; Lorbek, Gregor; Konijn, Tanja; Rosales, Brittany N; Rozman, Damjana; Horvat, Simon; Rahier, Alain; Mebius, Reina E; Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Nes, W David; Littman, Dan R

    2015-02-01

    Mice deficient in the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt have defective development of thymocytes, lymphoid organs, Th17 cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells. RORγt binds to oxysterols derived from cholesterol catabolism, but it is not clear whether these are its natural ligands. Here, we show that sterol lipids are necessary and sufficient to drive RORγt-dependent transcription. We combined overexpression, RNAi, and genetic deletion of metabolic enzymes to study RORγ-dependent transcription. Our results are consistent with the RORγt ligand(s) being a cholesterol biosynthetic intermediate (CBI) downstream of lanosterol and upstream of zymosterol. Analysis of lipids bound to RORγ identified molecules with molecular weights consistent with CBIs. Furthermore, CBIs stabilized the RORγ ligand-binding domain and induced coactivator recruitment. Genetic deletion of metabolic enzymes upstream of the RORγt-ligand(s) affected the development of lymph nodes and Th17 cells. Our data suggest that CBIs play a role in lymphocyte development potentially through regulation of RORγt. PMID:25651181

  6. Migration of cells with immunoglobulin/c-myc recombinations in lymphoid tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, J R; Jones, G M; Janz, S; Potter, M

    1997-01-01

    Recombinations between c-myc and immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences that typically occur in pristane-induced mouse plasmacytomas were detected in secondary lymphoid tissues from normal mice, chiefly in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Based on the analysis of recombination sequences as clonotypic markers, migration of c-myc recombination-positive cells was observed between Peyer's patches and into the intestine. Treatment of plasmacytoma-susceptible BALB/cAn mice with pristane induced proliferation and migration of these cells into mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and oil granuloma within 7 days. Plasmacytoma-resistant strains of mice (DBA/2N, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6) differed in that (1) they harbored fewer clones (Ig/c-myc recombinations were detected in 33% of resistant mice versus 91% of BALB/cAn mice after pristane treatment); (2) Ig/c-myc-positive cells were rarely detected in the oil granuloma, and (3) c-myc recombined predominantly with the Ig alpha locus in BALB/cAn mice (72%), but with the Ig mu locus in DBA/2N and in C57BL/6 (67%). The results demonstrate that normal mice generate a large number of lymphocytes with aberrant c-myc in intestinal tissues without developing tumors. PMID:8978304

  7. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Multilayered Territorialized Atherosclerosis B-Cell Responses in Aged ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Srikakulapu, Prasad; Hu, Desheng; Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Bontha, Sai Vineela; Peng, Li; Beer, Michael; Weber, Christian; McNamara, Coleen A.; Grassia, Gianluca; Maffia, Pasquale; Manz, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Explore aorta B-cell immunity in aged apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Approach and Results— Transcript maps, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunofluorescence analyses, cell transfers, and Ig-ELISPOT (enzyme-linked immunospot) assays showed multilayered atherosclerosis B-cell responses in artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). Aging-associated aorta B-cell–related transcriptomes were identified, and transcript atlases revealed highly territorialized B-cell responses in ATLOs versus atherosclerotic lesions: ATLOs showed upregulation of bona fide B-cell genes, including Cd19, Ms4a1 (Cd20), Cd79a/b, and Ighm although intima plaques preferentially expressed molecules involved in non–B effector responses toward B-cell–derived mediators, that is, Fcgr3 (Cd16), Fcer1g (Cd23), and the C1q family. ATLOs promoted B-cell recruitment. ATLO B-2 B cells included naive, transitional, follicular, germinal center, switched IgG1+, IgA+, and IgE+ memory cells, plasmablasts, and long-lived plasma cells. ATLOs recruited large numbers of B-1 cells whose subtypes were skewed toward interleukin-10+ B-1b cells versus interleukin-10− B-1a cells. ATLO B-1 cells and plasma cells constitutively produced IgM and IgG and a fraction of plasma cells expressed interleukin-10. Moreover, ApoE−/− mice showed increased germinal center B cells in renal lymph nodes, IgM-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow, and higher IgM and anti–MDA-LDL (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein) IgG serum titers. Conclusions— ATLOs orchestrate dichotomic, territorialized, and multilayered B-cell responses in the diseased aorta; germinal center reactions indicate generation of autoimmune B cells within the diseased arterial wall during aging. PMID:27102965

  8. Innate lymphoid cells as regulators of immunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Klose, Christoph S N; Artis, David

    2016-06-21

    Research over the last 7 years has led to the formal identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), increased the understanding of their tissue distribution and has established essential functions of ILCs in diverse physiological processes. These include resistance to pathogens, the regulation of autoimmune inflammation, tissue remodeling, cancer and metabolic homeostasis. Notably, many ILC functions appear to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those of other innate and adaptive immune cells. In this Review, we focus on how group 2 ILC (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3) responses are regulated and how these cells interact with other immune and non-immune cells to mediate their functions. We highlight experimental evidence from mouse models and patient-based studies that have elucidated the effects of ILCs on the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the consequences for health and disease. PMID:27328006

  9. Distinct Gene Regulatory Pathways for Human Innate versus Adaptive Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Koues, Olivia I; Collins, Patrick L; Cella, Marina; Robinette, Michelle L; Porter, Sofia I; Pyfrom, Sarah C; Payton, Jacqueline E; Colonna, Marco; Oltz, Eugene M

    2016-05-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) serve as sentinels in mucosal tissues, sensing release of soluble inflammatory mediators, rapidly communicating danger via cytokine secretion, and functioning as guardians of tissue homeostasis. Although ILCs have been extensively studied in model organisms, little is known about these "first responders" in humans, especially their lineage and functional kinships to cytokine-secreting T helper (Th) cell counterparts. Here, we report gene regulatory circuitries for four human ILC-Th counterparts derived from mucosal environments, revealing that each ILC subset diverges as a distinct lineage from Th and circulating natural killer cells but shares circuitry devoted to functional polarization with their Th counterparts. Super-enhancers demarcate cohorts of cell-identity genes in each lineage, uncovering new modes of regulation for signature cytokines, new molecules that likely impart important functions to ILCs, and potential mechanisms for autoimmune disease SNP associations within ILC-Th subsets. PMID:27156452

  10. Correlated analysis of cellular DNA, membrane antigens and light scatter of human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Braylan, R.C.; Benson, N.A.; Nourse, V.; Kruth, H.S.

    1982-03-01

    Flow cytometric correlated analysis of membrane antigens, DNA, and light scatter was performed on human lymphoid cells using fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated antibodies to label B- and T-cell antigens and propidium iodide (PI) to stain DNA after ethanol fixation and RNase treatment. A FACS II flow cytometer was modified to obtain digitized measurements of two color fluorescence and light scatter emissions, simultaneously. Software was written to allow single parameter analysis or correlated analysis of any two of the three parameters acquired. Ethanol fixation preserved FITC surface labeling for at least 15 weeks, but produced marked changes in light scatter. No changes in FITC distributions were observed after RNase treatment and PI staining, and the presence of FITC labeling did not affect DNA distributions. Within heterogeneous cell populations, the DNA distribution of cell subpopulations identified by a membrane antigen was clearly demonstrated.

  11. Bcl11b is essential for group 2 innate lymphoid cell development

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Christopher J.; Englezakis, Alexandros; Yu, Yong; Clare, Simon; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Belz, Gabrielle; Liu, Pentao; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are often found associated with mucosal surfaces where they contribute to protective immunity, inappropriate allergic responses, and tissue repair. Although we know they develop from a common lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow (BM), the specific lineage path and transcriptional regulators that are involved are only starting to emerge. After ILC2 gene expression analysis we investigated the role of Bcl11b, a factor previously linked to T cell commitment, in ILC2 development. Using combined Bcl11b-tom and Id2-gfp reporter mice, we show that Bcl11b is expressed in ILC2 precursors in the BM and maintained in mature ILC2s. In vivo deletion of Bcl11b, by conditional tamoxifen-induced depletion or by Bcl11b−/− fetal liver chimera reconstitution, demonstrates that ILC2s are wholly dependent on Bcl11b for their development. Notably, in the absence of Bcl11b there is a concomitant expansion of the RORγt+ ILC3 population, suggesting that Bcl11b may negatively regulate this lineage. Using Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, we reveal that the absence of Bcl11b leads to impaired worm expulsion, caused by a deficit in ILC2s, whereas Citrobacter rodentium infection is cleared efficiently. These data clearly establish Bcl11b as a new factor in the differentiation of ILC2s. PMID:25964370

  12. Innate lymphoid cells as novel regulators of obesity and its-associated metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Yang, W; Tian, Z; van Velkinburgh, J C; Song, J; Wu, Y; Ni, B

    2016-06-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity worldwide has been accompanied by increases in risk and rates of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions, such as insulin resistance. The chronic, low-grade inflammatory condition of obesity highlights the pathophysiological link between the immune system and the metabolic system, which has yet to be fully understood. Recent studies of obesity have started to uncover potential regulatory roles for the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which under normal conditions serve to regulate development of lymphoid tissue and function of the mucosal immune system. The ILCs are a newly identified immune cell population with complicated composition and subsequently diverse and dynamic functions. Studies to determine the distribution profile of the various ILCs in adipose tissue provide intriguing clues as to their regulatory capacity in obesity and its associated metabolic dysfunctions. Here, we review the recent findings supporting a role for ILCs as regulators of obesity or its associated insulin resistance, and discuss the potential underlying molecular mechanism as well as its promise as a therapeutic target for clinical applications. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26948388

  13. Intralymphatic Proliferation of T-cell Lymphoid Blasts in the Setting of Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Calamaro, Paola; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Intralymphatic proliferation of T-cell lymphoid blasts (IPTCLBs) is a rare, recently described entity, associated with cutaneous inflammatory conditions and characterized by intralymphatic proliferation of highly proliferating, blastoid T lymphocytes expressing CD30, thus mimicking an intravascular lymphoma. In all reported cases, the intralymphatic proliferation was associated with an underlying inflammatory condition, with no clonal T-cell receptor rearrangement, no signs of systemic or cutaneous lymphoma, and excellent prognosis. The authors present a new case of IPTCLB arising in a patient with hidradenitis suppurativa. Histological examination revealed a dilated follicle embedded within a fibrotic stroma surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate characterized by the presence of dilated small vessels filled with atypical medium-to-large sized blastoid lymphocytes expressing a CD4 T phenotype. There was also expression of CD30, but negativity for cytotoxic markers and Epstein-Barr virus. The proliferation index was high and the vessels showed expression of D2-40, confirming their lymphatic nature. No signs of systemic lymphoma could be detected after routine investigations, and the patient is alive and in good general health. IPTCLB is a rare benign entity that presents with worrying, potentially misleading histopathological features that mimic those observed in intravascular lymphoma. Careful histological and phenotypic investigations and correlation with the clinical features are necessary for a proper diagnosis. PMID:26844617

  14. Age-Related Changes in Population of Stromal Precursor Cells in Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yulia F.; Latzinik, Natalia V.; Shuklina, Ekaterina U.; Nesterenko, Vladimir G.

    2000-07-01

    It is shown that the content of precursor cells of stromal tissue (CFC-F) in the hemopoietic and lymphoid organs of SAMP (rapidly-ageing mice) and SAMR mice (mice with a normal ageing rate) decreases as the animals grow older. However the decrease in the content of CFC-F in SAMP mice begins substantially earlier - in the age group of 9-11 months, while in the SAMR mice - only in the age group of 16-19 months. It was found that the age reduction of the number to an equal degree relates to the whole population of CFC-F, in particular both the fraction of weakly-linked CFC-F, which is isolated by means of mechanical disaggregation of the tissue, and the fraction which may only be isolated using trypsin. It is shown that the concentration of inducible osteogenic precursor cells (IOPC) in the spleen of guinea pigs does not change with age, but their content in that organ in old animals (2-3 years old) drops by two times. It was found that in elderly animals the mass of the ectopic osseous tissue, formed by the implantation of an osteoinductor (autologous epithelium of the urinary bladder) in a system open for entrance of cells, decreases by two times. After curettage of the medullary cavity of guinea pig tibia (i.e. under conditions of an increased demand for osteogenic cells) the mass of induced ectopic osseous tissue decreases by 4 times, which indicates to the possible functional relationship between the pool of determined and inducible osteogenic precursor cells. On the whole, the obtained data show that during ageing there is a reduction in the number of stromal precursor cells (CFC-F and IOPC), which form a specific microenvironment for hemopoietic and lymphoid organs, which is important to understand the role of these cells in the development of age pathologies, in particular senile osteoporosis. PMID:12687170

  15. Deciphering the transcriptional switches of innate lymphoid cell programming: the right factors at the right time.

    PubMed

    Lim, A W Y; McKenzie, A N J

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly recognised as an innate immune counterpart of adaptive T-helper (TH) cells. In addition to their similar effector cytokine production, there is a strong parallel between the transcription factors that control the differentiation of T(H)1, T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells and ILC groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Here, we review the transcriptional circuit that specifies the development of a common ILC progenitor and its subsequent programming into distinct ILC groups. Notch, GATA-3 (GATA-binding protein 3), Nfil3 (nuclear factor interleukin-3) and Id2 (inhibitor of DNA-binding 2) are identified as early factors that suppress B- and T-cell potentials and are turned on in favour of ILC commitment. Natural killer cells, which are the cytotoxic ILCs, develop along a pathway distinct from the rest of the helper-like ILCs that are derived from a common progenitor to all helper-like ILCs (CHILPs). PLZF(-) (promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger) CHILPs give rise to lymphoid tissue inducer cells, while PLZF(+) CHILPs have multilineage potential and could give rise to ILCs 1, 2 and 3. Such lineage specificity is dictated by the controlled expression of T-bet (T-box expressed in T cells), RORα (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor-α), RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor-γt) and AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor). In addition to the type of transcription factors, the developmental stages at which these factors are expressed are crucial in specifying the fate of the ILCs. PMID:25611557

  16. Innate lymphoid cells in the initiation, regulation and resolution of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Artis, David

    2016-01-01

    A previously unappreciated cell type of the innate immune system, termed innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), has been characterized in mice and humans, and found to profoundly influence the induction, regulation and resolution of inflammation. ILCs play an important role in these processes in murine models of infection, inflammatory disease and tissue repair. Further, disease association studies in defined patient populations have identified significant alterations in ILC responses, suggesting a potential role for these cell populations in human health and disease. In this review, we discuss the emerging family of ILCs, the role of ILCs in inflammation, and how current or novel therapeutic strategies could be employed to selectively modulate ILC responses and limit chronic inflammatory diseases in patients. PMID:26121198

  17. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells continuously require the transcription factor GATA3 after commitment

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chao; Cui, Kairong; Wilhelm, Christoph; Hu, Gangqing; Mao, Kairui; Belkaid, Yasmine; Zhao, Keji; Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is indispensable for the development of all interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα)-expressing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). However, the functional role of low GATA3 expression in committed ILC3s has not been identified. We report that GATA3 regulates homeostasis of ILC3s by controlling IL-7Rα expression. In addition, GATA3 is critical for the development of the NKp46+ ILC3 subset by regulating the balance between the transcription factors T-bet and RORγt. Alhough GATA3 positively regulates NKp46+ ILC3 subset-specific genes, it negatively regulates CCR6+ ILC3 subset lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-specific genes in NKp46+ ILC3s. Furthermore, GATA3 is required for IL-22 production in both LTi and NKp46+ ILC3s. Thus, despite its low expression, GATA3 is critical for the homeostasis, development and function of ILC3 subsets. PMID:26595886

  18. Long-term sequelae of autologous bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Vose, J M; Kennedy, B C; Bierman, P J; Kessinger, A; Armitage, J O

    1992-02-01

    The study was made to evaluate the long-term physical and psychosocial changes after high-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow or peripheral stem transplantation for recurrent lymphoid malignancies. Patients who had undergone high dose therapy and autologous bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation for recurrent lymphoid malignancies at least 1 year previously were contacted by phone interview regarding their status after the transplant. The patients' comments were confirmed by checking medical records when possible. Fifty patients who had undergone transplantation at the University of Nebraska Medical Center at least 1 year before the interview were available for interview and willing to answer questions. After transplant, many patients noticed temporary changes in their appearance, which usually returned to normal within 1 year. Few patients reported remarkable cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or pulmonary changes after transplantation. However, up to one-third of the patients reported changes in sexual function or desire. The most common infectious problem after transplant was Herpes zoster, which occurred in 25% of the patients. Overall, the patients had a positive outlook after high-dose therapy and transplantation, with most being able to return to work and enjoy a normal life style. Ninety-six percent of the patients stated that they would be willing to undergo high-dose therapy and transplantation again under the same circumstances. PMID:1730128

  19. Regulatory T cells in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures suppress anti-tumor T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nikhil S.; Akama-Garren, Elliot H.; Lu, Yisi; Lee, Da-Yae; Chang, Gregory P.; Li, Amy; DuPage, Michel; Tammela, Tuomas; Kerper, Natanya R.; Farago, Anna F.; Robbins, Rebecca; Crowley, Denise M.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Infiltration of regulatory T (Treg) cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses. However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically-engineered mouse lung adenocarcinoma model and found Treg cells suppress anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TA-TLS). TA-TLS have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. TLS in this model were spatially associated with >90% of tumors and facilitated interactions between T cells and tumor-antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Costimulatory ligand expression by DCs and T cell proliferation rates increased in TA-TLS upon Treg cell depletion, leading to tumor destruction. Thus, we propose Treg cells in TA-TLS can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells may provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients. PMID:26341400

  20. IL-33-Dependent Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Rak, Gregory D; Osborne, Lisa C; Siracusa, Mark C; Kim, Brian S; Wang, Kelvin; Bayat, Ardeshir; Artis, David; Volk, Susan W

    2016-02-01

    Breaches in the skin barrier initiate an inflammatory immune response that is critical for successful wound healing. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified population of immune cells that reside at epithelial barrier surfaces such as the skin, lung, and gut, and promote proinflammatory or epithelial repair functions after exposure to allergens, pathogens, or chemical irritants. However, the potential role of ILCs in regulating cutaneous wound healing remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cutaneous injury promotes an IL-33-dependent group 2 ILC (ILC2) response and that abrogation of this response impairs re-epithelialization and efficient wound closure. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting that an analogous ILC2 response is operational in acute wounds of human skin. Together, these results indicate that IL-33-responsive ILC2s are an important link between the cutaneous epithelium and the immune system, acting to promote the restoration of skin integrity after injury. PMID:26802241

  1. Critical role of CD4 T cells in maintaining lymphoid tissue structure for immune cell homeostasis and reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C.; Beilman, Greg J.; Chipman, Jeffrey G.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Silvestri, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1–infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution. PMID:22613799

  2. Transcriptional and epigenetic networks of helper T and innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Han-Yu; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Poholek, Amanda C; Vahedi, Golnaz; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Villarino, Alejandro V; Bonelli, Michael; Bosselut, Remy; Kanno, Yuka; Muljo, Stefan A; O'Shea, John J

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the specification of CD4(+) helper T cells to discrete effector 'lineages' represented a watershed event in conceptualizing mechanisms of host defense and immunoregulation. However, our appreciation for the actual complexity of helper T-cell subsets continues unabated. Just as the Sami language of Scandinavia has 1000 different words for reindeer, immunologists recognize the range of fates available for a CD4(+) T cell is numerous and may be underestimated. Added to the crowded scene for helper T-cell subsets is the continuously growing family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), endowed with common effector responses and the previously defined 'master regulators' for CD4(+) helper T-cell subsets are also shared by ILC subsets. Within the context of this extraordinary complexity are concomitant advances in the understanding of transcriptomes and epigenomes. So what do terms like 'lineage commitment' and helper T-cell 'specification' mean in the early 21st century? How do we put all of this together in a coherent conceptual framework? It would be arrogant to assume that we have a sophisticated enough understanding to seriously answer these questions. Instead, we review the current status of the flexibility of helper T-cell responses in relation to their genetic regulatory networks and epigenetic landscapes. Recent data have provided major surprises as to what master regulators can or cannot do, how they interact with other transcription factors and impact global genome-wide changes, and how all these factors come together to influence helper cell function. PMID:25123275

  3. [Shengqifuzheng Injection promotes the recovery of B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of mice treated with cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangliang; Huang, Rongrong; Wen, Ruyan; Luo, Xia; Zhou, Lian

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Shengqifuzheng Injection (SQFZ) on the number recovery of B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) of mice receiving cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control group, cyclophosphamide (Cy) group and SQFZ group. Mice in Cy group and SQFZ group were injected intraperitoneally with Cy (100 mg/kg), while the control mice were injected with an equal volume of normal saline. Twenty-four hours later, mice in SQFZ group were administrated intragastricly with 1 mL SQFZ once daily for 10 consecutive days, and mice in the other groups were given the same volume of normal saline. Body mass of all the mice was measured every day. Mice were killed on day 10, and the indexes of spleen and thymus were measured. Cell cycles of bone marrow cells and the percentage of B cells in lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and Peyer's patch (PP) were detected by flow cytometry. In vitro, after being treated with SQFZ, activity of lymphocytes was evaluzed by MTT assay; expression of CD86 on B cell surface was analyzed by flow cytometry; and B cell proliferation was tested by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based lymphocyte proliferation assay. Results SQFZ alleviated the loss of body mass caused by Cy and promoted the recovery of thymus indexes, spleen indexes and B cell number in MLN and PP. But it did not alleviate the bone marrow suppression of mice in this condition. In vitro, SQFZ enhanced lymphocyte activity, and improved the activation and proliferation of B cells. Conclusion SQFZ could accelerate the recovery of B cells in GALTs of mice receiving chemotherapy and it might act by promoting B cell proliferation. PMID:27412939

  4. Ectopic micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in the cervical region: a rare case associated with Langerhans cells proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Meng, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    Micronodular thymoma (MNT) with lymphoid stroma is a rare thymic epithelial neoplasm with the characteristics of multiple nodules separated by abundant lymphoid stroma. MNTs mainly arise in the anterior mediastinum and thymus, while ectopic MNTs are extremely rarely seen. Here, we report an ectopic MNT that occurred in the neck of a 62-year-old woman. There were also scattered eosinophilic granulocytes and S100+/CD1a+ Langerhans cells within the tumor. This case provides a better understanding of such rare, poorly understood cases. PMID:27486334

  5. The aged lymphoid tissue environment fails to support naïve T cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Becklund, Bryan R.; Purton, Jared F.; Ramsey, Chris; Favre, Stéphanie; Vogt, Tobias K.; Martin, Christopher E.; Spasova, Darina S.; Sarkisyan, Gor; LeRoy, Eric; Tan, Joyce T.; Wahlus, Heidi; Bondi-Boyd, Brea; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Surh, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of naïve T cells and a reciprocal increase in the proportion of memory T cells. While reduced thymic output is important, age-dependent changes in factors supporting naïve T cells homeostasis may also be involved. Indeed, we noted a dramatic decrease in the ability of aged mice to support survival and homeostatic proliferation of naïve T cells. The defect was not due to a reduction in IL-7 expression, but from a combination of changes in the secondary lymphoid environment that impaired naïve T cell entry and access to key survival factors. We observed an age-related shift in the expression of homing chemokines and structural deterioration of the stromal network in T cell zones. Treatment with IL-7/mAb complexes can restore naïve T cell homeostatic proliferation in aged mice. Our data suggests that homeostatic mechanisms that support the naïve T cell pool deteriorate with age. PMID:27480406

  6. Marginal reticular cells: a stromal subset directly descended from the lymphoid tissue organizer

    PubMed Central

    Katakai, Tomoya

    2012-01-01

    The architecture of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is supported by several non-hematopoietic stromal cells. Currently it is established that two distinct stromal subsets, follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, play crucial roles in the formation of tissue compartments within SLOs, i.e., the follicle and T zone, respectively. Although stromal cells in the anlagen are essential for SLO development, the relationship between these primordial cells and the subsets in adulthood remains poorly understood. In addition, the roles of stromal cells in the entry of antigens into the compartments through some tissue structures peculiar to SLOs remain unclear. A recently identified stromal subset, marginal reticular cells (MRCs), covers the margin of SLOs that are primarily located in the outer edge of follicles and construct a unique reticulum. MRCs are closely associated with specialized endothelial or epithelial structures for antigen transport. The similarities in marker expression profiles and successive localization during development suggest that MRCs directly descend from organizer stromal cells in the anlagen. Therefore, MRCs are thought to be a crucial stromal component for the organization and function of SLOs. PMID:22807928

  7. The aged lymphoid tissue environment fails to support naïve T cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Becklund, Bryan R; Purton, Jared F; Ramsey, Chris; Favre, Stéphanie; Vogt, Tobias K; Martin, Christopher E; Spasova, Darina S; Sarkisyan, Gor; LeRoy, Eric; Tan, Joyce T; Wahlus, Heidi; Bondi-Boyd, Brea; Luther, Sanjiv A; Surh, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of naïve T cells and a reciprocal increase in the proportion of memory T cells. While reduced thymic output is important, age-dependent changes in factors supporting naïve T cells homeostasis may also be involved. Indeed, we noted a dramatic decrease in the ability of aged mice to support survival and homeostatic proliferation of naïve T cells. The defect was not due to a reduction in IL-7 expression, but from a combination of changes in the secondary lymphoid environment that impaired naïve T cell entry and access to key survival factors. We observed an age-related shift in the expression of homing chemokines and structural deterioration of the stromal network in T cell zones. Treatment with IL-7/mAb complexes can restore naïve T cell homeostatic proliferation in aged mice. Our data suggests that homeostatic mechanisms that support the naïve T cell pool deteriorate with age. PMID:27480406

  8. FT-infrared spectroscopic studies of lymphoma, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemia cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babrah, Jaspreet; McCarthy, Keith P.; Lush, Richard; Rye, Adam D.; Bessant, Conrad; Stone, Nicholas

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterise spectral differences that distinguish leukaemia and lymphoma cell lines. This is based on objective spectral measurements of major cellular biochemical constituents and multivariate spectral processing. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) maps of the lymphoma, lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia cell samples were obtained using a Perkin-Elmer Spotlight 300 FT-IR imaging spectrometer. Multivariate statistical techniques incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to construct a mathematical model. This model was validated for reproducibility. Multivariate statistical analysis of FTIR spectra collected for each cell sample permit a combination of unsupervised and supervised methods of distinguishing cell line types. This resulted in the clustering of cell line populations, indicating distinct bio-molecular differences. Major spectral differences were observed in the 4000 to 800 cm -1 spectral region. Bands in the averaged spectra for the cell line were assigned to the major biochemical constituents including; proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The combination of FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis provides an important insight into the fundamental spectral differences between the cell lines, which differ according to the cellular biochemical composition. These spectral differences can serve as potential biomarkers for the differentiation of leukaemia and lymphoma cells. Consequently these differences could be used as the basis for developing a spectral method for the detection and identification of haematological malignancies.

  9. Targeted delivery of antigen to hamster nasal lymphoid tissue with M-cell-directed lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Giannasca, P J; Boden, J A; Monath, T P

    1997-01-01

    The nasal cavity of a rodent is lined by an epithelium organized into distinct regional domains responsible for specific physiological functions. Aggregates of nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT) located at the base of the nasal cavity are believed to be sites of induction of mucosal immune responses to airborne antigens. The epithelium overlying NALT contains M cells which are specialized for the transcytosis of immunogens, as demonstrated in other mucosal tissues. We hypothesized that NALT M cells are characterized by distinct glycoconjugate receptors which influence antigen uptake and immune responses to transcytosed antigens. To identify glycoconjugates that may distinguish NALT M cells from other cells of the respiratory epithelium (RE), we performed lectin histochemistry on sections of the hamster nasal cavity with a panel of lectins. Many classes of glycoconjugates were found on epithelial cells in this region. While most lectins bound to sites on both the RE and M cells, probes capable of recognizing alpha-linked galactose were found to label the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) almost exclusively. By morphological criteria, the FAE contains >90% M cells. To determine if apical glycoconjugates on M cells were accessible from the nasal cavity, an M-cell-selective lectin and a control lectin in parallel were administered intranasally to hamsters. The M-cell-selective lectin was found to specifically target the FAE, while the control lectin did not. Lectin bound to M cells in vivo was efficiently endocytosed, consistent with the role of M cells in antigen transport. Intranasal immunization with lectin-test antigen conjugates without adjuvant stimulated induction of specific serum immunoglobulin G, whereas antigen alone or admixed with lectin did not. The selective recognition of NALT M cells by a lectin in vivo provides a model for microbial adhesin-host cell receptor interactions on M cells and the targeted delivery of immunogens to NALT following intranasal

  10. Requirement for SAPK-JNK signaling in the induction of apoptosis by ribosomal stress in REH lymphoid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Jiffar, T; Fischer, U M; Ruvolo, P P; Jarvis, W D

    2003-11-01

    The present studies examined performance of SAPK cascades and apoptotic commitment following ribosomal trauma in REH lymphoid leukemia cells. Ribostatic insults included disruption of ribosomal activity by mechanistically dissimilar agents such as blasticidin-S (BCS) (which binds 28S-rRNA to block peptidyl bond formation), kasugamycin (KSM) (which binds 18S-rRNA to prevent translational initiation), and cycloheximide (CHX) (which blocks A-site to P-site translocation of peptidyl-tRNA). Exposure of REH cells to BCS elicited DNA degradation and apoptotic cytolysis. BCS stimulated JNK1/JNK2 and p38, and their shared targets c-Jun and ATF2. Inhibition of JNK1/JNK2 (but not of p38) antagonized blasticidin-induced apoptosis, whereas targeting alternative ribosomal sites with KSM or CHX limited translation, but failed to activate the SAPK cascade or initiate apoptosis. Our findings indicate that interference with 28S-rRNA by BCS initiates apoptosis in REH cells through recruitment of SAPK-JNK signaling. Disparities between the lethal actions of BCS, KSM, and CHX appear to reflect established differences in the subribosomal targets of these agents. We propose that the SAPK cascade comprises an essential mechanism for the transduction of specific lethal stress signals emanating from active ribosomes, and that interference with the 28S-rRNA, rather than the peptidyl transfer center of the large subunit, is critical to apoptotic commitment. PMID:12970763

  11. Specific Destruction of HIV Proviral p17 Gene in T Lymphoid Cells Achieved by the Genome Editing Technology.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Mazda, Osam

    2016-01-01

    Recent development in genome editing technologies has enabled site-directed deprivation of a nucleotide sequence in the chromosome in mammalian cells. Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection causes integration of proviral DNA into the chromosome, which potentially leads to re-emergence of the virus, but conventional treatment cannot delete the proviral DNA sequence from the cells infected with HIV. In the present study, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) specific for the HIV p17 gene were constructed, and their activities to destroy the target sequence were evaluated. SSA assay showed a high activity of a pair of p17-specific TALENs. A human T lymphoid cell line, Jurkat, was infected with a lentivirus vector followed by transfection with the TALEN-HIV by electroporation. The target sequence was destructed in approximately 10-95% of the p17 polymerase chain reaction clones, and the efficiencies depended on the Jurkat-HIV clones. Because p17 plays essential roles for assembly and budding of HIV, and this gene has relatively low nucleotide sequence diversity, genome editing procedures targeting p17 may provide a therapeutic benefit for HIV infection. PMID:27446041

  12. Specific Destruction of HIV Proviral p17 Gene in T Lymphoid Cells Achieved by the Genome Editing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Mazda, Osam

    2016-01-01

    Recent development in genome editing technologies has enabled site-directed deprivation of a nucleotide sequence in the chromosome in mammalian cells. Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection causes integration of proviral DNA into the chromosome, which potentially leads to re-emergence of the virus, but conventional treatment cannot delete the proviral DNA sequence from the cells infected with HIV. In the present study, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) specific for the HIV p17 gene were constructed, and their activities to destroy the target sequence were evaluated. SSA assay showed a high activity of a pair of p17-specific TALENs. A human T lymphoid cell line, Jurkat, was infected with a lentivirus vector followed by transfection with the TALEN–HIV by electroporation. The target sequence was destructed in approximately 10–95% of the p17 polymerase chain reaction clones, and the efficiencies depended on the Jurkat–HIV clones. Because p17 plays essential roles for assembly and budding of HIV, and this gene has relatively low nucleotide sequence diversity, genome editing procedures targeting p17 may provide a therapeutic benefit for HIV infection. PMID:27446041

  13. Prostaglandin E₂ constrains systemic inflammation through an innate lymphoid cell-IL-22 axis.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Rodger; O'Connor, Richard A; Crittenden, Siobhan; Forster, Thorsten; Yu, Cunjing; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Smyth, Danielle; Robb, Calum T; Rossi, Fiona; Skouras, Christos; Tang, Shaohui; Richards, James; Pellicoro, Antonella; Weller, Richard B; Breyer, Richard M; Mole, Damian J; Iredale, John P; Anderton, Stephen M; Narumiya, Shuh; Maizels, Rick M; Ghazal, Peter; Howie, Sarah E; Rossi, Adriano G; Yao, Chengcan

    2016-03-18

    Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory disease. Mice with reduced PGE2 synthesis develop systemic inflammation, associated with translocation of gut bacteria, which can be prevented by treatment with EP4 agonists. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGE2-EP4 signaling acts directly on type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promoting their homeostasis and driving them to produce interleukin-22 (IL-22). Disruption of the ILC-IL-22 axis impairs PGE2-mediated inhibition of systemic inflammation. Hence, the ILC-IL-22 axis is essential in protecting against gut barrier dysfunction, enabling PGE2-EP4 signaling to impede systemic inflammation. PMID:26989254

  14. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Critical for the Initiation of Adaptive T Helper 2 Cell-Mediated Allergic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Timotheus Y.F.; Steer, Catherine A.; Mathä, Laura; Gold, Matthew J.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; McNagny, Kelly M.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Takei, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Naive CD4+ T cell differentiation into distinct subsets of T helper (Th) cells is a pivotal process in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. Allergens predominantly stimulate Th2 cells, causing allergic inflammation. However, why allergens induce Th2 cell differentiation is not well understood. Here we show that group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are required to mount a robust Th2 cell response to the protease-allergen papain. Intranasal administration of papain stimulated ILC2s and Th2 cells, causing allergic lung inflammation and elevated immunoglobulin E titers. This process was severely impaired in ILC2-deficient mice. Whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was dispensable for papain-induced Th2 cell differentiation, ILC2-derived IL-13 was critical as it promoted migration of activated lung dendritic cells into the draining lymph node where they primed naive T cells to differentiate into Th2 cells. Papain-induced ILC2 activation and Th2 cell differentiation was IL-33-dependent, suggesting a common pathway in the initiation of Th2 cell responses to allergen. PMID:24613091

  15. Compartmentalization of Total and Virus-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jane; Smith, Corey; Edwards, Jarem; Sierro, Frederic; Feng, Carl G.; Khanna, Rajiv; Bell, Andrew; Hislop, Andrew D.; Tangye, Stuart G.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Gebhardt, Thomas; Britton, Warwick J.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of T cell memory during severe immune suppression results in reactivation of chronic viral infections, such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). How different subsets of memory T cells contribute to the protective immunity against these viruses remains poorly defined. In this study we examined the compartmentalization of virus-specific, tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid organs. This revealed two distinct populations of memory CD8+ T cells, that were CD69+CD103+ and CD69+CD103—, and were retained within the spleen and tonsils in the absence of recent T cell stimulation. These two types of memory cells were distinct not only in their phenotype and transcriptional profile, but also in their anatomical localization within tonsils and spleen. The EBV-specific, but not CMV-specific, CD8+ memory T cells preferentially accumulated in the tonsils and acquired a phenotype that ensured their retention at the epithelial sites where EBV replicates. In vitro studies revealed that the cytokine IL-15 can potentiate the retention of circulating effector memory CD8+ T cells by down-regulating the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, required for T cell exit from tissues, and its transcriptional activator, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Within the tonsils the expression of IL-15 was detected in regions where CD8+ T cells localized, further supporting a role for this cytokine in T cell retention. Together this study provides evidence for the compartmentalization of distinct types of resident memory T cells that could contribute to the long-term protection against persisting viral infections. PMID:27540722

  16. Compartmentalization of Total and Virus-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Woon, Heng Giap; Braun, Asolina; Li, Jane; Smith, Corey; Edwards, Jarem; Sierro, Frederic; Feng, Carl G; Khanna, Rajiv; Elliot, Michael; Bell, Andrew; Hislop, Andrew D; Tangye, Stuart G; Rickinson, Alan B; Gebhardt, Thomas; Britton, Warwick J; Palendira, Umaimainthan

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of T cell memory during severe immune suppression results in reactivation of chronic viral infections, such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). How different subsets of memory T cells contribute to the protective immunity against these viruses remains poorly defined. In this study we examined the compartmentalization of virus-specific, tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid organs. This revealed two distinct populations of memory CD8+ T cells, that were CD69+CD103+ and CD69+CD103-, and were retained within the spleen and tonsils in the absence of recent T cell stimulation. These two types of memory cells were distinct not only in their phenotype and transcriptional profile, but also in their anatomical localization within tonsils and spleen. The EBV-specific, but not CMV-specific, CD8+ memory T cells preferentially accumulated in the tonsils and acquired a phenotype that ensured their retention at the epithelial sites where EBV replicates. In vitro studies revealed that the cytokine IL-15 can potentiate the retention of circulating effector memory CD8+ T cells by down-regulating the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, required for T cell exit from tissues, and its transcriptional activator, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Within the tonsils the expression of IL-15 was detected in regions where CD8+ T cells localized, further supporting a role for this cytokine in T cell retention. Together this study provides evidence for the compartmentalization of distinct types of resident memory T cells that could contribute to the long-term protection against persisting viral infections. PMID:27540722

  17. Growth Inhibition Accompanied by MOB1 Upregulation in Human Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells by 3-Deazaneplanocin A.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianzhen; Su, Junnan; Wu, Dansen; Zhang, Feng; Fu, Haiying; Zhou, Huarong; Xu, Meihong

    2015-10-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the effect of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) on human T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL) cells, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The human T-ALL cell line Molt4 was treated with DZNep, and cell proliferation was examined. The expression of Mps one binder kinase activator 1 gene (MOB1) mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The histone modification effect of DZNep on the lysine 9 of histone 3 associated with MOB1 promoters was examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR, and CpG methylation in MOB1 promoters was detected by bisulfite sequencing PCR. DZNep treatment inhibited the growth of Molt4 cells. The expressions of MOB1 genes were upregulated by DZNep treatment, and histone methylations in their promoters were significantly reduced. The results indicate that DZNep is a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of human T-ALL. PMID:26298709

  18. Viability and stress protection of chronic lymphoid leukemia cells involves overactivation of mitochondrial phosphoSTAT3Ser727

    PubMed Central

    Capron, C; Jondeau, K; Casetti, L; Jalbert, V; Costa, C; Verhoyen, E; Massé, J M; Coppo, P; Béné, M C; Bourdoncle, P; Cramer-Bordé, E; Dusanter-Fourt, I

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of functionally defective CD5-positive B lymphocytes. The clinical course of CLL is highly variable, ranging from a long-lasting indolent disease to an unpredictable and rapidly progressing leukemia requiring treatment. It is thus important to identify novel factors that reflect disease progression or contribute to its assessment. Here, we report on a novel STAT3-mediated pathway that characterizes CLL B cells-extended viability and oxidative stress control. We observed that leukemic but not normal B cells from CLL patients exhibit constitutive activation of an atypical form of the STAT3 signaling factor, phosphorylated on serine 727 (Ser727) in the absence of detectable canonical tyrosine 705 (Tyr705)-dependent activation in vivo. The Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 molecule (pSTAT3Ser727) is localized to the mitochondria and associates with complex I of the respiratory chain. This pSer727 modification is further controlled by glutathione-dependent antioxidant pathway(s) that mediate stromal protection of the leukemic B cells and regulate their viability. Importantly, pSTAT3Ser727, but neither Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 nor total STAT3, levels correlate with prolonged in vivo CLL B cells survival. Furthermore, STAT3 activity contributes to the resistance to apoptosis of CLL, but not normal B cells, in vitro. These data reveal that mitochondrial (Mt) pSTAT3Ser727 overactivity is part of the antioxidant defense pathway of CLL B cells that regulates their viability. Mt pSTAT3Ser727 appears to be a newly identified cell-protective signal involved in CLL cells survival. Targeting pSTAT3Ser727 could be a promising new therapeutic approach. PMID:25299776

  19. Anti-γδ TCR antibody-expanded γδ T cells: a better choice for the adoptive immunotherapy of lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianhua; Kang, Ning; Cui, Lianxian; Ba, Denian; He, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Cell-based immunotherapy for lymphoid malignancies has gained increasing attention as patients develop resistance to conventional treatments. γδ T cells, which have major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted lytic activity, have become a promising candidate population for adoptive cell transfer therapy. We previously established a stable condition for expanding γδ T cells by using anti-γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) antibody. In this study, we found that adoptive transfer of the expanded γδ T cells to Daudi lymphoma-bearing nude mice significantly prolonged the survival time of the mice and improved their living status. We further investigated the characteristics of these antibody-expanded γδ T cells compared to the more commonly used phosphoantigen-expanded γδ T cells and evaluated the feasibility of employing them in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Slow but sustained proliferation of human peripheral blood γδ T cells was observed upon stimulation with anti-γδ TCR antibody. Compared to phosphoantigen-stimulated γδ T cells, the antibody-expanded cells manifested similar functional phenotypes and cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cell lines. It is noteworthy that the anti-γδ TCR antibody could expand both the Vδ1 and Vδ2 subsets of γδ T cells. The in vitro-expanded Vδ1 T cells displayed comparable tumour cell-killing activity to Vδ2 T cells. Importantly, owing to higher C–C chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8 expression, the Vδ1 T cells were more prone to infiltrate CCL17- or CCL22-expressing lymphomas than the Vδ2 T cells. Characterizing the peripheral blood γδ T cells from lymphoma patients further confirmed that the anti-γδ TCR antibody-expanded γδ T cells could be a more efficacious choice for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies than phosphoantigen-expanded γδ T cells. PMID:21666706

  20. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells during experimental otitis media in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang Gun; Gong, Sung Ho; Kim, Hee-Bok; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Joo Hyun; Lim, Yun-Sung; Park, Seok-Won

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) in the middle ear (ME) mucosal response to bacterial infection in a rat model. To confirm the role of ILC3 in bacterially induced otitis media (OM), the serum concentrations of IL-17 and IL-22 were determined by ELISA, and the tissue expression of IL-17 and IL-22 in infected ME mucosa was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Immunohistochemical staining of specific cell surface markers was also assessed to confirm the origin of the cells expressing IL-17 and IL-22. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the surgically-induced animal model of OM. OM was induced by inoculation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae into the ME cavity of the rats. The rats were divided into four experimental groups: three infected groups and one control group. Infected groups were subdivided into sets of 5 rats, one for each of the three time points (1, 4 and 7 days post-inoculation). For determination of rat IL-17 and IL-22 levels in infected rats and control rats, infected or control ME mucosa sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies directed against IL-17 and IL-22. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, RORγt, and NKp46 were also conducted on the samples to confirm the origin of cells expressing IL-17 and IL-22. IL-17 and IL-22 serum concentrations were significantly increased in the infected rats compared to control rats. Immunohistochemical staining revealed increased IL-17 and IL-22 expressions in all infected ME mucosae from the first day after inoculation. In addition, the results of tissue staining for the specific surface markers were negative for CD3 and NKp46, but were highly positive for RORγt. IL-17 and IL-22 revealed their association with the bacterially induced proliferative and hyperplastic responses of ME mucosa, which are characteristic features in pathogenesis of OM. Surface marker examination showed that the source cells for IL-17

  1. Ultrastructural studies on erythropoiesis in the avian thymus. II. A stereological analysis of the lymphoid and erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M D

    1979-06-01

    The cortex of enlarging thymic lobes from adult haemorrhaged Quelea quelea were found to be similar to those of wild birds where the thymic enlargement was occurring naturally. A detailed stereological analysis of cells broadly designated as lymphoid, and the construction of models to account for the results, indicates that the enlarging thymic lobe contains both large and small blast cells, a heterogenous group of medium lymphocytes, erythroid cells, and two types of very small lymphocytes. The distinction between early erythroid cells and some lymphocytes, despite this detailed analysis is very difficult, but it is possible in enlarging thymic lobes that up to 42% of the lymphoid cells may have erythroid characteristics. PMID:466698

  2. Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Guides the Differentiation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Victor S; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Robinette, Michelle L; Bando, Jennifer K; Wang, Yaming; Geiger, Theresa L; Gilfillan, Susan; Fuchs, Anja; Vivier, Eric; Sun, Joe C; Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2016-05-17

    The signals guiding differentiation of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) within tissues are not well understood. Salivary gland (SG) ILCs as well as liver and intestinal intraepithelial ILC1 have markers that denote tissue residency and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) imprinting. We deleted Tgfbr2 in cells expressing the ILC and NK marker NKp46 and found that SG ILCs were reduced in number. They lost distinct tissue markers, such as CD49a, and the effector molecules TRAIL and CD73. Expression of the transcription factor Eomes, which promotes NK cell differentiation, was elevated. Conversely, Eomes deletion in NKp46(+) cells enhanced TGF-β-imprinting of SG ILCs. Thus, TGF-β induces SG ILC differentiation by suppressing Eomes. TGF-β acted through a JNK-dependent, Smad4-independent pathway. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that SG ILCs had characteristic of both NK cells and ILC1. Finally, TGF-β imprinting of SG ILCs was synchronized with SG development, highlighting the impact of tissue microenvironment on ILC development. PMID:27156386

  3. Science Signaling Podcast for 3 May 2016: Innate lymphoid cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Eric; Golub, Rachel; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-01-01

    This Podcast features an interview with Rachel Golub and Eric Vivier, authors of two Research Articles that appear in the 3 May 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about plasticity of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are related to the T cells and B cells of the adaptive immune system, and they regulate immune responses by secreting cytokines. ILCs are a heterogeneous population of cells that can be classified into several subtypes. Type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) can be further subdivided into distinct subpopulations. Chea et al found that Notch signaling controlled the relative proportions of different ILC3 subtypes in the mouse intestine. A related study by Viant et al reports that the Notch and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways antagonize one another to control the balance between different subsets of ILC3s. Both studies demonstrate that ILC3 fate is plastic and can be influenced by signals present in the microenvironment of these tissue-resident cells.Listen to Podcast. PMID:27141927

  4. A gene encoding 22 highly related zinc fingers is expressed in lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Trowsdale, J

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA was isolated from a T cell library using an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to a sequence conserved in proteins with multiple zinc fingers of the C2H2 type. The predicted protein structure of this cDNA (ZNF43) showed that it contained 22 of the Krüppel type of zinc finger motifs in tandem. The amino acid sequence was strongly conserved between each of the finger domains of this cDNA, except for variable residue positions within the putative DNA binding site. Within the zinc finger domain the amino acid sequence of the four zinc fingers 6 to 9 was very similar to the amino acid sequence of fingers 10 to 13, the DNA sequence bound by this group of eight fingers may include a short repeat. Southern blotting showed that ZNF43 was one of a closely related family of proteins with 10 to 20 members. The members of the ZNF43 family did not appear to be clustered at the chromosomal level. The transcription of many members of this gene family was increased in lymphoid cell lines. After in vitro induced terminal differentiation of the human HL60 cell line the expression of the ZNF43 family was reduced. The expression of the ZNF43 gene was mainly limited to T and B cell lines. The gene was differentially spliced and different cell lines expressed different combinations of transcripts. Images PMID:1711675

  5. Pleural cavity type 2 innate lymphoid cells precede Th2 expansion in murine Litomosoides sigmodontis infection.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Killoran, Kristin; Mitre, Edward; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a family of innate cells has been identified that respond to IL-25 and IL-33 in murine intestinal helminths. Termed Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) they facilitate the development of Th2 responses responsible for helminth clearance. We evaluated these cells in a tissue-invasive helminth model. Using Litomosides sigmodontis (a strong Th2 polarizing filarial infection) we observed a robust Th2 response in the pleural cavity, where adult worms reside, marked by increased levels of IL-5 and IL-13 in infected mice. In parallel, ILC2s were expanded in the pleural cavity early in the infection, peaking during the pre-patent period. L. sigmodontis also elicits a strong systemic Th2 response, which includes significantly increased levels of IgG1, IgE and IL-5 in the plasma of infected mice. Although ILC2s were expanded locally, they were not expanded in the spleen, blood, or mediastinal lymph nodes in response to L. sigmodontis infection, suggesting that ILC2s function primarily at the site of infection. The increase in ILC2s in the pleural cavity and the expansion in Th2 responses indicates a probable role for these cells in initiating and maintaining the Th2 response and highlights the importance of these cells in helminth infections and their role in Th2 immunity. PMID:26394284

  6. The Residual Innate Lymphoid Cells in NFIL3-Deficient Mice Support Suboptimal Maternal Adaptations to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Boulenouar, Selma; Doisne, Jean-Marc; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda; Gaynor, Louise M.; Kieckbusch, Jens; Balmas, Elisa; Yung, Hong Wa; Javadzadeh, Shagayegh; Volmer, Léa; Hawkes, Delia A.; Phillips, Keli; Brady, Hugh J.M.; Fowden, Abigail L.; Burton, Graham J.; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Uterine NK cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that populate the uterus and expand during pregnancy, regulating placental development and fetal growth in humans and mice. We have recently characterized the composition of uterine ILCs (uILCs), some of which require the transcription factor NFIL3, but the extent to which NFIL3-dependent cells support successful reproduction in mice is unknown. By mating Nfil3−/− females with wild-type males, here we show the effects of NFIL3 deficiency in maternal cells on both the changes in uILCs during pregnancy and the downstream consequences on reproduction. Despite the presence of CD49a+Eomes− uILC1s and the considerable expansion of residual CD49a+Eomes+ tissue-resident NK cells and uILC3s in pregnant Nfil3−/− mice, we found incomplete remodeling of uterine arteries and decidua, placental defects, and fetal growth restriction in litters of normal size. These results show that maternal NFIL3 mediates non-redundant functions in mouse reproduction. PMID:26925058

  7. Changes in T-cell subsets in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzin, B.L.; Kansas, G.S.; Engleman, E.G.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.; Strober, S.

    1983-05-01

    Patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, 2000 rads). We previously reported long-lasting clinical improvement associated with marked suppression of in vitro lymphocyte function in this group. In an attempt to better understand the mechanism of immunosuppression and clinical changes observed after TLI, we studied in greater detail changes in peripheral blood T-cell subsets identified by monoclonal antibodies. Before TLI, RA patients had a higher percentage of Leu-3 (helper subset) cells and a lower percentage of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic subset) cells than normals. Immediately after TLI, the absolute numbers of both Leu-2 and Leu-3 cells were reduced by at least 90%. Within 6-12 weeks, the number of Leu-2 cells returned to the pretreatment levels, but the levels of Leu-3 cells remained depressed for months thereafter. The lack of repopulation of Leu-3 cells resulted in a marked increase in the ratio of Leu-2 to Leu-3 cells as compared to pretreatment values (1.73 +/- 0.23 vs 0.39 +/- 0.06), and in a decrease in the percentage and absolute number of total T (Leu-1 and Leu-4) cells. The failure of Leu-3 cells (which mediate predominantly helper/inducer functions) to repopulate the peripheral blood may contribute to the prolonged clinical immunosuppression observed after TLI. Similar changes in T-cell subsets were not observed in RA patients given remittive drugs or low doses (200 rads) of radiotherapy. Thus, TLI differs from other treatment modalities with regard to its prolonged selective effect on the Leu-3 subset.

  8. Isolated lymphoid follicle maturation induces the development of follicular dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Glaysher, Bridget R; Mabbott, Neil A

    2007-01-01

    Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are recently identified lymphoid structures in the small intestine with features similar to Peyer's patches (PPs). Using immunohistochemistry we characterized the composition of ILFs in the small intestines of immunocompetent mice and of mice that lacked PPs as a result of either genetic deficiency of lymphotoxin or temporary in utero lymphotoxin-β receptor-signalling blockade. We showed that although both immature and mature ILFs were present in the intestines of immunocompetent mice, PP-deficiency induced a significantly greater number of mature ILFs. We found that in addition to B-lymphocyte-containing germinal centres, mature ILFs also possessed large networks of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). These features were not detected within immature ILFs. Indeed, the presence of FDCs could be used to reliably distinguish ILF maturity. Further analysis revealed that the area occupied by the FDCs within mature ILFs was substantial. The total area occupied by FDCs in all the mature ILFs in mice lacking PPs was equivalent to the total area occupied by FDCs in all the PPs and the few mature ILFs in immunocompetent mice. Based on these data we reasoned that in the absence of PPs, mature ILFs are important inductive sites for intestinal immune responses. Indeed, in mice that lacked PPs, ILF maturation coincided with a restoration of faecal immunoglobulin A levels to values that were comparable to those found in immunocompetent mice. Taken together, these data imply that the induction of germinal centres and FDC networks within mature ILFs in response to PP deficiency provides an important compensatory mechanism. PMID:17163957

  9. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Lymphoid Tissue Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Olga; Hammerschmidt, Swantje I; Moschovakis, G Leandros; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-05-20

    The continuous migration of immune cells between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs is a key feature of the immune system, facilitating the distribution of effector cells within nearly all compartments of the body. Furthermore, reaching their correct position within primary, secondary, or tertiary lymphoid organs is a prerequisite to ensure immune cells' unimpaired differentiation, maturation, and selection, as well as their activation or functional silencing. The superfamilies of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of major importance in guiding immune cells to and within lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this review we focus on the role of the chemokine system in the migration dynamics of immune cells within lymphoid organs at the steady state and on how these dynamics are affected by infectious and inflammatory processes. PMID:26907216

  10. Engraftment of embryonic stem cells and differentiated progeny by host conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuqiong; Leveson-Gower, Dennis B; de Almeida, Patricia E; Pierini, Antonio; Baker, Jeanette; Florek, Mareike; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Kim, Byung-Su; Ke, Rong; Wu, Joseph C; Negrin, Robert S

    2015-03-24

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many medical conditions; however, their utility is limited by immune rejection. The objective of our study is to establish tolerance or promote engraftment of transplanted ESCs as well as mature cell populations derived from ESCs. Luciferase (luc(+))-expressing ESCs were utilized to monitor the survival of the ESCs and differentiated progeny in living recipients. Allogeneic recipients conditioned with fractioned total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) or TLI plus regulatory T cells (T(reg)) promoted engraftment of ESC allografts after transplantation. Following these treatments, the engraftment of transplanted terminally differentiated endothelial cells derived from ESCs was also significantly enhanced. Our findings provide clinically translatable strategies of inducing tolerance to adoptively transferred ESCs for cell replacement therapy of medical disorders. PMID:25801020

  11. Lymphocytes in non-immune inflammation: a specific subclass of lymphoid cells?

    PubMed Central

    Leme, J. G.; Verissimo de Mello, S. B.; Falcao, R. P.; Rocha, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Rats were subjected to various experimental procedures which affected lymphocyte numbers, in an attempt to investigate the participation of individual subpopulations of these cells in the development of acute, non-immune inflammation. Deficient T function, as evidenced in neonatally thymectomized animals, or in 6-week-old animals thymectomized and afterwards exposed to multiple total-body X-ray irradiations, did not interfere with the development of the acute inflammatory responses of the animals to carrageenin. In the former circumstance, the numbers of circulating B lymphocytes, identified by the presence of surface immunoglobulins, were increased. In thymectomized and irradiated rats, the B-lymphocyte subpopulation was reduced. Circumstances causing attenuated inflammatory reactions to carrageenin resulted, first, from lymphocyte depletion by chronic drainage from the thoracic duct and, second, from irradiation of the animals with a single large dose of X-ray, the animals being tested 24 h after irradiation. B lymphocytes in blood remained within the normal range after chronic lymphatic drainage, but a large dose of X-ray markedly reduced their number. In both cases the attenuation of the responses to carrageenin did not seem to be associated with nonspecific hyporeactivity, or with the effect of the treatments on the other blood cells, It is suggested that the development of acute, non-immune inflammation is influenced by lymphoid cells which might constitute a specific subclass of cells, distinct from fully differentiated T and B lymphocytes. PMID:7236499

  12. MiR-128-2 inhibits common lymphoid progenitors from developing into progenitor B cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huo; Fei, Xia; Tang, YuXu; Yan, Yunqiu; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of studies revealed that B cell development is finely regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Recent studies suggested that TFs are coordinated with microRNAs to control the development of B cells in numerous checkpoints. In the present study, we first found that miR-128-2 was differentially expressed in various immune organs and immunocytes. B cell development was inhibited in miR-128-2-overexpressed chimera and transgenic (TG) mice in bone marrow with decreased preproB, preB, proB, immature B, and recirculating B cells, as well as increased common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Further experiments showed that the apoptosis of CLP decreased, but proliferation was not altered in miR-128-2-overexpressed mice. Extensive studies suggested that the inhibition of apoptosis of CLP may be caused by miR-128-2 targeting A2B and MALT1, thereby increasing the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 MAPK. Such findings have prompted future investigations on the function of miR-128-2 in lymph genesis. PMID:27008703

  13. PrP(CWD) lymphoid cell targets in early and advanced chronic wasting disease of mule deer.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, Christina J; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Miller, Michael W; Oesch, Bruno; van Keulen, Lucien J M; Langeveld, Jan P M; Hoover, Edward A

    2002-10-01

    Up to 15% of free-ranging mule deer in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming, USA, are afflicted with a prion disease, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), known as chronic wasting disease (CWD). CWD is similar to a subset of TSEs including scrapie and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in which the abnormal prion protein isoform, PrP(CWD), accumulates in lymphoid tissue. Experimental scrapie studies have indicated that this early lymphoid phase is an important constituent of prion replication interposed between mucosal entry and central nervous system accumulation. To identify the lymphoid target cells associated with PrP(CWD), we used triple-label immunofluorescence and high-resolution confocal microscopy on tonsils from naturally infected deer in advanced disease. We detected PrP(CWD) primarily extracellularly in association with follicular dendritic and B cell membranes as determined by frequent co-localization with antibodies against membrane bound immunoglobulin and CD21. There was minimal co-localization with cytoplasmic labels for follicular dendritic cells (FDC). This finding could indicate FDC capture of PrP(CWD), potentially in association with immunoglobulin or complement, or PrP(C) conversion on FDC. In addition, scattered tingible body macrophages in the germinal centre contained coarse intracytoplasmic aggregates of PrP(CWD), reflecting either phagocytosis of PrP(CWD) on FDC processes, apoptotic FDC or B cells, or actual PrP(CWD) replication within tingible body macrophages. To compare lymphoid cell targets in early and advanced disease, we also examined: (i) PrP(CWD) distribution in lymphoid cells of fawns within 3 months of oral CWD exposure and (ii) tonsil biopsies from preclinical deer with naturally acquired CWD. These studies revealed that the early lymphoid cellular distribution of PrP(CWD) was similar to that in advanced disease, i.e. in a pattern suggesting FDC association. We conclude that in deer, PrP(CWD) accumulates

  14. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  15. Human herpesvirus 7 infection of lymphoid and myeloid cell lines transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the CD4 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, M; Inoue, Y; Ohminami, H; Sada, E; Miyake, K; Tohyama, T; Shimada, T; Fujita, S

    1997-01-01

    It has been reported recently that CD4 is a major component of the receptor for human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), which has been newly identified as a T-lymphotropic virus. To investigate further the role of CD4 in HHV-7 infection, we examined the susceptibility to HHV-7 infection of various CD4-negative or weakly positive cell lines into which the cDNA for CD4 was transferred using an adenovirus vector (Adex1CACD4). Of 13 cell lines transduced with Adex1CACD4, including T-lymphoid, B-lymphoid, monocytoid, and myeloid cell lines, one T-lymphoid cell line, one monocytoid cell line, and two cell lines established from the blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia showed high susceptibility to HHV-7 infection. Taken together with the results of previous studies, these data suggest strongly that CD4 is a major component of the binding receptor for HHV-7. This study also shows that HHV-7 may be able to infect CD4-positive hematopoietic precursor cells as well as T lymphocytes. PMID:8995705

  16. Use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in studies of the T cell dependence of autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.; Logue, G.L.; Schiffman, G.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on T cell-dependent and -independent humoral immune responses was studied in patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The serum levels of several autoantibodies and of antibodies to diphtheria (DT) and tetanus (TT) toxoids and to pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS; 12 antigenic types) were studied before and after TLI. In addition, the patients were given a booster injection of DT and TT and a single injection of pneumococcal vaccine after radiotherapy. Antibody levels to DT and TT decreased about twofold after TLI and did not rise significantly after a booster injection. However, there was no reduction in antibody levels to PPS after TLI, and a significant rise in titers was observed after a single vaccination. The serum levels of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), and granulocyte associated IgG rose slightly after TLI. Thus, the autoantibodies and antibodies to polysaccharides appear to be relatively independent of helper T cell function, which is markedly reduced after TLI. On the other hand, antibodies to protein antigens such as DT and TT appear to be more closely dependent upon T helper function in man, as has been reported in rodents. The findings suggest that T cell-independent autoantibody responses alone do not maintain the joint disease activity in RA, because improvement in joint disease after TLI has been reported.

  17. Transcription factor Bcl11b controls identity and function of mature innate lymphoid cells type II

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Danielle; Cho, Jonathan J.; Uddin, Mohammad N.; Lorentsen, Kyle J.; Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash; Li, Hongmin; Avram, Dorina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote anti-helminth responses and contribute to allergies. Here we report that Bcl11b, previously considered a T-cell lineage identity transcription factor, acts directly upstream of the key ILC2 transcription factor Gfi1 to maintain its expression in mature ILC2s. Consequently, Bcl11b−/− ILC2s downregulated Gata3 and downstream genes, including Il1rl1, encoding IL-33 receptor, and upregulated Rorc and type-3 ILC (ILC3) genes. Additionally, independent of Gfi1, Bcl11b directly repressed expression of the ILC3 transcription factor Ahr, further contributing to silencing of ILC3 genes in ILC2s. Thus, Bcl11b−/− ILC2s lost their functions and gained ILC3 functions, expanding in response to the protease allergen papain, while at the same time producing ILC3, and not ILC2 cytokines, and causing increased airway infiltration of neutrophils instead of eosinophils. Our results broaden Bcl11b's role from a T-cell only transcription factor, and establish that Bcl11b sustains mature ILC2 genetic and functional programs and lineage fidelity. PMID:26231117

  18. Adipose-Resident Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Rapp, Moritz; Fan, Xiying; Weizman, Orr-El; Bhardwaj, Priya; Adams, Nicholas M; Walzer, Thierry; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Sun, Joseph C

    2016-08-16

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) function to protect epithelial barriers against pathogens and maintain tissue homeostasis in both barrier and non-barrier tissues. Here, utilizing Eomes reporter mice, we identify a subset of adipose group 1 ILC (ILC1) and demonstrate a role for these cells in metabolic disease. Adipose ILC1s were dependent on the transcription factors Nfil3 and T-bet but phenotypically and functionally distinct from adipose mature natural killer (NK) and immature NK cells. Analysis of parabiotic mice revealed that adipose ILC1s maintained long-term tissue residency. Diet-induced obesity drove early production of interleukin (IL)-12 in adipose tissue depots and led to the selective proliferation and accumulation of adipose-resident ILC1s in a manner dependent on the IL-12 receptor and STAT4. ILC1-derived interferon-γ was necessary and sufficient to drive proinflammatory macrophage polarization to promote obesity-associated insulin resistance. Thus, adipose-resident ILC1s contribute to obesity-related pathology in response to dysregulated local proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:27496734

  19. Cutting edge: IL-17-secreting innate lymphoid cells are essential for host defense against fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Gladiator, André; Wangler, Nicolette; Trautwein-Weidner, Kerstin; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2013-01-15

    IL-17-mediated immunity has emerged as a crucial host defense mechanism against fungal infections. Although Th cells are generally thought to act as the major source of IL-17 in response to Candida albicans, we show that fungal control is mediated by IL-17-secreting innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and not by Th17 cells. By using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis we found that IL-17A and IL-17F, which are both crucial for pathogen clearance, are produced promptly upon infection in an IL-23-dependent manner, and that ILCs in the oral mucosa are the main source for these cytokines. Ab-mediated depletion of ILCs in RAG1-deficient mice or ILC deficiency in retinoic acid-related orphan receptor c(-/-) mice resulted in a complete failure to control the infection. Taken together, our data uncover the cellular basis for the IL-23/IL-17 axis, which acts right at the onset of infection when it is most needed for fungal control and host protection. PMID:23255360

  20. IL-12 drives functional plasticity of human group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ai Ing; Menegatti, Silvia; Bustamante, Jacinta; Le Bourhis, Lionel; Allez, Matthieu; Rogge, Lars; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Yssel, Hans; Di Santo, James P

    2016-04-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) include IL-5- and IL-13-producing CRTh2(+)CD127(+)cells that are implicated in early protective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Whereas functional plasticity has been demonstrated for both human and mouse ILC3 subsets that can reversibly give rise to IFN-γ-producing ILC1, plasticity of human or mouse ILC2 has not been shown. Here, we analyze the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of human peripheral blood ILC2. Although subsets of human CRTh2(+)ILC2 differentially express CD117 (c-kit receptor), some ILC2 surface phenotypes are unstable and can be modulated in vitro. Surprisingly, human IL-13(+)ILC2 can acquire the capacity to produce IFN-γ, thereby generating plastic ILC2. ILC2 cultures demonstrated that IFN-γ(+)ILC2 clones could be derived and were stably associated with increased T-BET expression. The inductive mechanism for ILC2 plasticity was mapped to the IL-12-IL-12R signaling pathway and was confirmed through analysis of patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease due to IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies that failed to generate plastic ILC2. We also detected IL-13(+)IFN-γ(+)ILC2 ex vivo in intestinal samples from Crohn's disease patients. These results demonstrate cytokine production plasticity for human ILC2 and further suggest that environmental cues can dictate ILC phenotype and function for these tissue-resident innate effector cells. PMID:26976630

  1. Genomic Modifiers of Natural Killer Cells, Immune Responsiveness and Lymphoid Tissue Remodeling Together Increase Host Resistance to Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heather; Prince, Jessica; Stadnisky, Michael D.; Anderson, Monique; Nash, William; Rival, Claudia; Wei, Hairong; Gamache, Awndre; Farber, Charles R.; Tung, Kenneth; Brown, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The MHC class I Dk molecule supplies vital host resistance during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Natural killer (NK) cells expressing the Ly49G2 inhibitory receptor, which specifically binds Dk, are required to control viral spread. The extent of Dk-dependent host resistance, however, differs significantly amongst related strains of mice, C57L and MA/My. As a result, we predicted that relatively small-effect modifier genetic loci might together shape immune cell features, NK cell reactivity, and the host immune response to MCMV. A robust Dk-dependent genetic effect, however, has so far hindered attempts to identify additional host resistance factors. Thus, we applied genomic mapping strategies and multicolor flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in naive and virus-infected hosts to identify genetic modifiers of the host immune response to MCMV. We discovered and validated many quantitative trait loci (QTL); these were mapped to at least 19 positions on 16 chromosomes. Intriguingly, one newly discovered non-MHC locus (Cmv5) controlled splenic NK cell accrual, secondary lymphoid organ structure, and lymphoid follicle development during MCMV infection. We infer that Cmv5 aids host resistance to MCMV infection by expanding NK cells needed to preserve and protect essential tissue structural elements, to enhance lymphoid remodeling and to increase viral clearance in spleen. PMID:26845690

  2. A Protocol for the Comprehensive Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells in Normal and Inflamed Murine Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yen-Rei A.; O’Koren, Emily G.; Hotten, Danielle F.; Kan, Matthew J.; Kopin, David; Nelson, Erik R.; Que, Loretta; Gunn, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is used extensively to examine immune cells in non-lymphoid tissues. However, a method of flow cytometric analysis that is both comprehensive and widely applicable has not been described. We developed a protocol for the flow cytometric analysis of non-lymphoid tissues, including methods of tissue preparation, a 10-fluorochrome panel for cell staining, and a standardized gating strategy, that allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of all major immune cell types in a variety of normal and inflamed non-lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that our basic protocol minimizes cell loss, reliably distinguishes macrophages from dendritic cells (DC), and identifies all major granulocytic and mononuclear phagocytic cell types. This protocol is able to accurately quantify 11 distinct immune cell types, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes, alveolar macrophages, resident/interstitial macrophages, CD11b- DC, and CD11b+ DC, in normal lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, skin, eyes, and mammary gland. We also characterized the expression patterns of several commonly used myeloid and macrophage markers. This basic protocol can be expanded to identify additional cell types such as mast cells, basophils, and plasmacytoid DC, or perform detailed phenotyping of specific cell types. In examining models of primary and metastatic mammary tumors, this protocol allowed the identification of several distinct tumor associated macrophage phenotypes, the appearance of which was highly specific to individual tumor cell lines. This protocol provides a valuable tool to examine immune cell repertoires and follow immune responses in a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions. PMID:26938654

  3. Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Toll-Like Receptor Pathway: TPL2-Mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Activation, a Path to Tumorigenesis in Lymphoid Neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Simon; Martel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signaling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways to regulate innate immune responses. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signaling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFκB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumor Promoting Locus 2 (TPL2), activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNPA1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumor formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated ERK1/2 activation via TPL2 may be a novel path to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumor growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, where the majority of the cells carry the MYD88[L265P

  4. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells: regulating host-commensal bacteria interactions in inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Goc, Jeremy; Hepworth, Matthew R; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2016-01-01

    A delicate balance exists between the mammalian immune system and normally beneficial commensal bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract, which is necessary to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these interactions between the host and commensal bacteria is causally associated with chronic inflammation and the development of cancer. In contrast, recent reports have highlighted that commensal bacteria also play an essential role in promoting anti-tumor immune responses in several contexts, highlighting a paradox whereby interactions between the host and commensal bacteria can influence both pro- and anti-tumor immunity. Given the critical roles for group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) in regulating inflammation, tissue repair and host-microbe interactions in the intestine, here we discuss new evidence that ILC3s may profoundly influence the development, progression and control of tumors. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding the impact of commensal bacteria on tumorigenesis, discuss recent findings identifying ILC3s as critical regulators of host-microbe interactions and highlight the emerging role of this immune cell population in cancer and their potential implication as a therapeutic target. PMID:26451009

  5. New Players in the Same Old Game: Disturbance of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae Co-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papotto, Pedro Henrique; Maeda, Solange; Tomimori, Jane; Xavier, Marília Brasil; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Kallas, Esper Georges; Carvalho, Karina Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leprosy control is achieved through a fine-tuning of TH1 and TH2 immune response pattern balance. Given the increasing epidemiological overlay of HIV and M. leprae infections, immune response in co-infected patients consists in an important contemporary issue. Here we describe for the first time the innate lymphoid cells compartment in peripheral blood of leprosy and HIV/M. leprae co-infected patients, and show that co-infection increases group 2 innate lymphoid whilst decreasing group 1 innate lymphoid cells frequencies and function. PMID:26335023

  6. Stromal niche communalities underscore the contribution of the matricellular protein SPARC to B-cell development and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio; Portararo, Paola; Dugo, Matteo; Vitali, Caterina; Botti, Laura; Guarnotta, Carla; Cappetti, Barbara; Gulino, Alessandro; Torselli, Ilaria; Casalini, Patrizia; Chiodoni, Claudia; Colombo, Mario P

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic B-cell clones commonly arise within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). However, during disease progression, lymphomatous cells may also colonize the bone marrow (BM), where they localize within specialized stromal niches, namely the osteoblastic and the vascular niche, according to their germinal center- or extra-follicular-derivation, respectively. We hypothesized the existence of common stromal motifs in BM and SLO B-cell lymphoid niches involved in licensing normal B-cell development as well as in fostering transformed B lymphoid cells. Thus, we tested the expression of prototypical mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers and regulatory matricellular proteins in human BM and SLO under physiologically unperturbed conditions and during B-cell lymphoma occurrence. We identified common stromal features in the BM osteoblastic niche and SLO germinal center (GC) microenvironments, traits that were also enriched within BM infiltrates of GC-associated B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that stromal programs involved in central and peripheral B-cell lymphopoiesis are also involved in malignant B-cell nurturing. Among factors co-expressed by stromal elements within these different specialized niches, we identified the pleiotropic matricellular protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). The actual role of stromal SPARC in normal B-cell lymphopoiesis, investigated in Sparc(-/-) mice and BM chimeras retaining the Sparc(-/-) genotype in host stroma, demonstrated defective BM and splenic B-cell lymphopoiesis. Moreover, in the Trp53 knockout (KO) lymphoma model, p53(-/-)/Sparc(-/-) double-KO mice displayed impaired spontaneous splenic B-cell lymphomagenesis and reduced neoplastic clone BM infiltration in comparison with their p53(-/-)/Sparc(+/+) counterparts. Our results are among the first to demonstrate the existence of common stromal programs regulating both the BM osteoblastic niche and the SLO GC lymphopoietic functions potentially fostering the genesis

  7. 4EBP1/c-MYC/PUMA and NF-κB/EGR1/BIM pathways underlie cytotoxicity of mTOR dual inhibitors in malignant lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seongseok; Vincelette, Nicole D; Knorr, Katherine L B; Almada, Luciana L; Schneider, Paula A; Peterson, Kevin L; Flatten, Karen S; Dai, Haiming; Pratz, Keith W; Hess, Allan D; Smith, B Douglas; Karp, Judith E; Hendrickson, Andrea E Wahner; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2016-06-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that regulates proliferation and apoptosis, has been extensively evaluated as a therapeutic target in multiple malignancies. Rapamycin analogs, which partially inhibit mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), exhibit immunosuppressive and limited antitumor activity, but sometimes activate survival pathways through feedback mechanisms involving mTORC2. Thus, attention has turned to agents targeting both mTOR complexes by binding the mTOR active site. Here we show that disruption of either mTOR-containing complex is toxic to acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cells and identify 2 previously unrecognized pathways leading to this cell death. Inhibition of mTORC1-mediated 4EBP1 phosphorylation leads to decreased expression of c-MYC and subsequent upregulation of the proapoptotic BCL2 family member PUMA, whereas inhibition of mTORC2 results in nuclear factor-κB-mediated expression of the Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) gene, which encodes a transcription factor that binds and transactivates the proapoptotic BCL2L11 locus encoding BIM. Importantly, 1 or both pathways contribute to death of malignant lymphoid cells after treatment with dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors. Collectively, these observations not only provide new insight into the survival roles of mTOR in lymphoid malignancies, but also identify alterations that potentially modulate the action of mTOR dual inhibitors in ALL. PMID:26917778

  8. Modulation of tumor response to photodynamic therapy in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by adoptively transferred lymphoid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Krosl, Jana; Dougherty, Graeme J.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic treatment, consisting of intravenous injection of PhotofrinR (10 mg/kg) followed by exposure to 110 J/cm2 of 630 plus or minus 10 nm light 24 hours later, cured 100% of EMT6 tumors (murine mammary sarcoma) growing in syngeneic immunocompetent BALB/C mice. In contrast, the same treatment produced no cures of EMT6 tumors growing in either nude or SCID mice (immunodeficient strains). EMT6 tumors growing in BALB/C and SCID mice showed no difference in either the level of PhotofrinR accumulated per gram of tumor tissue, or the extent of tumor cell killing during the first 24 hours post photodynamic therapy (PDT). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity to PDT of EMT6 tumors growing in SCID mice, these hosts were given either splenic T lymphocytes or whole bone marrow from BALB/C mice. The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes 9 days before PDT was successful in delaying tumor recurrence but produced no cures. A better improvement in PDT response was obtained with tumors growing in SCID mice reconstituted with BALB/C bone marrow (tumor cure rate of 63%). The results of this study demonstrate that, at least with the EMT6 tumor model, antitumor immune activity mediated by lymphoid cell populations makes an important contribution to the curative effect of PDT.

  9. Lymphoid Cell-Glioma Cell Interaction Enhances Cell Coat Production by Human Gliomas: Novel Suppressor Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.; Macchi, Beatrice; Papazoglou, Savvas; Oldfield, Edward H.; Kornblith, Paul L.; Smith, Barry H.; Gately, Maurice K.

    1983-05-01

    Certain human glioma lines produce mucopolysaccharide coats that impair the generation of cytolytic lymphocytes in response to these lines in vitro. Coat production is substantially enhanced by the interaction of glioma cells with a macromolecular factor released by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. This interaction thus constitutes an unusual mechanism by which inflammatory cells may nonspecifically suppress the cellular immune response to at least one class of solid tumors in humans.

  10. Characterizing natural hydrogel for reconstruction of three-dimensional lymphoid stromal network to model T-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Wu, Biming; Niedzielski, Steven M; Hill, Matthew T; Coleman, Rhima M; Ono, Akira; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogels have been used in regenerative medicine because they provide a three-dimensional environment similar to soft tissues, allow diffusion of nutrients, present critical biological signals, and degrade via endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. Herein, we developed in vitro system mimicking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Existing in vitro culture systems cannot accurately represent the complex interactions happening between T-cells and stromal cells in immune response. To model T-cell interaction in SLOs in vitro, we encapsulated stromal cells in fibrin, collagen, or fibrin-collagen hydrogels and studied how different mechanical and biological properties affect stromal network formation. Overall, fibrin supplemented with aprotinin was superior to collagen and fibrin-collagen in terms of network formation and promotion of T-cell penetration. After 8 days of culture, stromal networks formed through branching and joining with other adjacent cell populations. T-cells added to the newly formed stromal networks migrated and attached to stromal cells, similar to the T-cell zones of the lymph nodes in vivo. Our results suggest that the constructed three-dimensional lymphoid stromal network can mimic the in vivo environment and allow the modeling of T-cell interaction in SLOs. PMID:25649205

  11. Potential Pathogenetic Implications of Cyclooxygenase-2 Overexpression in B Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Secchiero, Paola; Barbarotto, Elisa; Gonelli, Arianna; Tiribelli, Mario; Zerbinati, Carlotta; Celeghini, Claudio; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano A.; Zauli, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) increases tumorigenic potential by promoting resistance to apoptosis. Because B chronic lymphoid leukemia (B-CLL) cells exhibit a defective apoptotic response, we analyzed CD19+ B lymphocytes purified from the peripheral blood of B-CLL patients. Microarray analysis showed a variable (up to 38-fold) increase in the steady-state mRNA levels of COX-2 in B-CLL lymphocytes compared with normal CD19+ B lymphocytes. The up-regulation of COX-2 in B-CLL cells was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of B-CLL bone marrow infiltrates confirmed clear expression of COX-2 in leukemic cells. Ex vivo treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 significantly decreased the survival of leukemic cells by increasing the rate of spontaneous apoptosis in 13 of 16 B-CLL samples examined, but it did not affect the survival of normal lymphocytes. Pretreatment with NS-398 significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity induced by chlorambucil in 8 of 16 B-CLL samples examined. Moreover, although recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)/Apo2L showed little cytotoxic effect in most B-CLL samples examined, pretreatment with NS-398 sensitized 8 of 16 B-CLL samples to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data indicate that COX-2 overexpression likely represents an additional mechanism of resistance to apoptosis in B-CLL and that pharmacological suppression of COX-2 might enhance chemotherapy-mediated apoptosis. PMID:16314473

  12. Evaluation of CD25-positive cells in relation to the subtypes and prognoses in various lymphoid tumours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Noriyuki; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Tsuboi, Masaya; Kagawa, Yumiko; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25) expression has been reported in human lymphoid tumours and suggested to correlate with the prognosis. In this study, we detected CD25-positive cells in various types of lymphoid tumours in dogs. Immunohistochemical analyses of the tissues from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n=6), T-zone lymphoma (TZL) (n=5), and follicular lymphoma (FL) (n=2) revealed that cells strongly positive for CD25 were observed generally in accordance with lymphoma cell localization. CD25-positive cells were consistently detected in TZL and FL cases; however, the number of CD25-positive cells was variable among DLBCL cases. Furthermore, we evaluated the rate of CD25-positive cells by flow cytometric analysis in 29 dogs with lymphoid malignancies, including high-grade B-cell lymphoma (n=17), TZL (n=5), FL (n=2), cutaneous lymphoma (n=2), and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=3). CD25-positivity in the lymph node cells was significantly higher in dogs with high-grade B-cell lymphoma (mean±SD, 49.6±31.3%) or TZL (mean±SD, 80.2±10.0%) than that in healthy dogs (mean±SD, 9.8±2.8%). In prognostic analysis of 15 cases with high-grade B-cell lymphoma, the progression-free survival was significantly shorter in CD25-high group than that in CD25-low group. The results obtained in this study are useful for subtype differentiation and prognostic analysis of canine lymphomas and future development of molecular-targeted therapy directed at CD25. PMID:27090625

  13. Identification of stable reference genes for quantitative PCR in cells derived from chicken lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Borowska, D; Rothwell, L; Bailey, R A; Watson, K; Kaiser, P

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful technique for quantification of gene expression, especially genes involved in immune responses. Although qPCR is a very efficient and sensitive tool, variations in the enzymatic efficiency, quality of RNA and the presence of inhibitors can lead to errors. Therefore, qPCR needs to be normalised to obtain reliable results and allow comparison. The most common approach is to use reference genes as internal controls in qPCR analyses. In this study, expression of seven genes, including β-actin (ACTB), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-glucuronidase (GUSB), TATA box binding protein (TBP), α-tubulin (TUBAT) and 28S ribosomal RNA (r28S), was determined in cells isolated from chicken lymphoid tissues and stimulated with three different mitogens. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. The results from both geNorm and NormFinder were that the three most stably expressed genes in this panel were TBP, GAPDH and r28S. BestKeeper did not generate clear answers because of the highly heterogeneous sample set. Based on these data we will include TBP in future qPCR normalisation. The study shows the importance of appropriate reference gene normalisation in other tissues before qPCR analysis. PMID:26872627

  14. Stage IV intramucosal gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Shouji; Sueki, Ryouta; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Iwao, Noriaki; Kirito, Keita; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A discolored area was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric upper body. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the second sonographic layer indicating that the depth of invasion was confined to the mucosa. A urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test were negative. A computed tomography scan showed a consolidation at the right lung. Gastric biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated a monotonous proliferation of atypical small lymphocytes. A diagnosis of gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) was made. The clinical stage was stage IV. A genetic analysis showed rearrangement of the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and identical clones in both lesions. An API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected in the gastric lesion. After H. pylori eradication treatment, combination treatment with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) was performed; 6 months later an endoscopy revealed complete disappearance of the lesion. Multiple gastric biopsies showed no infiltrating atypical lymphocytes. Similarly, the lesion in the lung showed complete remission (CR) on CT and TBLB. This report shows that a gastric MALT lymphoma located in the mucosa and disseminated to the lung maintained CR by R-CHOP. PMID:26181449

  15. Characterisation of inorganic microparticles in pigment cells of human gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J J; Ainley, C C; Harvey, R S; Mason, I M; Kendall, M D; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Thompson, R P

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages at the base of human gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), become loaded early in life with dark granular pigment that is rich in aluminium, silicon, and titanium. The molecular characteristics, intracellular distribution, and source of this pigment is described. Laser scanning and electron microscopy showed that pigmented macrophages were often closely related to collagen fibres and plasma cells in GALT of both small and large intestine and contained numerous phagolysosomes, previously described as granules, that are rich in electron dense submicron sized particles. Morphological assessment, x ray microanalysis, and image electron energy loss spectroscopy showed three distinct types of microparticle: type I - spheres of titanium dioxide, 100-200 nm diameter, characterised as the synthetic food-additive polymorph anatase; type II - aluminosilicates, < 100-400 nm in length, generally of flaky appearance, often with adsorbed surface iron, and mostly characteristic of the natural clay mineral kaolinite; and type III - mixed environmental silicates without aluminium, 100-700 nm in length and of variable morphology. Thus, this cellular pigment that is partly derived from food additives and partly from the environment is composed of inert inorganic microparticles and loaded into phagolysosomes of macrophages within the GALT of all human subjects. These observations suggest that the pathogenicity of this pigment should be further investigated since, in susceptible individuals, the same intracellular distribution of these three types of submicron particle causes chronic latent granulomatous inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8675092

  16. Gastric B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a clinicopathological study in 56 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, J M; Montalban, C; Obeso, G; Piris, M A; Rivas, M C

    1992-01-01

    Clinico-pathological features of 56 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. All cases were regraded according to a classification of Isaacson et al into high grade and low grade B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A third group of mixed grade was recognised in 11 patients with low grade who also had occasional areas of high grade. Low grade and mixed grade patients had a 100% actuarial survival at 156 months, which was significantly better (p < 0.01) than that of 52% for patients with high grade disease. Different treatment methods--surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both--did not significantly affect survival. Low grade tumours occurred mainly in men with a history of several years, and who presented with non-specific gastric symptoms without remarkable exploratory or laboratory findings: most patients were in stage IE-IIE and achieved remission and cure. High grade can have a shorter history, systemic symptoms, abnormal exploratory and laboratory findings, gastric tumour masses, stage IV disease, and a worse outcome. The only significant prognostic factors for survival were the type of lymphoma and stage IV disease. These findings support the Isaacson classification system which separates two extreme groups of gastric lymphomas with different morphology, behaviour, and outcome. The presence of limited areas of high grade in a specimen showing low grade does not change the outcome but suggests that primary gastric lymphoma forms a continuum between these extreme types. PMID:1446850

  17. Dynamics of CCR5 Expression by CD4+ T Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Tham, Irene C.; Carville, Angela C.; Shvetz, Daniel E.; Forand, Amy E.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2000-01-01

    Early viral replication and profound CD4+ T-cell depletion occur preferentially in intestinal tissues of macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Here we show that a much higher percentage of CD4+ T cells in the intestine express CCR5 compared with those found in the peripheral blood, spleen, or lymph nodes. In addition, the selectivity and extent of the CD4+ T-cell loss in SIV infection may depend upon these cells coexpressing CCR5 and having a “memory” phenotype (CD45RA−). Following intravenous infection with SIVmac251, memory CD4+ CCR5+ T cells were selectively eliminated within 14 days in all major lymphoid tissues (intestine, spleen, and lymph nodes). However, the effect on CD4+ T-cell numbers was most profound in the intestine, where cells of this phenotype predominate. The CD4+ T cells that remain after 14 days of infection lacked CCR5 and/or were naive (CD45RA+). Furthermore, when animals in the terminal stages of SIV infection (with AIDS) were examined, virtually no CCR5-expressing CD4+ T cells were found in lymphoid tissues, and all of the remaining CD4+ T cells were naive and coexpressed CXCR4. These findings suggest that chemokine receptor usage determines which cells are targeted for SIV infection and elimination in vivo. PMID:11069995

  18. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Aorta Immunity and Protect against Atherosclerosis via Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lymphotoxin β Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Desheng; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Ma, Zhe; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Grassia, Gianluca; MacRitchie, Neil; Dever, Gary; Gordon, Peter; Burton, Francis L.; Ialenti, Armando; Sabir, Suleman R.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Weber, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Teupser, Daniel; Habenicht, Livia; Beer, Michael; Grabner, Rolf; Maffia, Pasquale; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge during nonresolving peripheral inflammation, but their impact on disease progression remains unknown. We have found in aged Apoe−/− mice that artery TLOs (ATLOs) controlled highly territorialized aorta T cell responses. ATLOs promoted T cell recruitment, primed CD4+ T cells, generated CD4+, CD8+, T regulatory (Treg) effector and central memory cells, converted naive CD4+ T cells into induced Treg cells, and presented antigen by an unusual set of dendritic cells and B cells. Meanwhile, vascular smooth muscle cell lymphotoxin β receptors (VSMC-LTβRs) protected against atherosclerosis by maintaining structure, cellularity, and size of ATLOs though VSMC-LTβRs did not affect secondary lymphoid organs: Atherosclerosis was markedly exacerbated in Apoe−/−Ltbr−/− and to a similar extent in aged Apoe−/−Ltbrfl/flTagln-cre mice. These data support the conclusion that the immune system employs ATLOs to organize aorta T cell homeostasis during aging and that VSMC-LTβRs participate in atherosclerosis protection via ATLOs. PMID:26084025

  19. The helminth T2 RNase ω1 promotes metabolic homeostasis in an IL-33- and group 2 innate lymphoid cell-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hams, Emily; Bermingham, Rachel; Wurlod, Felicity A; Hogan, Andrew E; O'Shea, Donal; Preston, Roger J; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Fallon, Padraic G

    2016-02-01

    Induction of a type 2 cellular response in the white adipose tissue leads to weight loss and improves glucose homeostasis in obese animals. Injection of obese mice with recombinant helminth-derived Schistosoma mansoni egg-derived ω1 (ω1), a potent inducer of type 2 activation, improves metabolic status involving a mechanism reliant upon release of the type 2 initiator cytokine IL-33. IL-33 initiates the accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), eosinophils, and alternatively activated macrophages in the adipose tissue. IL-33 release from cells in the adipose tissue is mediated by the RNase activity of ω1; however, the ability of ω1 to improve metabolic status is reliant upon effective binding of ω1 to CD206. We demonstrate a novel mechanism for RNase-mediated release of IL-33 inducing ILC2-dependent improvements in the metabolic status of obese animals. PMID:26490658

  20. The Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Defect in Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficient Mice Is Associated with T Cell Hyperactivation during Intestinal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wagage, Sagie; Harms Pritchard, Gretchen; Dawson, Lucas; Buza, Elizabeth L; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Hunter, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal infection with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii results in the translocation of commensal bacteria to peripheral organs and the development of a T cell response specific to the microbiota. In naïve mice, the recently described RORγt+ group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) population plays a critical role in promoting intestinal barrier function and limiting responses to gut-resident commensal bacteria. Given this role for group 3 ILCs, studies were performed to evaluate whether these cells might influence the immune response to mucosal infection with T. gondii. Phenotypic characterization of RORγt+ ILCs in T. gondii infected mice revealed that this population decreased following challenge but the population that remained expressed costimulatory molecules and IL-22. One factor that influences the maintenance of RORγt+ ILCs is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and Ahr-/- mice have a marked defect in the lamina propria group 3 ILC population. When Ahr-/- mice were challenged with T. gondii, they lost more weight than wild type controls. This disease course in Ahr-/- animals was associated with increased T cell responses to Toxoplasma antigen and crude commensal antigen preparations. Together, these data suggest that group 3 ILCs have a role in limiting T cell activation during intestinal infection. PMID:26010337

  1. The Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Defect in Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficient Mice Is Associated with T Cell Hyperactivation during Intestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wagage, Sagie; Harms Pritchard, Gretchen; Dawson, Lucas; Buza, Elizabeth L.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal infection with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii results in the translocation of commensal bacteria to peripheral organs and the development of a T cell response specific to the microbiota. In naïve mice, the recently described RORγt+ group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) population plays a critical role in promoting intestinal barrier function and limiting responses to gut-resident commensal bacteria. Given this role for group 3 ILCs, studies were performed to evaluate whether these cells might influence the immune response to mucosal infection with T. gondii. Phenotypic characterization of RORγt+ ILCs in T. gondii infected mice revealed that this population decreased following challenge but the population that remained expressed costimulatory molecules and IL-22. One factor that influences the maintenance of RORγt+ ILCs is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, and Ahr-/- mice have a marked defect in the lamina propria group 3 ILC population. When Ahr-/- mice were challenged with T. gondii, they lost more weight than wild type controls. This disease course in Ahr-/- animals was associated with increased T cell responses to Toxoplasma antigen and crude commensal antigen preparations. Together, these data suggest that group 3 ILCs have a role in limiting T cell activation during intestinal infection. PMID:26010337

  2. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras.

  3. IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-7 to promote ex vivo expansion of T lymphoid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Gandhapudi, Siva K.; Tan, Chibing; Marino, Julie H.; Taylor, Ashlee A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Gaikwad, Joel; Van De Wiele, C. Justin; Wren, Jonathan D.; Teague, T. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Although IL-18 has not previously been shown to promote T lymphopoiesis, results obtained via a novel data mining algorithm (GAMMA), led us to explore a predicted role for this cytokine in T cell development. IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been extensively characterized as a mediator of inflammatory immune responses. To assess a potential role for IL-18 in T cell development, we sort-purified mouse bone marrow derived common lymphoid progenitor cells (CLP), early thymic progenitors (ETP) and DN2 thymocytes and cultured these populations on OP9-DL4 stromal layers in the presence or absence of IL-18 and/or IL-7. After one week of culture, IL-18 promoted proliferation and accelerated differentiation of ETPs to the DN3 stage, similar in efficiency to IL-7. IL-18 showed synergy with IL-7 and enhanced proliferation of both the thymus derived progenitor cells and the bone marrow derived common lymphoid progenitor cells. The synergistic effect on the ETP population was further characterized and found to correlate with increased surface expression of c-Kit and IL-7 receptors on the IL-18-treated cells. In summary, we successfully validated the GAMMA prediction that IL-18 affects T lymphopoiesis and demonstrated that IL-18 can positively impact bone marrow lymphopoiesis and T cell development, presumably via interaction with the c-Kit and IL-7 signaling axis. PMID:25780034

  4. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Stein, Anthony; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Palmer, Joycelynne; Liu, An; Rosenthal, Joseph; Forman, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ≥12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ≥10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk.

  5. The PANE1 gene encodes a novel human minor histocompatibility antigen that is selectively expressed in B-lymphoid cells and B-CLL

    PubMed Central

    Brickner, Anthony G.; Evans, Anne M.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Xuereb, Suzanne M.; Feng, Xin; Nishida, Tetsuya; Fairfull, Liane; Ferrell, Robert E.; Foon, Kenneth A.; Hunt, Donald F.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Engelhard, Victor H.; Riddell, Stanley R.; Warren, Edus H.

    2006-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg's) are peptides encoded by polymorphic genes that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and recognized by T cells in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. Here we report that an alternative transcript of the proliferation-associated nuclear element 1 (PANE1) gene encodes a novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0301-restricted mHAg that is selectively expressed in B-lymphoid cells. The antigenic peptide is entirely encoded within a unique exon not present in other PANE1 transcripts. Sequencing of PANE1 alleles in mHAg-positive and mHAg-negative cells demonstrates that differential T-cell recognition is due to a single nucleotide polymorphism within the variant exon that replaces an arginine codon with a translation termination codon. The PANE1 transcript that encodes the mHAg is expressed at high levels in resting CD19+ B cells and B-lineage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells, and at significantly lower levels in activated B cells. Activation of B-CLL cells through CD40 ligand (CD40L) stimulation decreases expression of the mHAg-encoding PANE1 transcript and reciprocally increases expression of PANE1 transcripts lacking the mHAg-encoding exon. These studies suggest distinct roles for different PANE1 isoforms in resting compared with activated CD19+ cells, and identify PANE1 as a potential therapeutic target in B-CLL. PMID:16391015

  6. Critical B-lymphoid cell intrinsic role of endogenous MCL-1 in c-MYC-induced lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Grabow, S; Kelly, G L; Delbridge, A R D; Kelly, P N; Bouillet, P; Adams, J M; Strasser, A

    2016-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is critical for tumorigenesis, and sustained survival of nascent neoplastic cells may depend upon the endogenous levels of pro-survival BCL-2 family members. Indeed, previous studies using gene-targeted mice revealed that BCL-XL, but surprisingly not BCL-2, is critical for the development of c-MYC-induced pre-B/B lymphomas. However, it remains unclear whether another pro-survival BCL-2 relative contributes to their development. MCL-1 is an intriguing candidate, because it is required for cell survival during early B-lymphocyte differentiation. It is expressed abnormally high in several types of human B-cell lymphomas and is implicated in their resistance to chemotherapy. To test the B-cell intrinsic requirement for endogenous MCL-1 in lymphoma development, we conditionally deleted Mcl-1 in B-lymphoid cells of Eμ-Myc transgenic mice. We found that MCL-1 loss in early B-lymphoid progenitors delayed MYC-driven lymphomagenesis. Moreover, the lymphomas that arose when MCL-1 levels were diminished appeared to have been selected for reduced levels of BIM and/or increased levels of BCL-XL. These results underscore the importance of MCL-1 in lymphoma development and show that alterations in the levels of other cell death regulators can compensate for deficiencies in MCL-1 expression. PMID:26962682

  7. Critical B-lymphoid cell intrinsic role of endogenous MCL-1 in c-MYC-induced lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, S; Kelly, G L; Delbridge, A R D; Kelly, P N; Bouillet, P; Adams, J M; Strasser, A

    2016-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is critical for tumorigenesis, and sustained survival of nascent neoplastic cells may depend upon the endogenous levels of pro-survival BCL-2 family members. Indeed, previous studies using gene-targeted mice revealed that BCL-XL, but surprisingly not BCL-2, is critical for the development of c-MYC-induced pre-B/B lymphomas. However, it remains unclear whether another pro-survival BCL-2 relative contributes to their development. MCL-1 is an intriguing candidate, because it is required for cell survival during early B-lymphocyte differentiation. It is expressed abnormally high in several types of human B-cell lymphomas and is implicated in their resistance to chemotherapy. To test the B-cell intrinsic requirement for endogenous MCL-1 in lymphoma development, we conditionally deleted Mcl-1 in B-lymphoid cells of Eμ-Myc transgenic mice. We found that MCL-1 loss in early B-lymphoid progenitors delayed MYC-driven lymphomagenesis. Moreover, the lymphomas that arose when MCL-1 levels were diminished appeared to have been selected for reduced levels of BIM and/or increased levels of BCL-XL. These results underscore the importance of MCL-1 in lymphoma development and show that alterations in the levels of other cell death regulators can compensate for deficiencies in MCL-1 expression. PMID:26962682

  8. A high density of tertiary lymphoid structure B cells in lung tumors is associated with increased CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire clonality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Germain, Claire; Liu, Zheng; Sebastian, Yinong; Devi, Priyanka; Knockaert, Samantha; Brohawn, Philip; Lehmann, Kim; Damotte, Diane; Validire, Pierre; Yao, Yihong; Valge-Archer, Viia; Hammond, Scott A; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Higgs, Brandon W

    2015-01-01

    T and B cell receptor (TCR and BCR, respectively) Vβ or immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 sequencing allows monitoring of repertoire changes through recognition, clonal expansion, affinity maturation, and T or B cell activation in response to antigen. TCR and BCR repertoire analysis can advance understanding of antitumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. TCR and BCR repertoires of sorted CD4+, CD8+ or CD19+ cells in tumor, non-tumoral distant tissue (NT), and peripheral compartments (blood/draining lymph node [P]) from 47 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (agemedian = 68 y) were sequenced. The clonotype spectra were assessed among different tissues and correlated with clinical and immunological parameters. In all tissues, CD4+ and CD8+ TCR repertoires had greater clonality relative to CD19+ BCR. CD4+ T cells exhibited greater clonality in NT compared to tumor (p = 0.002) and P (p < 0.001), concentrated among older patients (age > 68). Younger patients exhibited greater CD4+ T cell diversity in P compared to older patients (p = 0.05), and greater CD4+ T cell clonality in tumor relative to P (p < 0.001), with fewer shared clonotypes between tumor and P than older patients (p = 0.04). More interestingly, greater CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clonality in tumor and P, respectively (both p = 0.05), correlated with high density of tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) B cells, a biomarker of higher overall survival in NSCLC. Results indicate distinct adaptive immune responses in NSCLC, where peripheral T cell diversity is modulated by age, and tumor T cell clonal expansion is favored by the presence of TLSs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26587322

  9. Next-Generation mRNA Sequencing Reveals Pyroptosis-Induced CD4+ T Cell Death in Early Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wuxun; Demers, Andrew J.; Ma, Fangrui; Kang, Guobin; Yuan, Zhe; Wan, Yanmin; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqing; Lewis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lymphoid tissues (LTs) are the principal sites where human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates and virus-host interactions take place, resulting in immunopathology in the form of inflammation, immune activation, and CD4+ T cell death. The HIV-1 pathogenesis in LTs has been extensively studied; however, our understanding of the virus-host interactions in the very early stages of infection remains incomplete. We investigated virus-host interactions in the rectal draining lymph nodes (dLNs) of rhesus macaques at different times after intrarectal inoculation (days postinoculation [dpi]) with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). At 3 dpi, 103 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected using next-generation mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). At 6 and 10 dpi, concomitant with increased SIV replication, 366 and 1,350 DEGs were detected, respectively, including upregulation of genes encoding proteins that play a role in innate antiviral immune responses, inflammation, and immune activation. Notably, genes (IFI16, caspase-1, and interleukin 1β [IL-1β]) in the canonical pyroptosis pathway were significantly upregulated in expression. We further validated increased pyroptosis using flow cytometry and found that the number of CD4+ T cells expressing activated caspase-1 protein, the hallmark of ongoing pyroptosis, were significantly increased, which is correlated with decreased CD4+ T cells in dLNs. Our results demonstrated that pyroptosis contributes to the CD4+ T cell death in vivo in early SIV infection, which suggests that pyroptosis may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SIV, and by extension, that of HIV-1, since pyroptosis not only induces CD4+ T cell death but also amplifies inflammation and immune activation. Thus, blocking CD4+ T cell pyroptosis could be a complementary treatment to antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Although secondary lymphoid tissues (LTs) are principal sites of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication

  10. A tumor-related lymphoid progenitor population supports hierarchical tumor organization in canine B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Endicott, Melissa M.; Jubala, Cristan M.; Helm, Karen M.; Burnett, Robert C.; Husbands, Brian D.; Borgatti, Antonella; Henson, Michael S.; Burgess, Kristine E.; Bell, Jerold S.; Kisseberth, William C.; Valli, Victor E.; Cutter, Gary R.; Avery, Anne C.; Hahn, Kevin A.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumors have heterogeneous properties, which could be explained by the existence of hierarchically and biologically distinct tumor cells such as tumor-initiating cells (TICs). This model is clinically important, as TICs are promising targets for cancer therapies. However, TICs in spontaneous B-cell lymphoma have not been conclusively identified. Hypothesis/Objectives Tumor cells with a progenitor phenotype exist in B-cell lymphoma, reflecting a hierarchical organization. Animals Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with previously untreated B-cell lymphoma and six healthy dogs. Methods This was a prospective study. Flow cytometry was used to identify lymphoid progenitor cells (LPCs) that co-expressed hematopoietic progenitor antigens CD34, CD117 (KIT), and CD133, with lymphoid differentiation markers CD21 and/or CD22 in B-cell lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangements was used to analyze clonality and relatedness of tumor populations. A xenograft model using NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ−/− mice was adapted to expand and serially transplant primary canine B-cell lymphoma. Results LPCs were significantly expanded in lymph node samples from 28 dogs with B-cell lymphoma compared to six healthy dogs (p=0.0022). LPCs contained a clonal antigen receptor gene rearrangement identical to that of the bulk of tumor cells. Canine B-cell lymphoma xenografts in recipient mice that maintained LPCs in the tumors were recurrently observed. Conclusions and clinical importance These results suggest the presence of a hierarchy of tumor cells in canine B-cell lymphoma as has been demonstrated in other cancers. These findings have the potential to impact not only the understanding of lymphoma pathogenesis but also the development of lymphoma therapies by providing novel targets for therapy. PMID:21777289

  11. Discordance in lymphoid tissue recovery following stem cell transplantation in rhesus macaques: an in vivo imaging study.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Robert E; Srinivasula, Sharat; Uchida, Naoya; Kim, Insook; St Claire, Alexis; Duralde, Gorka; DeGrange, Paula; St Claire, Marisa; Reba, Richard C; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Krouse, Allen E; Metzger, Mark E; Paik, Chang H; Lane, H Clifford; Tisdale, John F; Di Mascio, Michele

    2015-12-10

    Ionizing irradiation is used routinely to induce myeloablation and immunosuppression. However, it has not been possible to evaluate the extent of ablation without invasive biopsy. For lymphoid recovery, peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes (PBLs) have been used for analysis, but they represent <2% of cells in lymphoid tissues (LTs). Using a combination of single-photon emission computed tomography imaging and a radiotracer ((99m)Tc-labeled rhesus immunoglobulin G1 anti-CD4R1 (Fab')2), we sequentially imaged CD4(+) cell recovery in rhesus macaques following total body irradiation (TBI) and reinfusion of vector-transduced, autologous CD34(+) cells. Our results present for the first time a sequential, real-time, noninvasive method to evaluate CD4(+) cell recovery. Importantly, despite myeloablation of circulating leukocytes following TBI, total depletion of CD4(+) lymphocytes in LTs such as the spleen is not achieved. The impact of TBI on LTs and PBLs is discordant, in which as few as 32.4% of CD4(+) cells were depleted from the spleen. In addition, despite full lymphocyte recovery in the spleen and PB, lymph nodes have suboptimal recovery. This highlights concerns about residual disease, endogenous contributions to recovery, and residual LT damage following ionizing irradiation. Such methodologies also have direct application to immunosuppressive therapy and other immunosuppressive disorders, such as those associated with viral monitoring. PMID:26492933

  12. Retinoic acid expression associates with enhanced IL-22 production by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells and attenuation of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Lisa A.; Jones, Sarah A.; Raverdeau, Mathilde; Higgs, Rowan; Stefanska, Anna; Groom, Joanna R.; Misiak, Alicja; Dungan, Lara S.; Sutton, Caroline E.; Streubel, Gundula; Bracken, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, modulates mucosal T helper cell responses. Here we examined the role of RA in regulating IL-22 production by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells in intestinal inflammation. RA significantly enhanced IL-22 production by γδ T cells stimulated in vitro with IL-1β or IL-18 and IL-23. In vivo RA attenuated colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate treatment or Citrobacter rodentium infection. This was associated with a significant increase in IL-22 secretion by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In addition, RA treatment enhanced production of the IL-22–responsive antimicrobial peptides Reg3β and Reg3γ in the colon. The attenuating effects of RA on colitis were reversed by treatment with an anti–IL-22 neutralizing antibody, demonstrating that RA mediates protection by enhancing IL-22 production. To define the molecular events involved, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and found that RA promoted binding of RA receptor to the IL-22 promoter in γδ T cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular events controlling IL-22 transcription and suggest that one key outcome of RA signaling may be to shape early intestinal immune responses by promoting IL-22 synthesis by γδ T cells and innate lymphoid cells. PMID:23690441

  13. COUPLING OF V(D)J RECOMBINATION TO THE CELL CYCLE SUPPRESSES GENOMIC INSTABILITY AND LYMPHOID TUMORIGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Reynolds, Taylor L.; Shan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Summary V(D)J gene segment recombination is linked to the cell cycle by the periodic phosphorylation and destruction of the RAG-2 protein at the G1-to-S cell cycle transition. To examine the function of this coupling, we constructed mice in which the phosphorylation site at threonine 490 of RAG-2 was mutated to alanine. The RAG-2 T490A mutation uncoupled DNA cleavage from cell cycle and promoted aberrant recombination. Similar aberrant recombination products were observed in mice deficient in the Skp2 ubiquitin ligase subunit, which is required for periodic destruction of RAG-2. On a p53-deficient background the RAG-2 T490A mutation induced lymphoid malignancies characterized by clonal chromosomal translocations involving antigen receptor genes. Taken together these observations provide a direct link between the periodic destruction of RAG-2 and lymphoid tumorigenesis. We infer that cell cycle control of the V(D)J recombinase limits the potential genomic damage that could otherwise result from RAG-mediated DNA cleavage. PMID:21349429

  14. Functional CD25- and CD25+ mucosal regulatory T cells are induced in gut-draining lymphoid tissue within 48 h after oral antigen application.

    PubMed

    Hauet-Broere, Femke; Unger, Wendy W J; Garssen, Johan; Hoijer, Maarten A; Kraal, Georg; Samsom, Janneke N

    2003-10-01

    Oral antigen application induces tolerance, leading to suppression of a subsequent systemic challenge with this antigen. The suppression is mediated by mucosal regulatory T (Tr) cells that may differentiate from naive peripheral T cells in the gut-draining lymphoid tissue. However, little is known about the initial steps of this differentiation process. In this study we show that 48 h after oral OVA treatment, antigen-specific T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) were activated and had divided up to four times. The first division was already seen in PP after 24 h. Analysis of surface marker expression and cytokine secretion of the dividing antigen-specific T cells revealed that they sequentially obtained an activation- and memory-like phenotype. These cells secreted IL-2 in most stages of division but only transiently IFN-gamma whereas no IL-4 or IL-10 secretion was detected. Remarkably, 48 h after antigen application, isolated dividing cells were suppressive, as they transferred tolerance to naive mice. Even though CD25 was expressed heterogeneously, both CD25(+) and CD25(-) OVA-specific T cells from MLN could transfer tolerance. Together these findings show that differentiation of functional Tr cells occurs in the MLN and PP within 2 days after antigen ingestion and involves the generation of CD25(+) and CD25(-) antigen-specific T cells. PMID:14515264

  15. ICOS:ICOS-Ligand interaction is required for type 2 innate lymphoid cell function, homeostasis and induction of airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Maazi, Hadi; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Suzuki, Yuzo; Rigas, Diamanda; Soroosh, Pejman; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Akbari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Allergic asthma is caused by Th2 cell-type cytokines in response to allergen exposure. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a newly identified subset of immune cells that besides Th2 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma by producing copious amount of IL-5 and IL-13 which cause eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. ILC2s express ICOS, a T cell costimulatory molecule, with currently unknown function. Here we showed that lack of ICOS on murine ILC2s and blocking ICOS:ICOS-Ligand interaction in human ILC2s, reduced AHR and lung inflammation. ILC2s expressed both ICOS and ICOS-Ligand and the ICOS:ICOS-Ligand interaction promoted cytokine production and survival in ILC2s through STAT5 signaling. Thus, ICOS:ICOS-Ligand signaling pathway is critically involved in ILC2 function and homeostasis. PMID:25769613

  16. Production of a monoclonal antibody reactive with human dendritic reticulum cells and its use in the immunohistological analysis of lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, M; Gerdes, J; Abdulaziz, Z; Stein, H; Mason, D Y

    1983-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (designated R4/23) which reacts strongly with human dendritic reticulum cells (DRC) is described. Immunoperoxidase staining of tissue cryostat sections revealed that this antibody reacts strongly with DRC in lymphoid follicles (both primary and secondary), and also weakly with marginal zone splenic B cells and with some peripheral follicular mantle B lymphocytes in lymph node cortical follicles. The value of antibody R4/23 is that it allows the distribution of DRC in reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissue to be clearly delineated. Of particular interest is the fact that all cases of follicular lymphoma of germinal centre cell origin are consistently accompanied by a proliferation of DRC, even when the neoplasm is present in non-lymphoid tissue--for example, in the kidney. In contrast, DRC in B cell lymphomas of non-germinal centre origin are partially or totally obliterated. Images PMID:6338047

  17. Validation of Intratumoral T-bet+ Lymphoid Cells as Predictors of Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Pinnaduwage, Dushanthi; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Bull, Shelley B; Andrulis, Irene L

    2016-01-01

    We previously observed T-bet(+) lymphocytes to be associated with a good prognosis in a cohort of women with familial breast cancer. To validate this finding, we evaluated lymphocyte T-bet expression in an independent unselected prospectively accrued series of women with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma. T-bet and clinicopathologic data were available for 614 women. Hormone receptors, HER2, Ki-67, CK5, EGFR, p53, and T-bet status were determined using IHC and/or biochemical methods. Tumors were assigned to luminal A, luminal B, HER2, and basal subtypes based on the expression of IHC markers. Multiple cutpoints were examined in a univariate penalized Cox model to stratify tumors into T-bet(+/high) and T-bet(-/low). Fisher exact test was used to analyze T-bet associations with clinicopathologic variables, IHC markers, and molecular subtype. Survival analyses were by the Cox proportional hazards model. All tests were two sided. A test with a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. T-bet(+/high) tumor status was significantly associated with large tumor size, high grade, hormone receptor negativity, CK5, EGFR and p53 positivity, high Ki-67, and basal subtype. With a median follow-up of 96.5 months, T-bet(-/low) tumor status was associated with a reduced disease-free survival compared with T-bet(+/high) tumor status in multivariate analysis (P = 0.0027; relative risk = 5.62; 95% confidence intervals, 1.48-50.19). Despite being associated with adverse clinicopathologic characteristics, T-bet(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphoid cells are associated with a favorable outcome. This supports their role in Th1-mediated antitumor activity and may provide insight for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26546451

  18. GSK3β Inhibition Promotes Efficient Myeloid and Lymphoid Hematopoiesis from Non-human Primate-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Saritha S.; Maufort, John; Kumar, Akhilesh; Zhang, Jiuchun; Smuga-Otto, Kimberley; Thomson, James A.; Slukvin, Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Advances in the scalable production of blood cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) open prospects for the clinical translation of de novo generated blood products, and evoke the need for preclinical evaluation of their efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity in large animal models. Due to substantial similarities with humans, the outcomes of cellular therapies in non-human primate (NHP) models can be readily extrapolated to a clinical setting. However, the use of this model is hampered by relatively low efficiency of blood generation and lack of lymphoid potential in NHP-iPSC differentiation cultures. Here, we generated transgene-free iPSCs from different NHP species and showed the efficient induction of mesoderm, myeloid, and lymphoid cells from these iPSCs using a GSK3β inhibitor. Overall, our studies enable scalable production of hematopoietic progenitors from NHP-iPSCs, and lay the foundation for preclinical testing of iPSC-based therapies for blood and immune system diseases in an NHP model. PMID:26805448

  19. Impaired lymphoid chemokine-mediated migration due to a block on the chemokine receptor switch in human cytomegalovirus-infected dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Moutaftsi, Magdalena; Brennan, Paul; Spector, Stephen A; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2004-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) migration from the site of infection to the site of T-cell priming is a crucial event in the generation of antiviral T-cell responses. Here we present to our knowledge the first functional evidence that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) blocks the migration of infected monocyte-derived DCs toward lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. DC migration is blocked by viral impairment of the chemokine receptor switch at the level of the expression of CCR7 molecules. The inhibition occurs with immediate-early-early kinetics, and viral interference with NF-kappaB signaling is likely to be at least partially responsible for the lack of CCR7 expression. DCs which migrate from the infected cultures are HCMV antigen negative, and consequently they do not stimulate HCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells, while CD4(+)-T-cell activation is not impaired. Although CD8(+) T cells can also be activated by alternative antigen presentation mechanisms, the spatial segregation of naive T cells and infected DCs seems a potent mechanism of delaying the generation of primary CD8(+)-T-cell responses and aiding early viral spread. PMID:14990723

  20. Impaired Lymphoid Chemokine-Mediated Migration due to a Block on the Chemokine Receptor Switch in Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moutaftsi, Magdalena; Brennan, Paul; Spector, Stephen A.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) migration from the site of infection to the site of T-cell priming is a crucial event in the generation of antiviral T-cell responses. Here we present to our knowledge the first functional evidence that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) blocks the migration of infected monocyte-derived DCs toward lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. DC migration is blocked by viral impairment of the chemokine receptor switch at the level of the expression of CCR7 molecules. The inhibition occurs with immediate-early-early kinetics, and viral interference with NF-κB signaling is likely to be at least partially responsible for the lack of CCR7 expression. DCs which migrate from the infected cultures are HCMV antigen negative, and consequently they do not stimulate HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells, while CD4+-T-cell activation is not impaired. Although CD8+ T cells can also be activated by alternative antigen presentation mechanisms, the spatial segregation of naive T cells and infected DCs seems a potent mechanism of delaying the generation of primary CD8+-T-cell responses and aiding early viral spread. PMID:14990723

  1. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  2. Establishment of T-lymphoid cell lines from Morroccan patients with tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Farouqi, B; Yahyaoui, M; Alaoui, F M; Noraz, N; Sekkat, S; Chkili, T; Desgranges, C; Benslimane, A

    1992-07-01

    Two T-cell lines were established from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of two Moroccan patients with tropical spastic paraparesis and then named PR52 and PR144. The two cell lines showed a T lineage of activated CD4+ with high density of Tac+ (IL2 receptor). No expression of CD8 was observed. The virus particles were detected by reverse transcriptase activity and the viral antigens were also detected by immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blot. After six months of culture greater than 90% of the cells exhibited HTLVI antigen by IF. Lysate virus particles on Western blot analysis revealed p19,p24, and p53 gag protein similar to those detected in C91/PL virus particles from an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patient. gp46 and gp61 were also weakly detected. These two T-cell lines established will serve as substrate for further comparative studies on TSP and ATL isolates. PMID:1520534

  3. Immunotherapy of cancer using local administration of lymphoid cells transformed by IL-2 cDNA and constitutively producing IL-2.

    PubMed

    Bubeník, J; Símová, J; Jandlová, T

    1990-02-01

    Peritumoral administration of X63-m-IL-2 cells transformed by IL-2 cDNA and constitutively producing large quantities of recombinant IL-2 mediated regression of X63-Ag8.653 plasmocytoma and MC14 sarcoma transplanted in syngeneic mice. Injections of the IL-2-producing cells containing an inserted, modified IL-2 gene effectively inhibited tumour growth also in allogeneic recipients. Activation of murine spleen cells in vitro by co-cultivation with X63-m-IL-2 cells gave rise to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell populations cytotoxic for the X63-Ag8.653 plasmocytoma and MC14 sarcoma. The results suggest that peritumoral administration of lymphoid cells transformed with IL-2 cDNA and constitutively producing IL-2 in the immediate tumour vicinity is sufficient for the effective activation of local IL-2-dependent tumour defence mechanisms and, therefore, can be considered a novel, genetic approach to the immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:2347603

  4. Multiple Hemopoietic Defects and Lymphoid Hyperplasia in Mice Lacking the Transcriptional Activation Domain of the c-Rel Protein

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Daniel; Cheng, Janet; Lewin, Anne; Warr, Glenn; Yang, Hyekyung; Rizzo, Cheryl; Rosas, Fabio; Snapper, Clifford; Bravo, Rodrigo

    1998-01-01

    The c-rel protooncogene encodes a member of the Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcriptional factors. To assess the role of the transcriptional activation domain of c-Rel in vivo, we generated mice expressing a truncated c-Rel (Δc-Rel) that lacks the COOH-terminal region, but retains a functional Rel homology domain. Mice with an homozygous mutation in the c-rel region encoding the COOH terminus of c-Rel (c-relΔCT/ΔCT) display marked defects in proliferative and immune functions. c-relΔCT/ΔCT animals present histopathological alterations of hemopoietic tissues, such as an enlarged spleen due to lymphoid hyperplasia, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and bone marrow hypoplasia. In older c-relΔCT/ΔCT mice, lymphoid hyperplasia was also detected in lymph nodes, liver, lung, and stomach. These animals present a more severe phenotype than mice lacking the entire c-Rel protein. Thus, in c-relΔCT/ΔCT mice, the lack of c-Rel activity is less efficiently compensated by other NF-κB proteins. PMID:9529314

  5. IL-18 acts in synergy with IL-7 to promote ex vivo expansion of T lymphoid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhapudi, Siva K; Tan, Chibing; Marino, Julie H; Taylor, Ashlee A; Pack, Christopher C; Gaikwad, Joel; Van De Wiele, C Justin; Wren, Jonathan D; Teague, T Kent

    2015-04-15

    Although IL-18 has not previously been shown to promote T lymphopoiesis, results obtained via a novel data mining algorithm (global microarray meta-analysis) led us to explore a predicted role for this cytokine in T cell development. IL-18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been extensively characterized as a mediator of inflammatory immune responses. To assess a potential role for IL-18 in T cell development, we sort-purified mouse bone marrow-derived common lymphoid progenitor cells, early thymic progenitors (ETPs), and double-negative 2 thymocytes and cultured these populations on OP9-Delta-like 4 stromal layers in the presence or absence of IL-18 and/or IL-7. After 1 wk of culture, IL-18 promoted proliferation and accelerated differentiation of ETPs to the double-negative 3 stage, similar in efficiency to IL-7. IL-18 showed synergy with IL-7 and enhanced proliferation of both the thymus-derived progenitor cells and the bone marrow-derived common lymphoid progenitor cells. The synergistic effect on the ETP population was further characterized and found to correlate with increased surface expression of c-Kit and IL-7 receptors on the IL-18-treated cells. In summary, we successfully validated the global microarray meta-analysis prediction that IL-18 affects T lymphopoiesis and demonstrated that IL-18 can positively impact bone marrow lymphopoiesis and T cell development, presumably via interaction with the c-Kit and IL-7 signaling axis. PMID:25780034

  6. Inflammatory triggers associated with exacerbations of COPD orchestrate plasticity of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Silver, Jonathan S; Kearley, Jennifer; Copenhaver, Alan M; Sanden, Caroline; Mori, Michiko; Yu, Li; Pritchard, Gretchen Harms; Berlin, Aaron A; Hunter, Christopher A; Bowler, Russell; Erjefalt, Jonas S; Kolbeck, Roland; Humbles, Alison A

    2016-06-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical mediators of mucosal immunity, and group 1 ILCs (ILC1 cells) and group 3 ILCs (ILC3 cells) have been shown to be functionally plastic. Here we found that group 2 ILCs (ILC2 cells) also exhibited phenotypic plasticity in response to infectious or noxious agents, characterized by substantially lower expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 and a concomitant switch to being ILC1 cells that produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Interleukin 12 (IL-12) and IL-18 regulated this conversion, and during viral infection, ILC2 cells clustered within inflamed areas and acquired an ILC1-like phenotype. Mechanistically, these ILC1 cells augmented virus-induced inflammation in a manner dependent on the transcription factor T-bet. Notably, IL-12 converted human ILC2 cells into ILC1 cells, and the frequency of ILC1 cells in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) correlated with disease severity and susceptibility to exacerbations. Thus, functional plasticity of ILC2 cells exacerbates anti-viral immunity, which may have adverse consequences in respiratory diseases such as COPD. PMID:27111143

  7. Meningeal Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues and Multiple Sclerosis: A Gathering Place for Diverse Types of Immune Cells during CNS Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Pikor, Natalia B.; Prat, Alexandre; Bar-Or, Amit; Gommerman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Collections of leukocytes in the meningeal space have been documented in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). These meningeal aggregates, which in the context of other autoimmune diseases have often been termed tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLT), have been associated with sub-pial cortical damage and disease progression. However, the key molecular and cellular signals required for their formation and maintenance remain unclear. Herein, we review TLT structures in other disease states in order to provide a framework for understanding these structures in the MS meninges. We then assess the evidence that the meningeal compartment serves as an important nexus for immune cells as well as a location for drainage of antigen into cervical lymph nodes. Extrapolating what is known about the molecular and cellular cues that initiate the formation of leukocyte aggregates in non-lymphoid tissues, we speculate on what signals lead to the formation and maintenance of meningeal TLT structures. Referring to the animal model of MS [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)], we also explore what is known about these structures in supporting B cell and T cell responses during neuroinflammation. Last, we examine the evidence that connects these structures to ongoing neuropathology. Collectively, our review points to the meningeal compartment as an important player in neuroinflammatory processes. Moreover, we hypothesize that in order to gain insights into pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of lymphocytes in MS, one must understand the cellular scaffolds that support lymphocyte retention within the meninges, thus highlighting the importance of non-immune cells (stromal cells) in the neuroinflammatory process. PMID:26793195

  8. Heterogeneity of cultured leukemic lymphoid progenitor cells from B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, F M; Kersey, J H; Gajl-Peczalska, K J; Heerema, N A; Provisor, A J; Haag, D; Gilchrist, G; Song, C W; Arthur, D C; Roloff, J

    1987-01-01

    Colony assays were performed for 50 patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blast colony formation was observed for 33 patients, and the plating efficiency (PE) showed a marked interpatient variation, which indicates a pronounced biological heterogeneity at the level of leukemic progenitor cells. Notably, the mean PE of leukemic B cell precursors from patients with a pseudodiploid or near-diploid karyotype with structural chromosomal abnormalities (SCA) was significantly higher than the mean PE of normal diploid or hyperdiploid cases. All patients who had SCA involving 7p13, 11q23-24, or 12p11-13, and patients with a Philadelphia chromosome had high PE values. The S phase percentage, expression of CD19 antigen, and relapse status were also correlated with PE. Significantly, colony blasts had slightly different surface marker profiles in each case and were common ALL antigen negative in 33% of cases, which indicates the existence of a marked immunological heterogeneity at the level of leukemic progenitor cells. PMID:3497949

  9. Bilateral Bronchiectasis as a Presentation Form of Pulmonary Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Glenda; Torres, Carla; Borsini, Eduardo; Vigovich, Félix; Downey, Daniel; Salvado, Alajandro; Bosio, Martín

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue of the lung (BALT) is a rare illness that can remain without symptoms. Radiological findings of pulmonary lymphoma are heterogeneous. In literature, bronchiectasis is only described in one patient who also had besides adenomegalies. We reported on a 48-year-old female patient. She showed symptoms consistent with dyspnea with productive cough; there were crepitant sounds in the auscultation. Pulmonary functional test has shown a severe restrictive pattern with a low FVC and DLCO. CT scan showed bronchiectasis in the medium lobule without adenomegalies. Echocardiogram was normal, and the laboratory findings only showed leukocytosis. There were no findings in the bronchoscopy, but the lung biopsy showed a B-cell pulmonary lymphoma (positive to CD20 and CD79a in immunostaining). A wide variety of radiological manifestations has been previously described; however, we have presented this rare case, with bronchiectasis, as unique radiological finding. PMID:26839723

  10. Assay of immunoglobulins in supernatants of lymphoid cell lines by conventional laser nephelometry.

    PubMed

    Virella, G; Muñoz, J; Robinson, J E; Goust, J M

    1979-03-01

    An adaptation of the nephelometric assay for serum immunoglobulins has been developed for detection and quantitation of extracellular immunoglobulins in cultures of lymphoblastoid cell lines. This assay employs the standard equipment for laser nephelometry and commercial reagents for immunoglobulin quantitation. By adjusting dilutions of controls and sample volumes of culture supernatants, amounts of IgG and IgM below 1 microgram/ml can be detected in culture supernatants. At concentrations between 1 and 4 microgram/ml, day-to-day and within-run variations for IgM assays were 16 and 11% respectively. The possibility of measuring immunoglobulins secreted by cell lines by conventional laser nephelometry opens several areas of application in the study of the functional activity of B cells and of cell-cell interactions. PMID:313634

  11. Interferon and IL-27 antagonize the function of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and type 2 innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Moro, Kazuyo; Kabata, Hiroki; Tanabe, Masanobu; Koga, Satoshi; Takeno, Natsuki; Mochizuki, Miho; Fukunaga, Koichi; Asano, Koichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are type 2 cytokine-producing cells of the innate immune system with important roles in helminth infection and allergic inflammation. Here we found that tissue-resident ILC2 cells proliferated in situ without migrating during inflammatory responses. Both type I and type II interferons and interleukin 27 (IL-27) suppressed ILC2 function in a manner dependent on the transcription factor STAT1. ILC2-mediated lung inflammation was enhanced in the absence of the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) receptor on ILC2 cells in vivo. IFN-γ effectively suppressed the function of tissue-resident ILC2 cells but not that of inflammatory ILC2 cells, and IL-27 suppressed tissue-resident ILC2 cells but not tissue-resident TH2 cells during lung inflammation induced by Alternaria alternata. Our results demonstrate that suppression mediated by interferon and IL-27 is a negative feedback mechanism for ILC2 function in vivo. PMID:26595888

  12. IL-17-producing innate lymphoid cells are restricted to mucosal tissues and are depleted in SIV-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Liu, David X.; Moroney-Rasmussen, Terri; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an emerging subset of lymphocytes involved in surveillance against virally infected cells. Here we show CD3−CD8high lymphocytes in macaque blood include major subsets of ILCs including NK cells expressing CD16, NKp46 and NKG2A, but also populations of ILCs in mucosal tissues having different properties. One ILC subset secreted IL-17 (ILC17), but these were restricted to mucosal tissues. Some mucosal ILC17 cells expressed classical NK-cell markers, but little NKG2A or NKG2D. Some ILC17 cells secreted IL-22 and TNF-α, but few produced IFN-γ or contained granzyme B. IL-17 production by ILCs was induced by IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23. Further, SIV infection resulted in a significant loss of ILC17 cells, especially in the jejunum, which persisted throughout SIV infection. These findings ILC17 cells may be involved in innate mucosal immune responses, and their loss may contribute to loss of intestinal mucosal integrity and disease progression in HIV/SIV infection. PMID:22669579

  13. Infusing CD19-Directed T Cells to Augment Disease Control in Patients Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Advanced B-Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Jena, Bipulendu; Munsell, Mark; Jackson, Rineka; Lee, Dean A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth; Champlin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited curative treatment options exist for patients with advanced B-lymphoid malignancies, and new therapeutic approaches are needed to augment the efficacy of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Cellular therapies, such as adoptive transfer of T cells that are being evaluated to target malignant disease, use mechanisms independent of chemo- and radiotherapy with nonoverlapping toxicities. Gene therapy is employed to generate tumor-specific T cells, as specificity can be redirected through enforced expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to achieve antigen recognition based on the specificity of a monoclonal antibody. By combining cell and gene therapies, we have opened a new Phase I protocol at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) to examine the safety and feasibility of administering autologous genetically modified T cells expressing a CD19-specific CAR (capable of signaling through chimeric CD28 and CD3-ζ) into patients with high-risk B-lymphoid malignancies undergoing autologous HSCT. The T cells are genetically modified by nonviral gene transfer of the Sleeping Beauty system and CAR+ T cells selectively propagated in a CAR-dependent manner on designer artificial antigen-presenting cells. The results of this study will lay the foundation for future protocols including CAR+ T-cell infusions derived from allogeneic sources. PMID:22107246

  14. Reduced in vitro immune responses of purified human Leu-3 (helper/inducer phenotype) cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, E.H.; Engleman, E.G.; Terrell, C.P.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    Patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) for intractible rheumatoid arthritis showed marked decreases in the in vitro proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) to antigens and mitogens. To determine whether an intrinsic deficit in helper/inducer cell proliferation contributed to decreased responses, cells of the helper/inducer phenotype were purified from the PBM of treated patients by using monoclonal anti-Leu-3 antibody and a modified panning procedure. The purified Leu-3 cells obtained after TLI showed a marked reduction in (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in response to allogeneic lymphocytes, PHA, Con A, and several protein antigens, as compared with that of cells from the same patients obtained before TLI. In addition, the quantity of Leu-3 surface antigen on the panned cells was reduced after TLI. The results suggest that TLI induces prolonged qualitative as well as quantitative changes in circulating Leu-3 T cells. These changes may contribute to the clinical effects of TLI.

  15. Treatment of lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation. Observations during a 12-79-month followup

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Farinas, M.C.; Field, E.H.; Solovera, J.J.; Kiberd, B.A.; Myers, B.D.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1988-07-01

    Seventeen patients with intractable lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Statistically significant improvement in mean renal disease and serologic activity parameters occurred within 3 months and persisted for at least 3 years. Although there was a marked reduction of T helper cell numbers and function after total lymphoid irradiation, recovery of these parameters was not associated with a return of disease activity. Risks of sterility, severe infections, and hematologic malignancy appeared to be lower than with alkylating agents.

  16. Identification of altered MicroRNA expression in canine lymphoid cell lines and cases of B- and T-Cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Elizabeth; Krimer, Paula; Schliekelman, Paul; Tompkins, S Mark; Suter, Steven

    2011-11-01

    Canine lymphoma is a common spontaneous tumor with many similarities to human lymphoma, and thus has potential to be an important animal model of lymphomagenesis. This study determined that microRNA (miRNA) expression in canine tumors can be assessed using a commercially available human cancer miRNA qPCR array. miRNA expression in six different canine lymphoid cell lines and in naturally occurring canine B- and T-cell lymphomas was compared using RNA harvested from normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and normal lymph nodes (LN) as controls. We found that false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple testing after quantile normalization controlled for variation across arrays and that they were the best methods for normalization and statistical analysis. Increases in miRNAs known to upregulate oncogenes (miR19a+b, miR17-5p) and decreased expression of miRNAs with tumor suppressor functions (miR-203, miR-218, and miR-181a) also seen in human lymphoid malignancies were observed. However, there were few similarities between canine groups. The results of this study indicate that the use of both PBMC and LN cells as controls provides different, but potentially equally important targets for further analysis. Our findings of miRNA dysregulation in canine lymphoid cell lines and clinical cases of lymphoma emphasize the potential of canine lymphoma as an important spontaneous, large animal model of human B- and T-cell lymphomas. PMID:21910161

  17. At the Bedside: The emergence of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in human disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ILC2s have been primarily identified at environmental-mucosal interfaces and can be activated quickly by environmental antigens and pathogens to produce large quantities of IL-5 and IL-13. As a result of the production of these cytokines, ILC2s have been implicated in the host response to allergens, viruses, and parasites. However, the exact role of ILC2s in any human disease state is presently unknown, as specifically eliminating these cells is not possible, given that potentially targetable cell-surface markers are shared with other immune cells. Likewise, selectively and completely inhibiting ILC2 activation is also not currently possible, as several activating cytokines, IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, act in redundancy or are not specific for ILC2 stimulation. Therefore, at this point, we can only identify the relative abundance of ILC2s in organs and tissue identified as being involved in specific diseases, and the contribution of ILC2s in human disease can only be inferred from mouse studies. Given these limitations, in this article, we will review the studies that have examined the presence of ILC2s in human disease states and speculate on their possible role in disease pathogenesis. The intent of the review is to identify priority areas for basic research based on clinical research insights. PMID:25516755

  18. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  19. Curcumin improves regulatory T cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Lu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the probable pathway by which curcumin (Cur) regulates the function of Treg cells by observing the expression of costimulatory molecules of dendritic cells (DCs). METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by administering 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol solution. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal, TNBS + Cur, TNBS + mesalazine (Mes) and TNBS groups. The mice in the TNBS + Cur and TNBS +Mes groups were treated with Cur and Mes, respectively, while those in the TNBS group were treated with physiological saline for 7 d. After treatment, the curative effect of Cur was evaluated by colonic weight, colonic length, weight index of the colon, and histological observation and score. The levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg cells) and costimulatory molecules of DCs were measured by flow cytometry. Also, related cytokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Cur alleviated inflammatory injury of the colonic mucosa, decreased colonic weigh and histological score, and restored colonic length. The number of Treg cells was increased, while the secretion of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 p40, IL-17 and IL-21 and the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD205, CD54 [ICAM-1], TLR4, CD252[OX40 L], CD256 [RANK] and CD254 [RANK L]) of DCs were notably inhibited in colitis mice treated with Cur. CONCLUSION: Cur potentially modulates activation of DCs to enhance the suppressive functions of Treg cells and promote the recovery of damaged colonic mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27340353

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells Groups 1 and 3 in the Epithelial Compartment of Functional Human Intestinal Allografts.

    PubMed

    Talayero, P; Mancebo, E; Calvo-Pulido, J; Rodríguez-Muñoz, S; Bernardo, I; Laguna-Goya, R; Cano-Romero, F L; García-Sesma, A; Loinaz, C; Jiménez, C; Justo, I; Paz-Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    We examined intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in 213 ileal biopsies from 16 bowel grafts and compared them with 32 biopsies from native intestines. During the first year posttransplantation, grafts exhibited low levels of IELs (percentage of CD103(+) cells) principally due to reduced CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, while CD103(+) CD3(-) cell numbers became significantly higher. Changes in IEL subsets did not correlate with histology results, isolated intestine, or multivisceral transplants, but CD3(-) IELs were significantly higher in patients receiving corticosteroids. Compared with controls, more CD3(-) IELs of the grafts expressed CD56, NKp44, interleukin (IL)-23 receptor, retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt), and CCR6. No difference was observed in granzyme B, and CD3(-) CD127(+) cells were more abundant in native intestines. Ex vivo, and after in vitro activation, CD3(-) IELs in grafts produced significantly more interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-22, and a double IFNγ(+) IL-22(+) population was observed. Epithelial cell-depleted grafts IELs were cytotoxic, whereas this was not observed in controls. In conclusion, different from native intestines, a CD3(-) IEL subset predominates in grafts, showing features of natural killer cells and intraepithelial ILC1 (CD56(+) , NKp44(+) , CCR6(+) , CD127(-) , cytotoxicity, and IFNγ secretion), ILC3 (CD56(+) , NKp44(+) , IL-23R(+) , CCR6(+) , RORγt(+) , and IL-22 secretion), and intermediate ILC1-ILC3 phenotypes (IFNγ(+) IL-22(+) ). Viability of intestinal grafts may depend on the balance among proinflammatory and homeostatic roles of ILC subsets. PMID:26317573

  1. Different mechanisms of radiation-induced loss of heterozygosity in two human lymphoid cell lines from a single donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, C.; Gauny, S. S.; Liu, W. C.; Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C. L.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allelic loss is an important mutational mechanism in human carcinogenesis. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at an autosomal locus is one outcome of the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and can occur by deletion or by mitotic recombination. We report that mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes occurred in human lymphoid cells exposed to densely ionizing radiation. We used cells derived from the same donor that express either normal TP53 (TK6 cells) or homozygous mutant TP53 (WTK1 cells) to assess the influence of TP53 on radiation-induced mutagenesis. Expression of mutant TP53 (Met 237 Ile) was associated with a small increase in mutation frequencies at the hemizygous HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase) locus, but the mutation spectra were unaffected at this locus. In contrast, WTK1 cells (mutant TP53) were 30-fold more susceptible than TK6 cells (wild-type TP53) to radiation-induced mutagenesis at the TK1 (thymidine kinase) locus. Gene dosage analysis combined with microsatellite marker analysis showed that the increase in TK1 mutagenesis in WTK1 cells could be attributed, in part, to mitotic recombination. The microsatellite marker analysis over a 64-cM region on chromosome 17q indicated that the recombinational events could initiate at different positions between the TK1 locus and the centromere. Virtually all of the recombinational LOH events extended beyond the TK1 locus to the most telomeric marker. In general, longer LOH tracts were observed in mutants from WTK1 cells than in mutants from TK6 cells. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the incidence of radi-ation-induced mutations is dependent on the genetic background of the cell at risk, on the locus examined, and on the mechanisms for mutation available at the locus of interest.

  2. Allergen-Experienced Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Acquire Memory-like Properties and Enhance Allergic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Mathä, Laura; Steer, Catherine A; Ghaedi, Maryam; Poon, Grace F T; Takei, Fumio

    2016-07-19

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung are stimulated by inhaled allergens. ILC2s do not directly recognize allergens but they are stimulated by cytokines including interleukin (IL)-33 released by damaged epithelium. In response to allergens, lung ILC2s produce T helper 2 cell type cytokines inducing T cell-independent allergic lung inflammation. Here we examined the fate of lung ILC2s upon allergen challenges. ILC2s proliferated and secreted cytokines upon initial stimulation with allergen or IL-33, and this phase was followed by a contraction phase as cytokine production ceased. Some ILC2s persisted long after the resolution of the inflammation as allergen-experienced ILC2s and responded to unrelated allergens more potently than naive ILC2s, mediating severe allergic inflammation. The allergen-experienced ILC2s exhibited a gene expression profile similar to that of memory T cells. The memory-like properties of allergen-experienced ILC2s may explain why asthma patients are often sensitized to multiple allergens. PMID:27421705

  3. Candida albicans Airway Exposure Primes the Lung Innate Immune Response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection through Innate Lymphoid Cell Recruitment and Interleukin-22-Associated Mucosal Response

    PubMed Central

    Mear, Jean Baptiste; Gosset, Philippe; Kipnis, Eric; Faure, Emmanuel; Dessein, Rodrigue; Jawhara, Samir; Fradin, Chantal; Faure, Karine; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans are two pathogens frequently encountered in the intensive care unit microbial community. We have demonstrated that C. albicans airway exposure protected against P. aeruginosa-induced lung injury. The goal of the present study was to characterize the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with C. albicans-induced protection. Airway exposure by C. albicans led to the recruitment and activation of natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), macrophages, and dendritic cells. This recruitment was associated with the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), whose neutralization abolished C. albicans-induced protection. We identified, by flow cytometry, ILCs as the only cellular source of IL-22. Depletion of ILCs by anti-CD90.2 antibodies was associated with a decreased IL-22 secretion and impaired survival after P. aeruginosa challenge. Our results demonstrate that the production of IL-22, mainly by ILCs, is a major and inducible step in protection against P. aeruginosa-induced lung injury. This cytokine may represent a clinical target in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury. PMID:24166952

  4. Celastrus treatment modulates antigen-induced gene expression in lymphoid cells of arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Venkatesha, S H; Nanjundaiah, S; Tong, L; Moudgil, K D

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence and the disease process primarily targets the synovial joints. Despite improvements in the treatment of RA over the past decade, there still is a need for new therapeutic agents that are efficacious, less expensive, and free of severe adverse reactions. Celastrus has been used in China for centuries for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, we previously reported that ethanol extract of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. (Celastrus) attenuates adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-arthritic activity of Celastrus have not yet been fully defined. We reasoned that microarray analysis might offer useful insights into the pathways and molecules targeted by Celastrus. We compared the gene expression profiles of the draining lymph node cells (LNC) of Celastrus-treated (Tc) versus water-treated (Tw) rats, and each group with untreated arthritic rats (T(0)). LNC were restimulated with mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 (Bhsp65). We identified 104 differentially expressed genes (DEG) (8 upregulated, 96 downregulated) when comparing Tc with T(0) rats, in contrast to 28 (12 upregulated, 16 downregulated) when comparing Tw and T(0) rats. Further, 20 genes (6 upregulated, 14 downregulated) were shared by both Tw and Tc groups. Thus, Celastrus treatment (Tc) significantly downregulated a large proportion of genes compared to controls (Tw). The DEG were mainly associated with the processes of immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and cell signaling. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism of Celastrus anti-arthritic activity, and unravel potential therapeutic targets for arthritis. PMID:22697077

  5. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    SciTech Connect

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M.

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Tenascin C Promotes Hematoendothelial Development and T Lymphoid Commitment from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Chemically Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Uenishi, Gene; Theisen, Derek; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kumar, Akhilesh; Raymond, Matt; Vodyanik, Maxim; Swanson, Scott; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James; Slukvin, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Summary The recent identification of hemogenic endothelium (HE) in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) cultures presents opportunities to investigate signaling pathways that are essential for blood development from endothelium and provides an exploratory platform for de novo generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, the use of poorly defined human or animal components limits the utility of the current differentiation systems for studying specific growth factors required for HE induction and manufacturing clinical-grade therapeutic blood cells. Here, we identified chemically defined conditions required to produce HE from hPSCs growing in Essential 8 (E8) medium and showed that Tenascin C (TenC), an extracellular matrix protein associated with HSC niches, strongly promotes HE and definitive hematopoiesis in this system. hPSCs differentiated in chemically defined conditions undergo stages of development similar to those previously described in hPSCs cocultured on OP9 feeders, including the formation of VE-Cadherin+CD73−CD235a/CD43− HE and hematopoietic progenitors with myeloid and T lymphoid potential. PMID:25448067

  7. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, C J; Aubin, R A; Elliott, J C; Gill, S S; Fourney, R M

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines--GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)--to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. PMID:8530025

  8. CD4+ Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC) Form a Functionally Distinct ILC Subset That Is Increased in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roan, Florence; Stoklasek, Thomas A; Whalen, Elizabeth; Molitor, Jerry A; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Buckner, Jane H; Ziegler, Steven F

    2016-03-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a heterogeneous group of cellular subsets that produce large amounts of T cell-associated cytokines in response to innate stimulation in the absence of Ag. In this study, we define distinct patterns of surface marker and cytokine expression among the ILC subsets that may further delineate their migration and function. Most notably, we found that the subset previously defined as group 1 ILC (ILC1) contains CD4(+) CD8(-), CD4(-) CD8(+), and CD4(-) CD8(-) populations. Although all ILC1 subsets shared characteristics with Th1 cells, CD4(+) ILC1 also demonstrated significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. We also show that the frequencies of CD4(+) ILC1 and NKp44(+) group 3 ILC, but not CD4(-) ILC1 or group 2 ILC, are increased in the peripheral blood of individuals with systemic sclerosis (SSc), a disease characterized by fibrotic and vascular pathology, as well as immune dysregulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD4(+) and CD4(-) ILC1 are functionally divergent based on their IL-6Rα expression and that the frequency of IL-6Rα expression on ILC is altered in SSc. The distinct phenotypic and functional features of CD4(+) and CD4(-) ILC1 suggest that they may have differing roles in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases, such as SSc. PMID:26826243

  9. The prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2 regulates accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the inflamed lung

    PubMed Central

    Tait Wojno, ED; Monticelli, LA; Tran, SV; Alenghat, T; Osborne, LC; Thome, JJ; Willis, C; Budelsky, A; Farber, DL; Artis, D

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. While epithelial cell-derived cytokines regulate ILC2 effector functions, the pathways that control the in vivo migration of ILC2s into inflamed tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first demonstration that expression of the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells) regulates the in vivo accumulation of ILC2s in the lung. While a significant proportion of ILC2s isolated from healthy human peripheral blood expressed CRTH2, a smaller proportion of ILC2s isolated from non-diseased human lung expressed CRTH2, suggesting that dynamic regulation of CRTH2 expression might be associated with the migration of ILC2s into tissues. Consistent with this, murine ILC2s expressed CRTH2, migrated towards PGD2 in vitro and accumulated in the lung in response to PGD2 in vivo. Further, mice deficient in CRTH2 exhibited reduced ILC2 responses and inflammation in a murine model of helminth-induced pulmonary type 2 inflammation. Critically, adoptive transfer of CRTH2-sufficient ILC2s restored pulmonary inflammation in CRTH2-deficient mice. Together, these data identify a role for the PGD2-CRTH2 pathway in regulating the in vivo accumulation of ILC2s and the development of type 2 inflammation in the lung. PMID:25850654

  10. AP-Endonuclease 2 is necessary for normal B cell development and recovery of lymphoid progenitors after chemotherapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Guikema, Jeroen E.J.; Gerstein, Rachel M.; Linehan, Erin K.; Cloherty, Erin K.; Evan-Browning, Eric; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Schrader, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    B cell development involves rapid cellular proliferation, gene rearrangements, selection and differentiation, and provides a powerful model to study DNA repair processes in vivo. Analysis of the contribution of the base excision repair (BER) pathway in lymphocyte development has been lacking primarily due to the essential nature of this repair pathway. However, mice deficient for the BER enzyme, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 2 (APE2) protein develop relatively normally, but display defects in lymphopoiesis. Here we present an extensive analysis of bone marrow hematopoiesis in mice nullizygous for APE2 and find an inhibition of the pro-B to pre-B cell transition. We find that APE2 is not required for V(D)J-recombination, and that the turnover rate of APE2-deficient progenitor B cells is nearly normal. However, the production rate of pro- and pre-B cells is reduced due to a p53-dependent DNA damage response. FACS-purified progenitors from APE2-deficient mice differentiate normally in response to IL-7 in in vitro stromal cell co-cultures, but pro-B cells show defective expansion. Interestingly, APE2-deficient mice show a delay in recovery of B lymphocyte progenitors following bone marrow depletion by 5-fluorouracil, with the pro-B and pre-B cell pools still markedly decreased two weeks after a single treatment. Our data demonstrate that APE2 has an important role in providing protection from DNA damage during lymphoid development, which is independent from its ubiquitous and essential homolog APE1. PMID:21228350

  11. Dietary repletion can replenish reduced T cell subset numbers and lymphoid organ weight in zinc-deficient and energy-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Hosea, Heather J; Rector, Edward S; Taylor, Carla G

    2004-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the time course for recovery of lymphoid tissue and T cell subset numbers when Zn-deficient (ZD) or energy-restricted (ER) rats were repleted with control diet; in a second experiment, the link between the stress axis and lymphoid organs was explored. During the deficiency phase, rats were fed a ZD (<1 mg Zn/kg) or control diet (30 mg Zn/kg, nutritionally complete) either as pair-fed controls (ER) or ad libitum-fed controls (CTL) for 3 weeks. During the repletion phase, all rats were fed control diet ad libitum for 3, 7 or 23 d. After the deficiency phase, ZD and ER had lower T cell subset numbers in the thymus compared with CTL, and ZD had reduced T cell subset numbers in the spleen compared with both ER and CTL. T cell subset numbers and lymphoid organ weights recovered from dietary Zn deficiency and energy restriction by 7 d of repletion (except 23 d for thymus weight in ZD), while body weight required more than 23 d for recovery. At the end of the deficiency phase, ZD and ER had higher circulating corticosterone concentrations compared with CTL; plasma TNFalpha was not detectable and there were no differences in plasma haptoglobin, an acute-phase protein. In conclusion, Zn deficiency and energy restriction elevated circulating corticosterone and reduced T cell subset numbers in the thymus and spleen of growing rats. Repletion with a nutritionally complete diet allowed recovery of T cell subset numbers and lymphoid organ weight. PMID:15137926

  12. At the Bench: Understanding group 2 innate lymphoid cells in disease

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Taylor A.

    2015-01-01

    The conventional paradigm of type 2 inflammatory responses is characterized by activation of CD4+ Th2 cells that produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, resulting in tissue eosinophil infiltration, mucus metaplasia, AHR, and IgE production. However, the recent discovery of ILC2s in mice and humans has brought forth a novel pathway in type 2 immunity that may work independent of, or in concert with, adaptive Th2 responses. ILC2s were described initially as lineage-negative lymphocytes that produce high levels of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to IL-25 and IL-33 and promote protection against helminth infections. More recent investigations have identified novel upstream regulators, as well as novel ILC2 products. ILC2s are found in mucosal surfaces, including respiratory tract and skin, and studies from experimental asthma and atopic dermatitis models support a role for ILC2s in promoting type 2 inflammatory responses. There are many unanswered questions about the role of ILC2s in chronic allergic diseases, including how ILC2s or upstream pathways can be targeted for therapy. As ILC2s are not antigen specific and may be activated after exposures to a variety of infectious agents and irritants thought to contribute to respiratory and skin diseases, future strategies to target ILC2 function in human disease may be promising. Our intent is to identify priority areas for ILC2 translational research based on basic research insights. PMID:25473099

  13. Transforming growth factor-β and Notch ligands act as opposing environmental cues in regulating the plasticity of type 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Viant, Charlotte; Rankin, Lucille C; Girard-Madoux, Mathilde J H; Seillet, Cyril; Shi, Wei; Smyth, Mark J; Bartholin, Laurent; Walzer, Thierry; Huntington, Nicholas D; Vivier, Eric; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2016-01-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are composed of subsets that are either positive or negative for the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp46 (encoded by Ncr1). ILC3s are located at mucosal sites, such as in the intestine and lung, where they are exposed to billions of commensal microbes and potentially harmful pathogens. Together with T cells, the various ILC3 subsets maintain the balance between homeostasis and immune activation. Through genetic mapping, we identified a previously uncharacterized subset of NCR(-) ILC3s in mice that transiently express Ncr1, demonstrating previously undescribed heterogeneity within the ILC3 population. In addition, we showed that sustained Notch signaling was required for the maintenance of the NCR(+) phenotype and that the cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) impaired the development of NCR(+) ILC3s. Thus, the plasticity of ILC3s is regulated by the balance between the opposing effects of Notch and TGF-β signaling, maintaining homeostasis in the face of continual challenges. PMID:27141930

  14. Issues in diagnosis of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms involving the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Report on the Bone Marrow Workshop of the XVIIth meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology.

    PubMed

    Porwit, Anna; Fend, Falko; Kremer, Marcus; Orazi, Attilio; Safali, Mükerrem; van der Walt, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small B cell lymphoid neoplasms are the most common lymphoproliferative disorders involving peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The Bone Marrow Workshop (BMW) organized by the European Bone Marrow Working Group (EBMWG) of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) during the XVIIth EAHP Meeting in Istanbul, October 2014, was dedicated to discussion of cases illustrating how the recent advances in immunophenotyping, molecular techniques and cytogenetics provide better understanding and classification of these entities. Submitted cases were grouped into following categories: (i) cases illustrating diagnostic difficulties in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); (ii) cases of BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms other than CLL; (iii) transformation of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms in the BM; and (iv) multiclonality and composite lymphomas in the BM. This report summarizes presented cases and conclusions of the BMW and provides practical recommendations for classification of the BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms based on the current state of knowledge. PMID:27208429

  15. Purine Analog-Like Properties of Bendamustine Underlie Rapid Activation of DNA Damage Response and Synergistic Effects with Pyrimidine Analogues in Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Jiro; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Taeko; Uesawa, Mitsuyo; Akutsu, Miyuki; Mori, Shigehisa; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ueda, Takanori; Kano, Yasuhiko; Furukawa, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Bendamustine has shown considerable clinical activity against indolent lymphoid malignancies as a single agent or in combination with rituximab, but combination with additional anti-cancer drugs may be required for refractory and/or relapsed cases as well as other intractable tumors. In this study, we attempted to determine suitable anti-cancer drugs to be combined with bendamustine for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, aggressive lymphomas and multiple myeloma, all of which are relatively resistant to this drug, and investigated the mechanisms underlying synergism. Isobologram analysis revealed that bendamustine had synergistic effects with alkylating agents (4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and melphalan) and pyrimidine analogues (cytosine arabinoside, gemcitabine and decitabine) in HBL-2, B104, Namalwa and U266 cell lines, which represent the above entities respectively. In cell cycle analysis, bendamustine induced late S-phase arrest, which was enhanced by 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, and potentiated early S-phase arrest by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), followed by a robust increase in the size of sub-G1 fractions. Bendamustine was able to elicit DNA damage response and subsequent apoptosis faster and with shorter exposure than other alkylating agents due to rapid intracellular incorporation via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). Furthermore, bendamustine increased the expression of ENT1 at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the uptake of Ara-C and subsequent increase in Ara-C triphosphate (Ara-CTP) in HBL-2 cells to an extent comparable with the purine analog fludarabine. These purine analog-like properties of bendamustine may underlie favorable combinations with other alkylators and pyrimidine analogues. Our findings may provide a theoretical basis for the development of more effective bendamustine-based combination therapies. PMID:24626203

  16. IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-12 control the fate of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in human airway inflammation in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Bal, Suzanne M; Bernink, Jochem H; Nagasawa, Maho; Groot, Jelle; Shikhagaie, Medya M; Golebski, Kornel; van Drunen, Cornelis M; Lutter, Rene; Jonkers, Rene E; Hombrink, Pleun; Bruchard, Melanie; Villaudy, Julien; Munneke, J Marius; Fokkens, Wytske; Erjefält, Jonas S; Spits, Hergen; Ros, Xavier Romero

    2016-06-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) secrete type 2 cytokines, which protect against parasites but can also contribute to a variety of inflammatory airway diseases. We report here that interleukin 1β (IL-1β) directly activated human ILC2s and that IL-12 induced the conversion of these activated ILC2s into interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing ILC1s, which was reversed by IL-4. The plasticity of ILCs was manifested in diseased tissues of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), which displayed IL-12 or IL-4 signatures and the accumulation of ILC1s or ILC2s, respectively. Eosinophils were a major cellular source of IL-4, which revealed cross-talk between IL-5-producing ILC2s and IL-4-producing eosinophils. We propose that IL-12 and IL-4 govern ILC2 functional identity and that their imbalance results in the perpetuation of type 1 or type 2 inflammation. PMID:27111145

  17. Detection of antigens specific for B-lymphoid cultured cell lines with human alloantisera.

    PubMed

    Mann, D L; Abelson, L; Harris, S; Amos, D B

    1975-07-01

    Human sera were tested for cytotoxicity to pairs of long-term tissue-cultured cell lines. Each pair had been derived from the same individual and one of the pairs possessed the characteristics of either "T" or "B" cells. The alloantisera used were HL-A-typing reagents or sera obtained from Amish multiparas. Selected cytotoxicity was found against the B-cell lines by direct testing. Cytotoxicity was abolished by absorption with B-cell line but not by absorption with the T-cell lines. The results suggest that a group of allotypic antigens may be expressed exculsively on human B cells. PMID:1080182

  18. NKp46+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Dampen Vaginal CD8 T Cell Responses following Local Immunization with a Cholera Toxin-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luci, Carmelo; Bekri, Selma; Bihl, Franck; Pini, Jonathan; Bourdely, Pierre; Nouhen, Kelly; Malgogne, Angélique; Walzer, Thierry; Braud, Véronique M.; Anjuère, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells work in concert to generate efficient protection at mucosal surface. Vaginal mucosa is an epithelial tissue that contains innate and adaptive immune effector cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that vaginal administration of Cholera toxin -based vaccines generate antigen-specific CD8 T cells through the stimulation of local dendritic cells (DC). Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a group of lymphocytes localized in epithelial tissues that have important immune functions against pathogens and in tissue homeostasis. Their contribution to vaccine-induced mucosal T cell responses is an important issue for the design of protective vaccines. We report here that the vaginal mucosa contains a heterogeneous population of NKp46+ ILC that includes conventional NK cells and ILC1-like cells. We show that vaginal NKp46+ ILC dampen vaccine-induced CD8 T cell responses generated after local immunization. Indeed, in vivo depletion of NKp46+ ILC with anti-NK1.1 antibody or NKG2D blockade increases the magnitude of vaginal OVA-specific CD8 T cells. Furthermore, such treatments also increase the number of DC in the vagina. NKG2D ligands being expressed by vaginal DC but not by CD8 T cells, these results support that NKp46+ ILC limit mucosal CD8 T cell responses indirectly through the NKG2D-dependent elimination of vaginal DC. Our data reveal an unappreciated role of NKp46+ ILC in the regulation of mucosal CD8 T cell responses. PMID:26630176

  19. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT). PMID:20552039

  20. In vitro analysis of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity displayed by rat heart allograft recipients rendered unresponsive by total-lymphoid irradiation and extracted donor antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Florence, L.S.; Jiang, G.L.; Ang, K.K.; Stepkowski, S.M.; Kahan, B.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The addition of 3M KCl-extracted donor antigen (HAg) to immunosuppressive therapy with 16 Gy total lymphoid irradiation produces a significantly higher fraction of Wistar-Furth (WFu) recipients displaying indefinite survival of heterotopic buffalo (BUF) heart allografts, namely 80 versus 20%. The experiments presented herein analyzed the direct activity as well as estimated the potential precursor numbers at 1 and 3 months in treated recipients. At 1 month post-TLI/HAg therapy, recipients showed reduced proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) in a specific pattern toward donor but not third-party stimulators. Both TLI/Graft and TLI/HAg/Graft groups showed a higher frequency of BUF antigen-directed T-cytotoxic cells (fTc) than TLI-treated, but nontransplanted, WFu hosts. In addition, the TLI/HAg group alone displayed alloantigen-specific suppressor cells that suppressed the MLR proliferative responses of normal spleen T cells against donor, but not third-party, alloantigens. At 3 months postirradition, both TLI/Graft and TLI/HAg/Graft groups displayed variable MLR proliferative responses toward donor and third-party alloantigens. Whereas nontransplanted, TLI-treated WFu rats recovered their fTc to normal levels at 3 months, the TLI and TLI/HAg treated recipients bearing functional heart allografts demonstrated significantly decreased splenic fTc. These results show that reduced numbers of cytotoxic cell precursors may afford more reliable indices of prolonged heart allograft survival than MLR responses. The observations suggest that TLI/HAg transplant hosts display both reduced cytotoxic precursors and activated suppressor elements.

  1. T cell binding to B lymphoid cell lines in humans: a marker for T-B cell interaction?

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Fudenberg, H H

    1983-04-15

    Binding of human circulating T cells to established normal and malignant B cell lines results in rosette formation. The percentage of B cells, circulating T cells, and thymocytes able to bind to the B-LCL Raji were 0%, 59 +/- 4% and 61 +/- 6%, respectively. The percentage of rosettes formed between Raji cells and circulating mononuclear cells from 92 normal individuals was 27.8 +/- 5.3%, and remained stable over several months. This phenomenon seems to involve relatively mature B cells, and a T cell marker which appears early in T cell ontogeny. In the peripheral blood, most of the B-LCL binding T cells exhibit a 'helper-inducer' phenotype, as determined with the monoclonal antibodies Leu 3a and OKT4. However, a significant percentage of T cells with so-called 'cytotoxic-suppressor' markers (Leu 2a and OKT8) also bind to B-LCL. The T cells involved in this morphological interactive reaction with B cells might conceivably be specifically involved in regulating B cell functions. Enumeration of this particular subset may be useful in conditions where abnormal T-B cell interactions are suspected. PMID:6601166

  2. Localization of collagen modifying enzymes on fibroblastic reticular cells and follicular dendritic cells in non-neoplastic and neoplastic lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Rintaro; Aung, Naing Ye; Meng, Hongxue; Kabasawa, Takanobu; Suto, Aya; Tamazawa, Nobuyuki; Yang, Suran; Kato, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the localization of collagen modifying enzymes (CMEs) on fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissues and various malignant lymphomas. The expression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 (P4H1), lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was frequently observed on FRCs and FDCs in the germinal center (GC), except for the mantle zone. The expression of CMEs was lower in most lymphomas than in their respective postulated normal counterparts. The ratio of transglutaminase II(+) FRCs/CD35(+) FDCs was also lower in follicular lymphomas (FL) than in other lymphomas. The mRNAs of some CMEs (P4H1, prolyl 4-hydroxylase 3, LH3, and heat shock protein 47) were confirmed in almost all lymphomas. These results indicate that lymphoma cell proliferation suppresses/decreases the number of CMEs expressing FRCs and FDCs in most lymphomas. PMID:26700650

  3. Localization of collagen modifying enzymes on fibroblastic reticular cells and follicular dendritic cells in non-neoplastic and neoplastic lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ohe, Rintaro; Aung, Naing Ye; Meng, Hongxue; Kabasawa, Takanobu; Suto, Aya; Tamazawa, Nobuyuki; Yang, Suran; Kato, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the localization of collagen modifying enzymes (CMEs) on fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissues and various malignant lymphomas. The expression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 (P4H1), lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was frequently observed on FRCs and FDCs in the germinal center (GC), except for the mantle zone. The expression of CMEs was lower in most lymphomas than in their respective postulated normal counterparts. The ratio of transglutaminase II+ FRCs/CD35+ FDCs was also lower in follicular lymphomas (FL) than in other lymphomas. The mRNAs of some CMEs (P4H1, prolyl 4-hydroxylase 3, LH3, and heat shock protein 47) were confirmed in almost all lymphomas. These results indicate that lymphoma cell proliferation suppresses/decreases the number of CMEs expressing FRCs and FDCs in most lymphomas. PMID:26700650

  4. Lineage-Specific Effector Signatures of Invariant NKT Cells Are Shared amongst γδ T, Innate Lymphoid, and Th Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, You Jeong; Starrett, Gabriel J; Lee, Seungeun Thera; Yang, Rendong; Henzler, Christine M; Jameson, Stephen C; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2016-08-15

    Invariant NKT cells differentiate into three predominant effector lineages in the steady state. To understand these lineages, we sorted undifferentiated invariant NK T progenitor cells and each effector population and analyzed their transcriptional profiles by RNAseq. Bioinformatic comparisons were made to effector subsets among other lymphocytes, specifically Th cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), and γδ T cells. Myc-associated signature genes were enriched in NKT progenitors, like in other hematopoietic progenitors. Only NKT1 cells, but not NKT2 and NKT17 cells, had transcriptome similarity to NK cells and were also similar to other IFN-γ-producing lineages such as Th1, ILC1, and intraepithelial γδ T cells. NKT2 and NKT17 cells were similar to their analogous subsets of γδ T cells and ILCs, but surprisingly, not to Th2 and Th17 cells. We identified a set of genes common to each effector lineage regardless of Ag receptor specificity, suggesting the use of conserved regulatory cores for effector function. PMID:27385777

  5. Exopolysaccharide-producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains and their polymers elicit different responses on immune cells from blood and gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Miljkovic, Marija; Kojic, Milan; Margolles, Abelardo; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bifidobacteria, and the EPS derived thereof, on the modulation of immune response was evaluated. Cells isolated from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve rats were used. The proliferation and cytokine production of these immune cells in the presence of the three isogenic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains (A1, A1dOx and A1dOxR), as well as their purified polymers, were in vitro analysed. The cytokine pattern produced by immune cells isolated from GALT showed that most levels remained stable in the presence of the three strains or their corresponding polymers. However, in PBMC the UV-inactivated bacteria induced higher levels of the ratios IFNγ/IL-17, TNFα/IL-10 and TNFα/TGFβ, and no variation in the ratio IFNγ/IL-4. Thus, B. animalis subsp. lactis strains were able to activate blood monocytes as well as T lymphocytes towards a mild inflammatory Th1 response. Furthermore, only the EPS-A1dOxR was able to stimulate a response in a similar way than its EPS-producing bacterium. Our work supports the notion that some bifidobacterial EPS could play a role in mediating the dialog of these microorganisms with the immune system. In addition, this study emphasizes the effect that the origin of the immune cells has in results obtained; this could explain the great amount of contradiction found in literature about the immunomodulation capability of EPS from probiotic bacteria. PMID:24445155

  6. Selective elimination of non-lpr lymphoid cells in mice undergoing lpr-mediated graft-vs-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, D.L.; Michaelson, J.; Glaser, R.M.; Marshak-Rothstein, A.

    1987-09-01

    The transfer of lpr BM stem cells into lethally irradiated non-lpr recipients (including the congenic MRL/+ differing only at the lpr locus) causes GVHD characterized by a wasting syndrome. In this study we investigated the interaction between the autoimmune (lpr) and normal (A-Thy) B, T, and RBC cell lineages in two types of radiation chimeras: MRL/lpr plus A-Thy----(MRL/lpr X A-Thy)F1 and MRL/+ plus A-Thy----(MRL/lpr X A-Thy)F1. Analysis of B cell repopulation by competitive RIA of serum Igh-1 allotype showed that both the MRL and the A-Thy donor cells initially engrafted. However, by 2 to 4 mo post-transplantation the normal A-Thy allotype was barely detectable (reduced greater than 2 orders of magnitude), whereas the autoimmune MRL/lpr allotype persisted at normal levels. Similarly, investigation of the donor origin of peripheral blood T cells by two-color flow cytometry showed that by 8 mo post-transplantation normal A-Thy T cells had been eliminated and only MRL/lpr T cells were present in the circulation. In contrast, erythrocytes from both the MRL/lpr and A-Thy donor strains successfully engrafted the F1 recipients and persisted until the termination of the study. Control chimeras transplanted with a mixture of MRL/+ plus A-Thy BM were stably engrafted with both donor strains in both the erythroid and lymphoid populations. Additional experiments in which either B6/lpr or MRL/lpr (and B6/+ or MRL/+ control) BM cells were transferred into (MRL/lpr X B6/+)F1 and (MRL/lpr X B6/lpr)F1 recipients demonstrated that the development of GVHD was not simply due to increased alloreactivity by the lpr donor cells. In these chimeras only the recipients heterozygous (but not homozygous) for the lpr gene developed lpr-GVHD, although both types of recipients had identical genotypes except at the lpr locus.

  7. Clonality of T cell and phenotypically undefined lymphoid neoplasms: the value of genotypic analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, E; Stacey, G N; Howell, W M; Jones, D B; Smith, J L

    1990-01-01

    The value of genotypic analysis for routine assessment of leukaemia and lymphoma was shown by the findings in a selected series of 30 cases. T cell receptor (TcR) gene rearrangements were observed in six out of nine cases of CD3+ CD8+ lymphocytoses and provided clear evidence for clonality in this group. The T cell proliferations in two of the remaining cases masked B cell lymphocytic leukaemia and hairy cell leukaemia, while in the third case no cause was found for the polyclonal proliferation. Heterogeneity of phenotype and genotype were observed in peripheral T cell lymphomas: one out of six cases showed TcR gene rearrangement, one case retained its germline configuration, a further case masked B cell lymphoma and the remainder were polyclonal. Genotypic analysis was helpful in the analysis of a tumour of mixed T cell and myeloid phenotype which was shown to be germline for TcR and immunoglobulin genes, consistent with a myeloid origin. Two histiocytic tumours were found to have clonal rearrangement of TcR genes. Nine out of 11 B cell tumours showed immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. It is concluded that genetic analyses are useful in the analysis of T cell, histiocytic, and B cell tumours in which an immunoglobulin phenotype cannot be defined. Images PMID:2143202

  8. Augmentation of erythroid burst formation by the addition of thymocytes and other myelo-lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, A; Durban, E; Gallagher, M T; Miller, S C; Trentin, J J

    1980-08-01

    Bone marrow from barrier-sustained specific pathogen-free (SPF) CBA and C57BL/6 mice gave relatively low numbers of BFU-E colonies in methylcellulose culture, as compared to conventional mice. Addition of thymocytes to the marrow cultures increased the yield of BFU-E colonies more than fourfold in SPF mice but only 1.5-fold in conventional mice. Colony size was also increased. Increased yield of BFU-E colonies was also obtained by co-culture of bone marrow with lymph node cells or with bone marrow or spleen cells from 900R whole-body irradiated mice. The effect appeared to be cellular rather than humoral. It was not reproduced by conditioned medium from thymus or pokeweed mitogen stimulated spleen cells. The helper effect of thymus cells was eliminated or reduced by freezing and thawing, or by 48 hours of incubation after irradiation. Treatment of bone marrow cells in vitro with anti-theta serum and complement did not decrease the number of BFU-E colonies. The putative helper cells appear not to be T cells, were non-adherent to the plastic culture dish, and were cortisone resistant and radioresistant. The low BFU-E colony yield from SPF mouse marrow is presumed to be largely the result of deficiency of these non-T helper cells in SPF bone marrow, rather than of BFU-E progenitor cells. PMID:6447706

  9. Common-Lymphoid-Progenitor-Independent Pathways of Innate and T Lymphocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Maryam; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Halim, Timotheus Y F; Abraham, Ninan; Takei, Fumio

    2016-04-19

    All lymphocytes are thought to develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). However, lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs) are more efficient than CLPs in differentiating into T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Here, we have divided LMPPs into CD127(-) (LMPP-s) and CD127(+) (LMPP+s) subsets and compared them with Ly6D(-) and Ly6D(+) CLPs. Adult LMPP+s differentiated into T cells and ILCs more rapidly and efficiently than other progenitors in transplantation assays. The development of T cells and ILC2s is highly active in the neonatal period. Neonatal CLPs are rare and, unlike prominent neonatal LMPP+s, do not efficiently differentiate into T cells and ILC2s. ILC2s generated in the neonatal period are long lived and persist in adult tissues. These results suggest that some ILCs and T cells may develop from LMPP+s via CLP-independent pathways. PMID:27068476

  10. Cytoreduction of lymphoid malignancies and mobilization of blood hematopoietic progenitor cells with high doses of cyclophosphamide and etoposide plus filgrastim.

    PubMed

    Damon, Lloyd; Rugo, Hope; Tolaney, Sara; Navarro, Willis; Martin, Thomas; Ries, Curt; Case, Delvyn; Ault, Kenneth; Linker, Charles

    2006-03-01

    hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation because of toxicity from high-dose cyclophosphamide and etoposide. We conclude that high doses of cyclophosphamide and etoposide combined with G-CSF are an efficient and safe mobilizing regimen for the collection of hematopoietic progenitor cells during aggressive cytoreduction of tumor burden in patients with lymphoid malignancies. PMID:16503501

  11. Dose-Adjusted EPOCH-Rituximab Combined With Fludarabine Provides an Effective Bridge to Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in Patients With Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Salit, Rachel B.; Fowler, Daniel H.; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Dean, Robert M.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Dunleavy, Kieron; Hakim, Frances; Fry, Terry J.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Hughes, Thomas E.; Odom, Jeanne; Bryant, Kelly; Gress, Ronald E.; Bishop, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There is currently no standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with lymphoid malignancies being considered for reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (RIC-alloHSCT). The ideal regimen would provide disease control and result in lymphocyte depletion to facilitate engraftment. To this end, we developed a novel regimen by adding fludarabine to dose-adjusted continuous-infusion etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin plus with or without rituximab (DA-EPOCH-F/R). Patients and Methods One hundred forty-seven patients with lymphoid malignancy (median age, 50 years) who had heavily pretreated (median prior regimens, three) and chemo-refractory (47%) disease were treated with DA-EPOCH-F/R before RIC-alloHSCT. Patients received one to three consecutive cycles until achieving lymphocyte depletion (CD4+ count < 200/μL) or progressive disease. Results Overall response rate was 41%; 39% of patients had stable disease. Toxicity included grade 4 neutropenia in 65% and thrombocytopenia in 25% of patients. DA-EPOCH-F/R resulted in lymphocyte depletion (P < .001), which was inversely associated with serum interleukin (IL) 7 and IL-15 levels. Of 147 patients, 143 patients proceeded to RIC-alloHSCT. Patients with lower CD3+ (P < .001), CD4+ (P < .001), and CD8+ (P < .001) T-cell counts after DA-EPOCH-F/R were more likely to achieve full donor lymphoid chimerism by day +14 after transplant. Relative to nonresponders to DA-EPOCH-F/R, patients with complete and partial response had increased event-free survival (77.4 v 4.8 months; P < .001) and overall survival (98.5 v 16.2 months; P < .001). Conclusion DA-EPOCH-F/R safely provides tumor cytoreduction and lymphocyte depletion, thereby offering a bridge to RIC-alloHSCT in patients with aggressive lymphoid malignancies. PMID:22312100

  12. Effects of thymus irradiation on the immune competence of T cells after total-lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Palathumpat, V.C.; Vandeputte, M.M.; Waer, M. )

    1990-07-01

    Spleen cells from mice receiving TLI, with or without thymus shielding, were investigated for in vitro and in vivo defects. At 4-6 weeks after irradiation spleen cells of both groups showed a normal number of Thy1 (T cells), L3T4 (CD4 positive T cells) cells, and an absence of natural suppressor cells. Splenocytes of the nonthymic shielded TLI group were not able to mount either a normal in vitro response (in MLR or PHA) or an in vivo graft-versus-host-disease reaction when injected into lethally irradiated adult allogeneic recipients or into neonatal F1 hybrids. This was in contrast to the normal immune capacity of spleen cells from the thymus shielded group that gave normal MLR and PHA tests in vitro and provoked GVHD in vivo. Thymuses recovered from mice receiving TLI with or without thymic shielding were however equally efficient in restoring the immune capacity after transplantation into neonatally thymectomized mice as measured by the PHA assay. Thymic irradiation is therefore necessary but not sufficient for creating long-lasting immune defects after TLI.

  13. Functional sequences modulated by morphological transitions in human lymphoid cells grown invitro.

    PubMed

    Drewinko, B; Trujillo, J M; Tessmer, C F

    1971-01-15

    Immunoglobulin-producing cells undergo a series of morphological transitions; each configuration displays specific functional attributes. The life cycle of immunocytes may be visualized as a series of functional compartments expressed by morphological sequences. PMID:4099131

  14. Role of the tumor microenvironment in mature B-cell lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Nathan H.; Cheah, Chan Yoon; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Gribben, John; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Ghia, Paolo; Bollard, Catherine; Ansell, Stephen; Curran, Michael; Wilson, Wyndham H.; O’Brien, Susan; Grant, Cliona; Little, Richard; Zenz, Thorsten; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Dunleavy, Kieron

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is the cellular and molecular environment in which the tumor exists and with which it continuously interacts. In B-cell lymphomas, this microenvironment is intriguing in that it plays critical roles in the regulation of tumor cell survival and proliferation, fostering immune escape as well as the development of treatment resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the proceedings of the Second Annual Summit on the Immune Microenvironment in Hematologic Malignancies that took place on September 11–12, 2014 in Dublin, Ireland. We provide a timely overview of the composition and biological relevance of the cellular and molecular microenvironment interface and discuss the role of interactions between the microenvironment and neoplastic cells in a variety of B-cell lymphomas. In addition, we focus on various novel therapeutic strategies that target the tumor microenvironment, including agents that modulate B-cell receptor pathways and immune-checkpoints, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and immunomodulatory agents. PMID:27132279

  15. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J.; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D.; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C.; Ambler, Carrie A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ+ ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ+ ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ+ ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  16. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ(+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C; Ambler, Carrie A

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ(+) ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ(+) ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ(+) ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  17. The effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras. These results raise the possibility that the fulminant GVHD seen in human marrow transplantation is in part due to the major contamination of bone marrow with peripheral blood that results from the techniques currently used for human bone marrow harvest.

  18. Tertiary Lymphoid Tissue Forms in Retinas of Mice with Spontaneous Autoimmune Uveitis and Has Consequences on Visual Function.

    PubMed

    Kielczewski, Jennifer L; Horai, Reiko; Jittayasothorn, Yingyos; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

    2016-02-01

    During chronic inflammation, tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) can form within an inflamed organ, including the CNS. However, little is known about TLT formation in the neuroretina. In a novel spontaneous autoimmune mouse model of uveitis (R161H), we identified well-organized lymphoid aggregates in the retina and examined them for TLT characteristics. Presence of immune cells, tissue-specific markers, and gene expression patterns typically associated with germinal centers and T follicular helper cells were examined using immunohistochemistry and gene analysis of laser capture microdissected retina. Our data revealed the retinal lymphoid structures contained CD4(+) T cells and B cells in well-defined zonal areas that expressed classic germinal center markers, peanut lectin (agglutinin) and GL-7. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of T follicular helper cell markers, most notably CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CXCR5 expression, typically associated with CD4(+) T follicular helper cells. Highly organized stromal cell networks, a hallmark of organized lymphoid tissue, were also present. Positive staining for phospho-Zap70 in retina-specific T cells indicated CD4(+) T cells were being activated within these lymphoid structures. CD138(+)/B220(+) plasma cells were detected, suggesting the retinal lymphoid aggregates give rise to functional germinal centers, which produce Abs. Interestingly, eyes with lymphoid aggregates exhibited lower inflammatory scores by fundus examination and a slower initial rate of loss of visual function by electroretinography, compared with eyes without these structures. Our findings suggest that the lymphoid aggregates in the retina of R161H mice represent organized TLT, which impact the course of chronic uveitis. PMID:26712943

  19. Neurotropic Gamma-Delta T-Cell Lymphoma With CD30-Positive Lymphoid Infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Bryan; Gammon, Benjamin R; Kim, Youn H; Kim, Jinah

    2016-09-01

    Primary cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma (PCGD-TCL) is a clonal proliferation of gamma-delta T cells with a cytotoxic phenotype that is typically characterized by an aggressive clinical course with ulcerative plaques or subcutaneous nodules. In this report, the authors describe a patient who developed an ulcerated tumor on the left upper extremity and painful papules and nodules on the right lower extremity. Interestingly, several of the papulonodules on the right lower extremity underwent spontaneous involution. A skin biopsy of the papulonodular lesion demonstrated a superficial and deep perivascular interstitial infiltrate with a population of pleomorphic enlarged CD30-positive T cells. These enlarged lymphocytes lacked expression of TCR beta, CD4, CD8, and the pan T-cell antigen CD7, but were positive for TCR gamma, supporting the diagnosis of PCGD-TCL. The patient rapidly developed pain and severe weakness in the left upper limb and MRI revealed extensive neurolymphomatosis of the left brachial plexus. The patient was treated with chemotherapy with complete remission achieved. Unfortunately, her response was transient and the patient relapsed and ultimately died due to her disease. In this article, the authors describe an extraordinary case of a CD30-positive PCGD-TCL to expand the histopathological spectrum of CD30-positive and gamma-delta-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:27391454

  20. Reduced blood BDCA-2+ (lymphoid) and CD11c+ (myeloid) dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Migita, K; Miyashita, T; Maeda, Y; Kimura, H; Nakamura, M; Yatsuhashi, H; Ishibashi, H; Eguchi, K

    2005-01-01

    Type 1 IFN is thought to be implicated in the autoimmune process of SLE. Plasmacytoid dendric cells (DC), which are natural IFN-α producing cells, play a pivotal epipathogenic role in SLE. The present study was undertaken to investigate the phenotypic characteristics of peripheral blood DC in SLE patients in comparison with those of healthy controls. Samples from 20 SLE patients and 18 healthy controls were studied. Three-colour flow cytometry was performed to identify myeloid DC, as CD11c+ lineage marker−, and HLA-DR+ cells and plasmacytoid DC, as BDCA-2+ linage marker−, and HLA-DR+ cells. We used the whole blood ‘lyse/no-wash’ procedure, which allows precise counting of peripheral blood DC. BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid DC and CD11c+ myeloid DC were reduced in SLE patients compared with controls. Similarly, BDCA-3+ DC were reduced in SLE patients. These results indicated that SLE patients had a reduced number of both BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid DC and CD11c+ myeloid DC. These alternations of the DC subset may drive the autoimmune response in SLE. PMID:16178860

  1. Effect of IL-4 on the Development and Function of Memory-like CD8 T Cells in the Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues.

    PubMed

    Park, Hi-Jung; Lee, Ara; Lee, Jae-Il; Park, Seong Hoe; Ha, Sang-Jun; Jung, Kyeong Cheon

    2016-04-01

    Unlike conventional T cells, innate CD8 T cells develop a memory-like phenotype in the thymus and immediately respond upon antigen stimulation, similar to memory T cells. The development of innate CD8 T cells in the thymus is known to require IL-4, which upregulates Eomesodermin (Eomes). These features are similar to that of virtual memory CD8 T cells and IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues. However, the relationship between these cell types has not been clearly documented. In the present study, IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues were compared with innate CD8 T cells in terms of phenotype and function. When an IL-4/anti-IL-4 antibody complex (IL-4C) was injected into C57BL/6 mice daily for 7 days, the Eomes(hi)CXCR3 (+) CD8 T cell population was markedly increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs and blood. These cells were generated from naïve CD8 T cells or accumulated via the expansion of pre-existing CD44(hi)CXCR3 (+) CD8 T cells. Initially, the majority of these CXCR3 (+) CD8 T cells expressed low levels of CD44, which was followed by the conversion to the CD44(hi) phenotype. This conversion was associated with the acquisition of enhanced effector function. After discontinuation of IL-4C treatment, Eomes expression levels gradually decreased in CXCR3 (+) CD8 T cells. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues are phenotypically and functionally similar to the innate CD8 T cells generated in the thymus. PMID:27162529

  2. Effect of IL-4 on the Development and Function of Memory-like CD8 T Cells in the Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hi-Jung; Lee, Ara; Lee, Jae-Il; Park, Seong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Unlike conventional T cells, innate CD8 T cells develop a memory-like phenotype in the thymus and immediately respond upon antigen stimulation, similar to memory T cells. The development of innate CD8 T cells in the thymus is known to require IL-4, which upregulates Eomesodermin (Eomes). These features are similar to that of virtual memory CD8 T cells and IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues. However, the relationship between these cell types has not been clearly documented. In the present study, IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral tissues were compared with innate CD8 T cells in terms of phenotype and function. When an IL-4/anti-IL-4 antibody complex (IL-4C) was injected into C57BL/6 mice daily for 7 days, the EomeshiCXCR3 + CD8 T cell population was markedly increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs and blood. These cells were generated from naïve CD8 T cells or accumulated via the expansion of pre-existing CD44hiCXCR3 + CD8 T cells. Initially, the majority of these CXCR3 + CD8 T cells expressed low levels of CD44, which was followed by the conversion to the CD44hi phenotype. This conversion was associated with the acquisition of enhanced effector function. After discontinuation of IL-4C treatment, Eomes expression levels gradually decreased in CXCR3 + CD8 T cells. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that IL-4-induced memory-like CD8 T cells generated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues are phenotypically and functionally similar to the innate CD8 T cells generated in the thymus. PMID:27162529

  3. Identity, regulation and in vivo function of gut NKp46+RORγt+ and NKp46+RORγt- lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Ana; Yessaad, Nadia; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Dalod, Marc; Fenis, Aurore; Aubry, Camille; Nikitas, Georgios; Escalière, Bertrand; Renauld, Jean Christophe; Dussurget, Olivier; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc; Vivier, Eric; Tomasello, Elena

    2011-07-20

    The gut is a major barrier against microbes and encloses various innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including two subsets expressing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. A subset of NKp46(+) cells expresses retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and produces IL-22, like lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Other NKp46(+) cells lack RORγt and produce IFN-γ, like conventional Natural Killer (cNK) cells. The identity, the regulation and the in vivo functions of gut NKp46(+) ILCs largely remain to be unravelled. Using pan-genomic profiling, we showed here that small intestine (SI) NKp46(+)RORγt(-) ILCs correspond to SI NK cells. Conversely, we identified a transcriptional programme conserved in fetal LTi cells and adult SI NKp46(+)RORγt(+) and NKp46(-)RORγt(+) ILCs. We also demonstrated that the IL-1β/IL-1R1/MyD88 pathway, but not the commensal flora, drove IL-22 production by NKp46(+)RORγt(+) ILCs. Finally, oral Listeria monocytogenes infection induced IFN-γ production in SI NK and IL-22 production in NKp46(+)RORγt(+) ILCs, but only IFN-γ contributed to control bacteria dissemination. NKp46(+) ILC heterogeneity is thus associated with subset-specific transcriptional programmes and effector functions that govern their implication in gut innate immunity. PMID:21685873

  4. Identity, regulation and in vivo function of gut NKp46+RORγt+ and NKp46+RORγt− lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Yessaad, Nadia; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Dalod, Marc; Fenis, Aurore; Aubry, Camille; Nikitas, Georgios; Escalière, Bertrand; Renauld, Jean Christophe; Dussurget, Olivier; Cossart, Pascale; Lecuit, Marc; Vivier, Eric; Tomasello, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The gut is a major barrier against microbes and encloses various innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including two subsets expressing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. A subset of NKp46+ cells expresses retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and produces IL-22, like lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Other NKp46+ cells lack RORγt and produce IFN-γ, like conventional Natural Killer (cNK) cells. The identity, the regulation and the in vivo functions of gut NKp46+ ILCs largely remain to be unravelled. Using pan-genomic profiling, we showed here that small intestine (SI) NKp46+RORγt− ILCs correspond to SI NK cells. Conversely, we identified a transcriptional programme conserved in fetal LTi cells and adult SI NKp46+RORγt+ and NKp46−RORγt+ ILCs. We also demonstrated that the IL-1β/IL-1R1/MyD88 pathway, but not the commensal flora, drove IL-22 production by NKp46+RORγt+ ILCs. Finally, oral Listeria monocytogenes infection induced IFN-γ production in SI NK and IL-22 production in NKp46+RORγt+ ILCs, but only IFN-γ contributed to control bacteria dissemination. NKp46+ ILC heterogeneity is thus associated with subset-specific transcriptional programmes and effector functions that govern their implication in gut innate immunity. PMID:21685873

  5. Clustered organization of homologous KRAB zinc-finger genes with enhanced expression in human T lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bellefroid, E J; Marine, J C; Ried, T; Lecocq, P J; Rivière, M; Amemiya, C; Poncelet, D A; Coulie, P G; de Jong, P; Szpirer, C

    1993-01-01

    KRAB zinc-finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) constitute a large subfamily of ZFPs of the Krüppel C2H2 type. KRAB (Krüppel-associated box) is an evolutionarily conserved protein domain found N-terminally with respect to the finger repeats. We report here the characterization of a particular subgroup of highly related human KRAB-ZFPs. ZNF91 is one representative of this subgroup and contains 35 contiguous finger repeats at its C-terminus. Three mRNA isoforms with sequence identity to ZNF91 were isolated by the polymerase chain reaction. These encode proteins with a KRAB domain present, partially deleted or absent. Five genomic fragments were characterized, each encoding part of a gene: the ZNF91 gene or one of four distinct, related KRAB-ZFP genes. All exhibit a common exon/intron organization with the variant zinc finger repeats organized in a single exon and the KRAB domain encoded by two separate exons. This positioning of introns supports the hypothesis that the mRNA isoforms encoding polypeptides with variability in the KRAB domain could arise by alternative splicing. By in situ chromosomal mapping studies and by analysis of fragments from a human genomic yeast artificial chromosome library containing KRAB-ZFP genes, we show that these genes occur in clusters; in particular, a gene complex containing over 40 genes has been identified in chromosomal region 19p12-p13.1. These ZNF91-related genes probably arose late during evolution since no homologous genes are detected in the mouse and rat genomes. Although the transcription of members of this KRAB-ZFP gene subgroup is detectable in all human tissues, their expression is significantly higher in human T lymphoid cells. Images PMID:8467795

  6. Role of the Gut Microbiota in the Development and Function of Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Nobuhiko; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Mammals are colonized by large numbers of microorganisms including trillions of bacteria, most of which live in the intestinal tract. These indigenous microorganisms that inhabit the body of humans and animals are referred collectively as the microbiota. Accumulating evidence indicates that the microbiota regulates the development and/or function of different types of immune cells in the intestine. For example, the microbiota drives homeostatic, pathogenic and regulatory T cell immune responses that contribute to tissue homeostasis, but also can promote disease. The gut microbes also facilitate IgA responses, which in turn, regulates the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Thus, the reciprocal regulation of the gut microbiota and the host immune system may influence the balance between homeostasis and disease in the intestine. PMID:23378581

  7. Improving therapeutic activity of anti-CD20 antibody therapy through immunomodulation in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lipowska-Bhalla, Grazyna; Fagnano, Ester; Illidge, Timothy M; Cheadle, Eleanor J

    2016-06-01

    Nearly two decades ago rituximab heralded a new era in management of B cell malignancies significantly increasing response rates and survival. However, despite clear therapeutic advantage, significant numbers of patients become refractory to anti-CD20 mAb therapy, suggesting urgent improvements are required. It is now well recognized that the suppressive tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the outcome of anti-CD20 mAb therapy and that manipulation of this environment may improve the efficacy and produce long-term tumor control. The past few years have seen a surge of interest in immunomodulatory agents capable of overwriting immune suppressive networks into favorable clinical outcome. Currently, a number of such combinations with anti-CD20 mAb is under evaluation and some have produced encouraging outcomes in rituximab refractory disease. In this review, we give an outline of anti-CD20 mAbs and explore the combinations with immunomodulatory agents that enhance antitumor immunity through targeting stimulatory or inhibitory pathways and have proven potential to synergize with anti-CD20 mAb therapy. These agents, primarily mAbs, target CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1, and CD40. PMID:27050042

  8. Transient changes in phospholipid methylation induced by dexamethasone in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, C.K.; Melnykovych, G.

    1983-12-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on phospholipid methylation by chronic lymphatic leukemia cells in culture was investigated. Methyl transfer from S-adenosyl(methyl-/sub 3/H)methionine into lipid fraction showed a sharp rise within 2 to 3 hr of dexamethasone treatment. After 6 hr of dexamethasone treatment, however, methylation decreased below the control levels and remained lower thereafter. Analysis of the lipid components indicated that the formation of phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine was not affected by dexamethasone. However, phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the transmethylation pathway showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. The results point to the possibility that this effect may have physiological significance in the lymphocytolytic effects of glucocorticoids.

  9. Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs) arise via a unique differentiation pathway from primitive c-kitHiCD62L+ lymphoid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Welner, Robert S; Pelayo, Rosana; Garrett, Karla P; Chen, Xinrong; Perry, S Scott; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Kee, Barbara L; Kincade, Paul W

    2007-06-01

    Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs) have only recently been described and they share some properties with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). We now show that they can arise from some of the same progenitors. However, IKDCs expressed little or no RAG-1, Spi-B, or TLR9, but responded to the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN by production of IFNgamma. The RAG-1(-)pDC2 subset was more similar to IKDCs than RAG-1(+) pDC1s with respect to IFNgamma production. The Id-2 transcriptional inhibitor was essential for production of IKDCs and natural killer (NK) cells, but not pDCs. IKDCs developed from lymphoid progenitors in culture but, unlike pDCs, were not affected by Notch receptor ligation. While IKDCs could be made from estrogen-sensitive progenitors, they may have a slow turnover because their numbers did not rapidly decline in hormone-treated mice. Four categories of progenitors were compared for IKDC-producing ability in transplantation assays. Of these, Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(Hi)Thy1.1(-)L-selectin(+) lymphoid progenitors (LSPs) were the best source. While NK cells resemble IKDCs in several respects, they develop from different progenitors. These observations suggest that IKDCs may arise from a unique differentiation pathway, and one that diverges early from those responsible for NK cells, pDCs, and T and B cells. PMID:17317852

  10. Vitamins A and D have antagonistic effects on expression of effector cytokines and gut-homing integrin in human innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Bert; Patil, Sarita U.; Shreffler, Wayne G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoic acid (RA), the main biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is known to promote gut homing of lymphocytes, as well as various regulatory and effector immune responses. In contrast, the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), is predominantly immunosuppressive. Little is known about the effects of these vitamins on the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Objective We sought to characterize the effects of RA and 1,25D3 on human ILCs. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 27 non-selected blood donor buffy coats, and ILCs were sorted by FACS. ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 cells were cultured for 5 days with RA, 1,25D3, and various cytokines known to activate ILCs (IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33). Cytokines produced by ILCs were measured in culture supernatants, and surface receptor expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results RA acted synergistically with IL-2 and other activating cytokines to induce expression of the gut-homing integrin α4β7 in ILCs, as well as production of IL-5 and IL-13 in ILC2 cells, and IFN-γ in ILC1 and ILC3 cells. Expression of integrin α4β7 and cytokine production in ILCs stimulated with RA + IL-2 was increased at least 4-fold as compared to ILCs cultured with RA or IL-2 alone. In contrast, RA completely inhibited the IL-2-induced expression of cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) in ILCs. Moreover, addition of 1,25D3 to ILCs cultured with RA + IL-2 inhibited cytokine production and expression of integrin α4β7 by at least 30%. Conclusions RA and 1,25D3 have antagonistic effects on expression of effector cytokines and gut-homing integrin in human ILCs. The balance between these vitamins may be an important factor in the functioning of ILCs and the diseases in which ILCs are implicated, such as allergic inflammation. PMID:25959810

  11. Collaborative interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells and antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells exacerbate murine allergic airway diseases with prominent eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-04-15

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. PMID:25780046

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  13. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells. PMID:27233960

  14. Genomic instability in human lymphoid cells exposed to 1 GeV/amu Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosovsky, A.; Bethel, H.; Parks, K.; Ritter, L.; Giver, C.; Gauny, S.; Wiese, C.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether charged particle radiations of importance to spaceflight elicit genomic instability in human TK6 lymphoblasts. The incidence of genomic instability in TK6 cells was assessed 21 days after exposure to 2, 4, or 6 Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, LET= 146 keV/micrometers). Three indices of instability were used: intraclonal karyotypic heterogeneity, mutation rate analysis at the thymidine kinase (TK1) locus, and re-cloning efficiency. Fifteen of sixty clones demonstrated karyotypic heterogeneity. Five clones had multiple indicators of karyotypic change. One clone was markedly hypomutable and polyploid. Six clones were hypomutable, while 21 clones were mutators. Of these, seven were karyotypically unstable. Six clones had low re-cloning efficiencies, one of which was a mutator. All had normal karyotypes. In summary, many clones that survived exposure to a low fluence of Fe ions manifested one or more forms of genomic instability that may hasten the development of neoplasia through deletion or by recombination.

  15. Regulation of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy by IL-9 Producing Mucosal Mast Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500

  16. Regulation of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy by IL-9 Producing Mucosal Mast Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Boong

    2016-08-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500

  17. Gamma heavy chain disease in man: synthesis of a deleted gamma3 immunoglobulin by lymphoid cells in short and long term tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, J N; Alexander, A; Olivier, O

    1978-01-01

    Bone marrow cells were obtained from a patient with gamma heavy chain disease (HCD) whose serum contained a deleted immunoglobulin heavy chain. Incubation of the marrow cells with radioactive amino acids in short term tissue culture resulted in the synthesis of the labelled HCD protein. A permanent cell line was established from the peripheral blood of the patient. Similar labelling studies with the cell line and its cloned progeny demonstrated the synthesis of a protein identical in size and antigenicity to that synthesized by the marrow cells and found in the patient's serum. These experiments clearly demonstrated that, in this case of heavy chain disease, the deleted protein was the synthetic product of a clone of malignant lymphoid cells. Images FIG. 5 FIG. 7 PMID:80297

  18. The lymphoid chemokine, CXCL13, is dispensable for the initial recruitment of B cells to the acutely inflamed central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Rainey-Barger, Emily K; Rumble, Julie M; Lalor, Stephen J.; Esen, Nilufer; Segal, Benjamin M; Irani, David N

    2010-01-01

    Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy can occur in patients treated with the B cell depleting anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, highlighting the importance of B cell surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS). The lymphoid chemokine, CXCL13, is critical for B cell recruitment and functional organization of peripheral lymphoid tissues, and CXCL13 levels are often elevated in the inflamed CNS. To more directly investigate the role of CXCL13 in CNS B cell migration, its role in animal models of infectious and inflammatory demyelinating disease was examined. During acute alphavirus encephalitis where viral clearance depends on the local actions of anti-viral antibodies, CXCL13 levels and B cell numbers increased in brain tissue over time. Surprisingly, however, CXCL13-deficient animals showed normal CNS B cell recruitment, unaltered CNS virus replication and clearance, and intact peripheral anti-viral antibody responses. During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), CNS levels of CXCL13 increased as symptoms emerged and equivalent numbers of B cells were identified among the CNS infiltrates of CXCL13-deficient mice compared to control animals. However, CXCL13-deficient mice did not sustain pathogenic anti-myelin T cell responses, consistent with their known propensity to develop more self-limited EAE. These data show that CXCL13 is dispensable for CNS B cell recruitment in both models. The disease course is unaffected by CXCL13 in a CNS infection paradigm that depends on a pathogen-specific B cell response, while it is heightened and prolonged by CXCL13 when myelin-specific CD4+ T cells drive CNS pathology. Thus, CXCL13 could be a therapeutic target in certain neuroinflammatory diseases, but not by blocking B cell recruitment to the CNS. PMID:20933590

  19. Cathepsin-L influences the expression of extracellular matrix in lymphoid organs and plays a role in the regulation of thymic output and of peripheral T cell number.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Gabriela; Burzyn, Dalia; Mundiñano, Juliana; Berguer, Paula; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Costa, Hector; Castillo, Lilian Fedra; Goldman, Alejandra; Meiss, Roberto; Piazzon, Isabel; Nepomnaschy, Irene

    2005-06-01

    Nackt mice, which are deficient in cathepsin-L (CTSL), show an early impairment during positive selection in the context of class II MHC molecules and as a consequence, the percentage and absolute number of CD4(+) thymocytes are significantly decreased. In this study, we show that lymph nodes from nackt mice are hypertrophied, showing normal absolute numbers of CD4(+) T cells and marked increases in the number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Basal proliferative levels are increased in the CD4(+) but not in the CD8(+) population. Lymph node T cells show increases in the expression of alpha(5), alpha(6), and beta(1) integrin chains. These alterations correlate with increases in the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in lymph nodes. Interestingly, laminin, fibronectin, and collagen I and IV are markedly decreased in nackt thymus which shows an augmented output of CD8(+) cells. These results demonstrate that a mutation in the Ctsl gene influences the levels of ECM components in lymphoid organs, the thymic output, and the number of T cells in the periphery. They further raise the possibility that, by regulating the level of expression of ECM components in lymphoid organs, CTSL is able to broadly affect the immune system. PMID:15905545

  20. Transient inhibition of ROR-γt therapeutically limits intestinal inflammation by reducing TH17 cells and preserving group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Withers, David R; Hepworth, Matthew R; Wang, Xinxin; Mackley, Emma C; Halford, Emily E; Dutton, Emma E; Marriott, Clare L; Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena; Veldhoen, Marc; Kelsen, Judith; Baldassano, Robert N; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2016-03-01

    RAR-related orphan receptor-γt (ROR-γt) directs differentiation of proinflammatory T helper 17 (TH17) cells and is a potential therapeutic target in chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, ROR-γt-dependent group 3 innate lymphoid cells ILC3s provide essential immunity and tissue protection in the intestine, suggesting that targeting ROR-γt could also result in impaired host defense after infection or enhanced tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate that transient chemical inhibition of ROR-γt in mice selectively reduces cytokine production from TH17 but not ILCs in the context of intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, resulting in preserved innate immunity. Temporal deletion of Rorc (encoding ROR-γt) in mature ILCs also did not impair cytokine response in the steady state or during infection. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of ROR-γt provided therapeutic benefit in mouse models of intestinal inflammation and reduced the frequency of TH17 cells but not ILCs isolated from primary intestinal samples of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Collectively, these results reveal differential requirements for ROR-γt in the maintenance of TH17 cell and ILC3 responses and suggest that transient inhibition of ROR-γt is a safe and effective therapeutic approach during intestinal inflammation. PMID:26878233

  1. Thymic irradiation inhibits the rapid recovery of TH1 but not TH2-like functions of CD4+ T cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.; Adkins, B.; Strober, S. )

    1991-10-15

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated.

  2. Alternative donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mature lymphoid malignancies after reduced-intensity conditioning regimen: similar outcomes with umbilical cord blood and unrelated donor peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Celso Arrais; Rocha, Vanderson; Dreger, Peter; Brunstein, Claudio; Sengeloev, Henrik; Finke, Jürgen; Mohty, Mohamad; Rio, Bernard; Petersen, Eefke; Guilhot, François; Niederwieser, Dietger; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Jindra, Pavel; Nagler, Arnon; Fegueux, Nathalie; Schoemans, Hélène; Robinson, Stephen; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Gluckman, Eliane; Canals, Carmen; Sureda, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We have reported encouraging results of unrelated cord blood transplantation for patients with lymphoid malignancies. Whether those outcomes are comparable to matched unrelated donor transplants remains to be defined. We studied 645 adult patients with mature lymphoid malignancies who received an allogeneic unrelated donor transplant using umbilical cord blood (n=104) or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (n=541) after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Unrelated cord blood recipients had more refractory disease. Median follow-up time was 30 months. Neutrophil engraftment (81% vs. 97%, respectively; P<0.0001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (26% vs. 52%; P=0.0005) were less frequent after unrelated cord blood than after matched unrelated donor, whereas no differences were observed in grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (29% vs. 32%), non-relapse mortality (29% vs. 28%), and relapse or progression (28% vs. 35%) at 36 months. There were also no significant differences in 2-year progression-free survival (43% vs. 58%, respectively) and overall survival (36% vs. 51%) at 36 months. In a multivariate analysis, no differences were observed in the outcomes between the two stem cell sources except for a higher risk of neutrophil engraftment (hazard ratio=2.12; P<0.0001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio 2.10; P=0.0002) after matched unrelated donor transplant. In conclusion, there was no difference in final outcomes after transplantation between umbilical cord blood and matched unrelated donor transplant. Umbilical cord blood is a valuable alternative for patients with lymphoid malignancies lacking an HLA-matched donor, being associated with lower risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:23935024

  3. Construction of a multicolor GeneScan analytical system to detect clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes in canine lymphoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masahiko; Nakashima, Ko; Hiyoshi, Saaya; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Maeda, Shingo; Nakamura, Kenji; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2015-05-15

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to detect immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T cell receptor γ-chain (TCRγ) gene rearrangements has recently become widely used as part of the diagnostic strategy for lymphoid tumors in dogs. In this study, we constructed a multicolor GeneScan analytical system to improve the sensitivity and resolution of the clonality analysis of antigen receptor gene rearrangements in dogs. We used 7 reactions per sample, with 2 PCR conditions, to amplify IgH/TCRγ and control genes. By using multicolor-labeled primers, these 7 PCR products could be combined into 3 tubes before capillary electrophoresis. Clonal rearrangement of the IgH/TCRγ genes was detected in 93.3% of dogs with multicentric lymphoma and 84.6% of dogs with gastrointestinal lymphoma. Detection sensitivity of the clonally expanded cells in the background of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 1-10%. The multicolor GeneScan analytical system developed here may prove to be helpful for the diagnosis of lymphoid tumors in dogs. PMID:25840823

  4. The transcription factor Bcl11b is specifically expressed in group 2 innate lymphoid cells and is essential for their development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Cui; Clare, Simon; Wang, Juexuan; Lee, Song-Choon; Brandt, Cordelia; Burke, Shannon; Lu, Liming; He, Daqian; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Dougan, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), or ILC2s, are a subset of recently identified ILCs, which play important roles in innate immunity by producing type 2 effector cytokines. Several transcription factors have been found to have critical functions in the development of both ILC2s and T cells. We report here that Bcl11b, a transcription factor essential in T cell lineage commitment and maintenance, is specifically expressed in progenitors committed to the ILC2 lineage and is required for ILC2 development. The Bcl11b gene is expressed in ∼28% of ILC progenitors (ILCPs; common helper innate lymphoid progenitors or ILCPs expressing either ID2 or promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger, respectively). Both in vitro and in vivo, these Bcl11b-expressing early ILCPs generate only ILC2s. Inactivation of Bcl11b causes a complete loss of ILC2 development from hematopoietic progenitors, which is confirmed upon immune challenge with either papain administration or influenza virus infection. PMID:25964371

  5. Lack of transfer of lpr-type abnormalities (lymphoproliferation or lymphoid aplasia) in double congenic nude beige mice engrafted with lpr haematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tiberghien, F; Pflumio, F; Kuntz, L; Loor, F

    1993-01-01

    The aetiology of the autoimmune and lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by the murine lpr (lymphoproliferation) mutation was studied by the adoptive transfer methodology using non-irradiated athymic and natural killer (NK)-deficient C57BL/6 nude beige mice (B6 nubg) as recipients. The [lpr-->nubg] chimeras did not display the severe lymphoid organ aplasia shown by irradiated non-lpr recipients of lpr haematopoietic cells. However, nor did they either express the typical lpr phenotype features (hyperglobulinaemia, autoimmunity and lymphoid hyperplasia). Nevertheless, engraftment of lpr cells in the nubg recipients was shown by their much increased survival, the recovery of T-cell mitogen responsiveness in the spleen, and the presence of T-dependent immunoglobulin isotypes in their serum. The host of donor origin of serum immunoglobulin was studied by measuring IgG2a allotypes in the serum of [lpr-->nubg] chimeras made with different lgh-congenic mice. Interestingly, several months after grafting, the serum IgG2a was found to be mainly of lpr graft origin, suggesting that only lpr B cells could function in such chimeras. In conclusion, a lpr spleen cell graft reconstituted non-irradiated nubg recipients and induced neither a typical lpr syndrome nor a lpr-type graft-versus-host (GVH)-like disease. These features of the lpr syndrome are at variance with those of the phenotypically similar gld syndrome, since this mutation allows the transfer of a generalized lymphadenopathy disease by grafting gld spleen cells in nubg or irradiated recipients. Unlike the gld syndrome, the lpr gene might not only affect haematopoietic cells but also cells of the environment, which would interact in the same impaired process. PMID:8099566

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  7. Primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma combined with cytomegalovirus colitis.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Motoyasu, Osawa; Murao, Takahisa; Ishii, Manabu; Fujita, Minoru; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Akiyama, Takashi; Wada, Hideho; Sugihara, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2016-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The macroscopic findings of colonoscopy revealed multiple submucosal tumors and multiple ulcers, which were localized in the sigmoid colon, and diffuse granular mucosa which extended to the total colon. The pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, because the large lymphoma cells were CD20+, CD10-, and CD5-. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal biopsy samples from multiple ulcers revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive cells. The patient was diagnosed with primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of DLBCL and MALT lymphoma combined with CMV colitis. She received anti-viral medication and chemotherapy. PMID:27015999

  8. CXCL13 blockade disrupts B lymphocyte organization in tertiary lymphoid structures without altering B cell receptor bias or preventing diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rachel A; Kendall, Peggy L

    2010-08-01

    Lymphocytes that invade nonlymphoid tissues often organize into follicle-like structures known as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). These structures resemble those found in spleen or lymph nodes, but their function is unknown. TLOs are recognized in many autoimmune diseases, including the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In some cases, TLOs have been associated with the B lymphocyte chemoattractant, CXCL13. Studies presented in this article show that CXCL13 is present in inflamed islets of NOD mice. Ab blockade of this chemokine unraveled B lymphocyte organization in islet TLOs, without reducing their proportion in the islets. These chaotic milieus contained B lymphocytes with the same distinct repertoire of B cell receptors as those found in mice with well-organized structures. Somatic hypermutation, associated with T-B interactions, was not impaired in these disorganized insulitis lesions. Finally, loss of B lymphocyte organization in islets did not provide disease protection. Thus, B lymphocytes infiltrating islets in NOD mice do not require the morphology of secondary lymphoid tissues to support their role in disease. PMID:20574003

  9. Disruption of Splenic Lymphoid Tissue and Plasmacytosis in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Changes in Homing and Survival of Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva-O’Hare, Joselli; de Oliveira, Isabela Silva; Klevorn, Thaís; Almeida, Valter A.; Oliveira, Geraldo G. S.; Atta, Ajax M.; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio R.; dos-Santos, Washington L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Dogs are the main urban reservoir of this parasite and the disease presents similar characteristics in both humans and dogs. In this paper, we investigated the potential pathways involved in plasma cell replacement of normal cell populations in the spleen, with respect to disease severity in dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. To this end, canine spleen samples were grouped into three categories: TYPE1SC- (non-infected dogs or without active infection with organized white pulp), TYPE1SC+ (infected dogs with organized white pulp) or TYPE3SC+ (infected animals with disorganized white pulp). We analyzed the distribution of different plasma cell isotypes (IgA, IgG and IgM) in the spleen. The expression of cytokines and chemokines involved in plasma cell homing and survival were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia were also evaluated. The proportion of animals with moderate or intense plasmacytosis was higher in the TYPE3SC+ group than in the other groups (Fisher test, P<0.05). This was mainly due to a higher density of IgG+ plasma cells in the red pulp of this group. The albumin/globulin ratio was lower in the TYPE3SC+ animals than in the TYPE1SC- or TYPE1SC+ animals, which evidences VL-associated dysproteinemia. Interestingly, TYPE3SC+ animals showed increased expression of the BAFF and APRIL cytokines, as well as chemokine CXCL12. Aberrant expression of BAFF, APRIL and CXCL12, together with amplified extrafollicular B cell activation, lead to plasma cell homing and the extended survival of these cells in the splenic red pulp compartment. These changes in the distribution of immunocompetent cells in the spleen may contribute to the progression of VL, and impair the spleen’s ability to protect against blood borne pathogens. PMID:27243459

  10. Disruption of Splenic Lymphoid Tissue and Plasmacytosis in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Changes in Homing and Survival of Plasma Cells.

    PubMed

    Silva-O'Hare, Joselli; de Oliveira, Isabela Silva; Klevorn, Thaís; Almeida, Valter A; Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Atta, Ajax M; de Freitas, Luiz Antonio R; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Dogs are the main urban reservoir of this parasite and the disease presents similar characteristics in both humans and dogs. In this paper, we investigated the potential pathways involved in plasma cell replacement of normal cell populations in the spleen, with respect to disease severity in dogs from an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. To this end, canine spleen samples were grouped into three categories: TYPE1SC- (non-infected dogs or without active infection with organized white pulp), TYPE1SC+ (infected dogs with organized white pulp) or TYPE3SC+ (infected animals with disorganized white pulp). We analyzed the distribution of different plasma cell isotypes (IgA, IgG and IgM) in the spleen. The expression of cytokines and chemokines involved in plasma cell homing and survival were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia were also evaluated. The proportion of animals with moderate or intense plasmacytosis was higher in the TYPE3SC+ group than in the other groups (Fisher test, P<0.05). This was mainly due to a higher density of IgG+ plasma cells in the red pulp of this group. The albumin/globulin ratio was lower in the TYPE3SC+ animals than in the TYPE1SC- or TYPE1SC+ animals, which evidences VL-associated dysproteinemia. Interestingly, TYPE3SC+ animals showed increased expression of the BAFF and APRIL cytokines, as well as chemokine CXCL12. Aberrant expression of BAFF, APRIL and CXCL12, together with amplified extrafollicular B cell activation, lead to plasma cell homing and the extended survival of these cells in the splenic red pulp compartment. These changes in the distribution of immunocompetent cells in the spleen may contribute to the progression of VL, and impair the spleen's ability to protect against blood borne pathogens. PMID:27243459

  11. Nanodrug formulations to enhance HIV drug exposure in lymphoid tissues and cells: clinical significance and potential impact on treatment and eradication of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Kraft, John C; Li, Bowen; Yu, Jesse; Freeling, Jennifer; Koehn, Josefin; Ho, Rodney Jy

    2016-01-01

    Although oral combination antiretroviral therapy effectively clears plasma HIV, patients on oral drugs exhibit much lower drug concentrations in lymph nodes than blood. This drug insufficiency is linked to residual HIV in cells of lymph nodes. While nanoformulations improve drug solubility, safety and delivery, most HIV nanoformulations are intended to extend plasma levels. A stable nanodrug combination that transports, delivers and accumulates in lymph nodes is needed to clear HIV in lymphoid tissues. This review discusses limitations of current oral combination antiretroviral therapy and advances in anti-HIV nanoformulations. A 'systems approach' has been proposed to overcome these limitations. This concept has been used to develop nanoformulations for overcoming drug insufficiency, extending cell and tissue exposure and clearing virus for treating HIV/AIDS. PMID:26892323

  12. Safety and efficacy of intrathecal rituximab in children with B cell lymphoid CD20+ malignancies: An international retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, Francesco; Weitzman, Sheila; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Davies, Kimberly; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Reismüller, Bettina; Mellgren, Karin; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Maia, Iris; Abdullah, Shaker; Miakova, Natasha; Glaser, Darryl; Cohn, Richard; Abla, Oussama; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Alexander, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with mature B non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post-transplantation proliferative disorder and acute lymphoblastic leukemia confers a significantly inferior prognosis as compared to patients without CNS disease. Intrathecal (IT) or intraventricular administration of rituximab is an option for this group of patients. We report 25 children with CNS involvement of CD20+ B lymphoid malignancies who received in total 163 IT/intraventricular rituximab doses. The median number of doses received by each patient was 6, with a median dose of 25 mg. The most common adverse events were Grades 1 and 2 peripheral neuropathies in five patients (20%), allergy in two patients, and headache in two patients. These events were self-limited, occurring in the 48 hours after treatment and resolving within 24 hr. Three patients presented with more severe though transient side effects, one with a Grade III neuropathy and two with seizure. Eighteen patients (72%) of those treated with IT/intraventricular rituximab, with or without other CNS directed treatment, achieved a CNS remission. This case series suggests that IT/intraventricular rituximab has therapeutic efficacy and relatively limited toxicity. Prospective trials of IT/intraventricular rituximab for patients with CNS involvement of CD20 + B lymphoid malignancies are warranted. Am. J. Hematol. 91:486-491, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26872652

  13. Development of tertiary lymphoid structures in the kidneys of pigs with chronic leptospiral nephritis.

    PubMed

    Pezzolato, M; Maina, E; Lonardi, S; Bozzetta, E; Grassi, F; Scanziani, E; Radaelli, E

    2012-01-15

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are structures that are morphologically and functionally similar to secondary lymphoid organs. TLOs usually arise in a background of chronic inflammation. Several histological patterns of interstitial nephritis have been documented in porcine leptospirosis. Among them the lympho-follicular pattern is characterized by infiltrates of mononuclear cells organized in lymphoid follicle-like structures. Immunohistological analysis of 5 cases of porcine lympho-follicular nephritis associated with Leptospira Pomona infection demonstrated the presence of inflammatory cell populations, including B cells, T cells, macrophages and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which were compartmentalized as in TLOs. Immunohistochemistry for Leptospira Pomona revealed an intimate association between leptospiral antigen and FDCs. Overexpression of MHCII in different populations of both professional and non-professional antigen presenting cells was also demonstrated. FDCs play role during TLOs induction for their ability to retain non-self antigens in the form of immune complexes, thus causing persistent T cell activation, generation of a complex cytokine network and stimulation of humoral immunity. Sustained bacterial antigen presentation in the context of chronic leptospiral nephritis, may also lead to autoimmune mechanisms involved in the generation of TLOs. Whether lymphoid neogenesis and TLOs play a protective role in porcine leptospiral nephritis is still unclear. PMID:22227076

  14. Long-term followup of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanay, A.; Field, E.H.; Hoppe, R.T.; Strober, S.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation was administered to 32 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-four patients showed at least a 25% improvement in 3 of 4 disease activity parameters, which persisted during the followup period of up to 48 months. Eight of the 32 patients required adjunctive immunosuppressive drug therapy to maintain improvement. Four patients died after total lymphoid irradiation; the causes of death were acute myocardial infarction (1 patient), pulmonary embolism (1 patient), and rheumatoid lung disease complicated by respiratory infection (2 patients). After therapy, patients exhibited a prolonged reduction in the number and function of circulating T helper cells.

  15. Immunoregulatory changes induced by total lymphoid irradiation. II. Development of thymus-leukemia antigen-positive and -negative suppressor T cells that differ in their regulatory function

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.P.; Strober, S.

    1981-07-01

    BALB/c mice treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) develop non-antigen-specific suppressor cells of the adoptive secondary antibody response and of the mixed leukocyte reaction. Suppressors of the adoptive anti-DNP response were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 or anti-thymus-leukemia (TL) antiserum and complement before cell transfer. Thymectomy before TLI prevented the appearance of the latter suppressor cells. On the other hand, suppressors of the MLR were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 but not anti-TL antiserum and complement. Thymectomy before TLI did not prevent their subsequent development. Thus, two subpopulations of suppressor T cells that differ in the expression of the TL surface antigen, dependence on the presence of the thymus, and in regulatory functions develop after TLI. The TL+, thymus-dependent cell suppresses the adoptive antibody response, and the TL-, thymus-independent cell suppresses the MLR.

  16. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising in a female urethra treated with rituximab for the first time.

    PubMed

    Zahrani, A Al; Abdelsalam, M; Fiaar, A Al; Ibrahim, N; Al-Elawi, A; Muhammad, B

    2012-05-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to the gynecology clinic with a small (painless) swelling at the urethral orifice. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, stage IE. The patient refused radiotherapy. Accordingly, we started CHOP-R chemotherapy. She received a total of 6 cycles of CHOP and 8 cycles of rituximab. Patient follow-up was done 3 months later through CT scan and cytoscopy confirming the complete remission. The patient has been disease-free for 4 years. We reviewed 26 cases of this rare entity reported previously. PMID:22679430

  17. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-10-22

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.

  18. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-10-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation in kidney and liver transplantation in the baboon: prolonged graft survival and alterations in T cell subsets with low cumulative dose regimens

    SciTech Connect

    Myburgh, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Stark, J.H.; Browde, S.

    1984-02-01

    Prolonged kidney and liver allograft survival was produced in baboons by low cumulative doses (500 to 1200 rad) of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Continuing normal graft function for more than 1 year after transplantation was seen in 10 animals in this series. The longest survivor (> 4 years) rejected a third party kidney allograft in typically acute fashion 1 yr after the original transplantation. The dose-response effect was parabolic, with a cumulative dose of 800 rad given as twice weekly fractions of 100 rad each being the most effective. With smaller cumulative doses (500 or 600 rad) results were improved if TLI was administered as a large number of smaller fractions. These regimens are free of the radiation related mortality observed in earlier studies with larger cumulative doses. Alterations in T cell subpopulations were studied in these baboons with the use of the anti-human monoclonal antibodies OKT11 (anti-total T cells), OKT4 (anti-T helper cells; Th), and OKT8 (anti-T suppressor/cytotoxic cells, Tsc), which cross-react with baboon lymphocytes. After completion of TLI but before transplantation, the relative percentage of Tsc cells fell and the percentage of Th and the Th/Tsc ratio rose. Transplantation was followed by an inversion of this ratio due to reciprocal changes in the percentages of Th and Tsc cells. This pattern persisted and increased until 6 mo after transplantation, when it reverted to that seen in untreated control animals.

  20. Acquisition of Pneumococci Specific Effector and Regulatory Cd4+ T Cells Localising within Human Upper Respiratory-Tract Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pido-Lopez, Jeffrey; Kwok, William W.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Williams, Neil A.

    2011-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract mucosa is the location for commensal Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae colonization and therefore represents a major site of contact between host and bacteria. The CD4+ T cell response to pneumococcus is increasingly recognised as an important mediator of immunity that protects against invasive disease, with data suggesting a critical role for Th17 cells in mucosal clearance. By assessing CD4 T cell proliferative responses we demonstrate age-related sequestration of Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cells reactive to pneumococcal protein antigens within mucosal lymphoid tissue. CD25hi T cell depletion and utilisation of pneumococcal specific MHCII tetramers revealed the presence of antigen specific Tregs that utilised CTLA-4 and PDL-1 surface molecules to suppress these responses. The balance between mucosal effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell immunity is likely to be critical to pneumococcal commensalism and the prevention of unwanted pathology associated with carriage. However, if dysregulated, such responses may render the host more susceptible to invasive pneumococcal infection and adversely affect the successful implementation of both polysaccharide-conjugate and novel protein-based pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:22144893

  1. MicroRNA-26b Represses Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF-1) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zichao; Kim, KyoungHyun; Li, Xiao; Moreno, Myriam; Sharp, Thad; Goodheart, Micheal J.; Safe, Stephen; Dupuy, Adam J.; Amendt, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miR) can act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors and several miRs are associated with cancer development and progression through the modulation of multiple cellular processes. miR-26b is down regulated in several cancers and tumors and miR-26b directly targets the Lef-1 3'UTR and inhibits endogenous Lef-1 expression. We report that miR-26b expression is associated with human colon cancer through the regulation of LEF-1 expression in colon cancer cells. Analyses of multiple colon cancer cell lines revealed an inverse correlation between miR-26b and LEF-1 expression. Normal human colon cells express low levels of LEF-1 and high levels of miR-26b, however human colon cancer cells have decreased miR-26b expression and increased LEF-1 expression. We demonstrate that miR-26b expression is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell proliferation and significantly decreases LEF-1 expression. The LEF-1 regualted genes Cyclin D1 and c-Myc were indirectly repressed by miR-26b and this was consistent with decreased proliferation. miR-26b overexpression in SW480 colon cancer cells also inhibited tumor growth in nude mice and this was due to decreased tumor growth and not apoptosis. Analyses of human colon cancer databases also demonstrated a link between miR-26b and LEF-1 expression. c-Myc expression is associated with multiple cancers and we propose that miR-26b may act as a potential therapeutic agent in reducing cancer cell proliferation through repressing LEF-1 activation of c-Myc and Cyclin D1 expression. PMID:24785257

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol in Lymphoid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar S; Bhat, Ajaz A; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Uddin, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have always been sought as a dependable source for the cure of many fatal diseases including cancer. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, has been of recent research interest and is being investigated for its beneficial biological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and growth inhibitory activities. These effects are mainly mediated by cell cycle arrest, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, loss of mitochondrial potential, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Among the beneficial properties of RSV, the anticancer property has been of the prime focus and extensively explored during the last few years. Although reports exist on the chemopreventive role of RSV in many solid tumors, limited information is available on the antiproliferative activity of RSV in human lymphoma cells and experimental models. Potential mechanisms for its antiproliferative effect include induction of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. In this review, the different kinds of lymphoid malignancies and the main mechanisms of cell death induced by resveratrol are discussed. The challenges are limiting in vivo experimental studies involving resveratrol. An attempt for the translation of this compound into a clinical drug also forms a part of this review. PMID:27028800

  3. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is down-regulated by AP-1-like regulatory elements in human lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a template-independent DNA polymerase that catalyses the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into the 3′-hydroxyl end of DNA templates and is thought to increase junctional diversity of antigen receptor genes. TdT is expressed only on immature lymphocytes and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells and its transcriptional expression is tightly regulated. We had previously found that protein kinase C (PKC) activation down-regulates TdT expression. PKC-activation induces the synthesis of the Fos and Jun proteins, known as the major components of activation protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional factor implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report the identification of several DNA–protein interactions within the TdT promoter region in non-TdT expressing human cells. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative AP-1-like DNA-binding site, suggesting that AP-1 may play a relevant role in TdT transcriptional regulation. Using a different source of nuclear extracts and the AP-1–TdT motif as a probe we identified several DNA-protein retarded complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Super-band shifting analysis using an antibody against c-Jun protein confirmed that the main interaction is produced by a nuclear factor that belongs to the AP-1 family transcription factors. Our findings suggest that the TdT gene expression is down-regulated, at least in part, through AP-1-like transcription factors. PMID:15027905

  4. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is down-regulated by AP-1-like regulatory elements in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2004-02-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a template-independent DNA polymerase that catalyses the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into the 3'-hydroxyl end of DNA templates and is thought to increase junctional diversity of antigen receptor genes. TdT is expressed only on immature lymphocytes and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells and its transcriptional expression is tightly regulated. We had previously found that protein kinase C (PKC) activation down-regulates TdT expression. PKC-activation induces the synthesis of the Fos and Jun proteins, known as the major components of activation protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional factor implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report the identification of several DNA-protein interactions within the TdT promoter region in non-TdT expressing human cells. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative AP-1-like DNA-binding site, suggesting that AP-1 may play a relevant role in TdT transcriptional regulation. Using a different source of nuclear extracts and the AP-1-TdT motif as a probe we identified several DNA-protein retarded complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Super-band shifting analysis using an antibody against c-Jun protein confirmed that the main interaction is produced by a nuclear factor that belongs to the AP-1 family transcription factors. Our findings suggest that the TdT gene expression is down-regulated, at least in part, through AP-1-like transcription factors. PMID:15027905

  5. Hyaluronan and Hyaluronan-Binding Proteins Accumulate in Both Human Type 1 Diabetic Islets and Lymphoid Tissues and Associate With Inflammatory Cells in Insulitis

    PubMed Central

    Bogdani, Marika; Johnson, Pamela Y.; Potter-Perigo, Susan; Nagy, Nadine; Day, Anthony J.; Bollyky, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that is present in pancreatic islets, but little is known about its involvement in the development of human type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have evaluated whether pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues of T1D and nondiabetic organ donors differ in the amount and distribution of HA and HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), such as inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), versican, and tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). HA was dramatically increased both within the islet and outside the islet endocrine cells, juxtaposed to islet microvessels in T1D. In addition, HA was prominent surrounding immune cells in areas of insulitis. IαI and versican were present in HA-rich areas of islets, and both molecules accumulated in diabetic islets and regions exhibiting insulitis. TSG-6 was observed within the islet endocrine cells and in inflammatory infiltrates. These patterns were only observed in tissues from younger donors with disease duration of <10 years. Furthermore, HA and IαI amassed in follicular germinal centers and in T-cell areas in lymph nodes and spleens in T1D patients compared with control subjects. Our observations highlight potential roles for HA and hyaladherins in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24677718

  6. A short protocol using dexamethasone and monophosphoryl lipid A generates tolerogenic dendritic cells that display a potent migratory capacity to lymphoid chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) for therapy is challenging due to its implications for the design of protocols suitable for clinical applications, which means not only using safe products, but also working at defining specific biomarkers for TolDCs identification, developing shorter DCs differentiation methods and obtaining TolDCs with a stable phenotype. We describe here, a short-term protocol for TolDCs generation, which are characterized in terms of phenotypic markers, cytokines secretion profile, CD4+ T cell-stimulatory ability and migratory capacity. Methods TolDCs from healthy donors were generated by modulation with dexamethasone plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA-tDCs). We performed an analysis of MPLA-tDCs in terms of yield, viability, morphology, phenotypic markers, cytokines secretion profile, stability, allogeneic and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell stimulatory ability and migration capacity. Results After a 5-day culture, MPLA-tDCs displayed reduced expression of costimulatory and maturation molecules together to an anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion profile, being able to maintain these tolerogenic features even after the engagement of CD40 by its cognate ligand. In addition, MPLA-tDCs exhibited reduced capabilities to stimulate allogeneic and antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation, and induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion pattern. Among potential tolerogenic markers studied, only TLR-2 was highly expressed in MPLA-tDCs when compared to mature and immature DCs. Remarkable, like mature DCs, MPLA-tDCs displayed a high CCR7 and CXCR4 expression, both chemokine receptors involved in migration to secondary lymphoid organs, and even more, in an in vitro assay they exhibited a high migration response towards CCL19 and CXCL12. Conclusion We describe a short-term protocol for TolDC generation, which confers them a stable phenotype and migratory capacity to lymphoid chemokines, essential features for TolDCs to be used

  7. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with large cell transformation on the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review literature.

    PubMed

    Hengjeerajarus, Natavuth; Klaisuwan, Teerada; Norasetthada, Lalita; Kosachunhanun, Natapong

    2015-05-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of malignancy that occurs in 0.5% of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), followed by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We described the case of a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma in the background of autoimmune thyroiditis with focal area of DLBCL transformation. The patient was a 70-year-old man with rapidly growing mass of the thyroid gland with compressive symptom over two months. The laboratory data revealed primary hypothyroidism with positively anti-thyroid antibodies. The computerized tomography scan showed right thyroid mass extended to anterior mediastinum and compressed adjacent airway with multiple cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The pathology from incisional biopsy showed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT lymphoma with large cell transformation. The patient received four courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with involved field radiation therapy. The mass was dramatically decreased in size after treatment, leading to a complete resolution of compressive symptoms. Thyroid lymphoma is quite rare; however the incidence may be higher in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A rapidly growing thyroid gland should be considered as PTL. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstays of treatment. PMID:26058282

  8. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody and Combination Chemotherapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  9. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  10. Recreational physical activity, leisure sitting time and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Birmann, Brenda M; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-10-15

    Results of studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (NHL) are inconsistent, and only one study to date examined time spent sitting in relation to NHL. We examined recreational physical activity and leisure-time sitting in relation to risk of NHL in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Between 1992 and 2007, 2,002 incident cases were identified among 146,850 participants who were cancer-free at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for potential confounders. Women who sat for at least 6 hr/day were at 28% higher risk of NHL compared to women who sat for fewer than 3 hr/day. In analyses of specific subtypes, sitting time was associated with risk of multiple myeloma only (6+ vs. 3 hr/day sitting: HR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.45-3.97). Women who engaged in any recreational physical activity had a nonsignificant 20%-30% lower risk of NHL (p-trend = 0.05) compared to women who reported no recreational physical activity. Neither leisure-time sitting nor recreational physical activity was associated with risk of NHL or major NHL subtype in men. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between physical activity and sitting time, or between body mass index and physical activity or sitting time. Further research is needed to confirm an association between sitting time and multiple myeloma and explore a possible association between physical activity and NHL. PMID:22275172

  11. Initiation points for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid replication in human lymphoid cells converted by Epstein-Barr virus

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.; Shlomai, Z.; Ben-Bassat, H.

    1981-08-01

    Replicon size was estimated in two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative human lymphoma lines, BJAB and Ramos, and four EBV-positive lines derived from the former ones by infection (conversion) with two viral strains, B95-8 and P3HR-1. Logarithmic cultures were pulse-labeled with (/sup -3/H)thymidine, and the deoxyribonucleic acid was spread on microscopic slides and autoradiographed by the method of Huberman and Riggs. Three of the four EBV-converted cell lines, BJAB/B95-8, Ra/B95-8, and Ra/HRIK, were found to have significantly shorter replicons (41, 21, 54% shorter, respectively), i.e., more initiation points, than their EBV-negative parents. BJAB/HRIK had replicons which were only slightly shorter (11%) than those of BJAB. However, analysis of track length demonstrated that extensive track fusion occurred during the labeling of BJAB/HRIK, implying that its true average replicon size is shorter than the observed value. The results indicate that in analogy to simian virus 40, EBV activates new initiation points for cellular DNA replication in EBV-transformed cells.

  12. Immunotherapy of murine sarcomas with interleukin 2. II. Activation of killer cells by human recombinant IL-2.

    PubMed

    Indrová, M; Bubeník, J; Toulcová, A

    1986-01-01

    Highly purified human recombinant interleukin 2 induced cytotoxicity in mouse spleen cells against mouse sarcoma cells when added during the 51Cr microcytotoxicity assay. It elicited similar levels of killer cell activation as did human lymphoid (Jurkat leukaemia-derived) or mouse lymphoid (EL-4 leukaemia-derived) IL-2 preparations. The susceptibility of six MC-induced mouse sarcomas to the cytolytic effect of lymphokine-activated killer cells was compared. Five (MC11, MC13, MC14, MC15, MC16) of six mouse sarcoma cell lines examined were sensitive in vitro to the LAK cell effect, whereas one cell line (MC12) was resistant. Since the sensitive and resistant target cell lines had been induced with the same carcinogen and in mice of the same genotype, they represent a very useful model for investigation of target cell structures responsible for the sensitivity to the LAK cell effect. PMID:3492397

  13. Adjuvanted Intranasal Norwalk Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Elicits Antibodies and Antibody-Secreting Cells That Express Homing Receptors for Mucosal and Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    El-Kamary, Samer S.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Mendelman, Paul M.; Frey, Sharon E.; Bernstein, David I.; Treanor, John J.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Chen, Wilbur H.; Sublett, Richard; Richardson, Charles; Bargatze, Robert F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Tacket, Carol O.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Noroviruses cause significant morbidity and mortality from acute gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. Methods.We conducted 2 phase 1 double-blind, controlled studies of a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine derived from norovirus GI.1 genotype adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the mucoadherent chitosan. Healthy subjects 18–49 years of age were randomized to 2 doses of intranasal Norwalk VLP vaccine or controls 21 days apart. Study 1 evaluated 5-, 15-, and 50-μg dosages of Norwalk antigen, and study 2 evaluated 50-and 100-μg dosages. Volunteers recorded symptoms for 7 days after dosing, and safety was followed up for 180 days. Blood samples were collected for serological profile, antibody secreting cells (ASCs), and analysis of ASC homing receptors. Results. The most common symptoms were nasal stuffiness, discharge, and sneezing. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Norwalk VLP-specific immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A antibodies increased 4.8-and 9.1-fold, respectively, for the 100-μg dosage level. All subjects tested who received the 50-or 100-μg vaccine dose developed immunoglobulin A ASCs. These cells expressed molecules associated with homing to mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Conclusions. The intranasal monovalent adjuvanted Norwalk VLP vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic and is a candidate for additional study. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00806962. PMID:20979455

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthrecene differentially affect bone marrow cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, Noe; Page, Todd J.; Czuprynski, Charles J.; Jefcoate, Colin R. . E-mail: jefcoate@facstaff.wisc.edu

    2006-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental contaminants that are carcinogenic and immunosuppressive. Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) are two prototypic PAHs known to impair the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. We have previously shown that, in C57BL/6J mice, total bone marrow (BM) cellularity decreased two-fold following intraperitoneal DMBA treatment but not BP treatment. Here, we have used flow cytometry to demonstrate that BP and DMBA differentially alter the lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Following DMBA treatment, the pro/pre B-lymphocytes (B220{sup lo}/IgM{sup -}) and the immature B-lymphocytes (B220{sup lo}/IgM{sup +}) significantly decreased, while the mature B-lymphocytes (B220{sup hi}/IgM{sup +}) remained unaffected. In contrast, BP treatment decreased the pro/pre B-lymphocytes, and did not affect the immature B-lymphocytes or mature B-lymphocytes. The Gr-1{sup +} cells of the myeloid lineage were depleted 50% following DMBA treatment and only minimally depleted following BP treatment. Interestingly, the monocytes (7/4{sup +}1A8{sup lo}) and neutrophils (7/4{sup +}1A8{sup hi}) within this Gr-1{sup +} population were differentially affected by these PAHs. Monocytes and neutrophils were depleted following DMBA treatment whereas neutrophils decreased and monocytes increased following BP treatment. Although TNF{alpha} and CYP1B1 are implicated as essential mediators of hypocellularity, the similar induction of TNF{alpha} mRNA and CYP1B1 mRNA in the BM by BP and DMBA suggests that they are not limiting factors in mediating the different effects of these PAHs. Given that similar amounts of BP and DMBA reach the BM when administered intraperitoneally, their differential effects on the lymphoid and myeloid lineages probably stem from differences in reactive metabolites such as PAH quinones and PAH-dihydrodiol-epoxides.

  15. Translocation of a hydrocarbon fluorescent probe between Epstein-Barr virus and lymphoid cells: an assay for early events in viral infection.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, K S; Yanovich, S; Inbar, M; Strominger, J L

    1978-10-01

    Translocation of the hydrocarbon fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene (DPH) between membranes was studied by fluorescence polarization (P) analysis. First, using a model system, the high P value (0.324) of DPH-labeled cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes and the low P value (0.157) of DPH-labeled phosphatidylcholine liposomes allowed detection of DPH translocation between interacting liposomes. This was monitored by the change in P in either direction. Early events during cell-virus interactions were similarly studied by monitoring DPH translocation. The P value of DPH-labeled Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) was significantly higher (0.350-0.392) than the P value of DPH-labeled lymphoid cells (0.238-0.289). Hence, DPH translocation could be detected by changes in P following incubation of DPH-labeled EBV and nonlabeled cells. A marked decrease in P was observed after incubation of DPH-labeled EBV with either nonlabeled lymphoblastoid Raji cells or fresh human B lymphocytes. However, only a slight decrease in P was obtained when DPH-labeled EBV was incubated with either nonlabeled fresh human T lymphocytes or fresh T or B rabbit lymphocytes. Moreover, incubation of fresh human B lymphocytes with the purified C3 component of complement (a putative inhibitor for the EBV receptor) prior to the addition of DPH-labeled EBV abolished the observed decrease in the P value. Most of these experiments were carried out with both the P3HR-1 and the B95-8 strains of EBV. DPH translocation, as determined by fluorescence polarization analysis, is, therefore, measuring some early event during interaction of this enveloped virus and mammalian cells. The potential applicability of this technique to other viruses is illustrated by an experiment with Semliki Forest virus. PMID:217012

  16. Low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the thymus of a patient with pulmonary amyloid nodules.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, E; Yokose, T; Kodama, T; Matsuno, Y; Hojo, F; Takahashi, K; Nagai, K; Nishiwaki, Y; Ochiai, A

    2000-08-01

    Low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma) is a rare thymic tumor, with only seven previous cases described worldwide to date. We describe the only case to have presented with pulmonary amyloid nodules. A 63-year-old Japanese female was found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules during a medical check-up in 1990 followed by chest radiography and computerized tomography. Because the mediastinal tumor grew larger, she was referred to the National Cancer Center Hospital East and hyperglobulinemia was pointed out. The thymus was resected through median sternotomy and pulmonary nodules were also resected through left thoracotomy. The solid and nodular tumor with several small satellite extensions and cyst formation was completely confined to within the thymus and the resected pulmonary nodules consisted of solid masses with a rough surface. Histologically, monotonous medium-sized centrocyte-like cells occupied the medulla of the thymus and infiltrated Hassall's corpuscles (lymphoepithelial lesions) and the resected pulmonary nodules consisted of eosinophilic amorphous deposits which showed birefringence on Congo Red staining. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD20 and CD79a. IgG and kappa light chain restrictions were also found in plasmacytoid cells in the tumor. Clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. We diagnosed this case as low-grade B-cell MALT-type lymphoma in the thymus and nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. Since the patient had only localized amyloid deposits in the lung far from the thymic malignant lymphoma and had high serum immunoglobulins, the pulmonary amyloid deposits might be derived from a circulating precursor associated with hyperglobulinemia. PMID:11059340

  17. Regulation of B versus T lymphoid lineage fate decision by the proto-oncogene LRF

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Takahiro; Merghoub, Taha; Hobbs, Robin M.; Dong, Lin; Maeda, Manami; Zakrzewski, Johannes; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Zelent, Arthur; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Akashi, Koichi; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow give rise to lymphoid progenitors, which subsequently differentiate into B and T lymphocytes. Here we show that the proto-oncogene LRF plays an essential role in the B versus T lymphoid cell fate decision. We demonstrate that LRF is key for instructing early lymphoid progenitors to develop into B lineage cells by repressing T cell-instructive signals produced by the cell fate signal protein, Notch. We propose a new model for lymphoid lineage commitment, in which LRF acts as a master regulator of B versus T lineage fate decision. PMID:17495164

  18. Small-lymphoid cells and myeloid antigen expression in a patient with IgG myeloma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, PENGJUN; XIA, WEN; SUN, XUEMEI; DAI, XINGBIN; LI, LIN

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is defined as a malignant proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells resulting in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. Due to the number of plasma cell morphological variants, difficulty is often faced during morphological diagnosis. The current study describes the case of a 49-year-old woman presenting with atypical plasma cell morphology detected by a bone marrow examination. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping determined the nature of the neoplastic cells as monoclonal myeloma cells with myeloid antigen expression. Serum electrophoresis with immunofixation and subsequent clinical findings confirmed this diagnosis. Therefore, the immunophenotyping of plasma cells in myelomas may be useful for the diagnosis of cases with atypical plasma cell morphology. PMID:26998140

  19. Localized populations of CD8 MHC class I tetramer SIV-specific T cells in lymphoid follicles and genital epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung Joo; Reynolds, Matthew R; Mattila, Teresa L; Hage, Aaron; Watkins, David I; Miller, Christopher J; Skinner, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    CD8 T cells play an important role in controlling viral infections. We investigated the in situ localization of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific T cells in lymph and genital tissues from SIV-infected macaques using MHC-class I tetramers. The majority of tetramer-binding cells localized in T cell zones and were CD8(+). Curiously, small subpopulations of tetramer-binding cells that had little to no surface CD8 were detected in situ both early and late post-infection, and in both vaginally and rectally inoculated macaques. These tetramer(+)CD8(low/-) cells were more often localized in apparent B cell follicles relative to T cell zones and more often found near or within the genital epithelium than the submucosa. Cells analyzed by flow cytometry showed similar populations of cells. Further immunohistological characterization revealed small populations of tetramer(+)CD20(-) cells inside B cell follicles and that tetramer(+) cells did not stain with gammadelta-TCR nor CD4 antibodies. Negative control tetramer staining indicated that tetramer(+)CD8(low/-) cells were not likely NK cells non-specifically binding to MHC tetramers. These findings have important implications for SIV-specific and other antigen-specific T cell function in these specific tissue locations, and suggest a model in which antigen-specific CD8+ T cells down modulate CD8 upon entering B cell follicles or the epithelial layer of tissues, or alternatively a model in which only antigen-specific CD8 T cells that down-modulate CD8 can enter B cell follicles or the epithelium. PMID:19122815

  20. A high number of losses in 13q14 chromosome band is associated with a worse outcome and biological differences in patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, José Ángel; Rodríguez, Ana Eugenia; González, Marcos; Benito, Rocío; Fontanillo, Celia; Sandoval, Virgilio; Romero, Mercedes; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; de Coca, Alfonso García; Fisac, Rosa; Galende, Josefina; Recio, Isabel; Ortuño, Francisco; García, Juan Luis; de las Rivas, Javier; Gutiérrez, Norma Carmen; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Hernández, Jesús María

    2009-01-01

    Background Among patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia, those with 13q14 deletion have a favorable outcome. However, whether the percentage of cells with 13q- influences the prognosis or the biological characteristics of this disease is unknown. We analyzed the clinico-biological characteristics and outcome of patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia with loss of 13q as the sole cytogenetic aberration. Design and Methods Three hundred and fifty patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia were studied. Clinical data were collected and fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular studies were carried out. In addition, a gene expression profile was obtained by microarray-based analysis. Results In 109 out of the 350 cases (31.1%) loss of 13q was the sole cytogenetic aberration at diagnosis. In the subgroup of patients with 80% or more of cells with loss of 13q (18 cases), the overall survival was 56 months compared with not reached in the 91 cases in whom less than 80% of cells had loss of 13q (p< 0.0001). The variables included in the multivariate analysis for overall survival were the percentage of losses of 13q14 (p=0.001) and B symptoms (p=0.007). The time to first therapy in the group with 80% or more vs. less than 80% of losses was 38 months vs. 87 months, respectively (p=0.05). In the multivariate analysis the variables selected were unmutated status of IgVH (p=0.001) and a high level of β2microglobulin (p=0.003). Interestingly, these differences regarding overall survival and time to first therapy were also present when other cut-offs were considered. The gene expression profile of patients with a high number of losses in 13q14 showed a high proliferation rate, downregulation of apoptosis-related genes, and dysregulation of genes related to mitochondrial functions. Conclusions Patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia with a high number of losses in 13q14 as the sole cytogenetic aberration at diagnosis display different clinical and

  1. The role of VipAlbumin(®) as an immunostimulatory agent for controlling homeostasis and proliferation of lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Dwijayanti, Dinia Rizqi; Djati, Muhammad Sasmito; Rifa'I, Muhaimin

    2016-01-01

    VipAlbumin(®) is a supplement from snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) which has high content of albumin that is very important to develop new cells. The aims of this study were to know the effect of VipAlbumin(®) to cell proliferation, expression level of CD4(+)CD62L(+) T cell, regulatory T cell, and B220+ cell, and immunocompetent cell cycle. Cell isolated from spleen of pathogen free mice were cultured in RPMI 1640 with 10% FBS, 1% Pen/Strep 10×, 2-Mercaptoetanol, anti-CD3 and LPS. The concentrations of VipAlbumin (®) used were 0 µg/ml; 0.33 µg/ml; 33.3 µg/ml; and 3333.3 µg/ml. The cell was incubated in CO2 5% incubator 37°C for 3 days for cell cycle and 5 days for proliferation analysis and cell expression. FACS analysis was done to know cell proliferation profile, status of cell, and cell cycle. Concentration 33.3 µg/ml and 3333.3 µg/ml significantly can increase cell proliferation and induce cell enter G2/M phase (p < 0.05) compared to control. VipAlbumin can significantly increase the relative number of CD4(+)CD62L(+) T cell, regulatory T cell, and B220+ cell (p < 0.05) compared to control. This study gives scientific evidence that VipAlbumin can be used as an immunostimulant which accelerates immunocompetent cells growth. PMID:27095920

  2. The role of VipAlbumin® as an immunostimulatory agent for controlling homeostasis and proliferation of lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Djati, Muhammad Sasmito; Rifa'I, Muhaimin

    2016-01-01

    VipAlbumin® is a supplement from snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) which has high content of albumin that is very important to develop new cells. The aims of this study were to know the effect of VipAlbumin® to cell proliferation, expression level of CD4+CD62L+ T cell, regulatory T cell, and B220+ cell, and immunocompetent cell cycle. Cell isolated from spleen of pathogen free mice were cultured in RPMI 1640 with 10% FBS, 1% Pen/Strep 10×, 2-Mercaptoetanol, anti-CD3 and LPS. The concentrations of VipAlbumin ® used were 0 µg/ml; 0.33 µg/ml; 33.3 µg/ml; and 3333.3 µg/ml. The cell was incubated in CO2 5% incubator 37°C for 3 days for cell cycle and 5 days for proliferation analysis and cell expression. FACS analysis was done to know cell proliferation profile, status of cell, and cell cycle. Concentration 33.3 µg/ml and 3333.3 µg/ml significantly can increase cell proliferation and induce cell enter G2/M phase (p < 0.05) compared to control. VipAlbumin can significantly increase the relative number of CD4+CD62L+ T cell, regulatory T cell, and B220+ cell (p < 0.05) compared to control. This study gives scientific evidence that VipAlbumin can be used as an immunostimulant which accelerates immunocompetent cells growth. PMID:27095920

  3. Effect of in ovo-delivered prebiotics and synbiotics on the morphology and specific immune cell composition in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Madej, J P; Bednarczyk, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how pre- and synbiotic administration in ovo into the air chamber at d 12 of egg incubation influenced the specific immune cell composition and distribution in the ileum, cecal tonsils (CT) and bursa of Fabricius of broilers. The experiment was performed on 800 hatching eggs of the meat-type chickens (Ross 308). Hatching eggs were treated with: prebiotic, consisting of inulin (Pre1) or Bi(2)tos(®) (Pre2); symbiotic, composed of inulin and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1) or Bi(2)tos and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2); or physiological saline as a control group. Seven chickens from each treatment group were randomly selected on , 1, 7, and 21 after hatch for tissue collection. Ileum, cecal tonsil and bursa of Fabricius samples were immunohistochemically stained and the proportions of Bu-1(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8α(+) and TCRγδ(+) cells were estimated. It was indicated that the pre- and synbiotics do not adversely affect the development of the GALT of the chicken. The temporary decrease in B-cell number in bursa on d 7 after hatch suggested an increased colonization rate of the peripheral lymphoid organs by these cells after Pre1, Pre2, and Syn2 treatment. In CT at d 7 after hatch more potent colonization of the GALT by T cells was observed in all pre- and synbiotic treated groups and by B cells in both synbiotic-treated groups than those in respective controls. Then, on d 21 in both synbiotic-treated groups, an increase in T-cell number in ileum was also noticed with faster colonization of the CT by B cells. In 21-day-old chickens, both synbiotics exerted stronger stimulatory effect on the GALT colonization by T cells then prebiotics respectively. Similarly, the colonization by B cells was more pronounced in the Syn2 than in the Pre2 group. The data obtained in this study indicated that prebiotics and particularly synbiotics administrated in ovo stimulated GALT development after hatch

  4. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem studied involved cell proliferation in mice thymus undergoing irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roetgens/day for 105 days. Specifically, the aim was to determine wheather or not a steady state of cell population can be established for the indicated period of time and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population are involved.

  5. Immunohistochemical characterization of selected cell markers for the detection of hematopoietic cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lymphoid tissues of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Seibel, H; Stimmer, L; Siebert, U; Beineke, A

    2010-10-15

    To facilitate a detailed investigation of pinniped lymphoid organs, 30 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) as well as eight polyclonal antibodies (pAb) of different species specificities directed against cell antigens of the hematopoietic system were tested for immunohistochemical cross-reactivity on formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus). Six monoclonal and eight polyclonal antibodies showed specific immunoreactivities. Lymphocytes were immunolabeled by an anti-CD3 pAb, anti-Foxp3 mAb and anti-CD79 alpha mAb, while plasma cell subpopulations were recognized by anti-IgA pAb, anti-IgG pAb and anti-IgM pAb as well as by anti-kappa- and anti-lambda light chain pAb. Cells of the histiocytic lineage were recognized by lysozyme-, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-, and CD68-specific markers. Furthermore, dendritic cell-like cells were detected by an anti-S100 protein pAb. The MHC class II antigen was labeled on the majority of immune cells of the harbor seal and walrus using a bovine mAb. Mast cells were stained by an anti-mast cell tryptase mAb. Thus, using these antibodies from various species, it is now possible to determine phenotypical changes in lymphoid organs and detect different leukocyte subsets involved in inflammatory responses in archived tissue samples of these pinniped species. PMID:20566219

  6. Chronic mTOR inhibition in mice with rapamycin alters T, B, myeloid, and innate lymphoid cells and gut flora and prolongs life of immune-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hurez, Vincent; Dao, Vinh; Liu, Aijie; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Gelfond, Jonathan; Sun, Lishi; Bergman, Molly; Orihuela, Carlos J; Galvan, Veronica; Padrón, Álvaro; Drerup, Justin; Liu, Yang; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton Dave; Curiel, Tyler J

    2015-12-01

    The mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates critical immune processes that remain incompletely defined. Interest in mTOR inhibitor drugs is heightened by recent demonstrations that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin extends lifespan and healthspan in mice. Rapamycin or related analogues (rapalogues) also mitigate age-related debilities including increasing antigen-specific immunity, improving vaccine responses in elderly humans, and treating cancers and autoimmunity, suggesting important new clinical applications. Nonetheless, immune toxicity concerns for long-term mTOR inhibition, particularly immunosuppression, persist. Although mTOR is pivotal to fundamental, important immune pathways, little is reported on immune effects of mTOR inhibition in lifespan or healthspan extension, or with chronic mTOR inhibitor use. We comprehensively analyzed immune effects of rapamycin as used in lifespan extension studies. Gene expression profiling found many and novel changes in genes affecting differentiation, function, homeostasis, exhaustion, cell death, and inflammation in distinct T- and B-lymphocyte and myeloid cell subpopulations. Immune functions relevant to aging and inflammation, and to cancer and infections, and innate lymphoid cell effects were validated in vitro and in vivo. Rapamycin markedly prolonged lifespan and healthspan in cancer- and infection-prone mice supporting disease mitigation as a mechanism for mTOR suppression-mediated longevity extension. It modestly altered gut metagenomes, and some metagenomic effects were linked to immune outcomes. Our data show novel mTOR inhibitor immune effects meriting further studies in relation to longevity and healthspan extension. PMID:26315673

  7. A comparison of flow cytometry, bone marrow biopsy, and bone marrow aspirates in the detection of lymphoid infiltration in B cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sah, S P; Matutes, E; Wotherspoon, A C; Morilla, R; Catovsky, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic value of bone marrow aspirates, trephine biopsies (BMB), and flow cytometry (FC) in the assessment of bone marrow infiltration in chronic lymphoid disorders. Methods: Investigations were carried out in 110 diagnostic and follow up specimens from B cell disorders, namely: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL; 65), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL; 39), and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL; 6). A selected panel of monoclonal antibodies was used both for FC and immunohistochemistry. Results: In CLL there was agreement between the three investigations in 71% of samples and in 88% when only FC and BMB were compared. In nine of 65 samples, FC and BMB were positive, although the aspirate was reported as negative. Four BMB negative samples had minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by FC, whereas two samples were positive both on BMB and aspirate but showed no evidence of disease on FC. In NHL, there was agreement between the three investigations in 22 of 39 cases, and in 27 of 39 cases there was agreement between FC and BMB. In eight of 39 NHL cases, FC was negative but the BMB was either positive (five) or uncertain (three), whereas in three of 39, FC was positive but BMB was either negative (one) or uncertain (two). In three of five uncertain BMB, no clonal population was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, whereas in the remaining two cases the nodular aggregates disappeared on further sectioning. Conclusions: Both BMB and FC are better than bone marrow aspirates for the detection of infiltration in B cell disorders. FC might be slightly more sensitive than BMB to detect MRD in CLL, whereas BMB may be slightly better than FC in NHL. PMID:12560392

  8. Localization of Distinct Peyer's Patch Dendritic Cell Subsets and Their Recruitment by Chemokines Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (Mip)-3α, Mip-3β, and Secondary Lymphoid Organ Chemokine

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko; Kelsall, Brian L.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the anatomical localization of three distinct dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the murine Peyer's patch (PP) and explore the role of chemokines in their recruitment. By two-color in situ immunofluorescence, CD11b+ myeloid DCs were determined to be present in the subepithelial dome (SED) region, whereas CD8α+ lymphoid DCs are present in the T cell–rich interfollicular region (IFR). DCs that lack expression of CD8α or CD11b (double negative) are present in both the SED and IFR. By in situ hybridization, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α mRNA was dramatically expressed only by the follicle-associated epithelium overlying the SED, while its receptor, CCR6, was concentrated in the SED. In contrast, CCR7 was expressed predominantly in the IFR. Consistent with these findings, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and in vitro chemotaxis assays using freshly isolated DCs revealed that CCR6 was functionally expressed only by DC subsets present in the SED, while all subsets expressed functional CCR7. Moreover, none of the splenic DC subsets migrated toward MIP-3α. These data support a distinct role for MIP-3α/CCR6 in recruitment of CD11b+ DCs toward the mucosal surfaces and for MIP-3β/CCR7 in attraction of CD8α+ DCs to the T cell regions. Finally, we demonstrated that all DC subsets expressed an immature phenotype when freshly isolated and maintained expression of subset markers upon maturation in vitro. In contrast, CCR7 expression by myeloid PP DCs was enhanced with maturation in vitro. In addition, this subset disappeared from the SED and appeared in the IFR after microbial stimulation in vivo, suggesting that immature myeloid SED DCs capture antigens and migrate to IFR to initiate T cell responses after mucosal microbial infections. PMID:10770804

  9. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted 'breakthrough' designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®)) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  10. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  11. Pathogenetic Importance and Therapeutic Implications of NF-κB in Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kian-Huat; Yang, Yibin; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Derangement of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway initiates and/or sustains many types of human cancer. B-cell malignancies are particularly affected by oncogenic mutations, translocations, and copy number alterations affecting key components the NF-κB pathway, most likely owing to the pervasive role of this pathway in normal B cells. These genetic aberrations cause tumors to be ‘addicted’ to NF-κB, which can be exploited therapeutically. Since each subtype of lymphoid cancer utilizes different mechanisms to activate NF-κB, several different therapeutic strategies are needed to address this pathogenetic heterogeneity. Fortunately, a number of drugs that block signaling cascades leading to NF-κB are in early phase clinical trials, several of which are already showing activity in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:22435566

  12. Immune checkpoint inhibition in lymphoid disease.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Collins, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    It has long been understood that the immune system has intrinsic anti-tumour activity in humans, and that a key mechanism of tumour progression is the ability of a tumour to escape this immune surveillance. A number of attempts have been made to harness this anti-tumour immunity in both solid tumour oncology and haematological malignancies with variable success. Examples include the use of allogeneic stem cell tran